Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A
The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.
Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J.
Introduction. Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of
Laurel S. Morris
Full Text Available Background: Functional neurological disorder (FND is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. Methods: We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV. Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS+/CS− information. During functional MRI, subjects then performed an instrumental associative learning task to avoid monetary losses in the context of the previously conditioned stimuli. We expected that FND patients would be better at learning to avoid losses when faced with negatively conditioned stimuli (increased harm avoidance. Multi-echo resting state fMRI was also collected from the same subjects and a robust denoising method was employed, important for removing motion and physiological artifacts. Results: FND subjects were more sensitive to the negative CS+ compared to HV, demonstrated by a reinforcement learning model. Contrary to expectation, FND patients were generally more impaired at learning to avoid losses under both contexts (CS+/CS−, persisting to choose the option that resulted in a negative outcome demonstrated by both behavioural and computational analyses. FND patients showed enhanced amygdala but reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses when they received negative feedback. Patients also had increased resting state functional connectivity between these two regions. Conclusions: FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND
Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J
Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of increasing avoidance of (anticipated) pain. In vaginismus the anticipation of pain may give rise to catastrophic pain ideation. This may establish hypervigilance toward painful sexual stimuli, which consequently results in negative appraisal of sexual cues. This process could impair genital and sexual responding, intensify pain and trigger avoidance, which in turn may contribute to the onset and persistence of symptoms in vaginismus and to certain extent also in dyspareunia. To investigate whether women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by heightened levels of habitual pain catastrophic cognitions, together with higher levels of HA. This study consisted of three groups: a lifelong vaginismus group (N = 35, mean age = 28.4; standard deviation [SD] = 5.8), a dyspareunia group (N = 33, mean age = 26.7; SD = 6.8), and women without sexual complaints (N = 54, mean age = 26.5; SD = 6.7). HA scale of Cloninger's tridimensional personality questionnaire, and the pain catastrophizing scale. Specifically women inflicted with vaginismus showed significantly heightened levels of catastrophic pain cognitions compared with the other two groups, as well as significant enhanced HA vs. the control group, and a trend vs. the dyspareunia group. Both traits were shown to have cumulative predictive validity for the presence of vaginismus. This study focused on the personality traits of catastrophizing pain cognitions and HA in women with lifelong vaginismus. Our findings showed that indeed, women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by trait of HA interwoven with habitual pain catastrophizing cognitions. This study could help in the refinement of the current conceptualization and might shed
Bey, K; Lennertz, L; Riesel, A; Klawohn, J; Kaufmann, C; Heinzel, S; Grützmann, R; Kathmann, N; Wagner, M
The etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is assumed to involve interactions between genetically determined vulnerability factors and significant environmental features. Here, we aim to investigate how the personality trait harm avoidance and the experience of childhood adversities contribute to OCD. A total of 169 patients with OCD, 157 healthy comparison subjects, and 57 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with OCD participated in the study. Harm avoidance was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the severity of childhood adversities was measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Both patients with OCD and relatives showed elevated levels of harm avoidance compared to controls. Furthermore, patients exhibited significantly higher scores than relatives. This linear pattern was observed throughout all subscales of harm avoidance, and remained stable after controlling for the severity of depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. With regard to childhood adversities, patients with OCD reported higher levels than relatives and controls. Our results provide further evidence for a diathesis-stress model of OCD. While patients and unaffected relatives share elevated levels of harm avoidance, supporting the role of harm avoidance as an endophenotype of OCD, a heightened severity of childhood adversity was only observed in patients. The assumed biological underpinnings of these findings are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Michael Todd Allen
Full Text Available Personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI, a temperamental tendency for avoidance in the face of unfamiliar situations, have been identified as risk factors for anxiety disorders. Personality factors are generally identified through self-report inventories. However, this tendency to avoid may affect the accuracy of these self-report inventories. Previously, a computer based task was developed in which the participant guides an on-screen “avatar” through a series of onscreen events; performance on the task could accurately predict participants’ BI, measured by a standard paper and pencil questionnaire (Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition, or AMBI. Here, we sought to replicate this finding as well as compare performance on the avatar task to another measure related to BI, the harm avoidance (HA scale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ. The TPQ includes HA scales as well as scales assessing reward dependence (RD, novelty seeking (NS and persistence. One hundred and one undergraduates voluntarily completed the avatar task and the paper and pencil inventories in a counter-balanced order. Scores on the avatar task were strongly correlated with BI assessed via the AMBI questionnaire, which replicates prior findings. Females exhibited higher HA scores than males, but did not differ on scores on the avatar task. There was a strong positive relationship between scores on the avatar task and HA scores. One aspect of HA, fear of uncertainty was found to moderately mediate the relationship between AMBI scores and avatar scores. NS had a strong negative relationship with scores on the avatar task, but there was no significant relationship between RD and scores on the avatar task. These findings indicate the effectiveness of the avatar task as a behavioral alternative to self-report measures to assess avoidance. In addition, the use of computer based behavioral tasks are a viable alternative to paper and pencil self
Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena; Granot, Michal
Whether psychological factors such as anxiety and pain catastrophizing levels influence the expression of endogenous analgesia in general and, more specifically, the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) response is still under debate. It may be assumed that other psychological characteristics also play a role in the CPM response. The neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine are involved both in CPM, as well as personality traits such as harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD), which can be obtained by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). However, the associations between these traits (HA, NS, and RD) with endogenous analgesia revealed by CPM have not yet been explored. Healthy middle-age subjects (n = 28) completed the TPQ, Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and were assessed for CPM paradigms using thermal phasic temporal summation as the "test stimulus" and hand immersion into hot water bath (CPM water) or contact heat (CPM contact) for "conditioning stimulus." Higher levels of HA were associated with less-efficient CPM responses obtained by both paradigms: CPM water (r = 0.418, P = 0.027) and CPM contact (r = 0.374, P = 0.050). However, NS and RD were not associated with the other measurements. No significant relationship was observed between state anxiety and pain catastrophizing levels and the CPM responses. The relationship between the capacity of endogenous analgesia and the tendency to avoid aversive experience can be explained by mutual mechanisms involving similar neurotransmitters or brain areas. These findings illuminate the key role of harm avoidance obtained by the TPQ in determining the characteristics of pain modulation profile. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Full Text Available Ching-Yen Chen,1–3 Nan-Wen Yu,2–4 Tien-Hao Huang,4 Wei-Shin Wang,4 Ji-Tseng Fang2,3,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Medical Education Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan Purpose: During medical school training, increased stress, depression, and anxiety are common. Certain personality traits, particularly harm avoidance (HA, may increase the risk of psychopathological disorders, insomnia, and migraine among medical students. This study evaluated the role HA may play on levels of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia among Taiwanese medical students starting their fifth and final year of medical school.Patients and methods: A series of self-report questionnaires were used to measure the severity of anxiety, depression, and insomnia, as well as somatic symptoms, particularly migraine headache, among 143 Taiwanese fifth-year medical students (94 males and 49 females. Most had normal or mild levels of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and migraine.Results: HA personality trait was significantly associated with depression (all P ≤ 0.001 after adjusting for other factors. HA was not significantly associated with anxiety, insomnia, or migraine headache days.Conclusion: HA personality trait was significantly associated with depression among fifth-year medical students in Taiwan. Keywords: anxiety, depression, harm avoidance, psychological stress, sleep initiation and maintenance disorders, migraine, students, medical
Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Evidence in the literature suggests peculiar personality traits for fibromyalgic patients, and it has been suggested that personality characteristics may be involved in patients' different symptomatic events and responses to treatment. The aim of the study is to investigate the personality characteristics of Italian FM patients and to explore the possibility of clustering them considering both personality traits and clinical characteristics.Design: The study used a cross-sectional methodology and involved a control group. A self-assessment procedure was used for data gathering. The study included 87 female FM patients and 83 healthy females. Patients were approached and interviewed in person during a psychiatric consultation. Healthy people were recruited from general practices with previous telephone contact.Main Outcome Measures: Participants responded to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36.Results: FM patients scored significantly different from healthy participants on the Harm-Avoidance (HA, Novelty Seeking (NS and Self-Directedness (SD. Two clusters were identified: patients in Cluster 1 (n=37 had higher scores on HA and lower scores on RD, SD and Cooperativeness and reported more serious fibromyalgia and more severe anxious-depressive symptomatology than did patients in Cluster 2 (n=46.Conclusion: This study confirms the presence of certain personality traits in the FM population. In particular, high levels of Harm Avoidance and low levels of Self-Directedness characterize a subgroup of FM patients with more severe anxious-depressive symptomatology. According to these findings, personality assessment could be useful in the diagnostic process to tailor therapeutic interventions to the personality characteristics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has suggested that oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR variants may account for individual differences in social behavior, the effects of stress and parenting styles. Little is known, however, on a putative role of the gene in heritable temperamental traits. Methods We addressed effects of two common OXTR variants, rs237900 and rs237902, on personality dimensions in 99 healthy subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Results When sex was controlled for and an OXTR genotype*sex interaction term was included in the regression model, 11% of the variance in Harm Avoidance could be explained (uncorrected p ≤ 0.01. Female carriers of the minor alleles scored highest, and a novel A217T mutation emerged in the most harm avoidant male participant. Conclusions Findings lend support to a modulatory effect of common OXTR variants on Harm Avoidance in healthy caucasian women and invite resequencing of the gene in anxiety phenotypes to identify more explanatory functional variation.
Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela
The variance in the range of personality trait expression appears to be linked to structural variance in specific brain regions. In evidencing associations between personality factors and neurobiological measures, it seems evident that the cerebellum has not been up to now thought as having a key role in personality. This paper will review the most recent structural and functional neuroimaging literature that engages the cerebellum in personality traits, as novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and it will discuss the findings in the context of contemporary theories of affective and cognitive cerebellar function. By using region of interest (ROI)- and voxel-based approaches, we recently evidenced that the cerebellar volumes correlate positively with novelty seeking scores and negatively with harm avoidance scores. Subjects who search for new situations as a novelty seeker does (and a harm avoiding does not do) show a different engagement of their cerebellar circuitries in order to rapidly adapt to changing environments. The emerging model of cerebellar functionality may explain how the cerebellar abilities in planning, controlling, and putting into action the behavior are associated to normal or abnormal personality constructs. In this framework, it is worth reporting that increased cerebellar volumes are even associated with high scores in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. On such a basis, it seems necessary to go over the traditional cortico-centric view of personality constructs and to address the function of the cerebellar system in sustaining aspects of motivational network that characterizes the different temperamental traits.
Huang, Wei-Lieh; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Chen, I-Ming; Chang, Li-Ren; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Whether personality features affect the development of somatoform disorders and their psychopathologies is an important issue. Aim of this study was to resolve this issue by comparing indicators of psychopathology and personality features in subjects with somatoform disorders and healthy controls. This study recruited 148 subjects with somatoform disorders and 146 healthy controls. The severity of psychopathology was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess personality features. Demographic data, psychopathology indicators, and TPQ scores were compared between groups. Correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to identify the personality dimensions or demographic variables associated with psychopathology. The somatoform group had lower novelty seeking (NS) and reward dependence (RD) and higher harm avoidance (HA) and severity of psychopathologies. Multiple regression analysis revealed that fatigability, persistence, gender, and education level were predictive of PHQ-15; HA, educational level, persistence, and dependence were predictive of HAQ; HA, persistence, education level, and NS were predictive of BDII-II; and fatigability, education level, persistence, and anticipatory worry were predictive of BAI. The development of somatoform disorders was associated with fatigability, age, residence location, education level, and attachment. The limitations include heterogeneity of the diagnosis, the high proportion of undifferentiated somatoform disorder, and the cross-sectional study design. HA/fatigability, persistence, and education level are associated with each type of psychopathology. Fatigability is a powerful predictor of somatoform disorder development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dorin Iulian CHIRIŢOIU
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the trade relations between Romania and the PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain in order to verify whether the exports of Romania have been positively or negatively affected by the austerity measures adopted by these Eurozone periphery countries, thus diminishing Romania’s export performance in such markets. Hence, our main research question is whether austerity measures harm or affect in any way the inflows and outflows of international trade in the studied countries. To assess this hypothesis, we focused on the external trade relations, and their linkages with the macroeconomic environment, rather than the competitiveness of a state explained by a detailed sectoral analysis. In this respect, we use comparative and descriptive statistics in order to observe the consequences of the internal devaluation, and implicitly austerity measures, on the PIIGS-Romanian trade relations. Our findings suggest that the effects of austerity measures are not homogenous because they depend on the scale of trade exchanges and on the way in which the austerity measures were applied.
Dixon, Shane; Quirke, Linda
Methods textbooks play a role in socializing a new generation of researchers about ethical research. How do undergraduate social research methods textbooks portray harm, its prevalence, and ways to mitigate harm to participants? We conducted a content analysis of ethics chapters in the 18 highest-selling undergraduate textbooks used in sociology…
Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei; Ni, Ziyin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang
Research in adults has shown that individual differences in harm avoidance (HA) modulate electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli. To determine whether HA in adolescents modulates affective information processing, we collected event-related potentials from 70 adolescents while they viewed 90 pictures from the Chinese affective picture system. Multiple regressions revealed that HA negatively predicted late positive potential (LPP) for positive pictures and positively predicted for negative pictures; however, HA did not correlate with LPP for neutral pictures. The results suggest that at the late evaluative stage, high-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures while low-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures. Moreover, these dissociable attentional patterns imply that individual differences in adolescents' HA modulate the late selective attention mechanism of affective information. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gat-Lazer, Sigal; Geva, Ronny; Gur, Eitan; Stein, Daniel
The Cloninger's Psychobiological Model of Temperament and Character includes temperamental dimensions such as reward dependence (RD) and harm avoidance (HA). Studies of RD differentiate between sensitivity to reward (SR) versus to punishment (SP). We investigated the interrelationship between HA and RD in acutely ill patients with binge/purge (B/P) type eating disorders (EDs) and following symptomatic stabilization. Fifty patients with B/P EDs were assessed at admission to inpatient treatment, 36 of whom were reassessed at discharge. Thirty-six controls were similarly assessed. Participants completed Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), and took the Gambling Task. Patients with B/P EDs had higher TPQ-RD and lower TPQ-HA accompanied by lower SPSRQ-SR and SPSRQ-SP. SPSRQ-SP correlated positively and negatively with TPQ-HA and TPQ-RD, respectively. Combination of lower TPQ-HA, lower SPSRQ-SP, and greater risk-taking inclination may maintain disordered eating in patients with B/P EDs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Luypaert, Robert; De Raedt, Rudi; De Mey, Johan
The affective personality trait 'harm avoidance' (HA) from Cloninger's psychobiological personality model determines how an individual deals with emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli are processed by a neural network that include the left and right amygdalae as important key nodes. Explicit, implicit and passive processing of affective stimuli are known to activate the amygdalae differently reflecting differences in attention, level of detailed analysis of the stimuli and the cognitive control needed to perform the required task. Previous studies revealed that implicit processing or passive viewing of affective stimuli, induce a left amygdala response that correlates with HA. In this new study we have tried to extend these findings to the situation in which the subjects were required to explicitly process emotional stimuli. A group of healthy female participants was asked to rate the valence of positive and negative stimuli while undergoing fMRI. Afterwards the neural responses of the participants to the positive and to the negative stimuli were separately correlated to their HA scores and compared between the low and high HA participants. Both analyses revealed increased neural activity in the left laterobasal (LB) amygdala of the high HA participants while they were rating the positive and the negative stimuli. Our results indicate that the left amygdala response to explicit processing of affective stimuli does correlate with HA.
Hu, Jianping; Hu, Sien; Maisano, Julianna R; Chao, Herta H; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R
Proactive control allows us to maneuver a changing environment and individuals are distinct in how they anticipate and approach such changes. Here, we examined how individual differences in personality traits influence cerebral responses to conflict anticipation, a critical process of proactive control. We explored this issue in an fMRI study of the stop signal task, in which the probability of stop signal - p(Stop) - was computed trial by trial with a Bayesian model. Higher p(Stop) is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time, indicating conflict anticipation and proactive control of motor response. Regional brain activations to conflict anticipation were correlated to novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence, as assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, with age and gender as covariates, in a whole-brain linear regression. Results showed that increased anticipation of the stop signal is associated with activations in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPL), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), anterior pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and bilateral thalamus, with men showing greater activation in the IPL than women. NS correlated negatively to activity in the anterior pre-SMA, right IPL, and MFG/lOFC, and HA correlated negatively to activity in the thalamus during conflict anticipation. In addition, the negative association between NS and MFG/lOFC activity was significant in men but not in women. Thus, NS and HA traits are associated with reduced mobilization of cognitive control circuits when enhanced behavioral control is necessary. The findings from this exploratory study characterize the influence of NS and HA on proactive control and provide preliminary evidence for gender differences in these associations.
