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Sample records for measured glucosinolate profiles

  1. Profiling of Glucosinolates and Flavonoids in Rorippa indica (Linn.) Hiern. (Cruciferae) by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An UHPLC-DAD-ESI/HRMSn profiling method was used to identify the glucosinolates and flavonoids of Rorippa montana (Cruciferae), a Chinese herb used to treat cough, diarrhea and rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty three glucosinolates, over 40 flavonol glycosides, and more than 20 other phenolic and common ...

  2. GLS-Finder: A Platform for Fast Profiling of Glucosinolates in Brassica Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Zhang, Mengliang; Chen, Pei

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry combined with related tandem techniques has become the most popular method for plant secondary metabolite characterization. We introduce a new strategy based on in-database searching, mass fragmentation behavior study, formula predicting for fast profiling of glucosinolates, a class of important compounds in brassica vegetables. A MATLAB script-based expert system computer program, "GLS-Finder", was developed. It is capable of qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of glucosinolates in samples using data generated by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate mass with multi-stage mass fragmentation (UHPLC-HRAM/MS(n)). A suite of bioinformatic tools was integrated into the "GLS-Finder" to perform raw data deconvolution, peak alignment, glucosinolate putative assignments, semi-quantitation, and unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA). GLS-Finder was successfully applied to identify intact glucosinolates in 49 commonly consumed Brassica vegetable samples in the United States. It is believed that this work introduces a new way of fast data processing and interpretation for qualitative and quantitative analyses of glucosinolates, where great efficacy was improved in comparison to identification manually.

  3. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodríguez, Melissa; Nair, Vimal; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2017-06-26

    Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV). Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVA L , UVA H ) or UVB (UVB L , UVB H ) with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m², respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v / v ) extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVB H treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVA L radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%), 4- O -caffeoylquinic acid (~42%), gallic acid derivative (~48%) and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%). Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%), gallotannic acid (~48%) and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121%) were observed with UVB H Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  4. UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts

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    Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV. Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVAL, UVAH or UVB (UVBL, UVBH with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m2, respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v/v extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVBH treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVAL radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (~42%, gallic acid derivative (~48% and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%. Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%, gallotannic acid (~48% and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121% were observed with UVBH Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications.

  5. Intra-specific Differences in Root and Shoot Glucosinolate Profiles among White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Biere, A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shoot glucosinolate profiles of Brassicaceae are known to vary within species, across environmental conditions, and between developmental stages. Here we study whether root profiles follow the intra-specific, environmental, and developmental variation observed for aerial parts in white cabbage

  6. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

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    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total

  7. Metabolic profiling of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in a germplasm collection of Brassica rapa turnips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopsch, Rebecca; Witzel, Katja; Börner, Andreas; Schreiner, Monika; Hanschen, Franziska S

    2017-10-01

    About 10% of the world's vegetable production is generated from Brassicaceae, wherein Brassica rapa is a dominating species. There is growing evidence that glucosinolates (GLSs), main plant secondary metabolites in Brassicales, play an important role in promoting human health. Natural genetic diversity of B. rapa can be explored for vegetable improvement. We analyzed leaves and tubers of 16 B. rapa turnips for their GLS composition by UHPLC-DAD and the corresponding hydrolysis products by GC-MS. Thirteen GLSs were identified, 8 aliphatic, 4 indolic and one aromatic. 3-Butenyl GLS was prevailing in both plant organs while in tubers 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl GLS and 2-phenylethyl GLS occurred in high amounts. A total of 24 GLS breakdown products were detected in tubers and 16 in leaves. Epithionitriles were the main hydrolysis products in both plant organs with 4,5-epithiopentanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4,5-epithiopentanenitrile being the main compounds. When comparing leaves and tubers, an accumulation of GLSs and their breakdown products was observed in tubers compared to leaves. Our analysis achieved the comprehensive profiling of all GLS metabolites in a collection of B. rapa turnips, underlining the natural variation not only of intact GLS, but also of their breakdown products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Glucosinolate Profiles in Different Tissues of Nine Brassica Crops

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    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolate (GSL profiles and concentrations in various tissues (seeds, sprouts, mature root, and shoot were determined and compared across nine Brassica species, including cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, radish, baemuchae, pakchoi, Chinese cabbage, leaf mustard, and kale. The compositions and concentrations of individual GSLs varied among crops, tissues, and growth stages. Seeds had highest total GSL concentrations in most of crops, whereas shoots had the lowest GSL concentrations. Aliphatic GSL concentrations were the highest in seeds, followed by that in sprouts, shoots, and roots. Indole GSL concentration was the highest in the root or shoot tissues in most of the crops. In contrast, aromatic GSL concentrations were highest in roots. Of the nine crops examined, broccoli exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in seeds (110.76 µmol·g−1 and sprouts (162.19 µmol·g−1, whereas leaf mustard exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in shoots (61.76 µmol·g−1 and roots (73.61 µmol·g−1. The lowest GSL concentrations were observed in radish across all tissues examined.

  9. Glucosinolate profile and distribution among plant tissues and phenological stages of field-grown horseradish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneta, Rosa; Lelario, Filomena; De Maria, Susanna; Möllers, Christian; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio; Rivelli, Anna Rita

    2014-10-01

    Profile and distribution of glucosinolates (GLS) were detected in plant tissues of horseradish at different developmental stages: beginning of vegetative re-growth, flowering and silique formation. The GLS profile varied widely in the different tissues: we identified 17 GLS in roots and sprouts, one of which was not previously characterized in horseradish, i.e. the 2(S)-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl-GLS (glucobarbarin) and/or 2(R)-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl-GLS (epiglucobarbarin), 11 already found in the roots, including the putative 2-methylsulfonyl-oxo-ethyl-GLS, and 5 previously recognized only in the sprouts. Fifteen of those GLS were also identified in young and cauline leaves, 12 in the mature leaves and 13 in the inflorescences. No difference in GLS profile was observed in plant among the phenological stages. Differences in concentrations of GLS, quantified as desulfated, were found in plant. At the beginning of vegetative re-growth, sprouts while showing the same profile of the roots were much richer in GLS having the highest total GLS concentrations (117.5 and 7.7μmolg(-1) dry weight in sprouts and roots, respectively). During flowering and silique forming stages, the roots still maintained lower amount of total GLS (7.4μmolg(-1) of dry weight, on average) with respect to the epigeous tissues, in which mature and young leaves showed the highest total concentrations (70.5 and 73.8μmolg(-1) of dry weight on average, respectively). Regardless of the phenological stages, the aliphatic GLS were always predominant in all tissues (95%) followed by indolic (2.6%) and benzenic (2.4%) GLS. Sinigrin contributed more than 90% of the total GLS concentration. Aliphatic GLS concentrations were much higher in the epigeous tissues, particularly in the mature and young leaves, while benzenic and indolic GLS concentrations were higher in the roots. Through the phenological stages, GLS concentration increased in young and mature leaves and decreased in cauline leaves and inflorescences

  10. Glucosinolate profiles by HPLC-DAD, phenolic compositions and antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris: Impact of plant part and origin

    OpenAIRE

    Bouacida, Saoussen; Koubaier, Hayet Ben Haj; Snoussi, Ahmed; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2016-01-01

    The glucosinolate profiles, phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris were studied for different organs and origins. Eleven desulpho-glucosinolates (DS-GLSs) were isolated and quantified by lipid chromatography- DAD. Similarity between profiles was obtained. Total DS-GLS content, expressed as sinigrin equivalents (SE) revealed a certain variabilily ranging between (76.07-45.61), (27.01-13.53), (4.52 -18.01), (9.39-3.37) and (1.16-13.99) µmol /g...

  11. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  12. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

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    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  13. General introduction to glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    will be presented a general introduction to glucosinolates ranging from the evolution of glucosinolates to the many roles glucosinolates have for humans as well as an overview of the current knowledge on the orchestration of the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The latter includes an introduction to the genes...... to the plasma membrane. Examples of how the knowledge gained from basic research has been translated into applied glucosinolate research through pathway and transport engineering will be presented....

  14. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mohamed, Amal; El-Din Saad El-Beltagi, Hossam

    2010-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C1...

  15. CB5C affects the glucosinolate profile in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vik, Daniel; Crocoll, Christoph; Andersen, Tonni Grube

    2016-01-01

    were reduced in one of the mutant lines - a phenotype that was exaggerated upon methyl-jasmonate treatment. These results support the hypothesis, that CB5C influences glucosinolate biosynthesis, however, the mode of action remains unknown. Furthermore, the mutants differed in their biomass response...

  16. Changes in SeMSC, glucosinolates and sulforaphane levels, and in proteome profile in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) fertilized with sodium selenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Barrientos, Herna; Mahn, Andrea; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-05-07

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC), total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 μmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot) and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  17. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

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    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  18. Isolation and identification of 4-a-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de R.M.; Krosse, S.; Swolfs, A.E.M.; Brinke, te E.; Prill, N.; Leimu, R.; Galen, van P.M.; Wang, Y.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ~130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is

  19. Glucosinolate profiles by HPLC-DAD, phenolic compositions and antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris: Impact of plant part and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Bouacida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The glucosinolate profiles, phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris were studied for different organs and origins. Eleven desulpho-glucosinolates (DS-GLSs were isolated and quantified by lipid chromatography- DAD. Similarity between profiles was obtained. Total DS-GLS content, expressed as sinigrin equivalents (SE revealed a certain variabilily ranging between (76.07-45.61, (27.01-13.53, (4.52 -18.01, (9.39-3.37 and (1.16-13.99 µmol /g DW for seeds, flowers, leaves, roots and stems, respectively. Results showed that seeds are rich in phenolics as they contain highest amounts of phenolics ranging from 27.6±0.5 to 33.47±0.5 mg GAE/g extract as compared to all other parts. Leaves and flowers had a significantly higher total phenolic content than stems and roots in all samples (p < 0.05. According to statistical analysis, the investigated seed extracts with values between (16.20±0.10-18.50±0.10 mg QE/g exhibited the highest total flavonoids content, followed by leaves (13.00±0.40-15.80±0.30mg QE/g, flowers (10.40±0.40-12.90±0.90 mg QE/g and stems (7.80±0.20- 9.80±0.70 mg QE/g. Antioxidant activity tested by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, was higher for seeds, leaves and flowers than the other studied organs. These organs were characterized by a significantly high content in glucoerucin, nasturtin and epiprogroitrin, respectively.

  20. Diversified glucosinolate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Tina; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2015-01-01

    glucosides in A. petiolata. However, we detected hydrogen cyanide (HCN) release from sinigrin and added thiocyanate ion and benzyl thiocyanate in A. petiolata indicating an enzymatic pathway from glucosinolates via allyl thiocyanate and indole glucosinolate derived thiocyanate ion to HCN. Alliarinoside......Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae) contains the glucosinolate sinigrin as well as alliarinoside, a γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside structurally related to cyanogenic glucosides. Sinigrin may defend this plant against a broad range of enemies, while alliarinoside confers resistance...... to specialized (glucosinolate-adapted) herbivores. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two classes of specialized metabolites, which generally do not occur in the same plant species. Administration of [UL-14C]-methionine to excised leaves of A. petiolata showed that both alliarinoside and sinigrin...

  1. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  2. Chemopreventive glucosinolate accumulation in various broccoli and collard tissues: Microfluidic-based targeted transcriptomics for by-product valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sang; Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2017-01-01

    Floret, leaf, and root tissues were harvested from broccoli and collard cultivars and extracted to determine their glucosinolate and hydrolysis product profiles using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromotography. Quinone reductase inducing bioactivity, an estimate of anti-cancer chemopreventive potential, of the extracts was measured using a hepa1c1c7 murine cell line. Extracts from root tissues were significantly different from other tissues and contained high levels of gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin. Targeted gene expression analysis on glucosinolate biosynthesis revealed that broccoli root tissue has elevated gene expression of AOP2 and low expression of FMOGS-OX homologs, essentially the opposite of what was observed in broccoli florets, which accumulated high levels of glucoraphanin. Broccoli floret tissue has significantly higher nitrile formation (%) and epithionitrile specifier protein gene expression than other tissues. This study provides basic information of the glucosinolate metabolome and transcriptome for various tissues of Brassica oleracea that maybe utilized as potential byproducts for the nutraceutical market.

  3. Glucosinolate structures in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2012-05-01

    By 2000, around 106 natural glucosinolates (GSLs) were probably documented. In the past decade, 26 additional natural GSL structures have been elucidated and documented. Hence, the total number of documented GSLs from nature by 2011 can be estimated to around 132. A considerable number of additional suggested structures are concluded not to be sufficiently documented. In many cases, NMR spectroscopy would have provided the missing structural information. Of the GSLs documented in the past decade, several are of previously unexpected structures and occur at considerable levels. Most originate from just four species: Barbarea vulgaris, Arabidopsis thaliana, Eruca sativa and Isatis tinctoria. Acyl derivatives of known GSLs comprised 15 of the 26 newly documented structures, while the remaining exhibited new substitution patterns or chain length, or contained a mercapto group or related thio-functionality. GSL identification methods are reviewed, and the importance of using authentic references and structure-sensitive detection methods such as MS and NMR is stressed, especially when species with relatively unknown chemistry are analyzed. An example of qualitative GSL analysis is presented with experimental details (group separation and HPLC of both intact and desulfated GSLs, detection and structure determination by UV, MS, NMR and susceptibility to myrosinase) with emphasis on the use of NMR for structure elucidation of even minor GSLs and GSL hydrolysis products. The example includes identification of a novel GSL, (R)-2-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)ethylglucosinolate. Recent investigations of GSL evolution, based on investigations of species with well established phylogeny, are reviewed. From the relatively few such investigations, it is already clear that GSL profiles are regularly subject to evolution. This result is compatible with natural selection for specific GSL side chains. The probable existence of structure-specific GSL catabolism in intact plants suggests

  4. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  5. Identification and expression analysis of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and estimation of glucosinolate contents in edible organs of Brassica oleracea subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Jong-Goo; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-20

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28) and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51), were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  6. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28 and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51, were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  7. Engineering of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Morten Emil; Salomonsen, Bo; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2012-01-01

    -efficient methods for identification and validation of candidate genes are needed. This chapter covers the methodology we are using for gene discovery in glucosinolate engineering, namely, guilt-by-association-based in silico methods and fast proof-of-function screens by transient expression in Nicotiana...... here will be beneficial to elucidate and engineer other plant biosynthetic pathways....

  8. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates from broccoliseed extractsuppressproteinglycationand carbonylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Hirano,

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucosinolates from brassica plants are hydrolyzed by internal or salivary myrosinase to produce isothiocyanates. Glucoraphanin, a major glucosinolate in broccoli, is hydrolyzed to sulforaphane (SFN, which exhibits antitumor and detoxification activities. Regarding the influence of broccoli and its constituents on the skin, a few studies have reported anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Recently, advanced glycation end products (AGEs and carbonyl proteins have been reported to accelerate skin aging. Objective: We evaluated the effects of broccoli seed extract (BSE and glucosinolates on protein glycation and carbonylation in vitro. Methods: To evaluate the effects of BSE and its constituents, protein glycation and carbonylation were induced by mixing fructose with bovine serum albumin (BSA and then measuring production of AGEs, fructosamine, and carbonyl proteins (CP. Production of CP after mixing fatty acids with BSA was also assessed. Furthermore, the effect of BSE and its constituents on CP production by human fibroblasts (TIG103 was examined. Results: BSE suppressed the production of AGEs, fructosamine, and CP after mixing fructose and BSA. BSE also suppressed production of CP when oxidized linoleic acid was mixed with BSA. Isothiocyanates, including SFN and iberin, suppressed fructose-based CP production, but SFN had no effect on CP production stimulated by oxidized linoleic acid. In contrast, glucosinolates from BSE did not suppress fructose-based CP production, but suppressed CP production due to oxidized linoleic acid. Among the glucosinolates in BSE, glucoberteroin showed the strongest suppression of CP production. CP production in fibroblasts was also suppressed by glucosinolates, including glucoiberin and glucoberteroin. Conclusions: BSE demonstrated anti-glycation and anti-carbonylation effects on protein reactions with fructose and oxidized fatty acids. Isothiocyanates suppressed protein carbonylation induced by

  9. Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses of Glucosinolates in Two Broccoli Cultivars Following Jasmonate Treatment for the Induction of Glucosinolate Defense to Trichoplusia ni (Hübner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2016-07-15

    Lepidopteran larvae growth is influenced by host plant glucosinolate (GS) concentrations, which are, in turn, influenced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA). In order to elucidate insect resistance biomarkers to lepidopteran pests, transcriptome and metabolome analyses following JA treatments were conducted with two broccoli cultivars, Green Magic and VI-158, which have differentially induced indole GSs, neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin, respectively. To test these two inducible GSs on growth of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), eight neonate cabbage looper larvae were placed onto each of three plants per JA treatments (0, 100, 200, 400 µM) three days after treatment. After five days of feeding, weight of larvae and their survival rate was found to decrease with increasing JA concentrations in both broccoli cultivars. JA-inducible GSs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Neoglucobrassicin in Green Magic and glucobrassicin in VI-158 leaves were increased in a dose-dependent manner. One or both of these glucosinolates and/or their hydrolysis products showed significant inverse correlations with larval weight and survival (five days after treatment) while being positively correlated with the number of days to pupation. This implies that these two JA-inducible glucosinolates can influence the growth and survival of cabbage looper larvae. Transcriptome profiling supported the observed changes in glucosinolate and their hydrolysis product concentrations following JA treatments. Several genes related to GS metabolism differentiate the two broccoli cultivars in their pattern of transcriptional response to JA treatments. Indicative of the corresponding change in indole GS concentrations, transcripts of the transcription factor MYB122, core structure biosynthesis genes (CYP79B2, UGT74B1, SUR1, SOT16, SOT17, and SOT18), an indole glucosinolate side chain modification gene (IGMT1), and several glucosinolate hydrolysis genes (TGG1, TGG2, and ESM1) were

  10. Determination of glucosinolates in 19 Chinese medicinal plants with spectrophotometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng; Hong, Yuancheng

    2010-08-01

    Glucosinolates were evaluated in 19 traditional Chinese medicinal plants involved in seven different families: Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Caricaceae and Rubiaceae. The total glucosinolate contents were determined by spectrophotometry. Results showed that the high contents of total glucosinolates were found in some herbs of Brassicaceae, Capparaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, while low total glucosinolate contents were observed in two Rubiaceae herbs. In addition, eight glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucoraphenin, sinalbin, sinigrin, progoitrin, 4-hydroglucobrassicin, glucoiberin and glucoibervirin) in these herbs were measured using HPLC, and the data showed that individual glucosinolates and their contents varied at different degrees among the distinct species. The highest contents of cancer-protective compounds were found in the seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (glucoraphenin), Sinapis alba (sinalbin) and Phyllanthus emblica L. (sinigrin).

  11. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity of Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Glucosinolate Content and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Müller, Anja; Kuhnert, Nikolai; Albach, Dirk

    2016-04-27

    Recently, kale has become popular due to nutritive components beneficial for human health. It is an important source of phytochemicals such as glucosinolates that trigger associated cancer-preventive activity. However, nutritional value varies among glucosinolates and among cultivars. Here, we start a systematic determination of the content of five glucosinolates in 25 kale varieties and 11 non-kale Brassica oleracea cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and compare the profiles with results from the analysis of SNPs derived from a KASP genotyping assay. Our results demonstrate that the glucosinolate levels differ markedly among varieties of different origin. Comparison of the phytochemical data with phylogenetic relationships revealed that the common name kale refers to at least three different groups. German, American, and Italian kales differ morphologically and phytochemically. Landraces do not show outstanding glucosinolate levels. Our results demonstrate the diversity of kale and the importance of preserving a broad genepool for future breeding purposes.

  13. Beam profile measurements on RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, R.; Michnoff, R.; Moore, T.; Shea, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab was commissioned during the summer of 1999. Transverse beam profiles on RHIC are measured with ionization profile monitors (IPMs). An IPM measures beam profiles by collecting the electrons liberated by residual gas ionization by the beam. The detector is placed in the gap of a dipole magnet to force the electrons to travel in straight lines from the beamline center to the collector. One IPM was tested and it measured the profiles of a single gold bunch containing 10 8 ions on consecutive turns. We show an example of one of these profiles giving transverse emittance. Also several profiles are combined into a mountain-range plot which shows betatron oscillations at injection

  14. A Straightforward Method for Glucosinolate Extraction and Analysis with High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Katharina; van Dam, Nicole M

    2017-03-15

    Glucosinolates are a well-studied and highly diverse class of natural plant compounds. They play important roles in plant resistance, rapeseed oil quality, food flavoring, and human health. The biological activity of glucosinolates is released upon tissue damage, when they are mixed with the enzyme myrosinase. This results in the formation of pungent and toxic breakdown products, such as isothiocyanates and nitriles. Currently, more than 130 structurally different glucosinolates have been identified. The chemical structure of the glucosinolate is an important determinant of the product that is formed, which in turn determines its biological activity. The latter may range from detrimental (e.g., progoitrin) to beneficial (e.g., glucoraphanin). Each glucosinolate-containing plant species has its own specific glucosinolate profile. For this reason, it is important to correctly identify and reliably quantify the different glucosinolates present in brassicaceous leaf, seed, and root crops or, for ecological studies, in their wild relatives. Here, we present a well-validated, targeted, and robust method to analyze glucosinolate profiles in a wide range of plant species and plant organs. Intact glucosinolates are extracted from ground plant materials with a methanol-water mixture at high temperatures to disable myrosinase activity. Thereafter, the resulting extract is brought onto an ion-exchange column for purification. After sulfatase treatment, the desulfoglucosinolates are eluted with water and the eluate is freeze-dried. The residue is taken up in an exact volume of water, which is analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array (PDA) or ultraviolet (UV) detector. Detection and quantification are achieved by conducting comparisons of the retention times and UV spectra of commercial reference standards. The concentrations are calculated based on a sinigrin reference curve and well-established response factors. The advantages and

  15. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Genetic Variability in Glucosinolates in Seed of Brassica juncea: Interest in Mustard Condiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othmane Merah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea is mostly used for oil production which implies selection of genotypes with low glucosinolates level and high oil content. In contrast, condiment production needs varieties with high level in some glucosinolates including sinigrin. The genetic variability was studied mostly by molecular tools. The objectives were almost the decrease of glucosinolates level in order to use the oilcake for animal feed. The aim of this work is to study the genetic variability for different glucosinolates and their relationships with agronomical traits within a large collection of Brassica juncea genotypes for condiment uses. A collection of 190 genotypes from different origins was studied in Dijon (France. Oil content and total glucosinolates, and sinigrin and gluconapin levels were measured. Flowering and maturation durations, seed yield, and yield components were also measured. Large variability was observed between genotypes for the measured traits within the studied collection. Total glucosinolates varied twofold between extreme genotypes. Values of sinigrin content varied from 0 to more than 134 µmol·g−1. Correlations between glucosinolates traits and both phenological and agronomical characters are presented and discussed for their potential for industrial condiment uses.

  17. Measurement of whole tire profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongyue; Jiao, Wenguang

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a precision measuring device is developed for obtaining characteristic curve of tire profile and its geometric parameters. It consists of a laser displacement measurement unit, a closed-loop precision two-dimensional coordinate table, a step motor control system and a fast data acquisition and analysis system. Based on the laser trigonometry, a data map of tire profile and coordinate values of all points can be obtained through corresponding data transformation. This device has a compact structure, a convenient control, a simple hardware circuit design and a high measurement precision. Experimental results indicate that measurement precision can meet the customer accuracy requirement of +/-0.02 mm.

  18. Investigation of glucosinolate profile and qualitative aspects in sprouts and roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) using LC-ESI-hybrid linear ion trap with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and infrared multiphoton dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneta, Rosa; Rivelli, Anna Rita; Ventrella, Emanuela; Lelario, Filomena; Sarli, Giulio; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2012-08-01

    Within the family of Brassicaceae, an important source of glucosinolates (GLSs) is represented by horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertner, B. Meyer & Scherbius), cultivated for its roots, which are grated fresh or processed into a sauce and used as a condiment. The characteristic pungent flavor of the root depends on the abundance of the bioactive GLS molecules. In crude plant extracts (sprouts and roots) of an accession of horseradish largely diffused in the Basilicata region (southern Italy), which develops many sprouts and produces white, fiery, and sharp-flavored marketable roots, we characterized the GLS profile by LC-ESI-LTQ-FTICR-MS and IRMPD. In sprouts and roots we identified 16 and 11 GLSs, respectively. We confirmed the presence of sinigrin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, gluconasturtin, and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and identified glucoiberin, gluconapin, glucocochlearin, glucoconringianin, glucosativin, glucoibarin, 5-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucocapparilinearisin or glucobrassicanapin, glucotropaeolin, and glucoarabishirsutain, not previously characterized in horseradish. Of particular note was the presence of the putative 2-methylsulfonyl-oxo-ethyl-GLS.

  19. Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansruedi Glatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future.

  20. Aromatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its Response to Plutella xylostella Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Agerbirk, Niels; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Shen, Di; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P

  1. Aromatic glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its response to Plutella xylostella infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjin eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g. saponins in Barbara vulgaris was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominate glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway are unclear in this plant. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant and P-type (pest-susceptible B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR, while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in

  2. Electron shower transverse profile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednev, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    A method to measure the shower transverse profile is described. Calibration data of the lead-glass spectrometer GAMS collected in a wide electron beam without any additional coordinate detector are used. The method may be used for the measurements in both cellular- and projective-type spectrometers. The results of measuring the 10 GeV electron shower profile in the GAMS spectrometer, without optical grease between the lead-glass radiators and photomultipliers, are approximated with an analytical function. The estimate of the coordinate accuracy is obtained. 5 refs., 8 figs

  3. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 have distinct functions in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sixue; Glawischnig, Erich; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Naur, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Hansen, Carsten H; Rasmussen, Hasse; Pickett, John A; Halkier, Barbara A

    2003-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 of the CYP79 family catalyze the conversion of amino acids to oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a group of natural plant products known to be involved in plant defense and as a source of flavor compounds, cancer-preventing agents and bioherbicides. We report a detailed biochemical analysis of the substrate specificity and kinetics of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, two cytochromes P450 involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using recombinant CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, we show that CYP79F1 metabolizes mono- to hexahomomethionine, resulting in both short- and long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. In contrast, CYP79F2 exclusively metabolizes long-chain elongated penta- and hexahomomethionines. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 are spatially and developmentally regulated, with different gene expression patterns. CYP79F2 is highly expressed in hypocotyl and roots, whereas CYP79F1 is strongly expressed in cotyledons, rosette leaves, stems, and siliques. A transposon-tagged CYP79F1 knockout mutant completely lacks short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, but has an increased level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, especially in leaves and seeds. The level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates in a transposon-tagged CYP79F2 knockout mutant is substantially reduced, whereas the level of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates is not affected. Biochemical characterization of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, and gene expression analysis, combined with glucosinolate profiling of knockout mutants demonstrate the functional role of these enzymes. This provides valuable insights into the metabolic network leading to the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, and into metabolic engineering of altered aliphatic glucosinolate profiles to improve nutritional value and pest resistance.

  4. Bioavailability of glucosinolates and their breakdown products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose; Nikmaram, Nooshin; Roohinejad, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites with nutritional effects, and are mainly found in cruciferous plants. After ingestion, glucosinolates could be partially absorbed in their intact form through the gastrointestinal mucosa. However, the largest fraction is metabolized ...... the bioavailability of glucosinolates and their breakdown products. This review paper summarizes the assimilation, absorption, and elimination of these molecules, as well as the impact of processing on their bioavailability....

  5. The Spatial Organization of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nintemann, Sebastian

    cells is an open question. Likewise, it is not known how glucosinolate biosynthesis is orchestrated at the subcellular level. These open questions were addressed with several approaches in this project, with the aim of shedding light on the spatial organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis from...... between the individual classes of glucosinolates under constitutive and induced conditions and identified the source tissues of these defense compounds. Protein-protein interaction studies were carried out to investigate the subcellular organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis. We identified a family...

  6. Nitrile-specifier Proteins Involved in Glucosinolate Hydrolysis in Arabidopsis thaliana*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissen, Ralph; Bones, Atle M.

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites present in Brassicaceae plants such as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Intact glucosinolates are believed to be biologically inactive, whereas degradation products after hydrolysis have multiple roles in growth regulation and defense. The degradation of glucosinolates is catalyzed by thioglucosidases called myrosinases and leads by default to the formation of isothiocyanates. The interaction of a protein called epithiospecifier protein (ESP) with myrosinase diverts the reaction toward the production of epithionitriles or nitriles depending on the glucosinolate structure. Here we report the identification of a new group of nitrile-specifier proteins (AtNSPs) in A. thaliana able to generate nitriles in conjunction with myrosinase and a more detailed characterization of one member (AtNSP2). Recombinant AtNSP2 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to test its impact on the outcome of glucosinolate hydrolysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach. AtNSP proteins share 30–45% sequence homology with A. thaliana ESP. Although AtESP and AtNSP proteins can switch myrosinase-catalyzed degradation of 2-propenylglucosinolate from isothiocyanate to nitrile, only AtESP generates the corresponding epithionitrile. Using the aromatic benzylglucosinolate, recombinant AtNSP2 is also able to direct product formation to the nitrile. Analysis of glucosinolate hydrolysis profiles of transgenic A. thaliana plants overexpressing AtNSP2 confirms its nitrile-specifier activity in planta. In silico expression analysis reveals distinctive expression patterns of AtNSPs, which supports a biological role for these proteins. In conclusion, we show that AtNSPs belonging to a new family of A. thaliana proteins structurally related to AtESP divert product formation from myrosinase-catalyzed glucosinolate hydrolysis and, thereby, likely affect the biological consequences of glucosinolate degradation. We discuss similarities and

  7. Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, K.; Barrett, D.M.; Bosch Suades, C.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates within the plant matrix was studied. Red cabbage samples were heated at different temperatures for various times. To rule out the influence of enzymatic breakdown and to focus entirely on the thermal degradation of glucosinolates, myrosinase was

  8. Impact of selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-biofortified Brassica sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Fabricio William; Yang, Yong; Faquin, Valdemar; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2014-12-15

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Identification of metabolic QTLs and candidate genes for glucosinolate synthesis in Brassica oleracea leaves, seeds and flower buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sotelo

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are major secondary metabolites found in the Brassicaceae family. These compounds play an essential role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, but more interestingly they have beneficial effects on human health. We performed a genetic analysis in order to identify the genome regions regulating glucosinolates biosynthesis in a DH mapping population of Brassica oleracea. In order to obtain a general overview of regulation in the whole plant, analyses were performed in the three major organs where glucosinolates are synthesized (leaves, seeds and flower buds. Eighty two significant QTLs were detected, which explained a broad range of variability in terms of individual and total glucosinolate (GSL content. A meta-analysis rendered eighteen consensus QTLs. Thirteen of them regulated more than one glucosinolate and its content. In spite of the considerable variability of glucosinolate content and profiles across the organ, some of these consensus QTLs were identified in more than one tissue. Consensus QTLs control the GSL content by interacting epistatically in complex networks. Based on in silico analysis within the B. oleracea genome along with synteny with Arabidopsis, we propose seven major candidate loci that regulate GSL biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae family. Three of these loci control the content of aliphatic GSL and four of them control the content of indolic glucosinolates. GSL-ALK plays a central role in determining aliphatic GSL variation directly and by interacting epistatically with other loci, thus suggesting its regulatory effect.

  10. Fitting the IRI F2-profile function to measured profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin

    1997-01-01

    Comparison with profile data from ionosondes shows that the IRI bottomside F2-profiles can be improved by using better B0 and B1 parameters. The best parameters (in a least-squares sense) can be easily calculated in a numerical procedure from measured profiles presented as a sum of Chebyshev polynomials. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  11. Diversified glucosinolate metabolism: biosynthesis of hydrogen cyanide and of the hydroxynitrile glucoside alliarinoside in relation to sinigrin metabolism in Alliaria petiolata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eFrisch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae contains the glucosinolate sinigrin as well as alliarinoside, a γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside structurally related to cyanogenic glucosides. sinigrin may defend this plant against a broad range of enemies, while alliarinoside confers resistance to specialized (glucosinolate-adapted herbivores. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two classes of specialized metabolites, which generally do not occur in the same plant species. Administration of [UL-14C]-methionine to excised leaves of A. petiolata showed that both alliarinoside and sinigrin were biosynthesized from methionine. The biosynthesis of alliarinoside was shown not to bifurcate from sinigrin biosynthesis at the oxime level in contrast to the general scheme for hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis. Instead, the aglucon of alliarinoside was formed from metabolism of sinigrin in experiments with crude extracts, suggesting a possible biosynthetic pathway in intact cells. Hence, the alliarinoside pathway may represent a route to hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis resulting from convergent evolution. Metabolite profiling by LC-MS showed no evidence of the presence of cyanogenic glucosides in A. petiolata. However, we detected hydrogen cyanide (HCN release from sinigrin and added thiocyanate ion and benzyl thiocyanate in A. petiolata indicating an enzymatic pathway from glucosinolates via allyl thiocyanate and indole glucosinolate derived thiocyanate ion to HCN. Alliarinoside biosynthesis and HCN release from glucosinolate-derived metabolites expand the range of glucosinolate-related defences and can be viewed as a third line of defence, with glucosinolates and thiocyanate forming protein being the first and second lines, respectively.

  12. Elucidating the Roles of Transport Processes in Glucosinolate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen

    Glucosinolates are plant defense compounds characteristic of the economically important plant family of Brassicaceae, which comprises crops as oilseed rape, cabbage, broccoli and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Recently, two Arabidopsis glucosinolate transporters, GTR1 and GTR2...

  13. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Hwang, Byung Ho; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-10-24

    Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea . Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS) in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS) in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200), CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914) and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286), ST5b , ST5c , AOP2 , FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350) and GSL-OH (Bol033373) was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea

  14. Glucosinolate pattern in Isatis tinctoria and I. indigotica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2008-06-01

    The glucosinolate patterns in seeds of five ISATIS TINCTORIA and two ISATIS INDIGOTICA accessions were assessed with a recently developed and validated LC-MS assay for direct analysis of glucosinolates without prior desulfatation. Glucosinolate peaks were identified with in-source fragmentation and detection of the sulfate anion ( M/Z = 97), and by MS/MS experiments. The glucosinolate patterns of the seeds showed characteristic differences compared to leaves. Glucoisatisin and epiglucoisatisin were diagnostic of seed samples. Qualitative and quantitative differences in glucosinolate patterns between both ISATIS species were found for seed samples, enabling a differentiation of the two medicinal plants at the level of seed material.

  15. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  16. Feeding behaviour of generalist pests on Brassica juncea: implication for manipulation of glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway for enhanced resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Augustine, Rehna; Singh, Amarjeet Kumar; Bisht, Naveen C

    2017-10-01

    Differential accumulation of plant defence metabolites has been suggested to have important ecological consequence in the context of plant-insect interactions. Feeding of generalist pests on Brassica juncea showed a distinct pattern with selective exclusion of leaf margins which are high in glucosinolates. Molecular basis of this differential accumulation of glucosinolates could be explained based on differential expression profile of BjuMYB28 homologues, the major biosynthetic regulators of aliphatic glucosinolates, as evident from quantitative real-time PCR and promoter:GUS fusion studies in allotetraploid B. juncea. Constitutive overexpression of selected BjuMYB28 homologues enhanced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in B. juncea. Performance of two generalist pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae, on transgenic B. juncea plants were poor compared to wild-type plants in a no-choice experiment. Correlation coefficient analysis suggested that weight gain of H. armigera larvae was negatively correlated with gluconapin (GNA) and glucobrassicanapin (GBN), whereas that of S. litura larvae was negatively correlated with GNA, GBN and sinigrin (SIN). Our study explains the significance and possible molecular basis of differential distribution of glucosinolates in B. juncea leaves and shows the potential of overexpressing BjuMYB28 for enhanced resistance of Brassica crops against the tested generalist pests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. NSP-Dependent Simple Nitrile Formation Dominates upon Breakdown of Major Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Roots, Seeds, and Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittstock, Ute; Meier, Kathrin; Dörr, Friederike; Ravindran, Beena M

    2016-01-01

    One of the best-studied plant defense systems, the glucosinolate-myrosinase system of the Brassicales, is composed of thioglucosides known as glucosinolates and their hydrolytic enzymes, the myrosinases. Tissue disruption brings these components together, and bioactive products are formed as a consequence of myrosinase-catalyzed glucosinolate hydrolysis. Among these products, isothiocyanates have attracted most interest as chemical plant defenses against herbivores and pathogens and health-promoting compounds in the human diet. Previous research has identified specifier proteins whose presence results in the formation of alternative product types, e.g., nitriles, at the expense of isothiocyanates. The biological roles of specifier proteins and alternative breakdown products are poorly understood. Here, we assessed glucosinolate breakdown product profiles obtained upon maceration of roots, seedlings and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0. We identified simple nitriles as the predominant breakdown products of the major endogenous aliphatic glucosinolates in root, seed, and seedling homogenates. In agreement with this finding, genes encoding nitrile-specifier proteins (NSPs) are expressed in roots, seeds, and seedlings. Analysis of glucosinolate breakdown in mutants with T-DNA insertions in any of the five NSP genes demonstrated, that simple nitrile formation upon tissue disruption depended almost entirely on NSP2 in seeds and mainly on NSP1 in seedlings. In roots, about 70-80% of the nitrile-forming activity was due to NSP1 and NSP3 . Thus, glucosinolate breakdown product profiles are organ-specifically regulated in A. thaliana Col-0, and high proportions of simple nitriles are formed in some parts of the plant. This should be considered in future studies on biological roles of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  18. NSP-dependent simple nitrile formation dominates upon breakdown of major aliphatic glucosinolates in roots, seeds, and seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wittstock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the best-studied plant defense systems, the glucosinolate-myrosinase system of the Brassicales, is composed of thioglucosides known as glucosinolates and their hydrolytic enzymes, the myrosinases. Tissue disruption brings these components together, and bioactive products are formed as a consequence of myrosinase-catalyzed glucosinolate hydrolysis. Among these products, isothiocyanates have attracted most interest as chemical plant defenses against herbivores and pathogens and health-promoting compounds in the human diet. Previous research has identified specifier proteins whose presence results in the formation of alternative product types, e.g. nitriles, at the expense of isothiocyanates. The biological roles of specifier proteins and alternative breakdown products are poorly understood. Here, we assessed glucosinolate breakdown product profiles obtained upon maceration of roots, seedlings and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0. We identified simple nitriles as the predominant breakdown products of the major endogenous aliphatic glucosinolates in root, seed, and seedling homogenates. In agreement with this finding, genes encoding nitrile-specifier proteins (NSPs are expressed in roots, seeds, and seedlings. Analysis of glucosinolate breakdown in mutants with T-DNA insertions in any of the five NSP genes demonstrated, that simple nitrile formation upon tissue disruption depended almost entirely on NSP2 in seeds and mainly on NSP1 in seedlings. In roots, about 70-80 % of the nitrile-forming activity was due to NSP1 and NSP3. Thus, glucosinolate breakdown product profiles are organ-specifically regulated in A. thaliana Col 0, and high proportions of simple nitriles are formed in some parts of the plant. This should be considered in future studies on biological roles of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  19. Glucosinolate metabolites required for an Arabidopsis innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Nicole K; Adio, Adewale M; Denoux, Carine; Jander, Georg; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2009-01-02

    The perception of pathogen or microbe-associated molecular pattern molecules by plants triggers a basal defense response analogous to animal innate immunity and is defined partly by the deposition of the glucan polymer callose at the cell wall at the site of pathogen contact. Transcriptional and metabolic profiling in Arabidopsis mutants, coupled with the monitoring of pathogen-triggered callose deposition, have identified major roles in pathogen response for the plant hormone ethylene and the secondary metabolite 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate. Two genes, PEN2 and PEN3, are also necessary for resistance to pathogens and are required for both callose deposition and glucosinolate activation, suggesting that the pathogen-triggered callose response is required for resistance to microbial pathogens. Our study shows that well-studied plant metabolites, previously identified as important in avoiding damage by herbivores, are also required as a component of the plant defense response against microbial pathogens.

  20. Glucosinolate Metabolites Required for an Arabidopsis Innate Immune Response*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Nicole K.; Adio, Adewale M.; Denoux, Carine; Jander, Georg; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The perception of pathogen or microbe-associated molecular pattern molecules by plants triggers a basal defense response analogous to animal innate immunity, and is defined in part by the deposition of the glucan polymer callose at the cell wall at the site of pathogen contact. Transcriptional and metabolic profiling in Arabidopsis mutants, coupled with the monitoring of pathogen triggered callose deposition, have identified major roles in pathogen response for the plant hormone ethylene and the secondary metabolite 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate. Two genes, PEN2 and PEN3, are also necessary for resistance to pathogens and are required for both callose deposition and glucosinolate activation, suggesting that the pathogen triggered callose response is required for resistance to microbial pathogens. Our study shows that well-studied plant metabolites, previously identified as important in avoiding damage by herbivores, are also required as a component of the plant defense response against microbial pathogens. PMID:19095898

  1. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa: insight into the glucosinolate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Pino Del Carpio

    Full Text Available Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs and transcript QTLs (eQTLs. Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.

  2. Identification of Glucosinolates in Seeds of Three Brassicaceae Species Known to Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaut, Sabine; Guido, Benjamin S; Grison, Claude; Rollin, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Plants from the Brassicaceae family are known to contain secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Our goal was to establish by LC/MS the glucosinolate profile of seeds of three Brassicaceae species known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. We investigated Alyssum fallacinum auct. non Hausskn., Iberis intermedia Guers., and Noccaea caerulescens (J. Presl & C. Presl) F. K. Mey. Our results indicate that A. fallacinum seeds contain glucoiberin and glucoibervirin, which had not been previously identified in this plant. Furthermore, we report for the first time the presence of glucoiberin, glucoibervirin, glucotropaeolin, and sinigrin in I. intermedia. We have detected for the first time glucoconringiin in N. caerulescens. In addition, glucosinalbin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and glucomoringin were also detected. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Enhancement of broccoli indole glucosinolates by methyl jasmonate treatment and effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ann G; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2014-11-01

    Broccoli is rich in bioactive components, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, which may impact cancer risk. The glucosinolate profile of broccoli can be manipulated through treatment with the plant stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Our objective was to produce broccoli with enhanced levels of indole glucosinolates and determine its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Brassica oleracea var. Green Magic was treated with a 250 μM MeJA solution 4 days prior to harvest. MeJA-treated broccoli had significantly increased levels of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin (P broccoli powder, or 10% MeJA broccoli powder. Diets were fed throughout the study until termination at 20 weeks of age. Hepatic CYP1A was induced with MeJA broccoli powder feeding, indicating biological activity of the indole glucosinolates. Following ∼ 15 weeks on diets, neither of the broccoli treatments significantly altered genitourinary tract weight, pathologic score, or metastasis incidence, indicating that broccoli powder at 10% of the diet was ineffective at reducing prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Whereas broccoli powder feeding had no effect in this model of prostate cancer, our work demonstrates the feasibility of employing plant stress hormones exogenously to stimulate changes in phytochemical profiles, an approach that may be useful for optimizing bioactive component patterns in foods for chronic-disease-prevention studies.

  4. Bioavailability and in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian; Frandsen, Heidi Blok; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits associated with consumption of cruciferous vegetables have received considerable attention with a hitherto focus on the role and bioactivity of glucosinolate degradation products. We investigated the in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates by following their fate in digesta an...

  5. Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein contents in Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A. Braun) ... Seeds were analyzed using HPLC (glucosinolates), NMR (oil) and NIRS (protein). Analyses of variance, Hayman's method of diallel analysis and a mixed linear model of genetic analysis were ...

  6. Genetic analysis of glucosinolate variability in broccoli florets using genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allan F; Yousef, Gad G; Reid, Robert W; Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Thomas, Aswathy; Krueger, Christopher; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Jackson, Eric; Juvik, John A

    2015-07-01

    The identification of genetic factors influencing the accumulation of individual glucosinolates in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of glucosinolate levels in Brassica vegetables and will accelerate the development of vegetables with glucosinolate profiles tailored to promote human health. Quantitative trait loci analysis of glucosinolate (GSL) variability was conducted with a B. oleracea (broccoli) mapping population, saturated with single nucleotide polymorphism markers from a high-density array designed for rapeseed (Brassica napus). In 4 years of analysis, 14 QTLs were associated with the accumulation of aliphatic, indolic, or aromatic GSLs in floret tissue. The accumulation of 3-carbon aliphatic GSLs (2-propenyl and 3-methylsulfinylpropyl) was primarily associated with a single QTL on C05, but common regulation of 4-carbon aliphatic GSLs was not observed. A single locus on C09, associated with up to 40 % of the phenotypic variability of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl GSL over multiple years, was not associated with the variability of precursor compounds. Similarly, QTLs on C02, C04, and C09 were associated with 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GSL concentration over multiple years but were not significantly associated with downstream compounds. Genome-specific SNP markers were used to identify candidate genes that co-localized to marker intervals and previously sequenced Brassica oleracea BAC clones containing known GSL genes (GSL-ALK, GSL-PRO, and GSL-ELONG) were aligned to the genomic sequence, providing support that at least three of our 14 QTLs likely correspond to previously identified GSL loci. The results demonstrate that previously identified loci do not fully explain GSL variation in broccoli. The identification of additional genetic factors influencing the accumulation of GSL in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of GSL levels in Brassicaceae and will accelerate development of vegetables with modified or enhanced GSL

  7. Beam profile measurements using nonimaging gamma optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Lam, R.; Reed, L.; Yang, X.F.; Spencer, J.

    1995-01-01

    High energy photons produced from bremsstrahlung foils, Compton scattering or beamstrahlung from high energy e + e - collisions can be used to measure beam profiles using nonimaging optics. We describe the method and its limitations (resolution, backgrounds etc.), as well as the apparatus required to implement it. Data from a low energy test run is described as well as other possible applications, such as a 250+250 GeV linear collider and possible experiments with existing beams. (orig.)

  8. Glucosinolates, Carotenoids, and Vitamins E and K Variation from Selected Kale and Collard Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Jung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates, carotenoids, and fat-soluble vitamins E and K contents were analyzed from various kale and collard cultivars at mature stage. We found a significant difference in these phytonutrients among cultivars. Among kale cultivars, “Beira” and “Olympic Red” were the highest in the total glucosinolate and “Toscano” kale was the highest in total carotenoid content. “Scarlet” kale was highest in tocopherols. For collard, total glucosinolate was the highest in “Top Bunch” while carotenoids were the highest in “Green Glaze.” An accession PI261597 was the highest in phylloquinone. In addition to the total content of each phytonutrient class, their composition differed among cultivars, indicating that each cultivar may have differential regulatory mechanisms for biosynthesis of these phytonutrients. Our result indicates that cultivar selection may play an important role in consumption of kale and collard with greater nutritional benefit. Therefore, the result of this study will provide a more thorough profile of essential and nonessential phytonutrients of kale and collard cultivars for consumers’ choice and for future research on nutritional value of these crops.

  9. Exogenous glucosinolate produced by Arabidopsis thaliana has an impact on microbes in the rhizosphere and plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Mélanie; Roncato, Marie-Anne; Bellvert, Floriant; Comte, Gilles; Haichar, Feth Zahar; Achouak, Wafa; Berge, Odile

    2009-11-01

    A specificity of Brassicaceous plants is the production of sulphur secondary metabolites called glucosinolates that can be hydrolysed into glucose and biocidal products. Among them, isothiocyanates are toxic to a wide range of microorganisms and particularly soil-borne pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of glucosinolates and their breakdown products as a factor of selection on rhizosphere microbial community associated with living Brassicaceae. We used a DNA-stable isotope probing approach to focus on the active microbial populations involved in root exudates degradation in rhizosphere. A transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line producing an exogenous glucosinolate and the associated wild-type plant associated were grown under an enriched (13)CO(2) atmosphere in natural soil. DNA from the rhizospheric soil was separated by density gradient centrifugation. Bacterial (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria), Archaea and fungal community structures were analysed by DGGE fingerprints of amplified 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. Specific populations were characterized by sequencing DGGE fragments. Roots of the transgenic plant line presented an altered profile of glucosinolates and other minor additional modifications. These modifications significantly influenced microbial community on roots and active populations in the rhizosphere. Alphaproteobacteria, particularly Rhizobiaceae, and fungal communities were mainly impacted by these Brassicaceous metabolites, in both structure and composition. Our results showed that even a minor modification in plant root could have important repercussions for soil microbial communities.

