WorldWideScience

Sample records for measured temperature range

  1. Measuring Systems for Thermometer Calibration in Low-Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Kowal, A.; Grykałowska, A.; Jancewicz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The national temperature standard for the low-temperature range between 13.8033 K and 273.16 K has been established in Poland at the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (INTiBS). The standard consists of sealed cells for realization of six fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the low-temperature range, an adiabatic cryostat and Isotech water and mercury triple-point baths, capsule standard resistance thermometers (CSPRT), and AC and DC bridges with standard resistors for thermometers resistance measurements. INTiBS calibrates CSPRTs at the low-temperature fixed points with uncertainties less than 1 mK. In lower temperature range—between 2.5 K and about 25 K — rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a standard which participated in the EURAMET.T-K1.1 comparison. INTiBS offers a calibration service for industrial platinum resistance thermometers and for digital thermometers between 77 K and 273 K. These types of thermometers may be calibrated at INTiBS also in a higher temperature range up to 550°C. The Laboratory of Temperature Standard at INTiBS acquired an accreditation from the Polish Centre for Accreditation. A management system according to EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 was established at the Laboratory and presented on EURAMET QSM Forum.

  2. High-temperature absorbed dose measurements in the megagray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, P.; Ardonceau, J.; Zuppiroli, L.

    1988-01-01

    Organic conductors of the tetraselenotetracene family have been tested as ''high-temperature'' absorbed dose dosimeters. They were heated up to 120 0 C and irradiated at this temperature with 1-MeV electrons in order to simulate, in a short time, a much longer γ-ray irradiation. The electric resistance increase of the crystal can be considered a good measurement of the absorbed dose in the range 10 6 Gy to a few 10 8 Gy and presumably one order of magnitude more. This dosimeter also permits on-line (in-situ) measurements of the absorbed dose without removing the sensor from the irradiation site. The respective advantages of organic and inorganic dosimeters at these temperature and dose ranges are also discussed. In this connection, we outline new, but negative, results concerning the possible use of silica as a high-temperature, high-dose dosimeter. (author)

  3. MTF measurement of IR optics in different temperature ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Alexander; Duncker, Hannes; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    Infrared (IR) optical systems are at the core of many military, civilian and manufacturing applications and perform mission critical functions. To reliably fulfill the demanding requirements imposed on today's high performance IR optics, highly accurate, reproducible and fast lens testing is of crucial importance. Testing the optical performance within different temperature ranges becomes key in many military applications. Due to highly complex IR-Applications in the fields of aerospace, military and automotive industries, MTF Measurement under realistic environmental conditions become more and more relevant. A Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) test bench with an integrated thermal chamber allows measuring several sample sizes in a temperature range from -40 °C to +120°C. To reach reliable measurement results under these difficult conditions, a specially developed temperature stable design including an insulating vacuum are used. The main function of this instrument is the measurement of the MTF both on- and off-axis at up to +/-70° field angle, as well as measurement of effective focal length, flange focal length and distortion. The vertical configuration of the system guarantees a small overall footprint. By integrating a high-resolution IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) in the detection unit, time consuming measurement procedures such as scanning slit with liquid nitrogen cooled detectors can be avoided. The specified absolute accuracy of +/- 3% MTF is validated using internationally traceable reference optics. Together with a complete and intuitive software solution, this makes the instrument a turn-key device for today's state-of- the-art optical testing.

  4. Temperature measurement in the liquid helium range at pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itskevich, E.S.; Krajdenov, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    The use of bronze and germanium resistance thermometers and the use of a (Au + 0.07 % Fe)-Cu thermocouple for temperature measurements from 1.5 to 4.2 K in the hydrostatic compression of up to 10 kbar are considered. To this aim, the thermometer resistance as a function of temperature and pressure is measured. It is revealed that pressure does not change the thermometric response of the bronze resistance thermometer but only shifts it to the region of lower temperatures. The identical investigations of the germanium resistance thermometer shows that strong temperature dependence and the shift of its thermometric response under the influence of pressure make the use of germanium resistance thermometers in high-pressure chambers very inconvenient. The results of the analysis of the (Au + 0.07 % Fe) - Cu thermocouple shows that with a 2 per cent accuracy the thermocouple Seebeck coefficient does not depend on pressure. It permits to use this thermocouple for temperature measurements at high pressures

  5. A liquid crystalline medium for measuring residual dipolar couplings over a wide range of temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Eberstadt, Matthias; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Fesik, Stephen W. [Abbott Laboratories (United States)

    1998-10-15

    A mixture of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and 3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio-2-hydroxyl-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPSO) in water forms disc shaped bicelles that become ordered at high magnetic fields over a wide range of temperatures. As illustrated for the FK506 binding protein (FKBP), large residual dipolar couplings can be measured for proteins dissolved in low concentrations (5% w/v) of a DLPC/CHAPSO medium at a molar ratio of 4.2:1. This system is especially useful for measuring residual dipolar couplings for molecules that are only stable at low temperatures.

  6. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) and critical temperature (Tc). The critical current (Ic) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new Ic measurement system that can carry out accurate Ic measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The Ic measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO) tapes Ic determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  7. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  8. Application of a vortex shedding flowmeter to the wide range measurement of high temperature gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single flowmeter was required for helium gas measurement in a Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor loss of coolant simulator. Volumetric flow accuracy of +-1.0% of reading was required over the Reynolds Number range 6 x 10 3 to 1 x 10 6 at flowing pressures from 0.2 to 9 MPa (29 to 1305 psia) at 350 0 C (660 0 F) flowing temperature. Because of its inherent accuracy and rangeability, a vortex shedding flowmeter was selected and specially modified to provide for a remoted thermal sensor. Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between signal attenuation and sensor remoting geometry, as well as the relationship between gas flow parameters and remoted thermal sensor signal for both compressed air and helium gas. Based upon the results of these experiments, the sensor remoting geometry was optimized for this application. The resultant volumetric flow rangeability was 155:1. The associated temperature increase at the sensor position was 9 0 C above ambient (25 0 F) at a flowing temperature of 350 0 C. The volumetric flow accuracy was measured over the entire 155:1 flow range at parametric values of flowing density. A volumetric flow accuracy of +- % of reading was demonstrated

  9. Skin perfusion measurement: the normal range, the effects of ambient temperature and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Malone, J.M.; Daly, M.J.; Hughes, J.H.; Moore, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitation of skin perfusion provides objective criteria to determine the optimal amputation level in ischemic limb disease, to assess the maturation of pedicle flaps in reconstructive surgery, and to select appropriate treatment for chronic skin ulcers. A technique for measurement of skin perfusion using intradermal (ID) Xe-133 and a gamma camera/minicomputer system was previously reported. An update of this procedure is now reported, the normal range for the lower extremity in men, observations on the effects of ambient temperature, and an experience using the procedure to determine amputation level

  10. Determination of plant growth rate and growth temperature range from measurement of physiological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Criddle; B. N. Smith; L. D. Hansen; J. N. Church

    2001-01-01

    Many factors influence species range and diversity, but temperature and temperature variability are always major global determinants, irrespective of local constraints. On a global scale, the ranges of many taxa have been observed to increase and their diversity decrease with increasing latitude. On a local scale, gradients in species distribution are observable with...

  11. Density Measurements of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Diesel Blends Over Extended Pressure and Temperature Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Xuan NguyenThi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Density and compressibility are primordial parameters for the optimization of diesel engine operation. With this objective, these properties were reported for waste cooking oil biodiesel and its blends (5% and 10% by volume mixed with diesel. The density measurements were performed over expanded ranges of pressure (0.1 to 140 MPa and temperature (293.15 to 353.15 K compatible with engine applications. The isothermal compressibility was estimated within the same experimental range by density differentiation. The Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs profile of the biodiesel was determined using a Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The storage stability of the biodiesel was assessed in terms of the reproducibility of the measured properties. The transferability of this biodiesel fuel was discussed on the basis of the standards specifications that support their use in fuel engines. Additionally, this original set of data represents meaningful information to develop new approaches or to evaluate the predictive capability of models previously developed.

  12. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-11-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (-90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range.

  13. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (−90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range

  14. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  15. A pressurized ion chamber monitoring system for environmental radiation measurements utilizing a wide-range temperature-compensated electrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenick, W. Van

    1994-01-01

    The performance of a complete pressurized ion chamber (PIC) radiation monitoring system is described. The design incorporates an improved temperature-compensated electrometer which is stable to ±3 · 10 -16 A over the environmental range of temperature (-40 to +40 C). Using a single 10 11 Ω feed-back resistor, the electrometer accurately measures currents over a range from 3 · 10 -15 A to 3 · 10 -11 A. While retaining the sensitivity of the original PIC system (the instrument responds readily to small background fluctuations on the order of 0.1 μR h -1 ), the new system measures radiation levels up to the point where the collection efficiency of the ion chamber begins to drop off, typically ∼27 pA at 1 mR h -1 . A data recorder and system controller was designed using the Tattletale trademark Model 4A computer. Digital data is stored on removable solid-state, credit-card style memory cards

  16. Radiometric measurements of wall temperatures in the 800 K to 1150 K range for a quartz radiant heating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, L.G.; Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Shahien, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many industrial applications require heat transfer to a load in an inert environment, which can be achieved by using gas-fired radiant tubes. A radiant tube consists of a flame confined in a cylindrical metal or ceramic chamber. The flame heats the tube wall, which in turn radiates to the load. One important characteristic of radiant heating tubes is wall temperature uniformity. Numerical models of radiant tubes have been used to predict wall temperatures, but there is a lack of experimental data for validation. Recently, Namazian et al., Singh and Gorski, and Peters et al. have measured wall temperature profiles of radiant tubes using thermocouples. 13 refs., 3 figs

  17. A low-power tool for measuring acceleration, pressure, and temperature (APT) with wide dynamic range and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Paros, Jerome; Johnson, Greg; Meldrum, Robert; Scherwath, Martin; Mihaly, Steven

    2017-04-01

    We present a new tool that facilitates the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a temperature compensated tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc., a pressure sensor built by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter developed by Bennest Enterprises Ltd. and built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors are housed in a 7 cm o.d. titanium pressure case designed for use to full ocean depths (withstands more than 20 km of water pressure). Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.08 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 130 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW average at 1 sample per min). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of autonomous and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., pressure equivalent to 4000 m water depth, acceleration = +/- 3 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.3 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient down to a level of roughly 2 cm, and variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt down to a level of 0.03 μrad. With the large dynamic ranges, high sensitivities and broad bandwidth (6 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms, strong and weak seismic ground motion, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation - all normally studied using disparate instruments - can be observed with a single tool. Installation in the marine environment is accomplished by pushing the tool roughly 1 m vertically below the seafloor with a submersible or remotely operated vehicle, with no profile remaining above the seafloor to cause current-induced noise. The weight of the tool is designed to match the sediment it displaces to

  18. Resonance absorption measurements of atom concentrations in reacting gas mixtures. II. Calibration of microwave sources over a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, C.; Lifshitz, A.; Skinner, G.B.; Wood, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to calibrate three different microwave discharge lamps for analysis for D or H atoms, using Lyman-α absorption. Known concentrations of D atoms were produced in a shock tube by the reaction of 0.05--4 ppm D 2 with N 2 O in argon at 1800--3000 K. H atoms were produced by dissociation of 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (10 ppm in argon) at 980--1140 K. These absorption data were compared with the absorption calculated from Lyman-α line shapes reported in an earlier paper, good agreement being found. These experiments provide a sound basis for obtaining the temperature and concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient over a wide temperature range, for H and D concentrations between 10 -12 and 10 -10 mole/cc

  19. Measurement and modeling of density and viscosity of n-octanol-kerosene-phosphoric acid solutions in a temperature range 293.15-333.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changwen; Pei, Xiangjun; Liu, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Densities and viscosities have been measured for the n-octanol + aviation kerosene (AK) + phosphoric acid (H3PO4) system with the mass fraction of H3PO4 in the range from w = 0 to 0.26 and in the temperature of 293.15-333.15 K. According to the experimental data, the measured viscosities were found well correlated with the temperature and mass fraction of H3PO4, which were fitted to regression equations. The result shows that the dilution effect of AK is obvious under the same temperature and mass fraction of H3PO4.

  20. Measurement of the specific heat of small vanadium particles in the normal- and superconducting state in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Garcia, O.

    1982-01-01

    The specific heat of small crystalline vanadium particles in form of polyeders with diameters between 2.9 and 13.2 mm was measured in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K. Quantum effects are interpreted in the frame of theoretical models. (BEF)

  1. Measurements of (p, ρ, T) properties for isobutane in the temperature range from 280 K to 440 K at pressures up to 200 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of (p, ρ, T) properties for isobutane in the compressed liquid phase have been obtained by means of a metal-bellows variable volumometer in the temperature range from 280 K to 440 K at pressures up to 200 MPa. The volume-fraction purity of isobutane used was 0.9999. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) of temperature, pressure, and density measurements have been estimated to be less than 3 mK, 1.5 kPa (p ≤ 7 MPa), 0.06% (7 MPa 150 MPa), and 0.11%, respectively. In region more than 100 MPa at 280 K and 440 K, the uncertainty in density measurements rise up to 0.15% and 0.23%, respectively. The differences of the present density values at the same temperature between two series of measurements, in which the sample fillings are different, are within the maximum deviation of 0.09% in density, which is enough lower than the expanded uncertainty in density. Eight (p, ρ, T) measurements at the same temperatures and pressures as the literature values have been conducted for comparison. In addition, vapour pressures were measured at T = (280, 300) K. Moreover, the comparisons of the available equations of state with the present measurements are reported

  2. The effect of non-uniform temperature and velocity fields on long range ultrasonic measurement systems in MYRRHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wyer, Nicolas; Schram, Christophe [von Karman Institute For Fluids Dynamic (Belgium); Van Dyck, Dries; Dierckx, Marc [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Center, is developing MYRRHA, a generation IV liquid metal cooled nuclear research reactor. As the liquid metal coolant is opaque to light, normal visual feedback during fuel manipulations is not available and must therefore be replaced by a system that is not hindered by the opacity of the coolant. In this respect ultrasonic based instrumentation is under development at SCK.CEN to provide feedback during operations under liquid metal. One of the tasks that will be tackled using ultrasound is the detection and localization of a potentially lost fuel assembly. In this application, the distance between ultrasonic sensor and target may be as large as 2.5 m. At these distances, non uniform velocity and temperature fields in the liquid metal potentially influence the propagation of the ultrasonic signals, affecting the performance of the ultrasonic systems. In this paper, we investigate how relevant temperature and velocity gradients inside the liquid metal influence the propagation of ultrasonic waves. The effect of temperature and velocity gradients are simulated by means of a newly developed numerical ray-tracing model. The performance of the model is validated by dedicated water experiments. The setup is capable of creating velocity and temperature gradients representative for MYRRHA conditions. Once validated in water, the same model is used to make predictions for the effect of gradients in the MYRRHA liquid metal environment. (authors)

  3. Note: A wide temperature range MOKE system with annealing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahil, Narpinder Singh; Mankey, G J

    2017-07-01

    A novel sample stage integrated with a longitudinal MOKE system has been developed for wide temperature range measurements and annealing capabilities in the temperature range 65 K temperatures without adversely affecting the cryostat and minimizes thermal drift in position. In this system the hysteresis loops of magnetic samples can be measured simultaneously while annealing the sample in a magnetic field.

  4. Sample environment for neutron scattering measurements of internal stresses in engineering materials in the temperature range of 6 K to 300 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichek, O; Timms, J D; Kelleher, J F; Down, R B E; Offer, C D; Kabra, S; Zhang, S Y

    2017-02-01

    Internal stresses in materials have a considerable effect on material properties including strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue resistance. The ENGIN-X beamline is an engineering science facility at ISIS optimized for the measurement of strain and stress using the atomic lattice planes as a strain gauge. Nowadays, the rapidly rising interest in the mechanical properties of engineering materials at low temperatures has been stimulated by the dynamic development of the cryogenic industry and the advanced applications of the superconductor technology. Here we present the design and discuss the test results of a new cryogenic sample environment system for neutron scattering measurements of internal stresses in engineering materials under a load of up to 100 kN and in the temperature range of 6 K to 300 K. Complete cooling of the system starting from the room temperature down to the base temperature takes around 90 min. Understanding of internal stresses in engineering materials at cryogenic temperatures is vital for the modelling and designing of cutting-edge superconducting magnets and other superconductor based applications.

  5. A survey of temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltvold, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    Many different techniques for measuring temperature have been surveyed and are discussed. The concept of temperature and the physical phenomena used in temperature measurement are also discussed. Extensive tables are presented in which the range and accuracy of the various techniques and other related data are included. (author)

  6. Calibration of a T-History calorimeter to measure enthalpy curves of phase change materials in the temperature range from 40 to 200 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Schmit, Henri; Hennemann, Peter; Hiebler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase change materials (PCMs) provides high storage capacities in small temperature ranges. For the design of efficient latent heat storage, the enthalpy curve of a PCM has to be measured with high precision. Measurements are most commonly performed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The T-History method, however, proved to be favourable for the characterization of typical PCMs due to large samples and a measuring procedure close to conditions found in applications. As T-History calorimeters are usually individual constructions, performing a careful calibration procedure is decisive to ensure optimal measuring accuracy. We report in this paper on the calibration of a T-History calorimeter with a working range from 40 to 200 °C that was designed and built at our institute. A three-part procedure, consisting of an indium calibration, a measurement of the specific heat of copper and measurements of three solid–liquid PCMs (stearic acid, dimethyl terephthalate and d-mannitol), was performed and an advanced procedure for the correction of enthalpy curves was developed. When comparing T-History enthalpy curves to literature data and DSC step measurements, good agreement within the uncertainty limits demanded by RAL testing specifications was obtained. Thus, our design of a T-History calorimeter together with the developed calibration procedure provides the measuring accuracy that is required to identify the most suitable PCM for a given application. In addition, the dependence of the enthalpy curve on the sample size can be analysed by comparing results obtained with T-History and DSC and the behaviour of the bulk material in real applications can be predicted. (paper)

  7. Direct measurements of methoxy removal rate constants for collisions with CH4, Ar, N2, Xe, and CF4 in the temperature range 673--973K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wantuck, P.J.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Baugchum, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Removal rate constants for CH 3 O by CH 4 , Ar, N 2 , Xe, and CF 4 were measured over a 400K temperature range using a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence technique. Rapid methoxy removal rates are observed for the non-reactive collision partners (Ar, N 2 , Xe, and CF 4 ) at elevated temperatures showing that the dissociation and isomerization channels for CH 3 O are indeed important. The total removal rate constant (reaction /plus/ dissociation and/or isomerization) for CH 4 exhibits a linear dependence on temperature and has a removal rate constant, k/sub r/ /equals/ (1.2 +- 0.6) /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/exp[(/minus/101070 +- 350)/T]cm 3 molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. Assuming that the removal rate constant due to dissociation and/or isomerization are similar for CH 4 and CF 4 , the reaction rate constant for CH 3 O /plus/ CH 4 is equal to (1.7 +- 1.0) /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/exp[(/minus/7480 +- 1100)/T]cm 3 molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 4 figs

  8. Extending the temperature range of the HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Wagner, P.

    1975-01-01

    The operating temperature of the high temperature helium-cooled reactor can be increased in a number of ways in order to provide higher temperature nuclear heat for various industrial processes. Modifications are of two types: 1) decrease in the temperature difference between the maximum coated particle fuel temperature and the mean exit gas temperature, and 2) increased maximum coated particle temperature. Gains in the latter category are limited by fission product diffusion into the gas steam and increases greater than 100 0 K are not forseen. Increases in the former category, however, are readily made and a variety of modifications are proposed as follows: incorporation of coated particles in the fuel matrix; use of a more finely-divided fuel coolant hole geometry to increase heat transfer coefficients and reduce conduction temperature differences; large increases in the fuel matrix graphite thermal conductivity (to about 50 W/m 0 K) to reduce conduction temperature differences; and modifications to the core distribution, both radially and axially. By such means the exit gas temperature can be increased to the range of 1200 0 K to 1600 0 K. (author)

  9. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  10. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  11. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltman, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material is exposed to a known amount of radiation and then exposed to the environment where temperature measurements are to be taken. After a predetermined time period, the TLD material is read in a known manner to determine the amount of radiation energy remaining in the TLD material. The difference between the energy originally stored by irradiation and that remaining after exposure to the temperature ofthe environment is a measure of the average temperature of the environment during the exposure. (U.S.)

  12. Temperature measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.

    1977-01-01

    The temperature measuring device is equipped with an electric resistor installed within a metal shroud tube so as to be insulated from it, the noise voltage of which resistor is fed to a measuring unit. The measuring junctions of one or two thermocouples are connected with the electric resistor and the legs of one or both thermocouples can be connected to the measuring unit by means of a switch. (orig.) [de

  13. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Christian; Lions, Noel.

    1975-01-01

    The present invention relates to a temperature measuring system that can be applied in particular to monitoring the temperature of the cooling liquid metal of the outlet of the core assemblies of a fast reactor. Said device combines a long hollow metallic pole, at least partially dipped into the liquid metal and constituting a first thermocouple junction between said pole, and two metallic conductors of different nature, joined at one of their ends to constitute the second thermocouple junction. Said conductors suitably insulated are arranged inside a sheath. Said sheath made of the same metals as the pole extends inside the latter and is connected with the pole through a soldered joint. Said reliable system permits an instantaneous measurement of a quantity representing the variations in the recorded temperature and a measurement of the mean surrounding temperature that can be direcly used as a reference for calibrating the first one [fr

  14. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  15. Temperature measurement with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizard, G.; Durand, D.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Marques, M.; Peter, J.; Tamain, B.

    1998-01-01

    The results presented in this report were obtained from the information provided by charged products. Another alternative consists in detecting the neutrons abundantly emitted particularly by heavy nuclei. The residue channel was studied in the 40 Ar + 197 Au at 60 MeV/nucleon by means of the neutron multidetector DEMON. The evolution of the multiplicity of neutrons emitted backwards in the framework of the heavy nucleus forwardly detected as a function of the residue velocity by a silicon detector, placed at 8 degrees and at 24.5 cm from target, agrees with the expected results i.e. an increase with the residue velocity hence with the collision violence. For the same detector the first measurements show similarly a linear increase of the apparent temperature of 4.0 to around 6.5 MeV for residue velocities varying from 0.5 to 1.3 cm/ns and masses ranging from 140 to 160 uma. This first results of the analysis show therefore a good behaviour of the assembly and especially of the couple DeMoN-SyReP

  16. Temperature measuring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

    1999-10-19

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  17. Temperature measurements by thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of a temperature (whatever the type of transducer used) raises three problems: the choice of transducer; where it should be placed; how it should be fixed and protected. These are the three main points examined, after a brief description of the most commonly used thermocouples [fr

  18. Asymetric change of daily temperature range: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukla, G. [ed.] [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Karl, T.R. [ed.] [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States); Riches, M.R. [ed.] [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers presented at the MINIMAX workshop. Topics include; temperature fluxes, influence of clouds on temperature, anthropogenic influences on temperature flux, and carbon dioxide and aerosol induced greenhouse effect.

  19. Asymetric change of daily temperature range: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, G.; Riches, M.R.

    1994-04-01

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers presented at the MINIMAX workshop. Topics include; temperature fluxes, influence of clouds on temperature, anthropogenic influences on temperature flux, and carbon dioxide and aerosol induced greenhouse effect

  20. Characterization of advanced piezoelectric materials in the wide temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burianova, L.; Kopal, A.; Nosek, J

    2003-05-25

    We report about methods and results of our measurements of piezoelectric, dielectric and elastic properties of piezoelectric materials like crystals, ceramics, composites, polymers and thin layer composites. Among the methods, used in our laboratories are: the resonance method working in the temperature range 208-358 K, hydrostatic methods, both static and dynamic in the range 273-333 K, laser interferometric methods, using single and double-beam interferometer, working at room temperature, single and double-beam micro-interferometers, working inside of optical cryostat in the range 150-330 K, and pulse echo method for measurements of elastic coefficients, using ultrasonic set, working at room temperature. In our earlier papers we reported about some of our results of piezoelectric measurements of PZT ceramics using resonance method and laser interferometric method. The results of both methods were in good agreement. Now, the measurements are realized on 0-3 ceramic-polymer composites and thin layer composites. It is well known, that both intrinsic (material) and extrinsic (domain structure) contributions to properties of ferroelectric samples have characteristic, sometimes rather strong, temperature dependence. Therefore, any extension of temperature range of the above mentioned methods is welcomed.

  1. Thermal conductivity measurements of impregnated Nb3Sn coil samples in the temperature range of 3.5 K to 100 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koettig, T.; Maciocha, W.; Bermudez, S.; Rysti, J.; Tavares, S.; Cacherat, F.; Bremer, J.

    2017-02-01

    In the framework of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, high-field magnets are under development. Magnetic flux densities of up to 13 T require the use of Nb3Sn superconducting coils. Quench protection becomes challenging due to the high stored energy density and the low stabilizer fraction. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the combination of insulating layers and Nb3Sn based cables are an important thermodynamic input parameter for quench protection systems and superfluid helium cooling studies. A two-stage cryocooler based test stand is used to measure the thermal conductance of the coil sample in two different heat flow directions with respect to the coil package geometry. Variable base temperatures of the experimental platform at the cryocooler allow for a steady-state heat flux method up to 100 K. The heat is applied at wedges style copper interfaces of the Rutherford cables. The respective temperature difference represents the absolute value of thermal conductance of the sample arrangement. We report about the measurement methodology applied to this kind of non-uniform sample composition and the evaluation of the used resin composite materials.

  2. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, B. W.; Furukawa, G. T.; Kreider, K. G.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Strouse, G. F.; Tew, W. L.; Moldover, M. R.; Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Saunders, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for “on-site” thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by

  3. Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Porcine Liver in the Temperature Range of Cryotherapy and Hyperthermia (250~315k) by A Thermal Sensor Made of A Micron-Scale Enameled Copper Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z D; Zhao, G; Lu, G R

      BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy and hyperthermia are effective treatments for several diseases, especially for liver cancers. Thermal conductivity is a significant thermal property for the prediction and guidance of surgical procedure. However, the thermal conductivities of organs and tissues, especially over the temperature range of both cryotherapy and hyperthermia are scarce. To provide comprehensive thermal conductivity of liver for both cryotherapy and hyperthermia. A hot probe made of stain steel needle and micron-sized copper wire is used for measurement. To verify data processing, both the least square method and the Monte Carlo inversion method are used to determine the hot probe constants, respectively, with reference materials of water and 29.9 % Ca 2 Cl aqueous solution. Then the thermal conductivities of Hanks solution and pork liver bathed in Hanks solution are measured. The effective length for two methods is nearly the same, but the heat capacity of probe calibrated by the Monte Carlo inversion is temperature dependent. Fairly comprehensive thermal conductivity of porcine liver measured with these two methods in the target temperature range is verified to be similar. We provide an integrated thermal conductivity of liver for cryotherapy and hyperthermia in two methods, and make more accurate predictions possible for surgery. The least square method and the Monte Carlo inversion method have their advantages and disadvantages. The least square method is available for measurement of liquids that not prone to convection or solids in a wide temperature range, while the Monte Carlo inversion method is available for accurate and rapid measurement.

  4. Variability of Diurnal Temperature Range During Winter Over Western Himalaya: Range- and Altitude-Wise Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M. S.; Devi, Usha; Dash, S. K.; Singh, G. P.; Singh, Amreek

    2018-04-01

    The current trends in diurnal temperature range, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, and sun shine hours over different ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya during winter have been studied. Analysis of 25 years of data shows an increasing trend in diurnal temperature range over all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya during winter, thereby confirming regional warming of the region due to present climate change and global warming. Statistical studies show significant increasing trend in maximum temperature over all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya. Minimum temperature shows significant decreasing trend over Pir Panjal and Shamshawari range and significant increasing trend over higher altitude of Western Himalaya. Similarly, sunshine hours show significant decreasing trend over Karakoram range. There exists strong positive correlation between diurnal temperature range and maximum temperature for all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya. Strong negative correlation exists between diurnal temperature range and minimum temperature over Shamshawari and Great Himalaya range and lower altitude of Western Himalaya. Sunshine hours show strong positive correlation with diurnal temperature range over Pir Panjal and Great Himalaya range and lower and higher altitudes.

  5. Low Friction and Wear Surface for Application over a Wide Range of Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Rabi

    1997-01-01

    ...) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both before and after exposure to high temperatures (up to 700 deg C) in air. Friction measurements were performed at temperatures in the range of room temperature to 700 deg C in air...

  6. Temperature measurement in the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnamacharyulu, R.J.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The importance of measuring sea temperature is explained and the various methods employed for this purpose are reviewed. Instruments used for spot measurement of water temperature at the sea surface and at discrete depths (bucket thermometer...

  7. Neutron ion temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-11-01

    One important use of fusion product diagnostics is in the determination of the deuterium ion temperature from the magnitude of the 2.5 MeV d(d,n) 3 He neutron emission. The detectors, calibration methods, and limitations of this technique are reviewed here with emphasis on procedures used at PPPL. In most tokamaks, the ion temperature deduced from neutrons is in reasonable agreement with the ion temperature deduced by other techniques

  8. Dielectric relaxation in solid collagen over a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Abdullah; Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra; Janjua, Khalid Mehmood; Zaheer, Muhammad Yar

    2001-07-01

    Dielectric constant ε' and loss factor ε'' have been measured in bovine tendon collagen in the frequency range 30 Hz - 3 MHz and temperature range 30 deg. C to 200 deg. C. Frequency dependence curve of ε'' shows a low frequency strong α-dispersion attributed to phonon assisted proton hopping between localized sites and a weak high frequency. α 2 - dispersion attributed to reorientation of polar components of collagen molecules. Temperature dependence of the dielectric data show release of bound moisture as a three step process with discrete peaks at 50 deg. C, 90 deg. C and 125 deg. C. These peaks have been attributed to release of adsorbed surface water, water bound to exposed polar sites and strongly bound internal moisture respectively. A peak observed at 160 deg. C has been attributed to thermally induced helix-coil transition of collagen molecules. (author)

  9. A high sensitivity SQUID-method for the measurement of magnetic susceptibility of small samples in the temperature range 1.5 K-40 K and application on small palladium particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Nguyen Quang.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper a method is developed for magnetic susceptibility measurements which is superior to the common methods. The method is based on the SQUID-principle (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) using the tunnel effect of a superconducting point contact and magnetic flux quantization for measuring electric and magnetic quantities. Due to this refined method susceptibility changes of very small palladium particles could be detected in the temperature range 1.5 K-40 K with respect to the bulk. In addition susceptibility differences of particle distributions with different means diameters (81 Angstroem and 65 Angstroem) have been measured for the first time. A quantitative comparison of the measurements with theoretical results shows satisfactory agreement. (orig./WBU) [de

  10. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  11. Measurement of Thermal Conductivities of Two Cryoprotective Agent Solutions for Vitreous Cryopreservation of Organs at the Temperature Range of 77 K-300 K Using a Thermal Sensor Made of Microscale Enamel Copper Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufang; Zhao, Gang; Hossain, S M Chapal; Panhwar, Fazil; Sun, Wenyu; Kong, Fei; Zang, Chuanbao; Jiang, Zhendong

    2017-06-01

    Biobanking of organs by cryopreservation is an enabling technology for organ transplantation. Compared with the conventional slow freezing method, vitreous cryopreservation has been regarded to be a more promising approach for long-term storage of organs. The major challenges to vitrification are devitrification and recrystallization during the warming process, and high concentrations of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) induced metabolic and osmotic injuries. For a theoretical model based optimization of vitrification, thermal properties of CPA solutions are indispensable. In this study, the thermal conductivities of M22 and vitrification solution containing ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (two commonly used vitrification solutions) were measured using a self-made microscaled hot probe with enameled copper wire at the temperature range of 77 K-300 K. The data obtained by this study will further enrich knowledge of the thermal properties for CPA solutions at low temperatures, as is of primary importance for optimization of vitrification.

  12. Temperature radiation measuring equipment. Temperaturstrahlungsmessgeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotzer, W

    1981-01-22

    The invention is concerned with a temperature radiation measuring equipment for non-contact temperature measurement by the light intensity variation method, with a photoelectric resistance as the measuring element. By having a circuit with a transistor, the 'dark resistance' occurring in the course of time is compensated for and thus gives a genuine reading (ie. the voltage drop across the photoelectric resistance remains constant).

  13. Temperature measurements in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, D.

    1958-01-01

    The temperatures needed to produce thermonuclear reactions are of the order of several million degrees Kelvin. Devising methods for measuring such temperatures has been the subject of research in many countries. In order to present the problem clearly and to demonstrate its importance, the author reviews the various conditions which must be fulfilled in order that reactions may be qualified as thermonuclear. The relationship between the temperature and the cross-section of the reactions is studied, and it is shown that the notion of temperature in the plasmas is complex, which leads to a consideration of the temperature of the ions and that of the electrons. None of the methods for the temperature measurements is completely satisfactory because of the hypotheses which must be made, and which are seldom fulfilled during high-intensity discharges in the plasmas. In practice it is necessary to use several methods simultaneously. (author) [fr

  14. Nickel-titanium alloys: stress-related temperature transitional range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Beshers, D N

    2000-12-01

    The inducement of mechanical stress within nickel-titanium wires can influence the transitional temperature range of the alloy and therefore the expression of the superelastic properties. An analogous variation of the transitional temperature range may be expected during orthodontic therapy, when the archwires are engaged into the brackets. To investigate this possibility, samples of currently used orthodontic nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC; Copper Ni-Ti superelastic at 27 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, Ormco; Nitinol Heat-Activated, 3M-Unitek) were subjected to temperature cycles ranging between 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C. The wires were mounted in a plexiglass loading device designed to simulate clinical situations of minimum and severe dental crowding. Electrical resistivity was used to monitor the phase transformations. The data were analyzed with paired t tests. The results confirmed the presence of displacements of the transitional temperature ranges toward higher temperatures when stress was induced. Because nickel-titanium wires are most commonly used during the aligning stage in cases of severe dental crowding, particular attention was given to the performance of the orthodontic wires under maximum loading. An alloy with a stress-related transitional temperature range corresponding to the fluctuations of the oral temperature should express superelastic properties more consistently than others. According to our results, Copper Ni-Ti 27 degrees C and Nitinol Heat-Activated wires may be considered suitable alloys for the alignment stage.

  15. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  16. Measurements of Capture Efficiency of Range Hoods in Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2015-01-01

    mapped the pollution distribution in the room, and showed that the pollutants escape more at the sides of the cooktop. These preliminary results suggest that more measurements should be conducted investigating the capture efficiency at different pollutant source temperature, size and location...... want a range hood to use little energy and have high capture efficiency to minimize the required air flow to capture the cooking pollutants. Currently there are no standards for rating range hoods for capture efficiency In this study, measurements of range hood capture efficiency were made a tight...... kitchen-room built in a laboratory chamber, and a methodology for standardizing measurement of capture efficiency was developed. The results for a wall mounted range hood, showed that up to half of the cooking pollutants were not captured at a flow rate of 230 m3/h. A more detailed set of measurements...

  17. Finite temperature CPN-1 model and long range Neel order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Ikuo; Yamamoto, Hisashi.

    1989-09-01

    We study in d space-dimensions the finite temperature behavior of long range Neel order (LRNO) in CP N-1 model as a low energy effective field theory of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. For d≤1, or d≤2 at any nonzero temperature, LRNO disappears, in agreement with Mermin-Wagner-Coleman's theorem. For d=3 in the weak coupling region, LRNO exists below the critical temperature T N (Neel temperature). T N decreases as the interlayer coupling becomes relatively weak compared with that within Cu-O layers. (author)

  18. Measurements of short-range ordering in Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, J.K.; Ahn, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on extended electron energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) that has been used to measure short-range ordering in Ni 3 Al. Films of fcc Ni 3 Al with suppressed short-range order synthesized by vacuum evaporation of Ni 3 Al onto room temperature substrates. EXELFS data were taken from both Al K and Ni L 23 edges. The development of short-range order was observed after the samples were annealed for various times at temperatures below 350 degrees C. Upon comparison with ab initio planewave EXELFS calculations, it was found that the Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter a(1nn) changed by about -0.1 after 210 minutes of annealing at 150 degrees C

  19. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; wang, Anmin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displa...

  20. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min

    2017-09-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displaying Kerr nonlinearity. We obtain the analytical equations and numerically calculate the precision with parameters within the reach of current technology, proving that the precision of temperature can be greatly enhanced by using a nonlinear medium. Our results show that one can create an accurate thermometer by measuring the photons in the Michelson interferometer, with no need to directly measure the population of thermalized sample.

  1. Noise thermometry - a new temperature measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Hecker, R.; Rittinghaus, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal Johnson-Niquist noise is the basis of noise thermometry. This temperature measuring method is, e.g., of interest insofar as the noise thermometer gives absolute values as a primary thermometer and is in principle extensively independent of environmental influences and material properties. The resistance values of the measuring probe are about 10 Ohm to a few kOhm. The demands of electronics are high, the self-noise of the measuring apparatus must be as small as possible; a comparative measuring method is advantageous. 1 to 2,500 K are given as a possible temperature range. An accuracy of 0.1% could be achieved in laboratory measurements. Temperature measurements to be used in operation in a few nuclear reactors are mentioned. (HP/LH) [de

  2. Reactor Coolant Temperature Measurement using Ultrasonic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, YongSun; Bechue, Nicholas [Krohne Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    In NPP, the primary piping temperature is detected by four redundant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) installed 90 degrees apart on the RCS (Reactor Coolant System) piping circumferentially. Such outputs however, if applied to I and C systems would not give balanced results. The discrepancy can be explained by either thermal stratification or improper arrangement of thermo-wells and RTDs. This phenomenon has become more pronounced in the hot-leg piping than in the cold-leg. Normally, the temperature difference among channels is in the range of 1°F in Korean nuclear power Plants. Consequently, a more accurate pipe average temperate measurement technique is required. Ultrasonic methods can be used to measure average temperatures with relatively higher accuracy than RTDs because the sound wave propagation in the RCS pipe is proportional to the average temperature around pipe area. The inaccuracy of RCS temperature measurement worsens the safety margin for both DNBR and LPD. The possibility of this discrepancy has been reported with thermal stratification effect. Proposed RCS temperature measurement system based on ultrasonic technology offers a countermeasure to cope with thermal stratification effect on hot-leg piping that has been an unresolved issue in NPPs. By introducing ultrasonic technology, the average internal piping temperature can be measured with high accuracy. The inaccuracy can be decreased less than ±1℉ by this method.

  3. Methanol adsorption by amorphous silica alumina in the critical temperature range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczynski, M.; van Ooteghem, A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    The methanol adsorption capacity of an amorphous silica-alumina was measured using an equilibrium technique. The experimental temperature range was of 140 to 260°C and the pure methanol pressure range was 0.1 to 1.2 MPa. A multilayer adsorption was found, also for temperatures above the critical

  4. A sub-circuit MOSFET model with a wide temperature range including cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Kan; Sun Weifeng; Shi Longxing, E-mail: jiakan.01@gmail.com [National ASIC System Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A sub-circuit SPICE model of a MOSFET for low temperature operation is presented. Two resistors are introduced for the freeze-out effect, and the explicit behavioral models are developed for them. The model can be used in a wide temperature range covering both cryogenic temperature and regular temperatures. (semiconductor devices)

  5. Temperature dependence of thermal expansion of cadmium sulfide in the temperature range 20 - 820 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskotskij, V.S.; Kobyakov, I.B.; Solodukhin, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion of cadmium sulfide is measured perpendicularly (α 1 ) and parallelly (α 2 ) to the hexagonal axis in the temperature range from 20 to 820 K. Anisotropy is low at up to 80 K; rises at higher temperatures; at 3OO K α 1 /α 3 ratio is 1.8; at 820 K, 2.4. Heat expansion is negative at temperatures lower than 104.5 K(α 1 ) and 126.0 K(α 2 ). It achieves the minimum at 43.6 K (α 1 ) and 52.5K (α 3 ). The theory of heat expansion is plotted in the Debue, approximation and cadmium sulfide is considered as an isotope crystal with average elastic constants. Two parameters of the theory are determined by the position and value of the minimum of volumetric thermal expansion of the model isotope crystal. The theoretic curve agrees well with the experimental one at temperatures up to 160 K, i.e in the range of applicability of the Debue approximation and the isotropic model

  6. Peculiarities of austenitic state in premartensitic temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrak, V.I.; Suvorova, S.O.

    1982-01-01

    A review of works on the study of austenite behaviour in premartensitic temperature range carried out using the investigation methods of resistance to microplastic deformation, mechanical properties and internal friction, is presented. The investigation is carried out using carbon-free iron-nickel alloy N31, alloy 40N24 and alloy 50Kh20N10. It is established that in premartensitic temperature range at a certain temperature Msub(elast.) exceeding by approximately 35 deg C the starting temperature of martensitic transformation, austenite state changes sharply: mechanical instability as to microplastic deformation appears. It manifests itself in an anomalous decrease of resistance to microplastic deformation at the temperature approaching the beginning of martensitic transformation. Martensitic transformation develops under tension in an elastic region. At the temperature above Msub(elast.) martensitic transformation develops only under the effect of plastic deformation. Decrease of temperature of martensitic transformation start as a result of microplastic deformation and subsequent ageing is connected with blocking of possible places of martensite initiation

  7. Peculiarities of austenitic state in premartensitic temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrak, V.I.; Suvorova, S.O.

    A review of works on the study of austenite behaviour in premartensitic temperature range carried out using the investigation methods of resistance to microplastic deformation, mechanical properties and internal friction, is presented. The investigation is carried out using carbon-free iron-nickel alloy N31, alloy 40N24 and alloy 50Kh20N10. It is established that in premartensitic temperature range at a certain temperature Msub(elast.) exceeding by approximately 35 deg C the starting temperature of martensitic transformation austenite state changes sharply: mechanical instability as to microplastic deformation appears. It manifests itself in an anomalous decrease of resistance to microplastic deformation at the temperature approaching the beginning of martensitic transformation. Martensitic transformation develops under tension in an elastic region. At the temperature above Msub(elast.) martensitic transformation develops only under the effect of plastic deformation. Decrease of temperature of martensitic transformation start as a result of microplastic deformation and subsequent ageing is connected with blocking of possible places of martensite initiation.

  8. Temperature measurement of tin under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Mabire, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The results of pyrometric measurements performed at the interface of a tin target with a LiF window material are presented for stresses ranging from 38 to 55 GPa. The purpose of the study is to analyze the part of the interface in the temperature measurement by a multi-channel pyrometric device. The results show that the glue used at target/window interface remains transparent under shock. The values of temperature measured at the tin/LiF interface are consistent with the behavior of tin under shock

  9. Transducer-based fiber Bragg grating high-temperature sensor with enhanced range and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, Venkata Reddy; Kamineni, Srimannarayana; Ravinuthala, Lakshmi Narayana Sai Prasad; Tumu, Venkatappa Rao

    2017-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based high-temperature sensor with enhanced-temperature range and stability has been developed and tested. The sensor consists of an FBG and a mechanical transducer, which furnishes a linear temperature-dependent tensile strain on FBG by means of differential linear thermal expansion of two different ceramic materials. The designed sensor is tested over a range: 20°C to 1160°C and is expected to measure up to 1500°C.

  10. Density of Liquid Steel over Temperature Range of 1 803-1 873 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; FANG Liang

    2004-01-01

    The density of three kinds of liquid steel was measured by a modified sessile drop method over the temperature range of 1 803-1 873 K. It is found that the density of liquid steels decreases with increasing temperature and carbon content in steel. Both of the density and its absolute temperature coefficient of studied steels are smaller than the literature values of pure iron. The molar volume of the steels increases with increasing temperature.

  11. Empirical Temperature Measurement in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Erik; Isella, Andrea; Boehler, Yann

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of temperature in protoplanetary disks is critical to understanding many key features of disk evolution and planet formation, from disk chemistry and dynamics, to planetesimal formation. This paper explores the techniques available to determine temperatures from observations of single, optically thick molecular emission lines. Specific attention is given to issues such as the inclusion of optically thin emission, problems resulting from continuum subtraction, and complications of real observations. Effort is also made to detail the exact nature and morphology of the region emitting a given line. To properly study and quantify these effects, this paper considers a range of disk models, from simple pedagogical models to very detailed models including full radiative transfer. Finally, we show how the use of the wrong methods can lead to potentially severe misinterpretations of data, leading to incorrect measurements of disk temperature profiles. We show that the best way to estimate the temperature of emitting gas is to analyze the line peak emission map without subtracting continuum emission. Continuum subtraction, which is commonly applied to observations of line emission, systematically leads to underestimation of the gas temperature. We further show that once observational effects such as beam dilution and noise are accounted for, the line brightness temperature derived from the peak emission is reliably within 10%–15% of the physical temperature of the emitting region, assuming optically thick emission. The methodology described in this paper will be applied in future works to constrain the temperature, and related physical quantities, in protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA.