The emergency department is an important gateway for the treatment of self-harm patients. Nurses\\' attitudes towards patients who self-harm can be negative and often nurses experience frustration, helplessness, ambivalence and antipathy. Patients are often dissatisfied with the care provided, and meeting with positive or negative attitudes greatly influences whether they seek additional help. A quantitative design was utilised to measure emergency department nurses\\' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm. The \\'Self-Harm Antipathy Scale\\
Full Text Available Avoidance of threatening or unpleasant events is usually an adaptive behavioural strategy. Sometimes, however, avoidance can become chronic and lead to impaired daily functioning. Excessive threat-avoidance is a central diagnostic feature of anxiety disorders, yet little is known about whether avoidance acquired in the absence of a direct history of conditioning with a fearful event differs from directly learned avoidance. In the present study, we tested whether avoidance acquired indirectly via verbal instructions and symbolic generalization result in similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-beliefs to avoidance acquired after direct learning. Following fear conditioning in which one conditioned stimulus was paired with shock (CS+ and another was not (CS-, participants either learned or were instructed to make a response that cancelled impending shock. Three groups were then tested with a learned CS+ and CS- (learned group, instructed CS+ (instructed group, and generalized CS+ (derived group presentations. Results showed similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-belief ratings about the likelihood of shock across each of the three pathways despite the different mechanisms by which they were acquired. Findings have implications for understanding the aetiology of clinical avoidance in anxiety.
Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V
Personality traits have been proposed to affect the risk of sports concussion, but evidence is limited. Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) measures novelty seeking, harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TPQ scores and concussion history in rugby union players. Cross-sectional study. Rugby players from high schools, senior amateur clubs, and professional teams provided a self-reported concussion history and completed the TPQ. Participants reporting no previous concussions formed the control group, while participants reporting concussion formed the case group. A one-way analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, was used to examine the differences in TPQ scores between groups. Of the 309 participants, 54% reported a minimum of one concussion (junior: 47%; amateur: 52%; professional: 72%). HA scores were significantly higher in junior players without a history of concussion compared to cases (p=0.006). Specifically, the junior control group had higher "anticipatory worry" (p=0.009) and "fear of uncertainty" (p=0.008). In contrast, the professional control group had lower HA scores than cases (p=0.009), while the amateur cohort displayed no differences between control and case groups. This study identified a novel association between HA and concussion in rugby players, adding evidence to the role of personality in a multifactorial risk-model of concussion. The findings suggest that lower HA may lead to increased dangerous play in youth rugby, influencing concussion susceptibility. Contrasting associations in the professional cohort suggest further research is required to understand the role of personality in concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.
Wiltermuth, Scott S; Cohen, Taya R
Five studies demonstrated that highly guilt-prone people may avoid forming interdependent partnerships with others whom they perceive to be more competent than themselves, as benefitting a partner less than the partner benefits one's self could trigger feelings of guilt. Highly guilt-prone people who lacked expertise in a domain were less willing than were those low in guilt proneness who lacked expertise in that domain to create outcome-interdependent relationships with people who possessed domain-specific expertise. These highly guilt-prone people were more likely than others both to opt to be paid on their performance alone (Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) and to opt to be paid on the basis of the average of their performance and that of others whose competence was more similar to their own (Studies 2 and 5). Guilt proneness did not predict people's willingness to form outcome-interdependent relationships with potential partners who lacked domain-specific expertise (Studies 4 and 5). It also did not predict people's willingness to form relationships when poor individual performance would not negatively affect partner outcomes (Study 4). Guilt proneness therefore predicts whether, and with whom, people develop interdependent relationships. The findings also demonstrate that highly guilt-prone people sacrifice financial gain out of concern about how their actions would influence others' welfare. As such, the findings demonstrate a novel way in which guilt proneness limits free-riding and therefore reduces the incidence of potentially unethical behavior. Lastly, the findings demonstrate that people who lack competence may not always seek out competence in others when choosing partners.
Rigdon, E.E.; Preacher, K.J.; Lee, N.; Howell, R.D.; Franke, G.R.; Borsboom, D.
Purpose - This paper aims to respond to John Rossiter's call for a "Marketing measurement revolution" in the current issue of EJM, as well as providing broader comment on Rossiter's C-OAR-SE framework, and measurement practice in marketing in general. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is
Soyka, M; Preuss, U W; Koller, G; Zill, P; Hesselbrock, V; Bondy, B
Because corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in stress regulation, the possible role of CRH1 polymorphism for anxiety-related personality variables such as harm avoidance possibly associated with alcoholism was studied. The research instruments used to phenotype patients were adopted partly from the US collaborative study of the genetics of alcoholism and include a number of personality inventories such as the temperament and character inventory (TCI). Based on the examination of 170 alcoholic subjects no association was found between CRH1 receptor haplotypes of four single nuclotid polymorphisms (SNPs) and low and high temperament traits of harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.
Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a common condition, characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Contrary to the expectations it was recently found that persons with MCS activate the odor-processing brain regions less than controls, while their activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is increased. The present follow-up study was designed to test the hypotheses that MCS subjects have increased harm avoidance and deviations in the serotonin system, which could render them intolerant to environmental odors. Twelve MCS and 11 control subjects, age 22-44, all working or studying females, were included in a PET study where 5-HT(1A receptor binding potential (BP was assessed after bolus injection of [(11C]WAY100635. Psychological profiles were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. All MCS and 12 control subjects were also tested for emotional startle modulation in an acoustic startle test. MCS subjects exhibited significantly increased harm avoidance, and anxiety compared to controls. They also had a reduced 5-HT(1A receptor BP in amygdala (p = 0.029, ACC (p = 0.005 (planned comparisons, significance level 0.05, and insular cortex (p = 0.003; significance level p<0.005 with Bonferroni correction, and showed an inverse correlation between degree of anxiety and the BP in the amygdala (planned comparison. No group by emotional category difference was found in the startle test. Increased harm avoidance and the observed changes in the 5-HT(1A receptor BP in the regions processing harm avoidance provides a plausible pathophysiological ground for the symptoms described in MCS, and yields valuable information for our general understanding of idiopathic environmental intolerances.
Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Martiadis, Vassilis; Serino, Ismene; Di Filippo, Carmela; Maj, Mario
Genes involved in serotonin transmission are likely involved in the biological predisposition to bulimia nervosa. We investigated whether the A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene was associated to bulimia nervosa and/or to some phenotypic aspects of the disorder. One hundred eighty Caucasian women (91 patients with bulimia nervosa and 89 healthy controls) were enrolled into the study. They underwent a blood sample collection for A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 genotyping and a clinical evaluation assessing comorbidity for Axis I and II psychiatric disorders, harm avoidance personality dimension and bulimic symptoms. The distribution of both tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C genotypes and alleles did not significantly differ between patients and controls. Bulimic women with the AA genotype exhibited a more severe binge eating behavior and higher harm avoidance scores than those with CC genotype. These findings support the idea that tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C polymorphism does not play a part in the genetic susceptibility to bulimia nervosa, but it seems to be involved in predisposing bulimic patients to a more disturbed eating behavior and higher harm avoidance.
Stockwell, David Christopher; Bisarya, Hema; Classen, David C; Kirkendall, Eric S; Lachman, Peter I; Matlow, Anne G; Tham, Eric; Hyman, Dan; Lehman, Samuel M; Searles, Elizabeth; Muething, Stephen E; Sharek, Paul J
To have impact on reducing harm in pediatric inpatients, an efficient and reliable process for harm detection is needed. This work describes the first step toward the development of a pediatric all-cause harm measurement tool by recognized experts in the field. An international group of leaders in pediatric patient safety and informatics were charged with developing a comprehensive pediatric inpatient all-cause harm measurement tool using a modified Delphi technique. The process was conducted in 5 distinct steps: (1) literature review of triggers (elements from a medical record that assist in identifying patient harm) for inclusion; (2) translation of triggers to likely associated harm, improving the ability for expert prioritization; (3) 2 applications of a modified Delphi selection approach with consensus criteria using severity and frequency of harm as well as detectability of the associated trigger as criteria to rate each trigger and associated harm; (4) developing specific trigger logic and relevant values when applicable; and (5) final vetting of the entire trigger list for pilot testing. Literature and expert panel review identified 108 triggers and associated harms suitable for consideration (steps 1 and 2). This list was pared to 64 triggers and their associated harms after the first of the 2 independent expert reviews. The second independent expert review led to further refinement of the trigger package, resulting in 46 items for inclusion (step 3). Adding in specific trigger logic expanded the list. Final review and voting resulted in a list of 51 triggers (steps 4 and 5). Application of a modified Delphi method on an expert-constructed list of 108 triggers, focusing on severity and frequency of harms as well as detectability of triggers in an electronic medical record, resulted in a final list of 51 pediatric triggers. Pilot testing this list of pediatric triggers to identify all-cause harm for pediatric inpatients is the next step to establish the
Hall, William J.
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability…
Jason R. Randall
Full Text Available The assessment of self-harm risk is a common, difficult, and perplexing task for many physicians, especially those working in emergency departments (ED. Attempts have been made to determine objective methods for assessing patients with suicidal ideation or self-harm though there is still a lack of knowledge about objective assessments of these patients. A study was conducted where 181 suicidal patients were enrolled in two EDs within the city of Edmonton, Canada. Initial interviews were conducted in the ED which collected basic demographics and medical history as well as psychometric measures including the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, and CAGE questionnaire. The results of these measures were compared between those who presented to the ED with self-harm and those who presented only with ideation. Those with recent self-harm scored lower on many of the scales and subscales of distress and impulsivity measured compared to those with no recent self-harm. Possible explanations for this difference include differences in psychological traits between the two groups and possible cathartic effects of self-harm. The lower scores obtained by those that present with self-harm may complicate attempts to use psychometric tools to determine future self-harm risk.
MacMurray, James; Comings, David E; Napolioni, Valerio
Cytokine gene variants are known to influence both infectious disease susceptibility and harm-avoidant behaviors, suggesting that these risk variants may be pleiotropically linked to instinctual disease-avoidant traits. The gamma-interferon (IFNG) +874 T>A polymorphism (rs2430561) is an ideal candidate gene variant for immune-behavioral studies. It is a functional SNP, regulating IFNG mRNA expression; it is known to modulate serotonergic activity and is therefore capable of modifying behavior; and it has previously been associated with increased susceptibility to malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy and Chagas disease. We hypothesized that the infectious disease-high-risk IFNG +874 A-allele would be associated with four personality traits previously reported as behavioral defenses against infection: Harm Avoidance (HA), Extraversion (E), Exploratory Excitability (Exp E), and Openness to Experience (O). We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 168 healthy university students from Southern California genotyped for IFNG +874 T>A and evaluated by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We found that the infectious disease-high-risk IFNG +874 A-allele was associated with increased HA (P=0.001) and decreased E (P=0.030) and Exp E (P=0.030). These findings suggest that the IFNG +874 A gene variant is linked both to infectious disease susceptibility and to proactive behavioral defenses that reduce infection risk in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin
We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e., consistent with the choice...... distribution) with models estimated using stated beliefs which relax the equilibrium requirement. We estimate WTP in the latter case by allowing stated beliefs to be correlated with guilt aversion, thus controlling for a possible source of a consensus effect. All models are estimated using data from...
Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin
We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e. consistent with the choice...... distribution) with models estimated using stated beliefs which relax the equilibrium requirement. We estimate WTP in the later case by allowing stated beliefs to be correlated with guilt aversion, thus controlling for a possible source of a consensus effect. All models are estimated using data from...
Conclusion: In a look, it is obvious that the harm reduction measures which have been taken for prisoners under the coverage of Methadone treatment will be effective in improving their quality of life conditions.
Genetic-linked Inattentiveness Protects Individuals from Internet Overuse: A Genetic Study of Internet Overuse Evaluating Hypotheses Based on Addiction, Inattention, Novelty-seeking and Harm-avoidance
Full Text Available The all-pervasive Internet has created serious problems, such as Internet overuse, which has triggered considerable debate over its relationship with addiction. To further explore its genetic susceptibilities and alternative explanations for Internet overuse, we proposed and evaluated four hypotheses, each based on existing knowledge of the biological bases of addiction, inattention, novelty-seeking, and harm-avoidance. Four genetic loci including DRD4 VNTR, DRD2 Taq1A, COMT Val158Met and 5-HTTLPR length polymorphisms were screened from seventy-three individuals. Our results showed that the DRD4 4R/4R individuals scored significantly higher than the 2R or 7R carriers in Internet Addiction Test (IAT. The 5-HTTLPR short/short males scored significantly higher in IAT than the long variant carriers. Bayesian analysis showed the most compatible hypothesis with the observed genetic results was based on attention (69.8%, whereas hypotheses based harm-avoidance (21.6%, novelty-seeking (7.8% and addiction (0.9% received little support. Our study suggests that carriers of alleles (DRD4 2R and 7R, 5-HTTLPR long associated with inattentiveness are more likely to experience disrupted patterns and reduced durations of Internet use, protecting them from Internet overuse. Furthermore, our study suggests that Internet overuse should be categorized differently from addiction due to the lack of shared genetic contributions.
Hall, William J.
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure...
Mulley, Albert G
This paper addresses the fourth theme of the Indiana Global Health Research Working Conference, Clinical Effectiveness and Health Systems Research. It explores geographic variation in health care delivery and health outcomes as a source of learning how to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. It focuses particularly on the relationship between investments made in capacities to deliver different health care services to a population and the value thereby created by that care for individual patients. The framing begins with the dramatic variation in per capita health care expenditures across the nations of the world, which is largely explained by variations in national wealth. The 1978 Declaration of Alma Ata is briefly noted as a response to such inequities with great promise that has not as yet been realized. This failure to realize the promise of Alma Ata grows in significance with the increasing momentum for universal health coverage that is emerging in the current global debate about post-2015 development goals. Drawing upon work done at Dartmouth over more than three decades, the framing then turns to within-country variations in per capita expenditures, utilization of different services, and health outcomes. A case is made for greater attention to the question of value by bringing better information to bear at both the population and individual levels. Specific opportunities to identify and reduce waste in health care, and the harm that is so often associated with it, are identified by learning from outcome variations and practice variations.
Adina Violeta Trandafir
Full Text Available Fiscal competition has been in the news ever since the OECD launched a campaign against “harmful tax competition” in 1996. Nor is it likely to disappear any time soon. Instead, it is likely to intensify, as more and more governments resort to lower taxes to stimulate their economies. Is all tax competition harmful, or is it possible to distinguish between harmful and beneficial tax competition? In this paper, in its first part, I try to present the difference between benefit and harmful tax competition. Also, the paper try to establish how really is tax competition – “harmful” or “beneficial”. The second parts of this paper analyze the impact and efficiency of different tax measures in allocation of public resources.
Masiero, A.; Fissore, F.; Guarnieri, A.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.
In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are attracting more and more attention in both the research and industrial communities: indeed, the possibility to use them in a wide range of remote sensing applications makes them a very flexible and attractive solution in both civil and commercial cases (e.g. precision agriculture, security and control, monitoring of sites, exploration of areas difficult to reach). Most of the existing UAV positioning systems rely on the use of the GPS signal. Despite this can be a satisfactory solution in open environments where the GPS signal is available, there are several operating conditions of interest where it is unavailable or unreliable (e.g. close to high buildings, or mountains, in indoor environments). Consequently, a different approach has to be adopted in these cases. This paper considers the use ofWiFi measurements in order to obtain position estimations of the device of interest. More specifically, to limit the costs for the devices involved in the positioning operations, an approach based on radio signal strengths (RSS) measurements is considered. Thanks to the use of a Kalman filter, the proposed approach takes advantage of the temporal dynamic of the device of interest in order to improve the positioning results initially provided by means of maximum likelihood estimations. The considered UAVs are assumed to be provided with communication devices, which can allow them to communicate with each other in order to improve their cooperation abilities. In particular, the collision avoidance problem is examined in this work.
Nankervis, Helen; Pynn, Emma V; Boyle, Robert J; Rushton, Lesley; Williams, Hywel C; Hewson, Deanne M; Platts-Mills, Thomas
Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that tends to involve skin creases, such as the folds of the elbows or knees; it is an intensely itchy skin condition, which can relapse and remit over time. As many as a third of people with eczema who have a positive test for allergy to house dust mite have reported worsening of eczema or respiratory symptoms when exposed to dust. To assess the effects of all house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema. We searched the following databases up to 14 August 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the GREAT database. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies for further references to relevant studies. We handsearched abstracts from international eczema and allergy meetings. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any of the house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema, which included participants of any age diagnosed by a clinician with eczema as defined by the World Allergy Organization. We included all non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that sought to reduce or avoid exposure to house dust mite and their allergenic faeces. The comparators were any active treatment, no treatment, placebo, or standard care only. Two authors independently checked the titles and abstracts identified, and there were no disagreements. We contacted authors of included studies for additional information. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane methodology. We included seven studies of 324 adults and children with eczema. Overall, the included studies had a high risk of bias. Four of the seven trials tested interventions with multiple components, and three tested a single intervention. Two of the seven trials included only children, four included children and adults, and one
Hall, William J.