  10. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  11. UVA, UVB Light, and Methyl Jasmonate, Alone or Combined, Redirect the Biosynthesis of Glucosinolates, Phenolics, Carotenoids, and Chlorophylls in Broccoli Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodríguez, Melissa; Benavides, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting phytochemicals that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV) or phytohormones. The separate and combined effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), UVA, or UVB lights on glucosinolate, phenolic, carotenoid, and chlorophyll profiles were assessed in broccoli sprouts. Seven-day-old broccoli sprouts were exposed to UVA (9.47 W/m2) or UVB (7.16 W/m2) radiation for 120 min alone or in combination with a 25 µM MJ solution, also applied to sprouts without UV supplementation. UVA + MJ and UVB + MJ treatments increased the total glucosinolate content by ~154% and ~148%, respectively. MJ induced the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates, especially neoglucobrassicin (~538%), showing a synergistic effect with UVA stress. UVB increased the content of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates, such as glucoraphanin (~78%) and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin (~177%). UVA increased several phenolics such as gallic acid (~57%) and a kaempferol glucoside (~25.4%). MJ treatment decreased most phenolic levels but greatly induced accumulation of 5-sinapoylquinic acid (~239%). MJ treatments also reduced carotenoid and chlorophyll content, while UVA increased lutein (~23%), chlorophyll b (~31%), neoxanthin (~34%), and chlorophyll a (~67%). Results indicated that UV- and/or MJ-treated broccoli sprouts redirect the carbon flux to the biosynthesis of specific glucosinolates, phenolics, carotenoids, and chlorophylls depending on the type of stress applied. PMID:29113068

  12. UVA, UVB Light, and Methyl Jasmonate, Alone or Combined, Redirect the Biosynthesis of Glucosinolates, Phenolics, Carotenoids, and Chlorophylls in Broccoli Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodríguez, Melissa; Nair, Vimal; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2017-11-04

    Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting phytochemicals that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV) or phytohormones. The separate and combined effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), UVA, or UVB lights on glucosinolate, phenolic, carotenoid, and chlorophyll profiles were assessed in broccoli sprouts. Seven-day-old broccoli sprouts were exposed to UVA (9.47 W/m²) or UVB (7.16 W/m²) radiation for 120 min alone or in combination with a 25 µM MJ solution, also applied to sprouts without UV supplementation. UVA + MJ and UVB + MJ treatments increased the total glucosinolate content by ~154% and ~148%, respectively. MJ induced the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates, especially neoglucobrassicin (~538%), showing a synergistic effect with UVA stress. UVB increased the content of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates, such as glucoraphanin (~78%) and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin (~177%). UVA increased several phenolics such as gallic acid (~57%) and a kaempferol glucoside (~25.4%). MJ treatment decreased most phenolic levels but greatly induced accumulation of 5-sinapoylquinic acid (~239%). MJ treatments also reduced carotenoid and chlorophyll content, while UVA increased lutein (~23%), chlorophyll b (~31%), neoxanthin (~34%), and chlorophyll a (~67%). Results indicated that UV- and/or MJ-treated broccoli sprouts redirect the carbon flux to the biosynthesis of specific glucosinolates, phenolics, carotenoids, and chlorophylls depending on the type of stress applied.

  13. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Chinese Kale and Global Expression Analysis of Genes Involved in Glucosinolate Metabolism in Multiple Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuanghua; Lei, Jianjun; Chen, Guoju; Chen, Hancai; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming

    2017-01-01

    Chinese kale, a vegetable of the cruciferous family, is a popular crop in southern China and Southeast Asia due to its high glucosinolate content and nutritional qualities. However, there is little research on the molecular genetics and genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism and its regulation in Chinese kale. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 11 tissues of Chinese kale. A total of 216 million 150-bp clean reads were generated using RNA-sequencing technology. From the sequences, 98,180 unigenes were assembled for the whole plant, and 49,582~98,423 unigenes were assembled for each tissue. Blast analysis indicated that a total of 80,688 (82.18%) unigenes exhibited similarity to known proteins. The functional annotation and classification tools used in this study suggested that genes principally expressed in Chinese kale, were mostly involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular and molecular functions, the signal transduction, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The expression levels of all unigenes were analyzed in various tissues of Chinese kale. A large number of candidate genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism and its regulation were identified, and the expression patterns of these genes were analyzed. We found that most of the genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were highly expressed in the root, petiole, and in senescent leaves. The expression patterns of ten glucosinolate biosynthetic genes from RNA-seq were validated by quantitative RT-PCR in different tissues. These results provided an initial and global overview of Chinese kale gene functions and expression activities in different tissues. PMID:28228764

  14. Proposed Method for Estimating Health-Promoting Glucosinolates and Hydrolysis Products in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Using Relative Transcript Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Talon M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2017-01-18

    Due to the importance of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in human nutrition and plant defense, optimizing the content of these compounds is a frequent breeding objective for Brassica crops. Toward this goal, we investigated the feasibility of using models built from relative transcript abundance data for the prediction of glucosinolate and hydrolysis product concentrations in broccoli. We report that predictive models explaining at least 50% of the variation for a number of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products can be built for prediction within the same season, but prediction accuracy decreased when using models built from one season's data for prediction of an opposing season. This method of phytochemical profile prediction could potentially allow for lower phytochemical phenotyping costs and larger breeding populations. This, in turn, could improve selection efficiency for phase II induction potential, a type of chemopreventive bioactivity, by allowing for the quick and relatively cheap content estimation of phytochemicals known to influence the trait.

  15. Changes in the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system in Brassica juncea cotyledons during seedling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S K; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2002-02-01

    Optimal defense theory (ODT) predicts that plant defenses will be allocated to plant organs and tissues in proportion to their relative fitness values and susceptibilities to attack. This study was designed to test ODT predictions on the myrosinase-glucosinolate defense system in Brassica juncea by examining the relationships between the fitness value of B. juncea cotyledons and the levels and effectiveness of cotyledon defenses. Specifically, we estimated fitness value of cotyledons during plant development by measuring plant growth and seed production after cotyledon damage or removal at successive seedling ages. Cotyledon removal within five days of emergence had a significant impact on growth and seed production, but cotyledon removal at later stages did not. Consistent with ODT, glucosinolate and myrosinase levels in cotyledons also declined with seedling age, as did relative defenses against a generalist herbivore, Spodoptera eridania, as estimated by bioassay. Declines in glucosinolates were as predicted by a passive, allometric dilution model based on cotyledon expansion. Declines in myrosinase activity were significantly more gradual than predicted by allometric dilution, suggesting active retention of myrosinase activity as young cotyledons expand.

  16. In vivo measurement of urethral dose profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toye, W.C.; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology,; Duchesne, G.M.; Das, K.R.; Cee, A.; Mameghan, H.; Johnston, P.N.

    2001-01-01

    definition and translation variation, or gland edema) are not introduced as the TLD train must lay in the centre of the urethra. Typically, agreement between measured and predicted (localised by the position of brass spacers) urethral doses was ± 3%. On one occasion, after review of the measured profile, a treatment plan was subsequently altered for the remaining 3 treatment fractions. The urethral cavity provided an ideal location from which TLD in vivo measurements were made during HDR brachytherapy to the prostate. A method for obtaining a database of measured urethral dose profiles using routine in vivo TLD dosimetry is described. The in vivo measurements were in good agreement with profiles predicted by the dose planning algorithm. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  17. Measurements of fusion product emission profiles in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Murphy, T.J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tait, G.D.; Zweben, S.J.

    1986-11-01

    The techniques and results of fusion product emission profile measurements are reviewed. While neutron source strength profile measurements have been attempted by several methods, neutron scattering is a limitation to the results. Profile measurements using charged fusion products have recently provided an alternative since collimation is much easier for the charged particles

  18. Measurement of the lunar neutron density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolum, D.S.; Burnett, D.S.; Furst, M.; Weiss, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    An in situ measurement of the lunar neutron density from 20 to 400 g cm -2 depth below the lunar surface was made by the Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment (LNPE) using particle tracks produced by the 10 B (n,α) 7 Li reaction. Both the absolute magnitude and the depth profile of the neutron density are in good agreement with theoretical calculations by Lingenfelter, Canfield, and Hampel. However, relatively small deviations between experiment and theory in the effect of Cd absorption on the neutron density and in the relative 149 Sm to 157 Gd capture rates reported previously (Russ et al., 1972) imply that the true lunar 157 Gd capture rate is about one half of that calculated theoretically. (Auth.)

  19. Differential roles of glucosinolates and camalexin at different stages of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Po-Yuan; Chou, Shu-Jen; Müller, Caroline; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Deeken, Rosalia; Lai, Erh-Min

    2018-03-02

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causal agent of crown gall disease in a wide range of plants via a unique interkingdom DNA transfer from bacterial cells into the plant genome. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring its T-DNA into different plant parts at different developmental stages for transient and stable transformation. However, the plant genes and mechanisms involved in these transformation processes are not well understood. We used Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 seedlings to reveal the gene expression profiles at early time points during Agrobacterium infection. Common and differentially expressed genes were found in shoots and roots. A gene ontology analysis showed that the glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis pathway was an enriched common response. Strikingly, several genes involved in indole glucosinolate (iGS) modification and the camalexin biosynthesis pathway were up-regulated, whereas genes in aliphatic glucosinolate (aGS) biosynthesis were generally down-regulated, on Agrobacterium infection. Thus, we evaluated the impacts of GSs and camalexin during different stages of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combining Arabidopsis mutant studies, metabolite profiling and exogenous applications of various GS hydrolysis products or camalexin. The results suggest that the iGS hydrolysis pathway plays an inhibitory role on transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings at the early infection stage. Later in the Agrobacterium infection process, the accumulation of camalexin is a key factor inhibiting tumour development on Arabidopsis inflorescence stalks. In conclusion, this study reveals the differential roles of GSs and camalexin at different stages of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and provides new insights into crown gall disease control and improvement of plant transformation. © 2018 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY BRITISH SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Methyl transfer in glucosinolate biosynthesis mediated by indole glucosinolate O-Methyltransferase 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfalz, Marina; Mukhaimar, Maisara; Perreau, François

    2016-01-01

    in position 1 (1-IG modification) or 4 (4-IG modification). Products of the 4-IG modification pathway mediate plant-enemy interactions and are particularly important for Arabidopsis innate immunity. While CYP81Fs encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and IGMTs encoding indole glucosinolate O...... with moderate similarity to previously characterized IGMTs, encodes the methyltransferase that is responsible for the conversion of 1OHI3M to 1MOI3M. Disruption of IGMT5 function increases resistance against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and suggests a potential role for the 1-IG modification...

  1. Development of a reliable extraction and quantification method for glucosinolates in Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Müller, Carsten T; Mewis, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are the characteristic secondary metabolites of plants in the order Brassicales. To date the common DIN extraction 'desulfo glucosinolates' method remains the common procedure for determination and quantification of glucosinolates. However, the desulfation step in the extraction of glucosinolates from Moringa oleifera leaves resulted in complete conversion and degradation of the naturally occurring glucosinolates in this plant. Therefore, a method for extraction of intact Moringa glucosinolates was developed and no conversion and degradation of the different rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolates was found. Buffered eluents (0.1 M ammonium acetate) were necessary to stabilize 4-α-rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate (Rhamno-Benzyl-GS) and acetyl-4-α-rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate isomers (Ac-Isomers-GS) during HPLC analysis. Due to the instability of intact Moringa glucosinolates at room temperature and during the purification process of single glucosinolates, influences of different storage (room temperature, frozen, thawing and refreezing) and buffer conditions on glucosinolate conversion were analysed. Conversion and degradations processes were especially determined for the Ac-Isomers-GS III. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Models of the fate of glucosinolates in Brassicaceae from processing to digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites of Brassica vegetables. Glucosinolates are not bioactive themselves, but their hydrolysis products isothiocyanates have been associated with health benefits. The concentrations of glucosinolates and their break down products are

  3. Compte-rendu de la 3e conférence internationale sur les glucosinolates « Glucosinolates and beyond »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinsac Alain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La 3e conférence internationale sur les glucosinolates, intitulée « Glucosinolates and beyond », a rassemblé plus d’une centaine de participants à Wageningen aux Pays-Bas, du 12 au 15 Octobre 2014. Le programme a été organisé en quatre sessions couvrant la recherche fondamentale sur l’origine et la biosynthèse des glucosinolates au cours de l’évolution, et les applications concrètes en santé humaine et agriculture. Près de 90 communications orales et posters, portant sur les récents progrès et les questions émergentes pour les recherches futures ont été présentés.

  4. Food as Pharma? The Case of Glucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Edoardo; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud; Oliviero, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are dietary plant secondary metabolites occurring in the order Brassicales with potential health effects, in particular as anti-carcinogenic compounds. GLSs are converted into a variety of breakdown products (BPs) upon plant tissue damage and by the gut microbiota. GLS biological activity is related to BPs rather than to GLSs themselves. we have reviewed the most recent scientific literature on the metabolic fate and the biological effect of GLSs with particular emphasis on the epidemiological evidence for health effect and evidence from clinical trials. An overview of potential molecular mechanisms underlying GLS biological effect is provided. The potential toxic or anti-nutritional effect has also been discussed. Epidemiological and human in vivo evidence point towards a potential anti-cancer effect for sulforaphane, indole-3-carbinol and 3,3-diindolylmethane. A number of new human clinical trials are on-going and will likely shed further light on GLS protective effect towards cancer as well as other diseases. BPs biological effect is the results of a plurality of molecular mechanisms acting simultaneously which include modulation of xenobiotic metabolism, modulation of inflammation, regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, angiogenesis and metastasis and regulation of epigenetic events. BPs have been extensively investigated for their protective effect towards cancer but in recent years the interest also includes other diseases. It appears that certain BPs may protect against and may even represent a therapeutic strategy against several forms of cancer. Whether this latter effect can be achieved through diet or supplements should be investigated more thoroughly. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Glucosinolate diversity within a phylogenetic framework of the tribe Cardamineae (Brassicaceae) unraveled with HPLC-MS/MS and NMR-based analytical distinction of 70 desulfoglucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Carl Erik; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Hansen, Cecilie I C; Cipollini, Don; Ørgaard, Marian; Matthes, Annemarie; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Koch, Marcus A; Agerbirk, Niels

    2016-12-01

    As a basis for future investigations of evolutionary trajectories and biosynthetic mechanisms underlying variations in glucosinolate structures, we screened members of the crucifer tribe Cardamineae by HPLC-MS/MS, isolated and identified glucosinolates by NMR, searched the literature for previous data for the tribe, and collected HPLC-MS/MS data for nearly all glucosinolates known from the tribe as well as some related structures (70 in total). This is a considerable proportion of the approximately 142 currently documented natural glucosinolates. Calibration with authentic references allowed distinction (or elucidation) of isomers in many cases, such as distinction of β-hydroxyls, methylthios, methylsulfinyls and methylsulfonyls. A mechanism for fragmentation of secondary β-hydroxyls in MS was elucidated, and two novel glucosinolates were discovered: 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentylglucosinolate in roots of Cardamine pratensis and 2-hydroxy-8-(methylsulfinyl)octylglucosinolate in seeds of Rorippa amphibia. A large number of glucosinolates (ca. 54 with high structural certainty and a further 28 or more suggested from tandem MS), representing a wide structural variation, is documented from the tribe. This included glucosinolates apparently derived from Met, Phe, Trp, Val/Leu, Ile and higher homologues. Normal side chain elongation and side chain decoration by oxidation or methylation was observed, as well as rare abnormal side chain decoration (hydroxylation of aliphatics at the δ rather than β-position). Some species had diverse profiles, e.g. R. amphibia and C. pratensis (19 and 16 individual glucosinolates, respectively), comparable to total diversity in literature reports of Armoracia rusticana (17?), Barbarea vulgaris (20-24), and Rorippa indica (>20?). The ancestor or the tribe would appear to have used Trp, Met, and homoPhe as glucosinolate precursor amino acids, and to exhibit oxidation of thio to sulfinyl, formation of alkenyls, β-hydroxylation of aliphatic

  6. Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Title:

    Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia

    Dutch translation of title:

    Effecten van Indonesische bereidingsmethoden op gezondheidsbevorderende stoffen in groenten

    Title/description

  7. quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    were field-tested in a randomized block design at two locations in Ethiopia. Seeds were ... complete block design with two replications. The plot size ...... Sci. 56:10–14. 35. Underhill, E.W. (1980). Glucosinolates. In: Secondary. Plant Products, pp. 493–511, (Bell, E.A. and. Charlwood, B.V., eds). Springler, Berlin. 36. Utz, H.F. ...

  8. Glucosinolates and other anti-nutritive compounds in canola meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canola meals from six varieties cultivated in Egypt (Seru4 and Pactol) and Japan (Kirariboshi, Tohoku95, Oominantane and Kizakinonatane) were investigated regarding anti-nutritive compounds, namely glucosinolates, phytic acid, sinapine and total phenols. All varieties except Kirariboshi contained a high level of total ...

  9. The effects of glucosinolates and their breakdown products on necrotrophic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobi Buxdorf

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are a diverse class of S- and N-containing secondary metabolites that play a variety of roles in plant defense. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that contain different amounts of glucosinolates and glucosinolate-breakdown products to study the effects of these phytochemicals on phytopathogenic fungi. We compared the fungus Botrytis cinerea, which infects a variety of hosts, with the Brassicaceae-specific fungus Alternaria brassicicola. B. cinerea isolates showed variable composition-dependent sensitivity to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, while A. brassicicola was more strongly affected by aliphatic glucosinolates and isothiocyanates as decomposition products. We also found that B. cinerea stimulates the accumulation of glucosinolates to a greater extent than A. brassicicola. In our work with A. brassicicola, we found that the type of glucosinolate-breakdown product is more important than the type of glucosinolate from which that product was derived, as demonstrated by the sensitivity of the Ler background and the sensitivity gained in Col-0 plants expressing epithiospecifier protein both of which accumulate simple nitrile and epithionitriles, but not isothiocyanates. Furthermore, in vivo, hydrolysis products of indole glucosinolates were found to be involved in defense against B. cinerea, but not in the host response to A. brassicicola. We suggest that the Brassicaceae-specialist A. brassicicola has adapted to the presence of indolic glucosinolates and can cope with their hydrolysis products. In contrast, some isolates of the generalist B. cinerea are more sensitive to these phytochemicals.

  10. Measuring Weld Profiles By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Noncontacting, nondestructive computer tomography system determines internal and external contours of welded objects. System makes it unnecessary to take metallurgical sections (destructive technique) or to take silicone impressions of hidden surfaces (technique that contaminates) to inspect them. Measurements of contours via tomography performed 10 times as fast as measurements via impression molds, and tomography does not contaminate inspected parts.

  11. Space potential, temperature, and density profile measurements on RENTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoch, P.M.

    1983-05-01

    Radial profiles of the space potential, electron temperature, and density have been measured on RENTOR with a heavy-ion-beam probe. The potential profile has been compared to predictions from a stochastic magnetic field fluctuation theory, using the measured temperature and density profiles. The comparison shows strong qualitative agreement in that the potential is positive and the order of T/sub e//e. There is some quantitative disagreement in that the measured radial electric fields are somewhat smaller than the theoretical predictions. To facilitate this comparison, a detailed analysis of the possible errors has been completed

  12. The prediction of BRDFs from surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.; Leonard, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods of predicting the BRDF of smooth surfaces from profile measurements of their surface finish. The conversion of optical profile data to the BRDF at the same wavelength is essentially independent of scattering models, while the conversion of mechanical measurements, and wavelength scaling in general, are model dependent. Procedures are illustrated for several surfaces, including two from the recent HeNe BRDF round robin, and results are compared with measured data. Reasonable agreement is found except for surfaces which involve significant scattering from isolated surface defects which are poorly sampled in the profile data

  13. Study on profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiangCai; Zhang, Wanping; Zhu, Weihu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a new 2D measuring system-profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser. It includes the thickness measurement of extruding tire tread by laser and the width measurement of extruding tire tread using Moire Fringe. The system has been applied to process line of extruding tire tread. Two measuring results have been obtained. One is a standard profile picture of extruding tire tread including seven measuring values. Another one is a series of thickness and width values. When the scanning speed thickness range is thickness < +/- 0.1mm.

  14. Wind profiler mixing depth and entrainment measurements with chemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D.D.; Buhr, M.P.; Fehsenfeld, F.C. [NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Kok, G.L. [NCAR Research Aviation Facility, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Wind profiling radars operating at 915 MHz have been present at a number of regional air quality studies. The profilers can provide a continuous, accurate record of the depth of the convective mixed layer with good time resolution. Profilers also provide information about entrainment at the boundary layer top. Mixing depth data from several days of the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment II (ROSE II) study in Alabama in June, 1992 are presented. For several cases, chemical measurements from aircraft and ground-based instruments are shown to correspond to mixing depth and entrainment zone behavior observed by the profiler.

  15. Synthesis and spectral characterization of 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate and HPLC-based reaction progress curve data for the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by Sinapis alba myrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase A. Klingaman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article, “HPLC-based enzyme kinetics assay for glucosinolate hydrolysis facilitate analysis of systems with both multiple reaction products and thermal enzyme denaturation” (C.K. Klingaman, M.J. Wagner, J.R. Brown, J.B. Klecker, E.H. Pauley, C.J. Noldner, J.R. Mays, [1]. This data article describes (1 the synthesis and spectral characterization data of a non-natural glucosinolate analogue, 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate, (2 HPLC standardization data for glucosinolate, isothiocyanate, nitrile, and amine analytes, (3 reaction progress curve data for enzymatic hydrolysis reactions with variable substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, buffer pH, and temperature, and (4 normalized initial velocities of hydrolysis/formation for analytes. These data provide a comprehensive description of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate (5 and glucotropaeolin (6 under widely varied conditions.

  16. Seasonal changes and effect of harvest on glucosinolates in Isatis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Tobias; Suter, Kathrin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2008-04-01

    The seasonal fluctuation of glucosinolates in five defined Isatis tinctoria and one Isatis indigotica accessions (first year, rosette stage), grown on field plots under identical conditions, was investigated. Analysis of the intact glucosinolates was carried out with shock frozen, freeze dried leaf samples using a recently developed and validated PLE (pressurized liquid extraction) protocol and ion-pair HPLC coupled with ESI-MS in the negative mode. When comparing the two Isatis species, significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the glucosinolate patterns were observed. Differences among the various Isatis tinctoria accessions were much smaller. We studied the effects of repeated harvesting during the growth season on glucosinolate concentrations and found that repeated harvest did not have a major effect on glucosinolate concentrations of newly grown leaves. Glucosinolates could not be detected in woad leaves submitted to conventional drying.

  17. Physical Measurement Profile at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Measurement Profile at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, ... hip circumference in under 35 years and body mass index in under 45 year age groups were ... Comparison with findings in other parts of the world showed that Ethiopians ...

  18. Electron density profile measurements by microwave reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Paume, M.; Chareau, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A proposal is presented developing reflectometry diagnostic for electron density profile measurements as routine diagnostic without manual intervention as achieved at JET. Since density fluctuations seriously perturb the reflected signal and the measurement of the group delay, a method is described to overcome the irrelevant results with the help of an adaptive filtering technique. Accurate profiles are estimated for about 70% of the shots. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  19. Rapid Measurement of Nanoparticle Thickness Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz-Boon, Hadas; Rossouw, Chris J.; Dwyer, Christian; Etheridge, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    A method to measure the thickness of a single-crystal nanoparticle in the direction parallel to the incident beam from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF-STEM) images is reported, providing a map of thickness versus position across the nanoparticle—a ‘thickness profile’ image. The method is rapid and hence suitable for surveying large numbers of nanoparticles. The method measures the intensity scattered to a characterised ADF detector and compares this to the incident beam intensity, to obtain a normalized ADF image. The normalised intensity is then converted to thickness via dynamical ADF image simulations. The method is accurate within 10% and the precision is dominated primarily by ‘shot noise’. Merits and limitations of this method are discussed. A method to calibrate the response function of the ADF detector without external equipment is also described, which is applicable to the entire range of gain and background settings. -- Highlights: ► A method is developed to convert ADF-STEM images to ‘thickness profile’ images. ► It is applicable in particles survey, facets determination and discrete tomography. ► A method to calibrate the response of the ADF detector is described. ► The response in analysed across a range of conditions. ► Dynamical ADF image simulations are presented, demonstrating intensity vs. thickness dependence.

  20. Sulfate determines the glucosinolate concentration of horseradish in vitro plants (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., Mey. & Scherb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnsour, Mohammad; Kleinwächter, Maik; Böhme, Julia; Selmar, Dirk

    2013-03-15

    Horseradish plants (Armoracia rusticana) contain high concentrations of glucosinolates. Former studies have revealed that Armoracia plants cultivated in vitro have markedly lower glucosinolate concentrations than those grown in soils. Yet, these studies neglected that the sulfate concentration in the growth medium may have had a strong impact on glucosinolate metabolism. Accordingly, in this study horseradish in vitro plants were cultivated with differing sulfate concentrations and the glucosinolate concentrations were quantified by ion pair HPLC. Cultivation in 1.7 mmol L(-1) sulfate (as used in the prior studies) resulted in the accumulation of 16.2 µmol g(-1) DW glucosinolates, while the glucosinolate concentration increased to more than 23 µmol g(-1) DW when 23.5 mmol L(-1) sulfate was used in the medium. Correspondingly, the glucosinolate concentration decreased to 1.6 µmol g(-1) DW when sulfate concentration was lowered to 0.2 mmol L(-1). Since the glucosinolate accumulation in relation to the sulfate concentration follows a typical saturation curve, we deduce that the availability of sulfate determines the glucosinolate concentration in horseradish in vitro plants. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Aromatic glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its response to Plutella xylostella infestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara...... of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P-type and the resistant G-type, even though saponins are the main DBM-resistance causing metabolites in G-type plants. Indol-3...

  2. NRT/PTR transporters are essential for translocation of glucosinolate defence compounds to seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Burow, Meike

    2012-01-01

    glucosinolates in seeds and had more than tenfold over-accumulation in source tissues such as leaves and silique walls, indicating that both plasma membrane-localized transporters are essential for long-distance transport of glucosinolates. We propose that GTR1 and GTR2 control the loading of glucosinolates from......In plants, transport processes are important for the reallocation of defence compounds to protect tissues of high value, as demonstrated in the plant model Arabidopsis, in which the major defence compounds, glucosinolates, are translocated to seeds on maturation. The molecular basis for long...

  3. The Defense Metabolite, Allyl Glucosinolate, Modulates Arabidopsis thaliana Biomass Dependent upon the Endogenous Glucosinolate Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) play an important role in plants as direct mediators of biotic and abiotic stress responses. Recent work is beginning to show that the GSLs can also inducing complex defense and growth networks. However, the physiological significance of these GSL-induced responses and the molecular mechanisms by which GSLs are sensed and/or modulate these responses are not understood. To identify these potential mechanisms within the plant and how they may relate to the endogenous GSLs, we tested the regulatory effect of exogenous allyl GSL application on growth and defense metabolism across sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. We found that application of exogenous allyl GSL had the ability to initiate changes in plant biomass and accumulation of defense metabolites that genetically varied across accessions. This growth effect was related to the allyl GSL side-chain structure. Utilizing this natural variation and mutants in genes within the GSL pathway we could show that the link between allyl GSL and altered growth responses are dependent upon the function of known genes controlling the aliphatic GSL pathway.

  4. Measuring hydrogen-isotope distribution profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new nondestructive technique was developed for measuring the depth distribution of hydrogen isotopes absorbed or implanted near the surface of any material. The method allows real-time study of the inventory and diffusion of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium. Briefly, the technique involves bombarding the surface with a monoenergetic beam of ions chosen for their ability to react with the hydrogen isotope in question and produce fast neutrons. The energy distribution of the neutrons is a sensitive indicator of the energy of the bombarding particles at the instant of reaction, and hence of the depth of the reaction sites below he surface of the material. A sensitivity of one part per million was obtained for tritium in copper. The technique is applicable to several energy-related materials problems. 5 figures

  5. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  6. Metabolism of sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) by the human colonic microflora in a dynamic in vitro large-intestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Humblot, C.; Philippe, C.; Vermeulen, M.; Nuenen, M. van; Havenaar, R.; Rabot, S.

    2002-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables, such as Brassica, which contain substantial quantities of glucosinolates, have been suggested to possess anticarcinogenic activity. Cutting and chewing of cruciferous vegetables releases the thioglucosidase enzyme myrosinase, which degrades glucosinolates to isothiocyanates

  7. High-resolution humidity profiles retrieved from wind profiler radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïd, Frédérique; Campistron, Bernard; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    The retrieval of humidity profiles from wind profiler radars has already been documented in the past 30 years and is known to be neither as straightforward and nor as robust as the retrieval of the wind velocity. The main constraint to retrieve the humidity profile is the necessity to combine measurements from the wind profiler and additional measurements (such as observations from radiosoundings at a coarser time resolution). Furthermore, the method relies on some assumptions and simplifications that restrict the scope of its application. The first objective of this paper is to identify the obstacles and limitations and solve them, or at least define the field of applicability. To improve the method, we propose using the radar capacity to detect transition levels, such as the top level of the boundary layer, marked by a maximum in the radar reflectivity. This forces the humidity profile from the free troposphere and from the boundary layer to coincide at this level, after an optimization of the calibration coefficients, and reduces the error. The resulting mean bias affecting the specific humidity profile never exceeds 0.25 g kg-1. The second objective is to explore the capability of the algorithm to retrieve the humidity vertical profiles for an operational purpose by comparing the results with observations from a Raman lidar.

  8. Illumination Profile & Dispersion Variation Effects on Radial Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Ma, Bo; Li, Rui; SDSS-III

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) measures radial velocities using a fiber-fed dispersed fixed-delay interferometer (DFDI) with a moderate dispersion spectrograph. This setup allows a unique insight into the 2D illumination profile from the fiber on to the dispersion grating. Illumination profile investigations show large changes in the profile over time and fiber location. These profile changes are correlated with dispersion changes and long-term radial velocity offsets, a major problem within the MARVELS radial velocity data. Characterizing illumination profiles creates a method to both detect and correct radial velocity offsets, allowing for better planet detection. Here we report our early results from this study including improvement of radial velocity data points from detected giant planet candidates. We also report an illumination profile experiment conducted at the Kitt Peak National Observatory using the EXPERT instrument, which has a DFDI mode similar to MARVELS. Using profile controlling octagonal-shaped fibers, long term offsets over a 3 month time period were reduced from ~50 m/s to within the photon limit of ~4 m/s.

  9. Objective measurement of inhaler inhalation flow profile using acoustic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacalle, H.; Taylor, T.E.; Marco, S.; Reilly, R.B.

    2016-07-01

    Patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are mostly treated with inhalers that deliver medication directly to their airways. Drug delivery from dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is very much reliant on the inhalation manoeuvre, specifically the peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR), inspiratory capacity (IC) and inhalation rise time (IRT) of the inhalation. It has been widely reported that patients may not follow correct inhalation technique while using their inhaler. In this study, a novel acoustic method is proposed to accurately estimate inhalation flow profile using only one inhalation recording for calibration. An Ellipta DPI was placed inside an airtight container with a spirometer connected in order to measure inhalation flow parameters. An acoustic recording device (Inhaler Compliance Assessment (INCA)) was also attached to the DPI. Inhalation audio and flow signals were recorded simultaneously. The data were collected from 20 healthy subjects while performing inhaler inhalations at a range of inspiratory flow rates. A power law regression model was computed to obtain the relationship between the acoustic envelope of the inhalation and flow profile of each recording. Each model was tested on the remaining audio signals to estimate flow profile. The average estimation error was found to be 10.5±0.3% for estimating flow profile from audio signals. Inhalation flow profile parameters (PIFR, IC and IRT) could then be measured from the estimated flow profile with high accuracy giving information on user inhalation technique. This method may assist in improving patient inhaler adherence and overall disease control. (Author)

  10. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonst......Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  11. Gamma-ray emission profile measurements during JET ICRH discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O N; Marcus, F B; Sadler, G; Van Belle, P [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Howarth, P J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Adams, J M; Bond, D S [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.

    1994-07-01

    Gamma-ray emission from plasma-impurity reactions caused by minority ICRH accelerating fuel ions to MeV energies has been measured using the JET neutron profile monitor. A successful data analysis technique has been used to isolate the RF-induced gamma-ray emission that was detected, enabling profiles of gamma-ray emission to be obtained. The 2-d gamma-ray emission profiles show that virtually all the radiation originates from the low field side of the RF resonance layer, as expected from RF-induced pitch angle diffusion. The emission profiles indicate the presence of a small population of resonant {sup 3}He ions that possess orbits lying near the passing-trapped boundary. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Atmospheric profiles from active space-based radio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. L.; Kursinski, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes determinations of atmospheric profiles from space-based radio measurements and the retrieval methodology used, with special attention given to the measurement procedure and the characteristics of the soundings. It is speculated that reliable profiles of the terrestrial atmosphere can be obtained by the occultation technique from the surface to a height of about 60 km. With the full complement of 21 the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and one GPS receiver in sun synchronous polar orbit, a maximum of 42 soundings could be obtained for each complete orbit or about 670 per day, providing almost uniform global coverage.

  13. Role of glucosinolates in insect-plant relationships and multitrophic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, R.J.; Dam, van N.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates present classical examples of plant compounds affecting insect-plant interactions. They are found mainly in the family Brassicaceae, which includes several important crops. More than 120 different glucosinolates are known. The enzyme myrosinase, which is stored in specialized plant

  14. Techniques for intense-proton-beam profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    In a collaborative effort with industry and several national laboratories, the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) facility and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac are presently being designed and developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The APT facility is planned to accelerate a 100-mA H + cw beam to 1.7 GeV and the SNS linac is planned to accelerate a 1- to 4-mA-average, H - , pulsed-beam to 1 GeV. With typical rms beam widths of 1- to 3-mm throughout much of these accelerators, the maximum average-power densities of these beams are expected to be approximately 30- and 1-MW-per-square millimeter, respectively. Such power densities are too large to use standard interceptive techniques typically used for acquisition of beam profile information. This paper summarizes the specific requirements for the beam profile measurements to be used in the APT, SNS, and the Low Energy Development Accelerator (LEDA)--a facility to verify the operation of the first 20-MeV section of APT. This paper also discusses the variety of profile measurement choices discussed at a recent high-average-current beam profile workshop held in Santa Fe, NM, and will present the present state of the design for the beam profile measurements planned for APT, SNS, and LEDA

  15. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  16. Lactic acid bacteria convert glucosinolates to nitriles efficiently yet differently from enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Jane A; Kelly, William J; McGhie, Tony K; Ansell, Juliet; Heyes, Julian A

    2013-03-27

    Glucosinolates from the genus Brassica can be converted into bioactive compounds known to induce phase II enzymes, which may decrease the risk of cancers. Conversion via hydrolysis is usually by the brassica enzyme myrosinase, which can be inactivated by cooking or storage. We examined the potential of three beneficial bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum KW30, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KF147, and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, and known myrosinase-producer Enterobacter cloacae to catalyze the conversion of glucosinolates in broccoli extract. Enterobacteriaceae consumed on average 65% glucoiberin and 78% glucoraphanin, transforming them into glucoiberverin and glucoerucin, respectively, and small amounts of iberverin nitrile and erucin nitrile. The lactic acid bacteria did not accumulate reduced glucosinolates, consuming all at 30-33% and transforming these into iberverin nitrile, erucin nitrile, sulforaphane nitrile, and further unidentified metabolites. Adding beneficial bacteria to a glucosinolate-rich diet may increase glucosinolate transformation, thereby increasing host exposure to bioactives.

  17. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss......-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited...... over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed...

  18. Depth profile measurement with lenslet images of the plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Zhaomin; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Hongying; Qu, Weijuan; Zhao, Haimeng; Asundi, Anand; Yan, Lei

    2018-03-01

    An approach for carrying out depth profile measurement of an object with the plenoptic camera is proposed. A single plenoptic image consists of multiple lenslet images. To begin with, these images are processed directly with a refocusing technique to obtain the depth map, which does not need to align and decode the plenoptic image. Then, a linear depth calibration is applied based on the optical structure of the plenoptic camera for depth profile reconstruction. One significant improvement of the proposed method concerns the resolution of the depth map. Unlike the traditional method, our resolution is not limited by the number of microlenses inside the camera, and the depth map can be globally optimized. We validated the method with experiments on depth map reconstruction, depth calibration, and depth profile measurement, with the results indicating that the proposed approach is both efficient and accurate.

  19. Overexpression of Three Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Genes in Brassica napus Identifies Enhanced Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are notorious plant pathogenic fungi with an extensive host range including Brassica crops. Glucosinolates (GSLs are an important group of secondary metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales order, whose degradation products are proving to be increasingly important in plant protection. Enhancing the defense effect of GSL and their associated degradation products is an attractive strategy to strengthen the resistance of plants by transgenic approaches. We generated the lines of Brassica napus with three biosynthesis genes involved in GSL metabolic pathway (BnMAM1, BnCYP83A1 and BnUGT74B1, respectively. We then measured the foliar GSLs of each transgenic lines and inoculated them with S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Compared with the wild type control, over-expressing BnUGT74B1 in B. napus increased the aliphatic and indolic GSL levels by 1.7 and 1.5 folds in leaves respectively; while over-expressing BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1 resulted in an approximate 1.5-fold higher only in the aliphatic GSL level in leaves. The results of plant inoculation demonstrated that BnUGT74B1-overexpressing lines showed less severe disease symptoms and tissue damage compared with the wild type control, but BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1-overexpressing lines showed no significant difference in comparison to the controls. These results suggest that the resistance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea in B. napus could be enhanced through tailoring the GSL profiles by transgenic approaches or molecular breeding, which provides useful information to assist plant breeders to design improved breeding strategies.

  20. Conditioning a segmented stem profile model for two diameter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski; Joe P. Mcclure

    1988-01-01

    The stem profile model of Max and Burkhart (1976) is conditioned for dbh and a second upper stem measurement. This model was applied to a loblolly pine data set using diameter outside bark at 5.3m (i.e., height of 17.3 foot Girard form class) as the second upper stem measurement, and then compared to the original, unconditioned model. Variance of residuals was reduced...

  1. Binary similarity measures for fingerprint analysis of qualitative metabolomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Héberger, Károly

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary metabolomic fingerprinting is based on multiple spectrometric and chromatographic signals, used either alone or combined with structural and chemical information of metabolic markers at the qualitative and semiquantitative level. However, signal shifting, convolution, and matrix effects may compromise metabolomic patterns. Recent increase in the use of qualitative metabolomic data, described by the presence (1) or absence (0) of particular metabolites, demonstrates great potential in the field of metabolomic profiling and fingerprint analysis. The aim of this study is a comprehensive evaluation of binary similarity measures for the elucidation of patterns among samples of different botanical origin and various metabolomic profiles. Nine qualitative metabolomic data sets covering a wide range of natural products and metabolomic profiles were applied to assess 44 binary similarity measures for the fingerprinting of plant extracts and natural products. The measures were analyzed by the novel sum of ranking differences method (SRD), searching for the most promising candidates. Baroni-Urbani-Buser (BUB) and Hawkins-Dotson (HD) similarity coefficients were selected as the best measures by SRD and analysis of variance (ANOVA), while Dice (Di1), Yule, Russel-Rao, and Consonni-Todeschini 3 ranked the worst. ANOVA revealed that concordantly and intermediately symmetric similarity coefficients are better candidates for metabolomic fingerprinting than the asymmetric and correlation based ones. The fingerprint analysis based on the BUB and HD coefficients and qualitative metabolomic data performed equally well as the quantitative metabolomic profile analysis. Fingerprint analysis based on the qualitative metabolomic profiles and binary similarity measures proved to be a reliable way in finding the same/similar patterns in metabolomic data as that extracted from quantitative data.

  2. Apparatus for measuring profile thickness of strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hold, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring the thickness profile of steel strip comprises a radiation source reciprocally movable in a stepwise fashion (by a belt) across the strip width on one side thereof and a single elongated detector on the other side of the strip aligned with the scanning source. This detector may be a fluorescent scintillator detector or an ionisation chamber. Means are provided for sensing the degree of excitation in the detector in synchronism with the scanning source whereby to provide an output representative of the thickness profile of the strip. (author)

  3. Measurements of electron density profiles using an angular filter refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberberger, D.; Ivancic, S.; Hu, S. X.; Boni, R.; Barczys, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Froula, D. H.

    2014-01-01

    A novel diagnostic technique, angular filter refractometry (AFR), has been developed to characterize high-density, long-scale-length plasmas relevant to high-energy-density physics experiments. AFR measures plasma densities up to 10 21  cm −3 with a 263-nm probe laser and is used to study the plasma expansion from CH foil and spherical targets that are irradiated with ∼9 kJ of ultraviolet (351-nm) laser energy in a 2-ns pulse. The data elucidate the temporal evolution of the plasma profile for the CH planar targets and the dependence of the plasma profile on target radius for CH spheres

  4. Measurements of electron density profiles using an angular filter refractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberberger, D., E-mail: dhab@lle.rochester.edu; Ivancic, S.; Hu, S. X.; Boni, R.; Barczys, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14636 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    A novel diagnostic technique, angular filter refractometry (AFR), has been developed to characterize high-density, long-scale-length plasmas relevant to high-energy-density physics experiments. AFR measures plasma densities up to 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} with a 263-nm probe laser and is used to study the plasma expansion from CH foil and spherical targets that are irradiated with ∼9 kJ of ultraviolet (351-nm) laser energy in a 2-ns pulse. The data elucidate the temporal evolution of the plasma profile for the CH planar targets and the dependence of the plasma profile on target radius for CH spheres.

  5. Modulation of sulfur metabolism enables efficient glucosinolate engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geu-Flores Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic engineering in heterologous organisms is an attractive approach to achieve efficient production of valuable natural products. Glucosinolates represent a good example of such compounds as they are thought to be the cancer-preventive agents in cruciferous plants. We have recently demonstrated that it is feasible to engineer benzylglucosinolate (BGLS in the non-cruciferous plant Nicotiana benthamiana by transient expression of five genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. In the same study, we showed that co-expression of a sixth Arabidopsis gene, γ-glutamyl peptidase 1 (GGP1, resolved a metabolic bottleneck, thereby increasing BGLS accumulation. However, the accumulation did not reach the expected levels, leaving room for further optimization. Results To optimize heterologous glucosinolate production, we have in this study performed a comparative metabolite analysis of BGLS-producing N. benthamiana leaves in the presence or absence of GGP1. The analysis revealed that the increased BGLS levels in the presence of GGP1 were accompanied by a high accumulation of the last intermediate, desulfoBGLS, and a derivative thereof. This evidenced a bottleneck in the last step of the pathway, the transfer of sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS to desulfoBGLS by the sulfotransferase AtSOT16. While substitution of AtSOT16 with alternative sulfotransferases did not alleviate the bottleneck, experiments with the three genes involved in the formation and recycling of PAPS showed that co-expression of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase 2 (APK2 alone reduced the accumulation of desulfoBGLS and its derivative by more than 98% and increased BGLS accumulation 16-fold. Conclusion Adjusting sulfur metabolism by directing sulfur from primary to secondary metabolism leads to a remarkable improvement in BGLS accumulation and thereby represents an important step towards a clean and efficient production of glucosinolates in

  6. Measurement of LBE flow velocity profile by UDVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Takeda, Yasushi; Obayashi, Hiroo; Tezuka, Masao; Sato, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of liquid metal lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), flow velocity profile were realized in the spallation neutron source target model by the ultrasonic Doppler velocity profiler (UVDP) technique. So far, it has not been done well, because both of poor wetting property of LBE with stainless steels and poor performance of supersonic probes at high temperatures. The measurement was made for a return flow in the target model, which has coaxially arranged annular and tube channels, in the JAEA Lead Bismuth Loop-2 (JLBL-2). The surface treatment of LBE container was examined. It was found that the solder coating was effective to enhance an intensity of reflected ultrasonic wave. This treatment has been applied to the LBE loop, which was operated up to 150 deg. C. The electro magnetic pump generates LBE flow and the flow rate was measured by the electro magnetic flow meter. By changing the flow rate of LBE, velocity profiles in the target were measured. It was confirmed that the maximum velocity in the time-averaged velocity distribution on the target axis was proportional to the flow rate measured by the electro magnetic flow meter

  7. Assessment of the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Fabricio William; Faquin, Valdemar; Yang, Yong; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2013-07-03

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts increased concomitantly with increasing Se doses. Selenate was superior to selenite in inducing total Se accumulation, but selenite is equally effective as selenate in promoting SeMSCys synthesis in sprouts. Increasing sulfur doses reduced total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts treated with selenate, but not in those with selenite. Examination of five broccoli cultivars reveals that sprouts generally have better fractional ability than florets to convert inorganic Se into SeMSCys. Distinctive glucosinolate profiles between sprouts and florets were observed, and sprouts contained approximately 6-fold more glucoraphanin than florets. In contrast to florets, glucosinolate content was not affected by Se treatment in sprouts. Thus, Se-enriched broccoli sprouts are excellent for simultaneous accumulation of chemopreventive compounds SeMSCys and glucoraphanin.

  8. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H{sup +} LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

  9. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Martinez, Derwin; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H + LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

  10. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  11. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gonzales, Fermin; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin; Sedillo, James Daniel; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H - beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  12. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  13. Biomass burning aerosols characterization from ground based and profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cristina; Vasilescu, Jeni; Marmureanu, Luminita; Ene, Dragos; Preda, Liliana; Mihailescu, Mona

    2018-04-01

    The study goal is to assess the chemical and optical properties of aerosols present in the lofted layers and at the ground. The biomass burning aerosols were evaluated in low level layers from multi-wavelength lidar measurements, while chemical composition at ground was assessed using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer. Classification of aerosol type and specific organic markers were used to explore the potential to sense the particles from the same origin at ground base and on profiles.

  14. 128 slice computed tomography dose profile measurement using thermoluminescent dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehhon, N; Hashim, S; Karim, M K A; Ang, W C; Musa, Y; Bahruddin, N A

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice marks the needs to understand the dose descriptor and dose profile. The purposes of the current study were to determine the CT dose index free-in-air (CTDI air ) in 128 slice CT scanner and to evaluate the single scan dose profile (SSDP). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were used to measure the dose profile of the scanner. There were three sets of CT protocols where the tube potential (kV) setting was manipulated for each protocol while the rest of parameters were kept constant. These protocols were based from routine CT abdominal examinations for male adult abdomen. It was found that the increase of kV settings made the values of CTDI air increased as well. When the kV setting was changed from 80 kV to 120 kV and from 120 kV to 140 kV, the CTDI air values were increased as much as 147.9% and 53.9% respectively. The highest kV setting (140 kV) led to the highest CTDI air value (13.585 mGy). The p -value of less than 0.05 indicated that the results were statistically different. The SSDP showed that when the kV settings were varied, the peak sharpness and height of Gaussian function profiles were affected. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of dose profiles for all protocols were coincided with the nominal beam width set for the measurements. The findings of the study revealed much information on the characterization and performance of 128 slice CT scanner. (paper)

  15. Measurement of plasma edge profile on Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, Philipp; Liang, Yunfeng; Neubauer, Olaf; Denner, Peter; Rack, Michael; Liu, Shaocheng; Wang, Nunchao; Nicolai, Dirk; Hollfeld, Klaus; Satheeswaran, Guruparan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IEK4, Juelich (Germany); Grulke, Olaf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: W7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), currently under commissioning at the IPP Greifswald, will be the world's largest stellarator with modular superconducting coils, which will enable steady-state-like plasma operation of up to thirty minutes in order to explore the reactor relevance of this concept. The first operation phase of W7-X will employ a limiter configuration. It will be used primarily for setting up the diagnostics and testing the magnetic configuration. In conjunction with the multipurpose manipulator, a fast reciprocating probe is installed. The combined probe head will be used to measure the radial distribution of the magnetic field using magnetic pick-up coils; the plasma temperature and density profiles and the radial electric field using Langmuir pins; and the plasma flows using a Mach setup. As a quasi-isodynamic stellarator, it has been predicted that not only neoclassical but also turbulent transport will be comparable to or possibly even lower than that of tokamaks. Edge plasma profile measurements, especially those of the electron temperature and density, will play a key role in validating this performance in comparison to the tokamak and hence the viability of a stellarator fusion reactor. The edge plasma profile measurements using the combined probe head are presented.