  12. Modelling of monovacancy diffusion in W over wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukonte, L.; Ahlgren, T.; Heinola, K.

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion of monovacancies in tungsten is studied computationally over a wide temperature range from 1300 K until the melting point of the material. Our modelling is based on Molecular Dynamics technique and Density Functional Theory. The monovacancy migration barriers are calculated using nudged elastic band method for nearest and next-nearest neighbour monovacancy jumps. The diffusion pre-exponential factor for monovacancy diffusion is found to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than commonly used in computational studies, resulting in attempt frequency of the order 10 15 Hz. Multiple nearest neighbour jumps of monovacancy are found to play an important role in the contribution to the total diffusion coefficient, especially at temperatures above 2/3 of T m , resulting in an upward curvature of the Arrhenius diagram. The probabilities for different nearest neighbour jumps for monovacancy in W are calculated at different temperatures

  13. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.; Yu, Jiunn S.

    1988-08-02

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  14. High temperature measurement by noise thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.C.

    1982-06-01

    Noise thermometry has received a lot of attention for measurements of temperatures in the high range around 1000-2000 deg. K. For these measurements, laboratory type experiments have been mostly performed. These have shown the interest of the technique when long term stability, high precision and insensibility to external conditions are concerned. This is particularly true for measurements in nuclear reactors where important drifts due to irradiation effects are experienced with other measurement techniques, as thermocouple for instance. Industrial noise thermometer experiments have not been performed extensively up to now. The subject of the present study is the development of a 1800 deg. K noise thermometer for nuclear applications. The measurement method is based on a generalized noise power approach. The rms noise voltage (Vsub(s)) and noise current (Isub(s)) are successively measured on the resistive sensor. The same quantities are also measured on a dummy short circuited probe (Vsub(d) and Isub(d)). The temperature is then deduced from these measured values by the following formula: cTsub(s) = (Vsub(s) 2 - Vsub(d) 2 )(Vsub(s)/Isub(s) - Vsub(d)/Isub(d)) - 1 , where c is a constant and Tsub(s) the absolute temperature of the sensor. This approach has the particular advantage of greatly reducing the sensibility to environmental perturbations on the leads and to the influence of amplifier noise sources. It also eliminates the necessity of resistance measurement and keeps the electronic circuits as simple as possible

  15. Reaction rate constants of HO2 + O3 in the temperature range 233-400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyan; Suto, Masako; Lee, L. C.

    1988-01-01

    The reaction rate constants of HO2 + O3 were measured in the temperature range 233-400 K using a discharge flow system with photofragment emission detection. In the range 233-253 K, the constants are approximately a constant value, and then increase with increasing temperature. This result suggests that the reaction may have two different channels. An expression representing the reaction rate constants is presented.

  16. Relationship between Magnetic Anisotropy below Pseudogap Temperature and Short-Range Antiferromagnetic Order in High-Temperature Cuprate Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinari, Takao

    2018-06-01

    The central issue in high-temperature cuprate superconductors is the pseudogap state appearing below the pseudogap temperature T*, which is well above the superconducting transition temperature. In this study, we theoretically investigate the rapid increase of the magnetic anisotropy below the pseudogap temperature detected by the recent torque-magnetometry measurements on YBa2Cu3Oy [Y. Sato et al., 10.1038/nphys4205" xlink:type="simple">Nat. Phys. 13, 1074 (2017)]. Applying the spin Green's function formalism including the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arising from the buckling of the CuO2 plane, we obtain results that are in good agreement with the experiment and find a scaling relationship. Our analysis suggests that the characteristic temperature associated with the magnetic anisotropy, which coincides with T*, is not a phase transition temperature but a crossover temperature associated with the short-range antiferromagnetic order.

  17. Measurement of rotational temperature at Kolhapur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Mukherjee

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the hydroxyl rotational temperature for the (8,3 Meinel band have been reported from the observations of the ratio of the relative intensities of P1(2 and P1(4 lines of the OH(8,3 band at Kolhapur (16.8° N, 74.2° E, dip lat. 10.6° N in India during the period 1 November 2002-29 April 2003 using tilting-filter photometers. Mean values of rotational temperature have been computed for 60 nights. The monthly mean value of temperature lies in the range 194(±11-208(±18K. The mean rotational temperature obtained from all the measurements was found to be 202±15K. The results agree with other low-latitude measurements of rotational temperature using photometric airglow techniques. Quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of about one to two hours have been prominent on many nights. Furthermore, the results show the general agreement between observations and model (MSIS-86 predictions.

  18. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  19. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  20. Combining 2-m temperature nowcasting and short range ensemble forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, numerical ensemble prediction systems have become an important tool for estimating the uncertainties of dynamical and physical processes as represented in numerical weather models. The latest generation of limited area ensemble prediction systems (LAM-EPSs allows for probabilistic forecasts at high resolution in both space and time. However, these systems still suffer from systematic deficiencies. Especially for nowcasting (0–6 h applications the ensemble spread is smaller than the actual forecast error. This paper tries to generate probabilistic short range 2-m temperature forecasts by combining a state-of-the-art nowcasting method and a limited area ensemble system, and compares the results with statistical methods. The Integrated Nowcasting Through Comprehensive Analysis (INCA system, which has been in operation at the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG since 2006 (Haiden et al., 2011, provides short range deterministic forecasts at high temporal (15 min–60 min and spatial (1 km resolution. An INCA Ensemble (INCA-EPS of 2-m temperature forecasts is constructed by applying a dynamical approach, a statistical approach, and a combined dynamic-statistical method. The dynamical method takes uncertainty information (i.e. ensemble variance from the operational limited area ensemble system ALADIN-LAEF (Aire Limitée Adaptation Dynamique Développement InterNational Limited Area Ensemble Forecasting which is running operationally at ZAMG (Wang et al., 2011. The purely statistical method assumes a well-calibrated spread-skill relation and applies ensemble spread according to the skill of the INCA forecast of the most recent past. The combined dynamic-statistical approach adapts the ensemble variance gained from ALADIN-LAEF with non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR which yields a statistical mbox{correction} of the first and second moment (mean bias and dispersion for Gaussian distributed continuous

  1. Measuring Thermal Conductivity at LH2 Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvidge, Shawn; Watwood, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) produced reference materials for materials testing. One such reference material was intended for use with a guarded hot plate apparatus designed to meet the requirements of ASTM C177-97, "Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus." This apparatus can be used to test materials in various gaseous environments from atmospheric pressure to a vacuum. It allows the thermal transmission properties of insulating materials to be measured from just above ambient temperature down to temperatures below liquid hydrogen. However, NIST did not generate data below 77 K temperature for the reference material in question. This paper describes a test method used at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to optimize thermal conductivity measurements during the development of thermal protection systems. The test method extends the usability range of this reference material by generating data at temperatures lower than 77 K. Information provided by this test is discussed, as are the capabilities of the MSFC Hydrogen Test Facility, where advanced methods for materials testing are routinely developed and optimized in support of aerospace applications.

  2. A combined stochastic analysis of mean daily temperature and diurnal temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model, previously proposed for the maximum daily temperature, has been improved for the combined analysis of mean daily temperature and diurnal temperature range. In particular, the procedure applied to each variable sequentially performs the deseasonalization, by means of truncated Fourier series expansions, and the normalization of the temperature data, with the use of proper transformation functions. Then, a joint stochastic analysis of both the climatic variables has been performed by means of a FARIMA model, taking into account the stochastic dependency between the variables, namely introducing a cross-correlation between the standardized noises. The model has been applied to five daily temperature series of southern Italy. After the application of a Monte Carlo simulation procedure, the return periods of the joint behavior of the mean daily temperature and the diurnal temperature range have been evaluated. Moreover, the annual maxima of the temperature excursions in consecutive days have been analyzed for the synthetic series. The results obtained showed different behaviors probably linked to the distance from the sea and to the latitude of the station.

  3. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  4. Measurement of bulk etch rates for poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate (PADC) and cellulose nitrate in a broad range of concentration and temperature of NaOH etching solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsdorf, D.; Hunger, M.; Starke, S.; Weickert, F.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work the dependence of the bulk etch rate v B for solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) on the concentration c and the temperature T of the NaOH etching solution has been studied for material types PADC and cellulose nitrate. As commonly applied exponents of PADC and cellulose nitrate material, the commercial products CR-39 and LR-115 were investigated. The concentration and temperature have been varied in the ranges 0.5moll -1 -1 and 313 -1 and T between 313 and 333K for cellulose nitrate, respectively. The application of a simple Arrhenius-law of chemical reactions fails in the interpretation of the dependence on the concentration. A constant activation energy cannot describe the behaviour of v B (c,T) over the whole range of concentration. To understand the deviation, more qualified models treating the superposition of chemical and physical processes including reaction kinetics and material transport phenomena by diffusion have to be developed and tested

  5. Semiconductor resistance thermometer for the temperature range 300-0.3 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'eva, K.N.; Zarubin, L.I.; Nemish, I.Yu.; Vorobkalo, F.M.; Boldarev, S.T.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Poluprovodnikov)

    1979-01-01

    Thermometric characteristics of semiconductor resistor thermometers for the temperature range from 300 to 0.3 K and from 77 to 0.3 K are given. Temperature dependence of thermometer resistances in the 300-1.3 K range was measured in cryostats with pumping-out of N 2 , H 2 and 4 He. For measurements below 1.3 K use was made of a 3 H- 4 He dissolving cryostat. The accuracy of measuring temperatures in the 1.3-0.3 K range is not below +-0.003 K, the error in determining thermometer resistances does not exceed 1%. The analysis of obtained thermometric characteristics of several series of semiconductor resistance thermometers showed that observed insignificant spread of resistances of thermometers in one series and identity of characteristics allows them to be used without preliminary calibration for relatively coarse measurements in the range from 3O0 to 0.3 K. Besides, it has been found that in the 4.2-0.3 K range the thermometric characteristics represent a straight line in the lgR-Tsup(-n) coordinates, where R is the thermometer resistance, T is the temperature and n=0.5. Thus, the thermometers of the same series can be calibrated only in 2 or 3 reference point measurements

  6. Isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient measurement in TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Trkov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Direct measurement of an isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient at room temperatures in TRIGA Mark II research reactor at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana is presented. Temperature reactivity coefficient was measured in the temperature range between 15 o C and 25 o C. All reactivity measurements were performed at almost zero reactor power to reduce or completely eliminate nuclear heating. Slow and steady temperature decrease was controlled using the reactor tank cooling system. In this way the temperatures of fuel, of moderator and of coolant were kept in equilibrium throughout the measurements. It was found out that TRIGA reactor core loaded with standard fuel elements with stainless steel cladding has small positive isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient in this temperature range.(author)

  7. P, ρ, T and heat capacity measurements of (α-pinene + β-pinene) mixtures over the temperature range 283.15 K to 358.15 K and pressures up to 40 MPa: Experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langa, Elisa; Palavra, Antonio M.F.; Lourenço, Maria J.V.; Nieto de Castro, Carlos A.; Mainar, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Density as a function of P, T and composition was measured for pinene mixtures. ► Isothermal compressibility and coefficients of cubic expansion were also calculated. ► Isobaric heat capacity was also determined as function of temperature and composition. ► Usual behaviour of these properties was found. ► SAFT and PC-SAFT were used as predictive models, showing PC-SAFT the best predictions. - Abstract: The density and isobaric heat capacity of the binary system {α-pinene (4,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-ene (1), CAS Number 7785-26-4) + β-pinene (6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene-bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane (2), CAS Number 127-91-3)} has been measured for eleven different compositions. The density was determined at five pressures from (20 MPa to 40 MPa) and temperatures from (283.15 K to 358.15 K) and the isobaric heat capacity at atmospheric pressure and temperatures from (313.15 K to 418.15 K). Density was measured with an experimental uncertainty estimated to be ± 0.5 kg·m −3 . The isothermal compressibility and isobaric thermal expansion were derived from the experimental density data. The isobaric heat capacity was determined with a DSC calorimeter being the experimental uncertainty lower than 1.5%. Isobaric heat capacity behaviour was as expected for both pure compounds and for mixtures. Two different equations of state, conventional SAFT and PC-SAFT, were applied to calculate the densities of the mixture, being the best predictions achieved with PC-SAFT equation.

  8. Design and Implementation of High Precision Temperature Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianzhen; Yu, Weiyu; Zhang, Zhijian; Liu, Hancheng

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale neutrino detector requires calibration of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and electronic system in the detector, performed by plotting the calibration source with a group of designated coordinates in the acrylic sphere. Where the calibration source positioning is based on the principle of ultrasonic ranging, the transmission speed of ultrasonic in liquid scintillator of acrylic sphere is related to temperature. This paper presents a temperature measurement unit based on STM32L031 and single-line bus digital temperature sensor TSic506. The measurement data of the temperature measurement unit can help the ultrasonic ranging to be more accurate. The test results show that the temperature measurement error is within ±0.1°C, which satisfies the requirement of calibration source positioning. Take energy-saving measures, with 3.7V/50mAH lithium battery-powered, the temperature measurement unit can work continuously more than 24 hours.

  9. Infinite-range Heisenberg model and high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir-Kheli, Jamil; Goddard, William A., III

    1993-11-01

    A strongly coupled variational wave function, the doublet spin-projected Néel state (DSPN), is proposed for oxygen holes in three-band models of high-temperature superconductors. This wave function has the three-spin system of the oxygen hole plus the two neighboring copper atoms coupled in a spin-1/2 doublet. The copper spins in the neighborhood of a hole are in an eigenstate of the infinite-range Heisenberg antiferromagnet (SPN state). The doublet three-spin magnetic polaron or hopping polaron (HP) is stabilized by the hopping terms tσ and tτ, rather than by the copper-oxygen antiferromagnetic coupling Jpd. Although, the HP has a large projection onto the Emery (Dg) polaron, a non-negligible amount of doublet-u (Du) character is required for optimal hopping stabilization. This is due to Jdd, the copper-copper antiferromagnetic coupling. For the copper spins near an oxygen hole, the copper-copper antiferromagnetic coupling can be considered to be almost infinite ranged, since the copper-spin-correlation length in the superconducting phase (0.06-0.25 holes per in-plane copper) is approximately equal to the mean separation of the holes (between 2 and 4 lattice spacings). The general DSPN wave function is constructed for the motion of a single quasiparticle in an antiferromagnetic background. The SPN state allows simple calculations of various couplings of the oxygen hole with the copper spins. The energy minimum is found at symmetry (π/2,π/2) and the bandwidth scales with Jdd. These results are in agreement with exact computations on a lattice. The coupling of the quasiparticles leads to an attraction of holes and its magnitude is estimated.

  10. Apparatus Would Measure Temperatures Of Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, John C.; Fredricks, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Rig for testing ball bearings under radial and axial loads and measuring surface temperatures undergoing development. Includes extensible thermocouples: by means of bellows as longitudinal positioners, thermocouples driven into contact with bearing balls to sense temperatures immediately after test run. Not necessary to disassemble rig or to section balls to obtain indirect indications of maximum temperatures reached. Thermocouple measurements indicate temperatures better than temperature-sensitive paints.

  11. High Precision Infrared Temperature Measurement System Based on Distance Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the need of real-time remote monitoring of human body surface temperature for optical rehabilitation therapy, a non-contact high-precision real-time temperature measurement method based on distance compensation was proposed, and the system design was carried out. The microcontroller controls the infrared temperature measurement module and the laser range module to collect temperature and distance data. The compensation formula of temperature with distance wass fitted according to the least square method. Testing had been performed on different individuals to verify the accuracy of the system. The results indicate that the designed non-contact infrared temperature measurement system has a residual error of less than 0.2°C and the response time isless than 0.1s in the range of 0 to 60cm. This provides a reference for developing long-distance temperature measurement equipment in optical rehabilitation therapy.

  12. The long-range correlation and evolution law of centennial-scale temperatures in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohui; Lian, Yi; Wang, Qiguang

    2018-01-01

    This paper applies the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method to investigate the long-range correlation of monthly mean temperatures from three typical measurement stations at Harbin, Changchun, and Shenyang in Northeast China from 1909 to 2014. The results reveal the memory characteristics of the climate system in this region. By comparing the temperatures from different time periods and investigating the variations of its scaling exponents at the three stations during these different time periods, we found that the monthly mean temperature has long-range correlation, which indicates that the temperature in Northeast China has long-term memory and good predictability. The monthly time series of temperatures over the past 106 years also shows good long-range correlation characteristics. These characteristics are also obviously observed in the annual mean temperature time series. Finally, we separated the centennial-length temperature time series into two time periods. These results reveal that the long-range correlations at the Harbin station over these two time periods have large variations, whereas no obvious variations are observed at the other two stations. This indicates that warming affects the regional climate system's predictability differently at different time periods. The research results can provide a quantitative reference point for regional climate predictability assessment and future climate model evaluation.

  13. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  14. The infinite range Heisenberg model and high temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir-Kheli, Jamil

    1992-01-01

    The thesis deals with the theory of high temperature superconductivity from the standpoint of three-band Hubbard models.Chapter 1 of the thesis proposes a strongly coupled variational wavefunction that has the three-spin system of an oxygen hole and its two neighboring copper spins in a doublet and the background Cu spins in an eigenstate of the infinite range antiferromagnet. This wavefunction is expected to be a good "zeroth order" wavefunction in the superconducting regime of dopings. The three-spin polaron is stabilized by the hopping terms rather than the copper-oxygen antiferromagnetic coupling Jpd. Considering the effect of the copper-copper antiferromagnetic coupling Jdd, we show that the three-spin polaron cannot be pure Emery (Dg), but must have a non-negligible amount of doublet-u (Du) character for hopping stabilization. Finally, an estimate is made for the magnitude of the attractive coupling of oxygen holes.Chapter 2 presents an exact solution to a strongly coupled Hamiltonian for the motion of oxygen holes in a 1-D Cu-O lattice. The Hamiltonian separates into two pieces: one for the spin degrees of freedom of the copper and oxygen holes, and the other for the charge degrees of freedom of the oxygen holes. The spinon part becomes the Heisenberg antiferromagnet in 1-D that is soluble by the Bethe Ansatz. The holon piece is also soluble by a Bethe Ansatz with simple algebraic relations for the phase shifts.Finally, we show that the nearest neighbor Cu-Cu spin correlation increases linearly with doping and becomes positive at x [...] 0.70.

  15. Thermal Stability of Austempered Ductile Iron Evaluated in a Temperature Range of 20-300K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid MYSZKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to determine through changes in magnetic properties the stability of the austempered ductile iron (ADI microstructure during temperature changes in a range of 20 – 300 K. The measurements were taken in a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM using Fe27Ni2TiMoAlNb austenitic stainless steel and four types of austempered ductile iron obtained under various heat treatment conditions. The plotted curves showing changes in the magnetisation degree as a function of temperature had a number of characteristic points illustrating changes taking place in the microstructure. For each of the materials examined, the martensite start temperature Ms and the temperature range within which the martensitic transformation takes place were identified.

  16. Dusty plasma in a glow discharge in helium in temperature range of 5–300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoilov, I. S.; Baev, V. P.; Timofeev, A. V., E-mail: timofeevalvl@gmail.com; Amirov, R. Kh.; Kirillin, A. V.; Nikolaev, V. S.; Bedran, Z. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Dusty plasma structures in glow discharge in helium in the temperature range of 5–300 K are investigated experimentally. We have described the experimental setup that makes it possible to continuously vary the temperature regime. The method for experimental data processing has been described. We have measured interparticle distances in the temperature range of 9–295 K and compared them with the Debye radius. We indicate the ranges of variations in experimental parameters in which plasma–dust structures are formed and various types of their behavior are manifested (rotation, vibrations of structures, formation of vertical linear chains, etc.). The applicability of the Yukawa potential to the description of the structural properties of a dusty plasma in the experimental conditions is discussed.

  17. Associations of day-to-day temperature change and diurnal temperature range with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the impacts of temperature on mortality and morbidity have been documented, few studies have investigated whether day-to-day temperature change and diurnal temperature range (DTR) are independent risk factors for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design This was a prospective, population-based, observational study. Methods We obtained all OHCA data from 2005-2013 from six major prefectures in Japan: Hokkaido, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Aichi, Kyoto, and Osaka. We used a quasi-Poisson regression analysis with a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the associations of day-to-day temperature change and DTR with OHCA for each prefecture. Results In total, 271,698 OHCAs of presumed cardiac origin were reported during the study period. There was a significant increase in the risk of OHCA associated with cold temperature in five prefectures, with relative risks (RRs) ranging from 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.649) in Hokkaido to 3.893 (95% CI 1.713-8.845) in Kyoto. DTR was adversely associated with OHCA on hot days in Aichi (RR 1.158; 95% CI 1.028-1.304) and on cold days in Tokyo (RR 1.030; 95% CI 1.000-1.060), Kanagawa (RR 1.042; 95% CI 1.005-1.082), Kyoto (RR 1.060; 95% CI 1.001-1.122), and Osaka (RR 1.050; 95% CI 1.014-1.088), whereas there was no significant association between day-to-day temperature change and OHCA. Conclusion We found that associations between day-to-day temperature change and DTR and OHCA were generally small compared with the association with mean temperature. Our findings suggest that preventative measures for temperature-related OHCA may be more effective when focused on mean temperature and DTR.

  18. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  19. A wide temperature range irradiation cryostat for reasearch on solid state targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Scott; Dutz, Hartmut; Goertz, Stefan; Runkel, Stefan; Voge, Thomas [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To qualitatively improve the data obtained in asymmetry measurements of scattering experiments the figure of merit (FOM) plays a major role and can reduce the data acquisition time when a certain precision in the measurement is needed. One of the defining factors for the improvement of the polarised experiment lies in the target choice and preparation, in particular the method employed to introduce the paramagnetic defects for the use of dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP). To this end the Polarized Target Group in Bonn has developed a wide range temperature cryostat for the irradiation of potential target materials in which materials can be irradiated to varying doses at specified temperatures. The stable irradiation temperature of the materials can be controlled to within {+-}1 K over a range of 90 K

  20. Impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushpil, V.V.; Kushpil, S.A.; Petracek, V.

    1999-01-01

    A new impulse method of temperature measurement based on switching characteristic of the P-N junction is described. Temperature of silicon detector can be determined, due to the strong temperature dependence of minority carrier lifetime, from the charge registered during the switching-off process. The method has been tested in temperature range 25 - 60 deg C. Advantages, drawbacks and precision of this method are discussed

  1. Temperature measurement in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degas, P.

    1986-12-01

    Some criterions, that the used sensors have to follow, are given together with the conditions they may encountered. They may be used in irradiation or safety test devices, in experiments concerning mock-up or plant element, or even in nuclear plants themselves. The most suitable sensor type are mentioned, with their characteristics and their fiability. Two use examples of temperature probes are given, chosen to illustrate two sensor types: thermocouples in Superphenix-1 and platinum resistance probes in research reactor Orphee [fr

  2. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J. M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-07-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01 % in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10{sup 6} for loss tangent values below 10{sup 2}, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99.9 % purity in the same temperature range are presented. (Author) 23 refs.

  3. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J.M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-01-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01% in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10''6 for loss tangent values below 10''2, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99,9% purity in the same temperature range are presented

  4. High temperature creep behavior in the (α + β) phase temperature range of M5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, G.

    2011-01-01

    The isothermal steady-state creep behavior of a M5 thin sheet alloy in a vacuum environment was investigated in the (α + β) temperature, low-stress (1-10 MPa) range. To this aim, the simplest approach consists in identifying α and β creep flow rules in their respective single-phase temperature ranges and extrapolating them in the two-phase domain. However, the (α + β) experimental behavior may fall outside any bounds calculated using such creep flow data. Here, the model was improved for each phase by considering two microstructural effects: (i) Grain size: Thermo-mechanical treatments applied on the material yielded various controlled grain size distributions. Creep tests in near-α and near-β ranges evidenced a strong grain-size effect, especially in the diffusional creep regime. (ii) Chemical contrast between the two phases in the (α + β) range: From thermodynamic calculations and microstructural investigations, the β phase is enriched in Nb and depleted in O (the reverse being true for the α phase). Thus, creep tests were performed on model Zr-Nb-O thin sheets with Nb and O concentrations representative of each phase in the considered temperature range. New α and β creep flow equations were developed from this extended experimental database and used to compute, via a finite element model, the creep rates of the two-phase material. The 3D morphology of phases (β grains nucleated at α grain boundaries) was explicitly introduced in the computations. The effect of phase morphology on the macroscopic creep flow was shown using this specific morphology, compared to other typical morphologies and to experimental data. (author) [fr

  5. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  6. Field of Temperature Measurement by Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor HARGAŠ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces about temperature determination for given dot of picture through image analysis. Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a heated item to a cooler item. Main method of measurement of temperature in image is Pattern Matching, color scale detection and model detection. We can measure temperature dependency at time for selected point of thermo vision images. This measurement gives idea about the heat transfer at time dependences.

  7. Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided

  8. LOFT fuel rod surface temperature measurement testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, A.M.; Tolman, E.L.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the LOFT fuel rod cladding surface thermocouples has been performed to evaluate how accurately the LOFT thermocouples measure the cladding surface temperature during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence and what effect, if any, the thermocouple would have on core performance. Extensive testing has been done to characterize the thermocouple design. Thermal cycling and corrosion testing of the thermocouple weld design have provided an expected lifetime of 6000 hours when exposed to reactor coolant conditions of 620 K and 15.9 MPa and to sixteen thermal cycles with an initial temperature of 480 K and peak temperatures ranging from 870 to 1200K. Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) tests have indicated a DNB penalty (5 to 28% lower) during steady state operation and negligible effects during LOCA blowdown caused by the LOFT fuel rod surface thermocouple arrangement. Experience with the thermocouple design in Power Burst Facility (PBF) and LOFT nonnuclear blowdown testing has been quite satisfactory. Tests discussed here were conducted using both stainless steel and zircaloy-clad electrically heated rod in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) blowdown simulation loop

  9. Multi-spectral pyrometer for gas turbine blade temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi

    2014-09-01

    To achieve the highest possible turbine inlet temperature requires to accurately measuring the turbine blade temperature. If the temperature of blade frequent beyond the design limits, it will seriously reduce the service life. The problem for the accuracy of the temperature measurement includes the value of the target surface emissivity is unknown and the emissivity model is variability and the thermal radiation of the high temperature environment. In this paper, the multi-spectral pyrometer is designed provided mainly for range 500-1000°, and present a model corrected in terms of the error due to the reflected radiation only base on the turbine geometry and the physical properties of the material. Under different working conditions, the method can reduce the measurement error from the reflect radiation of vanes, make measurement closer to the actual temperature of the blade and calculating the corresponding model through genetic algorithm. The experiment shows that this method has higher accuracy measurements.

  10. Device for the alternative option of temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargus, Jan; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Novak, Martin; Cubik, Jakub; Cvejn, Daniel; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has good optical properties, and its composition offers the possibility of use in many applications (industry, security device, medicine applications and etc.). We focused on the alternative option of temperature measurement in this article. Our approach is based on measuring changes of chromaticity correlated temperature corresponding to changes in temperature. Described device uses an optical fiber with a defined layer of PDMS and luminophore and we assume that it can find use also in the field of security. The article describes the process of making the prototype of the device and its verification based on laboratory results. The measured temperature depends mainly on the type of optical fiber and the measured temperature range is determined by the thermal resistance of used optical fiber. Using a calibration measurement can determine the value of temperature with an accuracy of +/- 2,5 %.

  11. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  12. Temperature measurement systems in wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, S.; Gołebiowski, J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.

  13. Water temperature impacts water consumption by range cattle in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, which may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in temperature of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinkin...

  14. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  15. Estimation of complete temperature fields from measured temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, S.T.; Roemer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In hyperthermia treatments, it is desirable to be able to predict complete tissue temperature fields from sampled temperatures taken at a few locations. This is a difficult problem in hyperthermia treatments since the tissue blood perfusion is unknown. An initial attempt to do this automatically using unconstrained optimization techniques to minimize the differences between steady state temperatures measured during a treatment and temperatures (at the same locations) predicted from treatment simulations has been previously reported. A second technique using transient temperatures following a step decrease in power has been developed. This technique, which appears to be able to better predict complete temperature fields is presented and both it and the steady state technique are applied to data from both simulated and experimental hyperthermia treatments. The results of applying the two techniques are compared for one-dimensional situations. One particularly important problem which the transient technique can solve (and the steady state technique does not seem to be able to do as well) is that of predicting the complete temperature field in situations where the true maximum and/or minimum temperatures present are not measured by the available instrumentation

  16. Raman spectroscopic characterization of CH4 density over a wide range of temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Linbo; Chou, I-Ming; Burruss, Robert; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2014-01-01

    The positions of the CH4 Raman ν1 symmetric stretching bands were measured in a wide range of temperature (from −180 °C to 350 °C) and density (up to 0.45 g/cm3) using high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsule. The results show that the Raman band shift is a function of both methane density and temperature; the band shifts to lower wavenumbers as the density increases and the temperature decreases. An equation representing the observed relationship among the CH4 ν1 band position, temperature, and density can be used to calculate the density in natural or synthetic CH4-bearing inclusions.

  17. Designing an accurate system for temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochan Orest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of compensation of changes in temperature field along the legs of inhomogeneous thermocouple, which measures a temperature of an object, is considered in this paper. This compensation is achieved by stabilization of the temperature field along the thermocouple. Such stabilization does not allow the error due to acquired thermoelectric inhomogeneity to manifest itself. There is also proposed the design of the furnace to stabilize temperature field along the legs of the thermocouple which measures the temperature of an object. This furnace is not integrated with the thermocouple mentioned above, therefore it is possible to replace this thermocouple with a new one when it get its legs considerably inhomogeneous.. There is designed the two loop measuring system with the ability of error correction which can use simultaneously a usual thermocouple as well as a thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field. The latter can be used as a reference sensor for the former.

  18. Surface temperature measurement with radioactive kryptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Piatrik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactive kryptonates is described for measuring surface temperatures within the region of 45 to 70 degC. Two samples each were prepared of kryptonated beechwood and hydroquinone on a paper carrier. One sample served as the standard which during the experiment was placed in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 45 degC. The second sample was placed in another thermostat where the temperature changed from 45 to 70 degC. Both samples were in the thermostat for 30 mins. The temperature was raised in steps of 2.5 degC and the time of measurement was constant in both samples. The dependences are given of the drop in activity on temperature for both types of samples. The difference was determined of the drop in activity between the standard and the second sample and the relation for measuring the temperature of the sample was determined therefrom. (J.B.)

  19. Application of phosphor thermometry to a Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.; Andrews, W.H.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Childs, R.M.; Grann, E.B.; Manges, W.W.; McIntyre, T.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Simpson, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System (GTMS) was developed for the American Iron and Steel Institute by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through a partnership with the National Steel Midwest Division in Portage, Indiana. The GTMS provides crucial on-line thermal process control information during the manufacturing of galvanneal steel. The system has been used with the induction furnaces to measure temperatures ranging from 450 to 700 degrees C with an accuracy of better than +/-5 Degrees C. The GTMS provides accurate, reliable temperature information thus ensuring a high quality product, reducing waste, and saving energy. The production of uniform, high-quality galvanneal steel is only possible through strict temperature control

  20. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  1. Measurement of positron range in matter in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, B.E.; Christensen, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    Positron range is one factor that places a limitation on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) resolution. The distance a positron travels through matter before it annihilates with an electron is a function of its initial energy and the electron density of the medium. A strong magnetic field limits positron range when momentum components are transverse to the field. Measurement of positron range was determined by deconvolving the effects of detector response and radioactive distribution from the measured annihilation spread function. The annihilation spread function for a 0.5 mm bead of 68 Ga was measured with 0.2 and 1.0 mm wide slit collimators. Based on the annihilation spread function FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) for a 1.0 mm wide slit the median positron range in tissue equivalent material is 0.87, 0.50, 0.22 mm at 0, 5.0 and 9.4 T, respectively

  2. A luminescent Lanthanide-free MOF nanohybrid for highly sensitive ratiometric temperature sensing in physiological range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Zhang, Denan; Zeng, Jin; Gan, Ning; Cuan, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Luminescent MOF materials with tunable emissions and energy/charge transfer processes have been extensively explored as ratiometric temperature sensors. However, most of the ratiometric MOF thermometers reported thus far are based on the MOFs containing photoactive lanthanides, which are potentially facing cost issue and serious supply shortage. Here, we present a ratiometric luminescent thermometer based on a dual-emitting lanthanide-free MOF hybrid, which is developed by encapsulation of a fluorescent dye into a robust nanocrystalline zirconium-based MOF through a one-pot synthesis approach. The structure and morphology of the hybrid product was characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption measurement and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pore confinement effect well isolates the guest dye molecules and therefore suppresses the nonradiative energy transfer process between dye molecules. The incorporated dye emission is mainly sensitized by the organic linkers within MOF through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The ratiometric luminescence of the MOF hybrid shows a significant response to temperature due to the thermal-related back energy transfer process from dye molecules and organic linkers, thus can be exploited for self-calibrated temperature sensing. The maximum thermometric sensitivity is 1.19% °C -1 in the physiological temperature range, which is among the highest for the ratiomtric MOF thermometers that operating in 25-45°C. The temperature resolution is better than 0.1°C over the entire operative range (20-60°C). By integrating the advantages of excellent stability, nanoscale nature, and high sensitivity and precision in the physiological temperature range, this dye@MOF hybrid might have potential application in biomedical diagnosis. What' more, this work has expanded the possibility of non-lanthanide luminescent MOF materials for the development of ratiometric temperature sensors. Copyright © 2018

  3. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  4. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  5. Wide-range vortex shedding flowmeter for high-temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Herndon, P.G.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The existing design of a commercially available vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was modified and optimized to produce three 4-in. and one 6-in. high-performance VSFMs for measuring helium flow in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) test loop. The project was undertaken because of the significant economic and performance advantages to be realized by using a single flowmeter capable of covering the 166:1 flow range (at 350/sup 0/C and 45:1 pressure range) of the tests. A detailed calibration in air and helium at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station showed an accuracy of +-1% of reading for a 100:1 helium flow range and +-1.75% of reading for a 288:1 flow range in both helium and air. At an extended gas temperature of 450/sup 0/C, water cooling was necessary for reliable flowmeter operation.

  6. Temperature measurement with industrial color camera devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidradler, Dieter J.; Berndorfer, Thomas; van Dyck, Walter; Pretschuh, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    This paper discusses color camera based temperature measurement. Usually, visual imaging and infrared image sensing are treated as two separate disciplines. We will show, that a well selected color camera device might be a cheaper, more robust and more sophisticated solution for optical temperature measurement in several cases. Herein, only implementation fragments and important restrictions for the sensing element will be discussed. Our aim is to draw the readers attention to the use of visual image sensors for measuring thermal radiation and temperature and to give reasons for the need of improved technologies for infrared camera devices. With AVL-List, our partner of industry, we successfully used the proposed sensor to perform temperature measurement for flames inside the combustion chamber of diesel engines which finally led to the presented insights.

  7. General temperature field measurement by digital holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít; Vít, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan; Kopecký, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), A319-A325 ISSN 1559-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : digital holography * temperature field measurement * tomography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2013

  8. Smartphone photography utilized to measure wrist range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eric R; Conti Mica, Megan; Shin, Alexander Y

    2018-02-01

    The purpose was to determine if smartphone photography is a reliable tool in measuring wrist movement. Smartphones were used to take digital photos of both wrists in 32 normal participants (64 wrists) at extremes of wrist motion. The smartphone measurements were compared with clinical goniometry measurements. There was a very high correlation between the clinical goniometry and smartphone measurements, as the concordance coefficients were high for radial deviation, ulnar deviation, wrist extension and wrist flexion. The Pearson coefficients also demonstrated the high precision of the smartphone measurements. The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated 29-31 of 32 smartphone measurements were within the 95% confidence interval of the clinical measurements for all positions of the wrists. There was high reliability between the photography taken by the volunteer and researcher, as well as high inter-observer reliability. Smartphone digital photography is a reliable and accurate tool for measuring wrist range of motion. II.

  9. Spatial filtering velocimeter for vehicle navigation with extended measurement range

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Zhou, Jian; Nie, Xiaoming; Long, Xingwu

    2015-05-01

    The idea of using spatial filtering velocimeter is proposed to provide accurate velocity information for vehicle autonomous navigation system. The presented spatial filtering velocimeter is based on a CMOS linear image sensor. The limited frame rate restricts high speed measurement of the vehicle. To extend measurement range of the velocimeter, a method of frequency shifting is put forward. Theoretical analysis shows that the frequency of output signal can be reduced and the measurement range can be doubled by this method when the shifting direction is set the same with that of image velocity. The approach of fast Fourier transform (FFT) is employed to obtain the power spectra of the spatially filtered signals. Because of limited frequency resolution of FFT, a frequency spectrum correction algorithm, called energy centrobaric correction, is used to improve the frequency resolution. The correction accuracy energy centrobaric correction is analyzed. Experiments are carried out to measure the moving surface of a conveyor belt. The experimental results show that the maximum measurable velocity is about 800deg/s without frequency shifting, 1600deg/s with frequency shifting, when the frame rate of the image is about 8117 Hz. Therefore, the measurement range is doubled by the method of frequency shifting. Furthermore, experiments were carried out to measure the vehicle velocity simultaneously using both the designed SFV and a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The measurement results of the presented SFV are coincident with that of the LDV, but with bigger fluctuation. Therefore, it has the potential of application to vehicular autonomous navigation.

  10. Wideband filter radiometers for blackbody temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, L. P.; Bamber, C.; Gaertner, A. A.; Gerson, R. K.; Woods, D. J.; Woolliams, E. R.

    2010-10-01

    The use of high-temperature blackbody (HTBB) radiators to realize primary spectral irradiance scales requires that the operating temperature of the HTBB be accurately determined. We have developed five filter radiometers (FRs) to measure the temperature of the National Research Council of Canada's HTBB. The FRs are designed to minimize sensitivity to ambient temperature fluctuations. They incorporate air-spaced colored glass filters and a Si photodiode detector that are housed in a cell whose temperature is controlled to ±0.1°C by means of annular thermoelectric elements at the front and rear of the cell. These wideband filter radiometers operate in four different wavelength bands. The spectral responsivity measurements were performed in an underfill geometry for a power-mode calibration that is traceable to NRC's cryogenic radiometer. The spectral temperature sensitivity of each of these FRs has been measured. The apertures for these FRs were cold-formed by swaging machine-cut apertures onto precision dowel pins. A description of the filter radiometer design, fabrication and testing, together with a detailed uncertainty analysis, is presented. We derive the equations that relate the spectral irradiance measured by the FRs to the spectral radiance and temperature of the HTBB, and deal specifically with the change of index of refraction over the path of the radiation from the interior of the HTBB to the FRs. We believe these equations are more accurate than recently published derivations. Our measurements of the operating temperature of our HTBB working at temperatures near 2500 K, 2700 K and 2900 K, together with measurements using a pyrometer, show agreement between the five filter radiometers and with the pyrometer to within the estimated uncertainties.

  11. Long-range correlations in rectal temperature fluctuations of healthy infants during maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette Stern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature are interdependent in infants, where instabilities in thermoregulation can contribute to apneas or even life-threatening events. Identifying abnormalities in thermoregulation is particularly important in the first 6 months of life, where autonomic regulation undergoes critical development. Fluctuations in body temperature have been shown to be sensitive to maturational stage as well as system failure in critically ill patients. We thus aimed to investigate the existence of fractal-like long-range correlations, indicative of temperature control, in night time rectal temperature (T(rec patterns in maturing infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured T(rec fluctuations in infants every 4 weeks from 4 to 20 weeks of age and before and after immunization. Long-range correlations in the temperature series were quantified by the correlation exponent, alpha using detrended fluctuation analysis. The effects of maturation, room temperature, and immunization on the strength of correlation were investigated. We found that T(rec fluctuations exhibit fractal long-range correlations with a mean (SD alpha of 1.51 (0.11, indicating that T(rec is regulated in a highly correlated and hence deterministic manner. A significant increase in alpha with age from 1.42 (0.07 at 4 weeks to 1.58 (0.04 at 20 weeks reflects a change in long-range correlation behavior with maturation towards a smoother and more deterministic temperature regulation, potentially due to the decrease in surface area to body weight ratio in the maturing infant. alpha was not associated with mean room temperature or influenced by immunization CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the quantification of long-range correlations using alpha derived from detrended fluctuation analysis is an observer-independent tool which can distinguish developmental stages of night time T(rec pattern in young infants, reflective of maturation of

  12. Temperature dependence of the Schottky-barrier heights of n-type semiconductors in the temperature range of 7 to 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.P.; Lee, T.C.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    In this note we present the results of the temperature dependence of the SBH in Au/n-Si, Ag/n-GaAs, and Au/n-GaAs in the temperature range of 7 to 300 K from our internal photoemission measurements. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature.

  14. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W.; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses. PMID:28824441

  15. Small Device For Short-Range Antenna Measurements Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a practical solution for implementing an antenna radiation pattern measurement device using optical fibers. It is suitable for anechoic chambers as well as short range channel sounding. The device is optimized for small size and provides a cheap and easy way to make optical antenna...

  16. Measuring the relativistic perigee advance with satellite laser ranging

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, L; Pavlis, E C

    2002-01-01

    The pericentric advance of a test body by a central mass is one of the classical tests of general relativity. Today, this effect is measured with radar ranging by the perihelion shift of Mercury and other planets in the gravitational field of the Sun, with a relative accuracy of the order of 10 sup - sup 2 -10 sup - sup 3. In this paper, we explore the possibility of a measurement of the pericentric advance in the gravitational field of Earth by analysing the laser-ranged data of some orbiting, or proposed, laser-ranged geodetic satellites. Such a measurement of the perigee advance would place limits on hypothetical, very weak, Yukawa-type components of the gravitational interaction with a finite range of the order of 10 sup 4 km. Thus, we show that, at the present level of knowledge of the orbital perturbations, the relative accuracy, achievable with suitably combined orbital elements of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II, is of the order of 10 sup - sup 3. With the corresponding measured value of (2 + 2 gamma - beta)/3, ...

  17. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  18. Temperature measurement in the flowing medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlák Kamil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a brief description of methods of temperature measurements in a flowing water steam. Attention is paid to the measurement of pseudo static temperature by a single sealed thermocouple entering the flowing liquid through the flown-by wall. Then three types of probes for stagnation temperature measurement are shown, whose properties were tested using CFD calculations. The aim was to design a probe of stagnation parameters of described properties which can be used for measuring flow parameters in a real steam turbine. An important factor influencing the construction is not only the safe manipulation of the probe when inserting and removing it from the machine in operation, but also the possibility to traverse the probe along the blade length.