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the BullyHARM, which consists of 22 items and 6 subscales: physical bullying, verbal bullying, social/relational bullying, cyber-bullying, property bullying, and sexual bullying. First-order and second-order factor models were evaluated. Results demonstrate that the first-order factor model had superior fit. Results of reliability testing indicate that the BullyHARM scale and subscales have very good internal consistency reliability. Findings indicate that the BullyHARM has good properties regarding content validation and respondent-related validation and is a promising instrument for measuring bullying victimization in school. PMID:28194041
This article presents plans of preventing casting-air-pollution in practice, and some avoiding methods in detail. In modern times, environment protection is looked high upon day by day; green-casting thus becomes more and more important.
Full Text Available The coal mining has brought a series of ecological problems and environmental problems in permafrost regions. Taking Muli coal-mining area as an example, this article attempts to analyse the environmental harms caused by coal mining and its protection measures in permafrost regions of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. This article analyses the influence of open mining on the surrounding permafrost around the open pit by using the numerical simulation. The results show that (1 based on the interrelation between coal mining and permafrost environment, these main environmental harm include the permafrost change and the natural environment change in cold regions; (2 once the surface temperature rises due to open mining, the permafrost will disappear with the increase of exploitation life. If considering the solar radiation, the climate conditions and the geological condition around the pit edge, the maximum thaw depth will be more than 2 m; (3 the protection measures are proposed to avoid the disadvantage impact on the permafrost environment caused by coal mining. It will provide a scientific basis for the resource development and environment protection in cold regions.
Seddon, Mary E; Jackson, Aaron; Cameron, Chris; Young, Mary L; Escott, Linda; Maharaj, Ashika; Miller, Nigel
To measure the extent of patient harm caused by medications (rate of Adverse Drug Events) in three DHBs, using a standardised trigger tool method. Counties Manukau, Capital and Coast and Canterbury DHBs decided to work collaboratively to implement the ADE Trigger Tool (TT). Definitions of ADE were agreed on and triggers refined. A random sample of closed charts (from March 2010 to February 2011) was obtained excluding patients who were admitted for <48 hours, children under the age of 18 and psychiatric admissions. In each DHB trained reviewers scanned these in a structured way to identify any of the 19 triggers. If triggers were identified, a more detailed, though time-limited review of the chart was done to determine whether an ADE had occurred. The severity of patient harm was categorised using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention Index. No attempt was made to determine preventability of harm and ADEs from acts of omission were excluded. The ADE TT was applied to 1210 charts and 353 ADE were identified, with an average rate of 28.9/100 admissions and 38/1,000 bed days. 94.5% of the ADE identified were in the lower severity scales with temporary harm, however in 5 patients it was considered that the ADE contributed to their death, 9 required an intervention to sustain life and 4 suffered permanent harm. The most commonly implicated drugs were morphine and other opioids, anticoagulants, antibiotics, Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and diuretics. Patients who suffered an ADE were more likely to be female, older with more complex medical illnesses, and have a longer length of stay. The rate of medication-related harm identified by the ADE TT is considerably higher than that identified through traditional voluntary reporting mechanisms. The ADE TT provides a standardised measure of harm over time that can be used to determine trends and the effect of medication safety improvement programmes. This study not
Bailer, Ursula F; Price, Julie C; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Mathis, Chester A; Frank, Guido K; Weissfeld, Lisa; McConaha, Claire W; Henry, Shannan E; Brooks-Achenbach, Sarah; Barbarich, Nicole C; Kaye, Walter H
Several lines of evidence suggest that a disturbance of serotonin neuronal pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). This study applied positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the brain serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor, which could contribute to disturbances of appetite and behavior in AN and BN. To avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition, we studied 10 women recovered from bulimia-type AN (REC AN–BN, >1 year normal weight, regular menstrual cycles, no binging, or purging) compared with 16 healthy control women (CW) using PET imaging and a specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, [18F]altanserin. REC AN–BN women had significantly reduced [18F]altanserin binding potential relative to CW in the left subgenual cingulate, the left parietal cortex, and the right occipital cortex. [18F]altanserin binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance and negatively related to novelty seeking in cingulate and temporal regions only in REC AN–BN subjects. In addition, REC AN–BN had negative relationships between [18F]altanserin binding potential and drive for thinness in several cortical regions. In conclusion, this study extends research suggesting that altered 5-HT neuronal system activity persists after recovery from bulimia-type AN, particularly in subgenual cingulate regions. Altered 5-HT neurotransmission after recovery also supports the possibility that this may be a trait-related disturbance that contributes to the pathophysiology of eating disorders. It is possible that subgenual cingulate findings are not specific for AN–BN, but may be related to the high incidence of lifetime major depressive disorder diagnosis in these subjects. PMID:15054474
Taxation inevitably gives rise to tax planning. In the era of globalization, multinationals in particular may not only try to exploit options, inconsistencies and gaps in domestic tax legislation, but they will also (re-)organize their business so as to make an optimal use of international tax sheltering opportunities. In order to curb ‘aggressive’ tax arbitrage, all developed jurisdictions rely on targeted anti-avoidance provisions. In addition, most tax systems will have recourse to a statu...
Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T
Despite increasing evidence for an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined the factors that moderate this association or the impact of co-occurring personality disorders among individuals with PTSD on DSH frequency. Given the high rates of co-occurrence between PTSD and two personality disorders of particular relevance to DSH, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), this study examined the moderating role of these personality disorders in the association between PTSD and DSH frequency among a sample of substance use disorder patients (N=61). Patients completed structured clinical interviews assessing PTSD, BPD, and AVPD and a questionnaire assessing DSH. Results revealed more frequent DSH among patients with (vs. without) PTSD and provided evidence for the moderating role of AVPD in this association. Specifically, results revealed heightened levels of DSH only among PTSD patients with co-occurring AVPD. Findings are consistent with past research demonstrating that the presence of co-occurring AVPD among patients with other Axis I and II disorders is associated with worse outcomes, and highlight the importance of continuing to examine the moderating role of AVPD in the association between PTSD and a variety of health-risk behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The use of electronic gambling machines (EGMs in Australia and New Zealand constitutes the largest sector of the gambling industry. The costs arising from the harms of gambling detract significantly from its benefits, and in all Australian jurisdictions various policy measures have been implemented to reduce these harms. If successful, these would maximise the net benefits associated with EGM gambling. This article reviews the available evidence for a range of these practices, particularly those implemented within EGM venues via ‘codes of practice’. These codes of practice are intended to give effect to the principles of ‘responsible gambling’ within EGM venues. These measures are: self-exclusion, signage, messages, interaction with gamblers, the removal of ATMs from gambling venues, and ‘responsible gambling’ assessed overall in a venue context. In addition, we review the evidence in support of two major recommendations of the Productivity Commission’s 2010 report into gambling, pre-commitment and one-dollar maximum wagers. We conclude that there is a modest level of evidence supporting some measures, notably self-exclusion and, to a greater extent, the removal of ATMs. There is also some evidence that ‘responsible gambling’ measures have, collectively, reduced the harms associated with gambling. However, there is limited evidence to confirm the effectiveness of most individual ‘responsible gambling’ measures actually implemented in venues. Further, policy measures implemented outside the control of venues (such as ATM removal, reduction in bet limits, and the prohibition of smoking appear to be associated with more significant effects, based on analysis of EGM revenue data in Victoria. The evidence for prospective measures is necessarily limited since the ultimate test is post-implementation efficacy, but there is growing evidence to suggest that pre-commitment, one-dollar maximum bets or other machine design changes may
Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Pfister, David; Classen, David; Atoria, Coral L; Killen, Aileen; Epstein, Andrew S; Anderson, Christopher; Fortier, Elizabeth; Weingart, Saul N
Patient safety is a critical concern in clinical oncology, but the ability to measure adverse events (AEs) across cancer care is limited by a narrow focus on treatment-related toxicities. The objective of this study was to assess the nature and extent of AEs among cancer patients across inpatient and outpatient settings. This was a retrospective cohort study of 400 adult patients selected by stratified random sampling who had breast (n = 128), colorectal (n = 136), or lung cancer (n = 136) treated at a comprehensive cancer center in 2012. Candidate AEs, or injuries due to medical care, were identified by trained nurse reviewers over the course of 1 year from medical records and safety-reporting databases. Physicians determined the AE harm severity and the likelihood of preventability and harm mitigation. The 400-patient sample represented 133,358 days of follow-up. Three hundred four AEs were identified for an overall rate of 2.3 events per 1000 patient days (91.2 per 1000 inpatient days and 0.9 per 1000 outpatient days). Thirty-four percent of the patients had 1 or more AEs (95% confidence interval, 29%-39%), and 16% of the patients had 1 or more preventable or mitigable AEs (95% confidence interval, 13%-20%). The AE rate for patients with breast cancer was lower than the rate for patients with colorectal or lung cancer (P ≤ .001). The preventable or mitigable AE rate was 0.9 per 1000 patient days. Six percent of AEs and 4% of preventable AEs resulted in serious harm. Examples included lymphedema, abscess, and renal failure. A heavy burden of AEs, including preventable or mitigable events, has been identified. Future research should examine risk factors and improvement strategies for reducing their burden. Cancer 2017;123:4728-4736. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
This book intrduces a good knowledge in specifications of ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures againest harmful effectes. The book is devided in to five main sections, the first one introduces the hostorical bachground of the contributions of a number of scietists in the basic knolwledge of radiation and its biological effects. The second section deals with the physical and chemical principles of radiation the third one talks about radiation detection. While the fourth section talks (via seven chapter) about the effectes of ionizing radiation on living organisms molecules cells, tissues organs systems and the living organism the fifth section talks about the uses of radiation sources, the probability of radiation accidents, protective measures, international recommendations related to doses and safe use of ionizing radiation. (Abed Al-wali Al-ajlouni). 53 refs., 107 figs., 13 tabs
Schloss, Heather M; Haaga, David A F
Experiential avoidance and distress intolerance play a central role in novel behavior therapies, yet they appear to overlap considerably the REBT concept of low frustration tolerance. Using baseline data from 100 adult cigarette smokers enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation therapies, the present study evaluated the convergent validity of common questionnaire measures of experiential avoidance (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire; AAQ; Hayes et al. 2004, and Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale: AIS; Gifford et al. 2004) and behavioral measures of distress tolerance (computerized Mirror Tracing Persistence Task: MTPT-C: Strong et al. 2003; computerized Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task; PASAT-C; Lejuez et al. 2003). The distress tolerance measures correlated significantly (r = .29) with one another. However, the questionnaire measures of experiential avoidance did not correlate with each other, nor with the behavioral measures. Further research is needed on the validity of measuring experiential avoidance by self-report and of the overlap versus distinctiveness of seemingly similar constructs such as experiential avoidance, distress tolerance, and frustration tolerance.
Sammer, Christine; Hauck, Loran D; Jones, Cason; Zaiback-Aldinger, Julie; Li, Michael; Classen, David
In 2015, the Institute of Medicine Vital Signs report called for a new patient safety composite measure to lessen the reporting burden of patient harm. Before this report, two patient safety organizations had developed an electronic all-cause harm measurement system leveraging data from the electronic health record, which identified and grouped harms into five broad categories and consolidated them into one all-cause harm outcome measure. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between this all-cause harm patient safety measure and the following three performance measures important to overall hospital safety performance: safety culture, employee engagement, and patient experience. We studied the relationship between all-cause harm and three performance measures on eight inpatient care units at one hospital for 7 months. The findings demonstrated strong correlations between an all-cause harm measure and patient safety culture, employee engagement, and patient experience at the hospital unit level. Four safety culture domains showed significant negative correlations with all-cause harm at a P value of 0.05 or less. Six employee engagement domains were significantly negatively correlated with all-cause harm at a P value of 0.01 or less, and six of the ten patient experience measures were significantly correlated with all-cause harm at a P value of 0.05 or less. The results show that there is a strong relationship between all-cause harm and these performance measures indicating that when there is a positive patient safety culture, a more engaged employee, and a more satisfying patient experience, there may be less all-cause harm.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the
Pandu Sandi Pratama
Full Text Available This paper proposed an algorithm to track the obstacle position and avoid the moving objects for differential driving Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV system in industrial environment. This algorithm has several abilities such as: to detect the moving objects, to predict the velocity and direction of moving objects, to predict the collision possibility and to plan the avoidance maneuver. For sensing the local environment and positioning, the laser measurement system LMS-151 and laser navigation system NAV-200 are applied. Based on the measurement results of the sensors, the stationary and moving obstacles are detected and the collision possibility is calculated. The velocity and direction of the obstacle are predicted using Kalman filter algorithm. Collision possibility, time, and position can be calculated by comparing the AGV movement and obstacle prediction result obtained by Kalman filter. Finally the avoidance maneuver using the well known tangent Bug algorithm is decided based on the calculation data. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm is verified using simulation and experiment. Several examples of experiment conditions are presented using stationary obstacle, and moving obstacles. The simulation and experiment results show that the AGV can detect and avoid the obstacles successfully in all experimental condition. [Keywords— Obstacle avoidance, AGV, differential drive, laser measurement system, laser navigation system].
Davis, Jessica; Conlon, Elizabeth; Ownsworth, Tamara; Morrissey, Shirley
Situational avoidance is a form of driving self-regulation at the strategic level of driving behaviour. It has typically been defined as the purposeful avoidance of driving situations perceived as challenging or potentially hazardous. To date, assessment of the psychometric properties of existing scales that measure situational avoidance has been sparse. This study examined the contribution of Rasch analysis to the situational avoidance construct. Three hundred and ninety-nine Australian drivers (M=66.75, SD=10.14, range: 48-91 years) completed the Situational Avoidance Questionnaire (SAQ). Following removal of the item Parallel Parking, the scale conformed to a Rasch model, showing good person separation, sufficient reliability, little disordering of thresholds, and no evidence of differential item functioning by age or gender. The residuals were independent supporting the assumption of unidimensionality and in conforming to a Rasch model, SAQ items were found to be hierarchical or cumulative. Increased avoidance was associated with factors known to be related to driving self-regulation more broadly, including older age, female gender, reduced driving space and frequency, reporting a change in driving in the past five years and poorer indices of health (i.e., self-rated mood, vision and cognitive function). Overall, these results support the use of the SAQ as a psychometrically sound measure of situational avoidance. Application of Rasch analysis to this area of research advances understanding of the driving self-regulation construct and its practice by drivers in baby boomer and older adult generations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boelen, P.A.; Reijntjes, A.H.A.
Three studies evaluated psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 9-item Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ)—a self-report measure designed to assess experiential avoidance as conceptualized inAcceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Study 1, among bereaved adults, showed that a
Solomon, K.A.; Abraham, S.C.
This paper presents an index of harm methodology which compares occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms. It extends the work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection by considering American rather than European and Japanese industry groups, by treating the relative importance of various occupational harms as a parameter rather than an arbitrary constant, and by identifying several ways in which both the methodology and the data base could be improved. In the analysis, the risk affects are examined of six occupational harms-three nonradiological (death, accidental injury and disease or illness) and three radiological (somatic effects, genetic effects, and somatic effects to the fetus or embryo of pregnant women). The analysis was performed under five different assumptions about the relative importance of degree of aversion of the six harms in question. The results of this analysis show that radiological workers exposed to the current industry average of 0.35 rem/yr are among the safest of all industry groupings, and the riskiest industries appear to be mining; agriculture, fishing and farming; construction; transportation; and manufacturing, roughly in that order. (author)
Li, Dong; Kofman, Jonathan
In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.
Gottfried, Michael A., Ed.; Conchas, Gilberto Q., Ed.
Like medical practitioners, educators share the moral obligation to "first, do no harm." But as this provocative volume shows, education policies do not always live up to this ideal, especially policies intended to help our most vulnerable students. "When School Policies Backfire" draws our attention to education policies…
Coral E Gartner
Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: The tobacco control community is divided on whether or not to inform the public that using oral, smokeless tobacco (Swedish snus is less hazardous to health than smoking tobacco. Proponents of "harm reduction" point to the Swedish experience. Snus seems to be widely used as an alternative to cigarettes in Sweden, say these proponents, contributing to the low overall prevalence of smoking and smoking-related disease. Harm reduction proponents thus argue that the health community should actively inform inveterate cigarette smokers of the benefits of switching to snus. However, critics of harm reduction say that snus has its own risks, that no form of tobacco should ever be promoted, and that Sweden's experience is likely to be specific to that culture and not transferable to other settings. Critics also remain deeply suspicious that the tobacco industry will use snus marketing as a "gateway" to promote cigarettes. In the interests of promoting debate, the authors (who are collaborators on a research project on the future of tobacco control have agreed to outline the strongest arguments for and against promoting Swedish snus as a form of harm reduction.
Dubey, I.; Ropar, D.; Hamilton, A.