  16. Correlation of glucosinolate content to myrosinase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Kushad, Mosbah M

    2004-11-17

    Fully developed horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., Mey., & Scherb.) roots from 27 accessions and leaves from a subset of 9 accessions were evaluated for glucosinolates and myrosinase enzyme activity. Eight different glucosinolates were detected (based on HPLC retention times as desulfoglucosinolates) in both root and leaf tissues. The sum of these glucosinolates, referred to as total, ranged from 2 to 296 micromol g(-1) of dry weight (DW) in both tissues. Four glucosinolates (sinigrin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin) were detected in major quantities. In fully developed roots, sinigrin concentration represented approximately 83%, gluconasturtiin approximately 11%, and glucobrassicin approximately 1% of the total glucosinolates. Approximately the same proportions of individual glucosinolates appeared in fully developed leaves, except that glucobrassicin was substituted by neoglucobrassicin and gluconasturtiin concentration was significantly lower (<1%). At least four other glucosinolates were detected in very small quantities (<1%) in both roots and leaves. Myrosinase (beta-thioglucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.3.1) is the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of the parent glucosinolates into biologically active products. Very little is known about myrosinase activity and the correlation of its activity to total and individual glucosinolates in plant tissues. Significant differences in myrosinase activity were detected between the roots and leaves, ranging from 1.2 to 57.1 units g(-1) of DW. Data showed no correlation between myrosinase activity and total and/or individual glucosinolates in the roots. However, in the leaves, significant correlations were found between myrosinase activity and total glucosinolates (0.78 at P = 0.01) and between myrosinase activity and sinigrin (0.80 at P = 0.01). Glucosinolates content and myrosinase activity were also correlated in young and fully developed roots and leaves and during tissue crushing

  17. Use of glow discharge in measurement of diffusion profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Guy

    1976-05-01

    The composition of a glow discharge plasma is a good image of the composition of the surface being erroded without fusion. The depth of metal eated away is a linear function of time in 10 to 60μ range, that is too say between 2 and 20 minutes after lightning of the lamp. So measuring the emission of the discharge is function of time gives the diffusion profile of elements either by measuring instantaneous signal or by integrating during short periods of time for weak concentration. Examples of application for diffusion of N 2 and C in steel will be given [fr

  18. Shock Induced Melting in Aluminum: Wave Profile Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Furnish, Michael D.; Reinhart, William D.

    1999-06-23

    We have developed launch capabilities that can propel macroscopic plates to hypervelocities (8 to 16 km/s). This capability has been used to determine the first time-resolved wave profile measurements using velocity interferometry techniques at impact velocities of 10 km/s. These measurements show that alu- minum continues to exhibit normal release behavior to 161 GPa with complete loss of strength in the shocked state. Results of these experiments are discussed and compared with the results of lower pressure experi- ments conducted at lower impact velocities.

  19. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  20. MODELLING AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF A ROAD PROFILE MEASURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Patel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During a vehicle development program, load data representing severe customer usage is required. The dilemma faced by a design engineer during the design process is that during the initial stage, only predicted loads estimated from historical targets are available, whereas the actual loads are available only at the fag end of the process. At the same time, changes required, if any, are easier and inexpensive during the initial stages of the design process whereas they are extremely costly in the latter stages of the process. The use of road profiles and vehicle models to predict the load acting on the whole vehicle is currently being researched. This work hinges on the ability to accurately measure road profiles. The objective of the work is to develop an algorithm, using MATLAB Simulink software, to convert the input signals into measured road profile. The algorithm is checked by the MATLAB Simulink 4 degrees of freedom half car model. To make the whole Simulink model more realistic, accelerometer and laser sensor properties are introduced. The present work contains the simulation of the mentioned algorithm with a half car model and studies the results in distance, time, and the frequency domain.

  1. Employing Beam-Gas Interaction Vertices for Transverse Profile Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rihl, Mariana; Baglin, Vincent; Barschel, Colin; Bay, Aurelio; Blanc, Frederic; Bravin, Enrico; Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Chritin, Nicolas; Dehning, Bernd; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Gaspar, Clara; Gianì, Sebastiana; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Greim, Roman; Haefeli, Guido; Hopchev, Plamen; Jacobsson, Richard; Jensen, Lars; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Jurado, Nicolas; Kain, Verena; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kirn, Thomas; Kuhn, Maria; Luthi, Berengere; Magagnin, Paolo; Matev, Rosen; Nakada, Tatsuya; Neufeld, Niko; Panman, Jaap; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Salvant, Benoit; Schael, Stefan; Schneider, Olivier; Schwering, Georg; Tobin, Mark; Veness, Raymond; Veyrat, Quentin; Vlachos, Sotiris; Wlochal, Michael; Xu, Zhirui; von Dratzig, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of high-energy beam particles with residual gas offer a unique opportunity to measure the beam profile in a non-intrusive fashion. Such a method was successfully pioneered* at the LHCb experiment using a silicon microstrip vertex detector. During the recent Large Hadron Collider shutdown at CERN, a demonstrator Beam-Gas Vertexing system based on eight scintillating-fibre modules was designed**, constructed and installed on Ring 2 to be operated as a pure beam diagnostics device. The detector signals are read out and collected with LHCb-type front-end electronics and a DAQ system consisting of a CPU farm. Tracks and vertices will be reconstructed to obtain a beam profile in real time. Here, first commissioning results are reported. The advantages and potential for future applications of this technique are discussed.

  2. Nuclear techniques for measuring moisture content in soil profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrada, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The prevailing severe shortage of animal feed in most of the developing countries could, to a considerable extent, be overcome through improved range management, which includes introduction of high yielding drought-resistant forage crops, development of adequate water conservation measures, and as far as possible growing annual forage crops on part of the vast areas of arable land currently left fallow each year. Year round measurements are essential for a good understanding of soil water and nutrients dynamics, which allow for adequate evaluation of pasture management alternatives. The methods most commonly used for moisture measurements in soil profiles are discussed because such measurements are likely to form an essential part of any investigation aimed at increasing animal feed production through the development of adequate pasture management practices. (author)

  3. Composite measures for profiling hospitals on bariatric surgery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Justin B.; Birkmeyer, Nancy J.; Finks, Jonathan F.; Share, David A.; English, Wayne J.; Carlin, Arthur M.; Birkmeyer, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a novel composite measure for profiling hospital performance with bariatric surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Using clinical registry data from the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative (MBSC), we studied all patients undergoing bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2010. For gastric bypass surgery, we used empirical Bayes techniques to create a composite measure by combining several measures, including serious complications, reoperations, and readmissions; hospital and surgeon volume; and outcomes with other, related procedures. Hospitals were ranked based on 2008-09 and placed in one of 3 groups: 3-star (top third), 2-star (middle third), and 1-star (bottom third). We assessed how well these ratings predicted outcomes in the next year (2010), compared to other widely used measures. Main Outcome Measures Risk-adjusted serious complications. Results Composite measures explained a larger proportion of hospital-level variation in serious complication rates with gastric bypass than other measures. For example, the composite measure explained 89% of the variation compared to only 28% for risk-adjusted complication rates alone. Composite measures also appeared better at predicting future performance compared to individual measures. When ranked on the composite measure, 1-star hospitals (bottom 20%), had 2-fold higher serious complication rates (4.6% vs. 2.4%; OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.5) compared to 3-star (top 20%) hospitals. Differences in serious complications rates between 1-star and 3-star hospitals were much smaller when hospitals were ranked using serious complications (4.0% vs. 2.7%; OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-2.9) and hospital volume (3.3% vs. 3.2%; OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.4 to 1.7) Conclusions Composite measures are much better at explaining hospital-level variation in serious complications and predicting future performance than other approaches. In this preliminary study, it appears that such composite measures may be better than existing

  4. Neuropsychological profile in adult schizophrenia measured with the CMINDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Theo G M; Preda, Adrian; Turner, Jessica A; Callahan, Shawn; Calhoun, Vince D; Bustillo, Juan R; Lim, Kelvin O; Mueller, Bryon; Brown, Gregory G; Vaidya, Jatin G; McEwen, Sarah; Belger, Aysenil; Voyvodic, James; Mathalon, Daniel H; Nguyen, Dana; Ford, Judith M; Potkin, Steven G

    2015-12-30

    Schizophrenia neurocognitive domain profiles are predominantly based on paper-and-pencil batteries. This study presents the first schizophrenia domain profile based on the Computerized Multiphasic Interactive Neurocognitive System (CMINDS(®)). Neurocognitive domain z-scores were computed from computerized neuropsychological tests, similar to those in the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), administered to 175 patients with schizophrenia and 169 demographically similar healthy volunteers. The schizophrenia domain profile order by effect size was Speed of Processing (d=-1.14), Attention/Vigilance (d=-1.04), Working Memory (d=-1.03), Verbal Learning (d=-1.02), Visual Learning (d=-0.91), and Reasoning/Problem Solving (d=-0.67). There were no significant group by sex interactions, but overall women, compared to men, showed advantages on Attention/Vigilance, Verbal Learning, and Visual Learning compared to Reasoning/Problem Solving on which men showed an advantage over women. The CMINDS can readily be employed in the assessment of cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders; particularly in large-scale studies that may benefit most from electronic data capture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hamiltonian Evolution of Monokinetic Measures with Rough Momentum Profile

    KAUST Repository

    Bardos, Claude W.

    2014-12-27

    Consider a monokinetic probability measure on the phase space (Formula presented.) , i.e. (Formula presented.) where Uin is a vector field on RN and ρin a probability density on RN. Let Φt be a Hamiltonian flow on RN × RN. In this paper, we study the structure of the transported measure (Formula presented.) and of its integral in the ξ variable denoted ρ(t). In particular, we give estimates on the number of folds in (Formula presented.) , on which μ(t) is concentrated. We explain how our results can be applied to investigate the classical limit of the Schrödinger equation by using the formalism of Wigner measures. Our formalism includes initial momentum profiles Uin with much lower regularity than required by the WKB method. Finally, we discuss a few examples showing that our results are sharp.

  6. Hamiltonian Evolution of Monokinetic Measures with Rough Momentum Profile

    KAUST Repository

    Bardos, Claude W.; Golse, Franç ois; Markowich, Peter A.; Paul, Thierry A.

    2014-01-01

    Consider a monokinetic probability measure on the phase space (Formula presented.) , i.e. (Formula presented.) where Uin is a vector field on RN and ρin a probability density on RN. Let Φt be a Hamiltonian flow on RN × RN. In this paper, we study the structure of the transported measure (Formula presented.) and of its integral in the ξ variable denoted ρ(t). In particular, we give estimates on the number of folds in (Formula presented.) , on which μ(t) is concentrated. We explain how our results can be applied to investigate the classical limit of the Schrödinger equation by using the formalism of Wigner measures. Our formalism includes initial momentum profiles Uin with much lower regularity than required by the WKB method. Finally, we discuss a few examples showing that our results are sharp.

  7. TCP Throughput Profiles Using Measurements over Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Towsley, Don [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Vardoyan, Gayane [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Foster, Ian [University of Chicago

    2017-06-01

    Wide-area data transfers in high-performance computing infrastructures are increasingly being carried over dynamically provisioned dedicated network connections that provide high capacities with no competing traffic. We present extensive TCP throughput measurements and time traces over a suite of physical and emulated 10 Gbps connections with 0-366 ms round-trip times (RTTs). Contrary to the general expectation, they show significant statistical and temporal variations, in addition to the overall dependencies on the congestion control mechanism, buffer size, and the number of parallel streams. We analyze several throughput profiles that have highly desirable concave regions wherein the throughput decreases slowly with RTTs, in stark contrast to the convex profiles predicted by various TCP analytical models. We present a generic throughput model that abstracts the ramp-up and sustainment phases of TCP flows, which provides insights into qualitative trends observed in measurements across TCP variants: (i) slow-start followed by well-sustained throughput leads to concave regions; (ii) large buffers and multiple parallel streams expand the concave regions in addition to improving the throughput; and (iii) stable throughput dynamics, indicated by a smoother Poincare map and smaller Lyapunov exponents, lead to wider concave regions. These measurements and analytical results together enable us to select a TCP variant and its parameters for a given connection to achieve high throughput with statistical guarantees.

  8. Experimental measurements in the BYU controlled profile reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tree, D.R.; Black, D.l.; Rigby, J.R.; McQuay, M.Q.; Webb, B.W. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-09-01

    Over the past decade the Controlled Profile Reactor (CPR) has been used to obtain extensive combustion data sets. CPR is a small scale (0.2-0.4 MW) combustion facility that has been used to obtain data for model validation, the testing of new combustion concepts, and the development of new combustion instruments. This review of the past ten years of research completed in the CPR includes a description of the reactor and instrumentation used, a summary of three experimental data sets which have been obtained in the reactor, and a description of novel tests and instrumentation. Measurements obtained include gas species, gas temperature, particle velocity, particle size, particle number density, particle-cloud temperature profiles, radiation and total heat flux to the wall, and wall temperatures. Species data include the measurement of CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub x}, O{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCN. The three combustion studies included one with natural gas combustion in a swirling flow, and two pulverized-coal combustion studies involving Utah Blind Canyon and Pittsburgh No. 8 coals. Most, but not all of the above measurements were obtained in each study. The second coal study involving the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal contained the most complete set of data and is described in detail. Novel combustion instrumentation includes the use of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) to measure gas temperature. Novel combustion experiments include the measurement of NO{sub x} and burnout with coal-char blends. The measurements have led to an improved understanding of the combustion process and an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses associated with different aspects of comprehensive combustion models. 67 refs., 26 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.

    2008-11-17

    We use confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry to visualize motion of 250-300 nm. fluorescent tracer particles in entangled polymers subject to a rectilinear shear flow. Our results show linear velocity profiles in polymer solutions spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response of entangled polymers, and instead point to interfacial slip as an important source of strain loss. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  10. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez

    2013-01-01

    The recent advances in multi-way analysis provide new solutions to traditional enzyme activity assessment. In the present study enzyme activity has been determined by monitoring spectral changes of substrates and products in real time. The method relies on measurement of distinct spectral...... fingerprints of the reaction mixture at specific time points during the course of the whole enzyme catalyzed reaction and employs multi-way analysis to detect the spectral changes. The methodology is demonstrated by spectral evolution profiling of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral fingerprints using...

  11. Topsoil drying combined with increased sulfur supply leads to enhanced aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica juncea leaves and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu; Gabriel-Neumann, Elke; Ngwene, Benard; Krumbein, Angelika; George, Eckhard; Platz, Stefanie; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The decrease of water availability is leading to an urgent demand to reduce the plants' water supply. This study evaluates the effect of topsoil drying, combined with varying sulfur (S) supply on glucosinolates in Brassica juncea in order to reveal whether a partial root drying may already lead to a drought-induced glucosinolate increase promoted by an enhanced S supply. Without decreasing biomass, topsoil drying initiated an increase in aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and in topsoil dried roots supported by increased S supply. Simultaneously, abscisic acid was determined, particularly in dehydrated roots, associated with an increased abscisic acid concentration in leaves under topsoil drying. This indicates that the dehydrated roots were the direct interface for the plants' stress response and that the drought-induced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates is related to abscisic acid formation. Indole and aromatic glucosinolates decreased, suggesting that these glucosinolates are less involved in the plants' response to drought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HPLC-Based Method to Evaluate Kinetics of Glucosinolate Hydrolysis by Sinapis alba Myrosinase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastenhout, Kayla J.; Tornberg, Ruthellen H.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Amolins, Michael W.; Mays, Jared R.

    2014-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are one of several hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, plant secondary metabolites which are substrates for the thioglucohydrolase myrosinase. Recent pursuits toward the development of synthetic, non-natural ITCs have consequently led to an exploration of generating these compounds from non-natural glucosinolate precursors. Evaluation of the myrosinase-dependent conversion of select non-natural glucosinolates to non-natural ITCs cannot be accomplished using established UV-Vis spectroscopic methods. To overcome this limitation, an alternative HPLC-based analytical approach was developed where initial reaction velocities were generated from non-linear reaction progress curves. Validation of this HPLC method was accomplished through parallel evaluation of three glucosinolates with UV-Vis methodology. The results of this study demonstrate that kinetic data is consistent between both analytical methods and that the tested glucosinolates respond similarly to both Michaelis–Menten and specific activity analyses. Consequently, this work resulted in the complete kinetic characterization of three glucosinolates with Sinapis alba myrosinase, with results that were consistent with previous reports. PMID:25068719

  13. Measurement of ion profiles in TFTR neutral beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-02-01

    A technique is described whereby the ion dumps inside the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand were used to measure thermal profiles of the full-, half-, and third-energy ions. 136 thermocouples were installed on the full-energy ion dump, allowing full beam contours. Additional linear arrays across the widths of the half- and third-energy ion dumps provided a measure of the shape, in the direction parallel to the grid rails, of the half- and third-energy ions, and, hence, of the molecular ions extracted from the source. As a result of these measurements it was found that the magnet was more weakly focusing, by a factor of two, than expected, explaining past overheating of the full-energy ion dump. Hollow profiles on the half- and third-energy ion dumps were observed, suggesting that extraction of D 2 + and D 3 + are primarily from the edge of the ion source. If extraction of half-energy ions is from the edge of the accelerator, a divergence parallel to the grid rails of 0.6 degrees ±0.1 degrees results. It is postulated that a nonuniform gas profile near the accelerator is the cause of the hollow partial-energy ion profiles; the pressure being depressed over the accelerator by particles passing through this highly transparent structure. Primary electrons reaching the accelerator produce nonuniform densities of D 2 + through the ionization of this across the full-energy dump was examined as a means of reducing the power density. By unbalancing the current in the two coils of the magnet, on a shot by shot basis, by up to 2:1 ratio, it was possible to move the centerline of the full-energy ion beam sideways by ∼12.5 cm. The adoption of such a technique, with a ramp of the coil imbalance from 2:1 to 1:2 over a beam pulse, could reduce the power density by a factor of ≥1.5

  14. Effects of intact glucosinolates and products produced from glucosinolates in myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis on the potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis Cv. Woll).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskov, S; Serra, B; Rosa, E; Sørensen, H; Sørensen, J C

    2002-02-13

    The potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis cv. Woll) is responsible for large yield losses in the potato crop, and opportunities for reducing the attack of these plant nematode species are, therefore, important. This study has been devoted to the testing of the in vitro effects on the potato cyst nematode of eight glucosinolates [prop-2-enyl-, but-3-enyl-, (R)-4-methylsulfinylbut-3-enyl-, benzyl-, phenethyl-, 4-hydroxybenzyl-, (2S)-2-hydroxybut-3-enyl-, and (2R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethylglucosinolate] as well as the effects of the products of this myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis. The glucosinolates were used at three concentrations, 0.05, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/mL, in the presence or absence of the enzyme myrosinase. The effects of the compounds on the mortality were monitored every 8 h for a 72 h period. No effects were found for any of the intact glucosinolates. However, when active myrosinase was included with 1 mg/mL phenethylglucosinolate at pH 6.5, 100% mortality was observed within just 16 h. A similar effect was achieved at the same concentration of benzyl- and prop-2-enylglucosinolates in the myrosinase-containing solutions, although longer exposures were required (24 and 40 h, respectively). The main aglucone products released from the glucosinolates with pronounced effects on the nematodes were shown to be the corresponding isothiocyanates. The results suggest that mixtures of these specific glucosinolates and active myrosinase or autolysis of plant materials containing these enzymes and glucosinolates might be used to control the potato cyst nematode in the soil.

  15. Real-Time 3D Profile Measurement Using Structured Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L; Zhang, Z J; Ma, H; Yu, Y J

    2006-01-01

    The paper builds a real-time system of 3D profile measurement using structured-light imaging. It allows a hand-held object to rotate free in the space-time coded light field, which is projected by the projector. The surface of measured objects with projected coded light is imaged; the system shows surface reconstruction results of objects online. This feedback helps user to adjust object's pose in the light field according to the dismissed or error data, which would achieve the integrality of data used in reconstruction. This method can acquire denser data cloud and have higher reconstruction accuracy and efficiency. According to the real-time requirements, the paper presents the non-restricted light plane modelling which suits stripe structured light system, designs the three-frame stripes space-time coded pattern, and uses the advance ICP algorithms to acquire 3D data alignment from multiple view

  16. Estimation of road profile variability from measured vehicle responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauriat, W.; Mattrand, C.; Gayton, N.; Beakou, A.; Cembrzynski, T.

    2016-05-01

    When assessing the statistical variability of fatigue loads acting throughout the life of a vehicle, the question of the variability of road roughness naturally arises, as both quantities are strongly related. For car manufacturers, gathering information on the environment in which vehicles evolve is a long and costly but necessary process to adapt their products to durability requirements. In the present paper, a data processing algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the road profiles covered by a given vehicle, from the dynamic responses measured on this vehicle. The algorithm based on Kalman filtering theory aims at solving a so-called inverse problem, in a stochastic framework. It is validated using experimental data obtained from simulations and real measurements. The proposed method is subsequently applied to extract valuable statistical information on road roughness from an existing load characterisation campaign carried out by Renault within one of its markets.

  17. A handheld optical device for skin profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiuai; Liu, Xiaojin

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a portable optical scanning device designed for skin surface measurement on both colour and 3D geometry through a relative easy and cost effective multiple light source photometric stereo method. The validation of colour recovered had been verified through its application on skin lesion segmentation in our early work. This paper focuses on the reconstructed topographic data which are subject to further evaluation and advancement. The evaluation work takes the skin in vitro as an application scenario and compares the experimental result to that obtained by using a commercial product. The experiments show that this handheld device can measure the skin profile significantly closer to that of the ground truth and have the additional function of skin colour recovery.

  18. Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen-Schmidt, P

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x–y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments

  19. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other

  20. Ecological genomics of Boechera stricta: Identification of a QTL controlling the allocation of methionine- vs branched-chain amino acid-derived glucosinolates and levels of insect herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schranz, M.E.; Manzaneda, A.J.; Windsor, A.J.; Clauss, M.; Mitchell-Olds, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the Brassicaceae, glucosinolates influence the feeding, reproduction and development of many insect herbivores. Glucosinolate production and effects on herbivore feeding have been extensively studied in the model species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crops, both of which constitutively

  1. Stress identification in steam generator tubes from profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Voldoire, F.

    1993-01-01

    An identification method devoted to the determination of stresses in tubes, by means of profile measurements, provided by on site non-destructive evaluations, is presented here. From the only available data (the radial displacement w on the inner wall), the computation of the strains, and consequently the stresses in the elastoplastic range, is made within the framework of the shell theory. For this purpose, we need to determine the associated curvature w'': this step is an ill-posed problem, because of the lack of continuity with respect to the discrete data. This difficulty is overridden by means of an appropriate regularization procedure. The predictive ability of the method has been tested by comparison with direct simulations; we present an industrial application. (author)

  2. Measurements of edge density profile modifications during IBW on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.R.; Bush, C.E.; Wilgen, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Ion Bernstein wave (IBW) antennas are known to have substantial localized effects on the plasma edge. To allow better understanding and measurement of these effects, the TFTR edge reflectometer has been relocated to the new IBW antenna. This move was facilitated by the incorporation of a diagnostic access tube in the IBW antenna identical to the original diagnostic tube in the fast-wave (FW) antenna. This allowed the reflectometer launcher to simply be moved from the old FW antenna to the new IBW antenna. Only a moderate extension of the waveguide transmission line was required to reconnect the reflectometer to the launcher in its new location. Edge density profile modification during IBW experiments has been observed. Results from IBW experiments will be presented and contrasted to the edge density modifications previously observed during FW heating experiments

  3. Computer programs for optical dendrometer measurements of standing tree profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob R. Beard; Thomas G. Matney; Emily B. Schultz

    2015-01-01

    Tree profile equations are effective volume predictors. Diameter data for building these equations are collected from felled trees using diameter tapes and calipers or from standing trees using optical dendrometers. Developing and implementing a profile function from the collected data is a tedious and error prone task. This study created a computer program, Profile...

  4. A method for measuring the inductive electric field profile and noninductive current profiles on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, C.B.; Luce, T.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Lao, L.L.; Kupfer, K.; Wroblewski, D.

    1994-07-01

    A new technique for determining the parallel electric field profile and noninductive current profile in tokamak plasmas has been developed and applied to two DIII-D tokamak discharges. Central to this technique is the determination of the current density profile, J(ρ), and poloidal flux, ψ(ρ), from equilibrium reconstructions. From time sequences of the reconstructions, the flux surface averaged, parallel electric field can be estimated from appropriate derivatives of the poloidal flux. With a model for the conductivity and measurements of T e and Z eff , the noninductive fraction of the current can be determined. Such a technique gives the possibility of measuring directly the bootstrap current profile and the noninductively driven current from auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection or fast wave current drive. Furthermore, if the noninductively driven current is small or if the noninductive current profile is assumed to be known, this measurement provides a local test of the conductivity model under various conditions

  5. Comparison of mixing height parameterizations with profiles measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquier, A.; Stuebi, R.; Tercier, P. [Swiss Meteorological Inst., SMI - MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    Different meteorological pre-processors for dispersion studies are available to derive the atmospheric boundary layer mixing height (MH). The analysis of their performances has been reviewed in the framework of the European COST Action 710. In this project, the computed mixing height values have been compared with data derived mostly from aero-logical sounding analysis and Sodar measurements. Since then, a new analysis of a low-tropospheric wind profiler (WP) data has been performed taking advantage of its high data sampling ({delta}t {approx} 30 sec.). The comparison between these recent results and aero-logical sounding, Sodar data, as well as to meteorological pre-processors calculations are reported for three periods of several days corresponding to different meteorological situations. In convective conditions, the pre-processors give reasonable level, the mixing height growing rate is in fair agreement with the measured one. In stable cloudy daytime conditions, the modeled mixing height does not correspond to any measured height. (LN)

  6. Glucosinolates from Host Plants Influence Growth of the Parasitic Plant Cuscuta gronovii and Its Susceptibility to Aphid Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason D; Woldemariam, Melkamu G; Mescher, Mark C; Jander, Georg; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2016-09-01

    Parasitic plants acquire diverse secondary metabolites from their hosts, including defense compounds that target insect herbivores. However, the ecological implications of this phenomenon, including the potential enhancement of parasite defenses, remain largely unexplored. We studied the translocation of glucosinolates from the brassicaceous host plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) into parasitic dodder vines (Convolvulaceae; Cuscuta gronovii) and its effects on the parasite itself and on dodder-aphid interactions. Aliphatic and indole glucosinolates reached concentrations in parasite tissues higher than those observed in corresponding host tissues. Dodder growth was enhanced on cyp79B2 cyp79B3 hosts (without indole glucosinolates) but inhibited on atr1D hosts (with elevated indole glucosinolates) relative to wild-type hosts, which responded to parasitism with localized elevation of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates. These findings implicate indole glucosinolates in defense against parasitic plants. Rates of settling and survival on dodder vines by pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) were reduced significantly when dodder parasitized glucosinolate-producing hosts (wild type and atr1D) compared with glucosinolate-free hosts (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29). However, settling and survival of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) were not affected. M. persicae population growth was actually reduced on dodder parasitizing glucosinolate-free hosts compared with wild-type or atr1D hosts, even though stems of the former contain less glucosinolates and more amino acids. Strikingly, this effect was reversed when the aphids fed directly upon Arabidopsis, which indicates an interactive effect of parasite and host genotype on M. persicae that stems from host effects on dodder. Thus, our findings indicate that glucosinolates may have both direct and indirect effects on dodder-feeding herbivores. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Glucosinolates from Host Plants Influence Growth of the Parasitic Plant Cuscuta gronovii and Its Susceptibility to Aphid Feeding1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic plants acquire diverse secondary metabolites from their hosts, including defense compounds that target insect herbivores. However, the ecological implications of this phenomenon, including the potential enhancement of parasite defenses, remain largely unexplored. We studied the translocation of glucosinolates from the brassicaceous host plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) into parasitic dodder vines (Convolvulaceae; Cuscuta gronovii) and its effects on the parasite itself and on dodder-aphid interactions. Aliphatic and indole glucosinolates reached concentrations in parasite tissues higher than those observed in corresponding host tissues. Dodder growth was enhanced on cyp79B2 cyp79B3 hosts (without indole glucosinolates) but inhibited on atr1D hosts (with elevated indole glucosinolates) relative to wild-type hosts, which responded to parasitism with localized elevation of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates. These findings implicate indole glucosinolates in defense against parasitic plants. Rates of settling and survival on dodder vines by pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) were reduced significantly when dodder parasitized glucosinolate-producing hosts (wild type and atr1D) compared with glucosinolate-free hosts (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29). However, settling and survival of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) were not affected. M. persicae population growth was actually reduced on dodder parasitizing glucosinolate-free hosts compared with wild-type or atr1D hosts, even though stems of the former contain less glucosinolates and more amino acids. Strikingly, this effect was reversed when the aphids fed directly upon Arabidopsis, which indicates an interactive effect of parasite and host genotype on M. persicae that stems from host effects on dodder. Thus, our findings indicate that glucosinolates may have both direct and indirect effects on dodder-feeding herbivores. PMID:27482077

  8. Endophytic fungi from the roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and their interactions with the defensive metabolites of the glucosinolate - myrosinase - isothiocyanate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Zsolt; Plaszkó, Tamás; Cziáky, Zoltán; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Emri, Tamás; Bertóti, Regina; Sinka, László Tamás; Vasas, Gábor; Gonda, Sándor

    2018-05-09

    The health of plants is heavily influenced by the intensively researched plant microbiome. The microbiome has to cope with the plant's defensive secondary metabolites to survive and develop, but studies that describe this interaction are rare. In the current study, we describe interactions of endophytic fungi with a widely researched chemical defense system, the glucosinolate - myrosinase - isothiocyanate system. The antifungal isothiocyanates are also of special interest because of their beneficial effects on human consumers. Seven endophytic fungi were isolated from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), from the genera Fusarium, Macrophomina, Setophoma, Paraphoma and Oidiodendron. LC-ESI-MS analysis of the horseradish extract incubated with these fungi showed that six of seven strains could decompose different classes of glucosinolates. Aliphatic, aromatic, thiomethylalkyl and indolic glucosinolates were decomposed by different strains at different rates. SPME-GC-MS measurements showed that two strains released significant amounts of allyl isothiocyanate into the surrounding air, but allyl nitrile was not detected. The LC-ESI-MS analysis of many strains' media showed the presence of allyl isothiocyanate - glutathione conjugate during the decomposition of sinigrin. Four endophytic strains also accepted sinigrin as the sole carbon source. Isothiocyanates inhibited the growth of fungi at various concentrations, phenylethyl isothiocyanate was more potent than allyl isothiocyanate (mean IC 50 was 2.30-fold lower). As a control group, ten soil fungi from the same soil were used. They decomposed glucosinolates with lower overall efficiency: six of ten strains had insignificant or weak activities and only three could use sinigrin as a carbon source. The soil fungi also showed lower AITC tolerance in the growth inhibition assay: the median IC 50 values were 0.1925 mM for endophytes and 0.0899 mM for soil fungi. The host's glucosinolates can be used by the tested

  9. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: Impact on the glucosinolate composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajanzadeh, T.; Kopriva, S; Hawkesford, M.J.; Koprivova, A.; De Kok, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sulfate deprivation and atmospheric H2S and SO2 nutrition on the content and composition of glucosinolates was studied in Brassica juncea and Brasscia rapa. Both species contained a number of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates. The total glucosinolate content was more than 5.5-fold

  10. Predicting fiber refractive index from a measured preform index profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiveri, P.; Koponen, J.; Harra, J.; Novotny, S.; Husu, H.; Ihalainen, H.; Kokki, T.; Aallos, V.; Kimmelma, O.; Paul, J.

    2018-02-01

    When producing fiber lasers and amplifiers, silica glass compositions consisting of three to six different materials are needed. Due to the varying needs of different applications, substantial number of different glass compositions are used in the active fiber structures. Often it is not possible to find material parameters for theoretical models to estimate thermal and mechanical properties of those glass compositions. This makes it challenging to predict accurately fiber core refractive index values, even if the preform index profile is measured. Usually the desired fiber refractive index value is achieved experimentally, which is expensive. To overcome this problem, we analyzed statistically the changes between the measured preform and fiber index values. We searched for correlations that would help to predict the Δn-value change from preform to fiber in a situation where we don't know the values of the glass material parameters that define the change. Our index change models were built using the data collected from preforms and fibers made by the Direct Nanoparticle Deposition (DND) technology.

  11. Natural variation in cross-talk between glucosinolates and onset of flowering in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Møller Jensen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Naturally variable regulatory networks control different biological processes including reproduction and defense. This variation within regulatory networks enables plants to optimize defense and reproduction in different environments. In this study we investigate the ability of two enzyme-encoding genes in the glucosinolate pathway, AOP2 and AOP3¸ to affect glucosinolate accumulation and flowering time. We have introduced the two highly similar enzymes into two different AOPnull accessions, Col-0 and Cph-0, and found that the genes differ in their ability to affect glucosinolate levels and flowering time across the accessions. This indicated that the different glucosinolates produced by AOP2 and AOP3 serve specific regulatory roles in controlling these phenotypes. While the changes in glucosinolate levels were similar in both accessions, the effect on flowering time was dependent on the genetic background pointing to natural variation in cross-talk between defense chemistry and onset of flowering. This variation likely reflects an adaptation to survival in different environments.

  12. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  13. Glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) as conditioned by sulphate supply during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Balibrea, Santiago; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Sulphur (S) fertilization is essential for primary and secondary metabolism in cruciferous foods. Deficient, suboptimal, or excessive S affects the growth and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in adult plants. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the influence of S fertilization on sprouts and seedlings. An experiment was set up to evaluate the effect of S fertilization, supplied as K(2)SO(4) at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/L, on the glucosinolate content of broccoli sprouts during the germination course of 3, 6, 9, and 12 d after sowing. Glucosinolate concentration was strongly influenced by germination, causing a rapid increase during the first 3 d after sowing, and decreasing afterwards. The S supply increased aliphatic and total glucosinolate content at the end of the monitored sprouting period. S-treated sprouts, with S(15), S(30), and S(60) at 9 and 12 d after sowing presented enhanced glucosinolate content. Overall, both germination time and S fertilization were key factors in maximizing the bioactive health-promoting phytochemicals of broccoli. Practical Application: Germination with sulphate is a simple and inexpensive way to obtain sprouts that contain much higher levels of glucosinolates (health promoting compounds), than the corresponding florets from the same seeds.

  14. Plant plasma membrane aquaporins in natural vesicles as potential stabilizers and carriers of glucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ballesta, Maria Del Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Moreno, Diego A; Carvajal, Micaela

    2016-07-01

    Their biodegradable nature and ability to target cells make biological vesicles potential nanocarriers for bioactives delivery. In this work, the interaction between proteoliposomes enriched in aquaporins derived from broccoli plants and the glucosinolates was evaluated. The vesicles were stored at different temperatures and their integrity was studied. Determination of glucosinolates, showed that indolic glucosinolates were more sensitive to degradation in aqueous solution than aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucoraphanin was stabilized by leaf and root proteoliposomes at 25°C through their interaction with aquaporins. An extensive hydrogen bond network, including different aquaporin residues, and hydrophobic interactions, as a consequence of the interaction between the linear alkane chain of glucoraphanin and Glu31 and Leu34 protein residues, were established as the main stabilizing elements. Combined our results showed that plasma membrane vesicles from leaf and root tissues of broccoli plants may be considered as suitable carriers for glucosinolate which stabilization can be potentially attributed to aquaporins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Turning the 'mustard oil bomb' into a 'cyanide bomb': aromatic glucosinolate metabolism in a specialist insect herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar J Stauber

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as 'coevolutionary armsrace'. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by β-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification.

  16. Upon bolting the GTR1 and GTR2 transporters mediate transport of glucosinolates to the inflorescence rather than roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonni Grube; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2014-01-01

    We recently described the glucosinolate transporters GTR1 and GTR2 as actively contributing to the establishment of tissue-specific distribution of the defense compounds glucosinolates in vegetative Arabidopsis plants. Upon bolting and thereby development of the inflorescence and initiation of seed...

  17. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  18. Rapid estimation of glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants in leaves of Chinese kale and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Kristin; Verkerk, Ruud; Bonnema, Guusje; Dekker, Matthijs

    2012-08-15

    Kinetic modeling was used as a tool to quantitatively estimate glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants. Literature shows that thermal degradation rates differ in different vegetables. Well-characterized plant material, leaves of broccoli and Chinese kale plants grown in two seasons, was used in the study. It was shown that a first-order reaction is appropriate to model glucosinolate degradation independent from the season. No difference in degradation rate constants of structurally identical glucosinolates was found between broccoli and Chinese kale leaves when grown in the same season. However, glucosinolate degradation rate constants were highly affected by the season (20-80% increase in spring compared to autumn). These results suggest that differences in glucosinolate degradation rate constants can be due to variation in environmental as well as genetic factors. Furthermore, a methodology to estimate rate constants rapidly is provided to enable the analysis of high sample numbers for future studies.

  19. Effects of photoperiod, growth temperature and cold acclimatisation on glucosinolates, sugars and fatty acids in kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Rødven, Rolf; Hansen, Espen; Mølmann, Jørgen

    2015-05-01

    Curly kale is a robust, cold tolerant plant with a high content of health-promoting compounds, grown at a range of latitudes. To assess the effects of temperature, photoperiod and cold acclimatisation on levels of glucosinolates, fatty acids and soluble sugars in kale, an experiment was set up under controlled conditions. Treatments consisted of combinations of the temperatures 15/9 or 21/15 °C, and photoperiods of 12 or 24h, followed by a cold acclimatisation period. Levels of glucosinolates and fatty acid types in leaves were affected by growth conditions and cold acclimatisation, being generally highest before acclimatisation. The effects of growth temperature and photoperiod on freezing tolerance were most pronounced in plants grown without cold acclimatisation. The results indicate that cold acclimatisation can increase the content of soluble sugar and can thereby improve the taste, whilst the content of unsaturated fatty and glucosinolates acids may decrease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differing mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David J; Critchley, Christa; Pun, Sharon; Chaliha, Mridusmita; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Previous studies on these salad crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1) under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress. In an effort to understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments. We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds. Limited thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120 degrees C. In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile. On heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold.

  1. Repetitive display system of line profiles for Doppler broadening measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, A.; Narihara, K.; Haba, K.

    1982-10-01

    Line profiles of impurities in visible and ultraviolet regions are repetitively displayed on a CRT with an interval of 250 mu s or 500 mu s, using a system composed of a Czerny-Turner monochromator with 1 m F.L., a self-resonant optical scanner, a photomultiplier shielded against hard X-rays and electronic circuits. The profile resolution is 0.035 nm FWHM. This system can be used in the environment of strong hard X-rays. (author)

  2. MEASURING PROTOPLANETARY DISK GAS SURFACE DENSITY PROFILES WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; McPartland, Conor, E-mail: jpw@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams and Best to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity {sup 13}CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, M {sub gas} = 0.048 M {sub ⊙}, and accretion disk characteristic size R {sub c} = 213 au and gradient γ = 0.39. The same parameters match the C{sup 18}O 2–1 image and indicate an abundance ratio [{sup 12}CO]/[C{sup 18}O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large {sup 13}CO 2–1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3–10 M {sub Jup} at 150 pc, ALMA observations with a resolution of 0.″2–0.″3 and integration times of ∼20 minutes allow reliable estimates of R {sub c} to within about 10 au and γ to within about 0.2. Economic gas imaging surveys are therefore feasible and offer the opportunity to open up a new dimension for studying disk structure and its evolution toward planet formation.

  3. Degradation of Biofumigant Isothiocyanates and Allyl Glucosinolate in Soil and Their Effects on the Microbial Community Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S Hanschen

    Full Text Available Brassicales species rich in glucosinolates are used for biofumigation, a process based on releasing enzymatically toxic isothiocyanates into the soil. These hydrolysis products are volatile and often reactive compounds. Moreover, glucosinolates can be degraded also without the presence of the hydrolytic enzyme myrosinase which might contribute to bioactive effects. Thus, in the present study the stability of Brassicaceae plant-derived and pure glucosinolates hydrolysis products was studied using three different soils (model biofumigation. In addition, the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate was investigated with special regard to the formation of volatile breakdown products. Finally, the influence of pure glucosinolate degradation on the bacterial community composition was evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplified from total community DNA. The model biofumigation study revealed that the structure of the hydrolysis products had a significant impact on their stability in the soil but not the soil type. Following the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate in the soils, the nitrile as well as the isothiocyanate can be the main degradation products, depending on the soil type. Furthermore, the degradation was shown to be both chemically as well as biologically mediated as autoclaving reduced degradation. The nitrile was the major product of the chemical degradation and its formation increased with iron content of the soil. Additionally, the bacterial community composition was significantly affected by adding pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate, the effect being more pronounced than in treatments with myrosinase added to the glucosinolate. Therefore, glucosinolates can have a greater effect on soil bacterial community composition than their hydrolysis products.

  4. Gamma-ray emission profile measurements during JET ICRH discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S.; Watkins, N. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Jarvis, O.N.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-12-31

    Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) that is tuned to minority fuel ions can induce an energy diffusion of the heated species and create high energy tail temperatures of {approx} 1 MeV. The most energetic of these accelerated minority ions can undergo nuclear reactions with impurity Be and C that produces {gamma}-ray emission from the decay of the excited product nuclei. This RF-induced {gamma}-ray emission has been recorded using the JET neutron emission profile diagnostic which is capable of distinguishing neutrons and {gamma}-rays. Appropriate data processing has enabled the RF-induced {gamma}-ray emission signals to be isolated from the {gamma}-ray emission signals associated with neutron interactions in the material surrounding the profile monitor. The 2-d {gamma}-ray emission profiles show that virtually all the radiation originates from the low field side of the RF resonance layer, as expected from RF-induced pitch angle diffusion. The emission profiles indicate the presence of a small population of resonant {sup 3}He ions that possess orbits lying near the passing-trapped boundary. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Plant science meets food science: genetic effects of glucosinolate degradation during food processing in Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Phytochemicals in plant-based foods have been linked to a reduced incidence and progression of diseases. Glucosinolates (GLs) are phytochemicals that are typical for Brassicaand other Cruciferousplants, such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts,

  6. Variation and Distribution of Glucosinolates in 42 Cultivars of Brassica oleracea Vegetable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Tebbenhoff, S.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain glucosinolates that are precursors for bioactive compounds like isothiocyanates that have been shown to play an important role in human health. This study reports the results of a screening of 11 Brassica oleracea crops consisting of 42 cultivars (6 white

  7. Broccoli glucosinolate degradation is reduced performing thermal treatment in binary systems with other food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambanelli, E.; Verkerk, R.; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.; Antuono, D' L.F.; Oliviero, T.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolate (GL) stability has been widely studied in different Brassica species. However, the matrix effect determined by the presence of other ingredients occurred in many broccoli-based traditional recipes may affect GL thermal degradation. In this study, the matrix effect on GL thermal

  8. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect glucosinolate and mineral element composition in leaves of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Marco; Franken, Philipp; Mewis, Inga; Baldermann, Susanne; Wurst, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Moringa is a mycorrhizal crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and appreciated for its nutritive and health-promoting value. As well as improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect plant synthesis of compounds bioactive against chronic diseases in humans. Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were used in a full factorial experiment to investigate the impact of AMF on the accumulation of glucosinolates, flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and mineral elements in moringa leaves. Levels of glucosinolates were enhanced, flavonoids and phenolic acids were not affected, levels of carotenoids (including provitamin A) were species-specifically reduced, and mineral elements were affected differently, with only Cu and Zn being increased by the AMF. This study presents novel results on AMF effects on glucosinolates in leaves and supports conclusions that the impacts of these fungi on microelement concentrations in edible plants are species dependent. The nonspecific positive effects on glucosinolates and the species-specific negative effects on carotenoids encourage research on other AMF species to achieve general benefits on bioactive compounds in moringa.

  10. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  11. A comparison on radar range profiles between in-flight measurements and RCS-predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are nut available. In this paper we present the results of a comparison on one-dimensional signatures, i.e. radar range profiles. The profiles

  12. Analysis of the Influence of Fibre Diameter on Wirescanner Beam Profile Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    King, Quentin

    1988-01-01

    It is often important to be able to measure beam profiles in regions where the beam size is very small. Following concern that the profile measurement might be affected by having a beam size of the same order as the diameter of the wirescanner fibre, the effect was analysed numerically, and the results are presented.

  13. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  14. Ocean Profile Measurements During the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Ocean Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    converted to engineering units by the TSK Converter and recorded on the laptop computer . A backup recording of the raw received signal is made with...S, V, internal waves/mixing Clouds and the Evolution of the SIZ in Beaufort and Chukchi Seas Schweiger Lindsay, Zhang, Maslanik, Lawrence...Atmospheric profiles (dropsondes, micro-aircraft), cloud top/base heights UpTempO buoys for understanding and prediction…. Steele UpTempO buoy

  15. Validation of the "Security Needs Assessment Profile" for measuring the profiles of security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, B W M; Au-Yeung, C C Y; Chan, A W L; Chan, L S Y; Yuen, K K; Leung, H W; Yan, C K; Ng, K K; Lai, A C H; Davies, S; Collins, M

    Mapping forensic psychiatric services with the security needs of patients is a salient step in service planning, audit and review. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring the security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients was not yet available. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese version of the Security Needs Assessment Profile for measuring the profiles of security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. The Security Needs Assessment Profile by Davis was translated into Chinese. Its face validity, content validity, construct validity and internal consistency reliability were assessed by measuring the security needs of 98 Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. Principal factor analysis for construct validity provided a six-factor security needs model explaining 68.7% of the variance. Based on the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the internal consistency reliability was rated as acceptable for procedural security (0.73), and fair for both physical security (0.62) and relational security (0.58). A significant sex difference (p=0.002) in total security score was found. The Chinese version of the Security Needs Assessment Profile is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing the security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Zax Information Profile: a measure of college adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, D; Zax, M; Clarfield, S P; Pratt, D M

    1977-08-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Zax Information Profile (ZIP), a personality test based on general fund of information, in discriminating between college students who sought mental health services and those who did not, Three successive classes of freshmen students at the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester were administered the ZIP. Help-seeking students were matched with non-help-seeking students for sex, age, and intellectual ability. The hypothesis that ZIP scores would differentiate between these two groups was supported by the data. The potential use of the ZIP as a predictor of college adjustment and as a useful entrance screening device was discussed.

  17. Modelling and measurements of bunch profiles at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, S. [Crete U.; Antoniou, F. [Liverpool U.; Argyropoulos, T. [CERN; Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Hostettler, M. [CERN; Papaphilippou, Y. [CERN

    2017-07-20

    The bunch profiles in the LHC are often observed to be non-Gaussian, both at Flat Bottom (FB) and Flat Top (FT) energies. Especially at FT, an evolution of the tail population in time is observed. In this respect, the Monte-Carlo Software for IBS and Radiation effects (SIRE) is used to track different types of beam distributions. The impact of the distribution shape on the evolution of bunch characteristics is studied. The results are compared with observations from the LHC Run 2 data.

  18. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  19. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended.

  20. Effects of Glucosinolates and Flavonoids on Colonization of the Roots of Brassica napus by Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Kenneth J.; Stone, Philip J.; Hu, Xiaojia; Griffiths, D. Wynne; Davey, Michael R.; Cocking, Edward C.