  19. The temperature dependence of the BK channel activity - kinetics, thermodynamics, and long-range correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzkiewicz-Jałowiecka, Agata; Dworakowska, Beata; Grzywna, Zbigniew J

    2017-10-01

    Large-conductance, voltage dependent, Ca 2+ -activated potassium channels (BK) are transmembrane proteins that regulate many biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Here, we investigate to what extent temperature (in the range of 17-37°C with ΔT=5°C step) is a regulating parameter of kinetic properties of the channel gating and memory effect in the series of dwell-time series of subsequent channel's states, at membrane depolarization and hyperpolarization. The obtained results indicate that temperature affects strongly the BK channels' gating, but, counterintuitively, it exerts no effect on the long-range correlations, as measured by the Hurst coefficient. Quantitative differences between dependencies of appropriate channel's characteristics on temperature are evident for different regimes of voltage. Examining the characteristics of BK channel activity as a function of temperature allows to estimate the net activation energy (E act ) and changes of thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG) by channel opening. Larger E act corresponds to the channel activity at membrane hyperpolarization. The analysis of entropy and enthalpy changes of closed to open channel's transition suggest the entropy-driven nature of the increase of open state probability during voltage activation and supports the hypothesis about the voltage-dependent geometry of the channel vestibule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring the relativistic perigee advance with satellite laser ranging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo; Ciufolini, Ignazio; Pavlis, Erricos C

    2002-01-01

    The pericentric advance of a test body by a central mass is one of the classical tests of general relativity. Today, this effect is measured with radar ranging by the perihelion shift of Mercury and other planets in the gravitational field of the Sun, with a relative accuracy of the order of 10 -2 -10 -3 . In this paper, we explore the possibility of a measurement of the pericentric advance in the gravitational field of Earth by analysing the laser-ranged data of some orbiting, or proposed, laser-ranged geodetic satellites. Such a measurement of the perigee advance would place limits on hypothetical, very weak, Yukawa-type components of the gravitational interaction with a finite range of the order of 10 4 km. Thus, we show that, at the present level of knowledge of the orbital perturbations, the relative accuracy, achievable with suitably combined orbital elements of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II, is of the order of 10 -3 . With the corresponding measured value of (2 + 2γ - β)/3, by using η = 4β - γ - 3 from lunar laser ranging, we could get an estimate of the PPN parameters γ and β with an accuracy of the order of 10 -2 -10 -3 . Nevertheless, these accuracies would be substantially improved in the near future with the new Earth gravity field models by the CHAMP and GRACE missions. The use of the perigee of LARES (LAser RElativity Satellite), with a suitable combination of orbital residuals including also the node and the perigee of LAGEOS II, would also further improve the accuracy of the proposed measurement

  1. Influence of temperature to quenching on liquid scintillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, T

    2003-01-01

    The amount of quench is measured with liquid scintillation spectrometer changing the temperature of the sample. The range of the changed temperature is between 0 deg C and 35 deg C. The measurement is carried out for three kinds of unquenched standard, two quenched standards and fifteen kinds of scintillation cocktail and the mixed sample. It is confirmed that the amount of quench increases for all samples as the temperature rises. The influence of the changed amount of quench to the quench correction is examined. (author)

  2. Broadband Laser Ranging for Position Measurements in Shock Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Michelle; Bennett, Corey; Daykin, Edward; Younk, Patrick; Lalone, Brandon; Kostinski, Natalie

    2017-06-01

    Broadband laser ranging (BLR) is a recently developed measurement system that provides an attractive option for determining the position of shock-driven surfaces. This system uses broadband, picosecond (or femtosecond) laser pulses and a fiber interferometer to measure relative travel time to a target and to a reference mirror. The difference in travel time produces a delay difference between pulse replicas that creates a spectral beat frequency. The spectral beating is recorded in real time using a dispersive Fourier transform and an oscilloscope. BLR systems have been designed that measure position at 12.5-40 MHz with better than 100 micron accuracy over ranges greater than 10 cm. We will give an overview of the basic operating principles of these systems. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, by LANL under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, and by NSTec Contract DE-AC52-06NA25946.

  3. Thermotaxis of human sperm cells in extraordinarily shallow temperature gradients over a wide range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Bahat

    Full Text Available On the basis of the finding that capacitated (ready to fertilize rabbit and human spermatozoa swim towards warmer temperatures by directing their movement along a temperature gradient, sperm thermotaxis has been proposed to be one of the processes guiding these spermatozoa to the fertilization site. Although the molecular mechanism underlying sperm thermotaxis is gradually being revealed, basic questions related to this process are still open. Here, employing human spermatozoa, we addressed the questions of how wide the temperature range of thermotaxis is, whether this range includes an optimal temperature or whether spermatozoa generally prefer swimming towards warmer temperatures, whether or not they can sense and respond to descending temperature gradients, and what the minimal temperature gradient is to which they can thermotactically respond. We found that human spermatozoa can respond thermotactically within a wide temperature range (at least 29-41°C, that within this range they preferentially accumulate in warmer temperatures rather than at a single specific, preferred temperature, that they can respond to both ascending and descending temperature gradients, and that they can sense and thermotactically respond to temperature gradients as low as <0.014°C/mm. This temperature gradient is astonishingly low because it means that as a spermatozoon swims through its entire body length (46 µm it can sense and respond to a temperature difference of <0.0006°C. The significance of this surprisingly high temperature sensitivity is discussed.

  4. Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D 2 and H 2 up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems

  5. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  6. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  7. Heart rate, multiple body temperature, long-range and long-life telemetry system for free-ranging animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-range, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body temperatures at multiple locations from free-ranging animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium range transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-range transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying temperature information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-range tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.

  8. Fiber Bragg Grating Based System for Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Bashir Ahmed; Ali, Jalil; Abdul Rahman, Rosly

    In this study, a fiber Bragg grating sensor for temperature measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In particular, we point out that the method is well-suited for monitoring temperature because they are able to withstand a high temperature environment, where standard thermocouple methods fail. The interrogation technologies of the sensor systems are all simple, low cost and effective as well. In the sensor system, fiber grating was dipped into a water beaker that was placed on a hotplate to control the temperature of water. The temperature was raised in equal increments. The sensing principle is based on tracking of Bragg wavelength shifts caused by the temperature change. So the temperature is measured based on the wavelength-shifts of the FBG induced by the heating water. The fiber grating is high temperature stable excimer-laser-induced grating and has a linear function of wavelength-temperature in the range of 0-285°C. A dynamic range of 0-285°C and a sensitivity of 0.0131 nm/°C almost equal to that of general FBG have been obtained by this sensor system. Furthermore, the correlation of theoretical analysis and experimental results show the capability and feasibility of the purposed technique.

  9. Temperature measurements at the LMFBR core outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argous, J.P.; Berger, R.; Casejuane, R.; Fournier, C.; Girard, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    Over the last few years the temperature sensors used to measure the subassembly outlet temperature in French designed LMFBRs have been modified, basically in an effort to reduce the dispersion of the chromel-alumel thermocouple time constant, and to extend the frequency spectrum of the measurement signals by adding a steel electrode to from a stainless steel-sodium thermocouple. The result of this evolution is the temperature probe immersed in sodium which will be used in the SUPER PHENIX reactor. This paper describes the tests already completed or in progress on this probe. It also presents measurement data on the two basic probe parameters: the thermoelectric power of the stainless steel-sodium thermocouple and the time constant of the chromel-alumel thermocouple

  10. Passive Wireless Temperature Sensors with Enhanced Sensitivity and Range, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensors with enhanced sensitivity and detection range for NASA application...

  11. Lifetime measurements in the picosecond range: Achievements and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    This contribution will review the recoil distance method (RDM), its current range of applications as well as future perspectives for the measurement of lifetimes in the picosecond range of excited nuclear levels. Recent Doppler-shift lifetime experiments with large gamma-ray spectrometers have achieved a new level of precision and sensitivity, providing new insights into nuclear structure physics. High precision RDM measurements of near-yrast states in various mass regions have revealed dynamic shape effects beyond the framework of collective models and have also allowed to study the interaction between coexisting shapes. The measurement of lifetimes in superdeformed bands has shown that lifetimes can be measured for nuclear excitations, which are only populated with a few percent of the production cross-section of a nucleus. These experiments have also enabled us to study the mechanism of the decay-out of superdeformed bands. Another example for the need of precise lifetime measurements is the recent verifications of the concept of 'magnetic rotation' in nuclei by the experimental observation of the characteristic drop of B(M1) values as a function of angular momentum. These recent breakthroughs have also opened new perspectives for the use of the RDM technique for more exotic regions of nuclei and nuclear excitations. Here the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei, which are not accessible with conventional nuclear reactions using stable beams and targets, is of special interest. Possible experimental approaches and simple estimates for the feasibility of such experiments will be presented. (author)

  12. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....

  13. Continuous Emission Spectrum Measurement for Electron Temperature Determination in Low-Temperature Collisional Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiuyan; Li Hong; Chen Zhipeng; Xie Jinlin; Liu Wandong

    2011-01-01

    Continuous emission spectrum measurement is applied for the inconvenient diagnostics of low-temperature collisional plasmas. According to the physical mechanism of continuous emission, a simplified model is presented to analyze the spectrum in low temperature plasma. The validity of this model is discussed in a wide range of discharge parameters, including electron temperature and ionization degree. Through the simplified model, the continuous emission spectrum in a collisional argon internal inductively coupled plasma is experimentally measured to determine the electron temperature distribution for different gas pressures and radio-frequency powers. The inverse Abel transform is also applied for a better spatially resoluted results. Meanwhile, the result of the continuous emission spectrum measurement is compared to that of the electrostatic double probes, which indicates the effectiveness of this method. (low temperature plasma)

  14. Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvreau, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP's and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 μs, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity

  15. Pirani pressure sensor with distributed temperature measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.; Bula, W.P.; Zalewski, D.R.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2003-01-01

    Surface micro-machined distributed Pirani pressure gauges, with designed heater-to-heat sink distances (gap-heights) of 0.35 μm and 1.10 μm, are successfully fabricated, modeled and characterized. Measurements and model response correspond within 5% of the measured value in a pressure range of 10 to

  16. The enthalpy of solid scandium in the temperature range 406 - 1812 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyapunov, K.M.; Baginskij, A.V.; Stankus, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Enthalpy of pure scandium was measured on massive calorimeter in the range from 406 to 1812 K by mixing method. The enthalpy of face centered close cubic lattice - body centered cubic lattice transformation is equal to ΔH t 4068 J/mol. Obtained value within the limits of error is compatible with the results given earlier (4009 J/mol). The dependence of the middle specific heat of scandium C p (T) on the temperature was shown in correlation with the results of other works. The results of the conducted experiments reinforce the conclusion made earlier about an absence (or a little) in the decomposition of an anharmonic component of the oscillation specific heat of scandium C p a (T) members proportional to the first or the second degrees of temperature [ru

  17. Temperature measurements in ZT-40M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, E.M.; Haberstich, A.; Thomas, K.S.; Watt, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Electron temperatures derived from Thomson scattering and ultrasoft x-ray (USXR) measurements taken before and after machine modifications are compared for ZT-40M. Modifications were made to the magnetic field windings to reduce field errors and the joints in the aluminum shell were coated with joint compound to reduce resistance and make all joints electrically uniform. These modifications resulted in increased plasma lifetime in ZT-40M from less than 10 ms to over 20 ms. Thomson scattering measurements were made with a single-point Thomson scattering apparatus. The scattered spectrum is collected by a three-grating spectrometer. The soft x rays are collected by a two-foil differential transmission system whose foil ratios may be easily varied. Before modifications the Thomson scattering and soft x-ray temperatures agreed up until 3 to 4 ms into the discharge. After this time the Thomson scattering temperature decreased slowly while the soft x-ray ''temperature'' increased rapidly. field errors resulted in Thomson scattering and USXR ''temperature'' time histories remaining fairly flat out to 10 to 11 ms, but introduced a small discrepancy (about 50 eV) in the absolute value of the temperatures. This change may be due either to the change in foil thickness used or to changes in radial temperature profiles. Profile changes may have been caused by the addition of four poloidal limiters or improvements to the magnetic field topology. After modifications the temperatures from both Thomson scattering and USXR were lower and the plasma density was higher. This is probably a result of the lower plasma-wall interaction with the new configuration

  18. A Temperature Sensor using a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer for Very Wide Temperature Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik; Culley, Dennis E.

    2008-01-01

    A temperature sensor based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer was designed for extreme temperature applications. The sensor can operate under a wide temperature range from hot jet engine compartments to cryogenic space exploration missions. For example, in Jet Engine Distributed Control Architecture, the sensor must be able to operate at temperatures exceeding 150 C. For space missions, extremely low cryogenic temperatures need to be measured. The output of the sensor, which consisted of a stream of digitized pulses whose period was proportional to the sensed temperature, can be interfaced with a controller or a computer. The data acquisition system would then give a direct readout of the temperature through the use of a look-up table, a built-in algorithm, or a mathematical model. Because of the wide range of temperature measurement and because the sensor is made of carefully selected COTS parts, this work is directly applicable to the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics/Subsonic Fixed Wing Program--Jet Engine Distributed Engine Control Task and to the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. In the past, a temperature sensor was designed and built using an SOI operational amplifier, and a report was issued. This work used an SOI 555 timer as its core and is completely new work.

  19. Two methods to measure granular gas temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastaing, J.-Y.; Géminard, J.-C.; Naert, A.

    2017-07-01

    Grains are vibrated so as to achieve a granular gas, here regarded as an archetype of a dissipative non equilibrium steady state (NESS). We report on two distinct and concordant experimental measures of the system effective temperature. To do so, a blade fastened to the shaft of a small DC-motor, immersed in the grains, behaves as a driven 1D Brownian rotator, which is used as both actuator and sensor simultaneously. On the one hand, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, which involves a measure of the asymmetry of the energy exchanges between the rotator and the NESS reservoir, provides a first effective temperature. On the other hand, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which involves the relation between the spontaneous fluctuations and the response to a weak perturbation, defines a second, independent, effective temperature. Both methods, even though they are based on drastically different ideas, give nicely concordant results.

  20. Measurement of very rapidly variable temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, S.; Mathonnet, P.

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographical research and visits to laboratories were undertaken in order to survey the different techniques used to measure rapidly variable temperatures, specifying the limits in maximum temperature and variation rate (time constant). On the basis of the bibliographical study these techniques were classified in three categories according to the physical meaning of their response time. Extension of the bibliographical research to methods using fast temperature variation measurement techniques and visits to research and industrial laboratories gave in an idea of the problems raised by the application of these methods. The use of these techniques in fields other than those for which they were developed can sometimes be awkward in the case of thermometric probe devices where the time constant cannot generally be specified [fr

  1. High temperature measurements of the microwave dielectric properties of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeraky, T.A.

    1999-06-01

    Equipment has been developed for the measurement of dielectric properties at high temperature from 25 to 1700 deg. C in the microwave frequency range 614.97 to 3620.66 MHz using the cavity perturbation technique, to measure the permittivity of a range of ceramic materials. The complex permittivities of the standard materials, water and methanol, were measured at low temperature and compared with the other published data. A statistical analysis was made for the permittivity measurements of water and methanol using sample holders of different diameter. Also the measurements of these materials were used to compare the simple perturbation equation with its modifications and alternation correction methods for sample shape and the holes at the two endplates of the cavity. The dielectric properties of solid materials were investigated from the permittivity measurements on powder materials, shown in table 4.7, using the dielectric mixture equations. Two kinds of ceramics, oxide and nitrides, were selected for the high temperature dielectric measurements in microwave frequency ranges. Pure zirconia, yttria-stabilised zirconia, and Magnesia-stabilised zirconia are the oxide ceramics while aluminium nitride and silicon nitride are the nitride ceramics. A phase transformation from monoclinic to tetragonal was observed in pure zirconia in terms of the complex permittivity measurements, and the conduction mechanism in three regions of temperature was suggested to be ionic in the first region and a mixture of ionic and electronic in the second. The phase transition disappeared with yttria-stabilised zirconia but it was observed with magnesia-stabilised zirconia. Yttria doped zirconia was fully stabilised while magnesia stabilised was partially stabilised zirconia. The dielectric property measurements of aluminium nitride indicated that there is a transition from AIN to AlON, which suggested that the external layer of the AIN which was exposed to the air, contains alumina. It was

  2. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Xue, Q.; Zhu, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8-10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases.

  3. NMR measurement of bitumen at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng; Hirasaki, George J

    2008-06-01

    Heavy oil (bitumen) is characterized by its high viscosity and density, which is a major obstacle to both well logging and recovery. Due to the lost information of T2 relaxation time shorter than echo spacing (TE) and interference of water signal, estimation of heavy oil properties from NMR T2 measurements is usually problematic. In this work, a new method has been developed to overcome the echo spacing restriction of NMR spectrometer during the application to heavy oil (bitumen). A FID measurement supplemented the start of CPMG. Constrained by its initial magnetization (M0) estimated from the FID and assuming log normal distribution for bitumen, the corrected T2 relaxation time of bitumen sample can be obtained from the interpretation of CPMG data. This new method successfully overcomes the TE restriction of the NMR spectrometer and is nearly independent on the TE applied in the measurement. This method was applied to the measurement at elevated temperatures (8-90 degrees C). Due to the significant signal-loss within the dead time of FID, the directly extrapolated M0 of bitumen at relatively lower temperatures (viscosity, the extrapolated M0 of bitumen at over 60 degrees C can be reasonably assumed to be the real value. In this manner, based on the extrapolation at higher temperatures (> or = 60 degrees C), the M0 value of bitumen at lower temperatures (index (HI), fluid content and viscosity were evaluated by using corrected T2.

  4. Measurement of low-temperature specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of low-temperature specific heat (LTSH) (0.1 K< T<60 K) has seen a number of breakthroughs both in design concepts and instrumentation in the last 15 years: particularly in small sample calorimetry. This review attempts to provide an overview of both large and small sample calorimetry techniques at temperatures below 60 K, with sufficient references to enable more detailed study. A comprehensive review is made of the most reliable measurements of the LTSH of 84 of the elements to illustrate briefly some of the problems of measurements and analysis, as well as to provide additional references. More detail is devoted to three special areas of low-temperature calorimetry that have seen rapid development recently: (1) measurement of the specific heat of highly radioactive samples, (2) measurement of the specific heat of materials in high magnetic fields (18 T), and (3) measurement of the specific heat of very small (100 μg) samples. The review ends with a brief discussion of the frontier research currently underway on microcalorimetry for nanogram sample weights

  5. An overview of Broadband Laser Ranging Architecture and Measurement Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Edward; La Lone, Brandon; Miller, Edward; Younk, Patrick; Bennett, Corey; Catenacci, Jared; LLNL BLR Development Group Collaboration; LANL BLR Development Group Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Broadband Laser Ranging (BLR) is a developmental diagnostic intended to measure the position of rapidly moving surfaces in combination with optical velocimetry. Design and employment of a BLR diagnostic on dynamic experiments requires consideration for both the inherent measurement system tradeoffs as well as architectural choices appropriate to the nature of investigation. The diagnostic uses spectral interferometry to measure distance by mapping femtosecond laser pulses to the time domain via chromatic dispersion within the fiber-optic architecture. The system parameters and governing equations that describe measurement range, resolution, and Doppler sensitivity will be discussed. We will also briefly review the impact of diagnostic architectural choices including: nature of interferometer, Interferometric dispersion matching, optical amplification, integration of optical velocimetry, BLR calibration, and field operability. To summarize we will present the architectural and operational approach currently being pursued by NSTec within an on-going collaboration between NSTec, Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Labs. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This 2nd edition volume of Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements follows the first publication in 1992. It collects a much larger set of information, reference data, and bibliography in temperature and pressure metrology of gaseous substances, including the physical-chemical issues related to gaseous substances. The book provides solutions to practical applications where gases are used in different thermodynamic conditions. Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements, 2nd edition is the only comprehensive survey of methods for pressure measurement in gaseous media used in the medium-to-low pressure range closely connected with thermometry. It assembles current information on thermometry and manometry that involve the use of gaseous substances which are likely to be valid methods for the future. As such, it is an important resource for the researcher. This edition is updated through the very latest scientific and technical developments of gas-based temperature and pressure measurem...

  7. An Observability Metric for Underwater Vehicle Localization Using Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Arrichiello

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses observability issues related to the general problem of single and multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV localization using only range measurements. While an AUV is submerged, localization devices, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, are ineffective, due to the attenuation of electromagnetic waves. AUV localization based on dead reckoning techniques and the use of affordable motion sensor units is also not practical, due to divergence caused by sensor bias and drift. For these reasons, localization systems often build on trilateration algorithms that rely on the measurements of the ranges between an AUV and a set of fixed transponders using acoustic devices. Still, such solutions are often expensive, require cumbersome calibration procedures and only allow for AUV localization in an area that is defined by the geometrical arrangement of the transponders. A viable alternative for AUV localization that has recently come to the fore exploits the use of complementary information on the distance from the AUV to a single transponder, together with information provided by on-board resident motion sensors, such as, for example, depth, velocity and acceleration measurements. This concept can be extended to address the problem of relative localization between two AUVs equipped with acoustic sensors for inter-vehicle range measurements. Motivated by these developments, in this paper, we show that both the problems of absolute localization of a single vehicle and the relative localization of multiple vehicles can be treated using the same mathematical framework, and tailoring concepts of observability derived for nonlinear systems, we analyze how the performance in localization depends on the types of motion imparted to the AUVs. For this effect, we propose a well-defined observability metric and validate its usefulness, both in simulation and by carrying out experimental tests with a real marine vehicle during which the

  8. Influence of the atomic structure of crystal surfaces on the surface diffusion in medium temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    In this work, we have studied the influence of atomic structure of crystal surface on surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range. Two ways are followed. First, we have measured, using a radiotracer method, the self-diffusion coefficient at 820 K (0.6 T melting) on copper surfaces both the structure and the cleanliness of which were stable during the experiment. We have shown that the interaction between mobile surface defects and steps can be studied through measurements of the anisotropy of surface self diffusion. Second, the behavior of an adatom and a surface vacancy is simulated via a molecular dynamics method, on several surfaces of a Lennard Jones crystal. An inventory of possible migration mechanisms of these surface defects has been drawn between 0.35 and 0.45 Tsub(m). The results obtained with both the methods point out the influence of the surface atomic structure in surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range [fr

  9. Liquid temperature measuring method and device therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Fumi; Karasawa, Hirokazu

    1995-06-02

    In the present invention, temperature of liquid metal in coolants in an FBR type reactor can accurately be measured at rapid response time. Namely, ultrasonic waves are emitted from an ultrasonic wave sensor disposed in the air to a guide wave tube. Ultrasonic waves are reflected at reflection plates disposed at front and back or upper and lower portions of a small hole disposed to the wave guide tube. The reflected waves are received by the sensor described above. The difference of the reaching time of the reflected waves from the reflecting plates disposed at the front and the back or the upper and lower portions is measured. The speed of sounds in this case is determined based on the size of the small hole and the distance of the upper and the lower reflection plates. The speed of sounds is determined by the formula below: V(m/s) = 2500 - 0.52 T, where T: temperature. The temperature of the liquid can easily be calculated based on the formula. Accordingly, since the speed of the ultrasonic waves from their emission to the reception is msec order, and the processing of the signals are simple, the temperature can be measured at a response time of several msecs. In addition, since the ultrasonic wave sensor is disposed at the outside of the reactor, no special countermeasure for environmental circumstances is necessary, to improve maintenance ability. (I.S.).

  10. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  11. Research of resonant losses of ultrasonic sound in the deformed single crystals in temperature range 77...300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchenko, A.M.; Petchenko, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The damped dislocation resonance in preliminary deformed up to 1 % single crystals KBr was investigated. The measurements of a frequency dependence of a dislocation damping decrement of ultrasonic sound were conducted in range of frequencies 7,5...217,5 MHz and temperature range 77...300 K. From the analysis of frequency spectrums the temperature course of a coefficient of phonon viscosity B was determined, which is agreed both with the theory and experimental literary data. The influencing temperature changes of length of a dislocation segment on parameters of a resonant maximum and dynamic drag of dislocations by phonons was revealed and analyzed

  12. Electron temperature measurement in Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusov, A.V.; Orlov, M.M.; Terent'ev, A.R.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of temperature of emitting plasma sheath in noncylindrical Z-pinch in neon at the stage of convergence to the axis, based on comparing the intensity of spectral lines belonging to Ne1, Ne2, is performed. Line intensity relation dependence was determined using calculations according to emitting-collision model. Spectra were recorded by electron-optical converter and relative intensity was determined by subsequent photometry of photolayer. Cylindric symmetrical MHD-calculations during which temperature and the observed line intensity relation were determined, are conducted

  13. NELIOTA: First temperature measurement of lunar impact flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Avdellidou, C.; Liakos, A.; Xilouris, E. M.; Dapergolas, A.; Koschny, D.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Boumis, P.; Charmandaris, V.; Fytsilis, A.; Maroussis, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report the first scientific results from the NELIOTA (NEO Lunar Impacts and Optical TrAnsients) project, which has recently begun lunar monitoring observations with the 1.2-m Kryoneri telescope. NELIOTA aims to detect faint impact flashes produced by near-Earth meteoroids and asteroids and thereby help constrain the size-frequency distribution of near-Earth objects in the decimeter to meter range. The NELIOTA setup, consisting of two fast-frame cameras observing simultaneously in the R and I bands, enables - for the first time - direct analytical calculation of the flash temperatures. We present the first ten flashes detected, for which we find temperatures in the range 1600 to 3100 K, in agreement with theoretical values. Two of these flashes were detected on multiple frames in both filters and therefore yield the first measurements of the temperature drop for lunar flashes. In addition, we compute the impactor masses, which range between 100 g and 50 kg.

  14. Proceedings of the Second Noncontact Temperature Measurement Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Robert R. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in noncontact temperature measurement (NCTM) technology was reviewed and the NCTM requirements of microgravity materials processing community identified. The workshop included technical presentations and discussions which ranged from research on advanced concepts for temperature measurement to laboratory research and development regarding measurement principles and state-of-the-art engineering practices for NCTM methodology in commercial and industrial applications. Technical presentations were made concerning: NCTM needs as perceived by several NASA centers, recent ground-based NCT, research and development of industry, NASA, academia, and selected national laboratories, work-in-progress communication, and technical issues of the implementation of temperature measurement in the space environment to facilitate future U.S. materials science investigations.

  15. Outgassing tests on graphites in temperature range 100-1600 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrini, C.; Apicella, M.L.; Verdini, L.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite is a an interesting material for plasma-facing components in fusion experiments, mainly because of its low atomic number and excellent thermal properties. Nevertheless, it contains a large amount of gaseous impurities, which can be released by plasma-surface interactions and affect the purity of the deuterium-tritium plasma. To investigate the outgassing behaviour of graphites, CFC's and doped C composites, a facility was set up to perform outgassing tests on samples, as a function of temperature in the range between 100 and 1600 degrees C. The experimental apparatus, designed to work in UHV conditions, allows outgassing measurements by a quadrupole mass spectrometer (1-200 AMU) using two different methods. The test facility, the quadrupole calibration and preliminary quantitative outgassing measurements on SEP CARB N112 samples are described

  16. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  17. Temperature Dependence of Short-Range Order in β-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    Critical scattering of neutrons around the superlattice reflections (1, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 1) from a single crystal of beta-brass has been measured at temperatures from 2 to 25deg C above the transition temperature. The temperature dependence of the critical peak intensity, proportional to the susc......Critical scattering of neutrons around the superlattice reflections (1, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 1) from a single crystal of beta-brass has been measured at temperatures from 2 to 25deg C above the transition temperature. The temperature dependence of the critical peak intensity, proportional...

  18. Irradiation temperature measurements in the surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pav, T.; Krhounek, V.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the diamond monitor method for the determination of the irradiation temperature in the surveillance programme of WWER-440 reactors is discussed. One of the difficulties with the practical application of the method is that the measured values of irradiation temperature are unlikely high. Using a thermodynamical model of the processes in the annealing of the irradiated diamond crystals, it was shown that experimental difficulties came from the principles of the method used. An analysis was performed of the thermal field inside the capsule of the surveillance chain in operational conditions, using the finite element method. The diamond monitor method was suggested to be eliminated from the surveillance programme and the use was proposed of the value of 273+-3 degC (as the most likely value) for the irradiation temperature of surveillance samples in WWER-440 reactors. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 6 figs., 4 refs

  19. The relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture. Selection of frequency range for microwave remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Chandra, G.; Rao, P.V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of brightness temperature data acquired from field and aircraft experiments demonstrates a linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. However, the analysis of brightness temperature data acquired by the Skylab radiometer demonstrates a non-linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. In view of the above and also because of recent theoretical developments for the calculation of the dielectric constant and brightness temperature under varying soil moisture profile conditions, an attempt is made to study the theoretical relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture as a function of frequency. Through the above analysis, the appropriate microwave frequency range for soil moisture studies is recommended

  20. Description of the universal low-temperature measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeld, R.; Maurer, C.

    1987-01-01

    There are various measuring methods for a characterization of semiconductor devices, especially for analysis of radiation effects after ion implantation. The four most important methods are: 1. Recording of voltage-current characteristics at pn-junctions or Schottky diodes. 2. Determination of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistance, e.g. of amorphous semiconductor layers, by feeding a constant voltage and measuring the current as a function of sample temperature. 3. Measurement of the resistive layer capacitance of a semiconductor diode as a function of the fed blocking voltage and determination of the doping concentration profile. 4. Time-resolved capacitance measurement after abrupt blocking-voltage alterations at pn - or Schottky diodes as a function of specimen temperature for determining defects in semiconductors, DLTS method. A measuring equipment has been set up that allows measurements being made in the temperature range between 14 K and 400 K, on up to eight specimens in one temperature test. Operating mode and handling of the computerized measuring program are described. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Estimation of piping temperature fluctuations based on external strain measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Maye, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the difficulty to carry out measurements at the inner sides of nuclear reactor piping subjected to thermal transients, temperature and stress variations in the pipe walls are estimated by means of external thermocouples and strain-gauges. This inverse problem is solved by spectral analysis. Since the wall harmonic transfer function (response to a harmonic load) is known, the inner side signal will be obtained by convolution of the inverse transfer function of the system and of the strain measurement enables detection of internal temperature fluctuations in a frequency range beyond the scope of the thermocouples. (authors). 5 figs., 3 refs

  2. Global rainbow refractometry for droplet temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal Lemaitre; Emmanuel Porcheron; Amandine Nuboer; Philippe Brun; Pierre Cornet; Jeanne Malet; Jacques Vendel; Laurent Bouilloux; Gerard Grehan

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to establish an accurate database to characterize the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the atmosphere with thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident in the containment enclosure of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) has developed the TOSQAN experimental facility. This experiment is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics allowing to measure droplet size and velocity and gas concentrations [1]. The aim of this work is to present the Global Rainbow Thermometry (GRT), which is an advanced non-intrusive optical diagnostic, developed to measure the mean temperature of a set of falling droplets, in a measurement volume of 1 cm 3 . The final paper will be divided in three parts. In the first one, we will explain the principle of the rainbow formation and how droplet temperature can be deduced from the rainbow analysis [2]. This part will be illustrated with the theoretical background on the rainbow and numerical simulations of the global rainbow. The second part will be devoted to present the global rainbow experimental set-up we have developed on optical table, its experimental qualification and finally its implementation on the TOSQAN facility [3]. Finally, we will present the temperature measurements achieved in TOSQAN for thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident. These measurements are useful to characterize the heat and mass transfers between the spraying droplets and the air-steam mixture composing the atmosphere. This analysis will be exposed in a two companion papers. References: [1] E. Porcheron, P. Brun, P. Cornet, J. Malet, J. Vendel. Optical diagnostics applied for single and multi-phase flow characterization in the TOSQAN facility dedicated for thermal hydraulic containment studies. NURETH-10 Seoul, Korea, October 5-9, 2003. [2] P

  3. Global rainbow refractometry for droplet temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascal Lemaitre; Emmanuel Porcheron; Amandine Nuboer; Philippe Brun; Pierre Cornet; Jeanne Malet; Jacques Vendel; Laurent Bouilloux [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire DSU/SERAC, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gerard Grehan [UMR 6614 CORIA, Laboratoire d' Electromagnetisme et Systemes Particulaires Site Universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l' universite BP 12, 76 801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex, (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to establish an accurate database to characterize the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the atmosphere with thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident in the containment enclosure of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) has developed the TOSQAN experimental facility. This experiment is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics allowing to measure droplet size and velocity and gas concentrations [1]. The aim of this work is to present the Global Rainbow Thermometry (GRT), which is an advanced non-intrusive optical diagnostic, developed to measure the mean temperature of a set of falling droplets, in a measurement volume of 1 cm{sup 3}. The final paper will be divided in three parts. In the first one, we will explain the principle of the rainbow formation and how droplet temperature can be deduced from the rainbow analysis [2]. This part will be illustrated with the theoretical background on the rainbow and numerical simulations of the global rainbow. The second part will be devoted to present the global rainbow experimental set-up we have developed on optical table, its experimental qualification and finally its implementation on the TOSQAN facility [3]. Finally, we will present the temperature measurements achieved in TOSQAN for thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident. These measurements are useful to characterize the heat and mass transfers between the spraying droplets and the air-steam mixture composing the atmosphere. This analysis will be exposed in a two companion papers. References: [1] E. Porcheron, P. Brun, P. Cornet, J. Malet, J. Vendel. Optical diagnostics applied for single and multi-phase flow characterization in the TOSQAN facility dedicated for thermal hydraulic containment studies. NURETH-10 Seoul, Korea, October 5-9, 2003. [2] P

  4. Temperature-dependent dielectric function of germanium in the UV–vis spectral range: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.; Tan, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    The study of temperature dependence of thermophysical parameter dielectric function is key to understanding thermal radiative transfer in high-temperature environments. Limited by self-radiation and thermal oxidation, however, it is difficult to directly measure the high-temperature dielectric function of solids with present experimental technologies. In this work, we implement two first-principles methods, the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), to study the temperature dependence of dielectric function of germanium (Ge) in the UV–vis spectral range in order to provide data of high-temperature dielectric function for radiative transfer study in high-temperature environments. Both the two methods successfully predict the temperature dependence of dielectric function of Ge. Moreover, the good agreement between the calculated results of the AIMD approach and experimental data at 825 K enables us to predict the high-temperature dielectric function of Ge with the AIMD method in the UV–vis spectral range. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of dielectric function of germanium (Ge) is investigated with two first-principles methods. • The temperature effect on dielectric function of Ge is discussed. • The high-temperature dielectric function of Ge is predicted

  5. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; Wee, R. ter; Venema, H. W.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose a model-based method that strongly reduces PSF-induced bias by incorporating the PSF into the thickness estimation method. We estimated the bias in thickness measurements in simulated thin sheet images as obtained from second derivative zero crossings. To gain insight into the range of sheet thickness where our method is expected to yield improved results, sheet thickness was varied between 0.15 and 1.2 mm with an assumed PSF as present in the high-resolution modes of current computed tomography (CT) scanners [full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.5-0.8 mm]. Our model-based method was evaluated in practice by measuring layer thickness from CT images of a phantom mimicking two parallel cartilage layers in an arthrography procedure. CT arthrography images of cadaver wrists were also evaluated, and thickness estimates were compared to those obtained from high-resolution anatomical sections that served as a reference. The thickness estimates from the simulated images reveal that the method based on second derivative zero crossings shows considerable bias for layers in the submillimeter range. This bias is negligible for sheet thickness larger than 1 mm, where the size of the sheet is more than twice the FWHM of the PSF but can be as large as 0.2 mm for a 0.5 mm sheet. The results of the phantom experiments show that the bias is effectively reduced by our method. The deviations from the true thickness, due to random fluctuations induced by quantum noise in the CT images, are of the order of 3% for a standard wrist imaging protocol. In the wrist the submillimeter thickness estimates from the CT arthrography images correspond within 10% to those estimated from the anatomical

  6. Spatially resolved remote measurement of temperature by neutron resonance absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kockelmann, W.; Pooley, D.E. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2015-12-11

    Deep penetration of neutrons into most engineering materials enables non-destructive studies of their bulk properties. The existence of sharp resonances in neutron absorption spectra enables isotopically-resolved imaging of elements present in a sample, as demonstrated by previous studies. At the same time the Doppler broadening of resonance peaks provides a method of remote measurement of temperature distributions within the same sample. This technique can be implemented at a pulsed neutron source with a short initial pulse allowing for the measurement of the energy of each registered neutron by the time of flight technique. A neutron counting detector with relatively high timing and spatial resolution is used to demonstrate the possibility to obtain temperature distributions across a 100 µm Ta foil with ~millimeter spatial resolution. Moreover, a neutron transmission measurement over a wide energy range can provide spatially resolved sample information such as temperature, elemental composition and microstructure properties simultaneously.

  7. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  8. Innovative use of Distributed Temperature Sensing and Meteorological Data to Understand Thermoregulation of Free-Ranging Howling Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Vinyard, C. J.; Williams, S. H.; Hausner, M. B.; Tyler, S. W.; Glander, K.

    2011-12-01

    Temperature fluctuations are a major driver of change in natural habitats and influence the lifestyle of all organisms because temperature impacts molecular, physiological, and behavioral processes. However, there is a lack of understanding on how temperature affects metabolism, behavior, and ecology at the organismal level. Even though physiological responses to temperature fluctuations have been well documented in laboratory conditions, it has been challenging to collect the required environmental data to study thermoregulation of free-ranging mammals such as mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Fortunately, recent advances in fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) now permit the observation of temperature fields in the environment at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. This has opened an exciting opportunity for temperature monitoring at scales that were previously not feasible. This study addresses the main limitations of previous studies of primate behavior by integrating real-time environmental data with the behavior and physiological response of free-ranging primates. In this work, we present preliminary DTS data collected in a natural habitat of howling monkeys. Fiber-optic cables were hung between the ground and an elevation of approximately 15 m within the forest canopy, providing continuous profiles of temperature without any disturbance due to the animals and habitat. These measurements were integrated with conventional meteorological data and with the ambient temperature at the location of the animal, as well as with measurements of primate's subcutaneous and core body temperatures. These data will be utilized to determine how environmental conditions relate to primate behavioral and physiological responses in time and space. The methodologies used in this study provide tools to test theories of physiological thermoregulation of other free-ranging animals.

  9. Temperature measuring element in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Takashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily measure the partial maximum temperature at a portion within the nuclear reactor where the connection with the external portion is difficult. Constitution: Sodium, potassium or the alloy thereof with high heat expansion coefficient is packed into an elastic vessel having elastic walls contained in a capsule. A piercing member formed into an acute triangle is attached to one end in the direction of expansion and contraction of the elastic container. The two sides of the triangle form an acute knife edge. A diaphragm is disposed within a capsule at a position opposed to the sharpened direction of the piercing member. Such a capsule is placed in a predetermined position of the nuclear reactor. The elastic vessel causes thermal expansion displacement depending on the temperature at a certain position, by which the top end of the pierce member penetrates through the diaphragm. A pierced scar of a penetration length depending on the temperature is resulted to the diaphragm. The length of the piercing damage is electroscopically observed and compared with the calibration curve to recognize the maximum temperature in the predetermined portion of the nuclear reactor. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Lifetime measurements in the picosecond range: achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in the measurement of lifetimes in the picosecond range using the recoil distance method (RDM) are reviewed. Results from recent RDM experiments on superdeformed bands in the mass-190 region, shears, bands in the neutron deficient lead isotopes, and ground state bands in the mass-130 region are presented. New experimental devices for lifetime experiments at Yale, such as the New Yale Plunger Device (N.Y.P.D.), the SPEctrometer for Doppler-shift Experiments at Yale (SPEEDY) and the plans for the gas-filled recoil separator SASSYER are presented. Perspectives for the use of the RDM technique in the study of exotic nuclei and its potential use with radioactive beams are discussed. (author)

  11. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  12. AN INDUCTION SENSOR FOR MEASURING CURRENTS OF NANOSECOND RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Shalamov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A current meter based on the principle of electromagnetic induction is designed to register the current flowing in the rod lightning. The aim of the article is to describe the way of increasing the sensitivity of the converter by means of their serial communication. Methodology. The recorded current is in the nanosecond range. If compared with other methods, meters based on the principle of electromagnetic induction have several advantages, such as simplicity of construction, reliability, low cost, no need in a power source, relatively high sensitivity. Creation of such a meter is necessary, because in some cases there is no possibility to use a shunt. Transient properties of a meter are determined by the number of turns and the constant of integration. Sensitivity is determined by measuring the number of turns, the coil sectional area, the core material and the integration constant. For measuring the magnetic field pulses with a rise time of 5 ns to 50 ns a meter has turns from 5 to 15. The sensitivity of such a meter is low. When the number of turns is increased, the output signal and the front increase. Earlier described dependencies were used to select the main parameters of the converter. It was based on generally accepted and widely known equivalent circuit. The experience of created earlier pulse magnetic field meters was considered both for measuring the magnetic fields, and large pulse current. Originality. Series connection of converters has the property of a long line. The level of the transient response of the meter is calculated. The influence of parasitic parameters on the type of meter transient response is examined. The shown construction was not previously described. Practical value. The results of meter implementation are given. The design peculiarities of the given measuring instruments are shown.

  13. Wide Temperature Range DC-DC Boost Converters for Command/Control/Drive Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We shall develop wide temperature range DC-DC boost converters that can be fabricated using commercial CMOS foundries. The boost converters will increase the low...

  14. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  15. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical...

  16. Temperature, its measurement and control in industry - ITM '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.; Blieck, L.; Jescheck, M.; Neubert, W.; Kunze, D.

    1990-01-01

    The publication refers to the new VDE/VDI guideline 3511 and explains its practical intentions and implications by thoroughly discussing the applications of temperature sensors and their limits of use. The current state of the art in temperature measuring is fully described by the discussion of the new temperature scale introduced recently, the ITS '90. The authors of the book look in detail at the particular requirements and conditions of infrared measuring techniques using radiation thermometers as defined in DIN 5496, the applications of microprocessors (DIN-measuring-field-bus, etc.), time program emitters, and measuring transducers (EX ib, etc.). A full chapter has been devoted to the subject of surface temperature measurement. Examples referring to practical applications in industry serve as an introduction to thermal control engineering, in particular with infrared sensors, for processes such as thermal forming. New, optical thermometers for the low temperature range have been given much attention. An annex presents comprehensive tables for calculation and conversion of thermal quantities. (orig./HP) With 192 figs., 134 refs [de

  17. An Investigation on Attributes of Ambient Temperature and Diurnal Temperature Range on Mortality in Five East-Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whan-Hee; Lim, Youn-Hee; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Jang, Hye-Min; Kim, Ho

    2017-08-31

    Interest in the health effects of extremely low/high ambient temperature and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) on mortality as representative indices of temperature variability is growing. Although numerous studies have reported on these indices independently, few studies have provided the attributes of ambient temperature and DTR related to mortality, concurrently. In this study, we aimed to investigate and compare the mortality risk attributable to ambient temperature and DTR. The study included data of 63 cities in five East-Asian countries/regions during various periods between 1972 and 2013. The attributable risk of non-accidental death to ambient temperature was 9.36% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.98-9.69%) and to DTR was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.53-0.65%). The attributable cardiovascular mortality risks to ambient temperature (15.63%) and DTR (0.75%) are higher than the risks to non-accidental/respiratory-related mortality. We verified that ambient temperature plays a larger role in temperature-associated mortality, and cardiovascular mortality is susceptible to ambient temperature and DTR.

  18. Low temperature measurement of the vapor pressures of planetary molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretation of planetary observations and proper modeling of planetary atmospheres are critically upon accurate laboratory data for the chemical and physical properties of the constitutes of the atmospheres. It is important that these data are taken over the appropriate range of parameters such as temperature, pressure, and composition. Availability of accurate, laboratory data for vapor pressures and equilibrium constants of condensed species at low temperatures is essential for photochemical and cloud models of the atmospheres of the outer planets. In the absence of such data, modelers have no choice but to assume values based on an educated guess. In those cases where higher temperature data are available, a standard procedure is to extrapolate these points to the lower temperatures using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Last summer the vapor pressures of acetylene (C2H2) hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and cyanoacetylene (HC3N) was measured using two different methods. At the higher temperatures 1 torr and 10 torr capacitance manometers were used. To measure very low pressures, a technique was used which is based on the infrared absorption of thin film (TFIR). This summer the vapor pressure of acetylene was measured the TFIR method. The vapor pressure of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was measured using capacitance manometers. Results for H2O agree with literature data over the common range of temperature. At the lower temperatures the data lie slightly below the values predicted by extrapolation of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Thin film infrared (TFIR) data for acetylene lie significantly below the values predicted by extrapolation. It is hoped to bridge the gap between the low end of the CM data and the upper end of the TFIR data in the future using a new spinning rotor gauge.

  19. Measured long-range repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies1–3. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces4. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz5–7, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long-range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies8–11. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction12, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction13–15. PMID:19129843

  20. Measured long-range repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J N; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2009-01-08

    Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long-range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction.

  1. Ionospheric Coherence Bandwidth Measurements in the Lower VHF Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Light, M. E.; Pigue, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Radio Frequency Propagation (RFProp) experiment consists of a satellite-based radio receiver suite to study various aspects of trans-ionospheric signal propagation and detection in four frequency bands, 2 - 55 MHz, 125 - 175 MHz, 365 - 415 MHz and 820 - 1100 MHz. In this paper, we present simultaneous ionospheric coherence bandwidth and S4 scintillation index measurements in the 32 - 44 MHz frequency range collected during the ESCINT equatorial scintillation experiment. 40-MHz continuous wave (CW) and 32 - 44 MHz swept frequency signals were transmitted simultaneously to the RFProp receiver suite from the Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (8.7° N, 167.7° E) in three separate campaigns during the 2014 and 2015 equinoxes. Results show coherence bandwidths as small as ~ 1 kHz for strong scintillation (S4 > 0.7) and indicate a high degree of ionospheric variability and irregularity on 10-m spatial scales. Spread-Doppler clutter effects arising from preferential ray paths to the satellite due to refraction off of isolated density irregularities are also observed and are dominant at low elevation angles. The results are compared to previous measurements and available scaling laws.