Social motivation is a subjective state which is rather difficult to quantify. It has sometimes been conceptualised as “behavioural effort” to seek social contact. Two paradigms: approach–avoidance (AA) and choose a movie (CAM), based on the same conceptualisation, have been used to measure social motivation in people with and without autism. However, in absence of a direct comparison, it is hard to know which of these paradigms has higher sensitivity in estimating preference for social over ...
Lynam, Donald R; Loehr, Abbey; Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A
A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of avoidant personality disorder (AVD) was developed using a general trait model of personality (Five-factor model; FFM) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of 10 FFM traits found to be robustly related to AVD across a variety of methods. In a sample of 291 undergraduates, the scales from the Five Factor Avoidant Assessment (FFAvA) proved to be internally consistent and strongly related to the original FFM scales from which they were derived. The FFAvA scales also demonstrated substantial incremental validity in the prediction of existing AVD measures and indexes of social discomfort over their FFM counterparts. The FFAvA provides an opportunity to examine AVD and its correlates using smaller, more basic units of personality rather than more global symptoms that might blend these elements.
Burns, Wallace A., Jr.
There are many harmful leadership styles--the egotistic leader, the incompetent leader, the ignorant leader, and leaders that are reckless, cruel, or even evil. To understand what ultimately are considered leadership traits that are contrary to good order, discipline and productivity, the author conducted a review of the literature to obtain a…
The author explains the authorities' duty to provide for protection against intentional damage or physical harm through the use of nuclear energy. It belongs to the competence of the various authorities to define ways and means to afford protection, and to establish an appropriate network of provisions. There are provisions belonging to criminal law, those concerning liability and indemnity, and security regulations incorporated in the law on licensing and supervision. The author presents a detailed account of the law applicable and discusses the conflict of interests between governmental duties and intentions and the civil rights of the individual affected by the provisions. (HSCH) [de
Hallas, J.; Christensen, R. D.; Sturmer, T.
Purpose The magnitude of risk for adverse drug reactions may be communicated by a measure of 'exposure needed for one additional patient to be harmed' (ENH). We present four ENH measures, based on four different counterfactual contrasts, as illustrated by the known effects of NSAID use on peptic ...... bleeding. The ultimate choice of ENH measure will depend on epidemiological or clinical considerations and on availability of data. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......Purpose The magnitude of risk for adverse drug reactions may be communicated by a measure of 'exposure needed for one additional patient to be harmed' (ENH). We present four ENH measures, based on four different counterfactual contrasts, as illustrated by the known effects of NSAID use on peptic...... ulcer bleeding. Methods The four measures were basic ENH (estimating the excess risk when treating the entire source population versus treating no one), age-restricted ENH (the entire source population above, e. g. 50 years old treated versus no one above 50 years old treated), standardised ENH (a...
Effting, Marieke; Salemink, Elske; Verschuere, Bruno; Beckers, Tom
Avoidance behavior is central to several anxiety disorders. The current study tested whether avoidance behavior for spiders depends on a dynamic interplay between implicit and explicit processes, moderated by the availability to exert control through working memory capacity (WMC). A total of 63 participants completed an approach-avoidance task, an implicit association test, a spider fear questionnaire and a behavioral avoidance test that included an assessment of approach distance as well as approach speed. WMC was measured by a complex operation span task. It was hypothesized that in individuals with low WMC, implicit avoidance tendencies and implicit negative associations predict avoidance behavior for a spider better than the explicit measure, whereas in high WMC individuals, the explicit measure should better predict avoidance behavior than the implicit measures. Results revealed that WMC moderated the influence of implicit negative associations, but not implicit avoidance tendencies, on spider approach distance but not the speed of approaching. Although explicit spider fear directly influenced avoidance behavior, its impact was not modulated by WMC. Participants in our study were from a non-clinical sample, which limits the generalizability of our findings. These findings suggest that implicit processes might become more pertinent for fear behavior as the ability to control such processes wanes, which may be particularly relevant for anxiety disorders given their association with lowered executive control functioning. As such, training procedures that specifically target implicit processes or control abilities might improve treatment outcomes for anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sellbom, Martin; Sansone, Randy A; Songer, Douglas A
The current study evaluated the utility of the self-harm inventory (SHI) as a proxy for and screening measure of borderline personality disorder (BPD) using several diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)-based BPD measures as criteria. We used a sample of 145 psychiatric inpatients, who completed the SHI and a series of well-validated, DSM-based self-report measures of BPD. Using a series of latent trait and latent class analyses, we found that the SHI was substantially associated with a latent construct representing BPD, as well as differentiated latent classes of 'high' vs. 'low' BPD, with good accuracy. The SHI can serve as proxy for and a good screening measure for BPD, but future research needs to replicate these findings using structured interview-based measurement of BPD.
da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia
Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.
Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia
Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities
Chen, Chao; Gao, Nan; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Zonghua
Phase-based fringe projection methods have been commonly used for three-dimensional (3D) measurements. However, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. Existing solutions are complex. This paper proposes an adaptive projection intensity adjustment method to avoid image saturation and maintain good fringe modulation in measuring objects with a high range of surface reflectivities. The adapted fringe patterns are created using only one prior step of fringe-pattern projection and image capture. First, a set of phase-shifted fringe patterns with maximum projection intensity value of 255 and a uniform gray level pattern are projected onto the surface of an object. The patterns are reflected from and deformed by the object surface and captured by a digital camera. The best projection intensities corresponding to each saturated-pixel clusters are determined by fitting a polynomial function to transform captured intensities to projected intensities. Subsequently, the adapted fringe patterns are constructed using the best projection intensities at projector pixel coordinate. Finally, the adapted fringe patterns are projected for phase recovery and 3D shape calculation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high measurement accuracy even for objects with a high range of surface reflectivities.
Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús
Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Tax avoidance is a concept that is not used in the Turkish tax legislation, and thus there is no legal definition of the term in the documentation. A number of other concepts are used though in order to explain or to refer tax avoidance such as tax veiling, sham, precedence of substance over form,
Laperche, S; Pillonel, J
In high-income countries, the safety of blood transfusion related to viruses has reached a very high level, especially thanks to the implementation of multiple measures aimed at reducing the transfusion risk. The cost-effectiveness of these preventive measures is frequently discussed due to global financial resources, which are more and more limited. Hence, the revision of safety strategies is a key issue, especially when these strategies are redundant, as those implemented to avoid Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) transmission, which are based on both antibodies screening and leucoreduction of blood products. The residual risk of the transmission of HTLV by transfusion has been recently estimated at 1 in 20 million donations (2010-2012) in France (excluding overseas territories). This estimation did not take into account the leucoreduction, which appears to be a very efficient preventive measure as the virus is strictly intra-cellular. To help decision-making, we have evaluated some parameters related to HTLV blood transmission. Firstly, the probability that an incident occurring during the leucoreduction process affects a HTLV-positive blood donation has been estimated at 1 in 178 million. Estimation of clinical consequences of HTLV-positive transfusions would affect 1 to 2 transfused-patients without leucoreduction, and one recipient every 192 years in case of 10% failures of the filtration method. Obviously, despite a risk, which appears to be controlled, HTLV screening will be disputed as soon as the efficiency of leucoreduction to totally prevent virus blood transmission will be proven and when pathogen inactivation methods are generalized to all blood cellular products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dunkelberg, Elisa; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Hirschl, Bernd
Sugarcane ethanol is considered to be one of the most efficient first-generation biofuels in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The carbon footprint (CF), however, increases significantly when taking into account emissions induced by indirect land-use changes (ILUC). This case study investigates sugarcane ethanol production in the Republic of Malawi, in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA); the research objectives were to identify and quantify direct and indirect emissions and to identify measures to optimize the CF. The CF has been calculated with a life cycle approach and with data obtained from the involved companies; our estimations with regard to ILUC take into account further expansion plans for sugarcane crop production. Under existing production conditions ethanol produced in Malawi leads to GHG emissions expressed as CO 2eq of 116 g MJ −1 of ethanol. However, high optimization potentials exist when the vinasse is used as an input for biogas production and the harvesting switches from pre-harvest burning to green harvesting. ILUC induced by prospective sugarcane expansions in the Southern Region will, according to current planning, probably not occur since these expansions are linked to the implementation of a large-scale irrigation project. However if ILUC takes place, high levels of additional CO 2 emissions of about 77 g MJ −1 of ethanol are to be expected. Although the case study results are only valid for a specific region, some of the findings, such as the high compensation potential regarding ILUC through investments in irrigation systems, may be transferable to other regions in SSA. - Highlights: • We conducted a case study on sugarcane ethanol production in Malawi and calculated its carbon footprint (CF). • The current CF of sugarcane ethanol produced in the Southern Region in Malawi amounts for 116 g MJ −1 of ethanol. • The usage of vinasse in biogas plants would significantly improve the CF. • Another optimization measure is to
Hisnanick, J J; Coddington, D A
The USA system of health care has begun a monumental change that will affect everyone, irrespective of their socioeconomic status, professional status or pre-existing health insurance status. Whatever type of plan is finally implemented through the legislative process, there will need to be a way to evaluate its success (or failure). One way to evaluate the plan's effectiveness is through its impact on human betterment as viewed by a reduction in 'avoidable mortality' for those most in need of health care; the poor and uninsured. For one USA minority population, universal health care has improved human betterment by reducing avoidable mortality, even in the face of a severe burden of poverty.
Dreumont-Boudreau, Sarah E; Dingle, Rachel N; Alcolado, Gillian M; Lolordo, Vincent M
Rats were given 21 days of chronic oral caffeine. A novel flavor (Maintenance CS) was then paired with the continuation of caffeine, and a second flavor (Withdrawal CS) was paired with caffeine removal. Rats avoided the Withdrawal CS, and drank more of the Maintenance CS in a two-bottle test, suggesting that removing caffeine had induced withdrawal. The value of the Maintenance CS was investigated by comparing it to a novel flavor paired with water (Neutral CS). In a series of two-bottle tests, the Maintenance and Neutral CSs were equivalent when pitted against each other, and both were preferred to the Withdrawal CS. These results demonstrate that conditioned flavor avoidance is a useful procedure in assessing caffeine withdrawal, and by inference dependence, produced by chronic oral consumption.
Goedemans, W.T.; Hardeman, M.R.; State Univ., Amsterdam
Leukocytes in mixed suspensions can clump together, resulting in cell clusters which are responsible for false positive hot spots in lungs of patients, in the case of abscess localization studies using 111 In labeled leukocytes. Addition of extra ACD (acid-citrate-dextrose) in those labeled leukocyte suspensions prevented cell clumping and avoided occurrence of focal radioactivity accumulation in lungs. The acidification did not interfere in leukocyte migration under agar. (author)
Jiang, Heng; Xiang, Xiaojun; Hao, Wei; Room, Robin; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xuyi
The paper reviews alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related social and health issues among 15-29-year old young people in Asian countries, and discusses strategies for preventing and controlling alcohol use and related harms. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science for reports, reviews and journal articles published in English between 1st Jan 1990 and 31st August 2016. Forty-one reports, reviews and journal papers were identified and included in the final review. The current drinking levels and prevalence among young people are markedly different between eight included Asian countries, ranging from 4.2% in Malaysia to 49.3% in China. In a majority of the selected Asian countries, over 15% of total deaths among young men and 6% among young women aged 15-29 years are attributable to alcohol use. Alcohol use among young people is associated with a number of harms, including stress, family violence, injuries, suicide, and sexual and other risky behaviours. Alcohol policies, such as controlling sales, social supply and marketing, setting up/raising a legal drinking age, adding health warning labels on alcohol containers, and developing a surveillance system to monitor drinking pattern and risky drinking behaviour, could be potential means to reduce harmful use of alcohol and related harm among young people in Asia. The review reveals that drinking patterns and behaviours vary across eight selected Asian countries due to culture, policies and regional variations. The research evidence holds substantial policy implications for harm reduction on alcohol drinking among young people in Asian countries -- especially for China, which has almost no alcohol control policies at present.
Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.
We define a measuring device (detector) of the coordinate of quantum particle as an absorbing wall that cuts off the particle's wave function. The wave function in the presence of such a detector vanishes on the detector. The trace the absorbed particles leave on the detector is identified as the absorption current density on the detector. This density is calculated from the solution of Schroedinger's equation with a reflecting boundary at the detector. This current density is not the usual Schroedinger current density. We define the probability distribution of the time of arrival to a detector in terms of the absorption current density. We define coordinate measurement by an absorbing wall in terms of four postulates. In the resulting theory the quantum-mechanical collapse of the wave function is replaced with the usual collapse of the probability distribution after observation. Two measurement experiments are proposed to measure time of arrival and the probability density function of a freely propagating two-dimensional Gaussian packet from the measurement of the absorption current on two planes
de Jong, Nicole; van Leeuwen, Rob G.J.; Hoekstra, Hans A.; van der Zee, Karen
The article presents a new measure for career role identification, the Career Role Identification Questionnaire (CRIQ). In constructing the CRIQ, we used the Comparison Awareness Inducing Technique (CAIT), a new and innovative method to reduce the effects of self-presentation tactics. The results
De Jong, Nicole; van Leeuwen, Rob G.J.; Hoekstra, Hans A.; van der Zee, Karen I.
The article presents a new measure for career role identification, the Career Role Identification Questionnaire (CRIQ). In constructing the CRIQ, we used the Comparison Awareness Inducing Technique (CAIT), a new and innovative method to reduce the effects of self-presentation tactics.The results
Howard, Steven J.; Okely, Anthony D.
Although researchers agree that the first 5 years of life are critical for children's developing executive functions (EFs), further advances are hindered by a lack of consensus on the design and selection of developmentally appropriate EF tasks for young children. Given this debate, well-established adult measures of EF routinely have been adapted…
Ki, Mun Bong; Lee, Shi Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Yoon, Seok Pyo; Lee, Jae Hyo; Jo, Byeong Ryeol
This book gives descriptions of processing harmful waste, including concerned law and definition of harmful waste, current conditions and generation of harmful waste in Korea, international condition of harmful waste, minimizing of generation of harmful waste, treatment and storage. It also tells of basic science for harmful waste disposal with physics, chemistry, combustion engineering, microbiology and technique of disposal such as physical, chemical, biological process, stabilizing and solidification, incineration and waste in landfill.
Yang, Min Suk; Lee, Sang Pyo; Kwon, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min
This study evaluated dog and cat allergies and their association with allergen avoidance measures in Korean adults. The study population consisted of 537 adults who currently kept dogs or cats and participated in a pet exhibition in Korea. The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires regarding pet ownership, allergen avoidance, and allergy symptoms, and underwent skin prick tests. They were considered to have a dog or cat allergy if they suffered from one or more of allergy symptoms during contact with their pets. In total, 103 of 407 dog owners (25.3%) and 45 of 130 cat owners (34.6%) had a dog or cat allergy, respectively. Dog owners kept 1.3±1.5 dogs; this number did not differ according to the presence of dog allergy. Dog owners with a dog allergy had owned their dogs longer than those without (88.0±72.0 vs 67.5±72.7 months, PCat owners kept 2.1±3.6 cats; this number did not differ according to the presence of cat allergy, nor did the duration of cat ownership. Cat owners with a cat allergy had facial contact and slept with their cats less frequently (8.6±11.9 vs 18.3±27.0 times/day, Pcats shaved and beds cleaned less frequently than those without (1.8±3.3 vs 3.2±4.4 times/year, PCat owners with a cat allergy tried to minimize contact with their cats, but efforts to avoid indoor cat allergens were lower than those without. In comparison, dog owners with a dog allergy had kept their dogs for longer time than those without; however, current contact with their dogs and allergen avoidance measures did not differ between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
Bond, Frank W; Hayes, Steven C; Baer, Ruth A; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Guenole, Nigel; Orcutt, Holly K; Waltz, Tom; Zettle, Robert D
The present research describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a second version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), which assesses the construct referred to as, variously, acceptance, experiential avoidance, and psychological inflexibility. Results from 2,816 participants across six samples indicate the satisfactory structure, reliability, and validity of this measure. For example, the mean alpha coefficient is .84 (.78-.88), and the 3- and 12-month test-retest reliability is .81 and .79, respectively. Results indicate that AAQ-II scores concurrently, longitudinally, and incrementally predict a range of outcomes, from mental health to work absence rates, that are consistent with its underlying theory. The AAQ-II also demonstrates appropriate discriminant validity. The AAQ-II appears to measure the same concept as the AAQ-I (r=.97) but with better psychometric consistency. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Effting, M.; Salemink, E.; Verschuere, B.; Beckers, T.
Background and objectives: Avoidance behavior is central to several anxiety disorders. The current study tested whether avoidance behavior for spiders depends on a dynamic interplay between implicit and explicit processes, moderated by the availability to exert control through working memory
Burgers, Irene; Bouwman, Jan; Schutte, Nico; van Herwaarden, A.J.