    2000-01-01

    Plants of Brassica napus were assessed quantitatively for their susceptibility to lateral root crack colonization by Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571(pXLGD4) (a rhizobial strain carrying the lacZ reporter gene) and for the concentration of glucosinolates in their roots by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). High- and low-glucosinolate-seed (HGS and LGS) varieties exhibited a relatively low and high percentage of colonized lateral roots, respectively. HPLC showed that roots of HGS plants contained a higher concentration of glucosinolates than roots of LGS plants. One LGS variety showing fewer colonized lateral roots than other LGS varieties contained a higher concentration of glucosinolates than other LGS plants. Inoculated HGS plants treated with the flavonoid naringenin showed significantly more colonization than untreated HGS plants. This increase was not mediated by a naringenin-induced lowering of the glucosinolate content of HGS plant roots, nor did naringenin induce bacterial resistance to glucosinolates or increase the growth of bacteria. The erucic acid content of seed did not appear to influence colonization by azorhizobia. Frequently, leaf assays are used to study glucosinolates and plant defense; this study provides data on glucosinolates and bacterial colonization in roots and describes a bacterial reporter gene assay tailored easily to the study of ecologically important phytochemicals that influence bacterial colonization. These data also form a basis for future assessments of the benefits to oilseed rape plants of interaction with plant growth-promoting bacteria, especially diazotrophic bacteria potentially able to extend the benefits of nitrogen fixation to nonlegumes. PMID:10788398

  1. Measurement of damage profile in crystals by channeling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovik, A.S.; Shipatov, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    A method of calculation of the random fraction Xsub(R)(l) in a disordered channel containing host and foreign atoms is described. According to this method dechaneling caused by single scattering as well as multiple scattering at defects is calculated taking into account positions of the self-interstitials and foreign atoms with respect to the lattice rows. The results demonstrate that the transverse energy distribution, flux peaking and, hence, Xsub(R)(l) and depth profiles of defects c(l) depend drastically on the defect position, concentration of implanted atoms, their position and the rechanneling process. The method is applied to experimental data for GaAs irradiated by He + and N-implanted Si. The obtained Xsub(R)(l) and c(l) are compared with those obtained using other methods. (author)

  2. Moving gantry method for electron beam dose profile measurement at extended source-to-surface distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Gábor; Fodor, Emese; Pesznyák, Csilla

    2015-03-08

    A novel method has been put forward for very large electron beam profile measurement. With this method, absorbed dose profiles can be measured at any depth in a solid phantom for total skin electron therapy. Electron beam dose profiles were collected with two different methods. Profile measurements were performed at 0.2 and 1.2 cm depths with a parallel plate and a thimble chamber, respectively. 108cm × 108 cm and 45 cm × 45 cm projected size electron beams were scanned by vertically moving phantom and detector at 300 cm source-to-surface distance with 90° and 270° gantry angles. The profiles collected this way were used as reference. Afterwards, the phantom was fixed on the central axis and the gantry was rotated with certain angular steps. After applying correction for the different source-to-detector distances and incidence of angle, the profiles measured in the two different setups were compared. Correction formalism has been developed. The agreement between the cross profiles taken at the depth of maximum dose with the 'classical' scanning and with the new moving gantry method was better than 0.5 % in the measuring range from zero to 71.9 cm. Inverse square and attenuation corrections had to be applied. The profiles measured with the parallel plate chamber agree better than 1%, except for the penumbra region, where the maximum difference is 1.5%. With the moving gantry method, very large electron field profiles can be measured at any depth in a solid phantom with high accuracy and reproducibility and with much less time per step. No special instrumentation is needed. The method can be used for commissioning of very large electron beams for computer-assisted treatment planning, for designing beam modifiers to improve dose uniformity, and for verification of computed dose profiles.

  3. A measurement system for vertical seawater profiles close to the air-sea interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Richard P.; Schuster, Ute; Watson, Andrew J.; Yang, Ming Xi; Hopkins, Frances E.; Stephens, John; Bell, Thomas G.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a near-surface ocean profiler, which has been designed to precisely measure vertical gradients in the top 10 m of the ocean. Variations in the depth of seawater collection are minimized when using the profiler compared to conventional CTD/rosette deployments. The profiler consists of a remotely operated winch mounted on a tethered yet free-floating buoy, which is used to raise and lower a small frame housing sensors and inlet tubing. Seawater at the inlet depth is pumped back to the ship for analysis. The profiler can be used to make continuous vertical profiles or to target a series of discrete depths. The profiler has been successfully deployed during wind speeds up to 10 m s-1 and significant wave heights up to 2 m. We demonstrate the potential of the profiler by presenting measured vertical profiles of the trace gases carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide. Trace gas measurements use an efficient microporous membrane equilibrator to minimize the system response time. The example profiles show vertical gradients in the upper 5 m for temperature, carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide of 0.15 °C, 4 µatm and 0.4 nM respectively.

  4. A measurement system for vertical seawater profiles close to the air–sea interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Sims

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a near-surface ocean profiler, which has been designed to precisely measure vertical gradients in the top 10 m of the ocean. Variations in the depth of seawater collection are minimized when using the profiler compared to conventional CTD/rosette deployments. The profiler consists of a remotely operated winch mounted on a tethered yet free-floating buoy, which is used to raise and lower a small frame housing sensors and inlet tubing. Seawater at the inlet depth is pumped back to the ship for analysis. The profiler can be used to make continuous vertical profiles or to target a series of discrete depths. The profiler has been successfully deployed during wind speeds up to 10 m s−1 and significant wave heights up to 2 m. We demonstrate the potential of the profiler by presenting measured vertical profiles of the trace gases carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide. Trace gas measurements use an efficient microporous membrane equilibrator to minimize the system response time. The example profiles show vertical gradients in the upper 5 m for temperature, carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide of 0.15 °C, 4 µatm and 0.4 nM respectively.

  5. A systems biology approach identifies a R2R3 MYB gene subfamily with distinct and overlapping functions in regulation of aliphatic glucosinolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Elken Sønderby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucosinolates are natural metabolites in the order Brassicales that defend plants against both herbivores and pathogens and can attract specialized insects. Knowledge about the genes controlling glucosinolate regulation is limited. Here, we identify three R2R3 MYB transcription factors regulating aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by combining several systems biology tools. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MYB28 was identified as a candidate regulator of aliphatic glucosinolates based on its co-localization within a genomic region controlling variation both in aliphatic glucosinolate content (metabolite QTL and in transcript level for genes involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates (expression QTL, as well as its co-expression with genes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. A phylogenetic analysis with the R2R3 motif of MYB28 showed that it and two homologues, MYB29 and MYB76, were members of an Arabidopsis-specific clade that included three characterized regulators of indole glucosinolates. Over-expression of the individual MYB genes showed that they all had the capacity to increase the production of aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and seeds and induce gene expression of aliphatic biosynthetic genes within leaves. Analysis of leaves and seeds of single knockout mutants showed that mutants of MYB29 and MYB76 have reductions in only short-chained aliphatic glucosinolates whereas a mutant in MYB28 has reductions in both short- and long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates. Furthermore, analysis of a double knockout in MYB28 and MYB29 identified an emergent property of the system since the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates in these plants could not be predicted by the chemotype of the single knockouts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It seems that these cruciferous-specific MYB regulatory genes have evolved both overlapping and specific regulatory capacities. This provides a unique system within which to

  6. Beam profile measurement with flying wires at the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.; Pishchalnikov, Yu.; Krider, J.; Hu, M.; Lorman, E.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Wilson, P.; Zagel, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Flying wires were installed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring for transverse beam profile measurement for both proton and antiproton beams. The following note describes the system configuration, calibration and resolution of the flying wire system, interactions between the wires and the beam, as well as analysis of the transverse beam profile in the presence of a stochastic cooling system.

  7. Beam profile measurement with flying wires at the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Pishchalnikov, Yu.; Krider, J.; Hu, M.; Lorman, E.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Wilson, P.; Zagel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Flying wires were installed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring for transverse beam profile measurement for both proton and antiproton beams. The following note describes the system configuration, calibration and resolution of the flying wire system, interactions between the wires and the beam, as well as analysis of the transverse beam profile in the presence of a stochastic cooling system

  8. Beam Profile Measurement with Flying Wires at the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Martin; Krider, John; Lorman, Eugene; Marchionni, Alberto; Pishchalnikov, Yu M; Pordes, Stephen; Slimmer, David; Wilson, Peter R; Zagel, James

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a high vacuum fixed energy antiproton storage ring with stochastic and electron cooling systems. Flying wires were installed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring for transverse beam profile measurement. The following note describes the system configuration, calibration and resolution of the flying wire system, as well as analysis of the transverse beam profile in the presence of both cooling systems.

  9. Complete methodology on generating realistic wind speed profiles based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Catalin; Spataru, Sergiu; Mosincat, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    , wind modelling for medium and large time scales is poorly treated in the present literature. This paper presents methods for generating realistic wind speed profiles based on real measurements. The wind speed profile is divided in a low- frequency component (describing long term variations...

  10. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Profile Measurements (2/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  11. Index profile measurement of asymmetrical elliptical preforms or fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitterswijk, van W.; Smit, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    An extension of the beam-deflection method to the case of elliptical preforms with eccentric core (asymmetrical elliptical preforms) is presented, which can be easily implemented on automatic measurement equipment

  12. Quantification of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C in inbred lines of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suhyoung; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Lee, Min-Ki; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang-Won; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2014-02-15

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates (GSLs), anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C metabolites in forty-five lines of green and red cabbages. Analysis of these distinct cabbages revealed the presence of 11 GSLs, 13 anthocyanins, 22 free amino acids, and vitamin C. GSL contents were varied amongst the different lines of cabbage. The total GSL content was mean 10.6 μmol/g DW, and sinigrin was the predominant GSL accounted mean 4.0 μmol/g DW (37.7% of the total) followed by glucoraphanin (1.9) and glucobrassicin (2.4). Amongst the 13 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. The amounts of total free amino acids in green cabbage lines ranged 365.9 mg/100g fresh weight (FW) to 1089.1mg/100g FW. Vitamin C levels were much higher in red cabbage line (129.9 mg/100g FW). Thus, the amounts of GSLs, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the lines of cabbage were significant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selenium x-ray laser line profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss our recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 Angstrom laser in Ne-like Se. These measurements were performed over a wide range of amplifier length indicate an intrinsic line width of 50 m Angstrom FWHM (full-width at half-maximum), show gain narrowing to 10 m Angstrom in intermediate length amplifiers and show no significant re-broadening in We briefly discuss the experiments and interpretations

  14. De novo transcriptome analysis of Sinapis alba in revealing the glucosinolate and phytochelatin pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sinapis alba is an important condiment crop and can also be used as a phytoremediation plant. Though it has important economic and agronomic values, sequence data and the genetic tools are still rare in this plant. In the present study, a de novo transcriptome based on the transcriptions of leaves, stems and roots was assembled for S. alba for the first time. The transcriptome contains 47,972 unigenes with a mean length of 1,185 nt and an N50 of 1,672 nt. Among these unigenes, 46,535 (97% unigenes were annotated by at least one of the following databases: NCBI non-redundant (Nr, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs. The tissue expression pattern profiles revealed that 3,489, 1,361 and 8,482 unigenes were predominantly expressed in the leaves, stems and roots of S. alba, respectively. Genes predominantly expressed in the leaf were enriched in photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related pathways. Genes predominantly expressed in the stem were enriched in not only pathways related to sugar, ether lipid and amino acid metabolisms but also plant hormone signal transduction and circadian rhythm pathways, while the root-dominant genes were enriched in pathways related to lignin and cellulose syntheses, involved in plant-pathogen interactions, and potentially responsible for heavy metal chelating and detoxification. Based on this transcriptome, 14,727 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified, and 12,830 pairs of primers were developed for 2,522 SSR-containing unigenes. Additionally, the glucosinolate (GSL and phytochelatin metabolic pathways, which give the characteristic flavor and the heavy metal tolerance of this plant, were intensively analyzed. The genes of aliphatic GSLs pathway were predominantly expressed in roots. The absence of aliphatic GSLs in leaf tissues was due to the shutdown of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 expressions. Glutathione was

  15. Measurement of sound velocity profiles in fluids for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M; Kühnicke, E; Lenz, M; Bock, M

    2012-01-01

    In ultrasonic measurements, the time of flight to the object interface is often the only information that is analysed. Conventionally it is only possible to determine distances or sound velocities if the other value is known. The current paper deals with a novel method to measure the sound propagation path length and the sound velocity in media with moving scattering particles simultaneously. Since the focal position also depends on sound velocity, it can be used as a second parameter. Via calibration curves it is possible to determine the focal position and sound velocity from the measured time of flight to the focus, which is correlated to the maximum of averaged echo signal amplitude. To move focal position along the acoustic axis, an annular array is used. This allows measuring sound velocity locally resolved without any previous knowledge of the acoustic media and without a reference reflector. In previous publications the functional efficiency of this method was shown for media with constant velocities. In this work the accuracy of these measurements is improved. Furthermore first measurements and simulations are introduced for non-homogeneous media. Therefore an experimental set-up was created to generate a linear temperature gradient, which also causes a gradient of sound velocity.

  16. A measurement model of multiple intelligence profiles of management graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Heamalatha; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    In this study, developing a fit measurement model and identifying the best fitting items to represent Howard Gardner's nine intelligences namely, musical intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence are the main interest in order to enhance the opportunities of the management graduates for employability. In order to develop a fit measurement model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied. A psychometric test which is the Ability Test in Employment (ATIEm) was used as the instrument to measure the existence of nine types of intelligence of 137 University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) management graduates for job placement purposes. The initial measurement model contains nine unobserved variables and each unobserved variable is measured by ten observed variables. Finally, the modified measurement model deemed to improve the Normed chi-square (NC) = 1.331; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.940 and Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049 was developed. The findings showed that the UTeM management graduates possessed all nine intelligences either high or low. Musical intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence contributed highest loadings on certain items. However, most of the intelligences such as bodily kinaesthetic intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence possessed by UTeM management graduates are just at the borderline.

  17. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  18. Novel bioresources for studies of Brassica oleracea: identification of a kale MYB transcription factor responsible for glucosinolate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoichi; Hasumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Osamu Ishizaki; Sasaki, Katsunori; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Sawada, Yuji; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Li, Yimeng; Saito, Kazuki; Ogawa, Toshiya; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-10-01

    Plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family exhibit species-specific profiles of glucosinolates (GSLs), a class of defence compounds against pathogens and insects. GSLs also exhibit various human health-promoting properties. Among them, glucoraphanin (aliphatic 4-methylsulphinylbutyl GSL) has attracted the most attention because it hydrolyses to form a potent anticancer compound. Increased interest in developing commercial varieties of Brassicaceae crops with desirable GSL profiles has led to attempts to identify genes that are potentially valuable for controlling GSL biosynthesis. However, little attention has been focused on genes of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). In this study, we established full-length kale cDNA libraries containing 59 904 clones, which were used to generate an expressed sequence tag (EST) data set with 119 204 entries. The EST data set clarified genes related to the GSL biosynthesis pathway in kale. We specifically focused on BoMYB29, a homolog of Arabidopsis MYB29/PMG2/HAG3, not only to characterize its function but also to demonstrate its usability as a biological resource. BoMYB29 overexpression in wild-type Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of aliphatic GSL biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of aliphatic GSLs. When expressed in the myb28myb29 mutant, which exhibited no detectable aliphatic GSLs, BoMYB29 restored the expression of biosynthetic genes and aliphatic GSL accumulation. Interestingly, the ratio of methylsulphinyl GSL content, including glucoraphanin, to that of methylthio GSLs was greatly increased, indicating the suitability of BoMYB29 as a regulator for increasing methylsulphinyl GSL content. Our results indicate that these biological resources can facilitate further identification of genes useful for modifications of GSL profiles and accumulation in kale. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  20. High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Cohen, Itai; Archer, Lynden A.

    2008-01-01

    spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response

  1. Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors, and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. MYB28, the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology (BoaMYB28 was identified in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in cotyledons, flowers, and siliques. BoaMYB28 was expressed across all developmental leaf stages, with higher transcript accumulation in mature and inflorescence leaves. Over-expression and RNAi studies showed that BoaMYB28 retains the basic MYB28 gene function as a major transcriptional regulator of aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. The results indicated that over-expression and RNAi lines showed no visible difference on plant morphology. The contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes increased in over-expression lines and decreased in RNAi lines. In over-expression lines, aliphatic glucosinolate contents were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than those in the wild-type, while expression levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes were 1.5- to 4-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In contrast, the contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate

  2. Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ling; Chen, Hancai; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun; Chen, Guoju

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors, and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. MYB28 , the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology ( BoaMYB28 ) was identified in Chinese kale ( Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in cotyledons, flowers, and siliques. BoaMYB28 was expressed across all developmental leaf stages, with higher transcript accumulation in mature and inflorescence leaves. Over-expression and RNAi studies showed that BoaMYB28 retains the basic MYB28 gene function as a major transcriptional regulator of aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. The results indicated that over-expression and RNAi lines showed no visible difference on plant morphology. The contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes increased in over-expression lines and decreased in RNAi lines. In over-expression lines, aliphatic glucosinolate contents were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than those in the wild-type, while expression levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes were 1.5- to 4-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In contrast, the contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes in

  3. Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddinika, M. K.; Ito, D.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.

    2009-02-01

    Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.

  4. Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddinika, M K; Ito, D; Takahashi, H; Kikura, H; Aritomi, M

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.

  5. Electron temperature and density profiles measurement in the TJ-1 tokamak by Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, C.; Zurro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Electron temperature and density profiles of ohmically heated hydrogen plasmas in the TJ-1 tokamak have been measured by Thomson scattering. The temperature profile peaks sharply in the central region while the density profile is very flat. Temperature values between 100 and 390 eV have been measured for densities in the range of 5.10 12 to 2.6.10 13 cm -3 . Parameters characterizing TJ-1 plasma, such as confinement times Z eff , have been deduced from experimental data. Energy confinement times are compared with experimental scaling laws. (author)

  6. Measurement of mobility profile in ion-implanted silicon layers using electroreflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiev, G.B.; Kapaev, V.V.; Mokerov, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility is shown of the application of the low field linearized electroreflection spectroscopy for the measurement of profiles of carriers mobilities μ(x) simultaneously with the concentration profiles N(x) in thin ion-implanted silicon layers. The μ(χ) value is determined from the calibration curve of the dependence of the phenomenological broadening parameter γ on the mobility for uniformly doped samples. The results are presented for the measurements of the profiles μ(x) for boron- and arsenic-implanted silicon

  7. Nitrates and Glucosinolates as Strong Determinants of the Nutritional Quality in Rocket Leafy Salads

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human di...

  8. Rape seed glucosinolate: radiation inactivation and physiological performance of broiler fed irradiated rapeseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.Diaa El-Din H.

    1994-01-01

    Rape seeds meal (RSM) is a high quality protein supplement suitable for all classes of livestock. The major area of concern in animal nutrition has been glucosinolates and their derivative products which cause depressed performance in poultry or may be even toxic. Therefore, these substances must be removed or inactivated before the meal can be used as potential protein source for food or feed. I the current study, RSM has been used to test whether gamma radiation processing can inactivate glucosinolates as a step towards detoxication. Samples were exposed to gamma rays of 10, 50, 100 and 250 kGy. Approximated analysis showed that RSM was not affected by irradiation processing up to 250 kGy. However, the crude fiber content decreased at the highest dose while at doses of 10, 50 100 and 250 kGy the available lysine decreased by 6.76%, 9.46%, 17.84% and 22.43%, respectively. Radiation processing at 250 kGy significantly inactivated glucosinolate by 85% from its initial value. In a 8-week chick-feeding study, raw and irradiated RSM were applied at 30%. The diets containing raw and irradiated (at 10, 50 and 100 kGy) RSM had somewhat low growth and thyroid, liver and kidney enlargement compared to the basal control group. No significant difference was observed between chicks fed on RSM irradiated at 250 kGy and those fed on basal diet. No significant differences were observed in the serum protein, albumin, GPT, uric acid, creatine and basal diet groups. Those kept on raw and irradiated at 10, 50 and 100 kGy RSM had higher GOT than those kept on irradiated at 250 kGy RSM and basal diet. Radiation treatment of RSM up to 250 kGy improved its nutritional quality by decreasing the glucosinolate and consequently maintained the chicks in a better health condition. (author)

  9. Identification and Quantification of Glucosinolates in Kimchi by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and simple method for detecting five glucosinolates (glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucobrassicin, and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin in kimchi was developed using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The chromatographic peaks of the five glucosinolates were successfully identified by comparing their retention times, mass spectra. The mobile phase was composed of A (acetonitrile and B (water. As for glucosinolate, the relative quantities were found through sinigrin, and five different compounds that have not been previously discovered in kimchi were observed. Monitoring was carried out on the glucosinolate in 20 kimchis distributed in markets, and this study examined the various quality and quantity compositions of the five components. The glucoalyssin content ranged from 0.00 to 7.07 μmol/g of day weight (DW, with an average content of 0.86 μmol/g of DW, whereas the gluconapin content ranged from 0.00 to 5.85 μmol/g of DW, with an average of 1.17 μmol/g of DW. The content of glucobrassicanapin varied between 0.00 and 11.87 μmol/g of DW (average = 3.03 μmol/g of DW, whereas that of glucobrassicin varied between 0.00 and 0.42 μmol/g of DW (average = 0.06 μmol/g of DW. The 4-methoxyglucobrassicin content ranged from 0.12 to 9.36 μmol/g of DW (average = 3.52 μmol/g of DW. A comparison of the contents revealed that, in most cases, the content of 4-methoxyglucobrassicin was the highest.

  10. Two novel bioactive glucosinolates from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Jang, Mi; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Yang, Deok-Chun; Park, Se Won

    2012-09-01

    Two novel glucosinolates along with one known glucosinolate were isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. Their structures were established mainly by 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135°, HSQC and HMBC), and Tandem MS-MS spectrometric data as 2-mercaptomethyl sulfinyl glucosinolate [(Z)-4-(methylsulfinyl)-N-(sulfooxy)-2-((2'S,3'R,4'S,5'S,6'R)-3',4',5'-trihydroxy-6'(hydroxylmethyl)-2'-mercapto tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) butane amide] 1, (Z)-1-((2S,5S)-5-hydroxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-2-ylthio)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl) ethylidene amino sulfate 2 and a known cinnamoyl [6'-O-trans-(4″-hydroxy cinnamoyl)4-(methylsulphinyl)butyl glucosinolate] 3. Compound 1 exhibited scavenging activity against DPPH with an inhibitory concentration IC(50) of 20 mM, whereas compound 3 was a weak antioxidant when compared to the standard quercetin (5 mM) as a positive control. Both the compounds showed a significant and similar antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an IC(50) of <625 μg/mL when compared to antibiotic duricef. Against Salmonella typhimurium the IC(50) of 1 and 3 was determined as <625 μg/mL and <1250 μg/mL, respectively, when compared to ampicillin (IC(50) ≤ 39 μg/mL) as a positive control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hadron shower profile and direction measurements in a segmented calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchincloss, P.; Blair, R.; Haber, C.

    1982-01-01

    Recently a test measurement was made to see how well the direction of the shower induced by neutrino interactions could be determined in the lab-E detector at Fermilab. While the calorimeter in lab-E has very coarse sampling compared to the detectors described at this workshop, the method used to sample the shower could be employed in other more finely segmented detectors. The shower angle resolution obtained (36 mr.FWHM) is largely constrained by the sampling. In this test pulse heights in 2mm. steps across the hadron shower at five points along the shower were recorded. This was done with 20 wires and 20 fast ADC's. A standard MWPC system intended to accomplish the same task would have required about 250 wires and 250 ADC channels. This considerable saving in system complexity should be possible for any system where finely segmented pulse height measurements are required

  12. Sources of errors in the measurements of underwater profiling radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Silveira, N.; Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Lotlikar, A.

    to meet the stringent quality requirements of marine optical data for satellite ocean color sensor validation, development of algorithms and other related applications, it is very essential to take great care while measuring these parameters. There are two... of the pelican hook. The radiometer dives vertically and the cable is paid out with less tension, keeping in tandem with the descent of the radiometer while taking care to release only the required amount of cable. The operation of the release mechanism lever...

  13. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  14. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  15. Poloidal magnetic field profile measurements on the microwave tokamak experiment using far-infrared polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.

    1992-09-01

    The measurement of plasma poloidal magnetic field (B) profiles in tokamaks with good temporal and spatial resolution has proven to be a difficult but important measurement. A large range of toroidal confinement phenomena is expected to depend sensitively on the radial variation of B including the tearing instability, sawtooth oscillations, disruptions, and transport. Experimental confirmation of theoretical models describing these phenomena has been hampered by the lack of detailed B measurements. A fifteen chord far-infrared (FIR) polarimeter has been developed to measure B in the Microwave Tokamak, Experiment (MTX). Polarimetry utilizes the well known Faraday rotation effect, which causes a rotation of the polarization of an FIR beam propagating in the poloidal plane. The rotation angle is proportional to the component of B parallel to the beam. A new technique for determining the Faraday rotation angle is introduced, based on phase measurements of a rotating polarization ellipse. This instrument has been used successfully to measure B profiles for a wide range of experiments on MTX. For ohmic discharges, measurements of the safety factor on axis give q 0 ∼ 0.75 during sawteeth and q 0 > 1 without sawteeth. Large perturbations to the polarimeter signals correlated with the sawtooth crash are observed during some discharges. Measurements in discharges with electron cyclotron heating (ECH) show a transition from a hollow to peaked J profile that is triggered by the ECH pulse. Current-ramp experiments were done to perturb the J profile from the nominal Spitzer conductivity profile. Profiles for initial current ramps and ramps starting from a stable equilibrium have been measured and are compared with a cylindrical diffusion model. Finally, the tearing mode stability equation is solved using measured J profiles. Stability predictions are in good agreement with the existence of oscillations observed on the magnetic loops

  16. Application of PLC technology in measurement of beam profile on 100 MeV accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Luyang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Chen Yongzhong; Chen Yongzhong; Liu Dekang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction is given to the real-time measuring method, which is based on the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) technology and can measure intensity and profile of the beam by a scintillator screen. The whole system has many advantages, such as good reliability, high precision, intuitional measurement, etc. due to the use of the PLC and Labview software. (authors)

  17. Unravelling Protein-Protein Interaction Networks Linked to Aliphatic and Indole Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Pathways in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J. Nintemann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the cell, biosynthetic pathways are embedded in protein-protein interaction networks. In Arabidopsis, the biosynthetic pathways of aliphatic and indole glucosinolate defense compounds are well-characterized. However, little is known about the spatial orchestration of these enzymes and their interplay with the cellular environment. To address these aspects, we applied two complementary, untargeted approaches—split-ubiquitin yeast 2-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation screens—to identify proteins interacting with CYP83A1 and CYP83B1, two homologous enzymes specific for aliphatic and indole glucosinolate biosynthesis, respectively. Our analyses reveal distinct functional networks with substantial interconnection among the identified interactors for both pathway-specific markers, and add to our knowledge about how biochemical pathways are connected to cellular processes. Specifically, a group of protein interactors involved in cell death and the hypersensitive response provides a potential link between the glucosinolate defense compounds and defense against biotrophic pathogens, mediated by protein-protein interactions.

  18. Measurement of electron beams profile of pierce type electron source using sensor of used Tv tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono; Suhartono; Suprapto; Elin Nuraini

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of an electron beam profile has been performed using electron beam monitor based on method of phosphorescent materials. The main components of the electron beam monitor consists of a fluorescent sensor using a used Tv tube, CCTV camera to record images on a Tv screen, video adapter as interface between CCTV and laptop, and the laptop as a viewer and data processing. Two Pierce-type electron sources diode and triode was measured the shape of electron beam profile in real time. Results of the experiments showed that the triode electron source of Pierce type gave the shape of electron beam profiles better than that of the diode electron source .The anode voltage is not so influential on the beam profile shape. The focused voltage in the triode electron source is so influence to the shape of the electron beam profile, but above 5 kV no great effect. It can be concluded that the electron beam monitor can provide real time observations and drawings shape of the electron beam profile displayed on the used Tv tube glass screen which is the real picture of the shape of the electron beam profile. Triode electron source produces a better electron beam profile than that of the diode electron source. (author)

  19. Comparison of neutral density profiles measured using Dα and C5+ in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Scotti, F.; Diallo, A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Edge neutral density profiles determined from two different measurements are compared on NSTX-U plasmas. Neutral density measurements were not typical on NSTX plasmas. An array of fibers dedicated to the measurement of passive emission of C5+, used to subtract background emission for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS), can be used to infer deuterium neutral density near the plasma edge. The line emission from C5+ is dominated by charge exchange with neutral deuterium near the plasma edge. An edge neutral density diagnostic consisting of a camera with a Dα filter was installed on NSTX-U. The line-integrated measurements from both diagnostics are inverted to obtain local emissivity profiles. Neutral density is then inferred using atomics rates from ADAS and profile measurements from Thomson scattering and CHERS. Comparing neutral density profiles from the two diagnostic measurements helps determine the utility of using the more routinely available C5+ measurements for neutral density profiles. Initial comparisons show good agreement between the two measurements inside the separatrix. Supported by US DoE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Quasi-quadrature interferometer for plasma density radial profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.D.; Hoffman, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    A cw Mach Zehnder multichannel interferometer has been developed to measure time-dependent fractional fringe shifts with an accuracy of one-fortieth fringe. The design is quasi-quadrature in that known phase shifts, introduced in the reference beam, are time multiplexed with the normal reference beam. This technique requires only one detector per interferometer channel as compared to two detectors for most quadrature designs. The quadrature information makes the sense of density changes unambiguous, it automatically calibrates the instrument during the plasma event, and it makes fringe shift measurements virtually independent of fringe contrast fluctuations caused by plasma refractive and/or absorptive effects. The interferometer optical design is novel in that the electro-optic crystal used to introduce the 90 0 phase shifts is located in the common 2-mm-diam HeNe entrance beam to the interferometer, by exploiting polarization techniques, rather than in the expanded 1--2-cm reference beam itself. This arrangement greatly reduces the size, cost, and high-voltage requirements for the phase modulating crystal

  1. The deconvolution of sputter-etching surface concentration measurements to determine impurity depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Katardjiev, I.V.; Nobes, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-linear partial differential continuity equations that describe the evolution of the depth profiles and surface concentrations of marker atoms in kinematically equivalent systems undergoing sputtering, ion collection and atomic mixing are solved using the method of characteristics. It is shown how atomic mixing probabilities can be deduced from measurements of ion collection depth profiles with increasing ion fluence, and how this information can be used to predict surface concentration evolution. Even with this information, however, it is shown that it is not possible to deconvolute directly the surface concentration measurements to provide initial depth profiles, except when only ion collection and sputtering from the surface layer alone occur. It is demonstrated further that optimal recovery of initial concentration depth profiles could be ensured if the concentration-measuring analytical probe preferentially sampled depths near and at the maximum depth of bombardment-induced perturbations. (author)

  2. Toroidal equilibrium and radial profiles from magnetic measurements in Extrap T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, Per; Jin Li; Tennfors, Einar

    1991-01-01

    The toroidal equilibrium position in the Extrap T1 toroidal Z-pinch is studied by measuring the currents induced in the external octupole field rings. Radial profiles are obtained by an internal magnetic coil array. From the magnetic field, profiles of current density, plasma pressure, safety factor, resistivity and input power density are deduced. A polynomial model is developed to simulate the measured profiles. The classical ion heat conduction losses in Extrap discharges are calculated using this model and compared to the power input. for polynomials matched to magnetic field profiles measured in present experiments, these losses are small. By varying the coefficients of the polynomials, a region is found where the power input can balance the classical heat conduction losses at higher values of Θ and β o . (Author)

  3. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu; Yoshioka, Yuzuru.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have been developing a measurement system for bubbly flow in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system combining an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit is proposed, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. Furthermore, the proposed measurement system is applied to measure flow characteristics of a bubbly countercurrent flow in a vertical rectangular channel to verify its capability. (author)

  4. A novel non-contact profiler design for measuring synchrotron radiation mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yao; Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; DeBiasse, R.A.; Wang, Run-Wen

    1990-08-01

    A novel optical profiler is described in this paper for measurement of surface profiles of synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The measurement is based on a combination of an optical heterodyne technique and a precise phase measurement procedure without a reference surface. A Zeeman two-frequency He-Ne laser is employed as the light source. The common-path optical system, which uses a birefringent lens as the beam splitter, minimizes the effects of air turbulence, sample vibration and temperature variation. A special autofocus system allows the profiler to measure the roughness and shape of a sample surface. The optical system is mounted on a large linear air-bearing slide, and is capable of scanning over distances covering the spatial period range from several microns to nearly one meter with a high measurement accuracy. 9 refs., 5 figs

  5. Neutral Probe Beam q-profile measurements in PDX and PBX-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Gammel, G.M.; Kaita, R.; Reusch, M.F.; Roberts, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    Using the Fast Ion Diagnostic Experiment (FIDE) technique, a Neutral Probe Beam (NPB) can be aimed to inject tangentially to a magnetic surface. The resultant ion orbit shifts, due to conservation of canonical toroidal angular momentum, can be measured with a multi-sightline charge-exchange analyzer to yield direct measurements of radial magnetic flux profiles, current density profiles, the radial position of the magnetic axis, flux surface inner and outer edges, q-profiles, and central-q time dependencies. An extensive error analysis was performed on previous PDX q-measurements in circular plasmas and the resulting estimated contributions of various systematic effects are discussed. Preliminary results of fast ion orbit shift measurements at early times in indented PBX-M plasmas are given. Methods for increasing the absolute experimental precision of similar measurements in progress on PBX-M are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs

  6. Depth profiling of extended defects in silicon by Rutherford backscattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruska, B.; Goetz, G.

    1981-01-01

    Depth profiling of dislocations and stacking faults is carried out by analyzing axial and planar channeling data from As + -and P + -implanted silicon samples annealed at high temperatures. The analyzing procedure is based on the simple two-beam model. The results show that depth profiling of dislocations using planar channeling data is connected with a broadening of the real distributions. A degradation of the defect concentration and a deformation of the profile result for very high defect concentrations (> 5 x 10 5 cm/cm 2 ). All these effects can be neglected by analyzing axial channeling data. Depth profiling of stacking faults is restricted to the determination of the depth distribution of displaced atomic rows or planes. For both the procedures, axial as well as planar channeling measurements, the same depth profiles of displaced atomic rows are obtained. (author)

  7. Measurement of high-beta tokamak pressure profiles with multipoint Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinton, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    A multipoint Thomson-scattering system has been developed to obtain pressure profiles along the major radius of Torus II, a high-beta tokamak. The profiles obtained during the 20 to 25 μs lifetime of the discharge indicates that the plasma has a peak temperature of 80 eV and density of 1.0 x 10 15 cm - 3 . The profiles remain fairly constant during this time until the equilibrium is lost, after which the temperature and density decays to 10 eV and 10 14 cm - 3 very quickly (approx. 1 μs). Experimental results show Torus II has a high-beta ( approx. 10%) equilibrium, with a strong shift of the peak of the pressure profile towards the outside. Numerical results from a 2-D free boundary MHD equilibrium code have obtained equilibria which closely approximate the experimentally measured profiles

  8. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  9. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  10. Determining the near-surface current profile from measurements of the wave dispersion relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin; Maxwell, Peter; Aesøy, Eirik; Ellingsen, Simen

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced Doppler shifts of waves can yield information about the background mean flow, providing an attractive method of inferring the current profile in the upper layer of the ocean. We present measurements of waves propagating on shear currents in a laboratory water channel, as well as theoretical investigations of inversion techniques for determining the vertical current structure. Spatial and temporal measurements of the free surface profile obtained using a synthetic Schlieren method are analyzed to determine the wave dispersion relation and Doppler shifts as a function of wavelength. The vertical current profile can then be inferred from the Doppler shifts using an inversion algorithm. Most existing algorithms rely on a priori assumptions of the shape of the current profile, and developing a method that uses less stringent assumptions is a focus of this study, allowing for measurement of more general current profiles. The accuracy of current inversion algorithms are evaluated by comparison to measurements of the mean flow profile from particle image velocimetry (PIV), and a discussion of the sensitivity to errors in the Doppler shifts is presented.

  11. Beam profile measurement of ES-200 using secondary electron emission monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimi Basabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, different designs have been introduced for measurement beam profile accelerators. Secondary electron emission monitors (SEM are one of these devices which have been used for this purpose. In this work, a SEM has been constructed to measure beam profile of ES-200 accelerator, a proton electrostatic accelerator which is installed at SBU. Profile grid for both planes designed with 16 wires which are insulated relative to each other. The particles with maximum energy of 200 keV and maximum current of 400 μA are stopped in copper wires. Each of the wires has an individual current-to-voltage amplifier. With a multiplexer, the analogue values are transported to an ADC. The ADCs are read out by a microcontroller and finally profile of beam shows by a user interface program

  12. Genetic Algorithm for Opto-thermal Skin Hydration Depth Profiling Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Xiao, Perry; Imhof, R. E.

    2013-09-01

    Stratum corneum is the outermost skin layer, and the water content in stratum corneum plays a key role in skin cosmetic properties as well as skin barrier functions. However, to measure the water content, especially the water concentration depth profile, within stratum corneum is very difficult. Opto-thermal emission radiometry, or OTTER, is a promising technique that can be used for such measurements. In this paper, a study on stratum corneum hydration depth profiling by using a genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. The pros and cons of a GA compared against other inverse algorithms such as neural networks, maximum entropy, conjugate gradient, and singular value decomposition will be discussed first. Then, it will be shown how to use existing knowledge to optimize a GA for analyzing the opto-thermal signals. Finally, these latest GA results on hydration depth profiling of stratum corneum under different conditions, as well as on the penetration profiles of externally applied solvents, will be shown.

  13. Error Correction of Measured Unstructured Road Profiles Based on Accelerometer and Gyroscope Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a noncontact acquisition system composed of several time synchronized laser height sensors, accelerometers, gyroscope, and so forth in order to collect the road profiles of vehicle riding on the unstructured roads. A method of correcting road profiles based on the accelerometer and gyroscope data is proposed to eliminate the adverse impacts of vehicle vibration and attitudes change. Because the power spectral density (PSD of gyro attitudes concentrates in the low frequency band, a method called frequency division is presented to divide the road profiles into two parts: high frequency part and low frequency part. The vibration error of road profiles is corrected by displacement data obtained through two times integration of measured acceleration data. After building the mathematical model between gyro attitudes and road profiles, the gyro attitudes signals are separated from low frequency road profile by the method of sliding block overlap based on correlation analysis. The accuracy and limitations of the system have been analyzed, and its validity has been verified by implementing the system on wheeled equipment for road profiles’ measuring of vehicle testing ground. The paper offers an accurate and practical approach to obtaining unstructured road profiles for road simulation test.

  14. Depth profile of In and As in Si measured by RBS with He and C ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Q; Fang, Z [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Ophel, T R [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1994-12-31

    The depth profile of As and In implanted into Si have been measured by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) with 2 MeV He ions and 6 MeV C ions. Advantages of enhanced depth and mass resolution with C ions have been demonstrated over the conventional He RBS. More reliable information for the depth profile of In and As in Si has been obtained. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Depth profile of In and As in Si measured by RBS with He and C ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Q.; Fang, Z. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1993-12-31

    The depth profile of As and In implanted into Si have been measured by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) with 2 MeV He ions and 6 MeV C ions. Advantages of enhanced depth and mass resolution with C ions have been demonstrated over the conventional He RBS. More reliable information for the depth profile of In and As in Si has been obtained. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The application of image acquisition and processing technology in measurement of beam profile on particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Zhenpeng; Zheng Yong; Shen Zhiqing; Wang Shaoming

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the real-time measuring method which can measure the intensity and profile of the beam by a scintillator screen on HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou). Hardware structure is described briefly, methods of the software design are mainly presented. The system can make a dynamic analysis on the faculae image and has many advantages, such as good reliability, high precision, intuitional measurement, friendly interface of the application software etc. Finally some results of measurement are given

  17. Molecular mechanisms of plant response to ionising radiation. Exploration of the glucosinolate role in the anti-oxidative response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms are exposed to low doses of ionising radiation from natural or anthropogenic sources. The major effects of the radiations are due to DNA deterioration and water radiolysis which generates an oxidative stress by free radical production. Plants constitute good models to study the effects of ionising radiations and the search of antioxidant molecules because of their important secondary metabolism. Thus this thesis, funded by the Brittany region, characterized the physiological and molecular response of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to low (10 Gy) and moderate (40 Gy) doses of ionising radiation, and was therefore interested in glucosinolates, characteristic compounds of the Brassicaceae family. The global proteomic and transcriptomic studies carried out on this model revealed (1) a common response for both doses dealing with the activation of DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle regulation and protection of cellular structures; (2) an adjustment of the energetic metabolism and an activation of secondary compounds biosynthesis (i.e. glucosinolates and flavonoids) after the 10 Gy dose; (3) an induction of enzymatic control of ROS, the regulation of cellular components recycling and of programmed cell death after the 40 Gy dose. The potential anti-oxidative role of glucosinolates was then explored. The in vitro anti-oxidative power of some glucosinolates and their derivative products were demonstrated. Their modulating effects against irradiation-induced damages were then tested in vivo by simple experimental approaches. The importance of the glucosinolate level to give a positive or negative effect was demonstrated. (author)

  18. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, C.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the

  19. Simultaneous measurements with 3D PIV and Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.J.F.; McLelland, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous velocity measurements were taken using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and an Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler (ADVP) in a sharp open-channel bend with an immobile gravel bed. The PIV measures 3D velocity vectors in a vertical plane (~40cm x 20cm) at a frequency of 7.5 Hz, whereas

  20. OTR profile measurement of a LINAC electron beam with portable ultra high-speed camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, T.; Nisiyama, S.; Tomioka, S.; Enoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied on and developed a portable ultra high-speed camera, and so applied to measurement of a LINAC electron beam. We measured spatial OTR profiles of a LINAC electron beam using this camera with temporal resolution 80ns. (author)

  1. Opto-thermal moisture content and moisture depth profile measurements in organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, P.; Guo, X.; Cui, Y.Y.; Imhof, R.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements.In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture

  2. The Premature Ejaculation Profile: validation of self-reported outcome measures for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donald L; Giuliano, François; Ho, Kai Fai; Gagnon, Dennis D; McNulty, Pauline; Rothman, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), a self-reported outcome instrument for evaluating domains of PE and its treatment, comprised of four single-item measures, a profile, and an index score. Data were from men participating in observational studies in the USA (PE, 207 men; non-PE, 1380) and Europe (PE, 201; non-PE, 914) and from men with PE (1238) participating in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of dapoxetine. The PEP contains four measures: perceived control over ejaculation, personal distress related to ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation, each assessed on five-point response scales. Test-retest reliability, known-groups validity, and ability to detect a patient-reported global impression of change (PGI) in condition were evaluated for the individual PEP measures and a PEP index score (the mean of all four measures). Profile analysis was conducted using multivariate analysis of variance. All PEP measures showed acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.66 to 0.83) and mean scores for all measures differed significantly between PE and non-PE groups (P measures. The PEP profiles of men with and without PE differed significantly (P measure for use in monitoring outcomes of men with PE.

  3. Insect Attraction versus Plant Defense: Young Leaves High in Glucosinolates Stimulate Oviposition by a Specialist Herbivore despite Poor Larval Survival due to High Saponin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), glucosinolates act as “fingerprints” that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake. PMID:24752069

  4. Insect attraction versus plant defense: young leaves high in glucosinolates stimulate oviposition by a specialist herbivore despite poor larval survival due to high saponin content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R Badenes-Perez

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, glucosinolates act as "fingerprints" that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake.

  5. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanschen, F.; Klopsch, R.; Oliviero, T.; Schreiner, M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and

  6. Whole-body profile scanner for in vivo quantitative activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    A whole-body profile scanner has been developed by fitting parallel slit collimators to a shadow shield whole-body counter. Sensitivity, uniformity and resolution measurements were performed using a number of different counting conditions. It is shown that improved accuracy of activity measurements is obtained by using a wide window counting technique for low and medium energy gamma emitters (99m Tc, 131 I), whereas a photopeak window should be used for high energy gamma emitters (47 Ca). Due to the finite spatial resolution of the system a systematic error in evaluating regional activities from the counting rate profile occurs which is characterized by a spatial spillover factor. The spatial spillover factor is measured and is subsequently used to calculate the error on basis of a simple model. It is shown that only small errors are caused by spatial spillover when the length of a region is at least three times the full width half maximum of the point spread function. Applying the above mentioned simple rules it is concluded that profile scanning is a sensitive and accurate technique for activity measurements in vivo. Two examples of clinical applications (measurement of bone accretion rates of calcium and Tc-pyrophosphate, regional radioiodine retention in patients with thyroid carcinoma) and a review of the papers on profile scanning demonstrate the types of investigations in which profile scanning is superior to alternative techniques. (author)

  7. A dynamic method for continuously measuring magnetic field profiles in planar micropole undulators with submillimeter gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1989-01-01

    Conventional techniques for measuring magnetic field profiles in ordinary undulators rely predominantly on Hall probes for making point-by-point static measurements. As undulators with submillimeter periods and gaps become available, such techniques will start becoming untenable, due to the relative largeness of conventional Hall probe heads and the rapidly increasing number of periods in devices of fixed length. In this paper a method is presented which can rapidly map out field profiles in undulators with periods and gaps extending down to the 100 μm range and beyond. The method, which samples the magnetic field continuously, has been used successfully in profiling a recently constructed 726 μm period undulator, and seems to offer some potential advantages over conventional Hall probe techniques in measuring large-scale undulator fields as well. (orig.)

  8. Temperature profiles by ground-based remote sensing and in situ measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentini, S; Pietroni, I; Conidi, A; Mastrantonio, G; Petenko, I; Viola, A [ISAC-CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Gariazzo, C; Pelliccioni, A; Amicarelli, A [ISPESL Dipartimento Insediamenti Produttivi e Interazione con l' Ambiente, Via Fontana Candida, 1, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) (Italy)], E-mail: s.argentini@isac.cnr.it

    2008-05-01

    This study focuses on the accuracy of the temperature profiles measured with a Doppler Radio-Acoustic Sounding System and a Microwave Temperature Profiler during a period of about 3 months in winter 2007-2008. The experiment was carried on at the experimental facility of the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The temperature data measured with remote sensors were verified with in situ measurements on a mast as well as with tethered balloon data. The facsimile echograms obtained with the ISAC Doppler SODAR were analysed to understand to which extent the RASS and Radiometer temperature profiles behaviour can represent the real thermal structure of the atmosphere.

  9. Temperature profiles by ground-based remote sensing and in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentini, S; Pietroni, I; Conidi, A; Mastrantonio, G; Petenko, I; Viola, A; Gariazzo, C; Pelliccioni, A; Amicarelli, A

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the accuracy of the temperature profiles measured with a Doppler Radio-Acoustic Sounding System and a Microwave Temperature Profiler during a period of about 3 months in winter 2007-2008. The experiment was carried on at the experimental facility of the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The temperature data measured with remote sensors were verified with in situ measurements on a mast as well as with tethered balloon data. The facsimile echograms obtained with the ISAC Doppler SODAR were analysed to understand to which extent the RASS and Radiometer temperature profiles behaviour can represent the real thermal structure of the atmosphere

  10. RASS sound speed profile (SSP) measurements for use in outdoor sound propagation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, S G [Physics Department, University of Auckland (New Zealand); Huenerbein, S v; Waddington, D [Research Institute for the Built and Human Environment, University of Salford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.vonhunerbein@salford.ac.uk

    2008-05-01

    The performance of outdoor sound propagation models depends to a great extent on meteorological input parameters. In an effort to improve speed and accuracy, model output synthetic sound speed profiles (SSP) are commonly used depending on meteorological classification schemes. In order to use SSP measured by RASS in outdoor sound propagation models, the complex profiles need to be simplified. In this paper we extend an investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data set required to yield adequate comparisons between models and field measurements, so that the models can be fairly judged. Vertical SSP from RASS, SODAR wind profiles as well as mast wind and temperature data from a flat terrain site and measured over a period of several months are used to evaluate applicability of the logarithmic approximation for a stability classification scheme proposed by the HARMONOISE working group.