  2. Phonon Anharmonicity of Germanium in the Temperature Range 80-880 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelin, G; Nilsson, G

    1974-06-15

    Phonon frequency shifts and line widths in germanium have been studied in the temperature range 80 - 880 K by means of thermal neutron spectrometry. The results cannot be described in terms of the quasiharmonic approximation in which phonon frequencies are solely volume dependent. Theoretical calculations are found to be more satisfactory for the Raman frequency than for most other modes. A good account of the observed shifts is given by a proposal due to Barron according to which the relative frequency renormalization of a crystal is proportional to the total harmonic vibrational energy. An analysis of the gradients of measured dispersion relations in the principal symmetry directions at 80 K is presented. It is shown that accidental degeneracies may influence the dispersion

  3. Oxidation kinetics of zircaloy-4 in the temperature range correspondent to alpha phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, L.F.

    1975-12-01

    Oxidation kinetics of Zry-4 in the alpha phase is isothermally studied in the temperature range from 600 0 C to 800 0 C, by continuous and discontinuous gravimetric methods. The total mass gain during the oxidation takes place by two distinct ways: oxide formation and solid solution formation. The first one has been studied by microscopy: the latter by microhardness. The oxygen diffusion coefficients in the zirconium are experimentally determined by microhardness measurements and are compared with those obtained by the oxide layer thickness and by oxygen mass in the oxide. The oxygen diffusion coefficients in the oxide are obtained too by oxide layer thickness and by oxygen diffusivities in the alpha phase and compared with literature. (author)

  4. The influence of diurnal temperature range on the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, D

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been reported to exhibit seasonal variation. However, the impact of diurnal temperature range (DTR) on RSV has not been investigated. After acquiring data related to cases of RSV and weather parameters of DTR in Fukuoka, Japan, between 2006 and 2012, we used negative binomial generalized linear models and distributed lag nonlinear models to assess the possible relationship between DTR and RSV cases, adjusting for confounding factors. Our analysis revealed that the weekly number of RSV cases increased with a relative risk of 3·30 (95% confidence interval 1·65-6·60) for every 1°C increase in DTR. Our study provides quantitative evidence that the number of RSV cases increased significantly with increasing DTR. We suggest that preventive measures for limiting the spread of RSV should be considered during extended periods of high DTR.

  5. Brightness temperature of the ''quiet'' Sun in the millimeter wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelyushenko, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of recalibration of the data available for measurements of the solar brightness temperature Tsub(s) made by comparison with the lunar radio emission. A spectrum has been obtained of the ''quiet'' Sun radio emission in the range of 1-20 mm. The mean square spread of data does not exceed +-(from 3 to 4)%. The ''quiet'' Sun spectrum has a form of: Tsub(c)=(6150+-70)lambdasup(01+-0.01)[mm]K in the wavelength interval of lambda=(1-6) mm and Tsub(c)=(3470+-80)lambdasup(0.42+-0.01) [mm]K in the wavelength interval of lambda=(7-20) mm on approximation of recalibrated values of Tsub(c) with a linear dependence using the mean-square-root method. The obtained spectral characteristics of the ''quiet'' Sun radio frequency emission in the mullimeter wavelength range testify on the spectrum flatteming in the (1-6) mm wavelength range

  6. Electric resistance of nickel and niobium in the temperature range of 300-1300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.I.; Roshchupkin, V.V.; Mozgovoj, A.G.; Semashko, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation of nickel and niobium electric resistance on the wire samples by the potentiometric method in the temperature range of 300-1300 K are presented. Experimental data processing by the least square method is carried out; approximating equations of temperature dependence of the nickel and niobium electric resistance are prepared

  7. Formation of Medium Carbon TRIP Steel Microstructure During Annealing in the Intercritical Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokosza A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research conducted on austenite formation in the microstructure of 41MnSi6-5 TRIP steel during annealing in the intercritical temperature range. The influence of the annealing temperature on the volume fraction of retained austenite in the microstructure of the investigated steel after water quenching was also determined.

  8. Temperature measurements in a wall stabilized steady flame using CARS

    KAUST Repository

    Sesha Giri, Krishna

    2017-01-05

    Flame quenching by heat loss to a surface continues to be an active area of combustion research. Close wall temperature measurements in an isothermal wall-stabilized flame are reported in this work. Conventional N-vibrational Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) thermometry as close as 275 μm to a convex wall cooled with water has been carried out. The standard deviation of mean temperatures is observed to be ~6.5% for high temperatures (>2000K) and ~14% in the lower range (<500K). Methane/air and ethylene/air stoichiometric flames for various global strain rates based on exit bulk velocities are plotted and compared. CH* chemiluminescence is employed to determine the flame location relative to the wall. Flame locations are shown to move closer to the wall with increasing strain rates in addition to higher near-wall temperatures. Peak temperatures for ethylene are considerably higher (~250-300K) than peak temperatures for methane. Preheat zone profiles are similar for different strain rates across fuels. This work demonstrates close wall precise temperature measurments using CARS.

  9. Density and temperature measurement using CARS spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, A.; Vollrath, K.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) a technique derived from nonlinear optics offers two major advantages compared with the spontaneous Raman method: improved scattering efficiency and spatial coherence of the scattered signal. The theory of the coherent mixing in resonant media serves as a quantitative background of the CARS technique. A review of several applications on plasma physics and gasdynamics is given, which permits to consider the CARS spectroscopy as a potential method for nonintrusive measurement of local concentration and temperature in gas flows and reactive media. (Auth.)

  10. CENTIMETER COSMO-SKYMED RANGE MEASUREMENTS FOR MONITORING GROUND DISPLACEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fratarcangeli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR, based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano – Northern Italy, where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS, taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one stable PS’s are

  11. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building

  12. Measurement system for ultrahigh temperature thermophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Properties and Simulations Probed with Electromagnetic Containerless Technique (PROSPECT) is a measurement system for ultrahigh temperature thermophysical properties to be able to measure thermophysical properties with high precision by combining AC magnetic field (electromagnetic levitation device) and DC magnetic field (superconducting magnet) to realize the static floating state of metallic melt, in other words, the state of suppressing the surface vibration of droplets, translational motion, and internal convection. The electromagnetic levitation method is a method to obtain a floating force due to the Lorentz force generated by the interaction between high-frequency current flowing in the coil and the induced current generated in a sample, and to heat/melt the sample with the Joule heat generated by its induced current. This paper roughly explains the element technologies of PROSPECT with a focus on the laser modulation calorimetry (laser periodic heating method), normal spectral emissivity measurement method, density measurement, and surface tension measurement method. Furthermore, as the application of PROSPECT to new research deployment, it introduces the observation of phase separation structure in the supercooled solidification structure of Cu-Co alloy. (A.O.)

  13. Physical measurements for ion range verification in charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, M.

    2010-10-01

    This PhD thesis reports on the experimental investigation of the prompt photons created during the fragmentation of the carbon beam used in particle therapy. Two series of experiments have been performed at the GANIL and GSI facilities with 95 MeV/u and 305 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beams stopped in PMMA and water phantoms. In both experiments a clear correlation was obtained between the C-ion range and the prompt photon profile. A major issue of these measurements is the discrimination between the prompt photon signal (which is correlated with the ion path) and a vast neutron background uncorrelated with the Bragg-Peak position. Two techniques are employed to allow for this photon-neutron discrimination: the time-of-flight (TOF) and the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD). The TOF technique allowed demonstrating the correlation of the prompt photon production and the primary ion path while the PSD technique brought great insights to better understand the photon and neutron contribution in TOF spectra. In this work we demonstrated that a collimated set-up detecting prompt photons by means of TOF measurements, could allow real-time control of the longitudinal position of the Bragg-peak under clinical conditions. In the second part of the PhD thesis a simulation study was performed with Geant4 Monte Carlo code to assess the influence of the main design parameters on the efficiency and spatial resolution achievable with a multidetector and multi-collimated Prompt Gamma Camera. Several geometrical configurations for both collimators and stack of detectors have been systematically studied and the considerations on the main design constraints are reported. (author)

  14. High-speed Imaging of Global Surface Temperature Distributions on Hypersonic Ballistic-Range Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA-Ames ballistic range provides a unique capability for aerothermodynamic testing of configurations in hypersonic, real-gas, free-flight environments. The facility can closely simulate conditions at any point along practically any trajectory of interest experienced by a spacecraft entering an atmosphere. Sub-scale models of blunt atmospheric entry vehicles are accelerated by a two-stage light-gas gun to speeds as high as 20 times the speed of sound to fly ballistic trajectories through an 24 m long vacuum-rated test section. The test-section pressure (effective altitude), the launch velocity of the model (flight Mach number), and the test-section working gas (planetary atmosphere) are independently variable. The model travels at hypersonic speeds through a quiescent test gas, creating a strong bow-shock wave and real-gas effects that closely match conditions achieved during actual atmospheric entry. The challenge with ballistic range experiments is to obtain quantitative surface measurements from a model traveling at hypersonic speeds. The models are relatively small (less than 3.8 cm in diameter), which limits the spatial resolution possible with surface mounted sensors. Furthermore, since the model is in flight, surface-mounted sensors require some form of on-board telemetry, which must survive the massive acceleration loads experienced during launch (up to 500,000 gravities). Finally, the model and any on-board instrumentation will be destroyed at the terminal wall of the range. For these reasons, optical measurement techniques are the most practical means of acquiring data. High-speed thermal imaging has been employed in the Ames ballistic range to measure global surface temperature distributions and to visualize the onset of transition to turbulent-flow on the forward regions of hypersonic blunt bodies. Both visible wavelength and infrared high-speed cameras are in use. The visible wavelength cameras are intensified CCD imagers capable of integration

  15. EPR-based distance measurements at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumkacheva, Olesya; Bagryanskaya, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed dipolar (PD) EPR spectroscopy is a powerful technique allowing for distance measurements between spin labels in the range of 2.5-10.0 nm. It was proposed more than 30 years ago, and nowadays is widely used in biophysics and materials science. Until recently, PD EPR experiments were limited to cryogenic temperatures (T biomolecules, the influence of a linker between the spin probe and biomolecule, and future opportunities.

  16. Cluster temperature. Methods for its measurement and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, G N

    2008-01-01

    Cluster temperature is an important material parameter essential to many physical and chemical processes involving clusters and cluster beams. Because of the diverse methods by which clusters can be produced, excited, and stabilized, and also because of the widely ranging values of atomic and molecular binding energies (approximately from 10 -5 to 10 eV) and numerous energy relaxation channels in clusters, cluster temperature (internal energy) ranges from 10 -3 to about 10 8 K. This paper reviews research on cluster temperature and describes methods for its measurement and stabilization. The role of cluster temperature in and its influence on physical and chemical processes is discussed. Results on the temperature dependence of cluster properties are presented. The way in which cluster temperature relates to cluster structure and to atomic and molecular interaction potentials in clusters is addressed. Methods for strong excitation of clusters and channels for their energy relaxation are discussed. Some applications of clusters and cluster beams are considered. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Novel birefringence interrogation for Sagnac loop interferometer sensor with unlimited linear measurement range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haijun; Shao, Liyang; Qian, Heng; Zhang, Xinpu; Liang, Jiawei; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan

    2017-03-20

    A novel demodulation method for Sagnac loop interferometer based sensor has been proposed and demonstrated, by unwrapping the phase changes with birefringence interrogation. A temperature sensor based on Sagnac loop interferometer has been used to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. Several tests with 40 °C temperature range have been accomplished with a great linearity of 0.9996 in full range. The proposed scheme is universal for all Sagnac loop interferometer based sensors and it has unlimited linear measurable range which overwhelming the conventional demodulation method with peak/dip tracing. Furthermore, the influence of the wavelength sampling interval and wavelength span on the demodulation error has been discussed in this work. The proposed interrogation method has a great significance for Sagnac loop interferometer sensor and it might greatly enhance the availability of this type of sensors in practical application.

  18. Standard guide for high-temperature static strain measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the selection and application of strain gages for the measurement of static strain up to and including the temperature range from 425 to 650°C (800 to 1200°F). This guide reflects some current state-of-the-art techniques in high temperature strain measurement, and will be expanded and updated as new technology develops. 1.2 This practice assumes that the user is familiar with the use of bonded strain gages and associated signal conditioning and instrumentation as discussed in Refs. (1) and (2). The strain measuring systems described are those that have proven effective in the temperature range of interest and were available at the time of issue of this practice. It is not the intent of this practice to limit the user to one of the gage types described nor is it the intent to specify the type of system to be used for a specific application. However, in using any strain measuring system including those described, the proposer must be able to demonstrate the capability of the proposed sy...

  19. Thermal conductivity measurements at cryogenic temperatures at LASA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broggi, F.; Pedrini, D.; Rossi, L.

    1995-08-01

    Here the improvement realised to have better control of the reference junction temperature and measurements carried out on Nb 3 Sn cut out from 2 different coils (named LASA3 and LASA5), showing the difference between the longitudinal and the transverse thermal conductivity, is described. Two different methods of data analysis are presented, the DAM (derivative approximated method) and the TCI (thermal conductivity integral. The data analysis for the tungsten and the LASA5 coil has been done according to the two methods showing that the TCI method with polynomial functions is not adequate to describe the thermal conductivity. Only a polynomial fit based on the TCI method but limited at a lower order than the nominal, when the data are well distributed along the range of measurements, can describe reasonably the thermal conductivity dependence with the temperature. Finally the measurements on a rod of BSCCO 2212 high T c superconductor are presented

  20. Thermal effects of an ICL-based mid-infrared CH4 sensor within a wide atmospheric temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weilin; Zheng, Chuantao; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Girija, Aswathy V.; He, Qixin; Zheng, Huadan; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-03-01

    The thermal effects of an interband cascade laser (ICL) based mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor that uses long-path absorption spectroscopy were studied. The sensor performance in the laboratory at a constant temperature of ∼25 °C was measured for 5 h and its Allan deviation was ∼2 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time. A LabVIEW-based simulation program was developed to study thermal effects on infrared absorption and a temperature compensation technique was developed to minimize these effects. An environmental test chamber was employed to investigate the thermal effects that occur in the sensor system with variation of the test chamber temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The thermal response of the sensor in a laboratory setting was observed using a 2.1 ppm CH4 standard gas sample. Indoor/outdoor CH4 measurements were conducted to evaluate the sensor performance within a wide atmospheric temperature range.

  1. Interaction processes between vacancies and dislocations in molybdenum in the temperature range around 0.3 of the melting temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I.; Lambri, O.A.; Bozzano, P.B.; Garcia, J.A.; Celauro, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical spectroscopy, electrical resistivity and transmission electron microscopy studies have been performed on pre-strained neutron irradiated single crystalline molybdenum in order to check the interaction processes between vacancies and dislocations in the temperature range between room temperature and 1273 K. The anelastic relaxation in molybdenum which appears between 800 K and 1273 K has been separated in two different physical mechanisms depending on the temperature of appearance of the relaxation peak. The physical mechanism which controls the damping peak appearing at around 800 K was related with the dragging of jogs by the dislocation under movement assisted by vacancy diffusion. The damping peak which appears at higher temperatures of about 1000 K was more consistent with the formation and diffusion of vacancies assisted by the dislocation movement

  2. Interaction processes between vacancies and dislocations in molybdenum in the temperature range around 0.3 of the melting temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Lambri, O.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Member of the CONICET' s Research Staff (Argentina)], E-mail: olambri@fceia.unr.edu.ar; Bozzano, P.B. [Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica, Unidad de Actividad Materiales, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain); Celauro, C.A. [Reactor Nuclear RA-4, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Riobamba y Berruti, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2008-10-15

    Mechanical spectroscopy, electrical resistivity and transmission electron microscopy studies have been performed on pre-strained neutron irradiated single crystalline molybdenum in order to check the interaction processes between vacancies and dislocations in the temperature range between room temperature and 1273 K. The anelastic relaxation in molybdenum which appears between 800 K and 1273 K has been separated in two different physical mechanisms depending on the temperature of appearance of the relaxation peak. The physical mechanism which controls the damping peak appearing at around 800 K was related with the dragging of jogs by the dislocation under movement assisted by vacancy diffusion. The damping peak which appears at higher temperatures of about 1000 K was more consistent with the formation and diffusion of vacancies assisted by the dislocation movement.

  3. Temperature measurements inside nuclear reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarassenko, Serge

    1969-11-01

    Non negligible errors may happen in nuclear reactor temperature measurements using magnesium oxide insulated and stainless steel sheathed micro-wire thermocouples, when these thermometric lines are placed under operational conditions typical of electrical power stations. The present work shows that this error is principally due to electrical hysteresis and polarization phenomena in the insulator subjected to the strong fields generated by common-mode voltages. These phenomena favour the unsymmetrical common-mode current flow and thus lead to the differential-mode voltage generation which is superposing on the thermoelectric hot junction potential. A calculation and an experimental approach make possible the importance of the magnesium oxide insulating characteristics, the hot junction insulation, the choice of the main circuits in the data processing equipment as well as the galvanic isolation performances and the common-mode rejection features of all the measurement circuits. A justification is thereby given for the severe conditions imposed for the acceptance of thermoelectric materials; some particular precautions to be taken are described, as well as the high performance characteristics which have to be taken into account in choosing measurement systems linked to thermometric circuits with sheathed micro-wire thermocouples. (author) [fr

  4. Increasing sea surface temperature and range shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical range of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution range of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and range of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution ranges were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water temperature was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface temperature along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water temperature or changes on their distributional range or abundance, along the temperature gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution range while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water temperature. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal temperatures might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it

  5. Mechanical response of AA7075 aluminum alloy over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z.; Cassada, W.A. [Reynolds Metals Co., Chester, VA (United States). Corp. Res. and Dev.; Cady, C.M.; Gray, G.T. III

    2000-07-01

    The influence of temperature and strain rate on the flow stress and work hardening rate of a 7075 aluminum alloy was studied under compressive loading over the temperature range from 23 C to 470 C, and strain rates from 0.001 s{sup -1} and 2100 s{sup -1}. While the temperature dependence of the flow stress was found to be most significant at temperatures below 300 C, the strain rate dependence of the flow stress was found to be pronounced at temperatures above 23 C. Concurrently, the work hardening rate decreases significantly with increasing temperature between 23 C and 300 C and increases slightly at higher temperatures. The minimum work hardening rate is observed to occur at temperatures between 200 C and 300 C and shift to higher temperatures with increasing strain rate. A negative strain rate dependence of work hardening rate was observed at 23 C, although a positive strain rate dependence of work hardening rate occurs at higher temperatures. Analysis of the experimental data revealed three deformation regimes. (orig.)

  6. Computer calculation of heat capacity of natural gases over a wide range of pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranchuk, P.M. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)); Abou-Kassem, J.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA))

    1992-04-01

    A method is presented whereby specific heats or heat capacities of natural gases, both sweet and sour, at elevated pressures and temperatures may be made suitable to modern-day machine calculation. The method involves developing a correlation for ideal isobaric heat capacity as a function of gas gravity and pseudo reduced temperature over the temperature range of 300 to 1500 K, and a mathematical equation for the isobaric heat capacity departure based on accepted thermodynamic principles applied to an equation of state that adequately describes the behavior of gases to which the Standing and Katz Z factor correlation applies. The heat capacity departure equation is applicable over the range of 0.2 {le} Pr {le} 15 and 1.05 {le} Tr {le} 3, where Pr and Tr refer to the reduced pressure and temperature respectively. The significance of the method presented lies in its utility and adaptability to computer applications. 25 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Thermal conductivity measurements of PTFE and Al2O3 ceramic at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobizhev, Alexey; Reiten, Jared; Singh, Vivek; Kolomensky, Yury G.

    2017-07-01

    The design of low temperature bolometric detectors for rare event searches necessitates careful selection and characterization of structural materials based on their thermal properties. We measure the thermal conductivities of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Al2O3 ceramic (alumina) in the temperature ranges of 0.17-0.43 K and 0.1-1.3 K, respectively. For the former, we observe a quadratic temperature dependence across the entire measured range. For the latter, we see a cubic dependence on temperature above 0.3 K, with a linear contribution below that temperature. This paper presents our measurement techniques, results, and theoretical discussions.

  8. MICROWAVE NOISE MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRON TEMPERATURES IN AFTERGLOW PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, Jr., C. C.; McBee, W. D.

    1963-10-15

    Transient electron temperatures in afterglow plasmas were determined for He (5 and 10 torr), Ne, and Ne plus or minus 5% Ar (2.4 and 24 torr) by combining measurements of plasma microwave noise power, and plasma reflectivity and absorptivity. Use of a low-noise parametric preamplifier permitted continuous detection during the afterglow of noise power at 5.5 Bc in a 1 Mc bandwidth. Electron temperature decays were a function of pressure and gas but were slower than predicted by electron energy loss mechanisms. The addition of argon altered the electron density decay in the neon afterglow but the electron temperature decay was not appreciably changed. Resonances in detected noise power vs time in the afterglow were observed for two of the three plasma waveguide geometries studied. These resonances correlate with observed resonances in absorptivity and occur over the same range of electron densities for a given geometry independent of gas type and pressure. (auth)

  9. Lattice Parameter of Polycrystalline Diamond in the Low-Temperature Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszkowicz, W.; Piszora, P.; Lasocha, W.; Margiolaki, I.; Brunelli, M.; Fitch, A.

    2010-01-01

    The lattice parameter for polycrystalline diamond is determined as a function of temperature in the 4-300 K temperature range. In the range studied, the lattice parameter, expressed in angstrom units, of the studied sample increases according to the equation a = 3.566810(12) + 6.37(41) x 10 -14 T 4 (approximately, from 3.5668 to 3.5673 A). This increase is larger than that earlier reported for pure single crystals. The observed dependence and the resulting thermal expansion coefficient are discussed on the basis of literature data reported for diamond single crystals and polycrystals. (authors)

  10. Germanium thermometers in the temperature range .1000K to 4.20K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Sanchez, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity characteristics of two germanium thermometers that proved to be convenient sensors in the temperature range from .100 0 K to 4.2 0 K, are described. Their resistances change from about 8 x 10 5 ohms at .100 0 K to about 100 ohms at 4.2 0 K. The calibration curves were fitted to natural spline functions of order 3 in the whole range of temperatures. These functions give less than half millidegree standard dispersion against 15 millidegree standard dispersion when usual polynomial interpolations are used. It is discussed what spline functions are, and compare the goodness of spline interpolation with polynomial methods [pt

  11. Micromechanical properties of C70 single crystals in the temperature range 77-350 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenets, S.V.; Natsik, V.D.; Fomenko, L.S.; Rusakova, A.V.; Natsik, V.D.; Osip'yan, Yu.A.; Orlov, V.I.; Sidorov, N.S.; Izotov, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Hexagonal single crystals of C 70 up to a size down to 1-2 mm were grown which allowed for the first time to investigate their low-temperature mechanical properties. Morphology, microplasticity anisotropy and the temperature dependence of Vickers microhardness HV (T) of the C 70 crystals in the temperature range 77-350 K involving all known phase transitions have been studied with the aid of optical microscopy and microindentation. The association of the features of HV (T) dependence with orientation phase transformations has been analyzed. It is suggested that anisotropy of microplasticity in the C 70 crystals correlates with the active slip systems.

  12. Crowdsourcing urban air temperature measurements using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Crowdsourced data from cell phone battery temperature sensors could be used to contribute to improved real-time, high-resolution air temperature estimates in urban areas, a new study shows. Temperature observations in cities are in some cases currently limited to a few weather stations, but there are millions of smartphone users in many cities. The batteries in cell phones have temperature sensors to avoid damage to the phone.

  13. A broadening temperature sensitivity range with a core-shell YbEr@YbNd double ratiometric optical nanothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, L.; Prorok, K.; Francés-Soriano, L.; Pérez-Prieto, J.; Bednarkiewicz, A.

    2016-02-01

    The chemical architecture of lanthanide doped core-shell up-converting nanoparticles can be engineered to purposely design the properties of luminescent nanomaterials, which are typically inaccessible to their homogeneous counterparts. Such an approach allowed to shift the up-conversion excitation wavelength from ~980 to the more relevant ~808 nm or enable Tb or Eu up-conversion emission, which was previously impossible to obtain or inefficient. Here, we address the issue of limited temperature sensitivity range of optical lanthanide based nano-thermometers. By covering Yb-Er co-doped core nanoparticles with the Yb-Nd co-doped shell, we have intentionally combined temperature dependent Er up-conversion together with temperature dependent Nd --> Yb energy transfer, and thus have expanded the temperature response range ΔT of a single nanoparticle based optical nano-thermometer under single ~808 nm wavelength photo-excitation from around ΔT = 150 K to over ΔT = 300 K (150-450 K). Such engineered nanocrystals are suitable for remote optical temperature measurements in technology and biotechnology at the sub-micron scale.The chemical architecture of lanthanide doped core-shell up-converting nanoparticles can be engineered to purposely design the properties of luminescent nanomaterials, which are typically inaccessible to their homogeneous counterparts. Such an approach allowed to shift the up-conversion excitation wavelength from ~980 to the more relevant ~808 nm or enable Tb or Eu up-conversion emission, which was previously impossible to obtain or inefficient. Here, we address the issue of limited temperature sensitivity range of optical lanthanide based nano-thermometers. By covering Yb-Er co-doped core nanoparticles with the Yb-Nd co-doped shell, we have intentionally combined temperature dependent Er up-conversion together with temperature dependent Nd --> Yb energy transfer, and thus have expanded the temperature response range ΔT of a single nanoparticle

  14. Temperature measurement in WTE boilers using suction pyrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

    2013-11-15

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

  15. Electro optical system to measure strains at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    1991-12-01

    The measurement of strains at temperatures of the order of 1000 C has become a very important field of research. Technological advances in areas such as the analysis of high speed aircraft structures and high efficiency thermal engines require operational temperatures of this order of magnitude. Current techniques for the measurement of strains, such as electrical strain gages, are at the limit of their useful range and new methods need to be developed. Optical techniques are very attractive in this type of application because of their noncontacting nature. Holography is of particular interest because a minimal preparation of the surfaces is required. Optoelectronics holography is specially suited for this type of application, from the point of view of industrial use. There are a number of technical problems that need to be overcome to measure strains using holographic interferometry at high temperatures. Some of these problems are discussed, and solutions are given. A specimen instrumented with high temperature strains gages is used to compare the results of both technologies.

  16. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

  17. The Construction and Calibration of a LADAR (Laser Detection and Ranging) Cross-Section Measurement Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    resonator optics consist of two porro prisms which are oriented 900 from one another about the cavity’s optical axis. In other words, the roof edges of each... prism are perpendicular to one another. The Nd:YAG laser rod measures 5 mm in diameter by 75 mm long and is optically pumped by a Xenon flashlamp. Q...Switching of the laser is performed by a Pockels Cell. A dielectric polarizer is sealed between two right angle prisms which are joined symetrically

  18. Measurements on the extended range of the wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbartzki, G.J.; Kroesing, G; Neuburger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Coulomb explosion of H 2 + -ions at 28 MeV is used to probe the wake over a range of about 400 A in Al. Preliminary results give food agreement with the wavelength prediction of the simple plasma oscillation wake model. (author)

  19. Effect of temperature and water activity on heat transfer in parsley leaves in the  range of temperatures 10–30 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štencl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium moisture contents of parsley leaves were measured by the gravimetric dynamic method with continuous recording of changes in sample weight. Consequently water activity values were determined. Henderson equation was found to be a good model both for moisture adsorption and desorption. Isosteric heat of sorption was defined and determined in the temperature range of 10–30 °C. Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption since no dependence on temperature in the analysed range was observed. The isosteric heats of sorption (qnst were indicated graphic in the form qnst versus moisture content. Values for isosteric heat of sorption ranged from 54.41 to 46.85 kJ/mol.

  20. Dislocation mechanisms for plastic flow of nickel in the temperature range 4.2-1200K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, D.H.; Tangri, K.

    1975-01-01

    The temperature ranges of thermal and athermal deformation behaviour of nickel are identified by employing the temperature-dependence of flow-stress and strain-rate cycling data. The results are used to present a unified view of dislocation mechanisms of glide encompassing the two thermally activated and the intermediate athermal regimes of plastic flow. In the low-temperature thermally activated region (<250K) the strain rate is found to be controlled by the repulsive intersection of glide and forest dislocations, in accordance with current ideas. The athermal stress in this region can be attributed mainly to the presence of strong attractive junctions which are overcome by means of Orowan bowing, a small contribution also coming from the elastic interactions between dislocations. The values of activation area and activation energy obtained in the high-temperature region (<750K) negate the operation of a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Instead, the data support a thermal activation model involving unzipping of the attractive junctions. The internal (long-range) stress contribution here results solely from the elastic interactions between dislocations. This view concerning the high-temperature plastic flow is further supported by the observation that the Cottrell-Stokes law is obeyed over large strains in the range 750-1200K. (author)

  1. Extending the range of turbidity measurement using polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Justin S.

    2017-11-21

    Turbidity measurements are obtained by directing a polarized optical beam to a scattering sample. Scattered portions of the beam are measured in orthogonal polarization states to determine a scattering minimum and a scattering maximum. These values are used to determine a degree of polarization of the scattered portions of the beam, and concentrations of scattering materials or turbidity can be estimated using the degree of polarization. Typically, linear polarizations are used, and scattering is measured along an axis that orthogonal to the direction of propagation of the polarized optical beam.

  2. High-Temperature Thermal Diffusivity Measurements of Silicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertermann, M.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Whittington, A. G.; Spera, F. J.; Zayac, J.

    2005-12-01

    Transport of heat in geologically relevant materials is of great interest because of its key role in heat transport, magmatism and volcanic activity on Earth. To better understand the thermal properties of magmatic materials at high temperatures, we measured the thermal diffusivity of four synthetic end-member silicate glasses with the following compositions: albite (NaAlSi3O8), orthoclase (KAlSi3O8), anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8), and diopside (CaMgSi2O6). Thermal diffusivity measurements were conducted with the laser-flash technique and data were acquired from room temperature to a maximum temperature near 1100°C, depending on the glass transition temperature. The presence of sub-mm sized bubbles in one of the orthoclase samples had no discernable effect on measured diffusivities. At room temperature, the three feldspar-type glasses have thermal diffusivity (D) values of 0.58-0.61 mm2/s, whereas the diopside glass has 0.52 mm2/s. With increasing temperature, D decreases by 5-10% (relative) for all samples and becomes virtually constant at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures, the anorthite and diopside glasses exhibit significant drops in thermal diffusivity over a 50-100°C interval, correlating with previously published heat capacity changes near the glass transition for these compositions. For anorthite, D (in mm2/s) decreases from 0.48 at 750-860°C to 0.36 at 975-1075°C; for diopside, D changes from 0.42 at 630-750°C to 0.30 at 850-910°C, corresponding to relative drops of 24 and 29%, respectively. Albite and orthoclase glasses do not exhibit this change and also lack significant changes in heat capacity near the glass transition. Instead, D is constant at 400-800°C for albite, and for orthoclase values go through a minimum at 500-600°C before increasing slightly towards 1100°C but it never exceeds the room temperature D. Our data on thermal diffusivity correlate closely with other thermophysical properties. Thus, at least in case of simple

  3. Development of an experimental variable temperature set-up for a temperature range from 2.2 K to 325 K for cost-effective temperature sensor calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sandip; Kar, Ranjan; Mandal, Anupam; Das, Ananda; Saha, Subrata

    2017-05-01

    A prototype of a variable temperature insert has been developed in-house as a cryogenic thermometer calibration facility. It was commissioned in fulfilment of the very stringent requirements of the temperature control of the cryogenic system. The calibration facility is designed for calibrating industrial cryogenic thermometers that include a temperature sensor and the wires heat-intercept in the 2.2 K-325 K temperature range. The isothermal section of the calibration block onto which the thermometers are mounted is weakly linked with the temperature control zone mounted with cooling capillary coil and cryogenic heater. The connecting wires of the thermometer are thermally anchored with the support of the temperature insert. The calibration procedure begins once the temperature of the support is stabilized. Homogeneity of the calibration block’s temperature is established both by simulation and by cross-comparison of two calibrated sensors. The absolute uncertainty present in temperature measurement is calculated and found comparable with the measured uncertainty at different temperature points. Measured data is presented in comparison to the standard thermometers at fixed points and it is possible to infer that the absolute accuracy achieved is better than  ±0.5% of the reading in comparison to the fixed point temperature. The design and development of simpler, low cost equipment, and approach to analysis of the calibration results are discussed further in this paper, so that it can be easily devised by other researchers.

  4. Design of a low-cost system for electrical conductivity measurements of high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadunath

    2018-05-01

    It is always a curiosity and interest among researchers working in the field of material science to know the impact of high temperature on the physical and transport properties of the materials. In this paper, we report on the design and working of a system for the measurements of electrical resistivity with high temperature. It was designed at our place and successively used for these measurements in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 ˚C.

  5. Elastic precursor wave decay in shock-compressed aluminum over a wide range of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ryan A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the dynamic flow behavior of aluminum is considered in the context of precursor wave decay measurements and simulations. In this regard, a dislocation-based model of high-rate metal plasticity is brought into agreement with previous measurements of evolving wave profiles at 300 to 933 K, wherein the amplification of the precursor structure with temperature arises naturally from the dislocation mechanics treatment. The model suggests that the kinetics of inelastic flow and stress relaxation are governed primarily by phonon scattering and radiative damping (sound wave emission from dislocation cores), both of which intensify with temperature. The manifestation of these drag effects is linked to low dislocation density ahead of the precursor wave and the high mobility of dislocations in the face-centered cubic lattice. Simulations performed using other typical models of shock wave plasticity do not reproduce the observed temperature-dependence of elastic/plastic wave structure.

  6. Tensile properties and fracture mechanism of IN-100 superalloy in high temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan T. Jovanović

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tensile properties and fracture mechanism of a polycrystalline IN-100 superalloy have been investigated in the range from room temperature to 900°C. Optical microscopy (OM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM applying replica technique were used for microstructural investigation, whereas scanning electron microscopy (SEM was utilized for fracture study. High temperature tensile tests were carried out in vacuumed chamber. Results show that strength increases up to 700°C, and then sharply decreases with further increase in temperature. Elongation increases very slowly (6-7.5% till 500°C, then decreases to 4.5% at 900°C. Change in elongation may be ascribed to a change of fracture mechanism. Appearance of a great number of microvoids prevails up to 500°C resulting in a slow increase of elongation, whereas above this temperature elongation decrease is correlated with intergranular crystallographic fracture and fracture of carbides.

  7. Communication: Anomalous temperature dependence of the intermediate range order in phosphonium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettige, Jeevapani J.; Kashyap, Hemant K.; Margulis, Claudio J.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent article by the Castner and Margulis groups [Faraday Discuss. 154, 133 (2012)], we described in detail the structure of the tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquid as a function of temperature using X-ray scattering, and theoretical partitions of the computationally derived structure function. Interestingly, and as opposed to the case in most other ionic-liquids, the first sharp diffraction peak or prepeak appears to increase in intensity as temperature is increased. This phenomenon is counter intuitive as one would expect that intermediate range order fades as temperature increases. This Communication shows that a loss of hydrophobic tail organization at higher temperatures is counterbalanced by better organization of polar components giving rise to the increase in intensity of the prepeak

  8. Intensity autocorrelation measurements of frequency combs in the terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea-Chelmus, Ileana-Cristina; Rösch, Markus; Scalari, Giacomo; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme

    2017-09-01

    We report on direct measurements of the emission character of quantum cascade laser based frequency combs, using intensity autocorrelation. Our implementation is based on fast electro-optic sampling, with a detection spectral bandwidth matching the emission bandwidth of the comb laser, around 2.5 THz. We find the output of these frequency combs to be continuous even in the locked regime, but accompanied by a strong intensity modulation. Moreover, with our record temporal resolution of only few hundreds of femtoseconds, we can resolve correlated intensity modulation occurring on time scales as short as the gain recovery time, about 4 ps. By direct comparison with pulsed terahertz light originating from a photoconductive emitter, we demonstrate the peculiar emission pattern of these lasers. The measurement technique is self-referenced and ultrafast, and requires no reconstruction. It will be of significant importance in future measurements of ultrashort pulses from quantum cascade lasers.

  9. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. K. [Johnson Research LLC, Pueblo West, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  10. Recovery Temperature, Transition, and Heat Transfer Measurements at Mach 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinich, Paul F.

    1961-01-01

    Schlieren, recovery temperature, and heat-transfer measurements were made on a hollow cylinder and a cone with axes alined parallel to the stream. Both the cone and cylinder were equipped with various bluntnesses, and the tests covered a Reynolds number range up to 20 x 10(exp 6) at a free-stream Mach number of 4.95 and wall to free-stream temperature ratios from 1.8 to 5.2 (adiabatic). A substantial transition delay due to bluntness was found for both the cylinder and the cone. For the present tests (Mach 4.95), transition was delayed by a factor of 3 on the cylinder and about 2 on the cone, these delays being somewhat larger than those observed in earlier tests at Mach 3.1. Heat-transfer tests on the cylinder showed only slight effects of wall temperature level on transition location; this is to be contrasted to the large transition delays observed on conical-type bodies at low surface temperatures at Mach 3.1. The schlieren and the peak-recovery-temperature methods of detecting transition were compared with the heat-transfer results. The comparison showed that the first two methods identified a transition point which occurred just beyond the end of the laminar run as seen in the heat-transfer data.

  11. Determination of the range of control limits in radioimmunoassay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, A.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    A grouping technique is proposed for control limits in radioimmunoassay measurements. It has the advantage of working with control limits of 99.7% without the inconvenience of the confidence intervals. The method is practical and simple. It provides considerable flexibility for the processing of data. As the number of samples increases, the control limits become better defined. (author) [es

  12. HTP kinetics studies on isolated elementary combustion reactions over wide temperature ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontijn, A.; Adusei, G.Y.; Hranisavlevic, J.; Bajaj, P.N. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goals of this project are to provide accurate data on the temperature dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions, (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made mainly by using the pseudo-static HTP (high-temperature photochemistry) technique. While continuing rate coefficient measurements, further aspects of kinetics research are being explored. Thus, starting from the data obtained, a method for predicting the temperature dependence of rate coefficients of oxygen-atom olefin experiment and confirms the underlying mechanistic assumptions. Mechanistic information of another sort, i.e. by product analysis, has recently become accessible with the inauguration of our heated flow tube mass spectrometer facility; early results are reported here. HTP experiments designed to lead to measurements of product channels by resonance fluorescence have started.

  13. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  14. Range of monthly mean hourly land surface air temperature diurnal cycle over high northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihui; Zeng, Xubin

    2014-05-01

    Daily maximum and minimum temperatures over global land are fundamental climate variables, and their difference represents the diurnal temperature range (DTR). While the differences between the monthly averaged DTR (MDTR) and the range of monthly averaged hourly temperature diurnal cycle (RMDT) are easy to understand qualitatively, their differences have not been quantified over global land areas. Based on our newly developed in situ data (Climatic Research Unit) reanalysis (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) merged hourly temperature data from 1979 to 2009, RMDT in January is found to be much smaller than that in July over high northern latitudes, as it is much more affected by the diurnal radiative forcing than by the horizontal advection of temperature. In contrast, MDTR in January is comparable to that in July over high northern latitudes, but it is much larger than January RMDT, as it primarily reflects the movement of lower frequency synoptic weather systems. The area-averaged RMDT trends north of 40°N are near zero in November, December, and January, while the trends of MDTR are negative. These results suggest the need to use both the traditional MDTR and RMDT suggested here in future observational and modeling studies. Furthermore, MDTR and its trend are more sensitive to the starting hour of a 24 h day used in the calculations than those for RMDT, and this factor also needs to be considered in model evaluations using observational data.

  15. Lifetime measurements in the 10-13 s range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, Dzh.; Foa, L.; Dzhordzhi, M.

    1984-01-01

    Semiconducting detectors used in experimental high energy physics are described. Performances of Ge- and Si detectors and telescopes developed on their base as well as some problems associated with separation of coherent and incoherent events are described in detail. New fields are considered of semiconductor detector application: lifetime measurements of heavy particles decaying via weak interaction, such as D-mesons as well as the procedure of determination of the meson production and disintegration point with a space resolution enabling one to measure the length of meson path. The space resolution of detectors operating as proportional chambeps approaches 10-20 μm. Principles of devising the electronics for active target processors are described, solid state detectors being used for the latter

  16. Measurement of the temperature coefficient of ratio transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the temperature coefficient of the output of several ratio transformers at ratios near 0.500,000 using an ac bridge and a dual-phase, lock-in amplifier. The two orthogonal output components were each resolved to +/- ppb of the bridge drive signal. The results for three commercial ratio transformers between 20 and 50 C range from 0.5 to 100 ppb/K for the signal component in phase with the bridge drive, and from 4 to 300 ppb/K for the quadrature component.

  17. High Dynamic Range Nonlinear Measurement using Analog Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    shield around sensitive areas. The target may also be sensitive to radiated coupling from the system and will benefit from a shield box or Faraday ... cage , if it is not already enclosed. On the shared measurement path and through the target, cross-channel coupling cannot be prevented, so low-PIM...testing is desired, traditional filtering is recommended, as the primary benefits of the analog canceller are effectively nullified. 2.4 Wideband

  18. Methods of Temperature and Emission Measure Determination of Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, J. W.; Schmelz, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2002-05-01

    Recent observational results from both SOHO-EIT and TRACE indicate that coronal loops are isothermal along their length (axially). These results are obtained from a narrowband filter ratio method that assumes that the plasma is isothermal along the line of sight (radially). However, these temperatures vary greatly from those derived from differential emission measure (DEM) curves produced from spectral lines recorded by SOHO-CDS. The DEM results indicate that the loops are neither axially nor radially isothermal. This discrepancy was investigated by Schmelz et al. (2001). They chose pairs of iron lines from the same CDS data set to mimic the EIT and TRACE loop results. Ratios of different lines gave different temperatures, indicating that the plasma was not radially isothermal. In addition the results indicated that the loop was axially isothermal, even though the DEM analysis of the same data showed this result to be false. Here we have analyzed the EIT data for the CDS loop published by Schmelz et al. (2001). We took the ratios of the 171-to-195 and 195-to-284 filter data, and made temperature maps of the loop. The results indicate that the loop is axially isothermal, but different temperatures were found for each pair of filters. Both ratio techniques force the resultant temperature to lie within the range where the response functions (for filters) or the emissivity functions (for lines) overlap; isothermal loops are therefore a byproduct of the analysis. This conclusion strengthens support for the idea that temperature and emission measure results from filter ratio methods may be misleading or even drastically wrong. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783.

  19. Plastic behaviour of Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range 77-1000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derep, J.L.; Ibrahim, S.; Rouby, D.; Fantozzi, G.; Gobin, P.