This background paper shows: - why the OECD refers to a global ‘patchwork’ of domestic and anti-avoidance rules; - which measures the OECD in its BEPS Project recommends to address the mismatches and loopholes; and - to what extent the special needs of developing countries are recognized. Moreover
Whenever the eqnarray environment appears in a question or an example of a problem on comp.text.tex or the TeXhax mailing list there is a large chance that someone will tell the poster not to use eqnarray. This article will provide some examples of why many of us consider eqnarray to be harmful...
Fogelson, D L; Asarnow, R A; Sugar, C A; Subotnik, K L; Jacobson, K C; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S; Kuppinger, H; Nuechterlein, K H
Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia. 367 first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia and 245 relatives of community controls were interviewed for the presence of avoidant personality symptoms and symptoms of paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders and administered neurocognitive measures. Relationships between neurocognitive measures and avoidant symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed models. Avoidant dimensional scores predicted performance on the span of apprehension (SPAN), 3-7 Continuous Performance Test (3-7 CPT), and Trail Making Test (TMT-B) in schizophrenia relatives. These relationships remained significant on the SPAN even after adjustment for paranoid or schizotypal dimensional scores and on the TMT-B after adjustment for paranoid dimensional scores. Moreover, in a second set of analyses comparing schizophrenia relatives to controls there were significant or trending differences in the degree of the relationship between avoidant symptoms and each of these neurocognitive measures even after adjustments for paranoid and schizotypal dimensional scores. The substantial correlation between avoidant and schizotypal symptoms suggests that these personality disorders are not independent. Avoidant and in some cases schizotypal dimensional scores are significant predictors of variability in these neurocognitive measures. In all analyses, higher levels of avoidant symptoms were associated with worse performance on the neurocognitive measures in relatives of schizophrenia probands. These results support the hypothesis that avoidant personality disorder may be a schizophrenia spectrum phenotype. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ren Defang; Luo Xiandian; Tong Shenxiu; Guo Xulin; Peng Haiqing
After water corrosion in compliance with ASTM G2, the blue ring appears on the nuclear fuel rod samples of AFA 2G welded by using a Big Chamber Electron Beam Welder made in Russia. The characteristics, appearance, chemical composition, microstructure of b lue ring a nd some condition test are described. The mechanism of forming blue ring may be depicted as following: welding metal vapor and the splash produced by secondary and scatter electrons on metal clamp and gun body deposit in the area between HAZ and substrate because of the water cooling down effects on the clamp; these deposits, after water corrosion, appears as blue ring on the fuel rod surface. Avoiding measure is that the side of the clamp closing to weld seal is chamfered, while making the welding chamber cleaner
Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children
Liggett, Jacqueline; Carmichael, Kieran L C; Smith, Alexander; Sellbom, Martin
This study examined the validity of newly developed disorder-specific impairment scales (IS), modeled on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, for obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) and avoidant (AvPD) personality disorders. The IS focused on content validity (items directly reflected the disorder-specific impairments listed in DSM-5 Section III) and severity of impairment. A community sample of 313 adults completed personality inventories indexing the DSM-5 Sections II and III diagnostic criteria for OCPD and AvPD, as well as measures of impairment in the domains of self- and interpersonal functioning. Results indicated that both impairment measures (for AvPD in particular) showed promise in their ability to measure disorder-specific impairment, demonstrating convergent validity with their respective Section II counterparts and discriminant validity with their noncorresponding Section II disorder and with each other. The pattern of relationships between scores on the IS and scores on external measures of personality functioning, however, did not indicate that it is useful to maintain a distinction between impairment in the self- and interpersonal domains, at least for AvPD and OCPD.
Van Houtven, George; Powers, John; Jessup, Amber; Yang, Jui-Chen
Many economists argue that willingness-to-pay (WTP) measures are most appropriate for assessing the welfare effects of health changes. Nevertheless, the health evaluation literature is still dominated by studies estimating nonmonetary health status measures (HSMs), which are often used to assess changes in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Using meta-regression analysis, this paper combines results from both WTP and HSM studies applied to acute morbidity, and it tests whether a systematic relationship exists between HSM and WTP estimates. We analyze over 230 WTP estimates from 17 different studies and find evidence that QALY-based estimates of illness severity--as measured by the Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale--are significant factors in explaining variation in WTP, as are changes in the duration of illness and the average income and age of the study populations. In addition, we test and reject the assumption of a constant WTP per QALY gain. We also demonstrate how the estimated meta-regression equations can serve as benefit transfer functions for policy analysis. By specifying the change in duration and severity of the acute illness and the characteristics of the affected population, we apply the regression functions to predict average WTP per case avoided. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Hauser, Marc D; Robbins, Trevor W
Aversive emotional reactions to real or imagined social harms infuse moral judgment and motivate prosocial behavior. Here, we show that the neurotransmitter serotonin directly alters both moral judgment and behavior through increasing subjects' aversion to personally harming others. We enhanced serotonin in healthy volunteers with citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and contrasted its effects with both a pharmacological control treatment and a placebo on tests of moral judgment and behavior. We measured the drugs' effects on moral judgment in a set of moral 'dilemmas' pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person). Enhancing serotonin made subjects more likely to judge harmful actions as forbidden, but only in cases where harms were emotionally salient. This harm-avoidant bias after citalopram was also evident in behavior during the ultimatum game, in which subjects decide to accept or reject fair or unfair monetary offers from another player. Rejecting unfair offers enforces a fairness norm but also harms the other player financially. Enhancing serotonin made subjects less likely to reject unfair offers. Furthermore, the prosocial effects of citalopram varied as a function of trait empathy. Individuals high in trait empathy showed stronger effects of citalopram on moral judgment and behavior than individuals low in trait empathy. Together, these findings provide unique evidence that serotonin could promote prosocial behavior by enhancing harm aversion, a prosocial sentiment that directly affects both moral judgment and moral behavior.
Lender, A.; Meule, A.; Rinck, M.; Brockmeyer, T.; Blechert, J.
Strong implicit responses to food have evolved to avoid energy depletion but contribute to overeating in today's affluent environments. The Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) supposedly assesses implicit biases in response to food stimuli: Participants push pictures on a monitor "away" or pull them
... toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. Humans who eat shellfish contaminated with HAB toxins ... toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. Humans who eat shellfish containing toxins produced by ...
Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts himself or herself in this way. More females hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or herself. But they are at higher risk of attempting suicide if they do ...
Data products in heliospheric physics are very often provided without clear estimates of uncertainty. From helioseismology in the solar interior, all the way to in situ solar wind measurements beyond 1AU, uncertainty estimates are typically hard for users to find (buried inside long documents that are separate from the data products), or simply non-existent.There are two main reasons why uncertainty measurements are hard to find:1. Understanding instrumental systematic errors is given a much higher priority inside instrumental teams.2. The desire to perfectly understand all sources of uncertainty postpones indefinitely the actual quantification of uncertainty in our measurements.Using the cross calibration of 200 years of sunspot area measurements as a case study, in this presentation we will discuss the negative impact that inadequate measurements of uncertainty have on users, through the appearance of toxic and unnecessary controversies, and data providers, through the creation of unrealistic expectations regarding the information that can be extracted from their data. We will discuss how empirical estimates of uncertainty represent a very good alternative to not providing any estimates at all, and finalize by discussing the bare essentials that should become our standard practice for future instruments and surveys.
Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik
Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226
Michel, Laurent; Lions, Caroline; Van Malderen, Sara; Schiltz, Julie; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Holm, Karina; Kolind, Torsten; Nava, Felice; Weltzien, Nadja; Moser, Andrea; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Maguet, Olivier; Carrieri, Patrizia M; Brentari, Cinzia; St?ver, Heino
International audience; AbstractBackgroundPrisoners constitute a high-risk population, particularly for infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the level of infectious risk in the prisons of five different European countries by measuring to what extent the prison system adheres to WHO/UNODC recommendations.MethodsFollowing the methodology used in a previous French survey, a postal/electronic questionnaire was sent to all prisons in Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Italy to col...
Objectives: To analyze and understand the existence of self-harming behavior in a detention centre for minors. Methods: Review of self-harm cases detected in a population of 94 inmates in 2013. Results: 26.5% of young offenders have conducted some form of self injury. 28% of individuals with self harming behaviors have more than 6 episodes over the period of internment. Self-beating is the most common type of self-harm performed by this group. Inmates serving sentences in the therapeutic sect...
Brynildsen, L.I.; Sandvik, O.; Ormstad, I.
Apart from the former Sovjet Union, Norway was the country most widely and severely affected by the impact of radioactive fallout (137Cs+134Cs) from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in April 1986. The fallout created considerable problems for sheep, goats and cattle grazing mountain pastures, and also for reindeer farming. Effective countermeasures, inter alia pre-slaughter feeding of livestock on uncountaminated fodder, and the use of caesium binders, had to be introduced. Further new methods to measure levels of radioactive caesium in live animals had to be developed, in order to alleviate the adverse effects on livestock and the human population. The veterinary services were, like other authorities involved, poorly prepared for this type of emergency. The Official Meat Inspection Acts and regulations and instructions issued in its pursuance, places the responsibility for protecting the public from hazards posed by contaminants in meat on the veterinary services. The veterinary authorities were therefore deeply involved in the development, management and implemention of measures to ensure that radioactivity levels in meat did not exceed official intervention levels. In this work, the veterinary services and individual veterinarians, benefitted from previous experience and training in contingency planning and tackling emergencies and were able to apply similar principles as these used to deal with emergency situations in the veterinary field, for example, outbreaks of serious infectious animal diseases. Efforts to reduce the detrimental impact of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout on agriculture and reindeer farming have been prolonged and comprehensive. So far, it seems fair to say that the veterinary services have born their share of responsibility and tackled the task to salvage as much meat as possible, in a reliable and economically justifiable manner
Matzopoulos, R G; Truen, S; Bowman, B; Corrigall, J
The economic, social and health costs associated with alcohol-related harms are important measures with which to inform alcohol management policies and laws. This analysis builds on previous cost estimates for South Africa. We reviewed existing international best-practice costing frameworks to provide the costing definitions and dimensions. We sourced data from South African costing literature or, if unavailable, estimated costs using socio-economic and health data from secondary sources. Care was taken to avoid possible causes of cost overestimation, in particular double counting and, as far as possible, second-round effects of alcohol abuse. The combined total tangible and intangible costs of alcohol harm to the economy were estimated at 10 - 12% of the 2009 gross domestic product (GDP). The tangible financial cost of harmful alcohol use alone was estimated at R37.9 billion, or 1.6% of the 2009 GDP. The costs of alcohol-related harms provide a substantial counterbalance to the economic benefits highlighted by the alcohol industry to counter stricter regulation. Curtailing these costs by regulatory and policy interventions contributes directly and indirectly to social well-being and the economy. CONCLUSIONS; Existing frameworks that guide the regulation and distribution of alcohol frequently focus on maximising the contribution of the alcohol sector to the economy, but should also take into account the associated economic, social and health costs. Current interventions do not systematically address the most important causes of harm from alcohol, and need to be informed by reliable evidence of the ongoing costs of alcohol-related harms.
Kool, Nienke; Pollen, Wim; van Meijel, Berno
To gain a better understanding of self-harm, a 28-year-old female patient and a 19-year-old female patient with self-harming behaviour are presented. The first patient refused treatment of cut wounds when the doctor enquired about the reason for self-harm. The second patient was referred for mental health care. These cases illustrate the complexity of this behaviour for the patient and the caregiver. Self-harm is often a symbol of underlying problems and serves multiple psychological functions. It is mostly used by patients to cope with unbearable emotions for which they have no other solution. The self-harm invokes different feelings in caregivers which tend to influence the attitude of the caregiver towards the patient. It is very important that caregivers are aware of their feelings and use them professionally. People who self-harm should not be judged, but treated respectfully and attention should be paid to their suffering.
Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze and understand the existence of self-harming behavior in a detention centre for minors. Methods: Review of self-harm cases detected in a population of 94 inmates in 2013. Results: 26.5% of young offenders have conducted some form of self injury. 28% of individuals with self harming behaviors have more than 6 episodes over the period of internment. Self-beating is the most common type of self-harm performed by this group. Inmates serving sentences in the therapeutic section tend to present spillover effects in terms of self-injury. Discussion: The population held in prison show higher percentages of self-harm than amongst the general population. The chosen type of behavior is determined by the institution. Inmates that present greater mental fragility tend to perform these behaviors and in greater number.
H.J. van Heerde (Harald); K. Helsen; M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)
textabstractProduct-harm crises are among a firm’s worst nightmares. Since marketing investments may be instrumental to convince consumers to purchase the firm's products again, it is important to provide an adequate measurement of the effectiveness of these investments, especially after the crisis.
The term self-harm is commonly used to describe a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial cutting in response to intolerable tension. As with suicide, rates of self-harm vary greatly between countries. 5-9% of adolescents in western countries report having self-harmed within the previous year. Risk factors include socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychiatric illness--particularly depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Cultural aspects of some societies may protect against suicide and self-harm and explain some of the international variation in rates of these events. Risk of repetition of self-harm and of later suicide is high. More than 5% of people who have been seen at a hospital after self-harm will have committed suicide within 9 years. Assessment after self-harm includes careful consideration of the patient's intent and beliefs about the lethality of the method used. Strong suicidal intent, high lethality, precautions against being discovered, and psychiatric illness are indicators of high suicide risk. Management after self-harm includes forming a trusting relationship with the patient, jointly identifying problems, ensuring support is available in a crisis, and treating psychiatric illness vigorously. Family and friends may also provide support. Large-scale studies of treatments for specific subgroups of people who self-harm might help to identify more effective treatments than are currently available. Although risk factors for self-harm are well established, aspects that protect people from engaging in self-harm need to be further explored.
Background Small-scale evaluations suggest that the provision of feedback to parents about their child’s weight status may improve recognition of overweight, but the effects on lifestyle behaviour are unclear and there are concerns that informing parents that their child is overweight may have harmful effects. The aims of this study were to describe the benefits and harms of providing weight feedback to parents as part of a national school-based weight-screening programme in England. Methods We conducted a pre-post survey of 1,844 parents of children aged 4–5 and 10–11 years who received weight feedback as part of the 2010–2011 National Child Measurement Programme. Questionnaires assessed general knowledge about the health risks associated with child overweight, parental recognition of overweight and the associated health risks in their child, child lifestyle behaviour, child self-esteem and weight-related teasing, parental experience of the feedback, and parental help-seeking behaviour. Differences in the pre-post proportions of parents reporting each outcome were assessed using a McNemar’s test. Results General knowledge about child overweight as a health issue was high at baseline and increased further after weight feedback. After feedback, the proportion of parents that correctly recognised their child was overweight increased from 21.9% to 37.7%, and more than a third of parents of overweight children sought further information regarding their child’s weight. However, parent-reported changes in lifestyle behaviours among children were minimal, and limited to increases in physical activity in the obese children only. There was some suggestion that weight feedback had a greater impact upon changing parental recognition of the health risks associated with child overweight in non-white ethnic groups. Conclusions In this population-based sample of parents of children participating in the National Child Measurement Programme, provision of weight feedback
van Amsterdam, Jan; Pennings, Ed; Brunt, Tibor; van den Brink, Wim
Chronic use at high dose of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco is associated with physical disease. The relative physical harm of these substances has not been described before, but will benefit the guiding of policy measures about licit and illicit substances. The physical harm of 19 addictive
Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare
Bhat, S.R.; PrabhaDevi; DeSouza, L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Naik, C.G.
as harmful algal bloom. Bloom formation is a natural process and it enhances biological productivity, but turns worrisome when caused by toxic species, leading to massive fish mortalities and hazards to human health. Incidences of'red tide' are increasing...
... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...
Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.
We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.
This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...
Davis MacNevin, Parnell; Thompson, Kara; Teehan, Michael; Stuart, Heather; Stewart, Sherry
Prior research suggests more than 70% of undergraduates have experienced harm from other students' drinking. This study built on the literature by, first, investigating whether secondhand harm cluster into latent factors that reflect distinct but related types of harm. Second, given the paucity of research examining factors that increase students' vulnerability to secondhand harm, we examined dimensions from Castellanos-Ryan and Conrod's 4-factor personality model for alcohol disorders (impulsivity [IMP], sensation seeking [SS], hopelessness [HOP], anxiety sensitivity [AS]) as predictors of secondhand harm exposure. We also investigated the possible mediating role of students' own problematic alcohol use in explaining personality-secondhand harm relationships. An online survey was administered to 1,537 first-year Canadian undergraduates (68% women). Problematic alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and personality was measured by the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Eleven secondhand harm items were included. The secondhand harm clustered into 3 distinct but related factors: "strains" (e.g., interruption of sleep or study), "threats" (e.g., harassment or assault), and "interpersonal harm" (e.g., arguments with peers). Sixty-eight percent of respondents reported strains, 44% threats, and 64% interpersonal harm, and 35% reported experiencing all 3 types of harm, in the last term. All 4 personality dimensions were independently associated with greater secondhand harm exposure. HOP was directly associated with threats and interpersonal harm, and AS was directly associated with all 3 types of harm. SS and IMP were both indirectly associated with all 3 types of harm through students' own problematic alcohol use. In addition, IMP was directly related to threats. The prevalence of secondhand harm from alcohol is high among undergraduates. Findings suggest that distinct personality risks may predispose students to experience secondhand
Taylor, Lewis A., III
An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…
It has been difficult to secure funding in Denmark to conduct research on third party harm from alcohol. The author relates her experiences in this area and challenges Danish society to examine how other societies have begun to examine this problem....