  11. Microscopic image processing system for measuring nonuniform film thickness profiles: Image scanning ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.H.; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research program is to determine the stability and heat transfer characteristics of evaporating thin films. The current objective is to develop and use a microscopic image-processing system (IPS) which has two parts: an image analyzing interferometer (IAI) and an image scanning ellipsometer (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present the basic concept of ISE, which is a novel technique to measure the two dimensional thickness profile of a non-uniform, thin film, from several nm up to several μm, in a steady state as well as in a transient state. It is a full-field imaging technique which can study every point on the surface simultaneously with high spatial resolution and thickness sensitivity, i.e., it can measure and map the 2-D film thickness profile. The ISE was tested by measuring the thickness profile and the refractive index of a nonuniform solid film

  12. RASS sound speed profile (SSP) measurements for use in outdoor sound propagation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S G; Huenerbein, S v; Waddington, D

    2008-01-01

    The performance of outdoor sound propagation models depends to a great extent on meteorological input parameters. In an effort to improve speed and accuracy, model output synthetic sound speed profiles (SSP) are commonly used depending on meteorological classification schemes. In order to use SSP measured by RASS in outdoor sound propagation models, the complex profiles need to be simplified. In this paper we extend an investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data set required to yield adequate comparisons between models and field measurements, so that the models can be fairly judged. Vertical SSP from RASS, SODAR wind profiles as well as mast wind and temperature data from a flat terrain site and measured over a period of several months are used to evaluate applicability of the logarithmic approximation for a stability classification scheme proposed by the HARMONOISE working group

  13. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis.

  14. Genome wide association mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana identifies novel genes involved in linking allyl glucosinolate to altered biomass and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL, may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 µM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis.

  15. Calculation of the Scattered Radiation Profile in 64 Slice CT Scanners Using Experimental Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Akbarzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important parameters in x-ray CT imaging is the noise induced by detected scattered radiation. The detected scattered radiation is completely dependent on the scanner geometry as well as size, shape and material of the scanned object. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the scattered radiation in x-ray CT should be quantified for development of robust scatter correction techniques. Empirical methods based on blocking the primary photons in a small region are not able to extract scatter in all elements of the detector array while the scatter profile is required for a scatter correction procedure. In this study, we measured scatter profiles in 64 slice CT scanners using a new experimental measurement. Material and Methods: To measure the scatter profile, a lead block array was inserted under the collimator and the phantom was exposed at the isocenter. The raw data file, which contained detector array readouts, was transferred to a PC and was read using a dedicated GUI running under MatLab 7.5. The scatter profile was extracted by interpolating the shadowed area. Results: The scatter and SPR profiles were measured. Increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kVp resulted in an 80% fall off in SPR for a water phantom (d=210 mm and 86% for a polypropylene phantom (d = 350 mm. Increasing the air gap to 20.9 cm caused a 30% decrease in SPR. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a novel approach for measurement of scattered radiation distribution and SPR in a CT scanner with 64-slice capability using a lead block array. The method can also be used on other multi-slice CT scanners. The proposed technique can accurately estimate scatter profiles. It is relatively straightforward, easy to use, and can be used for any related measurement.

  16. Variation of glucosinolates and quinone reductase activity among different varieties of Chinese kale and improvement of glucoraphanin by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongmei; Sun, Bo; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Xu, Chaojiong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2015-02-01

    The variation of glucosinolates and quinone reductase (QR) activity in fourteen varieties of Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey) was investigated in the present study. Results showed that gluconapin (GNA), instead of glucoraphanin (GRA), was the most predominant glucosinolate in all varieties, and QR activity was remarkably positively correlated with the glucoraphanin level. AOP2, a tandem 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, catalyzes the conversion of glucoraphanin to gluconapin in glucosinolate biosynthesis. Here, antisense AOP2 was transformed into Gailan-04, the variety with the highest gluconapin content and ratio of GNA/GRA. The glucoraphanin content and corresponding QR activity were notably increased in transgenic plants, while no significant difference at the level of other main nutritional compounds (total phenolics, vitamin C, carotenoids and chlorophyll) was observed between the transgenic lines and the wide-type plants. Taken together, metabolic engineering is a good practice for improvement of glucoraphanin in Chinese kale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement and modeling of nitrogen resonance line profiles from an electrodeless discharge lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.R.; Skinner, G.B.; Lifshitz, A.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental profiles of the 1200 A resonance triplet of atomic nitrogen were measured for a variety of operating conditions of an end-on electrodeless lamp, and corresponding absorption curves were calculated. Each source profile was determined by fitting parameters to an empirical two-layer model, then convoluting with the instrumental function for comparison with experimental data. Each three-component profile was fitted with three adjustable parameters: an absorption parameter for each of the two layers and a third absorption parameter to adjust for radiation trapping. Curves of absorption as a function of atom concentration, calculated from these profiles, are very similar to the shock tube calibrations of Thielen and Roth in which a source of similar design has been used

  18. High resolution measurement of the velocity profiles of channel flows using the particle image velocimetry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizi Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    The high resolution velocity profiles of a uniform steady channel flow and a flow beneath waves were obtained using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The velocity profiles for each flow were calculated for both components. It is shown that the profiles obtained are very precise, displaying the point velocities from a few millimeters from the bottom of the channel up to the water surface across the water depth. In the case of the wave-induced flow, the profiles are shown under the respective wave phases and given in a plane representation. High resolution measurement of point velocities in a flow is achievable using PIV and invaluable when applied to a complex flow. (Author)

  19. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkden, N. R.; Adamek, J.; Komm, M.; Allan, S.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Dudson, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ∼1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the E R measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak

  20. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, N. R.; Adamek, J.; Allan, S.; Dudson, B. D.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Komm, M.

    2015-02-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ˜1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  1. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkden, N. R., E-mail: nrw504@york.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Adamek, J.; Komm, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of AS CR, v. v. i., Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Allan, S.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dudson, B. D. [Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ∼1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the E{sub R} measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  2. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van Lintel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  3. A CO2 laser polarimeter for measurement of plasma current profile in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Irby, J.; Luke, T.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel infrared polarimeter system for measurement of the plasma current profile in Alcator C-Mod has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system utilizes a cw CO 2 , laser at a wavelength of 10.6 μm. An electro-optic polarization-modulation technique has been used to achieve the high sensitivity required for the measurement. The recent results of the measurements as well as the feasibility of its application on ITER are presented

  4. Neural networks for the dimensionality reduction of GOME measurement vector in the estimation of ozone profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Frate, F.; Iapaolo, M.; Casadio, S.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Petitdidier, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction can be of crucial importance in the application of inversion schemes to atmospheric remote sensing data. In this study the problem of dimensionality reduction in the retrieval of ozone concentration profiles from the radiance measurements provided by the instrument Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board of ESA satellite ERS-2 is considered. By means of radiative transfer modelling, neural networks and pruning algorithms, a complete procedure has been designed to extract the GOME spectral ranges most crucial for the inversion. The quality of the resulting retrieval algorithm has been evaluated by comparing its performance to that yielded by other schemes and co-located profiles obtained with lidar measurements

  5. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, G.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite profiling study has been carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Wassilewskija and a series of transgenic lines of the ecotype transformed with a CHS (chalcone synthase) antisense construct. Compound identifications by LC/MS and H-1 NMR are discussed. The glucosinolate...

  6. Improving the surface metrology accuracy of optical profilers by using multiple measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xudong; Huang, Qiushi; Shen, Zhengxiang; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-10-01

    The performance of high-resolution optical systems is affected by small angle scattering at the mid-spatial-frequency irregularities of the optical surface. Characterizing these irregularities is, therefore, important. However, surface measurements obtained with optical profilers are influenced by additive white noise, as indicated by the heavy-tail effect observable on their power spectral density (PSD). A multiple-measurement method is used to reduce the effects of white noise by averaging individual measurements. The intensity of white noise is determined using a model based on the theoretical PSD of fractal surface measurements with additive white noise. The intensity of white noise decreases as the number of times of multiple measurements increases. Using multiple measurements also increases the highest observed spatial frequency; this increase is derived and calculated. Additionally, the accuracy obtained using multiple measurements is carefully studied, with the analysis of both the residual reference error after calibration, and the random errors appearing in the range of measured spatial frequencies. The resulting insights on the effects of white noise in optical profiler measurements and the methods to mitigate them may prove invaluable to improve the quality of surface metrology with optical profilers.

  7. Optical bi-sensorial measurement system for production control of extruded profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckenmann, A.; Bernstein, J.

    2008-09-01

    Extruded profiles are semi-finished products (made out of steel, brass, aluminum, synthetics...) which are appointed for wide applications in manufacturing of technical products. As yet used optical sensors in process control working to the shading technology detect the object's shadow orthographically to the axis of illumination. As a consequence they record it unattached by the profiles coat in measurement range at any point of the measured profile with high precision. As a matter of fact, concave zones cannot be captured. Alternatively the measurement of concave zones can be arranged by light-section systems. These do not comply with the required accuracy, are comparatively slow and moreover affected by dislocations of the section of the profile. A measurement system including a light-section and a shading system combines the advantages of both optical systems. It is to serve with a reliable conception for the assembly of a bi-sensorial measurement system consisting of both systems as well as suitable methods of analysis for the in-line inspection of concave profiles. As a result it contains conclusions concerning requirements of the light source, the arrangement of this source and the cameras, obtainable precision and sampling rate as well as the essential synchronization of both systems. After designing an appropriate prototype, the selected light-section system and the shading system will be synchronized and aligned. Therefore, the metered geometrical data will be merged for the evaluation of form deviation. So, developed and adapted software supports and contains proposals to the uncertainty after successful tests. The system and a calibration method will be proved in production where robustness will be a most critical despite of heat, dust and vibrations. The target uncertainty of less than 0.1 mm at every section of the profiles coat has to be met.

  8. Vertical profiles of urban aerosol complex refractive index in the frame of ESQUIF airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.

    2008-02-01

    A synergy between lidar, sunphotometer and in situ measurements has been applied to airborne observations performed during the Etude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile-de-France (ESQUIF), enabling the retrieval of vertical profiles for the aerosol complex refractive index (ACRI) and single-scattering albedo with a vertical resolution of 200 m over Paris area. The averaged value over the entire planetary boundary layer (PBL) for the ACRI is close to 1.51(±0.02)-i0.017(±0.003) at 532 nm. The single-scattering albedo of the corresponding aerosols is found to be ~0.9 at the same wavelength. A good agreement is found with previous studies for urban aerosols. A comparison of vertical profiles of ACRI with simulations combining in situ measurements and relative humidity (RH) profiles has highlighted a modification in aerosol optical properties linked to their history and the origin of the air mass. The determination of ACRI in the atmospheric column enabled to retrieve vertical profiles of extinction coefficient in accordance with lidar profiles measurements.

  9. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-01

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  10. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-15

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  11. Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cohn

    Full Text Available Spaced antenna (SA wind measurement techniques are applied to Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR data to evaluate its performance in clear air conditions. MAPR is a multiple antenna 915 MHz wind profiler developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR and described in Cohn et al. (1997, designed to make high resolution wind measurements. Previous reported measurements with MAPR were restricted to precipitation because of low signal to noise (SNR and signal to ground-clutter (SCR ratios. By using a standard pulse-coding technique and upgrading the profiler control software, increases in average power and SNR were achieved, making routine measurements in clear air possible. Comparison of winds measured by MAPR and by a sonic anemometer on a nearby 300 m tower show correlation coefficients in the range of R2 = 0.75 – 0.80, and an average absolute error of ~ 1.4 m s - 1 . This compares favorably with the agreement typically found in wind profiler comparisons. We also consider the use of the parameter ah , which is related to the value of the cross-correlation function at its zero crossing. This parameter is a data quality indicator and possibly a key component in a ground clutter removal technique.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  12. Novel analysis technique for measuring edge density fluctuation profiles with reflectometry in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, A. J.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujimura, T.; Akiyama, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Emoto, M.; Tanaka, K.; Michael, C. A.

    2017-07-01

    A new method for measuring density fluctuation profiles near the edge of plasmas in the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been developed utilizing reflectometry combined with pellet-induced fast density scans. Reflectometer cutoff location was calculated by proportionally scaling the cutoff location calculated with fast far infrared laser interferometer (FIR) density profiles to match the slower time resolution results of the ray-tracing code LHD-GAUSS. Plasma velocity profile peaks generated with this reflectometer mapping were checked against velocity measurements made with charge exchange spectroscopy (CXS) and were found to agree within experimental uncertainty once diagnostic differences were accounted for. Measured density fluctuation profiles were found to peak strongly near the edge of the plasma, as is the case in most tokamaks. These measurements can be used in the future to inform inversion methods of phase contrast imaging (PCI) measurements. This result was confirmed with both a fixed frequency reflectometer and calibrated data from a multi-frequency comb reflectometer, and this method was applied successfully to a series of discharges. The full width at half maximum of the turbulence layer near the edge of the plasma was found to be only 1.5-3 cm on a series of LHD discharges, less than 5% of the normalized minor radius.

  13. Linear chirped slope profile for spatial calibration in slope measuring deflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewert, F., E-mail: frank.siewert@helmholtz-berlin.de; Zeschke, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Arnold, T.; Paetzelt, H. [Leibnitz Institut für Oberflächen Modifizierung Leipzig e.V., IOM, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Yashchuk, V. V. [Lawerence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Slope measuring deflectometry is commonly used by the X-ray optics community to measure the long-spatial-wavelength surface figure error of optical components dedicated to guide and focus X-rays under grazing incidence condition at synchrotron and free electron laser beamlines. The best performing instruments of this kind are capable of absolute accuracy on the level of 30-50 nrad. However, the exact bandwidth of the measurements, determined at the higher spatial frequencies by the instrument’s spatial resolution, or more generally by the instrument’s modulation transfer function (MTF) is hard to determine. An MTF calibration method based on application of a test surface with a one-dimensional (1D) chirped height profile of constant amplitude was suggested in the past. In this work, we propose a new approach to designing the test surfaces with a 2D-chirped topography, specially optimized for MTF characterization of slope measuring instruments. The design of the developed MTF test samples based on the proposed linear chirped slope profiles (LCSPs) is free of the major drawback of the 1D chirped height profiles, where in the slope domain, the amplitude strongly increases with the local spatial frequency of the profile. We provide the details of fabrication of the LCSP samples. The results of first application of the developed test samples to measure the spatial resolution of the BESSY-NOM at different experimental arrangements are also presented and discussed.

  14. Measurement of neutral beam power and beam profile distribution on DNB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhimin; Liu Sheng; Song Shihua; Han Xiaopu; Li Jun; Hu Chundong; Hu Liqun; Xie Jun

    2005-01-01

    The injection power of a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) can be obtained with the thermocouple probe measurement system on the Hefei superconducting Tokamak-7 (HT-7). With the 49 kv, 6 A, 100 ms pulse charge of an acceleration electrode, a thermocouple probe measurement system with 13 thermocouples crossly distributed on a coppery heat target was used to measure the temperature rise of the target, and the maximum measured temperature rise was 14 degree C. And the neutral beam power of 160 kW and beam profile distribution was obtained by calculation. The total neutral beam power of 130 kW was also obtained by integral calculation with the temperature rise on the heat section board. The difference between the two means was analyzed. The experiment results shows that the method of heat section board with thermocouple probe is one of the effective ways to measure the beam power and beam profile distribution. (authors)

  15. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Congsen [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Janssen, Maurice H. M. [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  16. Nonlinear selection and a blend of convergent, divergent and parallel evolution shapes natural variation in glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliebenstein, Daniel James; Cacho, N. Ivalú

    2016-01-01

    and traits that is highly similar both within and between species. Further, early field trials with single gene recreations of natural variation are showing that selection is highly fluctuating both from site to site and from year to year within a location. This review goes into the specific ecological......The molecular mechanisms underlying organismal fitness in complex environments is just beginning to be illuminated. One of the pre-eminent model systems that span the molecular to field fitness chasm is the natural variation in glucosinolate defence metabolites within the Capparales. In this system......, evolutionary and molecular observations for each of the major loci controlling natural variation in glucosinolates....

  17. Review on Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. wood (Brassicaceae): ethnobotany and glucosinolate chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaut, Sabine; Bleeker, René S

    2013-09-16

    Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. Wood, commonly called toothwort, is a spring perennial herb belonging to the Brassicaceae family. This endemic plant of Eastern North America has been widely used by multiple American First Nations (i.e. indigenous people of North America) for food and medicine for centuries. The aim of the review is to describe the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and bioactivity of Cardamine diphylla. The review covers literature on Cardamine diphylla, and the alternative name Dentaria diphylla, from English and French language sources. Multiple traditional uses of Cardamine diphylla by American First Nations are well documented. Initial health studies showed that the tested concentrations of the extract were not toxic against brine shrimp larvae and the same extract had a weak free-radical scavenging activity. However, bioactive compounds in the form of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates and some indole alkaloids have been isolated from this plant. Ecological research regarding Cardamine diphylla-insect interactions (such as feeding and oviposition) is also available in the literature. The wide range of traditional uses by multiple American First Nations suggests that the antibacterial, antiviral, immunostimulant, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant should be explored in in vitro and in vivo tests. Traditional modes of preparation of the plant suggest that some of the medicinal properties could certainly be attributed to glucosinolate degradation products (i.e. isothiocyanates), but a clear assignment of active molecules and mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. The presence of glucosinolates indicates that the plant could be probed for cancer chemopreventive properties. Overall, the review shows that more investigation is necessary to determine the possible benefits of Cardamine diphylla extracts to pharmaceutical companies as a nutraceutic specialty phytotherapeutic agent against respiratory

  18. Modeling and Experimental Tests of a Mechatronic Device to Measure Road Profiles Considering Impact Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, A.; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    of a vehicle and to test its components in laboratory. In this framework a mechanism to measure road profiles is designed and presented. Such a mechanism is composed of two rolling wheels and two long beams attached to the vehicles by means of four Kardan joints. The wheels are kept in contact to the ground...... to highlight that the aim of this device is to independently measure two road profiles, without the influence of the vehicle dynamics where the mechanism is attached. Before the mechatronic mechanism is attached to a real vehicle, its dynamic behavior must be known. A theoretical analysis of the mechanism...... predicts well the mechanism movements. However it was also experimentally observed that the contact between the wheels and the road profile is not permanent. To analyze the non-contact between the wheels and the road, the Newton-Euler´s Method is used to calculate forces and moments of reactions between...

  19. Effect of limiter recycling on measured poloidal impurity emission profiles in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.; DeMichelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Becoulet, M.; Bush, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Guirlet, R.; Hess, W.; Mattioli, M.; Vallet, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Poloidal impurity emission profiles measured with the Tore Supra grazing incidence duochromator exhibit a complex spatial structure during ergodic divertor operation with an outboard poloidal guard limiter. As previous measurements with inboard-wall limited plasmas have shown that these profiles give important information about the ergodic field structure, so the contribution of local neon recycling from the limiter-induced plume has been modeled. This permits a discrimination of edge and core transport effects. The BBQ 3D scrape-off layer code calculates the asymmetric contribution to the emission and MIST 1D simulation gives the symmetric part. A systematic increase is observed in the decay rate of neon emission after injection as the ergodic divertor strength is increased. The calculations permit identification of the limiter plume contribution to the profile structure, and, with this identification, the effect of the divertor to enhance impurity efflux can be seen from the decay data

  20. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experimental Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang, E-mail: yjshi@snu.ac.kr; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo-Ghee [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  1. An automated, noncontact laser profile meter for measuring soil roughness in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuzzi, P.; Caussignac, J.M.; Stengel, P.; Morel, G.; Lorendeau, J.Y.; Pelloux, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new optical technique for measuring in situ soil surface roughness profiles using a laser profile meter. The described method uses a low-power HeNe (helium-neon) laser as a laser source and a matrix-array detector, as the laser image. The matrix-array detector gives a defect-of-focus laser image of the soil. Soil elevation is measured by projecting a laser beam normally onto the soil surface and measuring the ratio (Ir/It) on the matrix-array detector between the referenced intensity of the return Laser beam (Ir), measured by the central cell of the detector and the total intensity (It), measured by all the cells of the detector. The measured profile leads to 1001 sampled values (volt, range 0 to 10 V) of the surface height profile, at a constant increment of 0.002 m, registered automatically on a microcomputer. A calibration is made in the laboratory in order to convert the electrical measurements into elevation data. The method is universal and can be adapted to different scales of soil surface roughness. Changing the scale is done by changing the lens. Tests were carried out to improve this method for field use and to compare this technique with a method of reference. This technique is considerably quicker and causes no disturbance to the soil. The accuracy on height measurement depends on the choice of the lens. The small focal lens is convenient for smooth soil surfaces. The accuracy on height measurement is less than 0.75 mm. The wide focal lens is convenient for rough soil surfaces. The accuracy on height measurement is estimated at about 1.0 to 1.5 mm

  2. Rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized glucosinolates and their catabolites requires GTR-mediated import in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Deyang; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Witzel, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Casparian strip-generated apoplastic barriers not only control the radial flow of both water and ions but may also constitute a hindrance for the rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized phytochemicals. Here, we establish root-synthesized glucosinolates (GLS) are in Arabidopsis as a model to study...... via the xylem to the shoot; and (iii) GTR-dependent import to GLS-degrading myrosin cells at the cortex. The study suggests a previously undiscovered role of the import process in the rhizosecretion of root-synthesized phytochemicals....

  3. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind

  4. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-05-11

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10/sup 12/cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-01-01

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10 12 cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-01-01

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). This analyzer indicates an increase in ion temperature from ∼20 eV before ICRH to ∼150 eV during ICRH, with ∼60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial integral of n i T i as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma potential is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat, as the plasma conditions varied over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U

  7. Dose profile measurement in computerized axial tomography equipment using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin V, J.C.; Falcony, C.; Azorin N, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work are presented the results about measuring the radiation dose profile in two equipment of computerized axial tomography (Tac). Thermoluminescent dosemeters (Dtl) of LiF, Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe in form of disks were used which were developed and made in Mexico. The results showed that Dtl are appropriated for these type of studies. (Author)

  8. Direct measurements of air layer profiles under impacting droplets using high-speed color interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Tran, Tuan; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A drop impacting on a solid surface deforms before the liquid makes contact with the surface. We directly measure the time evolution of the air layer profile under the droplet using high-speed color interferometry, obtaining the air layer thickness before and during the wetting process. Based on the

  9. Plasma Profile Measurements for Laser Fusion Research with the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The grid image refractometer of the Nike laser facility (Nike-GIR) has demonstrated the capability of simultaneously measuring electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) profiles of coronal plasma. For laser plasma instability (LPI) research, the first Nike-GIR experiment successfully measured the plasma profiles in density regions up to ne ~ 4 ×1021 cm-3 (22% of the critical density for 248 nm light of Nike) using an ultraviolet probe laser (λp = 263 nm). The probe laser has been recently replaced with a shorter wavelength laser (λp = 213 nm, a 5th harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser) to diagnose a higher density region. The Nike-GIR system is being further extended to measure plasma profiles in the on-going experiment using 135°-separated Nike beam arrays for the cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) studies. We present an overview of the extended Nike-GIR arrangements and a new numerical algorithm to extract self-consistant plasma profiles with the measured quantities. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  10. Wind profile modelling using WAsP and "tall" wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Kelly, Mark C.; Troen, Ib

    2015-01-01

    extrapolations (the wind profile) this is done using the Weibull distribution and the geostrophic drag law. Wind lidar measurements obtained during the ’Tall wind’ campaign at three different sites are used to evaluate the assumptions and equations that are used in the WAsP vertical extrapolation strategy...

  11. The Profile of a School and Measurement of a Multi-School Organization Change Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitler, Fred C.

    Modern organization theory and research from business and industry predicts that schools which change toward the Likert participative group organizations will increase productivity. This paper reports interventions of a one-year organization development program carried out with 12 schools and the change results measured by the Profile of a School.…

  12. Continuous measurements of discharge from a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler in a tidal river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Buschman, F.A.; Vermeulen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can be mounted horizontally at a river bank, yielding single-depth horizontal array observations of velocity across the river. This paper presents a semideterministic, semistochastic method to obtain continuous measurements of discharge from horizontal ADCP

  13. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-08-18

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. {bar P}), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g.

    ).

  14. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. (bar P)), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g. ).

  15. Advantages of the CCD camera measurements for profile and wear of cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, G; Dudas, I; Balajti, Z

    2005-01-01

    In our paper we prepared an evaluating study of which conclusions draw mainly two directions for our fields of research. On the one hand, this means the measuring of fix, standing workpieces, on the other hand this means geometrical measurement of moving tools. The first case seems to be solved in many respects (in general cases), but the second one is not completely worked out according to the relevant literature. The monitoring of tool wear, the determination of geometrical parameters (this is mainly in case of gear-generating tools) is not really widespread yet, mainly, if optical parameters have influence on the evaluating procedure (e.g. examination of profiles of grinding wheels). We show the elaboration of a process for the practical application of measuring techniques performed by image processing CCD cameras on the basis of wearing criteria of different cutting tools (drilling tool, turning tool). We have made a profile and cutting tool wear measuring program

  16. Fully automated laser ray tracing system to measure changes in the crystalline lens GRIN profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chen; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Kaipio, Jari; Donaldson, Paul; Vaghefi, Ehsan

    2017-11-01

    Measuring the lens gradient refractive index (GRIN) accurately and reliably has proven an extremely challenging technical problem. A fully automated laser ray tracing (LRT) system was built to address this issue. The LRT system captures images of multiple laser projections before and after traversing through an ex vivo lens. These LRT images, combined with accurate measurements of the lens geometry, are used to calculate the lens GRIN profile. Mathematically, this is an ill-conditioned problem; hence, it is essential to apply biologically relevant constraints to produce a feasible solution. The lens GRIN measurements were compared with previously published data. Our GRIN retrieval algorithm produces fast and accurate measurements of the lens GRIN profile. Experiments to study the optics of physiologically perturbed lenses are the future direction of this research.

  17. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  18. Measurement of dynamic wedge angles and beam profiles by means of MRI ferrous sulphate gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Magnus; Furre, Torbjørn; Rødal, Jan; Skretting, Arne; Olsen, Dag R.

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the possible value of measuring the dose distribution in dynamic wedge photon beams using ferrous sulphate gel phantoms analysed by MRI. The wedge angles and dose profiles were measured for a field size of and for dynamic wedge angles of , , and using a 15 MV photon beam generated from a Clinac 2100 CD (Varian). The dose profiles obtained from MRI ferrous sulphate gel were in good agreement with the dose measurements performed with a diode detector array. Also, the wedge angles determined from the MRI ferrous sulphate gel agreed well with the values obtained by using film dosimetry and with calculations by use of TMS (treatment planning system) (Helax, Uppsala, Sweden). The study demonstrated that MRI ferrous sulphate gel dosimetry is an adequate tool for measurements of some beam characteristics of dynamic radiation fields.

  19. Retrieval of aerosol profiles combining sunphotometer and ceilometer measurements in GRASP code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, R.; Benavent-Oltra, J. A.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Lopatin, A.; Cazorla, A.; Lyamani, H.; Denjean, C.; Fuertes, D.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Torres, B.; Toledano, C.; Dubovik, O.; Cachorro, V. E.; de Frutos, A. M.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present an approach for the profiling of aerosol microphysical and optical properties combining ceilometer and sun/sky photometer measurements in the GRASP code (General Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties). For this objective, GRASP is used with sun/sky photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and sky radiances, both at four wavelengths and obtained from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), and ceilometer measurements of range corrected signal (RCS) at 1064 nm. A sensitivity study with synthetic data evidences the capability of the method to retrieve aerosol properties such as size distribution and profiles of volume concentration (VC), especially for coarse particles. Aerosol properties obtained by the mentioned method are compared with airborne in-situ measurements acquired during two flights over Granada (Spain) within the framework of ChArMEx/ADRIMED (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) 2013 campaign. The retrieved aerosol VC profiles agree well with the airborne measurements, showing a mean bias error (MBE) and a mean absolute bias error (MABE) of 0.3 μm3/cm3 (12%) and 5.8 μm3/cm3 (25%), respectively. The differences between retrieved VC and airborne in-situ measurements are within the uncertainty of GRASP retrievals. In addition, the retrieved VC at 2500 m a.s.l. is shown and compared with in-situ measurements obtained during summer 2016 at a high-atitude mountain station in the framework of the SLOPE I campaign (Sierra Nevada Lidar AerOsol Profiling Experiment). VC from GRASP presents high correlation (r = 0.91) with the in-situ measurements, but overestimates them, MBE and MABE being equal to 23% and 43%.

  20. Approaching nanometre accuracy in measurement of the profile deviation of a large plane mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Andreas; Hofmann, Norbert; Manske, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    The interferometric nanoprofilometer (INP), developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology at the Ilmenau University of Technology, is a precision device for measuring the profile deviations of plane mirrors with a profile length of up to 250 mm at the nanometre scale. As its expanded uncertainty of U(l) = 7.8 nm at a confidence level of p = 95% (k = 2) was mainly influenced by the uncertainty of the straightness standard (3.6 nm) and the uncertainty caused by the signal and demodulation errors of the interferometer signals (1.2 nm), these two sources of uncertainty have been the subject of recent analyses and modifications. To measure the profile deviation of the standard mirror we performed a classic three-flat test using the INP. The three-flat test consists of a combination of measurements between three different test flats. The shape deviations of the three flats can then be determined by applying a least-squares solution of the resulting equation system. The results of this three-flat test showed surprisingly good consistency, enabling us to correct this systematic error in profile deviation measurements and reducing the uncertainty component of the standard mirror to 0.4 nm. Another area of research is the signal and demodulation error arising during the interpretation of the interferometer signals. In the case of the interferometric nanoprofilometer, the special challenge is that the maximum path length differences are too small during the scan of the entire profile deviation over perfectly aligned 250 mm long mirrors for proper interpolation and correction since they do not yet cover even half of an interference fringe. By applying a simple method of weighting to the interferometer data the common ellipse fitting could be performed successfully and the demodulation error was greatly reduced. The remaining uncertainty component is less than 0.5 nm. In summary we were successful in greatly reducing two major systematic errors. The

  1. Optical measurement of the free carrier profile in ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, Y.; Bennaceur, R.; Sebenne, C.; Balkanski, M.

    1974-01-01

    The infrared reflective power spectrum measured for Si inhomogeneously doped samples, near plasma resonance can be reproduced by a computer program from a given profile of free carrier concentration. A comparison between theoretical and experimental plots allows the appropriate selection of a series of parameters defining the depth distribution of free carriers. The method appears well suited for investigating the upper part of the concentration profiles of strongly doped films (implantation doses above 10 14 cm -2 for 100keV energies). The sensitivity obtained grows with the dose up to 15-20% in the 10 16 cm -2 range [fr

  2. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...

  3. Comparison of predicted and measured pulsed-column profiles and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenak, C.A.; Cermak, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear materials accounting and process control in fuels reprocessing plants can be improved by near-real-time estimation of the in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors. Experimental studies were conducted on pilot- and plant-scale pulsed columns by Allied-General Nuclear Service (AGNS), and the extensive uranium concentration-profile and inventory data were analyzed by Los Alamos and AGNS to develop and evaluate different predictive inventory techniques. Preliminary comparisons of predicted and measured pulsed-column profiles and inventories show promise for using these predictive techniques to improve nuclear materials accounting and process control in fuels reprocessing plants

  4. Modelling and Measurements of Bunch Profiles at the LHC Flat Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Stefania; Muller, Juan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Trad, Georges

    2016-01-01

    At the LHC flat bottom the interplay between a series of effects (i.e. intrabeam scattering, longitudinal beam manipulations, non-linearities of the machine, etc) can lead to a population of the tails of the beam distributions, which may become non-Gaussian. This paper presents observations of the evolution of particle distributions in the LHC flat bottom. Novel distribution functions are employed to represent the beam profiles, and used as a guideline for generalising emittance growth rate estimations due to IBS. Finally, an attempt is made to benchmark an IBS Monte-Carlo simulation code, able to track 3D particle distributions, with the measured beam profile evolutions.

  5. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  6. Transverse beam profile measurements with slit scanner and Faraday cup at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D; Lanaia, D; Sosa, A; Voulot, D

    2014-01-01

    The transverse profiles for the HIE-ISOLDE beams will be measured using a system composed of a scanning slit and a Faraday cup. A validation test of the proposed device was performed using the REX-ISOLDE stable beam and a prototype diagnostic box designed for HIE-ISOLDE. The slit used for this test was very thin (0.2 mm width), but still fairly good profiles could be obtained for beams with total current of around 20 pA (typical beam intensity during normal set-up procedures for REX-ISOLDE).

  7. 2-D Low Energy Electron Beam Profile Measurement Based on Computer Tomography Algorithm with Multi-Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Nengjie; Li Qing Feng; Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Zheng, Shuxin

    2005-01-01

    A new method for low energy electron beam profile measurement is advanced, which presents a full 2-D beam profile distribution other than the traditional 2-D beam profile distribution given by 1-D vertical and horizontal beam profiles. The method is based on the CT (Computer Tomography) algorithm. Multi-sets of data about the 1-D beam profile projections are attained by rotating the multi-wire scanner. Then a 2-D beam profile is reconstructed from these projections with CT algorithm. The principle of this method is presented. The simulation and the experiment results are compared and analyzed in detail.

  8. Feasability study of using the TFTR Thomson scattering system for q profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A.; Grewk, B.; Johnson, D.; LeBlanc, B.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study made to determine the possibility of using the TFTR 76 channels Thomson scattering system to measure the direction of local magnetic fields in a tokamak plasma are presented. As this is a local measurement, this technique can in principle yield q profiles without the need of any de-convolution. The effect of the TFTR geometrical configuration and its various components on the expected measurement accuracy is discussed. The authors find that the measurement of q values within the inner half of the plasma should be possible, with only minor modification to the present TVTS system

  9. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  10. Up-regulation of cytochrome P450 and phase II enzyme systems in rat precision-cut rat lung slices by the intact glucosinolates, glucoraphanin and glucoerucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Bagatta, Manuela; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Ioannides, Costas

    2011-03-01

    It is believed that the chemopreventive activity of cruciferous vegetables in the lung and other tissues is exclusively the result of exposure to degradation products of glucosinolates, such as the isothiocyanates, and that the parent glucosinolates make no contribution. In the present study, evidence is presented for the first time that, in rat lung, the intact glucosinolates, glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, can modulate carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems. The glucosinolates were isolated from cruciferous vegetables and incubated (1-25 μM) with precision-cut rat lung slices for 24h. Both glucosinolates, at concentrations as low as 1 μM, up-regulated the O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin and the apoprotein levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1; supplementation of the incubation medium with myrosinase, the enzyme that converts glucosinolates to their corresponding isothiocyanates, abolished the rise in ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. In contrast, neither glucosinolate, at the concentrations studied, influenced quinone reductase activity in the lung slices, but addition of myrosinase to the glucosinolate incubations led to a marked rise in activity. Glutathione S-transferase activity, monitored using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as the accepting substrate, was elevated in lung slices exposed to glucoraphanin. GSTα protein levels were increased by glucoraphanin and, to a much lesser extent, glucoerucin. It may be concluded that intact glucosinolates can modulate the activity of pulmonary carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems, and can thus contribute to the documented chemopreventive activity of cruciferous vegetables in the lung. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The retrieval of profile and chemical information from ground-based UV-visible spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, R.; Connor, B.J.; Kreher, K.; Johnston, P.V.; Rodgers, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to retrieve altitude information at different diurnal stages for trace gas species by combining direct-sun and zenith-sky UV-visible differential slant column density (DSCD) measurements. DSCDs are derived here using differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Combining the complementary zenith-sky measurements (sensitive to the stratosphere) with direct-sun measurements (sensitive to the troposphere) allows this vertical distinction. Trace gas species such as BrO and NO 2 have vertical profiles with strong diurnal dependence. Information about the diurnal variation is simultaneously retrieved with the altitude distribution of the trace gas. The retrieval is a formal optimal estimation profile retrieval, allowing a complete assessment of information content and errors

  12. Electrical conductivity of pyroxene which contains trivalent cations: Laboratory measurements and the lunar temperature profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, J.S.; Duba, A.; Wiggins, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    Three natural orthopyroxene single crystals, measured in the laboratory over the temperature range 850 0 --1200 0 C, are more than 1/2 order of magnitude more electrically conducting than previously measured crystals. Small concentrations (1--2%) of Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 present in these crystals may be responsible for their relatively high conductivity. Such pyroxenes, which contain trivalent elements, are more representative of pyroxenes expected to be present in the lunar mantle than those which have been measured by other investigators. The new conductivity values for pyroxene are responsible for a relatively large bulk conductivity calculated for (polymineralic) lunar mantle assemblages. The results permit a somewhat cooler lunar temperature profile than previously proposed. Such lower profiles, several hundred degrees Celsius below the solidus, are quite consistent with low seismic attenuation and deep moonquakes observed in the lunar mantle

  13. Inverse calculation of strain profiles from ETDR measurements using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Höhne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel carbon fibre sensor is developed for the spatially resolved strain measurement. A unique feature of the sensor is the fibre-break resistive measurement principle and the two-core transmission line design. The electrical time domain reflectometry (ETDR is used in order to realize a spatially resolved measurement of the electrical parameters of the sensor. In this contribution, the process of mapping between the ETDR signals to the existing strain profile is described. Artificial neural networks (ANNs are used to solve the inverse electromagnetic problem. The investigations were carried out with a sensor patch in a cantilever arm configuration. Overall, 136 experiments with varying strain distribution over the sensor length were performed to generate the necessary training data to learn the ANN model. The validation of the ANN highlights the feasibility as well as the current limits concerning the quantitative accuracy of mapping ETDR signals to strain profiles.

  14. Comparison of the inversion algorithms applied to the ozone vertical profile retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozanov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to an intercomparison of ozone vertical profiles retrieved from the measurements of scattered solar radiation performed by the SCIAMACHY instrument in the limb viewing geometry. Three different inversion algorithms including the prototype of the operational Level 1 to 2 processor to be operated by the European Space Agency are considered. Unlike usual validation studies, this comparison removes the uncertainties arising when comparing measurements made by different instruments probing slightly different air masses and focuses on the uncertainties specific to the modeling-retrieval problem only. The intercomparison was performed for 5 selected orbits of SCIAMACHY showing a good overall agreement of the results in the middle stratosphere, whereas considerable discrepancies were identified in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere altitude region. Additionally, comparisons with ground-based lidar measurements are shown for selected profiles demonstrating an overall correctness of the retrievals.

  15. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

    2009-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  16. In vitro activity of glucosinolates and their degradation products against brassica-pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, T; Lema, M; Soengas, P; Cartea, M E; Velasco, P

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites found in Brassica vegetables that confer on them resistance against pests and diseases. Both GSLs and glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GHPs) have shown positive effects in reducing soil pathogens. Information about their in vitro biocide effects is scarce, but previous studies have shown sinigrin GSLs and their associated allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to be soil biocides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biocide effects of 17 GSLs and GHPs and of leaf methanolic extracts of different GSL-enriched Brassica crops on suppressing in vitro growth of two bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola) and two fungal (Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia scletoriorum) Brassica pathogens. GSLs, GHPs, and methanolic leaf extracts inhibited the development of the pathogens tested compared to the control, and the effect was dose dependent. Furthermore, the biocide effects of the different compounds studied were dependent on the species and race of the pathogen. These results indicate that GSLs and their GHPs, as well as extracts of different Brassica species, have potential to inhibit pathogen growth and offer new opportunities to study the use of Brassica crops in biofumigation for the control of multiple diseases. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Distribution and Variation of Indole Glucosinolates in Woad (Isatis tinctoria L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M C; Stowe, B B

    1971-10-01

    The exceptionally high levels in woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) of three indolic goitrogens, namely glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate, permit the facile study of their distribution in the plant and their changes during its development. Woad seeds contain as much as 0.23% fresh weight of glucobrassicin but no other indole glucosinolate, while 1-week-old seedlings also contain substantial amounts of neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate in their shoots whether grown in the light or dark. The sulfonate is not found in roots, and light depresses neoglucobrassicin levels in shoots. Sterile root cultures synthesize glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin, and significant quantities of these were even found to be excreted by the roots of intact sterile seedlings in culture. This may explain the long known deleterious effect of woad and other cruciferous crops on subsequent plantings and the observation could be of ecological importance. Long term changes in levels of all three substances in the plant are similar and are compatible with earlier suggestions that the compounds could be auxin precursors at the time of flower stem elongation. Since sterile seedlings readily incorporate (35)SO(4) (2-) into indole glucosinolates and relative specific radioactivities suggest that glucobrassicin is the precursor of the other two compounds, pathways of goitrogen biosynthesis should be relatively easily determined in this material.

  18. Distribution and Variation of Indole Glucosinolates in Woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Malcolm C.; Stowe, Bruce B.

    1971-01-01

    The exceptionally high levels in woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) of three indolic goitrogens, namely glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate, permit the facile study of their distribution in the plant and their changes during its development. Woad seeds contain as much as 0.23% fresh weight of glucobrassicin but no other indole glucosinolate, while 1-week-old seedlings also contain substantial amounts of neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate in their shoots whether grown in the light or dark. The sulfonate is not found in roots, and light depresses neoglucobrassicin levels in shoots. Sterile root cultures synthesize glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin, and significant quantities of these were even found to be excreted by the roots of intact sterile seedlings in culture. This may explain the long known deleterious effect of woad and other cruciferous crops on subsequent plantings and the observation could be of ecological importance. Long term changes in levels of all three substances in the plant are similar and are compatible with earlier suggestions that the compounds could be auxin precursors at the time of flower stem elongation. Since sterile seedlings readily incorporate 35SO42− into indole glucosinolates and relative specific radioactivities suggest that glucobrassicin is the precursor of the other two compounds, pathways of goitrogen biosynthesis should be relatively easily determined in this material. PMID:16657825

  19. Herbicidal activity of glucosinolate degradation products in fermented meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jan F; Reed, Ralph L; Alber, Susan; Pritchett, Larry; Machado, Stephen

    2009-03-11

    Meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. This study investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome ( Bromus tectorum ) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO(4) (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile, and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of the seed meal (r(2) = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides.

  20. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

  1. Measurement of the profile and intensity of the solar He I lambda 584-A resonance line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, J. O.; Hartmann, U. G.; Judge, D. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity and profile of the helium resonance line at 584 A from the entire disk of the sun was investigated by using a rocket-borne helium-filled spectrometer and a curve-of-growth technique. The line profile was found to be accurately represented by a Gaussian profile with full width at half maximum of 122 + or - 10 mA, while the integrated intensity was measured to be 2.6 + or - 1.3 billion photons/s per sq cm at solar activity levels of F(10.7) = 90.8 x 10 to the -22nd per sq m/Hz and Rz = 27. The measured line width is in good agreement with previous spectrographic measurements, but the integrated intensity is larger than most previous photoelectric measurements. However, the derived line center flux of 20 + or - 10 billion photons/s per sq cm/A is in good agreement with values inferred from airglow measurements.

  2. Optimized methodology for the simultaneous extraction of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, D.; Chirinos, R.; Barreto, O.; Noratto, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Maca is a highly appreciated Andean crop with multiple attributed health claims due to its assortment of bioactive compounds. The extraction parameters of glucosinolates (GLs), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of maca (Lepidium meyenii) hypocotyls were optimized using

  3. Evaluation of Seasonal Variations in the Glucosinolate Content in Leaves and Roots of Four European Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciska Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other cruciferous vegetables, horseradish has rarely been the object of scientific research, and the knowledge about the composition, content and distribution of glucosinolates (GLS in different organs of horseradish plants is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the GLS content in leaves and roots of four horseradish landraces during the growing season.

  4. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: The influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Schreiner, M.; Krumbein, A.; Ciska, E.; Holst, B.; Rowland, I.; Schrijver, de R.; Hansen, M.; Gerhäuser, C.; Mithen, R.; Dekker, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these

  5. Evaluation of glucosinolate levels throughout the production chain of Brassica vegetables towards a novel predictive modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.

    2002-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a group of plant secondary metabolites, that can have important implications for human health. Vegetables of the Brassica genus, including cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and kohlrabi contribute almost exclusively to our intake of

  6. Dynamics of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during Plutella xylostella interaction to a novel host Lepidium latifolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tarandeep; Bhat, Rohini; Khajuria, Manu; Vyas, Ruchika; Kumari, Anika; Nadda, Gireesh; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2016-09-01

    Plutella xylostella L. is a notorious pest of cruciferous crops causing worldwide losses of $4-5 billion per year. Developing classical biological control to this pest include an introduction of host plants that act as natural enemies showing deviation from the preference-performance regimen in the evolutionary ecology of plant-insect interactions. The present study was designed to understand the role of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during P. xylostella interactions with a novel host. Adult moth preference and larval performance study were conducted on a novel host Lepidium latifolium L. (LL) that has high sinigrin content and was compared with its laboratory host Arabidopsis thaliana (AT). The glucosinolate-myrosinase system was studied in a time course experiment during larval feeding in choice and no-choice experiments. Adult moths visit and prefers LL over AT for oviposition. Conversely, LL leaves were not preferred and proved detrimental for P. xylostella larvae. Aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates were found to decrease significantly (p≤0.05) in AT during initial 12h of P. xylostella challenge, whereas, they were not affected in LL. Also, MYB transcription factor expression and myrosinase activity in LL do not suggest a typical host response to a specialist insect. This preference-performance mismatch of P. xylostella on LL mediated by glucosinolate pattern suggests that this novel plant could be utilized in P. xylostella management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolism of sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) by the human colonic microflora in a dynamic in vitro large-intestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krul, Cyrille; Humblot, Christèle; Philippe, Catherine; Vermeulen, Martijn; van Nuenen, Marleen; Havenaar, Robert; Rabot, Sylvie

    2002-06-01

    Cruciferous vegetables, such as Brassica, which contain substantial quantities of glucosinolates, have been suggested to possess anticarcinogenic activity. Cutting and chewing of cruciferous vegetables releases the thioglucosidase enzyme myrosinase, which degrades glucosinolates to isothiocyanates and other minor metabolites. Cooking of cruciferous vegetables inactivates the myrosinase enzyme, allowing intact glucosinolates to reach the large intestine, where they can be degraded by the indigenous microflora into isothiocyanates. This local release of isothiocyanates may explain the protective effect of cruciferous vegetables on the colon epithelium. However, little is known about the amounts and identities of glucosinolate metabolites produced by the human microflora. The production of allyl isothiocyanate from sinigrin was investigated in a dynamic in vitro large-intestinal model, after inoculation with a complex microflora of human origin. Sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate concentrations were analysed in the lumen and dialysis fluid of the model. Peak levels of allyl isothiocyanate were observed between 9 and 12 h after the addition of sinigrin. The model was first set up with a pooled and cultured human microflora, in which 1 and 4% of, respectively, 1 and 15 mM sinigrin, was converted into AITC. However, the conversion rate was remarkably higher if different individual human microflora were used. Between 10% and 30% (mean 19%) of the sinigrin was converted into allyl isothiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that allyl isothiocyanate is converted further into other, yet unknown, metabolites.