    1979-01-01

    Tensile tests were carried out on Zircaloy-4 over a temperature range 77-1000 K. So, we have determined the flow stress variations as a function of temperature and strain rate. Two thermally activated zones were observed between about 77 and 600 K, a plateau stress between 600 and 700 K and an other thermally activated zone above 700 K. The various mechanisms which can be responsible for the thermally activated and athermal zones are discussed in the light of experimental results. The mechanical behaviour of Zircaloy-4 appears similar to the zirconium-oxygen alloys one. (orig.) [de

  20. Wide-range nuclear reactor temperature control using automatically tuned fuzzy logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, P.; Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy logic controller design for optimal reactor temperature control is presented. Since fuzzy logic controllers rely on an expert's knowledge of the process, they are hard to optimize. An optimal controller is used in this paper as a reference model, and a Kalman filter is used to automatically determine the rules for the fuzzy logic controller. To demonstrate the robustness of this design, a nonlinear six-delayed-neutron-group plant is controlled using a fuzzy logic controller that utilizes estimated reactor temperatures from a one-delayed-neutron-group observer. The fuzzy logic controller displayed good stability and performance robustness characteristics for a wide range of operation

  1. Active silicon x-ray for measuring electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.T.

    1994-07-01

    Silicon diodes are commonly used for x-ray measurements in the soft x-ray region between a few hundred ev and 20 keV. Recent work by Cho has shown that the charge collecting region in an underbiased silicon detector is the depletion depth plus some contribution from a region near the depleted region due to charge-diffusion. The depletion depth can be fully characterized as a function of the applied bias voltage and is roughly proportional to the squart root of the bias voltage. We propose a technique to exploit this effect to use the silicon within the detector as an actively controlled x-ray filter. With reasonable silicon manufacturing methods, a silicon diode detector can be constructed in which the sensitivity of the collected charge to the impinging photon energy spectrum can be changed dynamically in the visible to above the 20 keV range. This type of detector could be used to measure the electron temperature in, for example, a tokamak plasma by sweeping the applied bias voltage during a plasma discharge. The detector samples different parts of the energy spectrum during the bias sweep, and the data collected contains enough information to determine the electron temperature. Benefits and limitations of this technique will be discussed along with comparisons to similar methods for measuring electron temperature and other applications of an active silicon x-ray filter

  2. Measuring the temperature history of isochorically heated warm dense metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, Chris; Kim, J.; Park, J.; Moody, J.; Emig, J.; Heeter, B.; Dozieres, M.; Beg, Fn; McLean, Hs

    2017-10-01

    A pump-probe platform has been designed for soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy near edge structure measurements in isochorically heated Al or Cu samples with temperature of 10s to 100s of eV. The method is compatible with dual picosecond-class laser systems and may be used to measure the temperature of the sample heated directly by the pump laser or by a laser-driven proton beam Knowledge of the temperature history of warm dense samples will aid equation of state measurements. First, various low- to mid-Z targets were evaluated for their suitability as continuum X-ray backlighters over the range 200-1800 eV using a 10 J picosecond-class laser with relativistic peak intensity Alloys were found to be more suitable than single-element backlighters. Second, the heated sample package was designed with consideration of target thickness and tamp layers using atomic physics codes. The results of the first demonstration attempts will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-SC0014600.

  3. Effect and control on temperature measurement accuracy of the fiber- optic colorimeter by emissivity of different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-fang; Han, Xin; Shi, De-heng

    2008-03-01

    Based on the Kirchhoff's Law, a practical dual-wavelength fiber-optic colorimeter, with the optimal work wavelength centered at 2.1 μm and 2.3 μm is presented. The effect of the emissivity on the precision of the measured temperature has been explored under various circumstances (i.e. temperature, wavelength) and for different materials. In addition, by fitting several typical material emissivity-temperature dependencies curves, the influence of the irradiation (radiant flux originating from the surroundings) and the surface reflected radiation on the temperature accuracy is studied. The results show that the calibration of the measured temperature for reflected radiant energy is necessary especially in low target temperature or low target emissivity, and the temperature accuracy is suitable for requirements in the range of 400-1200K.

  4. Test-bench for characterization of steady state magnetic sensors parameters in wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovařík, Karel; Ďuran, Ivan; Sentkerestiová, Jana; Šesták, David

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Prepared test bench for calibration of steady state magnetic sensors. •Test-bench design optimized for calibration up to 300 °C. •Test-bench is remotely controllable and allows long term measurements. •Construction allows easy manipulation with even irradiated samples. -- Abstract: Magnetic sensors in ITER tokamak and in other future fusion devices will face an environment with temperature often elevated well above 200 °C. Dedicated test benches are needed to allow characterization of performance of magnetic sensors at such elevated temperatures. This contribution describes realization of test bench for calibration of steady state magnetic sensors based on Hall effect. The core of the set-up is the coil providing DC calibration magnetic field. Optimization of coils design to ensure its compatibility with elevated temperature up to 300 °C is described. Optimized coil was manufactured, and calibrated both at room temperature and at temperature of 250 °C. Measured calibration magnetic field of the coil biased by a 30 A commercial laboratory power supplies is 224 mT. The coil is supplemented by PID regulated air cooling system for fine control of sensors temperature during measurements. Data acquisition system is composed from PC A/D converter boards with resolution below 1 μV. The key parameters of the test bench are remotely controllable and the system allows long term continuous measurements including tests of irradiated samples. The performance of the test bench is demonstrated on recent measurements with metal Hall sensors based on thin copper sensing layers

  5. The temperature dependence of intermediate range oxygen-oxygen correlations in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Wikfeldt, K. Thor; Skinner, Lawrie B.; Benmore, Chris J.; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the recent temperature dependent oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution functions from experimental high-precision x-ray diffraction data of bulk water by Skinner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214507 (2014)] with particular focus on the intermediate range where small, but significant, correlations are found out to 17 Å. The second peak in the pair-distribution function at 4.5 Å is connected to tetrahedral coordination and was shown by Skinner et al. to change behavior with temperature below the temperature of minimum isothermal compressibility. Here we show that this is associated also with a peak growing at 11 Å which strongly indicates a collective character of fluctuations leading to the enhanced compressibility at lower temperatures. We note that the peak at ∼13.2 Å exhibits a temperature dependence similar to that of the density with a maximum close to 277 K or 4 °C. We analyze simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water model in the same manner and find excellent agreement between simulations and experiment albeit with a temperature shift of ∼20 K.

  6. The temperature dependence of intermediate range oxygen-oxygen correlations in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars G. M., E-mail: Lars.Pettersson@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Wikfeldt, K. Thor [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Science Institute, University of Iceland, VR-III, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Skinner, Lawrie B.; Benmore, Chris J. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nilsson, Anders [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    We analyze the recent temperature dependent oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution functions from experimental high-precision x-ray diffraction data of bulk water by Skinner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214507 (2014)] with particular focus on the intermediate range where small, but significant, correlations are found out to 17 Å. The second peak in the pair-distribution function at 4.5 Å is connected to tetrahedral coordination and was shown by Skinner et al. to change behavior with temperature below the temperature of minimum isothermal compressibility. Here we show that this is associated also with a peak growing at 11 Å which strongly indicates a collective character of fluctuations leading to the enhanced compressibility at lower temperatures. We note that the peak at ∼13.2 Å exhibits a temperature dependence similar to that of the density with a maximum close to 277 K or 4 °C. We analyze simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water model in the same manner and find excellent agreement between simulations and experiment albeit with a temperature shift of ∼20 K.

  7. Dynamic mechanical behaviour and dislocation substructure evolution of Inconel 718 over wide temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woei-Shyan, E-mail: wslee@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Feng [National Center for High-Performance Computing, Hsin-Shi Tainan County 744, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tao-Hsing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hong-Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-25

    A compressive split-Hopkinson pressure bar and transmission electron microscope (TEM) are used to investigate the mechanical behaviour and microstructural evolution of Inconel 718 at strain rates ranging from 1000 to 5000 s{sup -1} and temperatures between -150 and 550 deg. C. The results show that the flow stress increases with an increasing strain rate or a reducing temperature. The strain rate effect is particularly pronounced at strain rates greater than 3000 s{sup -1} and a deformation temperature of -150 deg. C. A significant thermal softening effect occurs at temperatures between -150 and 25 deg. C. The microstructural observations reveal that the strengthening effect in deformed Inconel 718 alloy is a result primarily of dislocation multiplication. The dislocation density increases with increasing strain rate, but decreases with increasing temperature. By contrast, the dislocation cell size decreases with increasing strain rate, but increases with increasing temperature. It is shown that the correlation between the flow stress, the dislocation density and the dislocation cell size is well described by the Bailey-Hirsch constitutive equations.

  8. EPR-based distance measurements at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumkacheva, Olesya; Bagryanskaya, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed dipolar (PD) EPR spectroscopy is a powerful technique allowing for distance measurements between spin labels in the range of 2.5-10.0nm. It was proposed more than 30years ago, and nowadays is widely used in biophysics and materials science. Until recently, PD EPR experiments were limited to cryogenic temperatures (TEPR as well as other approaches based on EPR (e.g., relaxation enhancement; RE). In this paper, we review the features of PD EPR and RE at ambient temperatures, in particular, requirements on electron spin phase memory time, ways of immobilization of biomolecules, the influence of a linker between the spin probe and biomolecule, and future opportunities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring brightness temperature distributions of plasma bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirko, V.I.; Stadnichenko, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of restoration of brightness temperature distribution along plasma jet on the base of a simple ultra high- speed photography and subsequent photometric treatment is shown. The developed technique has been applied for finding spectral radiation intensity and brightness temperature of plasma jets of a tubular gas-cumulative charge and explosive plasma compressor. The problem of shock wave front has been successfully solved and thus distribution of above parameters beginning from the region preceeding the shock wave has been obtained [ru

  10. Operational methods of thermodynamics. Volume 1 - Temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, F. X.

    The principles of thermometry are examined, taking into account the concept of temperature, the Kelvin scale, the statistical theory of heat, negative absolute temperatures, the thermodynamic temperature scale, the thermodynamic temperature scale below 1 K, noise thermometry, temperature scales based on black-body radiation, acoustical thermometry, and the International Practical Temperature Scale 1968. Aspects of practical temperature measurement are discussed, giving attention to thermometers based on the expansion of a gas or a liquid, instruments utilizing the relative thermal expansion of two different metals, devices measuring the vapor pressure of a liquid, thermocouples, resistance thermometers, radiation pyrometers of various types, instruments utilizing the temperature dependence of a number of material characteristics, devices for temperature control, thermometer calibration, and aspects of thermometer installation and inertia. A description is presented of the approaches employed for the measurement of low temperatures.

  11. Measurements of long-range enhanced collisional velocity drag through plasma wave damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present damping measurements of axial plasma waves in magnetized, multispecies ion plasmas. At high temperatures T ≳ 10-2 eV, collisionless Landau damping dominates, whereas, at lower temperatures T ≲ 10-2 eV, the damping arises from interspecies collisional drag, which is dependent on the plasma composition and scales roughly as T-3 /2 . This drag damping is proportional to the rate of parallel collisional slowing, and is found to exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agrees with a new collision theory that includes long-range collisions. Centrifugal mass separation and collisional locking of the species occur at ultra-low temperatures T ≲ 10-3 eV, which reduce the drag damping from the T-3 /2 collisional scaling. These mechanisms are investigated by measuring the damping of higher frequency axial modes, and by measuring the damping in plasmas with a non-equilibrium species profile.

  12. High-temperature rate constant measurements for OH+xylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2015-06-01

    The overall rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with o-xylene (k 1), m-xylene (k 2), and p-xylene (k 3) were measured behind reflected shock waves over 890-1406K at pressures of 1.3-1.8atm using OH laser absorption near 306.7nm. Measurements were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions. The measured rate constants, inferred using a mechanism-fitting approach, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as:k1=2.93×1013exp(-1350.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(890-1406K)k2=3.49×1013exp(-1449.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(906-1391K)k3=3.5×1013exp(-1407.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(908-1383K)This paper presents, to our knowledge, first high-temperature measurements of the rate constants of the reactions of xylene isomers with OH radicals. Low-temperature rate-constant measurements by Nicovich et al. (1981) were combined with the measurements in this study to obtain the following Arrhenius expressions, which are applicable over a wider temperature range:k1=2.64×1013exp(-1181.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1406K)k2=3.05×109exp(-400/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1391K)k3=3.0×109exp(-440/T)cm3mol-1s-1(526-1383K) © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  13. Constitutive behaviour of an as-cast AA7050 alloy in the sub-solidus temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subroto, T A S; Miroux, A G; Eskin, D G; Katgerman, L

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 7050 is of interest for aerospace industries due to its superior mechanical properties. However, its inherent solidification behaviour may augment the accumulation of residual stresses due to uneven cooling conditions upon direct-chill (DC) casting. This can increase the propensity of cold cracking (CC), which is a potentially catastrophic phenomenon in casting ingots. To predict the outcome of the aluminum casting process, ALSIM software is utilised. This software has the capability to predict CC susceptibility during the casting process. However, at the moment, ALSIM lacks the information regarding material constitutive behaviour in the sub-solidus temperature range, which is considered important for studying CC phenomenon. At the moment, ALSIM only has a partial constitutive database for AA7050 and misses data, especially in the vicinity of non-equilibrium solidus (NES) point. The present work presents measurements of tensile constitutive parameters in the temperature range between 400 °C and NES, which is for this alloy defined as 465 °C. The mechanical behaviour is tested in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator. Constitutive parameters such as stress-strain curves, strain-rate sensitivity and ductility of the alloy have been measured at different test temperatures. With these constitutive data, we expect to improve the accuracy of ALSIM simulations in terms of CC prediction, and gain more insight into the evolution of mechanical properties of AA7050 in the temperature nearby the NES.

  14. Reassessing changes in diurnal temperature range: A new data set and characterization of data biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, P. W.; Menne, M. J.; Williams, C. N.; Rennie, J. J.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Vose, R. S.; Peterson, T. C.; Durre, I.; Davy, R.; Esau, I.; Klein-Tank, A. M. G.; Merlone, A.

    2016-05-01

    It has been a decade since changes in diurnal temperature range (DTR) globally have been assessed in a stand-alone data analysis. The present study takes advantage of substantively improved basic data holdings arising from the International Surface Temperature Initiative's databank effort and applies the National Centers for Environmental Information's automated pairwise homogeneity assessment algorithm to reassess DTR records. It is found that breakpoints are more prevalent in DTR than other temperature elements and that the resulting adjustments have a broader distribution. This strongly implies that there is an overarching tendency, across the global meteorological networks, for nonclimatic artifacts to impart either random or anticorrelated rather than correlated biases in maximum and minimum temperature series. Future homogenization efforts would likely benefit from simultaneous consideration of DTR and maximum and minimum temperatures, in addition to average temperatures. Estimates of change in DTR are relatively insensitive to whether adjustments are calculated directly or inferred from adjustments returned for the maximum and minimum temperature series. The homogenized series exhibit a reduction in DTR since the midtwentieth century globally (-0.044 K/decade). Adjustments serve to approximately halve the long-term global reduction in DTR in the basic "raw" data. Most of the estimated DTR reduction occurred over 1960-1980. In several regions DTR has apparently increased over 1979-2012, while globally it has exhibited very little change (-0.016 K/decade). Estimated changes in DTR are an order of magnitude smaller than in maximum and minimum temperatures, which have both been increasing rapidly on multidecadal timescales (0.186 K/decade and 0.236 K/decade, respectively, since the midtwentieth century).

  15. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  16. Deformability of 12MKh steel within the temperature range of polymorphous transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surovtsev, A.P.; Sukhanov, V.E.

    1987-01-01

    Deformability and the structure of 12 MKh steel under tension, upsetting and torsion within the temperature range of polymorphous transformations have been investigated. Tests for tension showed the presence of two plasticity maxima, which correspond to the temperatures of P-A and F-A structural transformation beginning. Loss of strength during deformation is connected with dynamic polygonization and the initial stage of dynamic recrystallization as well as the state preceding ferrite transformation. Loss of plasticity is observed at the temperature accompanying the end of F-A transformation; it is explained by the formation of more strength martensite and by increase of material porosity as a result of the transformation with volume decrease

  17. Deformability of 12MKh steel within the temperature range of polymorphous transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovtsev, A P; Sukhanov, V E

    1987-01-01

    Deformability and the structure of 12 MKh steel under tension, upsetting and torsion within the temperature range of polymorphous transformations have been investigated. Tests for tension showed the presence of two plasticity maxima, which correspond to the temperatures of P-A and F-A structural transformation beginning. Loss of strength during deformation is connected with dynamic polygonization and the initial stage of dynamic recrystallization as well as the state preceding ferrite transformation. Loss of plasticity is observed at the temperature accompanying the end of F-A transformation; it is explained by the formation of more strength martensite and by increase of material porosity as a result of the transformation with volume decrease.

  18. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement. 91.309 Section 91.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 100 cm of the air-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in...

  19. The dynamical mechanical properties of tungsten under compression at working temperature range of divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, C.C.; Song, Y.T.; Peng, X.B.; Wei, Y.P.; Mao, X.; Li, W.X.; Qian, X.Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the divertor structure of ITER and EAST with mono-block module, tungsten plays not only a role of armor material but also a role of structural material, because electromagnetic (EM) impact will be exerted on tungsten components in VDEs or CQ. The EM loads can reach to 100 MN, which would cause high strain rates. In addition, directly exposed to high-temperature plasma, the temperature regime of divertor components is complex. Aiming at studying dynamical response of tungsten divertors under EM loads, an experiment on tungsten employed in EAST divertors was performed using a Kolsky bar system. The testing strain rates and temperatures is derived from actual working conditions, which makes the constitutive equation concluded by using John-Cook model and testing data very accurate and practical. The work would give a guidance to estimate the dynamical response, fatigue life and damage evolution of tungsten divertor components under EM impact loads. - Graphical abstract: From the comparison between the experimental curves and the predicted curves calculated by adopting the corrected m, it is very clear that the new model is of great capability to explain the deformation behavior of the tungsten material under dynamic compression at high temperatures. (EC, PC and PCM refers to experimental curve, predicted curve and predicted curve with a corrected m. Different colors represent different scenarios.). - Highlights: • Test research on dynamic properties of tungsten at working temperature range and strain rate range of divertors. • Constitutive equation descrbing strain hardening, strain rate hardening and temperature softening. • A guidance to estimate dynamical response and damage evolution of tungsten divertor components under impact.

  20. Influence of temperature on the spectral characteristics of semiconductor lasers in the visible range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamov, A. A.; Baranov, M. S.; Khramov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    The results of studies on the effect of temperature on the output spectral characteristics of continuous semiconductor lasers of the visible range are presented. The paper presents the results of studying the spectral-optical radiation parameters of semiconductor lasers, their coherence lengths, and the dependence of the position of the spectral peak of the wavelength on temperature. This is necessary for the selection of the most optimal laser in order to use it for medical ophthalmologic diagnosis. The experiment was carried out using semiconductor laser modules based on a laser diode. The spectra were recorded by using a two-channel automated spectral complex based on the MDR-23 monochromator. Spectral dependences on the temperature of semiconductor lasers are obtained, in the range from 300 to 370 K. The possibility of determining the internal damage to the stabilization of laser modules without opening the case is shown, but only with the use of their spectral characteristics. The obtained data allow taking into account temperature characteristics and further optimization of parameters of such lasers when used in medical practice, in particular, in ophthalmologic diagnostics.

  1. Gamma compensated pulsed ionization chamber wide range neutron/reactor power measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method and system of pulsed mode operation of ionization chambers is described in which a single sensor system with gamma compensation is provided by sampling, squaring, automatic gate selector, and differential amplifier circuit means, employed in relation to chambers sensitized to neutron plus gamma and gamma only to subtract out the gamma component, wherein squaring functions circuits, a supplemental high performance pulse rate system, and operational and display mode selection and sampling gate circuits are utilized to provide automatic wide range linear measurement capability for neutron flux and reactor power. Neon is employed as an additive in the ionization chambers to provide independence of ionized gas kinetics temperature effects, and the pulsed mode of operation provide independence of high temperature insulator leakage effects. (auth)

  2. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70° F. ...

  3. Novel method for noncontact measurement of particle temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, W.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A nonintrusive temperature measurement technique is developed for noncontact measurement of the temperature of single particles with <200 µm dia. It is based on the temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum resulting from irradiation of a certain phosphor mixture with UV light by applying

  4. Novel method for noncontact measurement of particle temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Wagenaar, B.M.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    A nonintrusive temperature measurement technique is developed for noncontact measurement of the temperature of single particles with < 200 m dia. It is based on the temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum resulting from irradiation of a certain phosphor mixture with UV light by applying

  5. Measurement of the argon plasma temperature by use of pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fanhou; Jing Fuqian

    2002-01-01

    The author describes in detail how to use pyrometer to measure the plasma temperature. The temperatures of shock-generated argon plasmas are given in the present work. Measured results of temperature-pressure curve are compared with calculated results using Saha-Debye-Huckel model, which are in good agreement

  6. Conductance of partially disordered graphene: crossover from temperature-dependent to field-dependent variable-range hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, C Y; Jaurigue, L C; Kaiser, A B; Gómez-Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of low-temperature measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room temperature, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak–Riess) variable-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower temperatures T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(−E 0 /E) 1/3 field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value E C (T) 2D =(E a E 0 1/3 /3) 3/4 determined by the scale factors E 0 and E a for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability. (paper)

  7. Deformation behavior of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes under inert gas conditions in the temperature range from 600 to 12000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.; Raff, S.; Gausmann, G.

    1981-07-01

    Within the temperature range from 600 0 to 1200 0 isothermal, isobaric creep rupture experiments were performed under inert gas with short Zircaloy-4 tube specimens in order to obtain experimental data supporting the development of the NORA cladding tube deformation model. The values of the tube inner pressure were so selected that the time-to-failure values varied between 2 and 2000 s. The corresponding creep rupture curves are indicated. Besides the temperature and the burst pressure the development of deformation over time of the tube specimens was measured. This allowed to draw diagrams of stress, strain rate and strain. On account of the type of specimen heating applied (radiation heating) the temperature difference at the cladding tube circumference is very small ( [de

  8. Measuring the temperature of hot nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuenschel, S.; Bonasera, A.; May, L.W.; Souliotis, G.A.; Tripathi, R.; Galanopoulos, S.; Kohley, Z.; Hagel, K.; Shetty, D.V.; Huseman, K.; Soisson, S.N.; Stein, B.C.; Yennello, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    A new thermometer based on fragment momentum fluctuations is presented. This thermometer exhibited residual contamination from the collective motion of the fragments along the beam axis. For this reason, the transverse direction has been explored. Additionally, a mass dependence was observed for this thermometer. This mass dependence may be the result of the Fermi momentum of nucleons or the different properties of the fragments (binding energy, spin, etc.) which might be more sensitive to different densities and temperatures of the exploding fragments. We expect some of these aspects to be smaller for protons (and/or neutrons); consequently, the proton transverse momentum fluctuations were used to investigate the temperature dependence of the source.

  9. Are Sea Surface Temperature satellite measurements reliable proxies of lagoon temperature in the South Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Menkes, Christophe; Le Gendre, Romain; Passfield, Teuru; Andréfouët, Serge

    2017-12-01

    In remote coral reef environments, lagoon and reef in situ measurements of temperature are scarce. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measured by satellite has been frequently used as a proxy of the lagoon temperature experienced by coral reef organisms (TL) especially during coral bleaching events. However, the link between SST and TL is poorly characterized. First, we compared the correlation between various SST series and TL from 2012 to 2016 in three atolls and one island in the Central South Pacific Ocean. Simple linear correlation between SST and TL ranged between 0.44 and 0.97 depending on lagoons, localities of sensors, and type of SST data. High-resolution-satellite-measurements of SST inside the lagoons did not outperform oceanic SST series, suggesting that SST products are not adapted for small lagoons. Second, we modelled the difference between oceanic SST and TL as a function of the drivers of lagoon water renewal and mixing, namely waves, tide, wind, and season. The multivariate models reduced significantly the bias between oceanic SST and TL. In atoll lagoons, and probably in other hydrodynamically semi-open systems, a correction taking into account these factors is necessary when SST are used to characterize organisms' thermal stress thresholds.

  10. The measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhou Zaiping; Zhang Longfang

    1999-01-01

    The author describes a experiment equipment used for measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators; gives some measurement results of temperature effect of light output for NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), plastic scintillator, ZnS(Ag), anthracene crystal glass scintillator; analyzes the error factors affecting the measurement results. The total uncertainty of the temperature effect measurement for NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator is 11%

  11. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % ( p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences ( p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  12. Natural circulation studies in a LBE loop for a wide range of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgohain, A.; Srivastava, A.K.; Jana, S.S.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Kulkarni, R.D.; Vijayan, P.K.; Tewari, R.; Ram, A. Maruthi; Jha, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A high temperature Lead Bismuth Eutectic loop named as Kilo Temperature Loop (KTL) has been made. • Natural circulation experimental studies were carried out and reported in the range of 200–780 °C. • The experiments at high temperature were carried in inert atmosphere to avoid oxidation of the loop material. • Theoretical studies are carried out to simulate the loop with natural circulation in primary as well as in the secondary side. • The predictions of the code LeBENC used to simulate the natural circulation in the loop are compared with the experimental results. - Abstract: Lead–Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) is increasingly getting more attention as a coolant for advanced reactor systems. It is also the primary coolant of the Compact High Temperature Reactor (CHTR) being designed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). A high temperature liquid metal loop named as Kilo Temperature Loop (KTL) has been installed at BARC for thermal hydraulics, instrument development and material related studies. Natural circulation experimental studies were carried out for the power range of 200–1200 W in the loop. The corresponding LBE flow rate is calculated to be in the range of 0.075–0.12 kg/s. Transient studies for start-up of natural circulation in the loop, loss of heat sink and step power change have also been carried out. The maximum temperature of the loop operated so far is 1100 °C. A computer code named LeBENC has been developed at BARC to simulate the natural circulation characteristics in closed loops. The salient features of the code include ability to handle non-uniform diameter components, axial thermal conduction in fluid and heat losses from the piping to the environment. The code has been modified to take into account of two natural circulation loops in series so that the natural cooling by argon gas in the secondary side of the loop can be simulated. This paper deals with the description of the loop and its operation. The various

  13. Temperature transient response measurement in flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbird, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A specially developed procedure is described for determining the thermal transient response of thermocouples and other temperature transducers when totally immersed in flowing water. The high velocity heat transfer conditions associated with this facility enable thermocouple response times to be predicted in other fluids. These predictions can be confirmed by electrical analogue experiments. (author)

  14. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    tics—emission lines. Dwivedi, Curdt & Wilhelm (1997, 1999a) carried out an observing sequence based on a theoretical study by Dwivedi & Mohan (1995), with intercombination/forbidden. Ne VI and Mg VI lines, which are formed at essentially the same temperature. (4 × 105 K), according to Arnaud & Rothenflug (1985).

  15. A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    power law form spectrum. Besides the inevitable ... measurement of the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 1280 MHz. 2. The receiver ... from the feed assembly and the third term is the receiver temperature as referred to the circulator ...

  16. The influence of heated or cooled seats on the acceptable ambient temperature range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.F.; Wyon, David Peter; Fang, Lei

    2007-01-01

    series, subjects were preconditioned to be too hot, while in other series they were preconditioned to be thermally neutral. They reported their thermal sensations, overall thermal acceptability and comfort on visual analogue scales at regular intervals. Instantaneous heat flow to the seat was measured...... continuously. At each ambient room temperature, the percentage dissatisfied was found to be a second-order polynomial function of local heat flow. Zero heat flow was preferred at an air temperature of 22 degrees C and the heat flow that minimized the percentage dissatisfied was found to be a single linear...

  17. A comparison of irradiance responsivity and thermodynamic temperature measurement between PTB and NIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Yuan, Z.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between PTB and NIM in the field of absolute spectral-band radiometry and thermodynamic temperature measurement. For the comparison a NIM made interference filter radiometer with a centre wavelength of 633 nm was taken to PTB. The filter radiometer was calibrated at NIM and PTB with respect to spectral irradiance responsivity. For the integral value in the band-pass range an agreement of 0.1% was observed in both calibrations. In a next step, the 633 nm filter radiometer was used to measure the temperature of a high-temperature blackbody in comparison to an 800 nm filter radiometer of PTB in the temperature range between 1400 K and 2750 K. The thermodynamic temperature measured by the two filter radiometers agreed to within 0.2 K to 0.5 K with an estimated measurement uncertainty ranging between 0.1 K and 0.4 K (k=1)

  18. Glassy aerosols with a range of compositions nucleate ice heterogeneously at cirrus temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA is likely to exist in a semi-solid or glassy state, particularly at low temperatures and humidities. Previously, it has been shown that glassy aqueous citric acid aerosol is able to nucleate ice heterogeneously under conditions relevant to cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. In this study we test if glassy aerosol distributions with a range of chemical compositions heterogeneously nucleate ice under cirrus conditions. Three single component aqueous solution aerosols (raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA and levoglucosan and one multi component aqueous solution aerosol (raffinose mixed with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate were studied in both the liquid and glassy states at a large cloud simulation chamber. The investigated organic compounds have similar functionality to oxidised organic material found in atmospheric aerosol and have estimated temperature/humidity induced glass transition thresholds that fall within the range predicted for atmospheric SOA. A small fraction of aerosol particles of all compositions were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously in the deposition mode at temperatures relevant to the TTL (<200 K. Raffinose and HMMA, which form glasses at higher temperatures, nucleated ice heterogeneously at temperatures as high as 214.6 and 218.5 K respectively. We present the calculated ice active surface site density, ns, of the aerosols tested here and also of glassy citric acid aerosol as a function of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi. We also propose a parameterisation which can be used to estimate heterogeneous ice nucleation by glassy aerosol for use in cirrus cloud models up to ~220 K. Finally, we show that heterogeneous nucleation by glassy aerosol may compete with ice nucleation on mineral dust particles in mid-latitudes cirrus.

  19. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

    2006-12-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

  20. Nanosecond-resolved temperature measurements using magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Pu [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Wenzhong, E-mail: lwz7410@hust.edu.cn [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Instantaneous and noninvasive temperature measurements are important when laser thermotherapy or welding is performed. A noninvasive nanosecond-resolved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) temperature measurement system is described in which a transient change in temperature causes an instantaneous change in the magnetic susceptibilities of the MNPs. These transient changes in the magnetic susceptibilities are rapidly recorded using a wideband magnetic measurement system with an upper frequency limit of 0.5 GHz. The Langevin function (the thermodynamic model characterizing the MNP magnetization process) is used to obtain the temperature information. Experiments showed that the MNP DC magnetization temperature-measurement system can detect a 14.4 ns laser pulse at least. This method of measuring temperature is likely to be useful for acquiring the internal temperatures of materials irradiated with lasers, as well as in other areas of research.

  1. Investigation of Breakpoint and Trend of Daily Air Temperature Range for Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shideh shams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air temperature as an important climatic factor can influence variability and distribution of other climatic parameters. Therefore, tracking the changes in air temperature is a popular procedure in climate change studies.. According to the national academy in the last decade, global temperature has raised 0.4 to 0.8⁰C. Instrumental records show that, with the exception of 1998, the 10 warmest year (during the last 150 years, occurred since 2000, and 2014 was the warmest year. Investigation of maximum and minimum air temperature temporal trend indicates that these two parameters behave differently over time. It has been shown that the minimum air temperature raises noticeably more than the maximum air temperature, which causes a reduction in the difference of maximum and minimum daily air temperature (daily temperature range, DTR. There are several factors that have an influence on reducing DTR such as: Urban development, farms’ irrigation and desertification. It has been shown that DTR reduction occurs mostly during winter and is less frequent during summer, which shows the season’s effect on the temperature trend. Considering the significant effects of the climatological factors on economic and agricultural management issues, the aim of this study is to investigate daily air temperature range for yearly, seasonal and monthly time scales, using available statistical methods. Materials and Methods: Daily maximum and minimum air temperature records (from 1950 to 2010 were obtained from Mashhad Meteorological Organization. In order to control the quality of daily Tmax and Tmin data, four different types of quality controls were applied. First of all, gross errors were checked. In this step maximum and minimum air temperature data exceeding unlikely air temperature values, were eliminated from data series. Second, data tolerance was checked by searching for periods longer than a certain number of consecutive days with exactly the

  2. Defining the temperature range for cooking with extra virgin olive oil using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Saleem, M.; Ali, H.; Bilal, M.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ahmed, M.; Mahmood, S.

    2017-09-01

    Using the potential of Raman spectroscopy, new findings regarding the effects of heating on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) during frying/cooking are presented. A temperature range from 140 to 150 °C has been defined within which EVOO can be used for cooking/frying without much loss of its natural molecular composition. Raman spectra from the EVOO samples were recorded using an excitation laser at 785 nm in the range from 540 to 1800 cm-1. Due to heating, prominent variations in intensity are observed at Raman bands from 540 to 770 cm-1, 790 to 1170 cm-1 and 1267 and 1302 cm-1. The Raman bands at 1267 and 1302 cm-1 represent cis unsaturated fats and their ratio is used to investigate the effects of temperature on the molecular composition of EVOO. In addition, principal component analysis has been applied on all the groups of data to classify the heated EVOO samples at different temperatures and for different times. In addition, it has been found that use of EVOO for frying twice does not have any prominent effect on its molecular composition.

  3. Noise temperature measurements for the determination of the thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, F.; Kuhne, M.; Tegeler, E. [Bundesanstalt Physikalisch-Technische, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium in air was measured by noise thermometric methods. The temperature measurement was based on noise comparison using a two-channel arrangement to eliminate parasitic noises of electronic components by cross correlation. Three miniature fixed points filled with pure palladium (purity: {approx}99.99%, mass: {approx}90 g) were used to realize the melts of the fixed point metal. The measured melting temperature of palladium in air amounted to 1552.95 deg C {+-} 0.21 K (k = 2). This temperature is 0.45 K lower than the temperature of the melting point of palladium measured by radiation thermometry. (authors)

  4. Measurement of temperature, electric conductivity and density of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevova, I.; Nefedov, A.; Oberman, F.; Urinson, A.

    1982-01-01

    Three instruments are briefly described developed by the High Temperatures Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the measurement of plasma temperature, electric conductivity and density. The temperature measuring instrument uses as a standard a light source whose temperature may significantly differ from plasma temperature because three light fluxes are compared, namely the flux emitted by the plasma, the flux emitted directly by the standard source, and the flux emitted by the standard source after passage through the plasma. The results of measurement are computer processed. Electric conductivity is measured using a coil placed in a probe which is automatically extended for a time of maximally 0.3 seconds into the plasma stream. The equipment for measuring plasma density consists of a special single-channel monochromator, a temperature gauge, a plasma pressure gauge, and of a computer for processing the results of measurement. (Ha)

  5. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...

  6. A Newly Designed Fiber-Optic Based Earth Pressure Transducer with Adjustable Measurement Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Zhen Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber-optic based earth pressure sensor (FPS with an adjustable measurement range and high sensitivity is developed to measure earth pressures for civil infrastructures. The new FPS combines a cantilever beam with fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors and a flexible membrane. Compared with a traditional pressure transducer with a dual diaphragm design, the proposed FPS has a larger measurement range and shows high accuracy. The working principles, parameter design, fabrication methods, and laboratory calibration tests are explained in this paper. A theoretical solution is derived to obtain the relationship between the applied pressure and strain of the FBG sensors. In addition, a finite element model is established to analyze the mechanical behavior of the membrane and the cantilever beam and thereby obtain optimal parameters. The cantilever beam is 40 mm long, 15 mm wide, and 1 mm thick. The whole FPS has a diameter of 100 mm and a thickness of 30 mm. The sensitivity of the FPS is 0.104 kPa/με. In addition, automatic temperature compensation can be achieved. The FPS’s sensitivity, physical properties, and response to applied pressure are extensively examined through modeling and experiments. The results show that the proposed FPS has numerous potential applications in soil pressure measurement.

  7. Air Temperature Measurements Using Dantec Draught Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    This technical report is written based on investigations of Dantec measurement equipment used in a master thesis project by the authors in the period September 2014 to June 2015 (Kristensen & Jensen, 2015).......This technical report is written based on investigations of Dantec measurement equipment used in a master thesis project by the authors in the period September 2014 to June 2015 (Kristensen & Jensen, 2015)....

  8. Heat capacity measurements on ThO2 by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatakrishnan, R.; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Heat capacity measurements were carried out on ThO 2 in the temperature range 330-820 K by using temperature modulated DSC. An underlying heating rate of 5 K. min -1 , a temperature modulation with an amplitude of 0.398K and a period of 150s were used for these measurements. The heat capacity values are within ± 2-4% of the literature data. (author)

  9. Measure of the albedo of a warm plasma in the XUV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Thais, Frederic; Geoffroy, Ghita; Raffestin, Didier

    2009-11-01

    It has been shown in a recent experience at PALS [1] that the radiative precursor celerity in front of a strong radiative shock is sensitive to the lateral radiative losses, thus to the albedo of the wall of a ``radiative shock tube.'' In the experiment presented here, we measure the albedo of various materials (Al, Cu, Au) heated by a Xenon gaz at temperature around 30 eV. The Xenon gas was heated by the ALISE laser in CESTA in Bordeaux (France). The emission of Xenon with and without the reflecting samples is measured with a spatially resolving XUV spectrograph in the 30-250 eV range. [4pt] [1] M. Busquet et al, HEDP 3, 8 (2007)

  10. Temperature Range for Metasomatism at the Bakalskoe Siderite Deposits with Use of Geochemical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Krupenin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data obtained with the quantitative microprobe ankerite–siderite composition analysis of seven samples from the different parts of Bakalskoe field showed that the wallrock ankerites in the western and central parts of the ore field differ in average concentrations of FeCO 3 (respectively 14.21 and 20.84 wt.%. However, there is no significant difference in composition of siderites. The calculation of the Mg-Fe metasomatism temperatures based on ankerite-siderite and ankerite-breinerite geothermometers showed the close agreement of the values of both methods at temperatures of 250 °C and above. The average temperatures of siderite metasomatism in the central part of the Bakalskoe ore field are in range 250-270 ° C, and, in the peripheral part, the determined temperature does not exceed 190-220 ° C. These values do not depend on the position of the siderite deposits in stratigraphic level of the Bakalskaya Suite.

  11. Radiation thermometry - non-contact temperature measurements; Strahlungsthermometrie - Temperaturen beruehrungslos messen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollandt, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Hochtemperatur- und Vakuumphysik; Hartmann, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Hochtemperaturskala; Gutschwager, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Infrarot-Strahlungsthermometrie; Struss, O. [HEITRONICS Infrarot Messtechnik GmbH (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The temperature is one of the measurands most frequently determined, as it decisively influences physical, chemical and biological processes. To be able to evaluate, optimize, repeat and compare industrial procedures, temperatures must be measured with sufficient accuracy and worldwide uniformity. This is done with the aid of the regulations and instructions of the international temperature scale. Today, non-contact measurements of surface temperatures can be performed without problems with radiation thermometers over a temperature range from -100 C up to 3000 C. Compared to contacting measurements, radiation-thermometric temperature measurement offers a series of advantages. Radiation thermometers react very fast and the measurement is not influenced by heat supply or dissipation. This allows objects to be measured which move very fast, are energized or may experience fast temperature changes. Consequently, radiation thermometry is increasingly used for the monitoring and control of thermal processes, for maintenance and in building services engineering. The present contribution shall inform of the fundamentals of radiation-thermometric temperature measurement as well as of the construction and popular types of radiation thermometers. It will be explained how exact and worldwide uniform temperature measurement is guaranteed via the international temperature scale and the calibration of radiation thermometers. The emissivity of surfaces which is important in practical temperature measurements and some examples of industrial applications of radiation thermometers will be described. (orig.)

  12. Radiation thermometry - non-contact temperature measurements; Strahlungsthermometrie - Temperaturen beruehrungslos messen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollandt, J.; Hartmann, J.; Gutschwager, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Struss, O. [HEITRONICS Infrarot Messtechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The temperature is one of the measurands most frequently determined, as it decisively influences physical, chemical and biological processes. To be able to evaluate, optimize, repeat and compare industrial procedures, temperatures must be measured with sufficient accuracy and worldwide uniformity. This is done with the aid of the regulations and instructions of the international temperature scale. Today, non-contact measurements of surface temperatures can be performed without problems with radiation thermometers over a temperature range from -100 C up to 3000 C. Compared to contacting measurements, radiation-thermometric temperature measurement offers a series of advantages. Radiation thermometers react very fast and the measurement is not influenced by heat supply or dissipation. This allows objects to be measured which move very fast, are energized or may experience fast temperature changes. Consequently, radiation thermometry is increasingly used for the monitoring and control of thermal processes, for maintenance and in building services engineering. The present contribution shall inform of the fundamentals of radiation-thermometric temperature measurement as well as of the construction and popular types of radiation thermometers. It will be explained how exact and worldwide uniform temperature measurement is guaranteed via the international temperature scale and the calibration of radiation thermometers. The emissivity of surfaces which is important in practical temperature measurements and some examples of industrial applications of radiation thermometers will be described. (orig.)

  13. A high-stability non-contact dilatometer for low-amplitude temperature-modulated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckabauer, Martin; Sprengel, Wolfgang; Würschum, Roland [Institute of Materials Physics, Graz University of Technology, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    Temperature modulated thermophysical measurements can deliver valuable insights into the phase transformation behavior of many different materials. While especially for non-metallic systems at low temperatures numerous powerful methods exist, no high-temperature device suitable for modulated measurements of bulk metallic alloy samples is available for routine use. In this work a dilatometer for temperature modulated isothermal and non-isothermal measurements in the temperature range from room temperature to 1300 K is presented. The length measuring system is based on a two-beam Michelson laser interferometer with an incremental resolution of 20 pm. The non-contact measurement principle allows for resolving sinusoidal length change signals with amplitudes in the sub-500 nm range and physically decouples the length measuring system from the temperature modulation and heating control. To demonstrate the low-amplitude capabilities, results for the thermal expansion of nickel for two different modulation frequencies are presented. These results prove that the novel method can be used to routinely resolve length-change signals of metallic samples with temperature amplitudes well below 1 K. This high resolution in combination with the non-contact measurement principle significantly extends the application range of modulated dilatometry towards high-stability phase transformation measurements on complex alloys.

  14. Host range of Phytophthora parsiana: a new high temperature pathogen of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somieh HAJEBRAHIMI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Among several Phytophthora spp. reported previously from Pistacia vera in Iran, a high temperature species recently identified as P. parsiana (formerly known as high temperature P. cryptogea is becoming important in woody plants, including P. vera. The host range of this newly recognised species, including both annual and perennial plants, is reported here. The pathogen infected 4–5 month-old glasshouse grown seedlings of P. vera, Ficus carica, Malus pumila and Prunus dulcis, and detached stems of 23 woody plants collected during dormant and growing seasons. Nineteen field and vegetable crops and 17 weed species were not infected by  P. parsiana in these pathogenicity assays.

  15. Adaptive and freeze-tolerant heteronetwork organohydrogels with enhanced mechanical stability over a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hainan; Zhao, Ziguang; Cai, Yudong; Zhou, Jiajia; Hua, Wenda; Chen, Lie; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jianqi; Han, Dong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Many biological organisms with exceptional freezing tolerance can resist the damages to cells from extra-/intracellular ice crystals and thus maintain their mechanical stability at subzero temperatures. Inspired by the freezing tolerance mechanisms found in nature, here we report a strategy of combining hydrophilic/oleophilic heteronetworks to produce self-adaptive, freeze-tolerant and mechanically stable organohydrogels. The organohydrogels can simultaneously use water and oil as a dispersion medium, and quickly switch between hydrogel- and organogel-like behaviours in response to the nature of the surrounding phase. Accordingly, their surfaces display unusual adaptive dual superlyophobic in oil/water system (that is, they are superhydrophobic under oil and superoleophobic under water). Moreover, the organogel component can inhibit the ice crystallization of the hydrogel component, thus enhancing the mechanical stability of organohydrogel over a wide temperature range (-78 to 80 °C). The organohydrogels may have promising applications in complex and harsh environments.

  16. Fluid temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Jeong Soo; Yang, Sun Kyu; Min, Kyung Ho; Chung, Moon Ki; Choi, Young Don

    1999-06-01

    Temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering was developed for the liquid water at temperature of 20 - 90 degree C and atmospheric pressure. Strong relationship between Raman scattering characteristics and liquid temperature change was observed. Various kinds of measurement techniques, such as Peak Intensity, Peak Wavelength, FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum), PMCR ( Polymer Monomer Concentration RAte), TSIR (Temperature Sensitive Intensity Ratio), IDIA (Integral Difference Intensity Area) were tested. TSIR has the highest accuracy in mean error or 0.1 deg C and standard deviation of 0.1248 deg C. This report is one of the results in developing process of Raman temperature measurement technique. Next research step is to develop Raman temperature measurement technique at the high temperature and high pressure conditions in single or two phase flows. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 38 figs

  17. Hydroxyl temperature and intensity measurements during noctilucent cloud displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Taylor

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Two Fourier transform spectrometers have been used to investigate the properties of the near-infrared hydroxyl (OH nightglow emission under high-latitude summertime conditions and any association with noctilucent clouds (NLCs. The measurements were made from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska (65.1°N, 147.5°W, during August 1986. Simultaneous photographic observations of the northern twilight sky were made from Gulkana, Alaska (62.2°N, 145.5°W, approximately 340 km to the south to establish the presence of NLCs over the spectrometer site. Data exhibiting significant short-term variations in the relative intensity (as much as 50–100% and rotational temperature (typically 5–15 K were recorded on six occasions when NLCs were observed. Joint measurements were also obtained on several "cloud-free" nights. No obvious relationship was found linking the mean OH intensity or its variation with the occurrence of NLCs. However, a clear tendency was found for the mean OH temperature to be lower on NLC nights than on cloud-free nights. In particular, a significant fraction of the OH(3–1 band spectra recorded by each instrument (16–57% exhibited temperatures below ~154 K on NLC nights compared with <3% on cloud-free nights. This result is qualitatively consistent with current models for ice particle nucleation and growth, but the mean OH temperature on NLC nights (~156 K was significantly higher than would be expected for long-term particle growth in this region. These observations raise questions concerning the expected proximity of the high-latitude, summertime OH layer and the NLC growth region.