Full Text Available The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5 and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS.
ten Brink, Patrick; Schweitzer, Jean-Pierre; Watkins, Emma; Janssens, Charlotte; De Smet, Michiel; Leslie, Heather; Galgani, François
We live in the plastic age (the “plasticene”), producing over 300 million tonnes (mt) of plastic every year globally, 5–15 mt of which flow into already polluted oceans. Plastic remains a key material in the global economy, but low rates of collection, reuse and recycling, emissions of microplastic from product wear and tear, and often insufficient disposal measures are leading to far-reaching environmental, health, social and economic impacts. The costs of inaction are unacceptably high. Glo...
Ten Brink, Patrick; Schweitzer, Jean-pierre; Watkins, Emma; De Smet, Michel; Leslie, Heather; Galgani, Francois
We live in the plastic age (the “plasticene”), producing over 300 million tonnes (mt) of plastic every year globally, 5-15 mt of which flow into already polluted oceans. Plastic remains a key material in the global economy, but low rates of collection, reuse and recycling, emissions of microplastic from product wear and tear, and often insufficient disposal measures are leading to far-reaching environmental, health, social and economic impacts. The costs of inaction are unacceptably high. Glo...
When the "Black Death" swept through Europe from southern France in 1348, in the short space of two years the Europeans were hit by one of the most serious epidemics ever recorded in human history. Yersinia pestis reached Europe by sea, its contamination propagated by the Genoese ships coming from the Crimean port of Jaffa. For the first time the world experienced microbiological unification: East and West were equally involved in the tragedy that spread, and no town remained unscathed during the various epidemic waves which succeeded one another in the following three centuries. The authors of this article describe how and why the epidemic spread, as well as the factors that led to the swift, and often fatal, involment of millions of Europeans. The second part of the article deals with the measures taken by the healthcare authorities of European towns and countries in order to halt the proliferation of the disease. According to the data and observations by authoritative authors, selected among the many who studied the disease that from the 14th century spread like a scourge throughout the known world at the time, the epidemic could have been even more serious, in terms of mortality and morbidity, without the disciplinary and provisional health measures taken. The experience gained in Italy and all over Europe at the time proved useful not only to better manage the epidemics which cyclically broke out, but also to efficiently combat the cholera epidemics of the 19th century. With the 14th century plague epidemic, the Europeans and their political and administrative representatives may well have realized for the very first time that contamination could be combatted by adopting a set of rational, scientific norms - although in practice such rules were mostly inspired by misguided scientific theories. Humankind was no longer alone. A new society was emerging, one that was not going to passively accept the more or less mysterious ways of a superior being of fate. The
Fonseca, Valeria da; Pastura, Silvia; Wieland, Patricia; Campos, Thomas F. da C.
This paper presents the Environmental and Safety Educational Campaign on the care in the small mining 'garimpo' with radioactive ore of uranium and thorium. These radionuclides are the major source of radioactive material present in certain mineral from rocks for example, tantalite / columbite, granites with cassiterite coal, phosphates, zirconate and rare-earth elements. The occurrence of radioactive ores in some sites has risen especial attention from CNEN such as in Borborema Mountain, where Uranium and Thorium are found scattered in pegmatite bodies from Serido region between Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba states, and in Amapa state, in the Amazonian forest region, where thorianite was being illegally mined. Besides work accident risks inherent to this activity, there are radiological risks, showing the need to adapt measures and actions aiming at the health and safety of the small miners and population in general. The campaign involves cooperatives, trade unions, schools, non-governmental organization, entities involved in national security and others take part. The objective is to foment actions of radiological safety, in order to guarantee the protection and safety of the workers, their families and population. (author)
Graham, Jennifer L.
What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).
Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M
Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wang, Yong; Li, Weiguang; Angelidaki, Irini
Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement has been a big problem in the application of the Fenton process. However, there is no simple and effective method available to address this problem, although several methods have been reported in the literature. In this st......Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement has been a big problem in the application of the Fenton process. However, there is no simple and effective method available to address this problem, although several methods have been reported in the literature...... to be effective in the matrix of Fenton treating real landfill leachate. Meanwhile, the procedure for this method in other applications was proposed in detail. To the best of our knowledge, this newly developed method is the most simple and effective way to avoid H2O2 interference on COD analysis....
Zickgraf, Hana F; Ellis, Jordan M
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating or feeding disorder characterized by inadequate nutritional or caloric intake leading to weight loss, nutritional deficiency, supplement dependence, and/or significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 lists three different eating patterns that can lead to symptoms of ARFID: avoidance of foods due to their sensory properties (e.g., picky eating), poor appetite or limited interest in eating, or fear of negative consequences from eating. Research on the prevalence and psychopathology of ARFID is limited by the lack of validated instruments to measure these eating behaviors. The present study describes the development and validation of the nine-item ARFID screen (NIAS), a brief multidimensional instrument to measure ARFID-associated eating behaviors. Participants were 455 adults recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk, 505 adults recruited from a nationally-representative subject pool, and 311 undergraduates participating in research for course credit. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for three factors. The NIAS subscales demonstrated high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, invariant item loadings between two samples, and convergent/discriminant validity with other measures of picky eating, appetite, fear of negative consequences, and psychopathology. The scales were also correlated with measures of ARFID-like symptoms (e.g., low BMI, low fruit/vegetable variety and intake, and eating-related psychosocial interference/distress), although the picky eating, appetite, and fear scales had distinct independent relationships with these constructs. The NIAS is a brief, reliable instrument that may be used to further investigate ARFID-related eating behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gjersti, Per O. [Finans- og Tolldepartementet, Oslo (Norway)
This presentation discusses the following issues: (1) Good vs harmful tax competition?, (2) How to identify harmful competition?, (3) What is the economic and social impact of harmful tax competition?, (4) What can be done about harmful tax competition? There are three levels, the EU level, the OECD level and the global level. Existing measures to counteract harmful tax practices are insufficient because action by one country merely shifts activity to another country and puts its tax payers at a competitive disadvantage and because coordination action eases political pressure. The EU code of good conduct and the OECD guidelines for dealing with harmful preferential tax regimes are compared, with respect to general features, with respect to key factors to identify harmful measures, and with respect to general scope.
Fogelson, D. L.; Asarnow, R. A.; Sugar, C. A.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.; Kuppinger, H.; Nuechterlein, K. H.
Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia.
Calley, Darren Q; Jackson, Steven; Collins, Heather; George, Steven Z
Cross-sectional. To evaluate the accuracy with which physical therapists identify fear-avoidance beliefs in patients with low back pain by comparing therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance to the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia 11-item (TSK-11), and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). To compare the concurrent validity of therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance and a 2-item questionnaire on fear of physical activity and harm, with clinical measures of fear-avoidance (FABQ, TSK-11, PCS), pain intensity as assessed with a numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and disability as assessed with the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ). The need to consider psychosocial factors for identifying patients at risk for disability and chronic low back pain has been well documented. Yet the ability of physical therapists to identify fear-avoidance beliefs using direct observation has not been studied. Eight physical therapists and 80 patients with low back pain from 3 physical therapy clinics participated in the study. Patients completed the FABQ, TSK-11, PCS, ODQ, NPRS, and a dichotomous 2-item fear-avoidance screening questionnaire. Following the initial evaluation, physical therapists rated perceived patient fear-avoidance on a 0-to-10 scale and recorded 2 influences on their ratings. Spearman correlation and independent t tests determined the level of association of therapist 0-to-10 ratings and 2-item screening with fear-avoidance and clinical measures. Therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance had fair to moderate interrater reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.663). Therapist ratings did not strongly correlate with FABQ or TSK-11 scores. Instead, they unexpectedly had stronger associations with ODQ and PCS scores. Both 2-item screening questions were associated with FABQ-physical activity scores, while the fear of physical activity question was also associated with FABQ-work, TSK-11, PCS, and ODQ scores
Jensen, Mark P; Ward, L Charles; Thorn, Beverly E; Ehde, Dawn M; Day, Melissa A
We recently proposed a Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Activation System (BIS-BAS) model to help explain the effects of pain treatments. In this model, treatments are hypothesized to operate primarily through their effects on the domains within 2 distinct neurophysiological systems that underlie approach (BAS) and avoidance (BIS) behaviors. Measures of the model's domains are needed to evaluate and modify the model. An item pool of negative responses to pain (NRP; hypothesized to be BIS related) and positive responses (PR; hypothesized to be BAS related) were administered to 395 undergraduates, 325 of whom endorsed recurrent pain. The items were administered to 176 of these individuals again 1 week later. Analyses were conducted to develop and validate scales assessing NRP and PR domains. Three NRP scales (Despondent Response to Pain, Fear of Pain, and Avoidant Response to Pain) and 2 PR scales (Happy/Hopeful Responses and Approach Response) emerged. Consistent with the model, the scales formed 2 relatively independent overarching domains. The scales also demonstrated excellent internal consistency, and associations with criterion variables supported their validity. However, whereas the NRP scales evidenced adequate test-retest stability, the 2 PR scales were not adequately stable. The study yielded 3 brief scales assessing NRP, which may be used to further evaluate the BIS-BAS model and to advance research elucidating the mechanisms of psychosocial pain treatments. The findings also provide general support for the BIS-BAS model, while also suggesting that some minor modifications in the model are warranted.
Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background: Harm reduction is commonly regarded as complementary to other drug problem responses - as the fourth tier. Yet even core examples of harm reduction such as the provision of injection equipment and methadone treatment has over and over encountered considerable opposition, and harm redu...
Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca
The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...
Byrne, Sharon K
The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.
Pedler, Ashley; Kamper, Steven J; Sterling, Michele
The fear avoidance model (FAM) has been proposed to explain the development of chronic disability in a variety of conditions including whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). The FAM does not account for symptoms of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity, which are associated with poor recovery from whiplash injury. The aim of this study was to explore a model for the maintenance of pain and related disability in people with WAD including symptoms of PTSD, sensory hypersensitivity, and FAM components. The relationship between individual components in the model and disability and how these relationships changed over the first 12 weeks after injury were investigated. We performed a longitudinal study of 103 (74 female) patients with WAD. Measures of pain intensity, cold and mechanical pain thresholds, symptoms of posttraumatic stress, pain catastrophising, kinesiophobia, and fear of cervical spine movement were collected within 6 weeks of injury and at 12 weeks after injury. Mixed-model analysis using Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores and average 24-hour pain intensity as the dependent variables revealed that overall model fit was greatest when measures of fear of movement, posttraumatic stress, and sensory hypersensitivity were included. The interactive effects of time with catastrophising and time with fear of activity of the cervical spine were also included in the best model for disability. These results provide preliminary support for the addition of neurobiological and stress system components to the FAM to explain poor outcome in patients with WAD.
It is important that digital biometric identity systems be used by governments with a Do no Harm mandate, and the establishment of regulatory, enforcement and restorative frameworks ensuring data protection and privacy needs to transpire prior to the implementation of technological programs and services. However, when, and where large government bureaucracies are involved, the proper planning and execution of public service programs very often result in ungainly outcomes, and are often qualitatively not guaranteeable. Several important factors, such as the strength of the political and legal systems, may affect such cases as the implementation of a national digital identity system. Digital identity policy development, as well as technical deployment of biometric technologies and enrollment processes, may all differ markedly, and could depend in some part at least, on the overall economic development of the country in question, or political jurisdiction, among other factors. This article focuses on the Republic of India's national digital biometric identity system, the Aadhaar , for its development, data protection and privacy policies, and impact. Two additional political jurisdictions, the European Union, and the United States are also situationally analyzed as they may be germane to data protection and privacy policies originated to safeguard biometric identities. Since biometrics are foundational elements in modern digital identity systems, expression of data protection policies that orient and direct how biometrics are to be utilized as unique identifiers are the focus of this analysis. As more of the world's economies create and elaborate capacities, capabilities and functionalities within their respective digital ambits, it is not enough to simply install suitable digital identity technologies; much, much more - is durably required. For example, both vigorous and descriptive means of data protection should be well situated within any jurisdictionally relevant
Shukla, Sushumna; de Wit, Patrick; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Kappert, Emiel; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin
A route for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio that avoids harmful solvents is presented. The approach is based on bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous mixture of inorganic particles and sodium alginate during wet spinning. In a subsequent thermal
The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws.
Van Limbergen, E.; Briot, E.; Drijkoningen, M.
Inappropriate positioning of interstitial iridium 192 implants, used as booster dose in the breast conserving treatment of mammary cancer, may cause disturbing teleangiectasia of the breast skin, when high radiation doses are delivered on the dermal blood vessels. Based on the localization of the vascular plexuses in human breast skin, and on the dose distribution around different types of interstitial implants, a method is described to avoid overlap between the high dose area of the implant and the blood vessels in the skin. The latter are demonstrated to run within the first 5 mm under the epiderm. For source lengths varying from 5 to 8 cm, simple mathematical relations exist between the maximal security margin (MSM) and intersource distance (E) for single plane implants (MSM = 0.4 (E + 1)), double plane square implants (MSM = 0.4 E) and double plane triangular implants (MSM = 0.4 (E - 1)). We developed a device to measure precisely the distance between the radioactive wires and the overlying skin, along the whole source trajectory. Using this method, the occurrence of teleangiectasia in the breast skin after interstitial implants with Ir 192 may be significantly reduced
There should be an agreement of goals in any project that could produce harm. Why are we developing this technology? Who benefits and who pays? What would a 'cleanup' entail? There must be consideration of alternatives with a focus on reducing harm rather than just meeting allowable limits or promising that they will be met in the future. When alternatives are weighed, the burden should be on the proponent of the activity to provide truthful information to the public and provide access and resources necessary for participation. There must be a formal, legal obligation or duty to consider science as well as non-scientific information. It should not be up to those harmed to prove the damage and force the responsible parties to make retribution. It should be the burden of the proponents to measure potential risks, and prove that the benefits to everyone outweigh the risks to everyone. The role of government in decision making should also be redefined. The considerations now seem to be limited to whether or not an action is 'legal' or if it is 'safe'. There should also be a determination that it is 'necessary'. That may seem to be a very difficult question but put simply, if there are alternatives then a thing is not 'necessary'. Governmental decision makers would say: 'We acknowledge that our world will never be free from risk. However, any risk that is unnecessary or not freely chosen is not acceptable'. There must be a move away from situations where prior, important decisions resulted in winners and losers; wealthy beneficiaries and underprivileged victims. There must be recognition that decision making needs to be inclusive, extensive and democratic and that the end products and final results are necessary and worthwhile before projects begin. They must be visible, accessible, and must reflect the cost of doing business which includes taking the time, finding the information and involving the people who will work together to make sure that harm is avoided and
Ocloo, Josephine Enyonam
Patient safety is a central issue in healthcare. In the United Kingdom, where there is more accurate information on National Health Service (NHS) hospitals than on primary care or the private sector, the evidence on adverse incidents shows that avoidable medical harm is a major concern. This paper looks at the occurrence of medical harm and argues that in the construction of patient safety reforms, it is important to be aware of alternative narratives about issues of power and accountability from harmed patients and self-help groups, that challenge dominant perspectives on the issues. The paper draws upon evidence from two sources. First, the paper draws on experiences of self-help groups set up as a result of medical harm and part of a campaigning network, where evidence was gathered from 14 groups over more than 2 years. In addition, data were obtained from 21 individuals affected by harm that attended a residential workshop called the Break Through Programme; 18 questionnaires were completed from participants and a written narrative account of their experiences and observational data were gathered from a range of workshop sessions. Looking at the issues from harmed patients' perspectives, the research illustrates that a model of medical harm focussing predominantly upon the clinical markers and individual agency associated with a medical model operates to obscure a range of social processes. These social processes, connected to the power and dominance of the medical profession and the activities of a wider state, are seen to be a major part of the construction of harm that impacts upon patients, which is further compounded by its concealment. Understanding the experiences of harmed patients is therefore seen as an important way of generating knowledge about the medical and social processes involved in harm, that can lead to a broader framework for addressing patient safety. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selekman, Matthew D.