  8. Taste detection of the non-volatile isothiocyanate moringin results in deterrence to glucosinolate-adapted insect larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Caroline; Loon, Van Joop; Ruschioni, Sara; Nicola, De Gina Rosalinda; Olsen, Carl Erik; Iori, Renato; Agerbirk, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs), released from Brassicales plants after hydrolysis of glucosinolates, are known for their negative effects on herbivores but mechanisms have been elusive. The ITCs are initially present in dissolved form at the site of herbivore feeding, but volatile ITCs may subsequently

  9. Dose profile monitoring with carbon ions by means of prompt-gamma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Bajard, M.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Le Foulher, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Freud, N.; Letang, J.M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Laboratoire de Controle Non-Destructif par Rayonnements Ionisants (France); Poizat, J.C.; Ray, C.; Testa, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-03-15

    A key point in the quality control of ion therapy is real-time monitoring and imaging of the dose delivered to the patient. Among the possible signals that can be used to make such a monitoring, prompt gamma-rays issued from nuclear fragmentation are possible candidates, provided the correlation between the emission profile and the primary beam range can be established. By means of simultaneous energy and time-of-flight discrimination, we could measure the longitudinal profile of the prompt gamma-rays emitted by 73 MeV/u carbon ions stopping inside a PMMA target. This technique allowed us to minimize the shielding against neutrons and scattered gamma rays, and to find a good correlation between the prompt-gamma profile and the ion range. This profile was studied as a function of the observation angle. By extrapolating our results to higher energies and realistic detection efficiencies, we showed that prompt gamma-ray measurements make it feasible to control in real time the longitudinal dose during ion therapy treatments.

  10. Flatness of two-dimensional beam profile measured with an ionization chamber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Open beam profiles are basic dosimetric characteristics for the formation of the dose calculation algorithms parameters and for determination of beam quality. One characteristic of the beam profiles as a measure for the beam quality is the field flatness defined as ratio of the difference of maximum and minimum dose in central 80% of the field to the sum of these doses in the part of the field. The measurements, instead with an ordinary ionization chamber, were performed with a chamber array in two depths (1.6 cm and 10 cm) in water phantom. Nominal photon beam energy was 6 MV and field size was 25 cm x 25 cm on the water surface. Field flatness was in the range of 1-2 % which is in accordance with the data acquired during the acceptance testing and commissioning of the accelerators. with the array chamber the beam profiles can be performed quickly and preciously. These features recommend a chamber array as an excellent tool for periodic quality control of beam profiles. (Author)

  11. Magnetically filtered Faraday probe for measuring the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovey, Joshua L.; Walker, Mitchell L.R.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of a magnetically filtered Faraday probe (MFFP) to obtain the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster is investigated. The MFFP is designed to eliminate the collection of low-energy, charge-exchange (CEX) ions by using a variable magnetic field as an ion filter. In this study, a MFFP, Faraday probe with a reduced acceptance angle (BFP), and nude Faraday probe are used to measure the ion current density profile of a 5 kW Hall thruster operating over the range of 300-500 V and 5-10 mg/s. The probes are evaluated on a xenon propellant Hall thruster in the University of Michigan Large Vacuum Test Facility at operating pressures within the range of 4.4x10 -4 Pa Xe (3.3x10 -6 Torr Xe) to 1.1x10 -3 Pa Xe (8.4x10 -6 Torr Xe) in order to study the ability of the Faraday probe designs to filter out CEX ions. Detailed examination of the results shows that the nude probe measures a greater ion current density profile than both the MFFP and BFP over the range of angular positions investigated for each operating condition. The differences between the current density profiles obtained by each probe are attributed to the ion filtering systems employed. Analysis of the results shows that the MFFP, operating at a +5 A solenoid current, provides the best agreement with flight-test data and across operating pressures

  12. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garn, Troy G.; Meikrantz, Dave H.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell R.; Law, Jack D.

    2008-01-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a small

  13. Edge density profile measurements by X-mode reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Chareau, J.M.; Paume, M.; Sabot, R.

    2000-10-01

    A broadband reflectometer operating in the frequency range 50-75 GHz has been developed on Tore Supra to measure electron density profiles at the edge. The system uses extraordinary mode polarization and performs routine measurements in 20 μs with a heterodyne detection to ensure a high dynamic range sensitivity. It allows separate phase and amplitude information of the signal. The density profiles are fully automatically calculated from the raw phase. The initialization is done with an automatic detection of the first cut-off from the amplitude of the reflected signal with accuracy up to ±0.5 cm. The profiles are now part of the public database of Tore Supra (TS) and can provide details of density structures better than the centimeter range. High reliability of the measurements for various plasma conditions make this diagnostic an ideal tool to study specific edge plasma physics with given examples on detached plasma behaviour and RF antenna-plasma coupling processes. It also is shown how the presence of suprathermal electrons may perturb the measurements. (authors)

  14. Measurement for the MLC leaf velocity profile by considering the leaf leakage using a radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, Grigor N

    2006-01-01

    A method to measure the velocity profile of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf along its travel range using a radiographic film is reported by considering the intra-leaf leakage. A specific dynamic MLC field with leaves travelling from the field edge to the isocentre line was designed. The field was used to expose a radiographic film, which was then scanned, and the dose profile along the horizontal leaf axis was measured. The velocity at a sampling point on the film can be calculated by considering the horizontal distance between the sampling point and the isocentre line, dose at the sampling point, dose rate of the linear accelerator, the total leaf travel time from the field edge to isocentre line and the pre-measured dose rate of leaf leakage. With the leaf velocities and velocity profiles for all MLC leaves measured routinely, a comprehensive and simple QA for the MLC can be set up to test the consistency of the leaf velocity performance which is essential to the IMRT delivery using a sliding window technique. (note)

  15. The measurement of neutral beam thermal profiles on 'V'-shaped calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Lagin, L.J.; Silber, K.

    1995-01-01

    It is customary in high power neutral beam systems to use a V-shaped calorimeter to stop and measure the beam. With proper instrumentation, it is possible to determine both the neutral beam power and divergence. By utilizing a near-grazing angle of incidence, the area over which the beam is in contact with the surface is increased, thereby decreasing the power density over the case of normal incidence. Thermocouples on the back of the calorimeter, in conjunction with real time fitting algorithms, are used to deduce the divergence from the thermal profile. This measurement implicitly assumes that the measured profile corresponds to that of the incident beam. It is shown that such is not the case. Energetic particle reflection at near-grazing angle causes the thermal profile on the calorimeter to be more peaked than the incident distribution. The implications of this on the non-linear multiple regression technique of determining the divergence are discussed. With the aid of a reflection model, developed and applied to the beam from a typical TFTR ion source, it is shown that a peaked power density can be modelled. Neural networks are being studied as a means of supplanting the older regression technique of measuring divergence. Y-direction divergences have been successfully derived using a one-dimensional neural network

  16. Advanced density profile reflectometry; the state-of-the-art and measurement prospects for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, E. J.

    2006-10-01

    Dramatic progress in millimeter-wave technology has allowed the realization of a key goal for ITER diagnostics, the routine measurement of the plasma density profile from millimeter-wave radar (reflectometry) measurements. In reflectometry, the measured round-trip group delay of a probe beam reflected from a plasma cutoff is used to infer the density distribution in the plasma. Reflectometer systems implemented by UCLA on a number of devices employ frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW), ultrawide-bandwidth, high-resolution radar systems. One such system on DIII-D has routinely demonstrated measurements of the density profile over a range of electron density of 0-6.4x10^19,m-3, with ˜25 μs time and ˜4 mm radial resolution, meeting key ITER requirements. This progress in performance was made possible by multiple advances in the areas of millimeter-wave technology, novel measurement techniques, and improved understanding, including: (i) fast sweep, solid-state, wide bandwidth sources and power amplifiers, (ii) dual polarization measurements to expand the density range, (iii) adaptive radar-based data analysis with parallel processing on a Unix cluster, (iv) high memory depth data acquisition, and (v) advances in full wave code modeling. The benefits of advanced system performance will be illustrated using measurements from a wide range of phenomena, including ELM and fast-ion driven mode dynamics, L-H transition studies and plasma-wall interaction. The measurement capabilities demonstrated by these systems provide a design basis for the development of the main ITER profile reflectometer system. This talk will explore the extent to which these reflectometer system designs, results and experience can be translated to ITER, and will identify what new studies and experimental tests are essential.

  17. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  18. Characteristic single glucosinolates from Moringa oleifera: Induction of detoxifying enzymes and lack of genotoxic activity in various model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Nadja; Mewis, Inga; Glatt, Hansruedi; Haack, Michael; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Schreiner, Monika; Ulrichs, Christian

    2016-11-09

    Leaves of Moringa oleifera are used by tribes as biological cancer medicine. Scientific investigations with M. oleifera conducted so far have almost exclusively used total plant extracts. Studies on the activity of single compounds are missing. Therefore, the biological effects of the two main aromatic multi-glycosylated glucosinolates of M. oleifera were investigated in the present study. The cytotoxic effects of M. oleifera glucosinolates were identified for HepG2 cells (NRU assay), for V79-MZ cells (HPRT assay, SCE assay), and for two Salmonella typhimurium strains (Ames test). Genotoxic effects of these glucosinolates were not observed (Ames test, HPRT assay, and SCE assay). Reporter gene assays revealed a significant increase in the ARE-dependent promoter activity of NQO1 and GPx2 indicating an activation of the Nrf2 pathway by M. oleifera glucosinolates. Since both enzymes can also be induced via activation of the AhR, plasmids containing promoters of both enzymes mutated in the respective binding sites (pGL3enh-hNQO1-ARE, pGL3enh-hNQO1-XRE, pGL3bas-hGPX2-mutARE, pGL3bas-hGPX2-mutXRE) were transfected. Analyses revealed that the majority of the stimulating effects was mediated by the ARE motif, whereas the XRE motif played only a minor role. The stimulating effects of M. oleifera glucosinolates could be demonstrated both at the transcriptional (reporter gene assay, real time-PCR) and translational levels (enzyme activity) making them interesting compounds for further investigation.

  19. RNA-seq analysis of transcriptome and glucosinolate metabolism in seeds and sprouts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinjun; Yu, Xinxin; Ma, Fengming; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a member of Cruciferae, is an important vegetable containing high concentration of various nutritive and functional molecules especially the anticarcinogenic glucosinolates. The sprouts of broccoli contain 10-100 times higher level of glucoraphanin, the main contributor of the anticarcinogenesis, than the edible florets. Despite the broccoli sprouts' functional importance, currently available genetic and genomic tools for their studies are very limited, which greatly restricts the development of this functionally important vegetable. A total of ∼85 million 251 bp reads were obtained. After de novo assembly and searching the assembled transcripts against the Arabidopsis thaliana and NCBI nr databases, 19,441 top-hit transcripts were clustered as unigenes with an average length of 2,133 bp. These unigenes were classified according to their putative functional categories. Cluster analysis of total unigenes with similar expression patterns and differentially expressed unigenes among different tissues, as well as transcription factor analysis were performed. We identified 25 putative glucosinolate metabolism genes sharing 62.04-89.72% nucleotide sequence identity with the Arabidopsis orthologs. This established a broccoli glucosinolate metabolic pathway with high colinearity to Arabidopsis. Many of the biosynthetic and degradation genes showed higher expression after germination than in seeds; especially the expression of the myrosinase TGG2 was 20-130 times higher. These results along with the previous reports about these genes' studies in Arabidopsis and the glucosinolate concentration in broccoli sprouts indicate the breakdown products of glucosinolates may play important roles in the stage of broccoli seed germination and sprout development. Our study provides the largest genetic resource of broccoli to date. These data will pave the way for further studies and genetic engineering of broccoli sprouts and will also provide

  20. Method of measuring a profile of the density of charged particles in a particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.G.; Jankowski, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    A profile of the relative density of charged particles in a beam is obtained by disposing a number of rods parallel to each other in a plane perpendicular to the beam and shadowing the beam. A second number of rods is disposed perpendicular to the first rods in a plane perpendicular to the beam and also shadowing the beam. Irradiation of the rods by the beam of charged particles creates radioactive isotopes in a quantity proportional to the number of charged particles incident upon the rods. Measurement of the radioactivity of each of the rods provides a measure of the quantity of radioactive material generated thereby and, together with the location of the rods, provides information sufficient to identify a profile of the density of charged particles in the beam

  1. Heterodyne radiometer for the measurement of the electron temperature profile on TdeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, D.; Quirion, B.; Hubbard, A.; Glaude, V.; Legros, C.

    1993-01-01

    In the following sections an overview of the basic physical considerations are presented. We then briefly describe the instrument and present the design and construction of the two calibration standards in more detail. We also discuss the calibration procedures using these sources which permit the derivation of T e independent of the other diagnostics. Finally, a comparison of T e (R) profiles obtained with the three measurement system will be presented. (orig.)

  2. Development of a probe for inner profile measurement and flaw detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Toru; Wakayama, Toshitaka; Kamakura, Yoshihisa

    2011-08-01

    It is one of the important necessities to precisely measure the inner diameter and/or the inner profile of pipes, tubes and other objects similar in shape. Especially in mechanical engineering field, there are many requests from automobile industry because the inner surface of engine blocks and other die casts are strongly required to be inspected and measured by non-contact methods (not by the naked eyes inspection using a borescope). If the inner diameter is large enough like water pipes or drain pipes, complicated and large equipment may be applicable. However, small pipes with a diameter ranging from 10mm to 100mm are difficult to be inspected by such a large instrument as is used for sewers inspection. And we have proposed an instrument which has no moving elements such as a rotating mirror or a prism for scanning a beam. Our measurement method is based on optical sectioning using triangulation. This optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of pipe-like objects is analyzed to produce numerical data of inner diameter or profile. Here, we report recent development of the principle and applications of the optical instrument with a simple and compact configuration. In addition to profile measurement, we found flaws and defects on the inner wall were also detected by using the similar principle. Up to now, we have developed probes with the diameter of 8mm to 25mm for small size objects and another probe (80 mm in diameter) for such a larger container with the dimensional size of 600mm.

  3. Velocity profile measurement of lead-lithium flows by high-temperature ultrasonic doppler velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Y.; Kunugi, T.; Hirabayashi, Masaru; Nagai, Keiichi; Saito, Junichi; Ara, Kuniaki; Morley, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a high-temperature ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (HT-UDV) technique that has been successfully applied to measure velocity profiles of the lead-lithium eutectic alloy (PbLi) flows. The impact of tracer particles is investigated to determine requirements for HT-UDV measurement of PbLi flows. The HT-UDV system is tested on a PbLi flow driven by a rotating-disk in an inert atmosphere. We find that a sufficient amount of particles contained in the molten PbLi are required to successfully measure PbLi velocity profiles by HT-UDV. An X-ray diffraction analysis is performed to identify those particles in PbLi, and indicates that those particles were made of the lead mono-oxide (PbO). Since the specific densities of PbLi and PbO are close to each other, the PbO particles are expected to be well-dispersed in the bulk of molten PbLi. We conclude that the excellent dispersion of PbO particles enables in HT-UDV to obtain reliable velocity profiles for operation times of around 12 hours. (author)

  4. Characterization of magnetic field profiles at RFX-mod by Faraday rotation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Fulvio; Brombin, Matteo; Canton, Alessandra; Giudicotti, Leonardo; Innocente, Paolo; Zilli, Enrico

    2009-11-01

    A multichannel far-infrared (FIR, λ=118.8 μm) polarimeter has been recently upgraded and re-installed on RFX-mod to measure the Faraday rotation angle along five vertical chords. Polarimetric data, associated with electron density profile, allow the reconstruction of the poloidal magnetic field profile. In this work the setup of the diagnostic is presented and the first Faraday rotation measurements are analyzed. The measurements have been performed at plasma current above 1.2 MA and electron density between 2 and 6x10^19 m-3. The actual S/N ratio is slightly lower than the expected one, due to electromagnetic coupling of the detectors with the saddle coils close to the polarimeter position. Due to this limit, only average information in the flat-top phase of the discharge could be so far obtained. The experimental data have been compared with the result of the μ&p equilibrium model [1], showing a good agreement between experiment and model, whereas the main differences are in the external region of the plasma. A different parameterization of the μ=μ0 J.B/B^2 profile has been proposed to enhance the agreement between model and experiment. [0pt] [1] Ortolani and Snack, World Scientific (1993) Singapore

  5. Computer vision for shoe upper profile measurement via upper and sole conformal matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.

  6. Transfer characteristics of optical profilers with respect to rectangular edge and step height measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weichang; Hagemeier, Sebastian; Bischoff, Jörg; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Manske, Eberhard; Lehmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Optical profilers are mature instruments used in research and industry to study surface topography features. Although the corresponding standards are based on simple step height measurements, in practical applications these instruments are often used to study the fidelity of surface topography. In this context it is well-known that in certain situations a surface profile obtained by an optical profiler will differ from the real profile. With respect to practical applications such deviations often occur in the vicinity of steep walls and in cases of high aspect ratio. In this contribution we compare the transfer characteristics of different 3D optical profiler principles, namely white-light interferometry, focus sensing, and confocal microscopy. Experimental results demonstrate that the transfer characteristics do not only depend on the parameters of the optical measurement system (e. g. wavelength and coherence of light, numerical aperture, evaluated signal feature, polarization) but also on the properties of the measuring object such as step height, aspect ratio, material properties and homogeneity, rounding and steepness of the edges, surface roughness. As a result, typical artefacts such as batwings occur for certain parameter combinations, particularly at certain height-to-wavelength ratio (HWR) values. Understanding of the mechanisms behind these phenomena enables to reduce them by an appropriate parameter adaption. However, it is not only the edge artefacts, but also the position of an edge that may be changed due to the properties of the measuring object. In order to investigate the relevant effects theoretically, several models are introduced. These are based on either an extension of Richards-Wolf modeling or rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA). Although these models explain the experimental effects quite well they suffer from different limitations, so that a quantitative correspondence of theoretical modeling and experimental results is hard to achieve

  7. Surface profile measurement by using the integrated Linnik WLSI and confocal microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Shen, Ming-Hsing; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Yu, Yun-Ting; Wang, Tzu-Fong

    2017-06-01

    The white-light scanning interferometer (WLSI) and confocal microscope (CM) are the two major optical inspection systems for measuring three-dimensional (3D) surface profile (SP) of micro specimens. Nevertheless, in practical applications, WLSI is more suitable for measuring smooth and low-slope surfaces. On the other hand, CM is more suitable for measuring uneven-reflective and low-reflective surfaces. As for aspect of surface profiles to be measured, the characteristics of WLSI and CM are also different. WLSI is generally used in semiconductor industry while CM is more popular in printed circuit board industry. In this paper, a self-assembled multi-function optical system was integrated to perform Linnik white-light scanning interferometer (Linnik WLSI) and CM. A connecting part composed of tubes, lenses and interferometer was used to conjunct finite and infinite optical systems for Linnik WLSI and CM in the self-assembled optical system. By adopting the flexibility of tubes and lenses, switching to perform two different optical measurements can be easily achieved. Furthermore, based on the shape from focus method with energy of Laplacian filter, the CM was developed to enhance the on focal information of each pixel so that the CM can provide all-in-focus image for performing the 3D SP measurement and analysis simultaneously. As for Linnik WLSI, eleven-step phase shifting algorithm was used to analyze vertical scanning signals and determine the 3D SP.

  8. Improvement of the T{sub e} profile on JET measured by Ece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Luna, E. de la [Association Euratom-Ciemat, Lab. Nacional de Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Gowers, Ch. [Association Euratom-UKAEA Fusion, Culham Science Centre, Abingdom (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    On JET, a key source of calibrated electron temperature T{sub e} profiles is from the measurements of the full ECE (electron cyclotron emission) spectrum made by a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). It is absolutely calibrated by using a calibration source inside the vacuum vessel. High spatial and temporal resolution ECE T{sub e} profiles are obtained using a 96 channel heterodyne instrument which is cross calibrated on each JET pulse against the data from the FTS system. Residual systematic frequency dependant errors at the 5-10% level can then be evaluated and corrected for, using specific discharges in which the toroidal field is varied while keeping the shape of the T8e profile constant. This improvement in the calibration method has been systematically applied at JET for the first time improving both the smoothness and the symmetry of the T{sub e} profiles. The consequences of this improvement are discussed. In addition, it is shown that no deviation occurs in the FTS calibration for more than 8 years, which is relevant for ITER. (author)

  9. A new method for measuring coronary artery diameters with CT spatial profile curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Tadashi; Tsuji, Taeko; Ohmoto, Yuki; Morita, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Honye, Junko; Nagai, Ryozo; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Coronary artery vascular edge recognition on computed tomography (CT) angiograms is influenced by window parameters. A noninvasive method for vascular edge recognition independent of window setting with use of multi-detector row CT was contrived and its feasibility and accuracy were estimated by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods: Multi-detector row CT was performed to obtain 29 CT spatial profile curves by setting a line cursor across short-axis coronary angiograms processed by multi-planar reconstruction. IVUS was also performed to determine the reference coronary diameter. IVUS diameter was fitted horizontally between two points on the upward and downward slopes of the profile curves and Hounsfield number was measured at the fitted level to test seven candidate indexes for definition of intravascular coronary diameter. The best index from the curves should show the best agreement with IVUS diameter. Results: Of the seven candidates the agreement was the best (agreement: 16 ± 11%) when the two ratios of Hounsfield number at the level of IVUS diameter over that at the peak on the profile curves were used with water and with fat as the background tissue. These edge definitions were achieved by cutting the horizontal distance by the curves at the level defined by the ratio of 0.41 for water background and 0.57 for fat background. Conclusions: Vascular edge recognition of the coronary artery with CT spatial profile curves was feasible and the contrived method could define the coronary diameter with reasonable agreement

  10. Non-Contact Thickness and Profile Measurements of Rolled Aluminium Strip Using EMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbis, A.; Aruleswaran, A.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate measurement of strip thickness is a very high priority for the aluminium rolled product industry. This paper presents the findings of trials to measure the thickness of aluminium strip using a send-receive, radially polarised Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT). A broadband EMAT system, developed at Warwick University, UK with a centre frequency of approximately 5 MHz and frequency content up to 12 MHz was used. The resultant ultrasonic waveforms have been processed using Fourier analysis. Static measurements of aluminium alloy samples in the thickness range between 0.28 mm to 2.8 mm have been measured using this non-contact approach at stand-offs of up to 2 mm. Measurements across the aluminium strip width to evaluate its profile for quality control was also carried out successfully. Some of the experiments and results obtained are described in detail

  11. Radiographic film dosimetry of proton beams for depth‐dose constancy check and beam profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Anthony; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Johnson, Matt; Patyal, Baldev

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic film dosimetry suffers from its energy dependence in proton dosimetry. This study sought to develop a method of measuring proton beams by the film and to evaluate film response to proton beams for the constancy check of depth dose (DD). It also evaluated the film for profile measurements. To achieve this goal, from DDs measured by film and ion chamber (IC), calibration factors (ratios of dose measured by IC to film responses) as a function of depth in a phantom were obtained. These factors imply variable slopes (with proton energy and depth) of linear characteristic curves that relate film response to dose. We derived a calibration method that enables utilization of the factors for acquisition of dose from film density measured at later dates by adapting to a potentially altered processor condition. To test this model, the characteristic curve was obtained by using EDR2 film and in‐phantom film dosimetry in parallel with a 149.65 MeV proton beam, using the method. An additional validation of the model was performed by concurrent film and IC measurement perpendicular to the beam at various depths. Beam profile measurements by the film were also evaluated at the center of beam modulation. In order to interpret and ascertain the film dosimetry, Monte Carlos simulation of the beam was performed, calculating the proton fluence spectrum along depths and off‐axis distances. By multiplying respective stopping powers to the spectrum, doses to film and water were calculated. The ratio of film dose to water dose was evaluated. Results are as follows. The characteristic curve proved the assumed linearity. The measured DD approached that of IC, but near the end of the spread‐out Bragg peak (SOBP), a spurious peak was observed due to the mismatch of distal edge between the calibration and measurement films. The width of SOBP and the proximal edge were both reproducible within a maximum of 5 mm; the distal edge was reproducible within 1 mm. At 5 cm depth, the

  12. Measurements made in the SPS with a rest gas profile monitor by collecting electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.; Koopman, J.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements have regularly been performed during the 1999 run, using the Rest Gas Monitor installed in the SPS. The exploited signal resulted from electrons produced by ionization of the rest gas during the circulating beam passage. A magnetic field parallel to the electric extraction field was applied to channel the electrons. Proton beam horizontal transverse distributions were recorded during entire SPS acceleration cycles, between 14 GeV/c and 450 GeV/c and for different beam structures and bunch intensities. The influence of several parameters on the measured beam profiles was investigated. Results are presented and analyzed in order to determine the performance that can be expected

  13. Mis-estimation and bias of hyperpolarized apparent diffusion coefficient measurements due to slice profile effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeremy W; Milshteyn, Eugene; Marco-Rius, Irene; Ohliger, Michael; Vigneron, Daniel B; Larson, Peder E Z

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the impact of slice profile effects on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping of hyperpolarized (HP) substrates. Slice profile effects were simulated using a Gaussian radiofrequency (RF) pulse with a variety of flip angle schedules and b-value ordering schemes. A long T 1 water phantom was used to validate the simulation results, and ADC mapping of HP [ 13 C, 15 N 2 ]urea was performed on the murine liver to assess these effects in vivo. Slice profile effects result in excess signal after repeated RF pulses, causing bias in HP measurements. The largest error occurs for metabolites with small ADCs, resulting in up to 10-fold overestimation for metabolites that are in more-restricted environments. A mixed b-value scheme substantially reduces this bias, whereas scaling the slice-select gradient can mitigate it completely. In vivo, the liver ADC of hyperpolarized [ 13 C, 15 N 2 ]urea is nearly 70% lower (0.99 ± 0.22 vs 1.69 ± 0.21 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s) when slice-select gradient scaling is used. Slice profile effects can lead to bias in HP ADC measurements. A mixed b-value ordering scheme can reduce this bias compared to sequential b-value ordering. Slice-select gradient scaling can also correct for this deviation, minimizing bias and providing more-precise ADC measurements of HP substrates. Magn Reson Med 78:1087-1092, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Full area covered 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optics based on a new prototype non-contact profiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Zhao-Zhong; Sun, Ze-Qing; Ju, Bing-Feng; Xu, Shaoning; Sun, Anyu

    2017-06-01

    A new prototype non-contact profiler based on surface tracking has been specially developed. Surface tracking is carried out by a specially designed dual stage probe system with the aid of a four-Degree Of Freedom high-precision motion platform. The dual stage probe system keeps a short-range optical probe constantly tracking the surface by a self-developed voice coil motor servo, by which a wide measuring range of up to 10 mm is realized. The system performance evaluation including resolution, repeatability, and scanning speed proved the good capability of the new prototype non-contact profiler. To realize a full area covered 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optics within one scanning procedure, a signal intensity monitor integrated in the surface tracking controller is specially developed. In the experiment, a snip-single-corner-rectangular-shaped freeform surface was successfully measured over full area by the new non-contact profiler. This work provides an effective solution for 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optical surfaces over full reflecting area. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed measuring system is of great significance in quality evaluation of optical surfaces.

  15. Non-destructive profile measurement of intensive heavy ion beams; Zerstoerungsfreie Profilmessung intensiver Schwerionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Frank

    2010-02-08

    Within the framework of the FAIR-project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI (Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research), high intensity beams from protons to uranium ions with kinetic energies up to 30 AGeV are foreseen. Present GSI-accelerators like the UNILAC and the Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS-18) with a magnetic rigidity of 18 Tm will be used as injectors for the future synchrotron (SIS-100). Their beam current will be increased by up to two orders of magnitude. An accurate beam position and beam profile measurement is mandatory for a safe operation of transport sections, in particular in front of production targets (Fragment Separator (FRS)-target, anti p-production-target and Warm Dense Matter (WDM)-targets). Conventional intercepting profile monitors will not withstand the thermal stress of intensive ion beams, particularly for low energy applications or focused beams. For transverse profile determination a non-intercepting Beam Induced Fluorescence (BIF)-monitor was developed, working with residual gas. The BIF-monitor exploits fluorescence light emitted by residual gas molecules after atomic collisions with beam ions. Fluorescence-images were recorded with an image-intensified camera system, and beam profiles were obtained by projecting these images. Within the scope of this dissertation the following topics have been investigated: The photon yield, profile shape and background contribution were determined for different ion species (H{sup +}, S{sup 6+}, Ar{sup 18+}, K{sup +}, Ni{sup 9+}, Xe{sup 48+}, Ta{sup 24+}, Au{sup 65+}, U{sup 73+}), beam energies (7.7 AkeV-750 AMeV), gas pressures (10{sup -6}-3 mbar) and gas species (N{sub 2}, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). Applying an imaging spectrograph and narrowband 10 nm interference filters, the spectral response was mapped and associated with the corresponding gas transitions. Spectrally resolved beam profiles were also obtained form the spectrographic images. Major results are the light yield showing a

  16. Surface damage and gas trapping profile measurements in copper during 20 kev He+ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terreault, B.; Veilleux, G.

    1980-01-01

    Surface damage due to 20 keV he + irradiation of OFHC Cu was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by gas trapping profile measurements with proton backscattering and elastic recoil detection. Both annealed (1 h at 773 K) and unannealed Cu were implanted, at 300 K (0.22Tsub(m)) and 500 K(0.37 Tsub(m)), up to fluences of 3 x 10 18 cm -2 . Additional results with thin (1 μm) evaporated films and stressed cold-rolled foils (3 μm) were obtained. At 500 K in bulk OFHC Cu pores and/or large (approx. 1μm) but scattered blisters appear; at 300 K in bulk or thin film Cu blisters are large and abundant. In all these cases a very large (>=1.5 x 10 1 7 cm -2 ) and sudden release of deeply implanted helium takes place, leading to a depleted profile at a depth of about 90 nm (approx. Rsub(p)). In contrast in cold-rolled foils the blisters are small (approx. 0.4 μm) and the profiles are undepleted. These results are explained by fissuration of helium-pressurized cavities. At high fluence blisters disappear, leaving a porous structure at 500 K and a rough micro-relief at 300 K; the helim profiles are flat and very wide (2-3 Rsub(p)). Blister disappearance, absence of flaking, and porous structure are discussed in terms of the width of the profiles and the formation of a helium-saturated, highly damaged (recrystallized), and permeable layer. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of Ozone And CO2 Profiles Measured At A Diary Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Hasson, A. S.; Ashkan, S.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone and carbon dioxide are both greenhouse gasses in the planetary boundary layer. Ozone is a harmful secondary pollutant in the troposphere produced mostly during the day when there is a photochemical reaction in which primary pollutant precursors such as nitrous oxide (NOx) or volatile organic compounds (VOC's) mix with sunlight. As with most pollutants in the lower troposphere, both ozone and carbon dioxide vary in spatial and temporal scale depending on sources of pollution, environmental conditions and the boundary layer dynamics. Among the several factors that influence ozone variation, the seasonal changes in meteorological parameters and availability of ozone precursors are crucial because they control ozone formation and decay. Understanding how the difference in emission sources affect vertical transport of ozone and carbon dioxide is considered crucial to the improvement of their regional inventory sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize vertical transport of ozone and carbon at a diary facility. The study was conducted in the summer of 2011 and 2012 at a commercial dairy facility in Central California and involved profile measurements of ozone and CO2 using electrochemical ozonesondes, meteorological sondes and CO2 probe tethered to a 9 cubic meters helium balloon. On each day of the data collection, multiple balloon launches were made over a period representing different stages of the boundary layer development. The results show ozone and CO2 profiles display different characteristics. Regardless of the time of the day, the CO2 concentration decreases with height with a sharp gradient near the surface that is strengthened by a stable atmospheric condition, a feature suggesting the surface as the source. On the other hand, ozone profiles show greater link to the evolution of the lower boundary layer. Ozone profiles display unique features indicating ozone destruction near the surface. This unusual near the surface, observed even in the

  18. The Valuable Role of Measuring Serum Lipid Profile in Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Ghahremanfard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Serum lipid levels are not only associated with etiology, but also with prognosis in cancer. To investigate this issue further, we aimed to evaluate the serum levels of lipids in association with the most important prognostic indicators in cancer patients at the start of chemotherapy. Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, using existing medical records obtained from 2009–2014, the data of all incident cancer cases in Iranian patients referred to the Semnan oncology clinic for chemotherapy were analyzed. Data on demographics, cancer type, prognostic indicators (e.g. lymph node involvement, metastasis, and stage of disease, as well as the patient’s lipid profile were collected. We used multiple logistic regression models to show the relationship between prognosis indicators and lipid profile adjusting for age, gender, and type of cancer. Results: The data of 205 patients was gathered. We found a significant difference in the lipid profile between different types of cancers (breast, colon, gastric, and ovarian. With the exception of high-density lipoprotein levels in women, which were higher than in men, the means of other lipid profiles were similar between the genders. There was a significant association between higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL >110mg/dL in the serum and metastasis (adjusted odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI 1.2–3.5. No significant association was reported between lipid profile and lymph nodes involvement and stage of the disease. Conclusion: Our study suggested a benefit of measuring serum levels of lipids for predicting cancer progression. Increased LDL levels can be considered a predictive factor for increasing the risk of metastasis.

  19. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over central Illinois and comparison with surface and satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Sheridan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1 measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2 relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. The primary profile location was within 15 km of the NOAA/ESRL surface aerosol monitoring station near Bondville, Illinois. Identical instruments at the surface and on the aircraft ensured that the data from both platforms would be directly comparable and permitted a determination of how representative surface aerosol properties were of the lower column. Aircraft profiles were also conducted occasionally at two other nearby locations to increase the frequency of A-Train satellite underflights for the purpose of comparing in situ and satellite-retrieved aerosol data. Measurements of aerosol properties conducted at low relative humidity over the Bondville site compare well with the analogous surface aerosol data and do not indicate any major sampling issues or that the aerosol is radically different at the surface compared with the lowest flyby altitude of ~ 240 m above ground level. Statistical analyses of the in situ vertical profile data indicate that aerosol light scattering and absorption (related to aerosol amount decreases substantially with increasing altitude. Parameters related to the nature of the aerosol (e.g., single-scattering albedo, Ångström exponent, etc., however, are relatively constant throughout the mixed layer, and do not vary as much as the aerosol amount throughout the profile. While individual profiles often showed more variability, the median in situ single-scattering albedo was 0.93–0.95 for all sampled altitudes. Several parameters (e.g., submicrometer scattering fraction, hemispheric backscattering fraction, and

  20. Automatic tuning of Bragg condition in a radio-acoustic system for PBL temperature profile measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G; Trivero, P

    1985-01-01

    A Radio-Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) with acoustic wavelength lambda/sub a/ approx. 1m was designed and successfully tested. The system proved to be capable of measuring the vertical temperature profile in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) with an accuracy and vertical resolution comparable to that of traditional apparatus (radiothermosondes borne by tethered or disposable balloons, thermosondes borne by aircraft and so on), yet combined with the advantages typical of remote sensing techniques. Up to the summer of 1983 the system needed attendance by an operator who had to identify the acoustic sounding frequency affording the fundamental condition of Bragg resonance between acoustic and radio wavelengths. Features and performance of the new completely automatic RASS arrangement are presented. These include the possibility of obtaining average thermal vertical profiles at preset time intervals. Maximum range of the possibility of obtaining average thermal vertical profiles at preset time intervals. Maximum range of measurements obtained in about 1000 1/2-h averages was: in 90% of cases greater than or equal to 600 m; in 50% of cases greater than or equal to 1100m. Such results indicate the usefulness of automatic RASS as a tool for meteorological purposes and for the application of air pollution control strategies.

  1. X mode reflectometry for edge density profile measurements on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Chareau, J.M.; Paume, M.; Sabot, R.

    1999-01-01

    X mode heterodyne reflectometry associated with fast sweep capabilities demonstrates very precise measurement on Tore Supra and a high sensitivity (∼10 17 m -3 ) to density variations. Very good agreement with Thomson scattering measurement is observed. Fluctuations of the radial positions of the profile are no more than ± 0.5 cm. However, edge magnetic field ripple can be a concern since it is not easy to stand precisely for the wave trajectory into the plasma and for the toroidal position of the cutoff layer; nevertheless if the error can be estimated to be less than than 3 cm in the position of the whole profile, addition work is needed combining 3-D ray tracing and different antenna systems. Additional LH heating generates an ECE noise in the same frequency range of the reflectometer and is detected. This emission throughout the plasma is fortunately stopped by the upper X mode cutoff and is also reabsorbed by the electron cyclotron resonance. But at the very edge, due to a misalignment of the antenna to the plasma magnetic field and the low optical thickness of the plasma, the first cutoff frequency, i.e. the profile initialization, may be determined less precisely. (authors)

  2. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Oliviero, Teresa; Schreiner, Monika; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were eva...

  3. The impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from OMI UV measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    We compare three datasets of high-resolution O 3 cross sections and evaluate the effects of using these cross sections on O 3 profile retrievals from OMI UV (270–330 nm) measurements. These O 3 cross sections include Brion–Daumont–Malicet (BDM), Bass–Paur (BP) and a new dataset measured by Serdyuchenko et al. (SGWCB), which is made from measurements at more temperatures and in a wider temperature range than BDM and BP, 193–293 K. Relative to the BDM dataset, the SGWCB data have systematic biases of −2 to +4% for 260–340 nm, and the BP data have smaller biases of 1–2% below 315 nm but larger spiky biases of up to ±6% at longer wavelengths. These datasets show distinctly different temperature dependences. Using different cross sections can significantly affect atmospheric retrievals. Using SGWCB data leads to retrieval failure for almost half of the OMI spatial pixels, producing large negative ozone values that cannot be handled by radiative transfer models and using BP data leads to large fitting residuals over 310–330 nm. Relative to the BDM retrievals, total ozone retrieved using original SGWCB data (with linear temperature interpolation/extrapolation) typically shows negative biases of 5–10 DU; retrieved tropospheric ozone column generally shows negative biases of 5–10 DU and 5–20 DU for parameterized and original SGWCB data, respectively. Compared to BDM retrievals, ozone profiles retrieved with BP/SGWCB data on average show large altitude-dependent oscillating differences of up to ±20–40% biases below ∼20 km with almost opposite bias patterns. Validation with ozonesonde observations demonstrates that the BDM retrievals agree well with ozonesondes, to typically within 10%, while both BP and SGWCB retrievals consistently show large altitude-dependent biases of up to ±20–70% below 20 km. Therefore, we recommend using the BDM dataset for ozone profile retrievals from UV measurements. Its improved performance is likely due to its

  4. CT false-profile view of the hip: a reproducible method of measuring anterior acetabular coverage using volume CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needell, Steven D.; Borzykowski, Ross M.; Carreira, Dominic S.; Kozy, John

    2014-01-01

    To devise a simple, reproducible method of using CT data to measure anterior acetabular coverage that results in values analogous to metrics derived from false-profile radiographs. Volume CT images were used to generate simulated false-profile radiographs and cross-sectional false-profile views by angling a multiplanar reformat 115 through the affected acetabulum relative to a line tangential to the posterior margin of the ischial tuberosities. The anterolateral margin of the acetabulum was localized on the CT false-profile view corresponding with the cranial opening of the acetabular roof. Anterior center edge angle (CEA) was measured between a vertical line passing through the center of the femoral head and a line connecting the center of the femoral head with the anterior edge of the condensed line of the acetabulum (sourcil). Anterior CEA values measured on CT false-profile views of 38 symptomatic hips were compared with values obtained on simulated and projection false-profile radiographs. The CT false-profile view produces a cross-sectional image in the same obliquity as false-profile radiographs. Anterior CEA measured on CT false-profile views were statistically similar to values obtained with false-profile radiographs. CT technologists quickly mastered the technique of generating this view. Inter-rater reliability indicated this method to be highly reproducible. The CT false-profile view is simple to generate and anterior CEA measurements derived from it are similar to those obtained using well-positioned false-profile radiographs. Utilization of CT to assess hip geometry enables precise control of pelvic inclination, eliminates projectional errors, and minimizes limitations of image quality inherent to radiography. (orig.)

  5. CT false-profile view of the hip: a reproducible method of measuring anterior acetabular coverage using volume CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needell, Steven D.; Borzykowski, Ross M. [Boca Radiology Group, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Carreira, Dominic S.; Kozy, John [Broward Health Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)

    2014-11-15

    To devise a simple, reproducible method of using CT data to measure anterior acetabular coverage that results in values analogous to metrics derived from false-profile radiographs. Volume CT images were used to generate simulated false-profile radiographs and cross-sectional false-profile views by angling a multiplanar reformat 115 through the affected acetabulum relative to a line tangential to the posterior margin of the ischial tuberosities. The anterolateral margin of the acetabulum was localized on the CT false-profile view corresponding with the cranial opening of the acetabular roof. Anterior center edge angle (CEA) was measured between a vertical line passing through the center of the femoral head and a line connecting the center of the femoral head with the anterior edge of the condensed line of the acetabulum (sourcil). Anterior CEA values measured on CT false-profile views of 38 symptomatic hips were compared with values obtained on simulated and projection false-profile radiographs. The CT false-profile view produces a cross-sectional image in the same obliquity as false-profile radiographs. Anterior CEA measured on CT false-profile views were statistically similar to values obtained with false-profile radiographs. CT technologists quickly mastered the technique of generating this view. Inter-rater reliability indicated this method to be highly reproducible. The CT false-profile view is simple to generate and anterior CEA measurements derived from it are similar to those obtained using well-positioned false-profile radiographs. Utilization of CT to assess hip geometry enables precise control of pelvic inclination, eliminates projectional errors, and minimizes limitations of image quality inherent to radiography. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of current drive profile using electron cyclotron wave attenuation near the O-mode cutoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Meyer, R.L.; Caron, X.

    1992-01-01

    A method for determining the radial profile of the lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks using electron cyclotron attenuation of the O mode for frequencies ω near the cutoff frequency is discussed. The basic idea is that, for a given wave frequency, the cutoff plays the role of a spatial filter selecting a variable portion of the noninductive current. It is shown that the incremental attenuation resulting from a small increase of ω displays specific features related to the current density near the cutoff point. Using the relation between the wave damping and the current density, it is possible to determine the radial profile of the current drive from the wave attenuation measurements. A numerical application is also presented for plasma parameters in the reactor regime

  7. Dose profile measurements during respiratory-gated lung stereotactic radiotherapy: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, W L; Ung, N M; Wong, J H D; Ng, K H

    2016-01-01

    During stereotactic body radiotherapy, high radiation dose (∼60 Gy) is delivered to the tumour in small fractionation regime. In this study, the dosimetric characteristics were studied using radiochromic film during respiratory-gated and non-gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Specifically, the effect of respiratory cycle and amplitude, as well as gating window on the dosimetry were studied. In this study, the dose profiles along the irradiated area were measured. The dose profiles for respiratory-gated radiation delivery with different respiratory or tumour motion amplitudes, gating windows and respiratory time per cycle were in agreement with static radiation delivery. The respiratory gating system was able to deliver the radiation dose accurately (±1.05 mm) in the longitudinal direction. Although the treatment time for respiratory-gated SBRT was prolonged, this approach can potentially reduce the margin for internal tumour volume without compromising the tumour coverage. In addition, the normal tissue sparing effect can be improved. (paper)

  8. Development of a measuring system for poloidal field profile in JIPP T-IIU plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Hideharu; Hiraki, Naoji; Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Toi, Kazuo; Sato, Kuninori.

    1995-01-01

    A Zeeman polarimeter has been developed to measure the poloidal magnetic field profile in the plasma edge of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal field strength is determined from the analysis of circular polarization of a HeII 4686A spectral lines emitted from a plasma. The polarization modulation rate, which is proportional to the magnetic field strength along a line of sight, is estimated as a ratio of the difference between the left-hand circular polarized line intensity and right-hand one to the sum of them. A newly developed fast scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer allows us to improve a time resolution up to 1.5 ms. The poloidal magnetic field profile in He-doped deuterium plasmas of JIPP T-IIU has been successfully obtained with this polarimeter system. (author)

  9. Time-resolved wave profile measurements in copper to Megabar pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabildas, L C; Asay, J R

    1981-01-01

    Many time-resolved techniques have been developed which have greatly aided in the understanding of dynamic material behavior such as the high pressure-dynamic strength of materials. In the paper, time-resolved measurements of copper (at shock-induced high pressures and temperatures) are used to illustrate the capability of using such techniques to investigate high pressure strength. Continuous shock loading and release wave profiles have been made in copper to 93 GPa using velocity interferometric techniques. Fine structure in the release wave profiles from the shocked state indicates an increase in shear strength of copper to 1.5 GPa at 93 GPa from its ambient value of 0.08 GPa.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 02: Measurement of CT radiation profile width using Fuji CR imaging plate raw data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, T A; Yang, C J

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the CT collimation width and assessing the shape of the overall profile is a relatively straightforward quality control (QC) measure that impacts both image quality and patient dose, and is often required at acceptance and routine testing. Most CT facilities have access to computed radiography (CR) systems, so performing CT collimation profile assessments using CR plates requires no additional equipment. Previous studies have shown how to effectively use CR plates to measure the radiation profile width. However, a major limitation of the previous work is that the full dynamic range of CR detector plates are not used, since the CR processing technology reduces the dynamic range of the DICOM output to 2 10 , requiring the sensitivity and latitude settings of CR reader to be adjusted to prevent clipping of the CT profile data. Such adjustments to CR readers unnecessarily complicate the QC procedure. These clipping artefacts hinder the ability to accurately assess CT collimation width because the full-width at half maximum value of the penumbras are not properly determined if the maximum dose of the profile is not available. Furthermore, any inconsistencies in the radiation profile shape are lost if the profile plateau is clipped off. In this work we developed an opensource Matlab script for straightforward CT profile width measurements using raw CR data that also allows assessment of the profile shape without clipping, and applied this approach during CT QC

  11. Nitrates and Glucosinolates as Strong Determinants of the Nutritional Quality in Rocket Leafy Salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavaiuolo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Nitrates and glucosinolates as strong determinants of the nutritional quality in rocket leafy salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio

    2014-04-14

    Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Proliferation and glucosinolates accumulation of broccoli adventitious roots in liquid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhut, Nguyen Minh; Tien, Le Thi Thuy

    2017-09-01

    Cotyledons from 7-day-old in vitro broccoli seedling were used as explant source in adventitious root induction on MS medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose, 1.6 mg/l IBA and 7 g/l agar. Adventitious roots from cotyledons were transferred to liquid medium containing the same components as rooting medium for two weeks, then subcultured to MS medium with diferent sugar, macrominerals and casein hydrolysate concentrations. The best adventitious root growth was observed in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose, 600 mg/l casein hydrolysate and 1.6 mg/l IBA (growth index of 4.00 in about 14 culture days with inoculum density of 1.0 g fresh weight / 30 ml of culture medium). The culturing process can be stopped on the 28th day for root biomass and on the 35th day for glucosinolates.

  14. Influence of veneer thickness on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2012-02-01

    The veneering process of frameworks induces residual stresses and can initiate cracks when combined with functional stresses. The stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth is a key factor influencing failure by chipping. This is a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of veneer thickness on the stress profile in zirconia- and metal-based structures. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples of 20 mm diameter, with a 1 mm thick zirconia or metal framework. Different veneering ceramic thicknesses were performed: 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 2.5 mm and 3 mm. All samples exhibited the same type of stress vs. depth profile, starting with compressive at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.5-1.0 mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework, except for the 1.5 mm-veneered zirconia samples which exhibited interior tensile stresses. Stresses in the surface of metal samples were not influenced by veneer thickness. Variation of interior stresses at 1.2 mm from the surface in function of veneer thickness was inverted for metal and zirconia samples. Veneer thickness influences in an opposite way the residual stress profile in metal- and in zirconia-based structures. A three-step approach and the hypothesis of the crystalline transformation are discussed to explain the less favorable residual stress development in zirconia samples. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T 1 and vertical shear threshold T 3 , are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T 3 can be recommended as 5 ms -1 /100m. During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  16. Fabrication of Faraday Cup Array for the Measurement of 2-Dimensional Proton Beam Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Bom Sok; Kim, Kyeryung

    2014-01-01

    It has an advantage of easy-to-use and possible to visually check, immediately; on the other hand, the measurement range is very limited. Another method is using the CCD camera-scintillator device such as p43 phosphor screen or chromox. A variety of faraday cup detectors have been recently introduced. The faraday cup is one of the powerful and popular tools for the measurement of beam current. By using several faraday cups in array geometry, it is possible to observe current distribution. In this study, we developed an external faraday cup array for the measure the beam current and profile at a KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) beam utilization facility. To measure the beam profile, before fabrication of faraday cup array, we use gafchromic film. By making the faraday cup array we were able to reduce the consumption of Gafchromic film and a more accurate diagnosis of the proton beam is possible. The use of faraday cup array, experiment using the proton beam is more reliable and confident

  17. Measurement of an electron-beam size with a beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Nakamura, N.; Sakai, H.; Shinoe, K.; Takaki, H.; Fujisawa, M.; Hayano, H.; Nomura, M.; Kamiya, Y.; Koseki, T.; Amemiya, Y.; Aoki, N.; Nakayama, K.