  18. Hydroxyl temperature and intensity measurements during noctilucent cloud displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Taylor

    Full Text Available Two Fourier transform spectrometers have been used to investigate the properties of the near-infrared hydroxyl (OH nightglow emission under high-latitude summertime conditions and any association with noctilucent clouds (NLCs. The measurements were made from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska (65.1°N, 147.5°W, during August 1986. Simultaneous photographic observations of the northern twilight sky were made from Gulkana, Alaska (62.2°N, 145.5°W, approximately 340 km to the south to establish the presence of NLCs over the spectrometer site. Data exhibiting significant short-term variations in the relative intensity (as much as 50–100% and rotational temperature (typically 5–15 K were recorded on six occasions when NLCs were observed. Joint measurements were also obtained on several "cloud-free" nights. No obvious relationship was found linking the mean OH intensity or its variation with the occurrence of NLCs. However, a clear tendency was found for the mean OH temperature to be lower on NLC nights than on cloud-free nights. In particular, a significant fraction of the OH(3–1 band spectra recorded by each instrument (16–57% exhibited temperatures below ~154 K on NLC nights compared with <3% on cloud-free nights. This result is qualitatively consistent with current models for ice particle nucleation and growth, but the mean OH temperature on NLC nights (~156 K was significantly higher than would be expected for long-term particle growth in this region. These observations raise questions concerning the expected proximity of the high-latitude, summertime OH layer and the NLC growth region.

  19. Measurement and analysis of reactivity temperature coefficient of CEFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiyu; Hu Yun; Yang Xiaoyan; Fan Zhendong; Zhang Qiang; Zhao Jinkun; Li Zehua

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity temperature coefficient of CEFR was calculated by CITATION program and compared with the results calculated by correlative programs and measured from experiments for temperature effects. It is indicated that the calculation results from CITATION agree well with measured values. The reactivity temperature coefficient of CEFR is about -4 pcm/℃. The deviation of the measured values between the temperature increasing and decreasing processes is about 11%, which satisfies the experiment acceptance criteria. The measured results can validate the calculation ones by program and can provide important reference data for the safety operation of CEFR and the analysis of the reactivity balance in the reactor refueling situation. (authors)

  20. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1-200 bar and temperature range 300-1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients...... of a CO2-N2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated...

  1. Reconstruction of core inlet temperature distribution by cold leg temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarinen, S.; Antila, M.

    2010-01-01

    The reduced core of Loviisa NPP contains 33 thermocouple measurements measuring the core inlet temperature. Currently, these thermocouple measurements are not used in determining the inlet temperature distribution. The average of cold leg temperature measurements is used as inlet temperature for each fuel assembly. In practice, the inlet temperature distribution is not constant. Thus, using a constant inlet temperature distribution induces asymmetries in the measured core power distribution. Using a more realistic inlet temperature distribution would help us to reduce virtual asymmetries of the core power distribution and increase the thermal margins of the core. The thermocouples at the inlet cannot be used directly to measure the inlet temperature accurately because the calibration of the thermocouples that is done at hot zero power conditions is no longer valid at full power, when there is temperature change across the core region. This is due to the effect of neutron irradiation on the Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple wires. Therefore, we investigate in this paper a method to determine the inlet temperature distribution based on the cold leg temperature measurements. With this method we rely on the assumption that although the core inlet thermocouple measurements do not measure the absolute temperature accurately they do measure temperature changes with sufficient accuracy particularly in big disturbances. During the yearly testing of steam generator safety valves we observe a large temperature increase up to 12 degrees in the cold leg temperature. The change in the temperature of one of the cold legs causes a local disturbance in the core inlet temperature distribution. Using the temperature changes observed in the inlet thermocouple measurements we are able to fit six core inlet temperature response functions, one for each cold leg. The value of a function at an assembly inlet is determined only by the corresponding cold leg temperature disturbance

  2. Biaxial creep deformation of Zircaloy-4 in the high alpha phase temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.T.; Horwood, R.A.; Healey, T.

    1983-01-01

    The ballooning response of Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident may be calculated from a knowledge of the thermal environment of the rods and the creep deformation characteristics of the cladding. In support of such calculations biaxial creep studies have been performed on fuel tubes supplied by Westinghouse, Wolverine and Sandvik of temperatures in the alpha phase range. This paper presents the results of an investigation of their respective creep behaviour which has resulted in the formulation of equations for use in LOCA fuel ballooning codes. (author)

  3. Salinity/temperature ranges for application of seawater SA-T-P models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G. M.; Millero, F. J.; Feistel, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the present time, little is known about how broad salinity and temperature ranges are for seawater thermodynamic models that are functions of absolute salinity (SA), temperature (T) and pressure (P). Such models rely on fixed compositional ratios of the major components (e.g. Na/Cl, Mg/Cl, Ca/Cl, SO4/Cl, etc.). As seawater evaporates or freezes, solid phases (e.g. CaCO3(s) or CaSO42H2O(s)) will eventually precipitate. This will change the compositional ratios, and these salinity models will no longer be applicable. A future complicating factor is the lowering of seawater pH as the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 increase. A geochemical model (FREZCHEM) was used to quantify the SA-T boundaries at P=0.1 MPa and the range of these boundaries for future atmospheric CO2 increases. An omega supersaturation model for CaCO3 minerals based on homogeneous nucleation was extended from 25-40°C to 3°C. CaCO3 minerals were the boundary defining minerals (first to precipitate) between 3°C (at SA=104 g kg-1 and 40°C (at SA=66 g kg-1. At 2.82°C, calcite(CaCO3) transitioned to ikaite(CaCO36H2O) as the dominant boundary defining mineral for colder temperatures, which culminated in a low temperature boundary of -4.93°C. Increasing atmospheric CO2 from 385 μatm (in Year 2008) to 550 μatm (in Year 2100) would increase the SA and t boundaries as much as 11 g kg-1 and 0.66°C, respectively. The model-calculated calcite-ikaite transition temperature of 2.82°C is in excellent agreement with ikaite formation in natural environments that occurs at temperatures of 3°C or lower. Furthermore, these results provide a quantitative theoretical explanation (FREZCHEM model calculations) for why ikaite is the solid phase CaCO3 mineral that precipitates during seawater freezing.

  4. Temperature Measurement of Ceramic Materials Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    1999-01-01

    The surface temperatures of several pure ceramic materials (alumina, beryllia, magnesia, yittria and spinel) in the shape of pellets were measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. In one of the measurements, radiation signal collection is provided simply by an optical fiber. In the other experiments, a 4.75 inch (12 cm) parabolic mirror collects the signal for the spectrometer. Temperature measurement using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer for these ceramic materials is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which varies with both temperature and wavelength. In at least one of the materials, yittria, the detected optical emission increased as the temperature was decreased due to such emissivity variation. The reasons for such changes are not known. The multiwavelength pyrometer has demonstrated its ability to measure surface temperatures under such conditions. Platinum electrodes were embedded in the ceramic pellets for resistance measurements as the temperature changed.

  5. Measurement of temperature fluctuations and anomalous transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an isolated DC power supply (having negligible capacitance with respect to ground or the vacuum vessel) and the ion saturation current Б× drawn by the pair is obtained by measur- ing the voltage drop across a 10 Ω resistance using a battery operated isolation amplifier. The potential of the positively biased probe · is also ...

  6. Development of conductivity probe and temperature probe for in-situ measurements in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.; Galindo, B.J.; Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1981-05-01

    A conductivity probe and a temperature probe have been developed for in-situ measurements in various hydrological field studies. The conductivity probe has platinum electrodes and is powered with two 12 volt batteries. The sensing element of the temperature probe consists of a resistor of high coefficient of temperature. Response of the conductivity probe is measured in a milliampere mater while the resistance of the thermistor is read by a digital meter. The values of conductivity and temperature are derived from respective calibration. The probes are prototype and their range of measurement can be improved depending upon the requirement of the field problem. (Author) [pt

  7. Research on temperature measurement by X-ray transmission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shuyue; Cheng, Rong

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and X-ray transmission intensity was researched and analyzed by inspecting material density change, which is caused by thermal expansion. A digital radiographic system was employed to obtain the images. On this basis, we deduced the temperature formula based on the average gray level of the captured images. The measured temperatures were obtained from the experiments and the errors were analyzed. We concluded that when X-rays pass through an object, the X-ray strength and the gray level of the image under high temperatures are greater than those under lower temperatures and the image gray level error has great impact on the accuracy of the measured temperature. The presented approach allowed the non-contact temperature measurement of material

  8. Magnetic Levitation Force Measurement System at Any Low Temperatures From 20 K To 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sukru; Guner, S. Baris; Coskun, Elvan

    2015-03-01

    Most of the magnetic levitation force measurements in previous studies were performed at liquid nitrogen temperatures. For the levitation force of MgB2 and iron based superconducting samples, magnetic levitation force measurement system is needed. In this study, magnetic levitation force measurement system was designed. In this system, beside vertical force versus vertical motion, lateral and vertical force versus lateral motion measurements, the vertical force versus temperature at the fixed distance between permanent magnet PM - superconducting sample SS and the vertical force versus time measurements were performed at any temperatures from 20 K to 300 K. Thanks to these measurements, the temperature dependence, time dependence, and the distance (magnetic field) and temperature dependences of SS can be investigated. On the other hand, the magnetic stiffness MS measurements can be performed in this system. Using the measurement of MS at different temperature in the range, MS dependence on temperature can be investigated. These measurements at any temperatures in the range help to the superconductivity properties to be characterized. This work was supported by TUBTAK-the Scientific and technological research council of Turkey under project of MFAG - 110T622. This system was applied to the Turkish patent institute with the Application Number of 2013/13638 on 22/11/2013.

  9. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Cadarette, Bruce S; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2009-01-01

    ... (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However, the effect of elapsed time between ITS ingestion and Tint measurement has not been thoroughly studied. Methods: Eight volunteers...

  10. Effects of diurnal temperature range and drought on wheat yield in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Barrera, S.; Rodriguez-Puebla, C.; Challinor, A. J.

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to provide new insight on the wheat yield historical response to climate processes throughout Spain by using statistical methods. Our data includes observed wheat yield, pseudo-observations E-OBS for the period 1979 to 2014, and outputs of general circulation models in phase 5 of the Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for the period 1901 to 2099. In investigating the relationship between climate and wheat variability, we have applied the approach known as the partial least-square regression, which captures the relevant climate drivers accounting for variations in wheat yield. We found that drought occurring in autumn and spring and the diurnal range of temperature experienced during the winter are major processes to characterize the wheat yield variability in Spain. These observable climate processes are used for an empirical model that is utilized in assessing the wheat yield trends in Spain under different climate conditions. To isolate the trend within the wheat time series, we implemented the adaptive approach known as Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. Wheat yields in the twenty-first century are experiencing a downward trend that we claim is a consequence of widespread drought over the Iberian Peninsula and an increase in the diurnal range of temperature. These results are important to inform about the wheat vulnerability in this region to coming changes and to develop adaptation strategies.

  11. Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, to, for ferritic steels in the transition range

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of a reference temperature, To, which characterizes the fracture toughness of ferritic steels that experience onset of cleavage cracking at elastic, or elastic-plastic KJc instabilities, or both. The specific types of ferritic steels (3.2.1) covered are those with yield strengths ranging from 275 to 825 MPa (40 to 120 ksi) and weld metals, after stress-relief annealing, that have 10 % or less strength mismatch relative to that of the base metal. 1.2 The specimens covered are fatigue precracked single-edge notched bend bars, SE(B), and standard or disk-shaped compact tension specimens, C(T) or DC(T). A range of specimen sizes with proportional dimensions is recommended. The dimension on which the proportionality is based is specimen thickness. 1.3 Median KJc values tend to vary with the specimen type at a given test temperature, presumably due to constraint differences among the allowable test specimens in 1.2. The degree of KJc variability among specimen types i...

  12. Non-invasive body temperature measurement of wild chimpanzees using fecal temperature decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Siv Aina; Mundry, Roger; Nunn, Charles L; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2009-04-01

    New methods are required to increase our understanding of pathologic processes in wild mammals. We developed a noninvasive field method to estimate the body temperature of wild living chimpanzees habituated to humans, based on statistically fitting temperature decline of feces after defecation. The method was established with the use of control measures of human rectal temperature and subsequent changes in fecal temperature over time. The method was then applied to temperature data collected from wild chimpanzee feces. In humans, we found good correspondence between the temperature estimated by the method and the actual rectal temperature that was measured (maximum deviation 0.22 C). The method was successfully applied and the average estimated temperature of the chimpanzees was 37.2 C. This simple-to-use field method reliably estimates the body temperature of wild chimpanzees and probably also other large mammals.

  13. Temperature-sensitive host range mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koment, R.W.; Rapp, F.

    1975-01-01

    Herpesviruses are capable of several types of infection of a host cell. To investigate the early events which ultimately determine the nature of the virus-host cell interaction, a system was established utilizing temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. Four mutants have been isolated which fail to induce cytopathic effects and do not replicate at 39 C in hamster embryo fibroblast cells. At least one mutant is virus DNA negative. Since intracellular complementation is detectable between pairs of mutants, a virus function is known to be temperature sensitive. However, all four mutants induce cytopathic effects and replicate to parental virus levels in rabbit kidney cells at 39 C. This suggests that a host cell function, lacking or nonfunctional in HEF cells but present in rabbit kidney cells at 39 C, is required for the replication of these mutants in hamster embryo fibroblast cells at 39 C. Therefore, we conclude that these mutants are both temperature sensitive and exhibit host range properties

  14. Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in daily atmospheric temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cuomo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law persistence in atmospheric temperature fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA carried out on twenty-two historical daily time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates temperature variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of temperature time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.

  15. Ductile long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperature and wrought articles fabricated therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chain T.; Inouye, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Fe, Co).sub.3 and V(Fe, Co, Ni).sub.3 systems. These alloys have the following compositions comprising by weight: 22-23% V, 14-30% Fe, and the remainder Co or Co and Ni with an electron density no more than 7.85. The maximum combination of high temperature strength, ductility and creep resistance are manifested in the alloy comprising by weight 22-23% V, 14-20% Fe and the remainder Co and having an atomic composition of V(Fe .sub.0.20-0.26 C Co.sub.0.74-0.80).sub.3. The alloy comprising by weight 22-23% V, 16-17% Fe and 60-62% Co has excellent high temperature properties. The alloys are fabricable into wrought articles by casting, deforming, and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  16. Apparatus intended for measuring heat capacity and heat transfer down to mK range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebral, B.; Frossati, G.; Godfrin, H.; Schumacher, G.; Thoulouze, D.

    1978-01-01

    A cryogenic apparatus to perform heat capacity and heat transfer measurements in the range 1.5 mK-50 mK is described. Measurements are performed in an adiabatic demagnetization cell attached to a dilution refrigerator. Heat capacity measurements were effected on CMN-helium systems; the CMN specific heat was deduced above 1.6 mK when using liquid 3 He or a mixture 1.1% 3 He - 98.9% 4 He. A specific heat anomaly was observed with 4 He below 10 mK. It does not seen possible to interprete it by simple thermal equilibrium considerations. The superfluid 3 He heat capacity was also deduced from the results obtained with liquid 3 He under pressure. In heat transfer measurements at the interface CMN-mixture 3 He- 4 He, the temperature dependence of the thermal boundary resistance is in rather good agreement with other powder results. The measured resistances are larger than those predicted by the classical phonon process [fr

  17. Upgrade of the cooling water temperature measures system for HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weiqun; Liu Gongfa; Bao Xun; Jiang Siyuan; Li Weimin; He Duohui

    2007-01-01

    The cooling water temperature measures system for HLS (Hefei Light Source) adopts EPICS to the developing platform and takes the intelligence temperature cruise instrument for the front control instrument. Data of temperatures are required by IOCs through Serial Port Communication, archived and searched by Channel Archiver. The system can monitor the real-time temperatures of many channels cooling water and has the function of history data storage, and data network search. (authors)

  18. Sodium fire test at broad ranges of temperature and oxygen concentration. 4. Low temperature sodium spray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2005-08-01

    Sodium spray fire tests at the initial sodium temperature of 250degC were conducted under the atmospheric conditions of air and 3% oxygen containing nitrogen to determine the sodium burning rate and the aerosol release fraction and compare them with the test results at the initial sodium temperature of 500degC in air atmosphere. In the tests, sodium was supplied using a commercial spray nozzle into a stainless steel vessel of 100 m 3 volume (SOLFA-2). The sodium burning rate was calculated from two independent methods: the consumption rate of oxygen in the vessel and the enthalpy change of vessel components during the test. The aerosol release fraction was determined from the comparison between the measured aerosol concentrations and the calculated ones by the ABC-INTG code. The main conclusions were as follows, (1) In air atmosphere, a) sodium droplets ignited instantaneously and the spray fire was observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 440 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was about 70%. (2) In 3% oxygen containing nitrogen, a) ignition of sodium droplets was not observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 44 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was less than 10%. (author)

  19. Development of electron temperature measuring system by silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xianying; Yang Jinwei; Liao Min

    2007-12-01

    Soft X-ray spectroscopy with two channels Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) are adopted for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak in 2005. The working principle, design and first operation of the SDD soft X-ray spectroscopy are introduced. The measuring results of electron temperature are also presented. The results show that the SDD is very good detector for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak. These will become a solid basic work to establish SDD array for electron temperature profiling. (authors)

  20. The measurement of single particle temperature in plasma sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Bolsaitis, P.P.; Elliott, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining the size, velocity, temperature, and relative number density of particles entrained in high temperature flow fields is described. In determining the particle temperature from a two-color pyrometery technique, assumptions about the relative spectral emissivity of the particle are required. For situations in which the particle surface undergoes chemical reactions the assumption of grey body behavior is shown to introduce large Temperature measurement uncertainties. Results from isolated, laser heated, single particle measurements and in-flight data from the plasma spraying of WC-Co are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  1. High pressure phase equilibrium of ternary and multicomponent alkane mixtures in the temperature range from (283–473) K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regueira Muñiz, Teresa; Liu, Yiqun; Wibowo, Ahmad A.

    2017-01-01

    /n-butane/n-octane/n-dodecane/n-hexadecane/n-eicosane as model reservoir fluids and measured their phase equilibrium in the temperature range from (283–473) K by using a variable volume cell with full visibility. Their phase envelopes and liquid volume fractions below the saturation pressure have been measured. Four equations of state, including Soave......-Redlich-Kwong (SRK), Peng-Robinson (PR), Perturbed Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT), and Soave-Benedict-Webb-Rubin (Soave-BWR), have been used to predict phase equilibrium of the measured systems. PR and PC-SAFT give better results than others and Soave-BWR gives poor phase envelope predictions...

  2. Recrystallization kinetics of warm-rolled tungsten in the temperature range 1150-1350 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, A.; Juul Jensen, D.; Luo, G.-N.; Pantleon, W.

    2014-12-01

    Pure tungsten is a potential candidate material for the plasma-facing first wall and the divertor of fusion reactors. Both parts have to withstand high temperatures during service. This will alter the microstructure of the material by recovery, recrystallization and grain growth and will cause degradation in material properties as a loss in mechanical strength and embrittlement. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to 67% thickness reduction was investigated by long-term isothermal annealing in the temperature range between 1150 °C and 1350 °C up to 2200 h. Changes in the mechanical properties during annealing are quantified by Vickers hardness measurements. They are described concisely by classical kinetic models for recovery and recrystallization. The observed time spans for recrystallization and the obtained value for the activation energy of the recrystallization process indicate a sufficient thermal stability of the tungsten plate during operation below 1075 °C.

  3. Recrystallization kinetics of warm-rolled tungsten in the temperature range 1150–1350 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, A., E-mail: aalz@dtu.dk [Section of Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark); Juul Jensen, D. [Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals, Section of Materials Science and Advanced Characterization, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark); Luo, G.-N. [Fusion Reactor Materials Science and Technology Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark); Pantleon, W. [Section of Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Association EURATOM-DTU (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark)

    2014-12-15

    Pure tungsten is a potential candidate material for the plasma-facing first wall and the divertor of fusion reactors. Both parts have to withstand high temperatures during service. This will alter the microstructure of the material by recovery, recrystallization and grain growth and will cause degradation in material properties as a loss in mechanical strength and embrittlement. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to 67% thickness reduction was investigated by long-term isothermal annealing in the temperature range between 1150 °C and 1350 °C up to 2200 h. Changes in the mechanical properties during annealing are quantified by Vickers hardness measurements. They are described concisely by classical kinetic models for recovery and recrystallization. The observed time spans for recrystallization and the obtained value for the activation energy of the recrystallization process indicate a sufficient thermal stability of the tungsten plate during operation below 1075 °C.

  4. Recrystallization kinetics of warm-rolled tungsten in the temperature range 1150–1350 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso, A.; Juul Jensen, D.; Luo, G.-N.; Pantleon, W.

    2014-01-01

    Pure tungsten is a potential candidate material for the plasma-facing first wall and the divertor of fusion reactors. Both parts have to withstand high temperatures during service. This will alter the microstructure of the material by recovery, recrystallization and grain growth and will cause degradation in material properties as a loss in mechanical strength and embrittlement. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to 67% thickness reduction was investigated by long-term isothermal annealing in the temperature range between 1150 °C and 1350 °C up to 2200 h. Changes in the mechanical properties during annealing are quantified by Vickers hardness measurements. They are described concisely by classical kinetic models for recovery and recrystallization. The observed time spans for recrystallization and the obtained value for the activation energy of the recrystallization process indicate a sufficient thermal stability of the tungsten plate during operation below 1075 °C

  5. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  6. Thermocouple design for measuring temperatures of small insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.A. Hanson; R.C. Venette

    2013-01-01

    Contact thermocouples often are used to measure surface body temperature changes of insects during cold exposure. However, small temperature changes of minute insects can be difficult to detect, particularly during the measurement of supercooling points. We developed two thermocouple designs, which use 0.51 mm diameter or 0.127 mm diameter copper-constantan wires, to...

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of routine postoperative body temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Hester; Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Goossens, Astrid; Speelman, Peter; Legemate, Dink A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On surgical wards, body temperature is routinely measured, but there is no proof that this is useful for detecting postoperative infection. The aim of this study was to compare temperature measurements (the test) with the confirmed absence or presence of a postoperative infection (the

  8. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...... intermittently. For one of the materials, aerated concrete, the sorption curves are determined at three different temperatures....

  9. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air...

  10. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument

  11. Measurement of peak temperature along an optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A multimode silica-clad optical fiber with a liquid silicone core was used as a distributed-line peak-temperature sensor over a temperature range from ambient to 190 0 C. The maximum error was 2 0 C and was essentially independent of the length or position of the hot zone

  12. Temperature measurements in a wall stabilized steady flame using CARS

    KAUST Repository

    Sesha Giri, Krishna; Lacoste, Deanna; Damazo, Jason; Kwon, Eddie; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    -Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) thermometry as close as 275 μm to a convex wall cooled with water has been carried out. The standard deviation of mean temperatures is observed to be ~6.5% for high temperatures (>2000K) and ~14% in the lower range (<500K

  13. Implementation of Moderator Circulation Test Temperature Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yeong Muk; Hong, Seok Boong; Kim, Min Seok; Choi, Hwa Rim [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Shin [Chungnam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Moderator Circulation Test(MCT) facility is 1/4 scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. MCT is an equipment with 380 acrylic pipes instead of the heater rods and a preliminary measurement of velocity field using PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) is performed under the iso-thermal test conditions. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started implementation of MCT Temperature Measurement System (TMS) using multiple infrared sensors. To control multiple infrared sensors, MCT TMS is implemented using National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The MCT TMS is implemented to measure sensor data of multiple infrared sensors using the LabVIEW. The 35 sensor pipes of MCT TMS are divided into 2 ports to meet the minimum measurement time of 0.2 seconds. The software of MCT TMS is designed using collection function and processing function. The MCT TMS has the function of monitoring the states of multiple infrared sensors. The GUI screen of MCT TMS is composed of sensor pipe categories for user.

  14. Implementation of Moderator Circulation Test Temperature Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yeong Muk; Hong, Seok Boong; Kim, Min Seok; Choi, Hwa Rim; Kim, Hyung Shin

    2016-01-01

    Moderator Circulation Test(MCT) facility is 1/4 scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. MCT is an equipment with 380 acrylic pipes instead of the heater rods and a preliminary measurement of velocity field using PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) is performed under the iso-thermal test conditions. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started implementation of MCT Temperature Measurement System (TMS) using multiple infrared sensors. To control multiple infrared sensors, MCT TMS is implemented using National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The MCT TMS is implemented to measure sensor data of multiple infrared sensors using the LabVIEW. The 35 sensor pipes of MCT TMS are divided into 2 ports to meet the minimum measurement time of 0.2 seconds. The software of MCT TMS is designed using collection function and processing function. The MCT TMS has the function of monitoring the states of multiple infrared sensors. The GUI screen of MCT TMS is composed of sensor pipe categories for user

  15. Comparison of thermal properties of fish collagen and bovine collagen in the temperature range 298-670K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauza-Włodarczyk, Marlena; Kubisz, Leszek; Mielcarek, Sławomir; Włodarczyk, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The increased interest in fish collagen is a consequence of the risk of exposure to Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD) and the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), whose occurrence is associated with prions carried by bovine collagen. Collagen is the main biopolymer in living organisms and the main component of the skin and bones. Until the discovery of the BSE, bovine collagen had been widely used. The BSE epidemic increased the interest in new sources of collagen such as fish skin collagen (FSC) and its properties. Although the thermal properties of collagen originating from mammals have been well described, less attention has been paid to the thermal properties of FSC. Denaturation temperature is a particularly important parameter, depending on the collagen origin and hydration level. In the reported experiment, the free water and bound water release processes along with thermal denaturation process were studied by means of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Measurements were carried out using a DSC 7 instrument (Elmer-Perkin), in the temperature range 298-670K. The study material was FSC derived by acidic hydration method. The bovine Achilles tendon (BAT) collagen type I was used as the control material. The thermograms recorded revealed both, exothermic and endothermic peaks. For both materials, the peaks in the temperature range of 330-360K were assigned to the release of free water and bound water. The denaturation temperatures of FSC and BAT collagen were determined as 420K and 493K, respectively. Thermal decomposition process was observed at about 500K for FSC and at about 510K for BAT collagen. These results show that FSC is less resistant to high temperature than BAT collagen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Multi-channel temperature measurement system for automotive battery stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Radoslaw; Wojtkowski, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    A multi-channel temperature measurement system for monitoring of automotive battery stack is presented in the paper. The presented system is a complete battery temperature measuring system for hybrid / electric vehicles that incorporates multi-channel temperature measurements with digital temperature sensors communicating through 1-Wire buses, individual 1-Wire bus for each sensor for parallel computing (parallel measurements instead of sequential), FPGA device which collects data from sensors and translates it for CAN bus frames. CAN bus is incorporated for communication with car Battery Management System and uses additional CAN bus controller which communicates with FPGA device through SPI bus. The described system can parallel measure up to 12 temperatures but can be easily extended in the future in case of additional needs. The structure of the system as well as particular devices are described in the paper. Selected results of experimental investigations which show proper operation of the system are presented as well.

  18. Quantification of in situ temperature measurements on a PBI-based high temperature PEMFC unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Ali, Syed Talat; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The temperature is a very important operating parameter for all types of fuel cells. In the present work distributed in situ temperature measurements are presented on a polybenzimidazole based high temperature PEM fuel cell (HT-PEM). A total of 16 T-type thermocouples were embedded on both the an...

  19. Experimental determination of the temperature range of AlO molecular emission in laser-induced aluminum plasma in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon Villeurbanne (France); Lei, Wenqi [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon Villeurbanne (France); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zheng, Lijuan [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yu, Jin, E-mail: jin.yu@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon Villeurbanne (France); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Measurements with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) usually take place in the atmospheric air. For quantitative analysis of metallic elements, oxidation may represent an important issue which can significantly modify the stoichiometry of the plasma. Molecule formation in plasma should be therefore studied and taken into account in the LIBS practice. In this work, we experimentally investigated the temporal evolution and transformation of the plasma induced on an aluminum target by a nanosecond infrared (1064 nm) laser in the atmospheric air, in terms of its temperatures over a large interval of time from hundreds of nanoseconds to tens of microseconds. Such evolution was then correlated to the temporal evolution of the emission intensity from AlO molecules in the ablation plume. In particular, for a given ablation laser pulse energy, the appearance of the molecular emission while the plume cools down allows determining a minimal delay, τ{sub min}, which corresponds to a maximal value of the temperature, T{sub max}, below which the molecular emission begins to be clearly observed and to grow as a function of the delay. Such delay or such temperature indicates the longest delay or the lowest temperature for laser-induced plasma to be suitable for a correct analysis of metallic elements without significant influence of the alternation of the stoichiometry by oxidation. In our experiment, the values of τ{sub min} and T{sub max} have been determined for a range of ablation laser pulse energies from 5 mJ to 50 mJ. These values lie respectively in the range of 3 to 15 μs for τ{sub min}, and 4500 K to 6600 K in terms of the molecule temperature for T{sub max}. Beyond the practical interest for LIBS, our results provide also insights to the kinetics of the AlO molecule formation in laser-induced plasma. - Highlights: • Determination of the temperatures in laser-induced plasma up to tens of microseconds • Determination of the molecule temperature by fitting

  20. Liquidus temperature and optical properties measurement by containerless techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Collin D.

    1993-01-01

    Reactive alloy liquidus temperatures measured by conventional, contained techniques are often in error due to reactions with containers and gaseous impurities. This paper describes a new liquidus temperature measurement technique that avoids these problems by employing containerless processing. This technique relies on precise and accurate noncontact temperature measurements (NCTM), which are made possible by spectral emissivity values. The spectral emissivities, epsilon(sub lambda), are measured along with the optical properties (real, n, and imaginary, k, components of the index of refraction) using polarimetric techniques on electromagnetically levitated specimens. Results from work done at Vanderbilt University and Intersonics on the Ti-Al system are presented to demonstrate the above techniques.

  1. How is it possible to measure a nuclear temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods for the measurement of nuclear temperatures are summarized. The concepts of hot nuclei and temperature are defined. The nuclear equation of state is presented. The statistical theory of hot nuclei decay properties is analyzed. The obtention of the excitation energy from the recoil velocity measurement is considered in the case of complete and incomplete fusion. The measurements of temperature and excitation energy from the properties of decay products are reviewed. The study shows that no measurement method is perfect. Moreover, it is necessary to select events for which the degree of dissipation of the incident energy is estimated

  2. Outdoor surface temperature measurement: ground truth or lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skauli, Torbjorn

    2004-08-01

    Contact surface temperature measurement in the field is essential in trials of thermal imaging systems and camouflage, as well as for scene modeling studies. The accuracy of such measurements is challenged by environmental factors such as sun and wind, which induce temperature gradients around a surface sensor and lead to incorrect temperature readings. In this work, a simple method is used to test temperature sensors under conditions representative of a surface whose temperature is determined by heat exchange with the environment. The tested sensors are different types of thermocouples and platinum thermistors typically used in field trials, as well as digital temperature sensors. The results illustrate that the actual measurement errors can be much larger than the specified accuracy of the sensors. The measurement error typically scales with the difference between surface temperature and ambient air temperature. Unless proper care is taken, systematic errors can easily reach 10% of this temperature difference, which is often unacceptable. Reasonably accurate readings are obtained using a miniature platinum thermistor. Thermocouples can perform well on bare metal surfaces if the connection to the surface is highly conductive. It is pointed out that digital temperature sensors have many advantages for field trials use.

  3. Laser parameters of a Fe : ZnSe crystal in the 85-255-K temperature range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronov, AA; Kozlovskii, [No Value; Korostelin, YV; Podmar'kov, YP; Frolov, MP

    The temperature dependence of the efficiency of a laser based on a Fe:ZnSe crystal grown from the vapour phase by the free-growth method is studied in the 85-255-K temperature range. As the temperature was increased, the slope efficiency of the laser with respect to absorbed energy decreased from

  4. Measuring temperatures with modified Kleiber 270B pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osch, E.V. van.

    1995-05-01

    At ECN a fast pyrometer is being used as a diagnostic tool for plasma disruption simulation experiments on candidate plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion devices such as NET or ITER. The pyrometer is being used to measure the surface temperature response of the materials to short pulse high heat loads as induced by high power laser or electron beam, simulating the disrupting plasma's energy deposition. A procedure to measure surface temperatures without having to know surface emissivity in advance is described. The formulae needed in this procedure to obtain the correct temperature, starting from the initial incorrect temperature reading, are derived. Inversely, the formula to determine the emissivity of the surface when its temperature is known is equally derived. Finally, a small study on background level sensitivity is presented, showing the, in general, small effect of background on the temperature measurement. (orig.)

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE FREQUENCY-TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP OF THE DIELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY OF THE PZT PIEZOCERAMICS IN THE LOW FREQUENCY RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. ZOLOTAREVSKIY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of PZT piezoceramics in the low frequency range. Methodology. To obtain the frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics, a technique was used to determine the capacitance of the capacitor, between which plates the sample was placed. The value of the dielectric permittivity of the sample was calculated from the capacitor capacitance obtained. Findings. The frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics in the low frequency range has been obtained by the authors. The dielectric permittivity is not practically related to the frequency of the alternating voltage at a low temperature, with increasing in temperature its value increases and frequency relationship is observed. The temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics is satisfactorily described by the exponential functional dependence in the low-temperature range. The activation energy of the PZT piezoceramics polarization is determined from the graph of the dependence of the logarithm of the dielectric permittivity upon the inverse temperature. Different values of the activation energy for the two temperature regions prove on the existence of different mechanisms of the PZT piezoceramics polarization in the temperature range being investigated. Originality. The authors investigated the frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics in the low-frequency range. It is established that the temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics is satisfactorily described by an exponential functional relationship in the lowtemperature range. The activation energy of polarization is determined for two temperature sections. Practical value. The research results can be used to study the mechanism of polarization of

  6. Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark...... and wood particles treated with additive. A two-color technique with subtraction of the background light was used to estimate particle temperatures during experiments. A transmission-emission technique was used tomeasure the gas temperature in the reactor tube. Gas temperature measurements were in good...... agreement with thermocouple readings. Gas lines and bands from CO, CO2 and H2O can be observed in the spectra. CO was only observed at the first measuring port (100ms) with the strongest CO-signal seen during experiments with straw particles. Variations in gas concentration (CO2 and H2O) and the signal from...

  7. Common rectifier diodes in temperature measurement applications below 50 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervelae, J; Stenvall, A; Mikkonen, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we studied the use of common electronic semiconductor diodes in temperature measurements at cryogenic atmosphere. The motivation for this is the high price of calibrated cryogenic temperature sensors since there are some applications, like quench detection, in which a cheaper and a less accurate sensor would suffice. We measured the forward voltage as a function of temperature, V f (T), of several silicon rectifier diodes to determine the accuracy and interchangeability of the diodes. The experimental results confirmed that V f (T) of common rectifier diodes are similar to cryogenic sensor diodes, but the variability between two samples is much larger. The interchangeability of the diodes proved to be poor if absolute temperatures are to be measured. However for sensing changes in temperature they proved to be adequate and thus can be used to measure e.g. quench propagation or sense quench ignition at multiple locations with cheap price.

  8. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  9. Analysis and improvement of gas turbine blade temperature measurement error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Daniel, Ketui

    2015-01-01

    Gas turbine blade components are easily damaged; they also operate in harsh high-temperature, high-pressure environments over extended durations. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. In this study, measurement errors in turbine blade temperatures were analyzed, taking into account detector lens contamination, the reflection of environmental energy from the target surface, the effects of the combustion gas, and the emissivity of the blade surface. In this paper, each of the above sources of measurement error is discussed, and an iterative computing method for calculating blade temperature is proposed. (paper)

  10. Analysis and improvement of gas turbine blade temperature measurement error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Daniel, Ketui

    2015-10-01

    Gas turbine blade components are easily damaged; they also operate in harsh high-temperature, high-pressure environments over extended durations. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. In this study, measurement errors in turbine blade temperatures were analyzed, taking into account detector lens contamination, the reflection of environmental energy from the target surface, the effects of the combustion gas, and the emissivity of the blade surface. In this paper, each of the above sources of measurement error is discussed, and an iterative computing method for calculating blade temperature is proposed.

  11. Interlot variations of transition temperature range and force delivery in copper-nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei-Reynolds, Renée C; Kanavakis, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    The manufacturing process for copper-nickel-titanium archwires is technique sensitive. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the interlot consistency of the mechanical properties of copper-nickel-titanium wires from 2 manufacturers. Wires of 2 sizes (0.016 and 0.016 × 0.022 in) and 3 advertised austenite finish temperatures (27°C, 35°C, and 40°C) from 2 manufacturers were tested for transition temperature ranges and force delivery using differential scanning calorimetry and the 3-point bend test, respectively. Variations of these properties were analyzed for statistical significance by calculating the F statistic for equality of variances for transition temperature and force delivery in each group of wires. All statistical analyses were performed at the 0.05 level of significance. Statistically significant interlot variations in austenite finish were found for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.041) and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.048) wire categories, and in austenite start for the 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C wire category (P = 0.01). In addition, significant variations in force delivery were found between the 2 manufacturers for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.002), 0.016 in/35.0°C (P = 0.049), and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.031) wires. Orthodontic wires of the same material, dimension, and manufacturer but from different production lots do not always have similar mechanical properties. Clinicians should be aware that copper-nickel-titanium wires might not always deliver the expected force, even when they come from the same manufacturer, because of interlot variations in the performance of the material. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Qinglong; Kang Shichang; Xu Yanwei; Huang Jie; Fluegel, Wolfgang-Albert; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Yan Yuping

    2009-01-01

    The 'weekend effect' method (defined here as the average for Saturday through Monday minus the average for Wednesday through Friday) has been used to identify fingerprints of anthropogenic emissions. Based on daily maximum and minimum temperature series from the China Meteorological Administration homogenized dataset, the weekend effect in diurnal temperature range (DTR) at 71 stations with elevations above 2000 m asl in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1961-2004 is examined, and principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to cluster series into four subregions with similar weekend effect variability. The DTR demonstrates a much stronger negative weekend effect in autumn and shows larger positive values in winter, which provides a strong evidence of anthropogenic activity in this region, especially in the central TP. Analysis by topographic type and degree of urbanization shows a clear weekly cycle which cannot be explained by a microclimate effect. We hypothesize that the interaction with anthropogenic aerosols from local emissions and transported by atmospheric circulation may account for the weekly cycle in the TP. More caution should be paid to the driving mechanism of the weekend effect in the most remote and clear regions in the world.

  13. Constitutive modeling of polycarbonate over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Huamin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoxuan

    2017-02-01

    The mechanical behavior of polycarbonate was experimentally investigated over a wide range of strain rates (10^{-4} to 5× 103 s^{-1}) and temperatures (293 to 353 K). Compression tests under these conditions were performed using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Falling weight impact testing was carried out on an Instron Dynatup 9200 drop tower system. The rate- and temperature-dependent deformation behavior of polycarbonate was discussed in detail. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests were utilized to observe the glass (α ) transition and the secondary (β ) transition of polycarbonate. The DMA results indicate that the α and β transitions have a dramatic influence on the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The decompose/shift/reconstruct (DSR) method was utilized to decompose the storage modulus into the α and β components and extrapolate the entire modulus, the α-component modulus and the β-component modulus. Based on three previous models, namely, Mulliken-Boyce, G'Sell-Jonas and DSGZ, an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The model considers the contributions of both the α and β transitions to the mechanical behavior, and it has been implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine VUMAT. The model predictions are proven to essentially coincide with the experimental results during compression testing and falling weight impact testing.

  14. Global climate change: impact of diurnal temperature range on mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Ou, Chun-Quan; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Zhou, Qin; Shen, Gi-Chuan; Chen, Ping-Yan; Guo, Yuming

    2013-04-01

    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator associated with global climate change, but little is known about the effects of DTR on mortality. We examined the effects of DTR on cause-/age-/education-specific mortality in Guangzhou, a subtropical city in China during 2003-2010. A quasi-Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the effects of DTR, after controlling for daily mean temperature, air pollutants, season and day of the week. A 1 °C increase in DTR at lag 0-4 days was associated with a 0.47% (95% confidence interval: 0.01%-0.93%) increase in non-accidental mortality. Stroke mortality was most sensitive to DTR. Female, the elderly and those with low education were more susceptible to DTR than male, the youth and those with high education, respectively. Our findings suggest that vulnerable subpopulations should pay more attention to protect themselves from unstable daily weather. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solubility of hydrogen in water in a broad temperature and pressure range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranenko, V.I.; Kirov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    In the coolant of water-water reactors, as a result of radiolytic decomposition of water and chemical additives (hydrazine and ammonia) and saturation of the make-up water of the first loop with free hydrogen in order to suppress radiolysis, 30-60 ml/kg of hydrogen is present in normal conditions. On being released from the water, it is free to accumulate in micropores of the metals, resulting in hydrogen embrittlement; gas accumulates in stagnant zones, with deterioration in heat transfer in the first loop and corresponding difficulty in the use of the reactor and the whole reactor loop. To determine the amount of free hydrogen and hydrogen dissolved in water in different elements of the first loop, it is necessary to know the limiting solubility of hydrogen in water at different temperatures and pressures, and also to have the corresponding theoretical dependences. The experimental data on the solubility of hydrogen in water are nonsystematic and do not cover the parameter ranges of modern nuclear power plants (P = 10-30 MPa, T = 260-370C). Therefore, the aim of the present work is to establish a well-founded method of calculating the limiting solubility of hydrogen in water and, on this basis, to compile tables of the limiting solubility of hydrogen in water at pressures 0.1-50 MPa and temperatures 0-370C

  16. Hot ductility of a microalloyed steel in the intermediate temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsouni, A.; Bouzabata, B.; Montheillet, F.

    1995-01-01

    In this study hot ductility has been determined from tensile tests for two states of a microalloyed steel: after casting and after rolling processes. Hot deformations were carried out at speeds varying from 10 -4 s -1 to 10 -2 s -1 and temperatures from 750 C to 1100 C. Two heat treatments were chosen before hot deformation. A ferrite precipitation is observed at austenitic grain boundaries in the intercritical temperature range, causing intergranular embrittlement. Ductility trough is deeper in the as-cast samples due to the growth of large grain size. Also, precipitation makes the hot ductility curve wider and deeper around 900 C. The results show a decrease in hot ductility. Minimum values of hot ductility are determined for (ITC) treatment at 900 C and for (DTC) treatment at 800 C. For this second treatment another decrease in hot ductility was observed at 900 C. We can explain hot ductility losses by the presence of precipitates in the austenitic region and the presence of the two-phase structure in the intercritical region. (orig.)

  17. Effect of cutoff radius, long range interaction and temperature controller on thermodynamic properties of fluids: Methanol as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Abdalla; Jaradat, Adnan; Hamdan, Bushra; Abu-Ghazleh, Hind

    2018-04-01

    The best spherical cutoff radius, long range interaction and temperature controller were determined using surface tension, density, and diffusion coefficients of van Leeuwen and Smit methanol. A quite good range of cutoff radii from 0.75 to 1.45 nm has been studied on Coulomb cut-off and particle mesh Ewald (PME) long range interaction to determine the best cutoff radius and best long range interaction as well for four sets of temperature: 200, 230, 270 and 300 K. To determine the best temperature controller, the cutoff radius of 1.25 nm was fixed using PME long range interaction on calculating the above properties at low temperature range: 200-300 K.