Approximately 14 to 17 percent of adolescents today self-harm, deliberately cutting, burning, or bruising themselves. Most self-harming adolescents use the behavior as a coping strategy to get immediate relief from emotional distress or other stressors in their lives. Stressors include fitting in with peers, activity and homework overload, fears…
van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim
The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed
Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven
We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble
Straiton, Melanie L.; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K.; Dieserud, Gudrun
A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women.…
Lockwood, Joanna; Daley, David; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil
Research supports an association between impulsivity and self-harm, yet inconsistencies in methodology across studies have complicated understanding of this relationship. This systematic review examines the association between impulsivity and self-harm in community-based adolescents aged 11-25 years and aims to integrate findings according to differing concepts and methods. Electronic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed and The Cochrane Library, and manual searches of reference lists of relevant reviews identified 4496 articles published up to July 2015, of which 28 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four of the studies reported an association between broadly specified impulsivity and self-harm. However, findings varied according to the conception and measurement of impulsivity and the precision with which self-harm behaviours were specified. Specifically, lifetime non-suicidal self-injury was most consistently associated with mood-based impulsivity-related traits. However, cognitive facets of impulsivity (relating to difficulties maintaining focus or acting without forethought) differentiated current self-harm from past self-harm. These facets also distinguished those with thoughts of self-harm (ideation) from those who acted on thoughts (enaction). The findings suggested that mood-based impulsivity is related to the initiation of self-harm, while cognitive facets of impulsivity are associated with the maintenance of self-harm. In addition, behavioural impulsivity is most relevant to self-harm under conditions of negative affect. Collectively, the findings indicate that distinct impulsivity facets confer unique risks across the life-course of self-harm. From a clinical perspective, the review suggests that interventions focusing on reducing rash reactivity to emotions or improving self-regulation and decision making may offer most benefit in supporting those who self-harm.
Denham, Charles R; Guilloteau, Franck R
The ultimate objective of this program is to provide an approach to understanding and communicating health-care harm and cost to compel health-care provider leadership teams to vote "yes" to investments in patient safety initiatives, with the confidence that clinical, financial, and operational performance will be improved by such programs. Through a coordinated combination of literature evaluations, careful mapping of high impact scenarios using simulated patients and consensus review of clinical, operational, and financial factors, we confirmed value in such approaches to decision support information for hospital leadership teams to invest in patient safety projects. The study resulted in the following preliminary findings: ·Communication between hospital quality and finance departments can be much improved by direct collaborative relationships through regular meetings to help both clarify direct costs, indirect costs, and the savings of waste and harm to patients by avoidance of infections. ·Governance leaders and the professional administrative leaders should consider establishing the structures and systems necessary to act on risks and hazards as they evolve to deploy resources to areas of harm and risk. ·Quality and Infection Control Professionals can best wage their war on healthcare waste and harm by keeping abreast of the latest literature regarding the latest measures, standards, and safe practices for healthcare-acquired infections and hospital-acquired conditions. ·Regular reviews of patients with health-careYassociated infections, with direct attention to the attributable cost of treatment and how financial waste and harm to patients may be avoided, may provide hospital leaders with new insights for improvement. ·If hospitals developed their own risk scenarios to determine impact of harm and waste from hospital-acquired conditions in addition to impact scenarios for specific processes through technology and process innovations, they would have
last 10 years.12 Apart from the cost of medical care, the cost of alcohol use can also be associated with absenteeism and property damage. Alcohol...related harms cost British industry approximately £2 billion a year13 and the NHS about £1.7 billion a year14. Alcohol affects labour and productivity...Harmful drinking, Factsheet, June (2007). 15 “ Absenteeism due to drink”, Healthcare Today Magazine, September 19th, 2007. (Accessed on 19/09/07, at
May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda
Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.
Yankovskiy, S S
The work is a brief description of the content of the reports delivered at the seminar entitled Protecting the Air Basin from Harmful Discharges of the Machine Building Enterprises, which took place at the All Union Exhibit of the Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR (VDNKh) in 1982. Representatives of different ministries and agencies, scientific research institutes (NII), planning and design and other specialized organizations, institutes of higher learning (vuz) and enterprises from different branches of industry took part in the work of the seminar. The seminar noted measures to eliminate deficiencies which occur in individual enterprises of the branch and measures to improve the work to improve protection of the air basin from harmful discharges of machine building enterprises.
Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom
For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle for recov......For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle...
Desain, P.; Honing, H.
In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression
Kugel, Karin; Brennecke, Peter; Steyer, Stephan; Gruendler, Detlef; Boetsch, Wilma; Haider, Claudia
In order to avoid a pollution of the near surface ground water during the post closure phase of the Konrad repository the acceptable amount of material harmful to water in the radioactive waste is restricted. For this purpose the KONRAD plan approval order includes waste requirements referring to the German water law ('water law permission'). In a first part of this contribution the water law permission for the KONRAD repository is introduced. This permission contains a list of materials harmful to water with the respective limitations in mass and many instructions and proposals regarding the registering and balancing of these materials as well as quality assurance aspects. The second part deals with the implementation of the water law permission in the waste acceptance criteria. The waste producer has to describe his waste in a standardized way with respect to the material composition. The operator of the repository has to check this description and to register and balance the materials and substances harmful to water. This procedure is based on a standardized list of materials and a list of containers. In the third part quality control measures used for the proof of the compliance with the acceptance criteria (with respect to the water law permission) are described. In particular objective of the quality control, possible quality control options and acceptable margins are dealt with. (authors)
Rekart, Michael L
Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Collision avoidance for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) traveling at high relative speeds is a challenging task. It requires both the detection of a possible collision...
Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup
AIM: To examine strategies of harm minimization employed by teenage drinkers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two periods of ethnographic fieldwork were conducted in a rural Danish community of approximately 2000 inhabitants. The fieldwork included 50 days of participant observation among 13....... In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...
Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred
The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on
Cleeren, K.; Dekimpe, M.G.; Helsen, K.
To counter the negative effects of a product-harm crisis, brands hope to capitalize on their equity, and often use advertising as a communication device to regain customers’ lost trust. We study how consumer characteristics and advertising influence consumers’ first-purchase decisions for two
Krishnakumar, P; Geeta, M G; Riyaz, A
To study the nature of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in children and to identify the associated factors. Child Guidance Clinic attached to the Department of Pediatrics of a teaching hospital in South India. Children with history of deliberate self harm who were referred to the CGC for psychological evaluation during a 10 year period. Children and parents were interviewed together and separately and details regarding age, sex, family and school environment, stresses and nature of self harm were documented. Psychiatric diagnosis was made based on DSM IV diagnostic criteria. Among the 30 children included in the study, 21 were boys and 9 were girls. Majority of children were between the ages of 11 and 13 years, the youngest being 6 years old. 76%of children had history of acute stressful life events and 62%of them had chronic ongoing stress. 62%of children had stress in the family and 41%had stress at school. Stress in the family included death of a parent, conflicts with parents or siblings, mental illness in the family, parental alcoholism and parental disharmony. Stress at school included conflicts with classmates, punishment or negative comments by teachers and learning problems. Psychiatric disorders were present in 52%of children, the commonest being depressive disorder. The commonest mode of DSH was self poisoning, and rat poison (zinc phosphide) was the commonest substance used. Deliberate self harm occurs in young children and the risk factors are comparable to those in adolescents.
Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom
For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle...
Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…
Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.
Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen
Treichel, Judy [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
There should be an agreement of goals in any project that could produce harm. Why are we developing this technology? Who benefits and who pays? What would a 'cleanup' entail? There must be consideration of alternatives with a focus on reducing harm rather than just meeting allowable limits or promising that they will be met in the future. When alternatives are weighed, the burden should be on the proponent of the activity to provide truthful information to the public and provide access and resources necessary for participation. There must be a formal, legal obligation or duty to consider science as well as non-scientific information. It should not be up to those harmed to prove the damage and force the responsible parties to make retribution. It should be the burden of the proponents to measure potential risks, and prove that the benefits to everyone outweigh the risks to everyone. The role of government in decision making should also be redefined. The considerations now seem to be limited to whether or not an action is 'legal' or if it is 'safe'. There should also be a determination that it is 'necessary'. That may seem to be a very difficult question but put simply, if there are alternatives then a thing is not 'necessary'. Governmental decision makers would say: 'We acknowledge that our world will never be free from risk. However, any risk that is unnecessary or not freely chosen is not acceptable'. There must be a move away from situations where prior, important decisions resulted in winners and losers; wealthy beneficiaries and underprivileged victims. There must be recognition that decision making needs to be inclusive, extensive and democratic and that the end products and final results are necessary and worthwhile before projects begin. They must be visible, accessible, and must reflect the cost of doing business which includes taking the time, finding the information and involving the people who
Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin
Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)
In an ideal harm reduction model, drugs would be ranked according to their potential to cause harm, with varying implications for control policies and interventions. In such a public health oriented approach, the maximum protection of the public from harm would be balanced with the least possible restriction of freedom. In reality, however, the accuracy and completeness of the necessary information for such a ranking is highly limited. Many other factors not readily incorporated in a rational model, such as values, beliefs, and traditions, also affect drug policy decisions. Thus, rather than relying on acquisition of the necessary knowledge, it may be preferable to focus efforts on developing effective nonlegal measures to reduce drug use and harm. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.
Abbas, Mohammed J; Mohanna, Mostafa A; Diab, Tarig A; Chikoore, Millicent; Wang, Michael
There is a gap in understanding the meaning and motives behind suicidal behaviour. Using the Ideal Type methodology, Jean Baechler systematically examined the internal logic of suicidal and self-harming behaviours. He developed a typology of eleven typical meanings/motives: Flight, Grief, Self-punishment, Vengeance, Crime, Blackmail, Appeal, Sacrifice, Transfiguration, Ordeal and Game. To develop and validate a standardized instrument to measure the motives/meanings of suicidal and self-harming behaviours, using Baechler's typology. We developed a self-fill Likert questionnaire (Ideal Typical Meaning Questionnaire, ITMQ) covering ten of Baechler's eleven types. The questionnaire was completed by 147 patients within four weeks of attempting suicide or self-harm. The Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) questionnaire was used to examine the concurrent validity of the Flight and the Transfiguration types and to explore the association between suicidal/self-harming motives and views about death. The final 25-item ITMQ has an eight-factor structure (Appeal/Blackmail, Ordeal/Game, Vengeance, Self-punishment, Sacrifice, Flight, Grief and Transfiguration) supporting Baechler's theory. The types have adequate reliability. Correlations with the DAP-R gave some support for the concurrent validity of the Flight and Transfiguration types. The ITMQ is a measure of suicidal and self-harming motives/meanings based on a sound conceptual framework and could significantly contribute to the understanding of suicidal and self-harming behaviour in research and clinical settings.
Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.
Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the
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de Kleine, Rianne A; Hendriks, Lotte; Becker, Eni S; Broekman, Theo G; van Minnen, Agnes
Exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional processing theory proposes that fear habituation is a central mechanism in symptom reduction, but the empirical evidence supporting this is mixed. Recently it has been proposed that violation of harm expectancies is a crucial mechanism of action in exposure therapy. But to date, changes in harm expectancies have not been examined during exposure therapy in PTSD. The goal of the current study was to examine harm expectancy violation as mechanism of change in exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients (N=50, 44 female) with a primary diagnosis of chronic PTSD received intensive exposure therapy. Harm expectancies, harm experiences and subjective units of distress (SUDs) were assessed at each imaginal exposure session, and PTSD symptoms were assessed pre- and posttreatment with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Results showed that harm expectancies were violated within and strongly declined in-between exposure therapy sessions. However, expectancy violation was not related to PTSD symptom change. Fear habituation measures were moderately related to PTSD symptom reductions. In line with theory, exposure therapy promotes expectancy violation in PTSD patients, but this is not related to exposure therapy outcome. More work is warranted to investigate mechanisms of change during exposure therapy in PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Freund, M.; Magyar, M.; Mozes, G.; Csikos, R.; Kristof, M.; Toth, L.; Hima, G.
The invention claims the bitumenization of biologically harmful wastes, such as industrial wastes containing radioactive materials. These wastes containing water are transported from sludge basins, this either by gravity or by mechanical stirrino. into a suitably adapted absorption zone or to several parallel zones filled with bitumen heated to 100 to 250 degC. An inert gas is forced into the system foaming the zone contents. The foam phase is decomposed by the action of heat while water is evaporated and condensed. Bitumen containing dry matter of the radioactive wastes is discharged from the bottom part of the absorption zone and stored in a tank. (Kr)
van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M
The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist.
Renata Nogueira Braga
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the association between mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption and corporate tax avoidance. In this study, tax avoidance is defined as a reduction in the effective corporate income tax rate through tax planning activities, whether these are legal, questionable, or even illegal. Three measures of tax avoidance are used and factors at the country and firm level (that have already been associated with tax avoidance in prior research are controlled. Using samples that range from 9,389 to 15,423 publicly-traded companies from 35 countries, covering 1999 to 2014, it is found that IFRS adoption is associated with higher levels of corporate tax avoidance, even when the level of book-tax conformity required in the countries and the volume of accruals are controlled, both of which are considered potential determinants of this relationship. Furthermore, the results suggest that after IFRS adoption, firms in higher book-tax conformity environments engage more in tax avoidance than firms in lower book-tax conformity environments. It is also identified that engagement in tax avoidance after IFRS adoption derives not only from accruals management, but also from practices that do not involve accruals. The main conclusion is that companies engage more in tax avoidance after mandatory IFRS adoption.
Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.
This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.
Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.
This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP
Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.
This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Methods Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. Results We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. Conclusion This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of
Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Fisk, Stuart; Reuel Friedman, M; Tula, Monique; Kinsky, Suzanne
Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of their disclosure of negative health behaviors, given that health
Tsai, Mei-Hua; Fang, Kai-Chi; Lu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Chih-Dao; Hsieh, Chi-Pan; Chen, Tsung-Tai
This study aimed to evaluate the less stigmatizing positivity construct screening measurement and its association with recent self-harming behaviors among adolescents. Participants were 193 detained Taiwanese adolescents. Questionnaires consisted of a deliberate self-harm inventory, a positivity construct measurement, a depression scale, data concerning risky health behaviors and demographics. The prevalence rate of recent self-harming behavior among adolescents in the detention house was 43.5%. The logistic model showed that age, gender and level of positivity demonstrated significant odds ratios for self-harm behavior. Results showed that younger age and female gender increased self-harming behavior. In addition, low score on positivity construct screening measurement increased the probability of self-harming behavior. Furthermore, these adolescents also engaged in risky health behaviors and were more depressed. Parental and school awareness for these risky behaviors should be enhanced and appropriate early interventions implemented to prevent negative health outcomes.
Spread of harmful radioactive materials into running water - Possible consequences on emergency protection measures: Results of the four work packages; Radiologische Schadstoffausbreitung in Fliessgewässer- Mögliche Auswirkungen auf den Notfallschutz: Ergebnisse der vier Arbeitspakete
When an extreme event in a Swiss nuclear power plant occurs, the release of radioactive materials could contaminate the drinking water supply through ground water, the river Aare or the river Rhine. To avoid such an accident, protection measures have to be taken in time, in order to stop drinking water treatment facilities downstream from the source of radioactivity release. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) reviewed the current situation as far as their efficiency for emergency protection of drinking water supplies is concerned. Current legal requirements and measures provide protection for the population and the environment against an uncontrolled release of radioactive materials into ground water and flowing waters. However, some points have to be checked more deeply. The present report describes the results of this analysis. The release of radioactive material into ground water or flowing waters could occur as a result of earthquakes or flooding. Even for accidents exceeding design considerations with core meltdown, large contaminations of ground and flowing water are not to be expected thanks to the stability of the reactor buildings. Because of the varying ground water situations and the stability of the reactor buildings at Swiss nuclear power plants, a situation similar to the one that occurred during the Fukushima accident, where ground water continually entered into the reactor containment causing large contamination of the water, cannot take place. The examination of communication paths showed that the paths are established between the nuclear power plants, the participating federal offices and the cantons. The criteria for the setting off of alarms and immediate measures to be taken in cases where radioactive materials in the Aare or the Rhine are recorded were examined. Downstream of the nuclear power plants, five new sodium-iodide detectors were installed in order to continuously monitor the dose rate and the activity of gamma
Arnason, Gardar; Clausen, Jens
One of the most controversial areas of animal research is the use of nonhuman primates for fundamental research. At the centre of the controversy is the question of whether the benefits of research outweigh the harms. We argue that the evaluation of harms and benefits is highly problematic. We describe some common procedures in neurological research using nonhuman primates and the difficulties in evaluating the harm involved. Even if the harm could be quantified, it is unlikely that it could be meaningfully aggregated over different procedures, let alone different animals. A similar problem arises for evaluating benefits. It is not clear how benefits could be quantified, and even if they could be, values for different aspects of expected benefits cannot be simply added up. Sorting harms and benefits in three or four categories cannot avoid the charge of arbitrariness and runs the risk of imposing its structure on the moral decision. The metaphor of weighing or balancing harms and benefits is inappropriate for the moral decision about whether to use nonhuman primates for research. Arguing that the harms and benefits in this context are incommensurable, we suggest describing the moral consideration of harms and benefits as a coherent trade-off. Such a decision does not require commensurability. It must be well-informed about the suffering involved and the potential benefits, it must be consistent with the legal, regulatory and institutional framework within which it is made, and it must cohere with other judgments in relevant areas.