    2003-01-01

    We present a non-destructive and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) and the measurement of an electron-beam size with this monitor in the KEK-Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring. The monitor system has the structure of a long-distance X-ray microscope, where two FZPs constitute an X-ray imaging optics. The synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is sufficiently high to measure the horizontal and vertical beam sizes of the ATF damping ring. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. The measured magnification of the X-ray imaging optics in the monitor system was in good agreement with the design value

  18. New developments in velocity profile measurement and pipe wall wear monitoring for hydrotransport lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, C.; Maron, R.J. [CiDRA Minerals Processing Inc., Wallingford, CT (United States); Fernald, M.; Bailey, T. [CiDRA Corporate Services, Wallingford, CT (United States); Van der Spek, A. [ZDOOR, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Sonar array flow measurement technology was initially developed a decade ago with the goal of non-invasively measuring multi-phase flows in the petroleum industry. The same technology was later adapted to the mineral processing industry where it has been rapidly adopted. The specific sensor technology, based on piezoelectric film sensors, provides unique measurement capabilities, including the ability to non-invasively measure localized strains in the walls of pipes. Combined with sonar array processing algorithms, an axial array of such sensors can measure flow velocities within a pipe. The sensors are useful for monitoring and managing slurry flow in horizontal pipes since they provide real-time velocity profiles measurement. The information is useful in determining the approach and onset of solid deposition on the bottom of the pipe. The sensors also provide a non-invasive measurement of pipe wear on slurry lines. Such measurements are currently made by hand-held portable ultrasonic thickness gages. The shortfalls associated with this manual method are overcome with a set of permanently or semi-permanently installed transducers clamped onto the outside of the pipe, where sensors measure the thickness of the pipe. This system and approach results in better repeatability and accuracy compared to manual methods. It also decreases inspection labor costs and pipe access requirements. It was concluded that the potential impact on personnel safety and environmental savings will be significant. 3 refs., 20 figs.

  19. Measuring discharge with acoustic Doppler current profilers from a moving boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.; Wagner, Chad R.; Rehmel, Michael S.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Rainville, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) from a moving boat is now a commonly used method for measuring streamflow. The technology and methods for making ADCP-based discharge measurements are different from the technology and methods used to make traditional discharge measurements with mechanical meters. Although the ADCP is a valuable tool for measuring streamflow, it is only accurate when used with appropriate techniques. This report presents guidance on the use of ADCPs for measuring streamflow; this guidance is based on the experience of U.S. Geological Survey employees and published reports, papers, and memorandums of the U.S. Geological Survey. The guidance is presented in a logical progression, from predeployment planning, to field data collection, and finally to post processing of the collected data. Acoustic Doppler technology and the instruments currently (2013) available also are discussed to highlight the advantages and limitations of the technology. More in-depth, technical explanations of how an ADCP measures streamflow and what to do when measuring in moving-bed conditions are presented in the appendixes. ADCP users need to know the proper procedures for measuring discharge from a moving boat and why those procedures are required, so that when the user encounters unusual field conditions, the procedures can be adapted without sacrificing the accuracy of the streamflow-measurement data.

  20. A comparative study of the work involved in measuring profiles using ion chambers, a linear diode array and film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykers, K.L.; RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC; Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW; Geso, M.; Brown, G.M.; Olilver, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The usefulness of film to perform dosimetric measurement is a topic often discussed and not clearly agreed upon. While single point measurement detectors give consistent and reliable results for physically wedged fields they cannot be easily used to measure intensity modulated fields. In this work a method of using film to measure profiles for dynamically wedged (DW) fields is presented. The method of positioning film for the subsequent generation of a conversion function to allow for the variation in films' response with energy is outlined. Furthermore, the profiles determined by film measurement are compared with those measured with single point measurement detector and an array of silicon diodes. Both Leavitt et. al. 8 and Weber et. al. 7 have reported on the successful use of the linear diode array (LDA) in measuring dynamic wedge data. This claim will be investigated. The film used in this work was Kodak X-Omat V. The solid water was RW3 with high water equivalency in the range from 137 CS to 50 MV for photons and electrons. All films were processed in an automatic processor. Both the Wellhoefer and the Scanditronix RFA 300 densitometers were used to take film readings. Wedged field and open field profiles measurements were taken in water using both the Wellhoefer IC-10 chamber, the Scanditronix RFA 300 RK chamber and the Scanditronix LDA . The energy investigated was 6 MV at 1.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 cm for a Varian 2100C machine. More consistent density readings were obtained when films were processed with the edge of the film that was parallel to the beam axis was fed into the processor first; rather than when the beam incident edge was fed into the processor first. Comparing the position of the central axis (CAX) of open films from the geometric method developed in this work to the software determined CAX (as available with the Wellhoefer software), it was found that the difference in CAX positions varied between -0.03 to +0.04 cm at 2.5 cm

  1. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate Treatment Increases Glucosinolate Biosynthesis and Quinone Reductase Activity in Kale Leaf Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties ‘Dwarf Blue Curled Vates’ and ‘Red Winter’ in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar ‘Red Winter’ in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, Pkale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone. PMID:25084454

  2. Risø 1978: Further Investigations into the Effects of Local Terrain Irregularties on Tower-Measured Wind Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, E. W.; Taylor, P. A.; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    Observations of flow over complex terrain taken at Risø during June–July 1978 and numerical studies confirm earlier findings that small variations in surface elevation have significant effects on mean wind profiles. Measured shear stresses in the nonequilibrium region of the flow are consistent w...... with theory but quite different from those obtained assuming simple flux-profile relationships. These findings imply that flux-profile relationships can be quite complicated over other than simple homogeneous terrain....

  3. Measurements of density profile evolution during the stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarawneh, Constantine M.; Homan, K.O.

    2008-01-01

    The stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure produces an interfacial gradient layer which is transported through the enclosure with the bulk flow. The evolution of this interfacial layer is strongly time-dependent and is driven by the nature of the interaction between the internal gravity waves and the inlet-driven interfacial shear. Measurements of density profile evolution have been completed for a rectangular enclosure with a single corner inlet and density variation produced by saline concentration. This system serves as a mass transfer analog to large-scale, thermally-stratified energy storage devices, preserving dynamic similitude in a laboratory-scale system. The experiments covered jet Reynolds numbers of 200-2200 and Froude numbers of 0.06-0.6 in an enclosure with a width 23 times the jet inlet height. The density profiles are seen to be strongly asymmetric and exhibit growth rates significantly different than due to simple one-dimensional molecular diffusion. In addition, shadowgraph and hydrogen bubble visualizations of the density and velocity fields in the gradient layer show the persistence of complex multi-dimensional flow structure even at relatively late stages of the filling process when the gradient layer has been transported well away from the enclosure inlet. The evolution of the vertical density profile has been compared quantitatively to a quasi one-dimensional model based upon empirical diffusivity coefficients

  4. All-Fiber Airborne Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Wind Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An all-fiber airborne pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL prototype at 1.54μm is developed to measure wind profiles in the lower troposphere layer. The all-fiber single frequency pulsed laser is operated with pulse energy of 300μJ, pulse width of 400ns and pulse repetition rate of 10kHz. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pulse energy of all-fiber eye-safe single frequency laser that is used in airborne coherent wind lidar. The telescope optical diameter of monostatic lidar is 100 mm. Velocity-Azimuth-Display (VAD scanning is implemented with 20 degrees elevation angle in 8 different azimuths. Real-time signal processing board is developed to acquire and process the heterodyne mixing signal with 10000 pulses spectra accumulated every second. Wind profiles are obtained every 20 seconds. Several experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the lidar. We have carried out airborne wind lidar experiments successfully, and the wind profiles are compared with aerological theodolite and ground based wind lidar. Wind speed standard error of less than 0.4m/s is shown between airborne wind lidar and balloon aerological theodolite.

  5. Current Profile and Magnetic Structure Measurements through Tangential Soft X-Ray Imaging in Compact Tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, Raymond J.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the fabrication and tests of a tangentially imaging soft X-ray (SXR) camera diagnostic for fusion energy plasma research. It can be used for the determination of the current distribution in strongly shaped toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, such as those found in spherical tori or advanced tokamaks. It included the development of both an appropriate imaging SXR camera and image analysis techniques necessary to deduce the plasma shape and current distribution. The basic camera concept consists of a tangentially viewing pinhole imaging system with thin-film SXR filters, a scintillator screen to provide SXR to visible conversion, a fast shuttering system, and an sensitive visible camera imaging device. The analysis approach consists of integrating the 2-D SXR image data into a Grad-Shafranov toroidal equilibrium solver code to provide strong constraints on the deduced plasma current and pressure profiles. Acceptable sensitivity in the deduced current profile can be obtained if the relative noise in the measured image can be kept in the range of 1% or less. Tests on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment indicate very flat safety factor profiles in the plasma interior

  6. Beam profile measurements on the advanced test accelerator using optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Y.P.; Kalibjian, R.; Cornish, J.P.; Kallman, J.S.; Donnelly, D.

    1986-01-01

    Beam current density profiles of ATA have been measured both spatially and temporally using a number of diagnostics. An extremely important technique involves measuring optical emissions from either a target foil inserted into the beam path or gas atoms and molecules excited by beam electrons. This paper describes the detection of the optical emission. A 2-D gated television camera with a single or dual micro-channel-plate (MCP) detector for high gain provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution. Measurements are routinely made with resolutions of 1 mm and 5 ns respectively. The optical line of sight allows splitting part of the signal to a streak camera or photometer for even higher time resolution

  7. Use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to Measure Hypersaline Bidirectional Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey measures the exchange of flow between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah, as part of a monitoring program. Turbidity and bidirectional flow through the breach in the causeway that divides the lake into two parts makes it difficult to measure discharge with conventional streamflow techniques. An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be used to more accurately define the angles of flow and the location of the interface between the layers of flow. Because of the high salinity levels measured in Great Salt Lake (60-280 parts per thousand), special methods had to be developed to adjust ADCP-computed discharges for the increased speed of sound in hypersaline waters and for water entrained at the interface between flow layers.

  8. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Akash Deep, E-mail: akash-deep@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI) at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B.B.; Karnewar, A.K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India)

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  9. Measuring Density Profiles of Electrons and Heavy Particles in a Stable Axially Blown Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, J.; Stoller, P.; Galletti, B.; Doiron, C. B.; Sokolov, A.

    2017-08-01

    Two-color spatial carrier wave interferometry employing pulsed 532- and 671-nm lasers is used to measure the electron-density and heavy-particle-density profiles in the stagnation point of a stable, axially blown arc in argon for currents of 50 to 200 A and stagnation point pressures of 0.2 to 16 bar. This technique takes advantage of the fact that the free-electron contribution to the refractive index depends strongly on the wavelength, while that of the heavy particles does not. The high spatial resolution achieved allows the hot core of the arc to be readily distinguished from the surrounding boundary layer. A custom-built test device is used to ensure flow conditions that lead to a stable, axisymmetric arc; this permits the reconstruction of the density and temperature profiles using a single projection (interferometric image) of the refractive-index distribution through the arc (at two wavelengths). The arc radius determined from the heavy-particle density decreases with increasing stagnation pressure and increases with the current. These measurements are in good agreement with a simple axially blown arc model taking into account Ohmic heating, radiation losses, and enthalpy flow for core temperatures of approximately 16 500 K. The measured electron density at the center of the arc agrees well with a prediction based on local thermodynamic equilibrium.

  10. Latent profile analysis of neuropsychological measures to determine preschoolers' risk for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Khushmand; O'Neill, Sarah; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    Hyperactive/Inattentive preschool children show clear evidence of neuropsychological dysfunction. We examined whether patterns and severity of test scores could reliably identify subgroups of preschoolers with differential risk for ADHD during school-age. Typically developing (TD: n = 76) and Hyperactive/Inattentive (HI: n = 138) 3-4 year olds were assessed annually for 6 years (T1-T6). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to form subgroups among the HI group based on objective/neuropsychological measures (NEPSY, Actigraph and Continuous Performance Test). Logistic regression assessed the predictive validity of empirically formed subgroups at risk for ADHD diagnosis relative to the TD group and to each other from T2 to T6. Latent profile analysis yielded two subgroups of HI preschoolers: (a) selectively weak Attention/Executive functions, and (b) pervasive neuropsychological dysfunction across all measures. Both subgroups were more likely to have ADHD at all follow-up time-points relative to the TD group (OR range: 11.29-86.32), but there were no significant differences between the LPA-formed subgroups of HI children at any time-point. Objective/neuropsychological measures distinguish HI preschoolers from their TD peers, but patterns and severity of neuropsychological dysfunction do not predict risk for ADHD during school-age. We hypothesize that trajectories in at-risk children are influenced by subsequent environmental and neurodevelopmental factors, raising the possibility that they are amenable to early intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Measurement of the near-wall velocity profile for a nanofluid flow inside a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamics and anomalous heat transfer enhancements have been reported in the past for colloidal suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a fluid (nanofluids). However, such augmentations may manifest itself by study of fluid flow characteristics near in the wall region. Present experimental study reports near-wall velocity profile for nanofluids (silicon dioxide nanoparticles in water) measured inside a microchannel. An objective-based nano-Particle Image Velocimetry (nPIV) technique is used to measure fluid velocity within three visible depths, O(100nm), from the wall. The near-wall fluid velocity profile is estimated after implementing the required corrections for optical properties and effects caused by hindered Brownian motion, wall-particle interactions, and non-uniform exponential illumination on the measurement technique. The fluid velocities of nanofluids at each of the three visible depths are observed to be higher than that of the base fluid resulting in a higher shear rate in this region. The relative increase in shear rates for nanofluids is believed to be the result of the near-wall shear-induced particle migration along with the Brownian motion of the nanoparticles. This research is funded by NPRP grant # 08-574-2-239 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation).

  12. Initial Results of the SSPX Transient Internal Probe System for Measuring Toroidal Field Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Hill, D. N.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Cellamare, V.

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) is using a field profile diagnostic called the Transient Internal Probe (TIP). TIP consists of a verdet-glass bullet that is used to measure the magnetic field by Faraday rotation. This probe is shot through the spheromak by a light gas gun at speeds near 2 km/s. An argon laser is aligned along the path of the probe. The light passes through the probe and is retro-reflected to an ellipsometer that measures the change in polarization angle. The measurement is spatially resolved down to the probes’ 1 cm length to within 15 Gauss. Initial testing results are given. This and future data will be used to determine the field profile for equilibrium reconstruction. TIP can also be used in conjunction with wall probes to map out toroidal mode amplitudes and phases internally. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  13. Bias in mean velocities and noise in variances and covariances measured using a multistatic acoustic profiler: the Nortek Vectrino Profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R E; Schindfessel, L; Creëlle, S; De Mulder, T; McLelland, S J

    2017-01-01

    This paper compiles the technical characteristics and operating principles of the Nortek Vectrino Profiler and reviews previously reported user experiences. A series of experiments are then presented that investigate instrument behaviour and performance, with a particular focus on variations within the profile. First, controlled tests investigate the sensitivity of acoustic amplitude (and Signal-to-Noise Ratio, SNR) and pulse-to-pulse correlation coefficient, R 2 , to seeding concentration and cell geometry. Second, a novel methodology that systematically shifts profiling cells through a single absolute vertical position investigates the sensitivity of mean velocities, SNR and noise to: (a) emitted sound intensity and the presence (or absence) of acoustic seeding; and (b) varying flow rates under ideal acoustic seeding conditions. A new solution is derived to quantify the noise affecting the two perpendicular tristatic systems of the Vectrino Profiler and its contribution to components of the Reynolds stress tensor. Results suggest that for the Vectrino Profiler: 1. optimum acoustic seeding concentrations are ∼3000 to 6000 mg L −1 ; 2. mean velocity magnitudes are biased by variable amounts in proximal cells but are consistently underestimated in distal cells; 3. noise varies parabolically with a minimum around the ‘sweet spot’, 50 mm below the transceiver; 4. the receiver beams only intersect at the sweet spot and diverge nearer to and further from the transceiver. This divergence significantly reduces the size of the sampled area away from the sweet spot, reducing data quality; 5. the most reliable velocity data will normally be collected in the region between approximately 43 and 61 mm below the transceiver. (paper)

  14. Bias in mean velocities and noise in variances and covariances measured using a multistatic acoustic profiler: the Nortek Vectrino Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. E.; Schindfessel, L.; McLelland, S. J.; Creëlle, S.; De Mulder, T.

    2017-07-01

    This paper compiles the technical characteristics and operating principles of the Nortek Vectrino Profiler and reviews previously reported user experiences. A series of experiments are then presented that investigate instrument behaviour and performance, with a particular focus on variations within the profile. First, controlled tests investigate the sensitivity of acoustic amplitude (and Signal-to-Noise Ratio, SNR) and pulse-to-pulse correlation coefficient, R 2, to seeding concentration and cell geometry. Second, a novel methodology that systematically shifts profiling cells through a single absolute vertical position investigates the sensitivity of mean velocities, SNR and noise to: (a) emitted sound intensity and the presence (or absence) of acoustic seeding; and (b) varying flow rates under ideal acoustic seeding conditions. A new solution is derived to quantify the noise affecting the two perpendicular tristatic systems of the Vectrino Profiler and its contribution to components of the Reynolds stress tensor. Results suggest that for the Vectrino Profiler: 1. optimum acoustic seeding concentrations are ~3000 to 6000 mg L-1 2. mean velocity magnitudes are biased by variable amounts in proximal cells but are consistently underestimated in distal cells; 3. noise varies parabolically with a minimum around the ‘sweet spot’, 50 mm below the transceiver; 4. the receiver beams only intersect at the sweet spot and diverge nearer to and further from the transceiver. This divergence significantly reduces the size of the sampled area away from the sweet spot, reducing data quality; 5. the most reliable velocity data will normally be collected in the region between approximately 43 and 61 mm below the transceiver.

  15. Rayleigh beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padin, S

    2014-12-01

    Millimeter-wavelength Rayleigh scattering from water droplets in a cloud is proposed as a means of generating a bright beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope. A λ=3  mm transmitter, with an output power of a few watts, illuminating a stratiform cloud, can generate a beacon with the same flux as Mars in 10 GHz bandwidth, but the beacon has a narrow line width, so it is extremely bright. The key advantage of the beacon is that it can be used at any time, and positioned anywhere in the sky, as long as there are clouds.

  16. Maximum entropy algorithm and its implementation for the neutral beam profile measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Wook; Cho, Gyu Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A tomography algorithm to maximize the entropy of image using Lagrangian multiplier technique and conjugate gradient method has been designed for the measurement of 2D spatial distribution of intense neutral beams of KSTAR NBI (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research Neutral Beam Injector), which is now being designed. A possible detection system was assumed and a numerical simulation has been implemented to test the reconstruction quality of given beam profiles. This algorithm has the good applicability for sparse projection data and thus, can be used for the neutral beam tomography. 8 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  17. MEASUREMENT OF THE HALO BIAS FROM STACKED SHEAR PROFILES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covone, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli " Federico II," Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Sereno, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kilbinger, Martin [CEA/Irfu/SAp Saclay, Laboratoire AIM, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cardone, Vincenzo F. [I.N.A.F.-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Roma) (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    We present observational evidence of the two-halo term in the stacked shear profile of a sample of ∼1200 optically selected galaxy clusters based on imaging data and the public shear catalog from the CFHTLenS. We find that the halo bias, a measure of the correlated distribution of matter around galaxy clusters, has amplitude and correlation with galaxy cluster mass in very good agreement with the predictions based on the LCDM standard cosmological model. The mass-concentration relation is flat but higher than theoretical predictions. We also confirm the close scaling relation between the optical richness of galaxy clusters and their mass.

  18. Maximum entropy algorithm and its implementation for the neutral beam profile measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Wook; Cho, Gyu Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A tomography algorithm to maximize the entropy of image using Lagrangian multiplier technique and conjugate gradient method has been designed for the measurement of 2D spatial distribution of intense neutral beams of KSTAR NBI (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research Neutral Beam Injector), which is now being designed. A possible detection system was assumed and a numerical simulation has been implemented to test the reconstruction quality of given beam profiles. This algorithm has the good applicability for sparse projection data and thus, can be used for the neutral beam tomography. 8 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  19. A Falls Dam, Otago, sedimentation rate measured by the caesium-137 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, W.J.; Mason, W.J.

    1982-09-01

    Two cores from the dam were examined. The lead-210 was measured from Core D, but because of the high sedimentation rate the ''unsupported'' lead-210 was not detectable above the ''supported'' lead background. Caesium-137 was determined from Core A and the profile obtained related to the pattern of the ''fallout'' caesium in rainwater. From this a sedimentation rate of 11 kg per sq. metre per year was calculated. In terms of the length of the core sample, this is equivalent to 1.3 cm per year

  20. Measure of hydrogen concentration profile in materials by resonant nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livi, R.P.; Zawislak, F.C.; Acquadro, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The technique for determining the profile of hydrogen concentration in proximities of the surface of materials, is presented. The preliminary measurements were done, using the Pelletron accelerator at Sao Paulo University (USP), in Brazil, for the resonant-nuclear reaction 1 H( 19 F, α γ) 16 O. By using this reaction the technique is sensitive for concentrations above 500 ppm, which could be reduced to 100 ppm through special shieldings and other techniques to reduce the background radiation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Radiation profile measurements for edge transport barrier discharges in Compact Helical System using AXUV photodiode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Akiyama, T.; Fujisawa, A.; Ida, K.; Isobe, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Nishimura, S.; Peterson, B. J.; Shimizu, A.; Takahashi, C.; Toi, K.; Yoshimura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of edge transport barrier (ETB) has recently been found in Compact Helical System (CHS) plasmas heated by co-injected neutral beam injection (NBI) with strong gas puffing. This regime is characterized by the appearance of the steep gradient of the electron density near the edge following the abrupt drop of hydrogen Balmer alpha (H α ) line intensity. In addition to single channel pyroelectric detector as a conventional bolometer, we have employed unfiltered absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiode arrays as a simple and low-cost diagnostic to investigate spatial and temporal variations of radiation emissivity in the ETB discharges. A compact mounting module for a 20 channel AXUV photodiode array including an in-vacuum preamplifier for immediate current-voltage conversion has successfully been designed and fabricated. Two identical modules installed in the upper and lower viewports provide 40 lines of sight covering the inboard and outboard sides within the horizontally elongated cross section of the CHS plasma with wide viewing angle. Although spectral uniformity of the detector sensitivity of the AXUV photodiode is unsatisfied for photon energies lower than 200 eV, it has been confirmed that the signals of AXUV photodiode and pyroelectric detector in the ETB discharges show roughly the same behavior except for the very beginning and end of the discharges. The results of the measurements in typical ETB discharges show that the signals of all the channels of the AXUV photodiode arrays begin to increase more rapidly at the moment of the transition than before. The rate of the increase is larger for the edge viewing chords than for the center viewing ones, which indicates the flattening of the radiation profile following the change in the electron density profile after the formation of the ETB. However, the signals for the edge chords tend to saturate after several tens of milliseconds, while they still continue to increase for the central chords

  2. Comparison of slope and height profiles for flat synchrotron x-ray mirrors measured with a long trace profiler and a Fizeau interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, J.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A.

    2007-01-01

    Long trace profilers (LTPS) have been used at many synchrotron radiation laboratories worldwide for over a decade to measure surface slope profiles of long grazing incidence x-ray mirrors. Phase measuring interferometers (PMIs) of the Fizeau type, on the other hand, are being used by most mirror manufacturers to accomplish the same task. However, large mirrors whose dimensions exceed the aperture of the Fizeau interferometer require measurements to be carried out at grazing incidence, and aspheric optics require the use of a null lens. While an LTP provides a direct measurement of ID slope profiles, PMIs measure area height profiles from which the slope can be obtained by a differentiation algorithm. Measurements of the two types of instruments have been found by us to be in good agreement, but to our knowledge there is no published work directly comparing the two instruments. This paper documents that comparison. We measured two different nominally flat mirrors with both the LTP in operation at the Advanced Photon Source (a type-II LTP) and a Fizeau-type PMI interferometer (Wyko model 6000). One mirror was 500 mm long and made of Zerodur, and the other mirror was 350 mm long and made of silicon. Slope error results with these instruments agree within nearly 100% (3.11 ± 0.15 (micro)rad for the LTP, and 3.11 ± 0.02 (micro)rad for the Fizeau PMI interferometer) for the medium quality Zerodur mirror with 3 (micro)rad rms nominal slope error. A significant difference was observed with the much higher quality silicon mirror. For the Si mirror, slope error data is 0.39 ± 0.08 (micro)rad from LTP measurements but it is 0.35 ± 0.01 (micro)rad from PMI interferometer measurements. The standard deviations show that the Fizeau PMI interferometer has much better measurement repeatability.

  3. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Jiang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  4. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Jiang, X. [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  5. Technical Note: Robust measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile in breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Aili K., E-mail: aili.maki@sri.utoronto.ca; Mainprize, James G. [Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Yaffe, Martin J. [Departments of Medical Imaging and Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to improve the repeatability of the measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile (SSP) in reconstructed breast tomosynthesis volumes. Methods: A grid of aluminum ball-bearings (BBs) within a PMMA phantom was imaged on breast tomosynthesis systems from three different manufacturers. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values were measured for the SSPs of the BBs in the reconstructed volumes. The effect of transforming the volumes from a Cartesian coordinate system (CCS) to a cone-beam coordinate system (CBCS) on the variability in the FWHM values was assessed. Results: Transforming the volumes from a CCS to a CBCS before measuring the SSPs reduced the coefficient of variation (COV) in the measurements of FWHM in repeated measurements by 56% and reduced the dependence of the FWHM values on the location of the BBs within the reconstructed volume by 76%. Conclusions: Measuring the SSP in the volumes in a CBCS improves the robustness of the measurement.

  6. Validation of streamflow measurements made with M9 and RiverRay acoustic Doppler current profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Justin A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Surface Water (OSW) previously validated the use of Teledyne RD Instruments (TRDI) Rio Grande (in 2007), StreamPro (in 2006), and Broadband (in 1996) acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for streamflow (discharge) measurements made by the USGS. Two new ADCPs, the SonTek M9 and the TRDI RiverRay, were first used in the USGS Water Mission Area programs in 2009. Since 2009, the OSW and USGS Water Science Centers (WSCs) have been conducting field measurements as part of their stream-gaging program using these ADCPs. The purpose of this paper is to document the results of USGS OSW analyses for validation of M9 and RiverRay ADCP streamflow measurements. The OSW required each participating WSC to make comparison measurements over the range of operating conditions in which the instruments were used until sufficient measurements were available. The performance of these ADCPs was evaluated for validation and to identify any present and potential problems. Statistical analyses of streamflow measurements indicate that measurements made with the SonTek M9 ADCP using firmware 2.00–3.00 or the TRDI RiverRay ADCP using firmware 44.12–44.15 are unbiased, and therefore, can continue to be used to make streamflow measurements in the USGS stream-gaging program. However, for the M9 ADCP, there are some important issues to be considered in making future measurements. Possible future work may include additional validation of streamflow measurements made with these instruments from other locations in the United States and measurement validation using updated firmware and software.

  7. Protein-accumulating cells and dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in three glucosinolate-containing genera: Armoracia, Capparis, Drypetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, L B; Behnke, H D; Mabry, T J

    1977-01-01

    Three glucosinolate-containing species, Armoracia rusticana Gaertner, Meyer et Scherbius (Brassicaceae), Capparis cynophallophora L. (Capparaceae) and Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurusawa (Euphorbiaceae), are shown by both light and electron microscopy to contain protein-accumulating cells (PAC). The PAC of Armoracia and Copparis (former "myrosin cells") occur as idioblasts. The PAC of Drypetes are usual members among axial phloem parenchyma cells rather than idioblasts. In Drypetes the vacuoles of the PAC are shown ultrastructurally to contain finely fibrillar material and to originate from local dilatations of the endoplasmic reticulum. The vacuoles in PAC of Armoracia and Capparis seem to originate in the same way; but ultrastructurally, their content is finely granular. In addition, Armoracia and Capparis are shown by both light and electron microscopy to contain dilated cisternae (DC) of the endoplasmic reticulum in normal parenchyma cells, in accord with previous findings for several species within Brassicaceae. The relationship of PAC and DC to glucosinolates and the enzyme myrosinase is discussed.

  8. Optimization of pulsed electric field pre-treatments to enhance health-promoting glucosinolates in broccoli flowers and stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Suarez, Manuel; Plaza, Lucia; Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel; Lyng, James G; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-07-01

    The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment variables (electric field strength and treatment time) on the glucosinolate content of broccoli flowers and stalks was evaluated. Samples were subjected to electric field strengths from 1 to 4 kV cm(-1) and treatment times from 50 to 1000 µs at 5 Hz. Data fitted significantly (P broccoli flowers (ranging from 187.1 to 212.5%) and stalks (ranging from 110.6 to 203.0%) respectively. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values, with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.59 to 8.80%. The use of PEF processing at moderate conditions could be a suitable method to stimulate production of broccoli with high health-promoting glucosinolate content. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Precision and resolution on Tore-Supra ECE electron temperature profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segui, J.L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M.

    2003-01-01

    A 16-channel heterodyne radiometer, 2 GHz spaced, is used on Tore-Supra to measure the electron cyclotron emission in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the O mode and 94 -126 GHz for the X mode. In the equatorial plane, a dual polarisation Gaussian optics lens antenna, with a perpendicular line of sight (with respect to the magnetic field), gives ECE measurements with very low refraction and Doppler effects. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This improves time stability calibration and gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94 -110 GHz RF band for polarisation studies. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 GHz) in order to perform temperature measurements during ECRH plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the vacuum vessel by using a 600 deg. C black body, a digital signal averaging on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper placed directly in front of it, and a simulation window without Fabry-Perot effects. The calibration precision leads to ECE temperature profiles which are very consistent with Thomson scattering measurements and guarantees a good stability of the ECE profiles for small changes on the magnetic field (absolute precision ± 6%, relative precision between channels ± 3%). Post-pulse data processing takes routinely into account the total magnetic field (B vacuum with ripple, B para , B dia , B pol , all with analytical formulations), the radial relativistic shift (analytical formulation is used), the refraction, not described in this paper, (cut-off detection with safety margin to avoid strong refraction), the nonthermal ECE spectra, not described in this paper, during LHCD (using an electron density threshold criterion). These previous analytical formulations are compatible with real time processing. Relativistic radial broadening simulations show that it is useful to fulfill 32 channels (1 GHz spaced). (authors)

  10. Precision and resolution on Tore-Supra ECE electron temperature profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segui, J.L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M. [Association EURATOM -CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2003-07-01

    A 16-channel heterodyne radiometer, 2 GHz spaced, is used on Tore-Supra to measure the electron cyclotron emission in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the O mode and 94 -126 GHz for the X mode. In the equatorial plane, a dual polarisation Gaussian optics lens antenna, with a perpendicular line of sight (with respect to the magnetic field), gives ECE measurements with very low refraction and Doppler effects. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This improves time stability calibration and gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94 -110 GHz RF band for polarisation studies. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 GHz) in order to perform temperature measurements during ECRH plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the vacuum vessel by using a 600 deg. C black body, a digital signal averaging on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper placed directly in front of it, and a simulation window without Fabry-Perot effects. The calibration precision leads to ECE temperature profiles which are very consistent with Thomson scattering measurements and guarantees a good stability of the ECE profiles for small changes on the magnetic field (absolute precision {+-} 6%, relative precision between channels {+-} 3%). Post-pulse data processing takes routinely into account the total magnetic field (B{sub vacuum} with ripple, B{sub para}, B{sub dia}, B{sub pol}, all with analytical formulations), the radial relativistic shift (analytical formulation is used), the refraction, not described in this paper, (cut-off detection with safety margin to avoid strong refraction), the nonthermal ECE spectra, not described in this paper, during LHCD (using an electron density threshold criterion). These previous analytical formulations are compatible with real time processing. Relativistic radial broadening simulations show that it is useful to fulfill 32 channels (1 GHz

  11. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in China: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Fu, Linlin; Lu, Sihua; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Dagang

    The profiles of major volatile organic compound (VOC) sources in China, including vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapor, paint, asphalt, industrial and residential coal burning, biomass burning, and the petrochemical industry, were experimentally determined. Source samples were taken using a dilution chamber for mobile and stationary sources, biomass burning in an actual Chinese farmer's house, and ambient air in a petrochemical industrial area. The concentrations of 92 VOC species were quantified using canister sampling and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system, and VOC source profiles were developed for source apportionment of VOCs in the Pearl River Delta region. Based on the measurement of source profiles, possible tracers for various emission sources were identified; e.g., 2-methylpentane and 1,3-butadiene could be used as tracers for vehicle exhaust; the characteristic compounds of architectural coating were aromatics such as toluene and m, p-xylene; the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene, and n-pentane, dominated the composition of gasoline vapor; and n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane were found to be typical of diesel vapor and asphalt application processes. As different emission sources are characterized by overlapping VOC species, the ratio of possible VOC tracers could be used to assess the contribution of various sources. The ratios between n-butane and isobutane, 1,3-butadiene and isoprene, and the ratios of aromatics (e.g., toluene to benzene and ethylbenzene to m, p-xylene) in the measured sources were compared.

  12. Influence of cooling rate on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2011-09-01

    The manufacture of dental crowns and bridges generates residual stresses within the veneering ceramic and framework during the cooling process. Residual stress is an important factor that control the mechanical behavior of restorations. Knowing the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth can help the understanding of failures, particularly chipping, a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the cooling rate dependence of the stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on metal and zirconia frameworks. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples 20 mm in diameter, with a 0.7 mm thick metal or Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal framework and a 1.5mm thick veneering ceramic. Three different cooling procedures were investigated. The magnitude of the stresses in the surface of the veneering ceramic was found to increase with cooling rate, while the interior stresses decreased. At the surface, compressive stresses were observed in all samples. In the interior, compressive stresses were observed in metal samples and tensile in zirconia samples. Cooling rate influences the magnitude of residual stresses. These can significantly influence the mechanical behavior of metal-and zirconia-based bilayered systems. The framework material influenced the nature of the interior stresses, with zirconia samples showing a less favorable stress profile than metal. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequestration of Glucosinolates and Iridoid Glucosides in Sawfly Species of the Genus Athalia and Their Role in Defense Against Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Sebastian E. W.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the larval sequestration abilities and defense effectiveness of four sawfly species of the genus Athalia (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) that feed as larvae either on members of the Brassicaceae or Plantaginaceae were investigated. Brassicaceae are characterized by glucosinolates (GLSs...... hemolymph of the GLSsequestering conspicuous A. rosae larvae. The results show that glucoside sequestration is widespread in the genus Athalia, but that the specific glucoside uptake can result in different defense effectiveness against a predator species....

  14. Role of turbulence fluctuations on uncertainties of acoutic Doppler current profiler discharge measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrab, Leticia; Garcia, Carlos M.; Cantero, Mariano I.; Oberg, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a systematic analysis quantifying the role of the presence of turbulence fluctuations on uncertainties (random errors) of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) discharge measurements from moving platforms. Data sets of three-dimensional flow velocities with high temporal and spatial resolution were generated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow. Dimensionless functions relating parameters quantifying the uncertainty in discharge measurements due to flow turbulence (relative variance and relative maximum random error) to sampling configuration were developed from the DNS simulations and then validated with field-scale discharge measurements. The validated functions were used to evaluate the role of the presence of flow turbulence fluctuations on uncertainties in ADCP discharge measurements. The results of this work indicate that random errors due to the flow turbulence are significant when: (a) a low number of transects is used for a discharge measurement, and (b) measurements are made in shallow rivers using high boat velocity (short time for the boat to cross a flow turbulence structure).

  15. Tritium profiles in Kalahari sands as a measure of rain water recharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Smith, P.E.; McGeorge, I.; Dziembowski, Z.

    1978-01-01

    This paper attempts to relate recharge measurements in the Kalahari by tritium profiles in the unsaturated zone to isotopic, hydrochemical and hydrologic data from an underlying, semi-confined aquifer. Auger holes into the sand cover were drilled along a line of experimental deeper holes penetrating the saturated zone. A further line of auger holes was drilled into the dune sand cover of a control area. Variable moisture contents, apparently indepent of grain size distribution and indicating transients are observed in the different profiles. 3 H and 18 O measurements on the moisture contents allow for the identification of the 1962/63 bomb tritium rise and successive drier and wetter periods. Infiltration, or potential recharge as percentage of infiltration was found to be strongly dependent on the annual rainfall. The distribution of 14 C, 13 C, 3 H and chemistry in the shallower of two underlying aquifers leads to the consideration of three possible mechanisms of recharge. Arguments favouring vertical recharge are presented, which lead to possible extrapolations into the sand covered areas of the Kalahari in general. (orig.) [de

  16. First density profile measurements using frequency modulation of the continuous wave reflectometry on JETa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, L.; Cupido, L.; Sirinelli, A.; Manso, M. E.; Jet-Efds Contributors

    2008-10-01

    We present the main design options and implementation of an X-mode reflectometer developed and successfully installed at JET using an innovative approach. It aims to prove the viability of measuring density profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution using broadband reflectometry operating in long and complex transmission lines. It probes the plasma with magnetic fields between 2.4 and 3.0 T using the V band [~(0-1.4)×1019 m-3]. The first experimental results show the high sensitivity of the diagnostic when measuring changes in the plasma density profile occurring ITER relevant regimes, such as ELMy H-modes. The successful demonstration of this concept motivated the upgrade of the JET frequency modulation of the continuous wave (FMCW) reflectometry diagnostic, to probe both the edge and core. This new system is essential to prove the viability of using the FMCW reflectometry technique to probe the plasma in next step devices, such as ITER, since they share the same waveguide complexity.

  17. Measurements of stratospheric Pinatubo aerosol extinction profiles by a Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo, Makoto; Nagasawa, Chikao.

    1992-01-01

    The Raman lidar has been used for remote measurements of water vapor, ozone and atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere because the Raman cross section is three orders smaller than the Rayleigh cross section. The authors estimated the extinction coefficients of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere using a Raman lidar. If the precise aerosol extinction coefficients are derived, the backscatter coefficient of a Mie scattering lidar will be more accurately estimated. The Raman lidar has performed to measure density profiles of some species using Raman scattering. Here the authors used a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for transmitter and received nitrogen vibrational Q-branch Raman scattering signal. Ansmann et al. (1990) derived tropospherical aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar. The authors think that this method can apply to dense stratospheric aerosols such as Pinatubo volcanic aerosols. As dense aerosols are now accumulated in the stratosphere by Pinatubo volcanic eruption, the error of Ramen lidar signal regarding the fluctuation of air density can be ignored

  18. A Study on the Profile Change Measurement of Steam Generator Tubes with Tube Expansion Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Song Myung Ho; Choi, Myung Sik

    2011-01-01

    Steam generator tubes for nuclear power plants contain the local shape transitions on their inner or outer surface such as dent, bulge, over-expansion, eccentricity, deflection, and so on by the application of physical force during the tube manufacturing and steam generator assembling and by the sludge (that is, corrosion products) produced during the plant operation. The structural integrity of tubes will be degraded by generating the corrosive crack at that location. The profilometry using the traditional bobbin probes which are currently applied for measuring the profile change of tubes gives us basic information such as axial locations and average magnitudes of deformations. However, the three-dimensional quantitative evaluation on circumferential locations, distributional angle, and size of deformations will have to be conducted to understand the effects of residual stresses increased by local deformations on corrosive cracking of tubes. Steam generator tubes of Korean standard nuclear power plants expanded within their tube-sheets by the explosive expansion method and suffered from corrosive cracks in the early stage of power operation. Thus, local deformations of steam generator tubes at the top of tube-sheet were measured with an advanced rotating probe and a laser profiling system for the two cases where the tubes expanded by the explosive expansion method and hydraulic expansion. Also, the trends of eccentricity, deflection, and over-expansion of tubes were evaluated. The advanced eddy current profilometry was confirmed to provide accurate information of local deformations compared with laser profilometry

  19. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...... not statistically significant. The results would support the notion that exhaustion is associated with HPA axis hypoactivity as assessed by salivary cortisol. Furthermore, the SF-36 vitality provides a measure of exhaustion that may be useful in epidemiological studies in order to explore long-term health effects...

  20. Identifying measures to balance the risk profile of the Tihange 2 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eer, A.M.; Monniez, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Belgium, each Nuclear Power Plant is subject to a periodic safety reassessment. In this context, it was found to be desirable to perform a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in support of the ten yearly back-fitting process. The Tihange 2 NPP is a 3-loop PWR having a thermal capacity of 2905 MW. Analysis of the plant's risk profile shows that implementing feasible measures for improvement of the shutdown risk, would be beneficial. This is because a configuration leading to significant risk, namely cold pressurization when the residual heat removal system is lost during reduced primary inventory, thus can be avoided. As a result the risk between reactor shutdown and power operation will be balanced. The presentation describes the lessons learnt regarding the Tihange 2 shutdown PSA model and the expected benefits following implementation of one of the proposed measures. (author)

  1. The Design of Ocean Turbulence Measurement with a Free Fall Vertical Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xin; Xin, Jia; Zhu, Tieyi; Yang, Hua; Teng, Yuru; Song, Dalei

    2018-03-01

    The newly designed instrument Free Fall Vertical Profiler (FFVP) developed by Ocean University of China (OUC) had been deployed in the Western Pacific in March 08, 2017 and succeed to collect turbulence signals about 350-m-deep water. According to the requirements of turbulence measurement, the mechanical design was developed for turbulence platform to achieve stability and good flow tracking. By analysing the Heading, Pitch and Roll, the results suggested that the platform satisfies the requirements of stability. The power spectrum of the cleaned shear signals using the noise correction algorithm match well with the theoretical Nasmyth spectrum and the rate of turbulence dissipation are approximately 10-8 W/kg. In general, the FFVP was rationally designed and provided a good measurement platform for turbulence observation.

  2. Measurement of surface temperature profiles on liquid uranium metal during electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    Surface temperature distributions of liquid uranium in a water-cooled copper crucible during electron beam evaporation were measured. Evaporation surface was imaged by a lens through a band-path filter (650{+-}5 nm) and a double mirror system on a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The video signals of the recorded image were connected to an image processor and converted to two-dimensional spectral radiance profiles. The surface temperatures were obtained from the spectral radiation intensity ratio of the evaporation surface and a freezing point of uranium and/or a reference light source using Planck`s law of radiation. The maximum temperature exceeded 3000 K and had saturation tendency with increasing electron beam input. The measured surface temperatures agreed with those estimated from deposition rates and data of saturated vapor pressure of uranium. (author)

  3. Deconvolution of H-alpha profiles measured by Thompson scattering collecting optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.; Grek, B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses that optically fast multichannel Thomson scattering optics that can be used for H-alpha emission profile measurement. A technique based on the fact that a particular volume element of the overall field of view can be seen by many channels, depending on its location, is discussed. It is applied to measurement made on PDX with the vertically viewing TVTS collecting optics (56 channels). The authors found that for this case, about 28 Fourier modes are optimum to represent the spatial behavior of the plasma emissivity. The coefficients for these modes are obtained by doing a least-square-fit to the data subjet to certain constraints. The important constraints are non-negative emissivity, the assumed up and down symmetry and zero emissivity beyond the liners. H-alpha deconvolutions are presented for diverted and circular discharges

  4. Automated translating beam profiler for in situ laser beam spot-size and focal position measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, James

    2018-03-01

    We present a simple and convenient, high-resolution solution for automated laser-beam profiling with axial translation. The device is based on a Raspberry Pi computer, Pi Noir CMOS camera, stepper motor, and commercial translation stage. We also provide software to run the device. The CMOS sensor is sensitive over a large wavelength range between 300 and 1100 nm and can be translated over 25 mm along the beam axis. The sensor head can be reversed without changing its axial position, allowing for a quantitative estimate of beam overlap with counter-propagating laser beams. Although not limited to this application, the intended use for this device is the automated measurement of the focal position and spot-size of a Gaussian laser beam. We present example data of one such measurement to illustrate device performance.

  5. Effects of X-ray tube parameters on thickness measure precision in X-ray profile gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jichen; Wu Zhifang; Xing Guilai

    2011-01-01

    Instantaneous profile gauge technology has been widely used in metallurgy industry because it can on-line get the profile of steel strip. It has characters of high measure precision and wide measure range, but the X-ray tube parameters only can be set few different values during measurement. The relations of thickness measure precision and X-ray tube current, X-ray tube voltage were analyzed. The results show that the X-ray tube current affects the thickness measure precision and the X-ray tube voltage determines the thickness measure range. The method of estimating the X-ray current by thickness measure precision was provided in the end. This method is the base of X-ray source selection and X-ray source parameter's setting in the instantaneous profile gauge. (authors)

  6. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2013-01-01

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a ΛCDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 200 , a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M 200 and in L X demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  7. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  8. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  9. Measurement of Rapid Protein Diffusion in the Cytoplasm by Photo-Converted Intensity Profile Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Gura Sadovsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence microscopy methods presently used to characterize protein motion in cells infer protein motion from indirect observables, rather than measuring protein motion directly. Operationalizing these methods requires expertise that can constitute a barrier to their broad utilization. Here, we have developed PIPE (photo-converted intensity profile expansion to directly measure the motion of tagged proteins and quantify it using an effective diffusion coefficient. PIPE works by pulsing photo-convertible fluorescent proteins, generating a peaked fluorescence signal at the pulsed region, and analyzing the spatial expansion of the signal. We demonstrate PIPE’s success in measuring accurate diffusion coefficients in silico and in vitro and compare effective diffusion coefficients of native cellular proteins and free fluorophores in vivo. We apply PIPE to measure diffusion anomality in the cell and use it to distinguish free fluorophores from native cellular proteins. PIPE’s direct measurement and ease of use make it appealing for cell biologists.

  10. Validation of six years of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide observations using MOZAIC CO profile measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. J. de Laat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM algorithm using vertically integrated profile aircraft measurements obtained within the MOZAIC project for the six year time period of 2003–2008.

    Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and airborne measurements for both mean values – also on a year-to-year basis – as well as seasonal variations. Several locations show large biases that are attributed to local effects like orography and proximity of large emission sources. Differences were detected for individual years: 2003, 2004 and 2006 have larger biases than 2005, 2007 and 2008, which appear to be related to SCIAMACHY instrumental issues but require more research. Results from this study are consistent with, and complementary to, findings from a previous validation study using ground-based measurements (de Laat et al., 2010b. According to this study, the SCIAMACHY data, if individual measurements are of sufficient quality – good signal-to-noise, can be used to determine the spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of CO total columns over clean areas. Biases found over areas with strong emissions (Africa, China could be explained by low sensitivity of the instrument in the boundary layer and users are recommended to avoid using the SCIAMACHY data while trying to quantify CO burden and/or retrieve CO emissions in such areas.