  18. Soil Temperature Variability in Complex Terrain measured using Distributed a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Link, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical environmental controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Rates of carbon cycling, mineral weathering, infiltration and snow melt are all influenced by Ts. Although broadly reflective of the climate, Ts is sensitive to local variations in cover (vegetative, litter, snow), topography (slope, aspect, position), and soil properties (texture, water content), resulting in a spatially and temporally complex distribution of Ts across the landscape. Understanding and quantifying the processes controlled by Ts requires an understanding of that distribution. Relatively few spatially distributed field Ts data exist, partly because traditional Ts data are point measurements. A relatively new technology, fiber optic distributed temperature system (FO-DTS), has the potential to provide such data but has not been rigorously evaluated in the context of remote, long term field research. We installed FO-DTS in a small experimental watershed in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in the Owyhee Mountains of SW Idaho. The watershed is characterized by complex terrain and a seasonal snow cover. Our objectives are to: (i) evaluate the applicability of fiber optic DTS to remote field environments and (ii) to describe the spatial and temporal variability of soil temperature in complex terrain influenced by a variable snow cover. We installed fiber optic cable at a depth of 10 cm in contrasting snow accumulation and topographic environments and monitored temperature along 750 m with DTS. We found that the DTS can provide accurate Ts data (+/- .4°C) that resolves Ts changes of about 0.03°C at a spatial scale of 1 m with occasional calibration under conditions with an ambient temperature range of 50°C. We note that there are site-specific limitations related cable installation and destruction by local fauna. The FO-DTS provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variability of Ts in a landscape. We found strong seasonal

  19. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  20. Comparison of physically based constitutive models characterizing armor steel over wide temperature and strain rate ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zejian; Huang, Fenglei

    2012-01-01

    Both descriptive and predictive capabilities of five physically based constitutive models (PB, NNL, ZA, VA, and RK) are investigated and compared systematically, in characterizing plastic behavior of the 603 steel at temperatures ranging from 288 to 873 K, and strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 4500 s −1 . Determination of the constitutive parameters is introduced in detail for each model. Validities of the established models are checked by strain rate jump tests performed under different loading conditions. The results show that the RK and NNL models have better performance in the description of material behavior, especially the work-hardening effect, while the PB and VA models predict better. The inconsistency that is observed between the capabilities of description and prediction of the models indicates the existence of the minimum number of required fitting data, reflecting the degree of a model's requirement for basic data in parameter calibration. It is also found that the description capability of a model is dependent to a large extent on both its form and the number of its constitutive parameters, while the precision of prediction relies largely on the performance of description. In the selection of constitutive models, the experimental data and the constitutive models should be considered synthetically to obtain a better efficiency in material behavior characterization

  1. Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the 500-1150 K temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Risueno, E. [CIC Energigune, Parque Tecnologico, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava, Spain. (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First heating cycle acts as a annealing, relieving the surface stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress relieving occurs mainly above 900 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity decreases between 0.35 and 0.10 in the 2.5-22 {mu}m spectral range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity increases linearly with temperature, with the same slope for {lambda} > 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between resistivity and emissivity by means of Hagen-Rubens relation. - Abstract: Thermal radiative emissivity is related to the optical and electrical properties of materials, and it is a key parameter required in a large number of industrial applications. In the case of Ti-6Al-4V, spectral emissivity experimental data are not available for the range of temperatures between 400 and 1200 K, where almost all industrial applications take place. The experimental results in this paper show that the normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength from a value of about 0.35 at 2.5 {mu}m to about 0.10 at 22 {mu}m. At the same time, the spectral emissivity shows a slight linear increase with temperature between 500 and 1150 K, with approximately the same slope for all wavelengths. Additionally, the influence of the samples thermal history on the emissivity is studied. A strong decrease in the emissivity values appears due to the effect of surface stress relaxation processes. This means that the radiative properties of this alloy strongly depend on the surface stress state. A thermal treatment to relieve the surface stress should be carried out to achieve a steady state of the radiative properties. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is found between the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity obtained using conventional measurements and the one obtained from the emissivity experimental results by using the Hagen-Rubens equation.

  2. Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in the 500–1150 K temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Fernández, L.; Risueño, E.; Pérez-Sáez, R.B.; Tello, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First heating cycle acts as a annealing, relieving the surface stresses. ► Stress relieving occurs mainly above 900 K. ► Emissivity decreases between 0.35 and 0.10 in the 2.5–22 μm spectral range. ► Emissivity increases linearly with temperature, with the same slope for λ > 10 μm. ► Good agreement between resistivity and emissivity by means of Hagen–Rubens relation. - Abstract: Thermal radiative emissivity is related to the optical and electrical properties of materials, and it is a key parameter required in a large number of industrial applications. In the case of Ti–6Al–4V, spectral emissivity experimental data are not available for the range of temperatures between 400 and 1200 K, where almost all industrial applications take place. The experimental results in this paper show that the normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength from a value of about 0.35 at 2.5 μm to about 0.10 at 22 μm. At the same time, the spectral emissivity shows a slight linear increase with temperature between 500 and 1150 K, with approximately the same slope for all wavelengths. Additionally, the influence of the samples thermal history on the emissivity is studied. A strong decrease in the emissivity values appears due to the effect of surface stress relaxation processes. This means that the radiative properties of this alloy strongly depend on the surface stress state. A thermal treatment to relieve the surface stress should be carried out to achieve a steady state of the radiative properties. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is found between the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity obtained using conventional measurements and the one obtained from the emissivity experimental results by using the Hagen–Rubens equation.

  3. Detection of irradiated foods by the thermoluminescence. Relationships between the temperature ranges of integrating TL glow curves and TL glow ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Masao; Goto, Michiko; Todoriki, Setsuko; Hagiwara, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Our study demonstrated that the effects of the several temperature ranges for integrating TL glow intensity on the TL glow ratios by using spice-set purchased at a Turkish air port. The spice set had no labeling of irradiation feeds, but nine of 12 spices were judged as irradiated food in this study. Those temperature ranges were defined by evaluating the glow curves of irradiated TLD-100 chip (167-230degC), TLD-100 disc (177-238degC) and Dolomite element (145-258degC). Those are relatively stable and the difference of typical glow peak temperatures of TLD-100 disc in two institutes was less than 2%. On the other hand, those of TLD-100 tip was shift to higher temperature side at about 4degC because of declining of thermal conductance. The temperature ranges defined by TLD-100 were showed that discriminate more clearly between irradiated and nonirradiated spices compared with the full temperature range of TL measurement (70-400degC). With the exception of low glow intensity, background measurement for estimating net glow intensity was not necessary because TL glow ratio was hardly influenced whether the background measured or not. (author)

  4. Electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC).

  5. The electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC). (author)

  6. Temperature measurement in low pressure plasmas. Temperaturmessungen im Niederdruckplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbauer, K.A.; Wilting, H.; Schramm, G. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Histologie und Embryologie)

    1989-11-01

    The present work discusses the influence of various parameters on the substrate temperature in a low pressure plasma. The measurement method chosen utilized Signotherm (Merck) temperature sensors embedded in silicon between two glass substrates. All measurements were made in a 200 G Plasma Processor from Technics Plasma GmbH. The substrate temperature is dependent on the process time, the RF power, the process gas and the position in the chamber. The substrate temperature increases with increasing process time and increasing power. Due to the location of the microwave port from the magnetron to the chamber, the substrate temperature is highest in the center of the chamber. Measurements performed in an air plasma yielded higher results than in an oxygen plasma. (orig.).

  7. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshioka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage were measured at 0.14−350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm−2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V−1s−1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  8. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hironori; Hirata, Kazuto

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage) were measured at 0.14-350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm-2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V-1s-1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  9. Development of a wide range vortex shedding flowmeter for high temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    A flowmeter was required to measure recirculating helium gas flow over a wide range of conditions in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core flow simulator, the ORNL Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL). The flow measurement requirements of the CFTL exceeded the proven performance of any single conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a special purpose vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was developed. A single flowmeter capable of meeting all the CFTL requirements would provide significant economic and performance advantages in the operation of the loop. The development, conceptual design, and final design of a modified VSFM are described. The results of extensive flow calibration of the flowmeter at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station (CEES) are presented. The report closes with recommendations for application of the VSFM to the CFTL and for future development work.

  10. Technology and education: First approach for measuring temperature with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    This poster session presents some ideas and approaches to understand concepts of thermal equilibrium, temperature and heat in order to bulid a man-nature relationship in a harmonious and responsible manner, emphasizing the interaction between science and technology, without neglecting the relationship of the environment and society, an approach to sustainability. It is proposed the development of practices that involve the use of modern technology, of easy access and low cost to measure temperature. We believe that the Arduino microcontroller and some temperature sensors can open the doors of innovation to carry out such practices. In this work we present some results of simple practices presented to a population of students between the ages of 16 and 17 years old. The practices in this proposal are: Zero law of thermodynamics and the concept of temperature, calibration of thermometers and measurement of temperature for heating and cooling of three different substances under the same physical conditions. Finally the student is asked to make an application that involves measuring of temperature and other physical parameters. Some suggestions are: to determine the temperature at which we take some food, measure the temperature difference at different rooms of a house, housing constructions that favour optimal condition, measure the temperature of different regions, measure of temperature trough different colour filters, solar activity and UV, propose applications to understand current problems such as global warming, etc. It is concluded that the Arduino practices and electrical sensors increase the cultural horizon of the students while awaking their interest to understand their operation, basic physics and its application from a modern perspective.

  11. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Yang, P.E.; Lin, Y.P.; Lin, B.Y.; Chen, H.J.; Lai, R.C.; Cheng, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well

  12. Spectroscopic analysis applied to temperature measurement in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieffe-Prevost, P.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma temperature is defined only if the plasma is in a state near thermodynamic equilibrium. This plasma state is analysed in detail and spectroscopic methods for measuring the temperature are discussed. As an application the hydrogen arc of the National Institute of Metrology of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (Paris) is briefly described [fr

  13. Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a vessel for handling molten metal having an interior refractory lining, apparatus for continuous high temperature measurement of the molten metal. It comprises a thermowell; the thermowell containing a multiplicity of thermocouples; leads being coupled to a means for continuously indicating the temperature of the molten metal in the vessel

  14. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  15. Temperature measurement in a compressible flow field using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mcdaniel, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The thermometric capability of a two-line fluorescence technique using iodine seed molecules in air is investigated analytically and verified experimentally in a known steady compressible flow field. Temperatures ranging from 165 to 295 K were measured in the flowfield using two iodine transitions accessed with a 30-GHz dye-laser scan near 543 nm. The effect of pressure broadening on temperature measurement is evaluated.

  16. Measurement of the Thermal Expansion Coefficient for Ultra-High Temperatures up to 3000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompan, T. A.; Kondratiev, S. V.; Korenev, A. S.; Puhov, N. F.; Inochkin, F. M.; Kruglov, S. K.; Bronshtein, I. G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to a new high-temperature dilatometer, a part of the State Primary Standard of the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) unit. The dilatometer is designed for investigation and certification of materials for TEC standards in the range of extremely high temperatures. The critical review of existing methods of TEC measurements is given. Also, the design, principles of operation and metrological parameters of the new device are described. The main attention is paid to the system of machine vision that allows accurate measurement of elongation at high temperatures. The results of TEC measurements for graphite GIP-4, single crystal Al2O3, and some other materials are also presented.

  17. High Resolution and Large Dynamic Range Resonant Pressure Sensor Based on Q-Factor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Stell, Christopher B. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Vorperian, Vatche (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure sensor has a high degree of accuracy over a wide range of pressures. Using a pressure sensor relying upon resonant oscillations to determine pressure, a driving circuit drives such a pressure sensor at resonance and tracks resonant frequency and amplitude shifts with changes in pressure. Pressure changes affect the Q-factor of the resonating portion of the pressure sensor. Such Q-factor changes are detected by the driving/sensing circuit which in turn tracks the changes in resonant frequency to maintain the pressure sensor at resonance. Changes in the Q-factor are reflected in changes of amplitude of the resonating pressure sensor. In response, upon sensing the changes in the amplitude, the driving circuit changes the force or strength of the electrostatic driving signal to maintain the resonator at constant amplitude. The amplitude of the driving signals become a direct measure of the changes in pressure as the operating characteristics of the resonator give rise to a linear response curve for the amplitude of the driving signal. Pressure change resolution is on the order of 10(exp -6) torr over a range spanning from 7,600 torr to 10(exp -6) torr. No temperature compensation for the pressure sensor of the present invention is foreseen. Power requirements for the pressure sensor are generally minimal due to the low-loss mechanical design of the resonating pressure sensor and the simple control electronics.

  18. Time-Resolved Surface Temperature Measurement for Pulsed Ablative Thrusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... The diagnostic draws on heritage from the experimental dynamic crack propagation community which has used photovoltaic infrared detectors to measure temperature rise in materials in the process of fracture...

  19. Device for measuring the temperature of flowing hot gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R D

    1977-05-12

    The invention pertains to a device to measure the temperature of a hot gas flowing through a closed tube. The device will have a simple and inexpensive design and avoid heat losses due to heat radiation near the thermal sensor.

  20. High temperature spectral emissivity measurement using integral blackbody method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yijie; Dong, Wei; Lin, Hong; Yuan, Zundong; Bloembergen, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Spectral emissivity is a critical material's thermos-physical property for heat design and radiation thermometry. A prototype instrument based upon an integral blackbody method was developed to measure material's spectral emissivity above 1000 °. The system was implemented with an optimized commercial variable-high-temperature blackbody, a high speed linear actuator, a linear pyrometer, and an in-house designed synchronization circuit. A sample was placed in a crucible at the bottom of the blackbody furnace, by which the sample and the tube formed a simulated blackbody which had an effective total emissivity greater than 0.985. During the measurement, the sample was pushed to the end opening of the tube by a graphite rod which was actuated through a pneumatic cylinder. A linear pyrometer was used to monitor the brightness temperature of the sample surface through the measurement. The corresponding opto-converted voltage signal was fed and recorded by a digital multi-meter. A physical model was proposed to numerically evaluate the temperature drop along the process. Tube was discretized as several isothermal cylindrical rings, and the temperature profile of the tube was measurement. View factors between sample and rings were calculated and updated along the whole pushing process. The actual surface temperature of the sample at the end opening was obtained. Taking advantages of the above measured voltage profile and the calculated true temperature, spectral emissivity under this temperature point was calculated.

  1. Lagged effect of diurnal temperature range on mortality in a subtropical megacity of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have found extreme temperature can increase the risk of mortality. However, it is not clear whether extreme diurnal temperature range (DTR is associated with daily disease-specific mortality, and how season might modify any association. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the acute effect of DTR on mortality and identify whether season is a modifier of the DTR effect. METHODS: The distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM was applied to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of DTR on deaths (non-accidental mortality (NAD, cardiovascular disease (CVD, respiratory disease (RD and cerebrovascular disease (CBD in the full year, the cold season and the warm season. RESULTS: A non-linear relationship was consistently found between extreme DTR and mortality. Immediate effects of extreme low DTR on all types of mortality were stronger than those of extreme high DTR in the full year. The cumulative effects of extreme DTRs increased with the increment of lag days for all types of mortality in cold season, and they were greater for extreme high DTRs than those of extreme low DTRs. In hot season, the cumulative effects for extreme low DTRs increased with the increment of lag days, but for extreme high DTR they reached maxima at a lag of 13 days for all types of mortality except for CBD(at lag6 days, and then decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that extreme DTR is an independent risk factor of daily mortality, and season is a modifier of the association of DTR with daily mortality.

  2. Improving the spectral measurement accuracy based on temperature distribution and spectra-temperature relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Feng, Jinchao; Liu, Pengyu; Sun, Zhonghua; Li, Gang; Jia, Kebin

    2018-05-01

    Temperature is usually considered as a fluctuation in near-infrared spectral measurement. Chemometric methods were extensively studied to correct the effect of temperature variations. However, temperature can be considered as a constructive parameter that provides detailed chemical information when systematically changed during the measurement. Our group has researched the relationship between temperature-induced spectral variation (TSVC) and normalized squared temperature. In this study, we focused on the influence of temperature distribution in calibration set. Multi-temperature calibration set selection (MTCS) method was proposed to improve the prediction accuracy by considering the temperature distribution of calibration samples. Furthermore, double-temperature calibration set selection (DTCS) method was proposed based on MTCS method and the relationship between TSVC and normalized squared temperature. We compare the prediction performance of PLS models based on random sampling method and proposed methods. The results from experimental studies showed that the prediction performance was improved by using proposed methods. Therefore, MTCS method and DTCS method will be the alternative methods to improve prediction accuracy in near-infrared spectral measurement.

  3. Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2) in the temperature range 4.2-40K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowski, K.; Ratalowicz, J.; Zdanowicz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Results on electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity measured in the temperature range 4.2-40 K are presented for single-crystal and polycrystalline samples of Cd 3 As 2 . Hall effect has been studied at temperatures of 4.2, 77, and 300K. The calculated value of the conduction electron concentration was in the range 1.87-1.95 10 24 m -3 . Electrical resistivity of all investigated samples was independent of temperature up to about 10K and increased slowsly at higher temperatures. The thermal conductivity shows a maximum in the region in which the lattice component of thermal conductivity dominates. The strong anistropy of the lattice component determines the anisotropy of the total thermal conductivity. The electronic component of thermal conductivity does not exhibit any anisotropy and shows a maximum at a temperature of about 300 K

  4. Simultaneous temperature measurement of ionospheric plasma and neutral atmosphere with K-10-11 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murasato, Yukio; Kaneko, Osamu; Sasaki, Susumu; Kawashima, Nobuki; Kibune, Tadashi.

    1976-01-01

    Ion temperature and neutral atmospheric temperature in lower ionospheric layer were measured by the ''Shadow Method'', which has been developed and improved by the authors. The principle of the method, which utilizes the fact that the shadow due to the reduction of density of medium behind on obstacle depends upon the flow velocity and the temperature of the medium, is briefly explained together with the apparatus used for the measurement. A pair of the Langmuir probes with the interval of 44 mm was used for the measurement of ion temperature. For the measurement of the neutral atmospheric temperature, its density was measured with the ionization gauge. The measuring system was mounted on the K-10-11 rocket, and launched from KSC at 2 p.m., September 24, 1975. Although the rocket itself reached its highest altitude of 196 km, the temperature measurement was performed between the altitude of 80 km and 140 km. The measured temperatures of ions, neutral atmosphere, and electrons are presented as the functions of altitude. It is confirmed that the temperatures of ions and neutral atmosphere are lower than that of electrons in that range of altitude. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  6. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  7. Measurement of the temperature distribution inside the power cable using distributed temperature system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Jakub; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the power cables are manufactured to fulfill the following condition - the highest allowable temperature of the cable during normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature at short circuit conditions cannot exceed the condition of the maximum allowable internal temperature. The distribution of the electric current through the conductor leads to the increase of the amplitude of electrons in the crystal lattice of the cables material. The consequence of this phenomenon is the increase of friction and the increase of collisions between particles inside the material, which causes the temperature increase of the carrying elements. The temperature increase is unwanted phenomena, because it is causing losses. In extreme cases, the long-term overload leads to the cable damaging or fire. This paper deals with the temperature distribution measurement inside the power cables using distributed temperature system. With cooperation with Kabex company, the tube containing optical fibers was installed into the center of power cables. These fibers, except telecommunications purposes, can be also used as sensors in measurements carrying out with distributed temperature system. These systems use the optical fiber as a sensor and allow the continual measurement of the temperature along the whole cable in real time with spatial resolution 1 m. DTS systems are successfully deployed in temperature measurement applications in industry areas yet. These areas include construction, drainage, hot water etc. Their advantages are low cost, resistance to electromagnetic radiation and the possibility of real time monitoring at the distance of 8 km. The location of the optical fiber in the center of the power cable allows the measurement of internal distribution of the temperature during overloading the cable. This measurement method can be also used for prediction of short-circuit and its exact location.

  8. Analysis of acoustic reflectors for SAW temperature sensor and wireless measurement of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Kim, Seong Hoon; Jeong, Jae Kee; Shin, Beom Soo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a wireless and non power SAW (surface acoustic wave) temperature sensor was developed. The single inter digital transducer (IDT) of SAW temperature sensor of which resonance frequency is 434 MHz was fabricated on 128.deg rot-X LiNbO 3 piezoelectric substrate by semiconductor processing technology. To find optimal acoustic reflector for SAW temperature sensor, various kinds of acoustic reflectors were fabricated and their reflection characteristics were analyzed. The IDT type acoustic reflector showed better reflection characteristic than other reflectors. The wireless temperature sensing system consisting of SAW temperature sensor with dipole antenna and a microprocessor based control circuit with dipole antenna for transmitting signal to activate the SAW temperature sensor and receiving the signal from SAW temperature sensor was developed. The result with wireless SAW temperature sensing system showed that the frequency of SAW temperature sensor was linearly decreased with the increase of temperature in the range of 40 to 80.deg.C and the developed wireless SAW temperature sensing system showed the excellent performance with the coefficient of determination of 0.99

  9. Errors detection in viscosity temperature measurements. Pt. B. Results, usefullness. Fehlersuche bei Viskositaet-Temperatur-Messungen. T. B. Resultate, Nuetzlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwen, R. (BASF, Farbenlaboratorium, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)); Puhl, H. (BASF, Ammoniaklaboratorium, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany))

    1992-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity spreads often over a large range. It can be measured with less then one per cent error with usual effort, but the result cannot yet be controlled to the same accuracy: Graphic methods are far too incorrect and the numerous approximate equations given in literature do not adequately represent the true shape of the curves of all types of substances at the whole range of interesting temperatures. The different slopes and curvatures of the temperature dependence of the dynamic and kinematic viscosities can now be represented by means of one-term or multi-term exponential-functions with a maximum of eight coefficients. The Antoine equation is included in this investigation and the Ubbelohde-Walter-equation for comparison only. Tests on more than 400 data sets show, that there is no single equation to cope with all existing slopes. The numerical values of the coefficients are determined by the Marquardt statistical search method; the starting values are obtained by fixed rules. Using a non-linear regression of exponential sums, the method exactly describes the viscosity-temperature-behavior of normal liquids and real gases as well as the supercritical region over any desired range starting with four measured values and being complete with nine measured values or more; it allows tabellation, interpolation and, with caution, extrapolation. In the first part published, the problem and the mathematic procedure were discussed. The following publication presents the results and considers the applicability. (orig.).

  10. High-temperature magnetisation measurements on the pearlite transformation kinetics in nearly eutectoid steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, N.H. van; Offerman, S.E.; Klaasse, J.C.P.; Sietsma, J.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2004-01-01

    The isothermal transformation kinetics of the austenite to pearlite transformation in (nearly) eutectoid steel was studied by in situ magnetisation measurements at high temperatures. In eutectoid steel the high temperature austenite (γ-Fe) phase decomposes into pearlite, which consists of a lamellar structure of ferrite (α-Fe) and cementite (Fe 3 C). Below the Curie temperature of ferrite T C =1043 K the ferrite phase fraction can be probed by the magnetisation measurements. For our nearly eutectoid steel not only pearlite but also a small fraction of pro-eutectoid ferrite is formed. The transformation kinetics of the pearlite and the pro-eutectoid ferrite is studied by magnetisation measurements as a function of the isothermal transformation temperature and compared with the results from additional dilatometry measurements. The transformation kinetics was found to vary over four orders of magnitude over the range of transformation temperatures and was compared with model predictions

  11. The effects of spatial sampling choices on MR temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nick; Vyas, Urvi; de Bever, Josh; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantify the effects that spatial sampling parameters have on the accuracy of magnetic resonance temperature measurements during high intensity focused ultrasound treatments. Spatial resolution and position of the sampling grid were considered using experimental and simulated data for two different types of high intensity focused ultrasound heating trajectories (a single point and a 4-mm circle) with maximum measured temperature and thermal dose volume as the metrics. It is demonstrated that measurement accuracy is related to the curvature of the temperature distribution, where regions with larger spatial second derivatives require higher resolution. The location of the sampling grid relative temperature distribution has a significant effect on the measured values. When imaging at 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm(3) resolution, the measured values for maximum temperature and volume dosed to 240 cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) or greater varied by 17% and 33%, respectively, for the single-point heating case, and by 5% and 18%, respectively, for the 4-mm circle heating case. Accurate measurement of the maximum temperature required imaging at 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm(3) resolution for the single-point heating case and 2.0 × 2.0 × 5.0 mm(3) resolution for the 4-mm circle heating case. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Mid-IR absorption cross-sections are measured for methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol over 2800-3400 cm-1 (2.9-3.6 μm) spectral region. Measurements are carried out using a Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with temperatures ranging

  13. Temperature measurement in the adult emergency department: oral, tympanic membrane and temporal artery temperatures versus rectal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijur, Polly E; Shah, Purvi D; Esses, David

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to compare agreement between three non-invasive measures of temperature and rectal temperatures and to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of these measures to detect a rectal temperature of 38°C or higher. We conducted a study of the diagnostic accuracy of oral, tympanic membrane (TM) and temporal artery (TA) thermometry to measure fever in an urban emergency department (ED). Data were collected from adult patients who received rectal temperature measurement. Bland-Altman analysis was performed; sensitivity, specificity and 95% CIs were calculated. 987 patients were enrolled. 36% of the TM and TA readings differed by 0.5°C or more from rectal temperatures, 50% of oral temperatures. TM measures were most precise-the SD of the difference from rectal was 0.4°C TM, and 0.6°C for oral and TA (ptemperature of 38°C or higher were: 37.0%, 68.3% and 71.1%, respectively (oral vs TM and TA pmethods (pmethods met benchmarks for diagnostic accuracy using the criterion of 38°C to detect rectal temperature of 38°C. A TM cutpoint of 37.5°C provides maximum diagnostic accuracy of the three non-invasive measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Extended-range forecasting of Chinese summer surface air temperature and heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Because of growing demand from agricultural planning, power management and activity scheduling, extended-range (5-30-day lead) forecasting of summer surface air temperature (SAT) and heat waves over China is carried out in the present study via spatial-temporal projection models (STPMs). Based on the training data during 1960-1999, the predictability sources are found to propagate from Europe, Northeast Asia, and the tropical Pacific, to influence the intraseasonal 10-80 day SAT over China. STPMs are therefore constructed using the projection domains, which are determined by these previous predictability sources. For the independent forecast period (2000-2013), the STPMs can reproduce EOF-filtered 30-80 day SAT at all lead times of 5-30 days over most part of China, and observed 30-80 and 10-80 day SAT at 25-30 days over eastern China. Significant pattern correlation coefficients account for more than 50% of total forecasts at all 5-30-day lead times against EOF-filtered and observed 30-80 day SAT, and at a 20-day lead time against observed 10-80 day SAT. The STPMs perform poorly in reproducing 10-30 day SAT. Forecasting for the first two modes of 10-30 day SAT only shows useful skill within a 15-day lead time. Forecasting for the third mode of 10-30 day SAT is useless after a 10-day lead time. The forecasted heat waves over China are determined by the reconstructed SAT which is the summation of the forecasted 10-80 day SAT and the lower frequency (longer than 80-day) climatological SAT. Over a large part of China, the STPMs can forecast more than 30% of heat waves within a 15-day lead time. In general, the STPMs demonstrate the promising skill for extended-range forecasting of Chinese summer SAT and heat waves.

  15. Ring to measure magnetic permeability at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    While for magn. permeability measurements at room temperature a split-coil permeameter is used (see photo 7708553X), for measurements at cryogenic temperatures the excitation and the flux-measuring coils are wound directly on the ring sample by means of a toroidal winding machine. The ring in the picture was made to select the mild steel for the ISR Prototype Superconducting Quadrupole(see photo 7702690X). The excitation coil was wound with 1 mm diam. copper wire and had about 2730 turns. For measurements at 4.2 K a max. current of 90 A was used. See also photos 7708553X,7708100,7708103.

  16. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgrim, C. C. [Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK and Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Heyes, A. L. [Energy Technology and Innovation Initiative, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Feist, J. P. [Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  17. Multi-spectral temperature measurement method for gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Feng, Chi; Wang, Lixin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    One of the basic methods to improve both the thermal efficiency and power output of a gas turbine is to increase the firing temperature. However, gas turbine blades are easily damaged in harsh high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. There are unsolved problems in blade temperature measurement, relating to the emissivity of the blade surface, influences of the combustion gases, and reflections of radiant energy from the surroundings. In this study, the emissivity of blade surfaces has been measured, with errors reduced by a fitting method, influences of the combustion gases have been calculated for different operational conditions, and a reflection model has been built. An iterative computing method is proposed for calculating blade temperatures, and the experimental results show that this method has high precision.

  18. Measuring gas temperature during spin-exchange optical pumping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, E.; Jiang, C. Y.; Brown, D. R.; Robertson, L.; Crow, L.; Tong, X.

    2016-04-01

    The gas temperature inside a Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) laser-pumping polarized 3He cell has long been a mystery. Different experimental methods were employed to measure this temperature but all were based on either modelling or indirect measurement. To date there has not been any direct experimental measurement of this quantity. Here we present the first direct measurement using neutron transmission to accurately determine the number density of 3He, the temperature is obtained using the ideal gas law. Our result showed a surprisingly high gas temperature of 380°C, compared to the 245°C of the 3He cell wall temperature and 178°C of the optical pumping oven temperature. This experiment result may be used to further investigate the unsolved puzzle of the "X-factor" in the SEOP process which places an upper bound to the 3He polarization that can be achieved. Additional spin relaxation mechanisms might exist due to the high gas temperature, which could explain the origin of the X-factor.

  19. The ageing kinetics of CF3 cast stainless steel in the temperature range 3000C to 400OC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhurst, K.N.; Pumphrey, P.H.

    1988-11-01

    The primary coolant pump casings for Sizewell 'B' are made from castings of ASME SA351 CF3 steel which, although predominantly austenitic, is required to contain a small proportion of ferrite. Previous studies have shown that such steels are susceptible to hardening of the ferrite, and associated losses in toughness, as a result of thermal ageing for long times at the service temperature (∼ 300 0 C). For this reason, toughness tests are to be carried out on representative castings made by the Sizewell 'B' pump casing manufacturer. The purpose of these tests is to demonstrate adequate end-of-life fracture resistance, using material which has been given an accelerated ageing treatment. The identification and validation of a suitable ageing treatment is the subject of this Report. Ageing kinetics have been measured for ageing temperatures in the range 300 to 400 0 C, from the results of Charpy impact tests on material from the castings procured for the main fracture programme. Castings with ferrite levels of 15, 25 and 35% have been studied. The losses in impact toughness have been related to the kinetics of ferrite strengthening using microhardness measurements, and to microstructural changes using Field Ion Atom Probe analysis. (author)

  20. Effects of diurnal temperature range on mortality in Hefei city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Xiao, Chang-chun; Li, Yu-rong; Zhang, Jun-qing; Zhai, Hao-yuan; Geng, Xi-ya; Ding, Rui; Zhai, Jin-xia

    2018-05-01

    Although several studies indicated an association between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and mortality, the results about modifiers are inconsistent, and few studies were conducted in developing inland country. This study aims to evaluate the effects of DTR on cause-specific mortality and whether season, gender, or age might modify any association in Hefei city, China, during 2007-2016. Quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression models combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) were applied to evaluate the relationships between DTR and non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. We observed a J-shaped relationship between DTR and cause-specific mortality. With a DTR of 8.3 °C as the reference, the cumulative effects of extremely high DTR were significantly higher for all types of mortality than effects of lower or moderate DTR in full year. When stratified by season, extremely high DTR in spring had a greater impact on all cause-specific mortality than other three seasons. Male and the elderly (≥ 65 years) were consistently more susceptible to extremely high DTR effect than female and the youth (groups from extremely high DTR especially in the spring.

  1. Diurnal temperature range trend over North Carolina and the associated mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, Mohammad; Mekonnen, Ademe; Jha, Manoj K.

    2015-06-01

    This study seeks to investigate the variability and presence of trend in the diurnal surface air temperature range (DTR) over North Carolina (NC) for the period 1950-2009. The significance trend test and the magnitude of trends were determined using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen approach, respectively. Statewide significant trends (p < 0.05) of decreasing DTR were found in all seasons and annually during the analysis period. Highest (lowest) temporal DTR trends of magnitude - 0.19 (- 0.031) °C/decade were found in summer (winter). Potential mechanisms for the presence/absence of trend in DTR have been highlighted. Historical data sets of the three main moisture components (precipitation, total cloud cover (TCC), and soil moisture) and the two major atmospheric circulation modes (North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Oscillation) were used for correlation analysis. The DTRs were found to be negatively correlated with the precipitation, TCC and soil moisture across the state for all the seasons and annual basis. It appears that the moisture components related better to the DTR than to the atmospheric circulation modes.

  2. Low-temperature mobility measurements on CMOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairpetian, A.; Gitlin, D.; Viswanathan, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The surface channel mobility of carriers in eta- and rho-MOS transistors fabricated in a CMOS process was accurately determined at low temperatures down to 5 Κ. The mobility was obtained by an accurate measurement of the inversion charge density using a split C-V technique and the conductance at low drain voltages. The split C-V technique was validated at all temperatures using a one-dimensional Poisson solver (MOSCAP), which was modified for low-temperature application. The mobility dependence on the perpendicular electric field for different substrate bias values appears to have different temperature dependence for eta- and rho-channel devices. The electron mobility increases with a decrease in temperature at all gate voltages. On the other hand, the hole mobility exhibits a different temperature behavior depending upon whether the gate voltage corresponds to strong inversion or is near threshold

  3. Improved Models and Tools for Prediction of Radiation Effects on Space Electronics in Wide Temperature Range, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All NASA exploration systems operate in the extreme environments of space and require reliable electronics capable of handling a wide temperature range (-180ºC to...

  4. Method of high precision interval measurement in pulse laser ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Lv, Xin-yuan; Mao, Jin-jin; Liu, Wei; Yang, Dong

    2013-09-01

    Laser ranging is suitable for laser system, for it has the advantage of high measuring precision, fast measuring speed,no cooperative targets and strong resistance to electromagnetic interference,the measuremen of laser ranging is the key paremeters affecting the performance of the whole system.The precision of the pulsed laser ranging system was decided by the precision of the time interval measurement, the principle structure of laser ranging system was introduced, and a method of high precision time interval measurement in pulse laser ranging system was established in this paper.Based on the analysis of the factors which affected the precision of range measure,the pulse rising edges discriminator was adopted to produce timing mark for the start-stop time discrimination,and the TDC-GP2 high precision interval measurement system based on TMS320F2812 DSP was designed to improve the measurement precision.Experimental results indicate that the time interval measurement method in this paper can obtain higher range accuracy. Compared with the traditional time interval measurement system,the method simplifies the system design and reduce the influence of bad weather conditions,furthermore,it satisfies the requirements of low costs and miniaturization.

  5. Soil temperature variability in complex terrain measured using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes but magnitude and nature of Ts variability in a landscape setting are rarely documented. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing systems (FO-DTS) potentially measure Ts at high density over a large extent. ...

  6. Observation of vapor pressure enhancement of rare-earth metal-halide salts in the temperature range relevant to metal-halide lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J. J.; Henins, A.; Hardis, J. E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Estupinan, E. G. [Osram Sylvania Inc., Beverly, Massachusetts 01915 (United States); Lapatovich, W. P. [Independent Consultant, 51 Pye Brook Lane, Boxford, Massachusetts 01921 (United States); Shastri, S. D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Total vapor-phase densities of Dy in equilibrium with a DyI{sub 3}/InI condensate and Tm in equilibrium with a TmI{sub 3}/TlI condensate have been measured for temperatures between 900 K and 1400 K. The measurements show strong enhancements in rare-earth vapor densities compared to vapors in equilibrium with the pure rare-earth metal-halides. The measurements were made with x-ray induced fluorescence on the sector 1-ID beam line at the Advanced Photon Source. The temperature range and salt mixtures are relevant to the operation of metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  7. A nonintrusive temperature measuring system for estimating deep body temperature in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S Y; Lee, W K; Baek, H J; Park, K S

    2012-01-01

    Deep body temperature is an important indicator that reflects human being's overall physiological states. Existing deep body temperature monitoring systems are too invasive to apply to awake patients for a long time. Therefore, we proposed a nonintrusive deep body temperature measuring system. To estimate deep body temperature nonintrusively, a dual-heat-flux probe and double-sensor probes were embedded in a neck pillow. When a patient uses the neck pillow to rest, the deep body temperature can be assessed using one of the thermometer probes embedded in the neck pillow. We could estimate deep body temperature in 3 different sleep positions. Also, to reduce the initial response time of dual-heat-flux thermometer which measures body temperature in supine position, we employed the curve-fitting method to one subject. And thereby, we could obtain the deep body temperature in a minute. This result shows the possibility that the system can be used as practical temperature monitoring system with appropriate curve-fitting model. In the next study, we would try to establish a general fitting model that can be applied to all of the subjects. In addition, we are planning to extract meaningful health information such as sleep structure analysis from deep body temperature data which are acquired from this system.

  8. Parametrization of the average ionization and radiative cooling rates of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gil de la Fe, Juan Miguel; Rodriguez Perez, Rafael; Florido, Ricardo; Garcia Rubiano, Jesus; Mendoza, M.A.; Nuez, A. de la; Espinosa, G.; Martel Escobar, Carlos; Mínguez Torres, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on the monochromatic emissivity, the radiative power loss and the radiative cooling rate for optically thin carbon plasmas over a wide range of electron temperature and density assuming steady state situations. Furthermore, we propose analytical expressions depending on the electron density and temperature for the average ionization and cooling rate based on polynomial fittings which are valid for the whole range...

  9. Oxidation-induced deformation of zircaloy-4 tubing in steam in the temperature range 600-1000 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.E.; Hussein, A.G.; EL-Raghy, S.M.; EL-Sayed, A.A.; EL-Banna, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    The oxidation-induced deformation of zircaloy-4 (zry-4) tubing in steam has been studied in the temperature range 600 to 1000 degree C. The induced deformation has been measured in both radial and axial directions of the tube. The effect of hydrogen addition to steam was also investigated. The oxidation-induced deformation has been characterized by uniform and non-uniform (distortion) strain period. During the uniform strain period the radial strain kinetics were found in general, to be parallel to the oxidation kinetics. The axial strain (δA) induced by oxidation was found to be always lower than the radial strain (εR). The addition of 5% by volume hydrogen to steam leads to an increase in the oxidation rate and to a decrease in the degree of anisotropy between radial and axial strains

  10. Total hemispherical emittance measured at high temperatures by the calorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiFilippo, F.; Mirtich, M.J.; Banks, B.A.; Stidham, C.; Kussmaul, M.

    1994-01-01

    A calorimetric vacuum emissometer (CVE) capable of measuring total hemispherical emittance of surfaces at elevated temperatures was designed, built, and tested. Several materials with a wide range of emittances were measured in the CVE between 773 to 923 K. These results were compared to values calculated from spectral emittance curves measured in a room temperature Hohlraum reflectometer and in an open-air elevated temperature emissometer. The results differed by as much as 0.2 for some materials but were in closer agreement for the more highly-emitting, diffuse-reflecting samples. The differences were attributed to temperature, atmospheric, and directional effects, and errors in the Hohlraum and emissometer measurements (± 5 percent). The probable error of the CVE measurements was typically less than 1 percent

  11. [Multispectral Radiation Algorithm Based on Emissivity Model Constraints for True Temperature Measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei; Sun, Xiao-gang; Luan, Mei-sheng

    2015-10-01

    Temperature measurement is one of the important factors for ensuring product quality, reducing production cost and ensuring experiment safety in industrial manufacture and scientific experiment. Radiation thermometry is the main method for non-contact temperature measurement. The second measurement (SM) method is one of the common methods in the multispectral radiation thermometry. However, the SM method cannot be applied to on-line data processing. To solve the problems, a rapid inversion method for multispectral radiation true temperature measurement is proposed and constraint conditions of emissivity model are introduced based on the multispectral brightness temperature model. For non-blackbody, it can be drawn that emissivity is an increasing function in the interval if the brightness temperature is an increasing function or a constant function in a range and emissivity satisfies an inequality of emissivity and wavelength in that interval if the brightness temperature is a decreasing function in a range, according to the relationship of brightness temperatures at different wavelengths. The construction of emissivity assumption values is reduced from multiclass to one class and avoiding the unnecessary emissivity construction with emissivity model constraint conditions on the basis of brightness temperature information. Simulation experiments and comparisons for two different temperature points are carried out based on five measured targets with five representative variation trends of real emissivity. decreasing monotonically, increasing monotonically, first decreasing with wavelength and then increasing, first increasing and then decreasing and fluctuating with wavelength randomly. The simulation results show that compared with the SM method, for the same target under the same initial temperature and emissivity search range, the processing speed of the proposed algorithm is increased by 19.16%-43.45% with the same precision and the same calculation results.

  12. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.

    2017-11-01

    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  13. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.

    2018-07-01

    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  14. Bilateral Comparison Between NIM and NMC Over the Temperature Range from 83.8058 K to 692.677 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianping; Ye, Shaochun; Kho, Haoyuan; Zhang, Jintao; Wang, Li

    2015-08-01

    A bilateral comparison of local realization of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 between the National Institute of Metrology (NIM) and National Metrology Centre (NMC) was carried out over the temperature range from 83.8058 K to 692.677 K. It involved six fixed points including the argon triple point, the mercury triple point, the triple point of water, the melting point of gallium, the freezing point of tin, and the freezing point of zinc. In 2009, NMC asked NIM to participate in a bilateral comparison to link the NMC results to the Consultative Committee for Thermometry Key Comparison 3 (CCT-K3) and facilitate the NMC's calibration and measurement capabilities submission. This comparison was agreed by NIM and Asia Pacific Metrology Programme in 2009, and registered in the Key Comparison Database in 2010 as CCT-K3.2. NMC supplied two fused silica sheath standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) as traveling standards. One of them was used at the Ga, Sn, and Zn fixed points, while the other one was used at the Ar and Hg fixed points. NMC measured them before and after NIM measured them. During the comparison, a criterion for the SPRT was set as the stability at the triple point of water to be less than 0.3 mK. The results for both laboratories are summarized. A proposal for linking the NMC's comparison results to CCT-K3 is presented. The difference between NMC and NIM and the difference between NMC and the CCT-K3 average reference value using NIM as a link are reported with expanded uncertainties at each measured fixed point.

  15. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  16. Thermal Expansion and Magnetostriction Measurements at Cryogenic Temperature Using the Strain Gauge Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Huiming; Huang, Rongjin; Zhao, Yuqiang; Huang, Chuangjun; Guo, Shibin; Shan, Yi; Li, Laifeng

    2018-01-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction, the strain responses of a material to temperature and a magnetic field, especially properties at low temperature, are extremely useful to study electronic and phononic properties, phase transitions, quantum criticality, and other interesting phenomena in cryogenic engineering and materials science. However, traditional dilatometers cannot provide magnetic field and ultra-low temperature (thermal expansion and magnetostriction at cryogenic temperature using the strain gauge method based on a Physical Properties Measurements System (PPMS). The interfacing software and automation were developed using LabVIEW. The sample temperature range can be tuned continuously between 1.8 and 400 K. With this PPMS-aided measuring system, we can observe temperature and magnetic field dependence of the linear thermal expansion of different solid materials easily and accurately.

  17. Thermal Expansion and Magnetostriction Measurements at Cryogenic Temperature Using the Strain Gauge Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal expansion and magnetostriction, the strain responses of a material to temperature and a magnetic field, especially properties at low temperature, are extremely useful to study electronic and phononic properties, phase transitions, quantum criticality, and other interesting phenomena in cryogenic engineering and materials science. However, traditional dilatometers cannot provide magnetic field and ultra-low temperature (<77 K environment easily. This paper describes the design and test results of thermal expansion and magnetostriction at cryogenic temperature using the strain gauge method based on a Physical Properties Measurements System (PPMS. The interfacing software and automation were developed using LabVIEW. The sample temperature range can be tuned continuously between 1.8 and 400 K. With this PPMS-aided measuring system, we can observe temperature and magnetic field dependence of the linear thermal expansion of different solid materials easily and accurately.

  18. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements at cryogenic temperature using the strain gage method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Huiming; Huang, Rongjin; Zhao, Yuqiang; Huang, Chuangjun; Guo, Shibin; Shan, Yi; Li, Laifeng

    2018-03-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction, the strain responses of a material to temperature and a magnetic field, especially properties at low temperature, are extremely useful to study electronic and phononic properties, phase transitions, quantum criticality, and other interesting phenomena in cryogenic engineering and materials science. However, traditional dilatometers cannot provide magnetic field and ultra low temperature (<77 K) environment easily. This paper describes the design and test results of thermal expansion and magnetostriction at cryogenic temperature using the strain gage method based on a Physical Properties Measurements System (PPMS). The interfacing software and automation were developed using LabVIEW. The sample temperature range can be tuned continuously between 1.8 K and 400 K. With this PPMS-aided measuring system, we can observe temperature and magnetic field dependence of the linear thermal expansion of different solid materials easily and accurately.

  19. Heat capacity and Joule-Thomson coefficient of selected n-alkanes at 0.1 and 10 MPa in broad temperature ranges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regueira Muñiz, Teresa; Varzandeh, Farhad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2017-01-01

    Isobaric heat capacity of six n-alkanes, i.e. n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane, was determined with a Calvet type differential heat-flux calorimeter at 0.1 and 10 MPa in a broad temperature range. The measured isobaric heat capacity data were combined...

  20. Innovations in plantar pressure and foot temperature measurements in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plantar pressure and temperature measurements in the diabetic foot primarily contribute to identifying abnormal values that increase risk for foot ulceration, and they are becoming increasingly more integrated in clinical practice and daily life of the patient. While plantar pressure measurements

  1. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  2. Space potential, temperature, and density profile measurements on RENTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoch, P.M.

    1983-05-01

    Radial profiles of the space potential, electron temperature, and density have been measured on RENTOR with a heavy-ion-beam probe. The potential profile has been compared to predictions from a stochastic magnetic field fluctuation theory, using the measured temperature and density profiles. The comparison shows strong qualitative agreement in that the potential is positive and the order of T/sub e//e. There is some quantitative disagreement in that the measured radial electric fields are somewhat smaller than the theoretical predictions. To facilitate this comparison, a detailed analysis of the possible errors has been completed

  3. Temperature measuring system based on ADuC812 MCU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dongmei; Ge Liangquan; Cheng Feng; Li Jinfeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a temperature measuring system which is composed of a single chip microcomputer ADuC812, new type digital temperature sensor TMP100,LED display circuit and based on I 2 C bus. I 2 C bus which is invented by PHILIPS company needs only two signal lines (SDA, SCL), can realized perfect duplex synchronous data transmission. Using the method of hardware setting of device address, can completely avoid the disadvantages of device selection addressing, thus can make hardware system has simplifier and more flexible extension method. The key part of the system is composed of a single chip microcomputer ADuC812 which is compatible with MCS-51 and is invented by AD company in america. The software is compiled with 8051 assembly language. The data acquisitin single chip microcomputer measurement system with I 2 C bus fully shows the features of flexibility, precise and high integration. Proposed high accuracy measurement method to realize environment temperature measure. (authors)

  4. Measurement of rock properties at elevated pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.; Hoskins, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    The papers in this volume were presented at an ASTM symposium held on 20 June 1983 in conjunction with the 24th Annual Rock Mechanics Symposium at Texas A and M University, College Station, TX. The purpose of these papers is to present recent developments in the measurement of rock properties at elevated pressures and temperatures, and to examine and interpret the data produced by such measurement. The need for measuring rock properties at elevated pressures and temperatures has become increasingly important in recent years. Location and design of nuclear waste repositories, development of geothermal energy sites, and design and construction of deep excavations for civil, military, and mining engineering require significantly improved capabilities for measuring rock properties under conditions substantially different from those prevailing in most laboratory and in situ work. The development of high-pressure, high-temperature capabilities is also significant for the analysis of tectonic processes

  5. Neutron temperature measurements in a cryogenic hydrogenous moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Hoovler, G.S.; Lewis, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Benchmarkings of neutronic calculations are most successful when there is a direct correlation between a measurement and an analytic result. In the thermal neutron energy region, the fluence rate as a function of moderator temperature and position within the moderator is an area of potential correlation. The measurement can be done by activating natural lutetium. The two isotopes of the element lutetium have widely different cross sections and permit the discrimination of flux shape and energy distributions at different reactor conditions. The 175 Lu has a 1/v dependence in the thermal energy region, and 176 Lu has a resonance structure that approximates a constant cross section in the same region. The saturation activation of the two isotopes has been measured in an insulated moderator container at the center of a thermal heterogeneous reactor designed for space nuclear propulsion. The measurements were made in a hydrogenous (polyethylene) moderator at three temperatures (83, 184, and 297 K) and five locations within the moderator. Simultaneously, the reactivity effect of the change in the moderator temperature was determined to be positive with an increase in temperature. The plot of activation shows the variation in neutron fluence rate and current with temperature and explains the positive reactivity coefficient. A neutron temperature can be inferred from a postulated Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and compared with Monte Carlo or other calculations

  6. Efficiency of measures aimed at improving health by normalization of temperature conditions in the Kochegarka mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, G.I.; Nifonov, V.P.; Kobets, A.N.

    1981-06-01

    This paper evaluates effects of air conditioning in the Kochegarka black coal mine on miners' health. Up to 1975 air temperature in the lowest mine horizon located at a depth of 970 m ranged from 26 to 32 C, in summer from 34 to 36 C. Air humidity ranged from 94 to 98%. Since 1975 KhTMF-248-4000 freon air cooling machines have been used in the mine; their capacity amounts to 3.8 x 10/SUP/6 kcal/h. Use of air cooling systems reduces air temperature to permissible limits. Air temperature measured at a distance of 1 km from mine shaft ranges from 24 to 26 C, and air humidity from 90 to 95%. At a distance of 1.5 km from the mine shaft air temperature in conveyor roadways is 26.4 C, in dead-end development workings 27 C, and at working faces 26 C (with air humidity ranging from 96 to 98%). ARVP systems for local air cooling are used at places distant from the mine shaft. The ARVP reduces air temperature from 2 to 4.5 C at a distance ranging from 4 to 8 m from the machine. Reducing air temperature, combined with other measures aimed at improving miners' health, has caused a decrease in miner absenteeism due to illness by 25.4%.

  7. Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of a portable holographic moire camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Bhat, G.; Shao, Y.

    Electronic holographic moire is utilized to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A CW laser operating at 50 mW and at the wavelength of 632.8 nm is used to illuminate the objects under study. The main variables influencing the fringe patterns visibility are discussed and measurements are performed to obtain the values of these variables in the performed experiments. The coefficient of expansion of an alloy is measured at temperatures ranging from 797 C to 986 C. Excellent agreement is found between the measured values and those provided by the manufacturer.

  8. Measurement of the ion temperature in a diffuse theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koichi; Watanabe, Yukio; Ogi, Sukeomi; Sumikawa, Toshio; Akazaki, Masanori

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler broadening of helium ion spectra was observed, and the ion temperature of theta pinch plasma was obtained. The apparatus for the measurement consists of a spectroscope, a photomultiplier and an oscilloscope. The time variation of initial plasma density was obtained. The doppler broadening of the spectra was observed in case of the plasma density of 2 x 10 13 /cm 3 and 3 x 10 12 /cm 3 . The analyses of the spectra gave the ion temperature. The double temperature distribution was seen. The temperature of the low temperature part was 5 to 9 electron-volt, and that of the high temperature part several hundred electron-volt. The high temperature is caused by the thermalization of particles accelerated by the magnetic piston. The decay of high temperature ions is due to the charge exchange with the neutral particles. The time of the highest temperature corresponds to the time at which the luminescent layer reaches to the central axis. (Kato, T.)

  9. Measuring device for the temperature coefficient of reactor moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yuzo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly determine by automatic calculation the temperature coefficient for moderators which has been determined so far by a log of manual processings. Constitution: Each of signals from a control rod position indicator, a reactor reactivity, instrument and moderator temperature meter are inputted, and each of the signals and designed valued for the doppler temperature coefficients are stored. Recurling calculation is conducted based on the reactivity and the moderator temperature at an interval where the temperature changes of the moderators are equalized at an identical control rod position, to determine isothermic coefficient. Then, the temperature coefficient for moderator are calculated from the isothermic coefficient and the doppler temperature coefficient. The relationship between the reactivity and the moderator temperature is plotted on a X-Y recorder. The stored signals and the calculated temperature coefficient for moderators are sequentially displayed and the results are printed out when the measurement is completed. According to the present device, since the real time processing is conducted, the processing time can be shortened remarkably. Accordingly, it is possible to save the man power for the test of the nuclear reactor and improve the reactor operation performance. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Differential responses of invasive and native plants to warming with simulated changes in diurnal temperature ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Ming; Gao, Yang; Liao, Hui-Xuan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Although many studies have documented the effects of global warming on invasive plants, little is known about whether the effects of warming on plant invasion differ depending on the imposed change in different diurnal temperature ranges (DTR). We tested the impact of warming with DTR change on seed germination and seedling growth of eight species in the family Asteraceae. Four of these are invasive ( Eupatorium catarium , Mikania micrantha , Biodens pilosa var. radiate , Ageratum conyzoides ) in China, and four are native ( Sonchus arvensis , Senecios candens , Pterocypsela indica , Eupatorium fortunei ). Four temperature treatments were set in growth chambers (three warming by 3 °C with different DTRs and control), and experiments were run to mimic wintertime and summertime conditions. The control treatment ( T c ) was set to the mean temperature for the corresponding time of year, and the three warming treatments were symmetric (i.e. equal night-and-day) (DTR sym ), asymmetric warming with increased (DTR inc ) and decreased (DTR dec ) DTR. The warming treatments did not affect seed germination of invasive species under any of the conditions, but DTR sym and DTR inc increased seed germination of natives relative to the control, suggesting that warming may not increase success of these invasive plant species via effects on seed germination of invasive plants relative to native plants. The invasive plants had higher biomass and greater stem allocation than the native ones under all of the warming treatments. Wintertime warming increased the biomass of the invasive and wintertime DTR sym and DTR inc increased that of the native plants, whereas summertime asymmetric warming decreased the biomass of the invasives but not the natives. Therefore, warming may not facilitate invasion of these invasive species due to the suppressive effects of summertime warming (particularly the asymmetric warming) on growth. Compared with DTR sym , DTR dec decreased the biomass of

  11. Range measurements of keV hydrogen ions in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, J.; Soerensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.; Nielsen, M.; Rune, J.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3-3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen. The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees with that previously found for solid nitrogen. (orig.)

  12. Enhanced Strain Measurement Range of an FBG Sensor Embedded in Seven-Wire Steel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Chul-Min; Choi, Song-Yi; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2017-07-18

    FBG sensors offer many advantages, such as a lack of sensitivity to electromagnetic waves, small size, high durability, and high sensitivity. However, their maximum strain measurement range is lower than the yield strain range (about 1.0%) of steel strands when embedded in steel strands. This study proposes a new FBG sensing technique in which an FBG sensor is recoated with polyimide and protected by a polyimide tube in an effort to enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands. The validation test results showed that the proposed FBG sensing technique has a maximum strain measurement range of 1.73% on average, which is 1.73 times higher than the yield strain of the strands. It was confirmed that recoating the FBG sensor with polyimide and protecting the FBG sensor using a polyimide tube could effectively enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands.

  13. Effects of diurnal temperature range on mortality in Hefei city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Xiao, Chang-chun; Li, Yu-rong; Zhang, Jun-qing; Zhai, Hao-yuan; Geng, Xi-ya; Ding, Rui; Zhai, Jin-xia

    2017-12-01

    Although several studies indicated an association between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and mortality, the results about modifiers are inconsistent, and few studies were conducted in developing inland country. This study aims to evaluate the effects of DTR on cause-specific mortality and whether season, gender, or age might modify any association in Hefei city, China, during 2007-2016. Quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression models combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) were applied to evaluate the relationships between DTR and non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. We observed a J-shaped relationship between DTR and cause-specific mortality. With a DTR of 8.3 °C as the reference, the cumulative effects of extremely high DTR were significantly higher for all types of mortality than effects of lower or moderate DTR in full year. When stratified by season, extremely high DTR in spring had a greater impact on all cause-specific mortality than other three seasons. Male and the elderly (≥ 65 years) were consistently more susceptible to extremely high DTR effect than female and the youth (< 65 years) for non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. To the contrary, female and the youth were more susceptible to extremely high DTR effect than male and the elderly for respiratory morality. The study suggests that extremely high DTR is a potential trigger for non-accidental mortality in Hefei city, China. Our findings also highlight the importance of protecting susceptible groups from extremely high DTR especially in the spring.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Cu-MFI catalyst for the direct medium temperature range NO decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkaj Karolina Maduna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the physico-chemical and catalytic properties of copper bearing MFI zeolites (Cu-MFI with different Si/Al and Si/Cu ratios were investigated. Two different methods for incorporation of metal ions into the zeolite framework were used: the ion exchange from the solution of copper acetate and the direct hydrothermal synthesis. Direct synthesis of a zeolite in the presence of copper-phosphate complexes was expected to generate more active copper species necessary for the desired reaction than the conventional ion exchange method. Direct decomposition of NO was used as a model reaction, because this reaction still offers a very attractive approach to NOX removal. The catalytic properties of zeolite samples were studied using techniques, such as XRD, SEM, EPR and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements at 77 K. Results of the kinetic investigation revealed that both methods are applicable for the preparation of the catalysts with active sites capable of catalyzing the NO decomposition. It was found out that Cu-MFI zeolites obtained through direct synthesis are promising catalysts for NO decomposition, especially at lower reaction temperatures. The efficiency of the catalysts prepared by both methods is compared and discussed.

  15. Is Oral Temperature an Accurate Measurement of Deep Body Temperature? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Casa, Douglas J.; Vingren, Jakob; Klau, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Context: Oral temperature might not be a valid method to assess core body temperature. However, many clinicians, including athletic trainers, use it rather than criterion standard methods, such as rectal thermometry. Objective: To critically evaluate original research addressing the validity of using oral temperature as a measurement of core body temperature during periods of rest and changing core temperature. Data Sources: In July 2010, we searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Premier, and the Cochrane Library for the following concepts: core body temperature, oral, and thermometers. Controlled vocabulary was used, when available, as well as key words and variations of those key words. The search was limited to articles focusing on temperature readings and studies involving human participants. Data Synthesis: Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and subsequently were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. All 16 were included in the review because they met the minimal PEDro score of 4 points (of 10 possible points), with all but 2 scoring 5 points. A critical review of these studies indicated a disparity between oral and criterion standard temperature methods (eg, rectal and esophageal) specifically as the temperature increased. The difference was −0.50°C ± 0.31°C at rest and −0.58°C ± 0.75°C during a nonsteady state. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that, regardless of whether the assessment is recorded at rest or during periods of changing core temperature, oral temperature is an unsuitable diagnostic tool for determining body temperature because many measures demonstrated differences greater than the predetermined validity threshold of 0.27°C (0.5°F). In addition, the differences were greatest at the highest rectal temperatures. Oral temperature cannot

  16. Electron temperature and density profiles measurement in the TJ-1 tokamak by Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, C.; Zurro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Electron temperature and density profiles of ohmically heated hydrogen plasmas in the TJ-1 tokamak have been measured by Thomson scattering. The temperature profile peaks sharply in the central region while the density profile is very flat. Temperature values between 100 and 390 eV have been measured for densities in the range of 5.10 12 to 2.6.10 13 cm -3 . Parameters characterizing TJ-1 plasma, such as confinement times Z eff , have been deduced from experimental data. Energy confinement times are compared with experimental scaling laws. (author)

  17. Solid State Track Recorder fission rate measurements at high neutron fluence and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.

    1985-01-01

    Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) techniques have been used to measure 239-Pu, 235-U, and 237-Np fission rates for total neutron fluences approaching 5 x 10 17 n/cm 2 at temperatures in the range 680 to 830 0 F. Natural quartz crystal SSTRs were used to withstand the high temperature environment and ultra low-mass fissionable deposits of the three isotopes were required to yield scannable track densities at the high neutron fluences. The results of these high temperature, high neutron fluence measurements are reported

  18. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1–200 bar and temperature range 300–1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients of a CO_2–N_2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated spectra, as well as published experimental data. - Highlights: • A ceramic gas cell designed for gas measurements up to 1300 K and 200 bar. • The first recorded absorption spectrum of CO_2 at 1000 K and 101 bar is presented. • Voigt profiles might suffice in the modeling of radiation from CO_2 in combustion.

  19. Temperature dependence of muonium spin exchange with O2 in the range 88 K to 478 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, M.; Garner, D.M.; Arseneau, D.J.; Fleming, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have extended an earlier study of the spin exchange reactions of Mu with O 2 in the range 295 K to 478 K, to a low temperature region down to 88 K. From 135 K to 296 K, the spin depolarization rate constant was found to vary according to the relative velocity of the colliding species, which indicates that the spin exchange cross section of Mu-O 2 is temperature independent in this range. However, it was found that below 105 K and above 400 K, the spin depolarization rate constant tends to have stronger temperature dependences. (Auth.)

  20. Methods for measuring the spectral reflectivity of advanced materials at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salikhov, T.P.; Kan, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    For investigation in the domain of advanced materials as well as for new technologies there is an urgent need for knowledge of the spectral reflectivity of the materials specially at high temperatures. However the methods available are mostly intended for measuring the model materials with specular or diffuse reflection surface. This is not quite correct since advanced materials have mixed specular diffuse reflection surfaces. New methods for reflectivity measurements of materials in the visible, near and middle infrared range at high temperature, regardless of surface texture, have been developed. The advantages of the methods proposed are as flows: (a) the facility of performing the reflectivity measurements for materials with mixed specular diffuse reflectance; (b) wide spectral range 0,38-8 micro m; (c) wide temperature range 300-3000 K; (d) high accuracy and rapid measurements. The methods are based on the following principals (i) Diffuse irradiation of the sample surface and the use of Helkholtz reciprocity principle to determine the directional hemispherical reflectivity ii) Pulse polychromatic probing of the sample by additional light source. The first principle excludes the influence of the angular reflection distribution of sample surface on data obtained. The second principle gives the possibility of simultaneous measurements of the reflectivity. The second principle gives the possibility of simultaneous measurements of the reflectivity in wide spectral range. On the basis of these principles for high temperature reflectometers have been developed and discussed here. (author)

  1. High-temperature ultrasonic measurements applied to directly heated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.I.; Taylor, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    High-temperature ultrasonic measurements of Young's modulus were made of graphite samples heated directly. The samples were cylindrical rods of the same geometry as that used in the multiproperty apparatus for simultaneous/consecutive measurements of a number of thermophysical properties to high temperatures. The samples were resonated in simple longitudinal vibration modes. Measurements were performed up to 2000 K. Incorporation of ultrasonic measurements of Young's modulus in the capabilities of the multiproperty apparatus is valuable because (i) ultrasonic measurements can be related to normal destructive measurements of this property; (ii) they can be used for screening materials or acceptance testing of specimens; (iii) they can be used to increase the understanding of thermophysical properties and property correlations. (author)

  2. Gas Temperature Measurement in a Glow Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloneker, Kenneth; Podder, Nirmol; McCurdy, William E.; Shi, Shi

    2009-10-01

    In this study a relatively inexpensive quartz protected thermocouple is used to measure the gas temperature in the positive column of a glow discharge plasma. For simplicity a K-type thermocouple is used to interpret the gas temperature from the sensor voltage at pressures from 0.5 Torr to 15 Torr and discharge currents from 5 mA to 120 mA. Gas temperature is investigated as a function of the gas pressure at fixed discharge currents and as a function of discharge current at fixed gas pressures in three different gas species (Ar, N2, and He). An infinite cylinder model is used to compute the average gas temperature of the discharge from joule heating and gas thermal conductivity. The model and measurement data agree within 1% to 10% depending on plasma parameters. Data for all three gases have a similar quasi-linear increasing error as compared to the model.

  3. Measuring Skin Temperatures with the IASI Hyperspectral Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, S.; George, M.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.

    2017-12-01

    Although the role of satellites in observing the variability of the Earth system has increased in recent decades, remote-sensing observations are still underexploited to accurately assess climate change fingerprints, in particular temperature variations. The IASI - Flux and Temperature (IASI-FT) project aims at providing new benchmarks for temperature observations using the calibrated radiances measured twice a day at any location by the IASI thermal infrared instrument on the suite of MetOp satellites (2006-2025). The main challenge is to achieve the accuracy and stability needed for climate studies, particularly that required for climate trends. Time series for land and sea skin surface temperatures are derived and compared with in situ measurements and atmospheric reanalysis. The observed trends are analyzed at seasonal and regional scales in order to disentangle natural (weather/dynamical) variability and human-induced climate forcings.

  4. Application of subsurface temperature measurements in geothermal prospecting in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.

    1985-12-01

    In geothermal areas in Iceland aquifers are in most cases found to occur in highly permeable near-vertical fractures in the low permeability basaltic crust. Therefore heat transfer in the rocks surrounding the aquifers is mainly conductive. Temperature profiles in shallow non-flowing boreholes are used to construct a two dimensional model of the temperature distribution in the vicinity of near vertical aquifers. This is done by finite element solution of the equation of heat transfer which requires knowledge of the regional temperature gradient outside the area of geothermal activity and some constraints on the temperature within the aquifers. The model is helpful in estimating dip and location of near-vertical water bearing fractures and thus in siting production wells. An example of successful use to the method and of soil temperature measurements from a geothermal field in North-Iceland is demonstrated.

  5. Biaxial creep deformation of Zircaloy-4 PWR fuel cladding in the alpha,(alpha + beta) and beta phase temperature ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.T.; Healey, T.; Horwood, R.A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The biaxial creep behaviour of Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding has been determined at temperatures between 973 - 1073 K in the alpha phase range, in the duplex (alpha + beta) region between 1098 - 1223 K and in the beta phase range between 1323 - 1473 K. This paper presents the creep data together with empirical equations which describe the creep deformation response within each phase region. (author)

  6. Temperature measurements in thermonuclear plasmas; Mesures des temperatures dans les plasmas thermonucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The temperatures needed to produce thermonuclear reactions are of the order of several million degrees Kelvin. Devising methods for measuring such temperatures has been the subject of research in many countries. In order to present the problem clearly and to demonstrate its importance, the author reviews the various conditions which must be fulfilled in order that reactions may be qualified as thermonuclear. The relationship between the temperature and the cross-section of the reactions is studied, and it is shown that the notion of temperature in the plasmas is complex, which leads to a consideration of the temperature of the ions and that of the electrons. None of the methods for the temperature measurements is completely satisfactory because of the hypotheses which must be made, and which are seldom fulfilled during high-intensity discharges in the plasmas. In practice it is necessary to use several methods simultaneously. (author) [French] Les temperatures necessaires pour produire des reactions thermonucleaires sont de l'ordre de plusieurs millions de degres Kelvin. Les methodes envisagees pour mesurer ces temperatures font l'objet de recherches dans de nombreux pays. Afin de preciser le probleme et de montrer son importance, l'auteur rappelle les conditions qui doivent etre reunies pour que des reactions puissent etre qualifiees thermonucleaires. Il etudie la relation entre la temperature et la section efficace des reactions et montre que la notion de temperature dans les plasmas est complexe, ce qui amene a considerer la temperature des ions et celle des electrons. Aucune des methodes de mesure des temperatures n'est completement satisfaisante en raison des hypotheses qu'elles exigent et qui sont rarement realisees lors des decharges a haute intensite dans les plasmas. En pratique, il est necessaire d'utiliser plusieurs methodes simultanement. (auteur)

  7. Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensors for Strain and Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the applications of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs for strain and temperature measurement. Long-period grating sensors and in-fiber modal interferometric sensors are described and compared with their conventional single-mode counterparts. The strain sensitivities of the air-silica PCF sensors are comparable or higher than those implemented in conventional single-mode fibers but the temperature sensitivities of the PCF sensors are much lower.

  8. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Soto, Veronica; Leandro, Daniel; Lopez-Aldaba, Aitor; Beato-López, Juan Jesus; Pérez-Landazábal, José Ignacio; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Jamier, Raphael; Roy, Philippe; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2017-11-30

    In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  9. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, R. A.; Walker, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques for containerless study of high temperature processes and material properties was studied. Gas jet and electromagnetic levitation and electromagnetic and laser heating techniques are used with LIF in earth-based containerless high temperature experiments. Included are the development of an apparatus and its use in the studies of (1) chemical reactions on Al2O3, molybdenum, tungsten and LaB6 specimens, (2) methods for noncontact specimen temperature measurement, (3) levitation jet properties and (4) radiative lifetime and collisional energy transfer rates for electronically excited atoms.

  10. Diamond micro-Raman thermometers for accurate gate temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Roland B.; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-26

    Determining the peak channel temperature in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors and other devices with high accuracy is an important and challenging issue. A surface-sensitive thermometric technique is demonstrated, utilizing Raman thermography and diamond microparticles to measure the gate temperature. This technique enhances peak channel temperature estimation, especially when it is applied in combination with standard micro-Raman thermography. Its application to other metal-covered areas of devices, such as field plates is demonstrated. Furthermore, this technique can be readily applied to other material/device systems.

  11. Diamond micro-Raman thermometers for accurate gate temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Roland B.; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Determining the peak channel temperature in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors and other devices with high accuracy is an important and challenging issue. A surface-sensitive thermometric technique is demonstrated, utilizing Raman thermography and diamond microparticles to measure the gate temperature. This technique enhances peak channel temperature estimation, especially when it is applied in combination with standard micro-Raman thermography. Its application to other metal-covered areas of devices, such as field plates is demonstrated. Furthermore, this technique can be readily applied to other material/device systems.

  12. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica De Miguel-Soto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG, and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  13. Development of source range measurement instrument in Xi'an pulsed reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Li

    2002-01-01

    Source range measurement instrument in Xi'an pulsed reactor is key equipment of low-side measuring in source range. At the same time, it is also weighty component of out-of-pile neutron-flux level observation system. The authors have done some researching and renovating based on the similar type devices used in nuclear reactor to improve the meter sensitivity, measuring range, noise proof features, reliability in running and maintainability which belong to the main performance index of the instrument. The design ideas, configurations, working principle, performance indexes, technique features and effect in utilizing are introduced briefly

  14. Measurements with vertically viewing charge exchange analyzers during ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Hammett, G.W.; Gammel, G.; Goldston, R.J.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.; Young, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    The utility of charge exchange neutral particle analyzers for studying energetic ion distributions in high-temperature plasmas has been demonstrated in a variety of tokamak experiments. Power deposition profiles have been estimated in the Princeton large torus (PLT) from particle measurements as a function of energy and angle during heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and extensive studies of this heating mode are planned for the upcoming operational period in the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). Unlike the horizontally scanning analyzer on PLT, the TFTR system consists of vertical sightlines intersecting a poloidal cross section of the plasma. A bounce-averaged Fokker--Planck program, which includes a quasilinear operator to calculate ICRF-generated energetic ions, is used to simulate the charge exchange flux expected during fundamental hydrogen heating. These sightlines also cross the trajectory of a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB), and it may be possible to observe the fast ion tail during 3 He minority heating, if the DNB is operated in helium for double charge exchange neutralization

  15. Thermal/vacuum measurements of the Herschel space telescope by close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parian, J. Amiri; Cozzani, A.; Appolloni, M.; Casarosa, G.

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of the development of a videogrammetric system to be used in thermal vacuum chambers at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) and other sites across Europe, the design of a network using micro-cameras was specified by the European Space agency (ESA)-ESTEC. The selected test set-up is the photogrammetric test of the Herschel Satellite Flight Model in the ESTEC Large Space Simulator. The photogrammetric system will be used to verify the Herschel Telescope alignment and Telescope positioning with respect to the Cryostat Vacuum Vessel (CVV) inside the Large Space Simulator during Thermal-Vacuum/Thermal-Balance test phases. We designed a close-range photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation and a videogrammetric system with an overall accuracy of 1:100,000. A semi-automated image acquisition system, which is able to work at low temperatures (-170°C) in order to acquire images according to the designed network has been constructed by ESA-ESTEC. In this paper we will present the videogrammetric system and sub-systems and the results of real measurements with a representative setup similar to the set-up of Herschel spacecraft which was realized in ESTEC Test Centre.

  16. Measuring the Surface Temperature of the Cryosphere using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    A general description of the remote sensing of cryosphere surface temperatures from satellites will be provided. This will give historical information on surface-temperature measurements from space. There will also be a detailed description of measuring the surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data which will be the focus of the presentation. Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate data record, trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the MODIS IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now freely available to download at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The consistency of this IST record, with temperature and melt records from other sources will be discussed.

  17. Fluoride salts as phase change materials for thermal energy storage in the temperature range 1000-1400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1988-01-01

    Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermediate compounds in binary and ternary fluoride salt systems were characterized for potential use as latent heat of fusion phase change materials to store thermal energy in the temperature range 1000-1400 K. The melting points and eutectic compositions for many systems with published phase diagrams were experimentally verified and new eutectic compositions having melting points between 1000 and 1400 K were identified. Heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting compounds were experimentally measured by differential scanning calorimetry. For a few systems in which heats of mixing in the melts have been measured, heats of fusion of the eutectics were calculated from thermodynamic considerations and good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated values. Several combinations of salts with high heats of fusion per unit mass (greater than 0.7 kJ/g) have been identified for possible use as phase change materials in advanced solar dynamic space power applications.

  18. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 - 1400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  19. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 to 1400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  20. Reconstructing bottom water temperatures from measurements of temperature and thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesner, F.; Lechleiter, A.; Müller, C.

    2015-07-01

    Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstructions over several thousand years from deep borehole data. However, in contrast, the presented method aims at reconstructing the recent temperature history of the last year from sediment thermal properties and temperatures from only a few meters depth. For solving the heat equation, a commonly used forward model is introduced and analyzed: knowing the bottom water temperature variations for the preceding years and the thermal properties of the sediments, the forward model determines the sediment temperature field. The bottom water temperature variation is modeled as an annual cosine defined by the mean temperature, the amplitude and a phase shift. As the forward model operator is non-linear but low-dimensional, common inversion schemes such as the Newton algorithm can be utilized. The algorithms are tested for artificial data with different noise levels and for two measured data sets: from the North Sea and from the Davis Strait. Both algorithms used show stable and satisfying results with reconstruction errors in the same magnitude as the initial data error. In particular, the artificial data sets are reproduced with accuracy within the bounds of the artificial noise level. Furthermore, the results for the measured North Sea data show small variances and resemble the bottom water temperature variations recorded from a nearby monitoring site with relative errors smaller than 1 % in all parameters.

  1. Wireless SAW passive tag temperature measurement in the collision case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A.; Shepeta, A.; Wattimena, M.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes temperature measurement in the multisensor systems based on the radio-frequency identification SAW passive tags which are currently applied in the electric power systems and the switchgears. Different approaches of temperature measurement in the collision case are shown here. The study is based on the tag model with specific topology, which allows us to determine temperature through the response signal with time-frequency information. This research considers the collision case for several passive tags as the temperature sensors which are placed in the switchgear. This research proposal is to analyze the possibility of using several SAW passive sensors in the collision case. We consider the using of the different typical elements for passive surface acoustic wave tag which applies as an anticollision passive sensor. These wireless sensors based on the surface acoustic waves tags contain specifically coded structures. This topology makes possible the reliability of increasing tag identification and the temperature measurement in the collision case. As the results for this case we illustrate simultaneous measurement of at least six sensors.

  2. Time domain reflectometry measured moisture content of sewage sludge compost across temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Liu, Hong-Tao; Chen, Jun; Zheng, Guo-Di

    2013-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a prospective measurement technology for moisture content of sewage sludge composting material; however, a significant dependence upon temperature has been observed. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of temperature upon moisture content measurement and determine if TDR could be used to monitor moisture content in sewage sludge compost across a range of temperatures. We also investigated the combined effects of temperature and conductivity on moisture content measurement. The results revealed that the moisture content of composting material could be determined by TDR using coated probes, even when the measured material had a moisture content of 0.581 cm(3)cm(-3), temperature of 70°C and conductivity of 4.32 mS cm(-1). TDR probes were calibrated as a function of dielectric properties that included temperature effects. When the bulk temperature varied from 20°C to 70°C, composting material with 0.10-0.70 cm(3)cm(-3) moisture content could be measured by TDR using coated probes, and calibrations based on different temperatures minimized the errors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Translation balance for measuring magnetic susceptibilities at high or low temperatures (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, A.; Peuch, M.A.

    1962-01-01

    A translation balance is described for the measurement of the magnetic susceptibilities of liquids or solids in the temperature range from 1.7 to 1400 deg. K. Measurements are made within a magnetic field adjustable from 3400 to 16000 oersteds, in any desired atmosphere. Susceptibilities between 10 -8 and 10 -4 u.e.m. C.G.S., can be measured. (authors) [fr

  4. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  5. Spacecraft Trajectory Estimation Using a Sampled-Data Extended Kalman Filter with Range-Only Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erwin, R. S; Bernstein, Dennis S

    2005-01-01

    .... In this paper we use a sampled-data extended Kalman Filter to estimate the trajectory or a target satellite when only range measurements are available from a constellation or orbiting spacecraft...

  6. The Development of a Tactical-Level Full Range Leadership Measurement Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    full range leadership theory has become established as the predominant and most widely researched theory on leadership . The most commonly used survey...instrument to assess full range leadership theory is the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, originally developed by Bass in 1985. Although much...existing literature to develop a new full range leadership theory measurement instrument that effectively targets low- to mid-level supervisors, or

  7. Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

  8. Electron temperature from x-ray continuum measurements on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Leonard; Bachmann, Benjamin; Benedetti, Robin; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Khan, Shahab; Landen, Otto; Ma, Tammy; Nagel, Sabrina; Pak, Arthur; Patel, Prav; Schneider, Marilyn; Springer, Paul; LLNL Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We report on measurements of the electron temperature within the hot spot of inertially confined, layered implosions on the NIF using a titanium differential filtering x-ray diagnostic. The electron temperature from x-ray emission is insensitive to non-thermal velocity flows as is the case with ion temperature measurements and is thus a critical parameter in interpreting stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we discuss measurements using titanium filters ranging from 10 μm to 1mm in thickness with a sensitivity band of 10-30keV coupled with penumbral pinholes. The use of larger pinhole diameters increases x-ray fluence improving sensitivity of photon energies with minimal attenuation from the compressed fuel/shell. This diagnostic has been fielded on a series of cryogenic shots with DT ion temperatures ranging from 2-5keV. Analysis of the measurement will be presented along with a comparison against simulated electron temperatures and x-ray spectra as well as a comparison to DT ion temperature measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Influence of low ambient temperature on epitympanic temperature measurement: a prospective randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Putzer, Gabriel; Avancini, Giovanni; Dal Cappello, Tomas; Überbacher, Norbert; Hofer, Georg; Rainer, Bernhard; Rammlmair, Georg; Brugger, Hermann

    2015-11-05

    Epitympanic temperature (Tty) measured with thermistor probes correlates with core body temperature (Tcore), but the reliability of measurements at low ambient temperature is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if commercially-available thermistor-based Tty reflects Tcore in low ambient temperature and if Tty is influenced by insulation of the ear. Thirty-one participants (two females) were exposed to room (23.2 ± 0.4 °C) and low (-18.7 ± 1.0 °C) ambient temperature for 10 min using a randomized cross-over design. Tty was measured using an epitympanic probe (M1024233, GE Healthcare Finland Oy) and oesophageal temperature (Tes) with an oesophageal probe (M1024229, GE Healthcare Finland Oy) inserted into the lower third of the oesophagus. Ten participants wore ear protectors (Arton 2200, Emil Lux GmbH & Co. KG, Wermelskirchen, Switzerland) to insulate the ear from ambient air. During exposure to room temperature, mean Tty increased from 33.4 ± 1.5 to 34.2 ± 0.8 °C without insulation of the ear and from 35.0 ± 0.8 to 35.5 ± 0.7 °C with insulation. During exposure to low ambient temperature, mean Tty decreased from 32.4 ± 1.6 to 28.5 ± 2.0 °C without insulation and from 35.6 ± 0.6 to 35.2 ± 0.9 °C with insulation. The difference between Tty and Tes at low ambient temperature was reduced by 82% (from 7.2 to 1.3 °C) with insulation of the ear. Epitympanic temperature measurements are influenced by ambient temperature and deviate from Tes at room and low ambient temperature. Insulating the ear with ear protectors markedly reduced the difference between Tty and Tes and improved the stability of measurements. The use of models to correct Tty may be possible, but results should be validated in larger studies.

  10. Low temperature resistivity studies of SmB6: Observation of two-dimensional variable-range hopping conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkova, Marianna; Batko, Ivan; Gabáni, Slavomír; Gažo, Emil; Konovalova, Elena; Filippov, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    We studied electrical resistance of a single-crystalline SmB6 sample with a focus on the region of the "low-temperature resistivity plateau". Our observations did not show any true saturation of the electrical resistance at temperatures below 3 K down to 70 mK. According to our findings, temperature dependence of the electrical conduction in a certain temperature interval above 70 mK can be decomposed into a temperature-independent term and a temperature-activated term that can be described by variable-range hopping formula for two-dimensional systems, exp [ -(T0 / T) 1 / 3 ]. Thus, our results indicate importance of hopping type of electrical transport in the near-surface region of SmB6.

  11. Coherent change detection and interferometric ISAR measurements in the folded compact range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    A folded compact range configuration has been developed ant the Sandia National Laboratories` compact range antenna and radar-cross- section measurement facility as a means of performing indoor, environmentally-controlled, far-field simulations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements of distributed target samples (i.e. gravel, sand, etc.). The folded compact range configuration has previously been used to perform coherent-change-detection (CCD) measurements, which allow disturbances to distributed targets on the order of fractions of a wavelength to be detected. This report describes follow-on CCD measurements of other distributed target samples, and also investigates the sensitivity of the CCD measurement process to changes in the relative spatial location of the SAR sensor between observations of the target. Additionally, this report describes the theoretical and practical aspects of performing interferometric inverse-synthetic-aperture-radar (IFISAR) measurements in the folded compact range environment. IFISAR measurements provide resolution of the relative heights of targets with accuracies on the order of a wavelength. Several examples are given of digital height maps that have been generated from measurements performed at the folded compact range facility.

  12. Range and number-of-levels effects in derived and stated measures of attribute importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, PWJ; Schifferstein, HNJ; Wittink, DR

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  13. Electrode for improving electrochemical measurements in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengarsai, T.

    2005-01-01

    A silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference electrode was specially designed and constructed in a body of oxidized titanium for potentiometric measurements under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. To avoid the thermal decomposition of silver-chloride, the electrode is designed to maintain the reference element at low temperature while it is still connected to high-temperature process zone via a non-isothermal electrolyte bridge. This configuration leads to the development of a thermal gradient along the length of the electrode. At room temperature, the stability of the Ag/AgCl reference electrode versus a standard calomel electrode (SCE) is maintained with an accuracy of 5 mV. The electrode's performance at high temperature and pressure (up to 300 o C and 1500 psi) was examined by measuring the potential difference against platinum, which acted as a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Comparison of the experimental and theoretical values verifies the reliability and reproducibility of the electrode. Deviation from the Nernst equation is considered and related to the thermal liquid junction potential (TLJP). An empirical correction factor is used to maintain the Ag/AgCl potential within an acceptable accuracy limit of ±20 mV at high temperature. (author)

  14. The temperature dependence of the momentum distribution of beryllium measured by neutron Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, A.L.; Timms, D.; Mayers, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new neutron Compton scattering (NCS) measurement of the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy in polycrystalline beryllium at momentum transfers in the range 27.91 to 104.21 A -1 is presented. The measurements have been made with the Electron Volt Spectrometer (eVS) at the ISIS facility and the measured kinetic energies are shown to be in good agreement with calculations made in the harmonic approximation. Numerical simulations are also presented based on the Sears expansion which predict that final state effects in NCS experiments become less significant at elevated temperatures. (author)

  15. Radiation Hard Wide Temperature Range Mixed-Signal Components, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low temperature survivability, high performance and radiation tolerance of electronics in combination is required for NASA's surface missions. Modern sub-micron CMOS...

  16. Real-time temperature field measurement based on acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Yong; Jia, Jiabin; Polydorides, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic tomography can be used to measure the temperature field from the time-of-flight (TOF). In order to capture real-time temperature field changes and accurately yield quantitative temperature images, two improvements to the conventional acoustic tomography system are studied: simultaneous acoustic transmission and TOF collection along multiple ray paths, and an offline iteration reconstruction algorithm. During system operation, all the acoustic transceivers send modulated and filtered wideband Kasami sequences simultaneously to facilitate fast and accurate TOF measurements using cross-correlation detection. For image reconstruction, the iteration process is separated and executed offline beforehand to shorten computation time for online temperature field reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed methods are validated in the simulation study. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the processing time per frame from 160 ms to 20 ms, while the reconstruction error remains less than 5%. Hence, the proposed method has great potential in the measurement of rapid temperature change with good temporal and spatial resolution. (paper)

  17. Determination of Germination Response to Temperature and Water Potential for a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species and Related Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Dürr, Carolyne; Demilly, Didier; Wagner, Marie-Hélène; Justes, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of species can be sown as cover crops during fallow periods to provide various ecosystem services. Plant establishment is a key stage, especially when sowing occurs in summer with high soil temperatures and low water availability. The aim of this study was to determine the response of germination to temperature and water potential for diverse cover crop species. Based on these characteristics, we developed contrasting functional groups that group species with the same germination ability, which may be useful to adapt species choice to climatic sowing conditions. Germination of 36 different species from six botanical families was measured in the laboratory at eight temperatures ranging from 4.5-43°C and at four water potentials. Final germination percentages, germination rate, cardinal temperatures, base temperature and base water potential were calculated for each species. Optimal temperatures varied from 21.3-37.2°C, maximum temperatures at which the species could germinate varied from 27.7-43.0°C and base water potentials varied from -0.1 to -2.6 MPa. Most cover crops were adapted to summer sowing with a relatively high mean optimal temperature for germination, but some Fabaceae species were more sensitive to high temperatures. Species mainly from Poaceae and Brassicaceae were the most resistant to water deficit and germinated under a low base water potential. Species were classified, independent of family, according to their ability to germinate under a range of temperatures and according to their base water potential in order to group species by functional germination groups. These groups may help in choosing the most adapted cover crop species to sow based on climatic conditions in order to favor plant establishment and the services provided by cover crops during fallow periods. Our data can also be useful as germination parameters in crop models to simulate the emergence of cover crops under different pedoclimatic conditions and crop

  18. An emittance measurement system for a wide range of bunch charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, B.; Engwall, D.; Hofler, A.; Keesee, M.; Legg, R.

    1997-01-01

    As a part of the emittance measurements planned for the FEL injector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), the authors have developed an emittance measurement system that covers the wide dynamic range of bunch charges necessary to fully characterize the high-DC-voltage photocathode gun. The measurements are carried out with a variant of the classical two-slit method using a slit to sample the beam in conjunction with a wire scanner to measure the transmitted beam profile. The use of commercial, ultra-low noise picoammeters makes it possible to cover the wide range of desired bunch charges, with the actual measurements made over the range of 0.25 pC to 125 pC. The entire system, including its integration into the EPICS control system, is discussed

  19. Application of SH surface acoustic waves for measuring the viscosity of liquids in function of pressure and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Rostocki, A J; Tefelski, D B

    2011-12-01

    Viscosity measurements were carried out on triolein at pressures from atmospheric up to 650 MPa and in the temperature range from 10°C to 40°C using ultrasonic measuring setup. Bleustein-Gulyaev SH surface acoustic waves waveguides were used as viscosity sensors. Additionally, pressure changes occurring during phase transition have been measured over the same temperature range. Application of ultrasonic SH surface acoustic waves in the liquid viscosity measurements at high pressure has many advantages. It enables viscosity measurement during phase transitions and in the high-pressure range where the classical viscosity measurement methods cannot operate. Measurements of phase transition kinetics and viscosity of liquids at high pressures and various temperatures (isotherms) is a novelty. The knowledge of changes in viscosity in function of pressure and temperature can help to obtain a deeper insight into thermodynamic properties of liquids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Constituent Ion Temperatures Measured in the Topside Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C. T.; Heelis, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma temperatures in the ionosphere are associated with both the dynamics and structure of the neutral and charge particles. The temperatures are determined by solar energy inputs and energy exchange between charged particles and neutrals. Previous observations show that during daytime the O+ temperature is generally higher when the fractional contribution of H+ to the plasma is high. Further simulations confirm that the daytime heat balance between the H+ and O+ always keeps the H+ at a temperature higher than the O+. In addition the plasma transport parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field influences the plasma temperature through adiabatic heating and cooling effects. These processes are also important during the nighttime, when the source of photoionization is absent. In this work we examine a more sophisticated analysis procedure to extract individual mass dependent ion temperature and apply it on the DMSP F15 RPA measurements. The result shows that the daytime TH+ is a few hundred degrees higher than the TO+ and the nighttime temperature difference between TH+ and TO+ is indicative of mass dependent adiabatic heating and cooling processes across the equatorial region.