  11. Measurement of slice sensitivity profile for a 64-slice spiral CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanya; Qin Weichang; Wang Wei; Lu Chuanyou

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure and evaluate slice sensitivity profile (SSP) and the full width at half-maximum(FWHM) for a 64-slice spiral CT system. Methods: Using the same CT technique and body mode as those used for clinical CT, delta phantom was scanned with Somatom Sensation 64-slice spiral CT. SSPs and FWHM were measured both with reconstruction slice width of 0.6 mm at pitch=0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and with reconstruction slice width of 0.6, 1.0, 1.5 mm at pitch=1 respectively. Results: For normal slice width of 0. 6 mm, the measured FWHM, i.e. effective slice width, is 0.67, 0.67, 0.66, 0.69, 0.69 mm at different pitch. All the measured FWHM deviate less than 0.1 mm from the nominal slice width. The measured SSPs are symmetrical, bell-shaped curves without far-reaching tails, and show only slight variations as a function of the spiral pitch. When reconstruction slice width increase, relative SSP become wider. Conclusions: The variation of pitch hardly has effect all on SSP, effective slice width, and z-direction spatial resolution for Sensation 64-slice spiral CT system, which is helpful to optimize CT scanning protocol. (authors)

  12. Initial time-resolved particle beam profile measurements at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.X.; Lumpkin, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The commissioning of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring began in early 1995. Characterization of the stored particle beam properties involved time-resolved transverse and longitudinal profile measurements using optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) monitors. Early results include the observation of the beam on a single turn, measurements of the transverse beam sizes after damping using a 100 μs integration time (σ x ∼ 150 ± 25 μm, σ γ ∼ 65 ± 25 μm, depending on vertical coupling), and measurement of the bunch length (σ τ ∼ 25 to 55 ps, depending on the charge per bunch). The results are consistent with specifications and predictions based on the 8.2 nm-rad natural emittance, the calculated lattice parameters, and vertical coupling less than 10%. The novel, single-element focusing mirror for the photon transport line and the dual-sweep streak camera techniques which allow turn-by-turn measurements will also be presented. The latter measurements are believed to be the first of their kind on a storage ring in the USA

  13. Technical Note: Influence of Compton currents on profile measurements in small-volume ion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanny, Sean; Sperling, Nicholas; Parsai, E. Ishmael, E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Medical Center, 1325 Conference Drive, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Holmes, Shannon [Standard Imaging, 3120 Deming Way, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This work is to evaluate the effects of Compton current generation in three small-volume ionization chambers on measured beam characteristics for electron fields. Methods: Beam scans were performed using Exradin A16, A26, and PTW 31014 microchambers. Scans with varying chamber components shielded were performed. Static point measurements, output factors, and cable only irradiations were performed to determine the contribution of Compton currents to various components of the chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate why one microchamber showed a significant reduction in Compton current generation. Results: Beam profiles demonstrated significant distortion for two of the three chambers when scanned parallel to the chamber axis, produced by electron deposition within the wire. Measurements of ionization produced within the cable identified Compton current generation as the cause of these distortions. The size of the central collecting wire was found to have the greatest influence on the magnitude of Compton current generation. Conclusions: Microchambers can demonstrate significant (>5%) deviations from properties as measured with larger volume chambers (0.125 cm{sup 3} and above). These deviations can be substantially reduced by averaging measurements conducted at opposite polarities.

  14. Doping profile measurements in silicon using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) via electrochemical anodic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsyan, Gaurav

    Doping profiles are engineered to manipulate device properties and to determine electrical performances of microelectronic devices frequently. To support engineering studies afterward, essential information is usually required from physically characterized doping profiles. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) and Electrochemical Capacitance Voltage (ECV) profiling are standard techniques for now to map profile. SIMS yields a chemical doping profile via ion sputtering process and owns a better resolution, whereas ECV and SRP produce an electrical doping profile detecting free carriers in microelectronic devices. The major difference between electrical and chemical doping profiles is at heavily doped regions greater than 1020 atoms/cm3. At the profile region over the solubility limit, inactive dopants induce a flat plateau and detected by electrical measurements only. Destructive techniques are usually designed as stand-alone systems to study impurities. For an in-situ process control purpose, non-contact methods, such as ellipsometry and non-contact capacitance voltage (CV) techniques are current under development. In this theses work, terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is utilized to achieve electrical doping profile in both destructive and non-contact manners. In recent years the Terahertz group at Rochester Institute Technology developed several techniques that use terahertz pulses to non-destructively map doping profiles. In this thesis, we study a destructive but potentially higher resolution version of the terahertz based approach to map the profile of activated dopants and augment the non-destructive approaches already developed. The basic idea of the profile mapping approach developed in this MS thesis is to anodize, and thus oxidize to silicon dioxide, thin layers (down to below 10 nm) of the wafer with the doping profile to be mapped. Since the dopants atoms and any free carriers in the silicon oxide thin

  15. Simultaneous measurements of the thermospheric wind profile at three separate positions in the dusk auroral oval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, I.S.; Friis-Christensen, E.; Larsen, M.F.; Kelley, M.C.; Vickrey, J.; Meriwether, J.; Shih, P.

    1987-01-01

    On March 20, 1985, two rockets were launched from Soendre Stroemfjord, Greenland, into the dusk auroral oval. Three trimethyl aluminium trails were released to measure the neutral wind profiles between 95 and 190 km of altitude at two points separated by 190 km normal to the invariant latitude circles and at a third point separated from the first two by 300 km along the invariant latitude circles. Two barium/strontium clouds were released at 250 km of altitude, extending two of the neutral wind profiles to this altitude. In the E region the tip of the wind vector traced an ellipse as a function of increasing altitude with maximum wind speeds of 100-150 m/s in the southeastward and northwestward directions. The F region winds were southward with speeds of 100-200 m/s. The zonal wind component between 115 and 140 km of altitude had a horizontal gradient in the southeastward direction, whereas the meridional wind component at the same heights was constant over the spatial extent covered by the measurements. The authors interpret the observed E region wind field as being part of a gravity wave with a period of 3 hours as estimated from the ellipticity of the wind hodograms. The wind vectors rotated 540 degree clockwise with increasing height, indicating that the wave energy is propagating upward. The Fabry-Perot interferometer at Soendre Stroemfjord was first able to detect the F region winds 45 min after the releases and measured winds of 100-400 m/s mainly in the southeastward or antisunward direction. The geomagnetic conditions were quiet, with Kp not exceeding 2 for the 24 hours preceding the experiment. The incoherent scatter radar at Soendre Stroemfjord observed a contracted plasma convection pattern associated with positive B y and B z components of the interplanetary magnetic field

  16. First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; Kimmitt, M.F.; Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.

    2011-01-01

    Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.

  17. Measurement of temporal asymmetries of glucose consumption using linear profiles: reproducibility and comparison with visual analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheja, P.; Kuwert, T.; Schaefers, M.; Schaefers, K.; Schober, O.; Diehl, B.; Stodieck, S.R.G.; Ringelstein, E.B.; Schuierer, G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the reproducibility of this method and to compare its diagnostic performance to that of visual analysis in patients with complex partial seizures (CPS). Regional cerebral glucose consumption (rCMRGLc) was measured interictally in 25 CPS patients and 10 controls using F-18-deoxyglucose and the positron emission tomography (PET) camera ECAT EXACT 47. The PET scans were visually analyzed for the occurrence of unilateral temporal hypometabolism. Furthermore, rCMRGLc was quantified on six contiguous coronal planes by manually tracing maximal values of temporal glucose consumption, thus creating line profiles of temporal glucose consumption for each side. Indices of asymmetry (ASY) were then calculated from these line profiles in four temporal regions and compared to the corresponding 95% confidence intervals of the control data. All analyses were performed by two observers independently from each other and without knowledge of the clinical findings. The agreement between the two observers with regard to focus lateralization was 96% on visual analysis and 100% on quantitative analysis. There was an excellent agreement with regard to focus lateralization between visual and quantitative evaluation. (orig.) [de

  18. Validity of a Simple Method for Measuring Force-Velocity-Power Profile in Countermovement Jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Conceição, Filipe; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; González-Badillo, Juan José; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the reliability and validity of a simple computation method to evaluate force (F), velocity (v), and power (P) output during a countermovement jump (CMJ) suitable for use in field conditions and to verify the validity of this computation method to compute the CMJ force-velocity (F-v) profile (including unloaded and loaded jumps) in trained athletes. Sixteen high-level male sprinters and jumpers performed maximal CMJs under 6 different load conditions (0-87 kg). A force plate sampling at 1000 Hz was used to record vertical ground-reaction force and derive vertical-displacement data during CMJ trials. For each condition, mean F, v, and P of the push-off phase were determined from both force-plate data (reference method) and simple computation measures based on body mass, jump height (from flight time), and push-off distance and used to establish the linear F-v relationship for each individual. Mean absolute bias values were 0.9% (± 1.6%), 4.7% (± 6.2%), 3.7% (± 4.8%), and 5% (± 6.8%) for F, v, P, and slope of the F-v relationship (S Fv ), respectively. Both methods showed high correlations for F-v-profile-related variables (r = .985-.991). Finally, all variables computed from the simple method showed high reliability, with ICC >.980 and CV push-off distance, and jump height are known.

  19. Adaptive Sampling based 3D Profile Measuring Method for Free-Form Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xianyin; Zou, Yu; Gao, Qiang; Peng, Fangyu; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Guozhang

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of adaptability and scanning efficiency of the current surface profile detection device, a high precision and high efficiency detection approach is proposed for surface contour of free-form surface parts based on self- adaptability. The contact mechanical probe and the non-contact laser probe are synthetically integrated according to the sampling approach of adaptive front-end path detection. First, the front-end path is measured by the non-contact laser probe, and the detection path is planned by the internal algorithm of the measuring instrument. Then a reasonable measurement sampling is completed according to the planned path by the contact mechanical probe. The detection approach can effectively improve the measurement efficiency of the free-form surface contours and can simultaneously detect the surface contours of unknown free-form surfaces with different curvatures and even different rate of curvature. The detection approach proposed in this paper also has important reference value for free-form surface contour detection.

  20. Impact of measurement approach on the quality of gamma scanning density profile in a tray type lab-scale column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahabinejad, H.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Khorsandi, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study for investigating impact of the measurement approach on the quality of gamma scanning density profile in tray type columns using experimental and computational evaluations. Experimental density profiles from the total and the photopeak count measurements, as two approaches in gamma ray column scanning technique, has been compared with the computational density profile from Monte Carlo simulation results. We used a laboratory distillation column of 51 cm diameter as an illustrative example for this investigation. 137 Cs was used as a gamma ray source with the activity of 296 MBq (8 mCi), with a NaI(Tl) detector. MCNP4C Monte Carlo code has been used for simulations. The quality of the density profile in the photopeak count approach is relatively within 155–204% better than that of the total count approach for experimental results. The same comparison for simulation results leads to a relative difference within 100–135% for the density profile. - Highlights: • The quality of density profile in gamma scanning technique has been studied. • Quality of density profile depends on the measurement approach. • A laboratory distillation column has been used as an illustrative example. • MCNP4C Monte Carlo code has been used for simulations

  1. Comparison of stratospheric NO2 profiles above Kiruna, Sweden retrieved from ground-based zenith sky DOAS measurements, SAOZ balloon measurements and SCIAMACHY limb observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Myojeong; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Hendrick, François; Pukite, Janis; Van Roozendael, Michel; Platt, Ulrich; Raffalski, Uwe; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Stratospheric NO2 not only destroys ozone but acts as a buffer against halogen catalyzed ozone loss by converting halogen species into stable nitrates. These two roles of stratospheric NO2 depend on the altitude. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the vertical distribution of stratospheric NO2. We compare the NO2 profiles derived from the zenith sky DOAS with those obtained from, SAOZ balloon measurements and satellite limb observations. Vertical profiles of stratospheric NO2 are retrieved from ground-based zenith sky DOAS observations operated at Kiruna, Sweden (68.84°N, 20.41°E) since 1996. To determine the profile of stratospheric NO2 measured from ground-based zenith sky DOAS, we apply the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM) to retrieval of vertical profiles of stratospheric NO2 which has been developed by IASB-BIRA. The basic principle behind this profiling approach is the dependence of the mean scattering height on solar zenith angle (SZA). We compare the retrieved profiles to two additional datasets of stratospheric NO2 profile. The first one is derived from satellite limb observations by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on EnviSAT. The second is derived from the SAOZ balloon measurements (using a UV/Visible spectrometer) performed at Kiruna in Sweden.

  2. Remote Measurement of the Atmospheric Isoplanatic Angle and Determination of Refractive Turbulence Profiles by Direct Inversion of the Scintillation Amplitude Covariance Function with Tikhonov Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    shows Good’s 2 data between 500 m and 40 km. Good obtained thisCn profile by differential temperature measurement between two balloon-borne microthermal ...Cn profiles. However, they are difficult to obtain by remote measurements. In Chapters IV and V, I presented a profile measured by microthermal probes

  3. Degradation Behaviour of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have been proposed as an environmental friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications is their cost...... competitiveness in comparison to other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper use of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime of the Lithium-ion battery and its degradation behaviour...... is required. This paper aims to investigate, based on a laboratory developed lifetime model, the degradation behaviour of the performance parameters (i.e., capacity and power capability) of a Lithium-ion battery cell when it is subjected to a field measured mission profile, which is characteristic...

  4. 1 μs broadband frequency sweeping reflectometry for plasma density and fluctuation profile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Medvedeva, A.; Molina, D.; Conway, G. D.; Silva, A.; Stroth, U.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Tore Supra Team; Eurofusion Mst1 Team

    2017-11-01

    Frequency swept reflectometry has reached the symbolic value of 1 μs sweeping time; this performance has been made possible, thanks to an improved control of the ramp voltage driving the frequency source. In parallel, the memory depth of the acquisition system has been upgraded and can provide up to 200 000 signals during a plasma discharge. Additional improvements regarding the trigger delay determination of the acquisition and the voltage ramp linearity required by this ultra-fast technique have been set. While this diagnostic is traditionally dedicated to the plasma electron density profile measurement, such a fast sweeping rate can provide the study of fast plasma events and turbulence with unprecedented time and radial resolution from the edge to the core. Experimental results obtained on ASDEX Upgrade plasmas are presented to demonstrate the performances of the diagnostic.

  5. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  6. Emerging Technologies and Synergies for Airborne and Space-Based Measurements of Water Vapor Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrir, Amin R.; Kiemle, Christoph; Lebsock, Mathew D.; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Buehler, Stefan A.; Löhnert, Ulrich; Liu, Cong-Liang; Hargrave, Peter C.; Barrera-Verdejo, Maria; Winker, David M.

    2017-11-01

    A deeper understanding of how clouds will respond to a warming climate is one of the outstanding challenges in climate science. Uncertainties in the response of clouds, and particularly shallow clouds, have been identified as the dominant source of the discrepancy in model estimates of equilibrium climate sensitivity. As the community gains a deeper understanding of the many processes involved, there is a growing appreciation of the critical role played by fluctuations in water vapor and the coupling of water vapor and atmospheric circulations. Reduction of uncertainties in cloud-climate feedbacks and convection initiation as well as improved understanding of processes governing these effects will result from profiling of water vapor in the lower troposphere with improved accuracy and vertical resolution compared to existing airborne and space-based measurements. This paper highlights new technologies and improved measurement approaches for measuring lower tropospheric water vapor and their expected added value to current observations. Those include differential absorption lidar and radar, microwave occultation between low-Earth orbiters, and hyperspectral microwave remote sensing. Each methodology is briefly explained, and measurement capabilities as well as the current technological readiness for aircraft and satellite implementation are specified. Potential synergies between the technologies are discussed, actual examples hereof are given, and future perspectives are explored. Based on technical maturity and the foreseen near-mid-term development path of the various discussed measurement approaches, we find that improved measurements of water vapor throughout the troposphere would greatly benefit from the combination of differential absorption lidar focusing on the lower troposphere with passive remote sensors constraining the upper-tropospheric humidity.

  7. Measuring Compositions in Organic Depth Profiling: Results from a VAMAS Interlaboratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shard, A. G.; Havelund, Rasmus; Spencer, Steve J.; Gilmore, I. S.; Alexander, Morgan R.; Angerer, Tina B.; Aoyagi, Satoka; Barnes, Jean P.; Benayad, Anass; Bernasik, Andrzej; Ceccone, Giacomo; Counsell, Jonathan D.; Deeks, Christopher; Fletcher, John S.; Graham, Daniel J.; Heuser, Christian; Lee, Tae G.; Marie, Camille; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Mishra, Gautam; Rading, Derk; Renault, Oliver; Scurr, David J.; Shon, Hyun K.; Spampinato, Valentina; Tian, Hua; Wang, Fuyi; Winograd, Nicholas; Wu, Kui; Wucher, Andreas; Zhou, Yufan; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-07-23

    We report the results of a VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) interlaboratory study on the measurement of composition in organic depth profiling. Layered samples with known binary compositions of Irganox 1010 and either Irganox 1098 or Fmoc-pentafluoro-L-phenylalanine in each layer were manufactured in a single batch and distributed to more than 20 participating laboratories. The samples were analyzed using argon cluster ion sputtering and either X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) or Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to generate depth profiles. Participants were asked to estimate the volume fractions in two of the layers and were provided with the compositions of all other layers. Participants using XPS provided volume fractions within 0.03 of the nominal values. Participants using ToF-SIMS either made no attempt, or used various methods that gave results ranging in error from 0.02 to over 0.10 in volume fraction, the latter representing a 50% relative error for a nominal volume fraction of 0.2. Error was predominantly caused by inadequacy in the ability to compensate for primary ion intensity variations and the matrix effect in SIMS. Matrix effects in these materials appear to be more pronounced as the number of atoms in both the primary analytical ion and the secondary ion increase. Using the participants’ data we show that organic SIMS matrix effects can be measured and are remarkably consistent between instruments. We provide recommendations for identifying and compensating for matrix effects. Finally we demonstrate, using a simple normalization method, that virtually all ToF-SIMS participants could have obtained estimates of volume fraction that were at least as accurate and consistent as XPS.

  8. Gravitational lens recovery with GLASS: measuring the mass profile and shape of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jonathan P.; Read, Justin I.; Saha, Prasenjit

    2014-12-01

    We use a new non-parametric gravitational modelling tool - GLASS - to determine what quality of data (strong lensing, stellar kinematics, and/or stellar masses) are required to measure the circularly averaged mass profile of a lens and its shape. GLASS uses an underconstrained adaptive grid of mass pixels to model the lens, searching through thousands of models to marginalize over model uncertainties. Our key findings are as follows: (i) for pure lens data, multiple sources with wide redshift separation give the strongest constraints as this breaks the well-known mass-sheet or steepness degeneracy; (ii) a single quad with time delays also performs well, giving a good recovery of both the mass profile and its shape; (iii) stellar masses - for lenses where the stars dominate the central potential - can also break the steepness degeneracy, giving a recovery for doubles almost as good as having a quad with time-delay data, or multiple source redshifts; (iv) stellar kinematics provide a robust measure of the mass at the half-light radius of the stars r1/2 that can also break the steepness degeneracy if the Einstein radius rE ≠ r1/2; and (v) if rE ˜ r1/2, then stellar kinematic data can be used to probe the stellar velocity anisotropy β - an interesting quantity in its own right. Where information on the mass distribution from lensing and/or other probes becomes redundant, this opens up the possibility of using strong lensing to constrain cosmological models.

  9. Profile measurements of localized fast electrons and ions in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Roubin, J.P.; Becoulet, A.; Carrasco, J.; Martin, G.; Moreau, D.; Saoutic, B.

    1992-01-01

    The strong toroidal and poloidal anisotropy of the heat flux to the first wall of Tore Supra during additional heating has been related to suprathermal particle losses induced by the TF ripple. In this paper we describe a new system of electric collectors designed to diagnose these localized particles and we analyse measurements performed during LHCD, ICRH and NBI heating. The interaction of fast particles created by additional heating with the TF ripple perturbation in Tore Supra has been analyzed by a direct measurement of the localized particles. The good confinement region has been identified thanks to a peak in the measured current profiles and is in agreement with theory. During LHCD and ICRH, the global losses are weak but strongly anisotropic leading to hot spots at the wall. During ICRH, an ejection of fast ions by the sawteeth towards peripheral zones where they get lost in the ripple has been seen. This is a possible scenario of α particle losses in a reactor

  10. Measurement-based performance profiles and dynamics of UDT over dedicated connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian [University of Chicago; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wu, Qishi [University of Memphis; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University; Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL

    2016-11-01

    Wide-area data transfers in high-performance computing and big data scenarios are increasingly being carried over dedicated network connections that provide high capacities at low loss rates. UDP-based transport protocols are expected to be particularly well-suited for such transfers but their performance is relatively unexplored over a wide range of connection lengths, compared to TCP over shared connections. We present extensive throughput measurements of UDP-based Data Transfer (UDT) over a suite of physical and emulated 10 Gbps connections. In sharp contrast to current UDT analytical models, these measurements indicate much more complex throughput dynamics that are sensitive to the connection modality, protocol parameters, and round-trip times. Lyapunov exponents estimated from the Poincare maps of UDT traces clearly indicate regions of instability and complex dynamics. We propose a simple model based on the ramp-up and sustainment regimes of a generic transport protocol, which qualitatively illustrates the dominant monotonicity and concavity properties of throughput profiles and relates them to Lyapunov exponents. These measurements and analytical results together enable us to comprehensively evaluate UDT performance and select parameters to achieve high throughput, and they also provide guidelines for designing effective transport protocols for dedicated connections.

  11. Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Mescheryakov, G; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Senchishin, V; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2007-01-01

    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are...

  12. Overview of laserwire beam profile and emittance measurements for high power proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, S M; Bosco, A; Gabor, C; Pozimski, J; Savage, P; Hofmann, T

    2013-01-01

    Laserwires were originally developed to measure micron-sized electron beams via Compton scattering, where traditional wire scanners are at the limit of their resolution. Laserwires have since been applied to larger beamsize, high power H$^-$ ion beams, where the non-invasive method can probe beam densities that would damage traditional diagnostics. While photo-detachment of H$^-$ ions is now routine to measure beam profiles, extending the technique to transverse and longitudinal emittance measurements is a key aim of the laserwire emittance scanner under construction at the Front End Test Stand (FETS) at the RAL. A pulsed, 30 kHz, 8kW peak power laser is fibrecoupled to motorized collimating optics, which controls the position and thickness of the laserwire delivered to the H- interaction chamber. The laserwire slices out a beamlet of neutralized particles, which propagate to a downstream scintillator and camera. The emittance is reconstructed from 2D images as the laserwire position is scanned. Results from ...

  13. Field measurements of temperature profile for floatovoltaic dryer in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, F. A.; Ya'acob, M. E.; Iskandar, A. Noor

    2017-09-01

    Most of the equator region in a tropical climate zone experiences hot and humid weather but sometimes heavy rain and thunderstorms which occur stochastically in monsoon season. Sunlight which is the energy source can be harvested approximately 8 hours (on average basis) daily throughout the year which leads to the promotion of Solar PV technologies. This works projects the field performance for a new Floatovoltaic Dryer prototype with flexible PV roofing structures covering the top of the dryer system. The field measurements are collected on the lake of Engineering Faculty, UPM supported with 4-parameter weather station. Temperature profile with RH measurements inside the Floatovoltaic Dryer compartments as compared to direct-sun drying mechanism are the main contributions of this work and it projects more than 12 W of convection heat energy could be harvested by using the clean system. The field measurements imply various points of thermocouple and humidity sensor throughout the experiment. Temperature and humidity will be the main elements recorded to analyze the differences under monocrystalline PV panel as compared to natural drying.

  14. New twist in the optical schematic of surface slope measuring long trace profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Lacey, Ian; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-09-01

    The advents of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited synchrotron storage ring sources of x-rays are catalyzing the development of new, ultra-high accuracy metrology methods. To fully exploit the potential of these sources, metrology needs to be capable of determining the figure of an optical element with sub-nanometer height accuracy. Currently, the two most prevalent slope measuring instruments used for characterization of x-ray optics are the auto-collimator based nanometer optical measuring device (NOM) and the long trace profiler (LTP) using pencil beam interferometry (PBI). These devices have been consistently improved upon by the x-ray optics metrology community, but appear to be approaching their metrological limits. Here, we revise the traditional optical schematic of the LTP. We experimentally show that, for the level of accuracy desired for metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray optics, the Dove prism in the LTP reference channel appears to be one of the major sources of instrumental error. Therefore, we suggest returning back to the original PBI LTP schematics with no Dove prism in the reference channel. In this case, the optimal scanning strategies [Yashchuk, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 115101 (2009)] used to suppress the instrumental drift error have to be used to suppress a possible drift error associated with laser beam pointing instability. We experimentally and by numerical simulation demonstrate the usefulness of the suggested approach for measurements with x-ray optics with both face up and face down orientations.

  15. LOCAL VELOCITY PROFILES MEASURED BY PIV IN AN VESSEL AGITATED BY RUSHTON TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Šulc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics and flow field were measured in an agitated vessel using 2-D Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D TR PIV. The experiments were carried out in a fully baffled cylindrical flat bottom vessel 300 mm in inner diameter. The tank was agitated by a Rushton turbine 100 mm in diameter. The velocity fields were measured for three impeller rotation speeds 300 rpm, 450 rpm and 600 rpm and the corresponding Reynolds numbers in the range 50 000 < Re < 100 000, which means that the fully-developed turbulent flow was reached. In accordance with the theory of mixing, the dimensionless mean and fluctuation velocities in the measured directions were found to be constant and independent of the impeller rotational speed. The velocity profiles were averaged, and were expressed by Chebyshev polynomials of the 1st order. Although the experimentally investigated area was relatively far from the impeller, and it was located in upward flow to the impeller, no state of local isotropy was found. The ratio of the axial rms fluctuation velocity to the radial component was found to be in the range from 0.523 to 0.768. The axial turbulence intensity was found to be in the range from 0.293 to 0.667, which corresponds to a high turbulence intensity.

  16. Measurement properties of the Human Activity Profile questionnaire in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daniel C; Wegner, Fernando; Costa, Lucíola C M; Chiavegato, Luciana D; Lunardi, Adriana C

    To test the measurement properties (reproducibility, internal consistency, ceiling and floor effects, and construct validity) of the Human Activity Profile (HAP) questionnaire in hospitalized patients. This measurement properties study recruited one-hundred patients hospitalized for less than 48h for clinical or surgical reasons. The HAP was administered at baseline and after 48h in a test-retest design). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-6) was also administered at baseline, aiming to assess the construct validity. We tested the following measurement properties: reproducibility (reliability assessed by type 2,1 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2,1 )); agreement by the standard error of measurement (SEM) and by the minimum detectable change with 90% confidence (MDC 90 ), internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha, construct validity using a chi-square test, and ceiling and floor effects by calculating the proportion of patients who achieved the minimum or maximum scores. Reliability was excellent with an ICC of 0.99 (95% CI=0.98-0.99). SEM was 1.44 points (1.5% of the total score), the MDD 90 was 3.34 points (3.5% of the total score) and the Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 (alpha if item deleted ranging from 0.94 to 0.94). An association was observed between patients classified by HAP and by IPAQ-6 (χ 2 =3.38; p=0.18). Ceiling or floor effects were not observed. The HAP shows adequate measurement properties for the assessment of the physical activity/inactivity level in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  18. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi, E-mail: hiratsuka.junichi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  19. Possible Interactions between the Biosynthetic Pathways of Indole Glucosinolate and Auxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva K. Malka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates (GLS are a group of plant secondary metabolites mainly found in Cruciferous plants, share a core structure consisting of a β-thioglucose moiety and a sulfonated oxime, but differ by a variable side chain derived from one of the several amino acids. These compounds are hydrolyzed upon cell damage by thioglucosidase (myrosinase, and the resulting degradation products are toxic to many pathogens and herbivores. Human beings use these compounds as flavor compounds, anti-carcinogens, and bio-pesticides. GLS metabolism is complexly linked to auxin homeostasis. Indole GLS contributes to auxin biosynthesis via metabolic intermediates indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN. IAOx is proposed to be a metabolic branch point for biosynthesis of indole GLS, IAA, and camalexin. Interruption of metabolic channeling of IAOx into indole GLS leads to high-auxin production in GLS mutants. IAN is also produced as a hydrolyzed product of indole GLS and metabolized to IAA by nitrilases. In this review, we will discuss current knowledge on involvement of GLS in auxin homeostasis.

  20. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Mark G; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Tapper, Brian A

    2014-07-30

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as "safe" feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicity (facial eczema). Sporadic acute severe cases of turnip photosensitization in dairy cows characteristically exhibit high γ-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase serum enzyme activities that mimic those seen in facial eczema. The two diseases can, however, be distinguished by histopathology of the liver, where lesions, in particular those affecting small bile ducts, differ. To date, the hepato-/cholangiotoxic phytochemical causing liver damage in turnip photosensitization in cattle is unknown. Of the hydrolysis products of the various glucosinolate secondary compounds found in high concentrations in turnip and rape, work has shown that nitriles and epithionitriles can be hepatotoxic (and nephro- or pancreatotoxic) in rats. These derivatives include β-hydroxy-thiiranepropanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenenitrile from progoitrin; thiiranepropanenitrile and 4-pentenenitrile from gluconapin; thiiranebutanenitrile and 5-hexenenitrile from glucobrassicanapin; phenyl-3-propanenitrile from gluconasturtiin; and indole-3-acetonitrile from glucobrassicin. This perspective explores the possibility of the preferential formation of such derivatives, especially the epithionitriles, in acidic conditions in the bovine rumen, followed by absorption, hepatotoxicity, and secondary photosensitization.

  1. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid, and gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Wagner L; Martins, Auxiliadora O; Fernie, Alisdair R; Tohge, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD) was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA). Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs.

  2. The Deposition and Elimination of Glucosinolate Metabolites Derived from Rapeseed Meal in Eggs of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L P; Wang, J P; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2018-02-14

    This study was to investigate the deposition and elimination of glucosinolate metabolites including 5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) and thiocyanate ion (SCN - ) derived from rapeseed meal (RSM) in hen eggs. During 12 weeks accumulation phase, the serum triiodothyronine, thyronine, blood urea nitrogen, kidney index, and thyroid index linearly increased with the RSM at week 12 (P eggs (Y, ng/g) was correlated with 5-VOT intake (X 2 , μg/d·bird) and 5-VOT feeding time (X 1 , week): Y = 54.94X 1 + 0.51X 2 - 430.34 (P eggs (Y, mg/kg) was correlated with RSM intake (X 2 , μg/d·bird) and RSM feeding time (X 1 , week): Y = 0.095X 1 + 0.302X 2 - 0.4211 (P eggs. Taken together, 5.88% RSM with dietary supplements of 23.55 mg/kg 5-VOT and 10.76 mg/kg SCN - had no effects on hens with regard to serum parameters, organ index, and thyroid histopathology, and more than 4 weeks withdrawal should be considered for human and hen health.

  3. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties and the solar heating rate estimated by combining sky radiometer and lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Rei; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Aoyagi, Toshinori

    2016-07-01

    The SKYLIDAR algorithm was developed to estimate vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties from sky radiometer (SKYNET) and lidar (AD-Net) measurements. The solar heating rate was also estimated from the SKYLIDAR retrievals. The algorithm consists of two retrieval steps: (1) columnar properties are retrieved from the sky radiometer measurements and the vertically mean depolarization ratio obtained from the lidar measurements and (2) vertical profiles are retrieved from the lidar measurements and the results of the first step. The derived parameters are the vertical profiles of the size distribution, refractive index (real and imaginary parts), extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Sensitivity tests were conducted by applying the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the simulated sky radiometer and lidar data for vertical profiles of three different aerosols, continental average, transported dust, and pollution aerosols. The vertical profiles of the size distribution, extinction coefficient, and asymmetry factor were well estimated in all cases. The vertical profiles of the refractive index and single-scattering albedo of transported dust, but not those of transported pollution aerosol, were well estimated. To demonstrate the performance and validity of the SKYLIDAR algorithm, we applied the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the actual measurements at Tsukuba, Japan. The detailed vertical structures of the aerosol optical properties and solar heating rate of transported dust and smoke were investigated. Examination of the relationship between the solar heating rate and the aerosol optical properties showed that the vertical profile of the asymmetry factor played an important role in creating vertical variation in the solar heating rate. We then compared the columnar optical properties retrieved with the SKYLIDAR algorithm to those produced with the more established scheme SKYRAD.PACK, and the surface solar irradiance calculated from the SKYLIDAR

  4. Ground-Based Remote or In Situ Measurement of Vertical Profiles of Wind in the Lower Troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer

    2017-02-24

    Knowledge of winds in the lower troposphere is essential for a range of applications, including weather forecasting, transportation, natural hazards, and wind energy. This presentation focuses on the measurement of vertical profiles of wind in the lower troposphere for wind energy applications. This presentation introduces the information that wind energy site development and operations require, how it used, and the benefits and problems of current measurements from in-situ measurements and remote sensing. The development of commercial Doppler wind lidar systems over the last 10 years are shown, along with the lessons learned from this experience. Finally, potential developments in wind profiling aimed at reducing uncertainty and increasing data availability are introduced.

  5. The profile of the electron beam in the PTB synchrotron, and its influence on radiometric measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaase, H.

    1976-01-01

    A simple method is described to determine the beam profile in an electron synchrotron; the measured results are compared with calculated values. Moreover, the influence of synchrotron- and betatron-oscillations on synchrotron radiation measurements is discussed, and a method is given to correct this. (orig.) [de

  6. Tropospheric profiles of wet refractivity and humidity from the combination of remote sensing data sets and measurements on the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hurter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We reconstruct atmospheric wet refractivity profiles for the western part of Switzerland with a least-squares collocation approach from data sets of (a zenith path delays that are a byproduct of the GPS (global positioning system processing, (b ground meteorological measurements, (c wet refractivity profiles from radio occultations whose tangent points lie within the study area, and (d radiosonde measurements. Wet refractivity is a parameter partly describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves and depends on the atmospheric parameters temperature and water vapour pressure. In addition, we have measurements of a lower V-band microwave radiometer at Payerne. It delivers temperature profiles at high temporal resolution, especially in the range from ground to 3000 m a.g.l., though vertical information content decreases with height. The temperature profiles together with the collocated wet refractivity profiles provide near-continuous dew point temperature or relative humidity profiles at Payerne for the study period from 2009 to 2011. In the validation of the humidity profiles, we adopt a two-step procedure. We first investigate the reconstruction quality of the wet refractivity profiles at the location of Payerne by comparing them to wet refractivity profiles computed from radiosonde profiles available for that location. We also assess the individual contributions of the data sets to the reconstruction quality and demonstrate a clear benefit from the data combination. Secondly, the accuracy of the conversion from wet refractivity to dew point temperature and relative humidity profiles with the radiometer temperature profiles is examined, comparing them also to radiosonde profiles. For the least-squares collocation solution combining GPS and ground meteorological measurements, we achieve the following error figures with respect to the radiosonde reference: maximum median offset of relative refractivity error is −16% and quartiles are 5% to

  7. Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser, Cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, D.F.; Fortgang, C.M.; Holtkamp, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    Thermionic dispenser cathodes are widely used in modern high-power microwave tubes. Use of these cathodes has led to significant improvement in performance. In recent years these cathodes have been used in electron linear accelerators (LINACs), particularly in induction LINACs, such as the Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Relativistic Test Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For induction LINACs, the thermionic dispenser cathode provides greater reproducibility, longer pulse lengths, and lower emittance beams than does a field emission cathode. Los Alamos National Laboratory is fabricating a dual-axis X-ray radiography machine called dual-axis radiograph hydrodynamic test (DARHT). The second axis of DARHT consists of a 2-kA, 20-MeV induction LINAC that uses a 3.2-MeV electron gun with a tungsten thermionic-dispenser cathode. Typically the DARHT cathode current density is 10 A/cm 2 at 1050 C. Under these conditions current density is space-charge limited, which is desirable since current density is independent of temperature. At lower temperature (the temperature-limited regime) there are variations in the local current density due to a nonuniform temperature profile. To obtain the desired uniform current density associated with space-charge limited operation, the coolest area on the cathode must be at a sufficiently high temperature so that the emission is space-charge limited. Consequently, the rest of the cathode is emitting at the same space-charge-limited current density but is at a higher temperature than necessary. Because cathode lifetime is such a strong function of cathode temperature, there is a severe penalty for nonuniformity in the cathode temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 50 C means cathode lifetime will decrease by a factor of at least four. Therefore, we are motivated to measure the temperature profiles of our large-area cathodes

  8. Constraining Saturn's interior density profile from precision gravity field measurement obtained during Grand Finale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movshovitz, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Helled, R.; Hubbard, W. B.; Mankovich, C.; Thorngren, D.; Wahl, S. M.; Militzer, B.; Durante, D.

    2017-12-01

    The external gravity field of a planetary body is determined by the distribution of mass in its interior. Therefore, a measurement of the external field, properlyinterpreted, tells us about the interior density profile, ρ(r), which in turn can be used to constrain the composition in the interior and thereby learn about theformation mechanism of the planet. Recently, very high precision measurements of the gravity coefficients for Saturn have been made by the radio science instrument on the Cassini spacecraft during its Grand Finale orbits. The resulting coefficients come with an associated uncertainty. The task of matching a given density profile to a given set of gravity coefficients is relatively straightforward, but the question of how to best account for the uncertainty is not. In essentially all prior work on matching models to gravity field data inferences about planetary structure have rested on assumptions regarding the imperfectly known H/He equation of state and the assumption of an adiabatic interior. Here we wish to vastly expand the phase space of such calculations. We present a framework for describing all the possible interior density structures of a Jovian planet constrained by a given set of gravity coefficients and their associated uncertainties. Our approach is statistical. We produce a random sample of ρ(a) curves drawn from the underlying (and unknown) probability distribution of all curves, where ρ is the density on an interior level surface with equatorial radius a. Since the resulting set of density curves is a random sample, that is, curves appear with frequency proportional to the likelihood of their being consistent with the measured gravity, we can compute probability distributions for any quantity that is a function of ρ, such as central pressure, oblateness, core mass and radius, etc. Our approach is also Bayesian, in that it can utilize any prior assumptions about the planet's interior, as necessary, without being overly

  9. Measurement of position and profile of undulator radiation in Indus-2 using scanning wire monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Chander; Lal, Sohan; Raghuwanshi, V.K.; Prasad, Vijendra

    2015-01-01

    Two planar undulators (U1 and U2) for Atomic Molecular Spectroscopy (AMOS) beamline and Angle Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES) beamline have been installed in Indus-2. The U1 undulator is designed to produce photons in the energy range of 6 eV to 250 eV and U2 undulator is designed to produce photons in the energy range of 30 eV to 600 eV. In order to measure the position and vertical profile of photon beams emitted from these undulators, one scanning wire monitor has been installed in each beamline front end. In these scanning wire monitors, a gold coated tungsten wire of 100 μm thickness, stretched between a fork shaped alumina ceramic holder, is scanned vertically perpendicular to the direction of propagation of photon beam by using a precisely controlled stepper motor. The photo-electron current generated in the wire is measured by an electrometer. A graphical user interface has been developed which facilitates the scanning as per the given range, plots the graphs and stores the scanned data in Excel file. This paper describes our experience and usefulness of these wire monitors during commissioning of planar undulators in Indus-2. (author)

  10. A measure of family eating habits: initial psychometric properties using the profile pattern approach (PPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempel, Natalie; Kim, Se-Kang; Wilson, Monique; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    Although it seems likely that family characteristics and eating habits are a major factor in the development of eating behaviors, there are no self-report measures that examine how individuals view their family's eating habits. Seventy-one women ages 18-22 were recruited from a private university in a large northeastern city and asked to complete a short questionnaire packet consisting of demographic questions, the newly developed Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ) and the Eating Inventory (EI). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the FEHQ was established. Significant associations were found between the FEHQ and the EI, indicating convergent validity for the FEHQ. Further validation was conducted using a novel statistical technique, the profile pattern approach (PPA). The results of the present study are limited by the restricted sample characteristic of a university setting. However, our findings show that the family eating habits' measure appears psychometrically sound. A future aim will be to continue validating this instrument in other samples, particularly to determine its predictive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectropolarimetric Measurements of Scattered Sunlight in the Huggins Bands: Retrieval of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, D.; Sander, S. P.; Stutz, J.; Pongetti, T. J.; Yung, Y. L.; Wong, M.; Natraj, V.; Li, K.; Shia, R.

    2009-12-01

    Ozone concentrations in the troposphere have increased over the past century as a result of anthropogenic emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds. In addition to being harmful to human health and plant life, ozone is an important greenhouse gas, especially in the middle and upper troposphere. Therefore, accurate monitoring of tropospheric ozone vertical distributions is crucial for a better understanding of air quality and climate change. Simulations of vector radiative transfer in the near ultraviolet region have shown that tropospheric ozone profiles can be retrieved using polarization measurements. However, to date there has been no experimental test of this method. A new compact, portable spectropolarimeter has been built for atmospheric remote sensing. The first comprehensive description of the configuration and performance of this instrument for ground-based operation is provided and sample atmospheric scattered sunlight spectra are shown. Using optimal estimation retrieval theory we study the information content of polarization spectra in the Huggins band and uncertainties in the retrieval associated with the measurement parameters, such as aerosol scattering.

  12. Accurate Profile Measurement of the low Intensity Secondary Beams in the CERN Experimental Areas

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084531; Tranquille, Gerard

    2018-02-23

    The CERN accelerators deliver a wide spectrum of secondary beams to the Experimental Areas. These beams are composed of hadrons, leptons, and heavy ions that can vary greatly in momentum (1 GeV/c to 400 GeV/c) and intensity (10^2 to 10^8 particles per second). The profile, position, and intensity of these beams are measured utilising particle detectors. However, the current systems show several problems that limit the quality of this kind of monitoring. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate the best detector technology that could replace the existing monitors and build a first prototype of it. A review of the existing detection techniques has led to the choice of Scintillating Fibres (SciFi) read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). This detection technology has the potential to perform better in terms of material budget, range of intensities measured, and active area size. In addition, it has particle counting capabilities, which could extend its application to momentum spectrometry or Time...

  13. Transportable lidar for the measurement of ozone concentration and flux profiles in the lower troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanzeng; Howell, J.N.; Hardesty, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In many areas of the United States, as well as in other industrial areas (such as Europe), elevated and potentially harmful levels of ozone are being measured during summer. Most of this ozone is photochemically produced. The relatively long lifetime of ozone allows industrially produced ozone to be transported on a hemispheric scale. Since the trends of tropospheric ozone are very likely dependent on the source strengths and distributions of the pollutants and the chemical/ transport process involved, a predictive understanding of tropospheric ozone climatology requires a focus on the chemical and transport processes that link regional emissions to hemispheric ozone trends and distributions. Of critical importance to these studies is a satisfactory data base of tropospheric ozone distribution from which global and regional tropospheric ozone climatology can be derived, and the processes controlling tropospheric ozone can be better understood. A transportable lidar for measuring ozone concentration and flux profiles in the lower troposphere is needed. One such system is being developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth Resources Laboratory (NOAA/ERL) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL)

  14. Minimal interference beam size/profile measurement techniques applicable to the Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nexsen, W.; Dutt, S.; Kauffmann, S.; Lebedev, V.; Maschke, A.; Mokhov, N.; Richardson, R.; Tsyganov, E.; Zinchenko, A.

    1993-05-01

    The imaging of synchrotron radiation (SR) has been suggested as a technique for providing a continuous, non-interfering monitor of the beam profile in the Collider rings at the Superconducting Super Collider. A closer examination has raised questions concerning the applicability of SR imaging in this case because of the diffraction broadening of the image, the requirements for axial space and location in the lattice, and the complexity of the system. We have surveyed the known, alternative, minimal interference techniques for measuring beam size and have evaluated them for possible Collider usage. We conclude that of the approaches that appear feasible, all require at least some development for our usage and that the development of an electron beam probe offers the best promise. We recommend that flying wires be used for cross-checking and calibrating the electron beam probe diagnostic and for luminosity measurements when the highest accuracy is required, but flying wires should not be used as the primary diagnostic because of their limited lifetime

  15. Measurement of fatigue crack growth using low-profile eddy-current sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchburn, R.J.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Burke, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Conformable spiral coils show promise as permanently mounted eddy-current sensors for the detection and monitoring of surface-breaking cracks in electrically conductive structures. Flexibility and a low profile (typically less than 0.5 mm) are key advantages that allow the sensors to be unobtrusively mounted on curved surfaces and beneath surface coatings. Furthermore, these sensors can be permanently mounted in areas that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to reach without significant disassembly. The sensors can be activated and interrogated using the same well-established electromagnetic measurement principles in eddy-current nondestructive inspection. A material test machine was used to grow through-thickness fatigue crack in a compact-tension specimen made from the aerospace-grade aluminium alloy AA2014. The growth of the crack was examined by measuring the small impedance changes of planar spiral-coil sensors attached to the specimen. The results indicate that permanently attached conformable spiral coils can be used to detect a deep crack once it has grown beneath the sensor, and then to monitor subsequent crack growth.

  16. Equations of bark thickness and volume profiles at different heights with easy-measurement variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellini, J. M.; Galarza, M.; Burns, S. L.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.; Lencinas, M. V.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop equations of thickness profile and bark volume at different heights with easy-measurement variables, taking as a study case Nothofagus pumilio forests, growing in different site qualities and growth phases in Southern Patagonia. Data was collected from 717 harvested trees. Three models were fitted using multiple, non-lineal regression and generalized linear model, by stepwise methodology, iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation and Marquardt algorithm. The dependent variables were diameter at 1.30 m height (DBH), relative height (RH) and growth phase (GP). The statistic evaluation was made through the adjusted determinant coefficient (r2-adj), standard error of the estimation (SEE), mean absolute error and residual analysis. All models presented good fitness with a significant correlation with the growth phase. A decrease in the thickness was observed when the relative height increase. Moreover, a bark coefficient was made to calculate volume with and without bark of individual trees, where significant differences according to site quality of the stands and DBH class of the trees were observed. It can be concluded that the prediction of bark thickness and bark coefficient is possible using DBH, height, site quality and growth phase, common and easy measurement variables used in forest inventories. (Author) 23 refs.

  17. The dose-dependent influence of zinc and cadmium contamination of soil on their uptake and glucosinolate content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Bączek-Kwinta, Renata; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Anna; Huk, Anna; Manikowska, Anna; Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between the ability to accumulate heavy metals (represented by Cd and Zn) and to synthesize bioactive compounds (represented by glucosinolates [GLS]) was investigated in two cabbage cultivars. Plants were grown in the greenhouse of a phytotron under controlled conditions in soils spiked with two different Zn or Cd concentrations. The measurements of Cd and Zn contents in soil and cabbage (leaf) samples were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas GLS levels in cabbage were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ranges of metal contents in soil were 80 to 450 mg/kg dry weight for Zn and 0.3 to 30 mg/kg dry weight for Cd, whereas the levels of accumulated Zn and Cd in cabbage amounted to 15 to 130 and 0.02 to 3 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. After initial symptoms of toxicity, during a later stage of growth, the plants exhibited very good tolerance to both metals. Enhanced biosynthesis of GLS was observed in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to the heavy metals. The GLS content in Zn-exposed cabbage rose from 3.2 to 12 µmol/g dry weight, and the corresponding values for Cd-treated plants were 3.5 to 10 µmol/g dry weight. Thus, the increased soil contamination by metals caused greater accumulation in cabbage, as well as stimulation of GLS biosynthesis. The results obtained point to the high phytoremediation and biofumigation potential of white cabbage. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  18. A young root-specific gene (ArMY2) from horseradish encoding a MYR II myrosinase with kinetic preference for the root-specific glucosinolate gluconasturtiin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebers, Andreas; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    The pungent taste of horseradish is caused by isothiocyanates which are released from glucosinolates by myrosinases. These enzymes are encoded by genes belonging to one of two subfamilies, termed MYR I and MYR II, respectively. A MYR II-type myrosinase gene was identified for the first time in horseradish. The gene termed ArMY2 was only expressed in young roots. A full-length cDNA encoding a myrosinase termed ArMy2 was isolated and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant His-tagged enzyme was characterized biochemically. Substrate affinity was 5 times higher towards gluconasturtiin than towards sinigrin. Gluconasturtiin was found to be the most abundant glucosinolate in young horseradish roots while sinigrin dominated in storage roots and leaves. This indicates that a specialized glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system might be active in young roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Results from a three-month intercomparison of boundary-layer wind profiler and sodar wind measurements at Lindenberg, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyrich, F.; Goersdorf, U.; Neisser, J.; Steinhagen, H.; Weisensee, U. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium

    1998-10-01

    Intercomparison experiments with a wind profiler and a Doppler sodar have been performed at the meteorological observatory Lindenberg of the German weather service in summer, 1994, and in autumn, 1995, over a total period of about three months. The paper presents selected results of the wind measurements performed with the two systems. Sodar and wind profiler are shown to complement each other quite well. Therefore, a combination of both is a promising tool for continuous, high-resolution measurements of the wind profile. A problem to be solved is the construction of composite wind profiles when the