Johnson, H D; LaVoie, J C; Spenceri, M C; Mahoney-Wernli, M A
Failure to resolve peer conflict is associated with children's reports of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance. Although these relationships are well established, researchers have not examined the association between the avoidance of peer conflict and various adjustment characteristics. The current study examined the association between avoidance of conflict and measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance for 59 pupils in Grade 4 (31 boys and 28 girls) and 47 in Grade 8 (22 boys and 25 girls). Volunteers indicated that conflict avoidance based on autonomy, e.g., independence issues, and interpersonal issues, e.g., closeness and cohesion, was associated with scores on loneliness for boys and girls, respectively. Conflict avoidance for emotional and physical well-being and fear of punishment was associated with increased reports of loneliness and social anxiety for children in Grade 4.
Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei
It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, María Teresa
Harm reduction encompasses interventions, programmes and policies that seek to reduce the negative consequences of the consumption of both legal and illegal drugs on the individual and public health. Harm reduction looks to mitigate the harm suffered by drug users through drug use monitoring and prevention, and promotes initiatives that respect and protect the human rights of this population. The harm reduction policies that have proven effective and efficient are: opioid substitution maintenance therapy (methadone); needle and syringe exchange programmes; supervised drug consumption rooms; and overdose prevention through peer-based naloxone distribution. In order to be effective, these policies must have comprehensive coverage and be implemented in areas where the target population is prevalent. Resident-based opposition to the implementation of these policies is known as the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon, which is characterised by being against the implementation of new measures in a particular place, but does not question their usefulness. Given that any NIMBY phenomenon is a complex social, cultural and political phenomenon, it is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the situation prior to implementing any of these measures. Harm reduction policies must be extended to other substances such as alcohol and tobacco, as well as to other conditions beyond infectious/contagious diseases and overdose. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Thunström, Linda; van’t Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason. F.
decreases (to 29 percent) when the information additionally reveals the share of air travelers who buy carbon offsets. We find evidence that some people use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior—ignorance significantly decreases the probability of buying carbon offsets.......Are people strategically ignorant of the negative externalities their activities cause the environment? Herein we examine if people avoid costless information on those externalities and use ignorance as an excuse to reduce pro-environmental behavior. We develop a theoretical framework in which...... people feel internal pressure (“guilt”) from causing harm to the environment (e.g., emitting carbon dioxide) as well as external pressure to conform to the social norm for pro-environmental behavior (e.g., offsetting carbon emissions). Our model predicts that people may benefit from avoiding information...
Full Text Available Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation.
Chen CY; Yu NW; Huang TH; Wang WS; Fang JT
Ching-Yen Chen,1–3 Nan-Wen Yu,2–4 Tien-Hao Huang,4 Wei-Shin Wang,4 Ji-Tseng Fang2,3,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Medical Education Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan Purpose: During medical school tra...
Chen,Ching-Yen; Yu,Nan-Wen; Huang,Tien-Hao; Wang,Wei-Shin; Fang,Ji-Tseng
Ching-Yen Chen,1–3 Nan-Wen Yu,2–4 Tien-Hao Huang,4 Wei-Shin Wang,4 Ji-Tseng Fang2,3,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Medical Education Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan Purpose: During medical sc...
Richnow, H.H.; Seifert, R.; Michaelis, W.
The association of organic harmful substances and particularly their metabolites with the humin fraction is a process which has great ecological importance. The knowledge of the type and extent of such associations of harmful substances with the humin fraction of the soil plays a central part in the assessment of loading by harmful substances or the success of biological cleaning up measures. (orig.) [de
People who are street involved such as those experiencing homelessness and drug use face multiple inequities in health and access to health care. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased among those who are street involved. Incorporation of a harm reduction philosophy in health care has the potential to shift the moral context of health care delivery and enhance access to health care services. However, harm reduction with a primary focus on reducing the harms of drug use fails focus on the harms associated with the context of drug use such as homelessness, violence and poverty. Ethical analysis of the underlying values of harm reduction and examination of different conceptions of justice are discussed as a basis for action that addresses a broad range of harms associated with drug use. Theories of distributive justice that focus primarily on the distribution of material goods are limited as theoretical frameworks for addressing the root causes of harm associated with drug use. Social justice, reconceptualised and interpreted through a critical lens as described by Iris Marion Young, is presented as a promising alternative ethical framework. A critical reinterpretation of social justice leads to insights that can illuminate structural inequities that contribute to the harms associated with the context of drug use. Such an approach provides promise as means of informing policy that aims to reduce a broad range of harms associated with drug use such as homelessness and poverty.
Inger, Kerry Katharine
This paper examines the relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance. Prior studies find that firm value is positively associated with overall measures of tax avoidance; I extend this research by providing evidence that investors distinguish between methods of tax reduction in their valuation of tax avoidance. The impact of tax avoidance on firm value is a function of tax risk, permanence of tax savings, tax planning costs, implicit taxes and contrasts in disclosures of tax re...
Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing
This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.
Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others. All stakeholders agree that having someone else make the participation decision is harmful. Findings provide insights into the concept of harm and ethical research with adults with intellectual disability. PMID:28095059
Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey [Department of Applied Plant Science-Horticulture, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow (India)
The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by
Skóra, Justyna; Zduniak, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Rembisz, Daria
The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of microbiological contamination of air and surfaces in museum premises with various collection specificities. In addition, the criteria for selecting indicators of contamination with harmful biological agents at museum workposts are proposed. The analysis of microbial contamination was carried out in 14 museum premises (storehouses, restoration workshops, exhibition hall). Microbiological air purity was measured with a MAS-100 Eco Air Sampler. Surface samples were collected using contact plates RODAC Envirocheck. Biochemical API tests were used to identify bacteria and yeasts. Fungi were diagnosed with taxonomic keys, based on macro- and microscopic mycelia assessment. The levels of microbiological contamination in museums varied and ranged from 2.1 x 10(2) to 7.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3 in the air and from 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.7 x 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 on surfaces. The dominant microorganisms were fungi, which accounted respectively for 18-98% and 23-100% of all isolates from tested sites and surfaces. It was found that the amount of fungi in the indoor air of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography and the Museum of Independence Traditions equaled respectively 4.2 x 10(2) cfu/m3 and 1.4 x 10(4) cfu/m3, which means that they exceeded the recommended reference value of 2.0 x 10(2) cfu/m3. Having analyzed the frequency of strain isolation, the source of microorganisms and the hazard to human health, 10 fungal species were isolated, which may be regarded as indicators of contamination with harmful biological agents at museum workposts. They are: Aspergillus (A. niger, A. versicolor), Cladosporium (C. herbarum, C. macrocarpum), Penicillium (P. carneum, P. digitatum, P. italicum, P. paneum, P. polonicum), Rhizopus nigricans.
Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey
The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by
Rawlings, Jodie; Shevlin, Mark; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Morriss, Richard; Taylor, Peter James
Planned and unplanned acts of self-harm may have distinct clinical and psychological correlates. Trait impulsivity is one factor that might be expected to determine whether self-harm is planned. Research so far has focussed on suicide attempts and little is known about how individuals engaging in planned and unplanned acts of self-harm differ. The aim of the current study was to examine how individuals who report planned self-harm, unplanned self-harm, and no self-harm differ in terms of impulsivity and affective symptoms (depression, anxiety, and activated mood). An online survey of University students (n = 1350) was undertaken including measures of impulsivity, affective symptoms and self-harm. Analyses made use of a multinomial logistic regression model with affective and cognitive forms of impulsivity estimated as latent variables. Trait affective impulsivity, but not cognitive, was a general risk factor for whether self-harm occurred. There was no evidence of differences between planned and unplanned self-harm. Affective symptoms of depression and anxiety mediated the relationship between affective impulsivity and self-harm. The study was cross-sectional, relied on a student sample which may not generalise to other populations. Trait affective impulsivity is associated with self-harm but it appears to be mediated by depression and anxiety symptoms. The exact relationships between trait affective impulsivity, depression, anxiety and self-harm require further longitudinal research in clinical populations but might lead to improved risk assessment and new therapeutic approaches to self-harm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Indah Dwi Pratama
Full Text Available One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES, advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the program, and advertising sector, and competition (DayPart. The study attempted to measure the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia and its relation to various factors that influence it by using the secondary data generated by Nielsen Audience Measurement Indonesia through Television Audience Measurement (TAM. The methods utilized consisted of the t-test independent sample, one way ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn Bonferoni. The result showed that the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia reached by 23%, with relatively similar results to the other studies in various countries. The hypothesis test results also showed a significant relationship between the advertising avoidance and demographic variables, advertising attributes, and competitions affecting this avoidance. On one hand, the findings of the study are expected to be useful for the advertisers to plan their advertisements on television so that they become more effective and efficient. On the other hand, television stations can utilize these findings as a development strategy to expand their audience segmentation and to accommodate the needs of the advertisers more optimally.Keywords: advertising avoidance, television advertisement, TAM, ANOVA, Tukey
Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl
exaggerates benefits, participation is directly recommended, and the harms are downplayed or left out, despite agreement that the objective is informed choice. This raises an ethical discussion concerning autonomy versus paternalism, and the difficulty in weighing benefits against harms. Finally, financial...
Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Jayasena, Chandima; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala
the personal network of the drinker and lead to secondary traumatization. This can appear as emotional distress, financial difficulties and lead to domestic violence and in some cases self-harm and suicide. This interplay between alcohol and self-harm was investigated in individuals, families and communities...
McGivern, Patrick; Sorial, Sarah
What is the relationship between harm and disease? Discussions of the relationship between harm and disease typically suffer from two shortcomings. First, they offer relatively little analysis of the concept of harm itself, focusing instead on examples of clear cases of harm such as death and dismemberment. This makes it difficult to evaluate such accounts in borderline cases, where the putative harms are less severe. Second, they assume that harm-based accounts of disease must be understood normatively rather than naturalistically, in the sense that they are inherently value based. This makes such accounts vulnerable to more general objections of normative accounts of disease. Here we draw on an influential account of harm from the philosophy of law to develop a harm-based account of disease that overcomes both of these shortcomings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn
Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group.
Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena
Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....
Epigenetics is a rapidly evolving scientific field of inquiry examining how a wide range of environmental, social, and nutritional exposures can dramatically control how genes are expressed without changing the underlying DNA. Research has demonstrated that epigenetics plays a large role in human development and in disease causation. In a sense, epigenetics blurs the distinction between "nature" and "nurture" as experiences (nurture) become a part of intrinsic biology (nature). Remarkably, some epigenetic modifications are durable across generations, meaning that exposures from our grandparents' generation might affect our health now, even if we have not experienced the same exposures. In the same vein, current exposures could affect the health of not only individuals currently living but also future generations. Given the relative novelty of epigenetics research and the multifactorial nature of human development and disease causation, it is unlikely that conclusive proof can be established showing that particular exposures lead to epigenetic risks that manifest into specific conditions. Using the Capabilities Approach ("CA") developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, this article argues that epigenetic risk is not merely a medical issue, but that it more generally implicates the underlying fairness and justice of our social contract. For instance, how we develop mentally or physically has a tremendous impact upon our inherent capabilities and our set of life options. The CA prompts us to ask questions such as: (1) what impact do particular epigenetic risks have on our ability to exercise free choices; (2) are these risks avoidable; and (3) how are these risks distributed across society? Due to the complex nature of epigenetic risk, tort law is predictably incapable of addressing this harm. Further, while regulatory agencies possess the statutory authority to begin addressing epigenetic harms, currently these agencies are not attuned to measure or to respond to
Kannan, Viji Diane; Veazie, Peter J
Delayed medical care has negative health and economic consequences; interventions have focused on appraising symptoms, with limited success in reducing delay. To identify predictors of care avoidance and reasons for avoiding care. Using the Health Information National Trends Survey (2007), we conducted logistic regressions to identify predictors of avoiding medical visits deemed necessary by the respondents; and, we then conducted similar analyses on reasons given for avoidance behavior. Independent variables included geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, personal health, health behavior, health care system, and cognitive characteristics. Approximately one third of adults avoided doctor visits they had deemed necessary. Although unadjusted associations existed, avoiding needed care was not independently associated with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Avoidance behavior is characterized by low health self-efficacy, less experience with both quality care and getting help with uncertainty about health, having your feelings attended to by your provider, no usual source of care, negative affect, smoking daily, and fatalistic attitude toward cancer. Reasons elicited for avoidance include preference for self-care or alternative care, dislike or distrust of doctors, fear or dislike of medical treatments, time, and money; respondents also endorsed discomfort with body examinations, fear of having a serious illness, and thoughts of dying. Distinct predictors distinguish each of these reasons. Interventions to reduce patient delay could be improved by addressing the health-related behavioral, belief, experiential, and emotional traits associated with delay. Attention should also be directed toward the interpersonal communications between patients and providers.
Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B
According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.
Patchin, Justin W; Hinduja, Sameer
Despite increased media and scholarly attention to digital forms of aggression directed toward adolescents by their peers (e.g., cyberbullying), very little research has explored digital aggression directed toward oneself. "Digital self-harm" is the anonymous online posting, sending, or otherwise sharing of hurtful content about oneself. The current study examined the extent of digital self-harm among adolescents. Survey data were obtained in 2016 from a nationally representative sample of 5,593 American middle and high school students (12-17 years old). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of participation in digital self-harm. Qualitative responses were also reviewed to better understand motivations for digital self-harm. About 6% of students have anonymously posted something online about themselves that was mean. Males were significantly more likely to report participation (7.1% compared to 5.3%). Several statistically significant correlates of involvement in digital self-harm were identified, including sexual orientation, experience with school bullying and cyberbullying, drug use, participation in various forms of adolescent deviance, and depressive symptoms. Digital self-harm is a new problem that demands additional scholarly attention. A deeper inquiry as to the motivations behind this behavior, and how it correlates to offline self-harm and suicidal ideation, can help direct mental health professionals toward informed prevention approaches. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.
Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are
Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.
Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are
Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.
The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…
Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.
Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Shuai; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Blanco, Carlos
The authors sought to identify risk factors for repeat self-harm and completed suicide over the following year among adults with deliberate self-harm. A national cohort of Medicaid-financed adults clinically diagnosed with deliberate self-harm (N=61,297) was followed for up to 1 year. Repeat self-harm per 1,000 person-years and suicide rates per 100,000 person-years (based on cause of death information from the National Death Index) were determined. Hazard ratios of repeat self-harm and suicide were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. During the 12 months after nonfatal self-harm, the rate of repeat self-harm was 263.2 per 1,000 person-years and the rate of completed suicide was 439.1 per 100,000 person-years, or 37.2 times higher than in a matched general population cohort. The hazard of suicide was higher after initial self-harm events involving violent as compared with nonviolent methods (hazard ratio=7.5, 95% CI=5.5-10.1), especially firearms (hazard ratio=15.86, 95% CI=10.7-23.4; computed with poisoning as reference), and to a lesser extent after events of patients who had recently received outpatient mental health care (hazard ratio=1.6, 95% CI=1.2-2.0). Compared with self-harm patients using nonviolent methods, those who used violent methods were at significantly increased risk of suicide during the first 30 days after the initial event (hazard ratio=17.5, 95% CI=11.2-27.3), but not during the following 335 days. Adults treated for deliberate self-harm frequently repeat self-harm in the following year. Patients who use a violent method for their initial self-harm, especially firearms, have an exceptionally high risk of suicide, particularly right after the initial event, which highlights the importance of careful assessment and close follow-up of this group.
Vaz Patto, M.C.; Rubiales, D.; Martin, A.; Hernandez, P.; Lindhout, W.H.; Niks, R.E.; Stam, P.
In cereals, rust fungi are among the most harmful pathogens. Breeders usually rely on short-lived hypersensitivity resistance. As an alternative, "avoidance" may be a more durable defence mechanism to protect plants to rust fungi. In Hordeum chilense avoidance is based on extensive wax covering of
Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony
Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…
Full Text Available Coal is on of the most important energy source and its significance will increase in a future. In Czech republic coal is except else widely used as a fuel for combustion in a small boilers (up to 50 kW. Low efficiency of the small boilers which is often below 50% together with high emissions of the harmful substances into near surroundings cause in average 40 70% of total local air pollution. The research was performed in a scope of the Grant no. 101/98/0820 of Grant Agency of Czech Republic was focused on quality of combustion process related to combustion efficiency and creation of harmful substances at combustion of domestic fuels. Experiments were performed to compare combustion of brown coal, clack coal, coke and black coal slurry. Extremely high creation of harmful substances (CO, NOX, solid particles and organic substances was measured when the black coal slurry was used as a fuel, measured in kg of emissions per GJ of burned fuel. Combustion of brown coal produced significant emissions of solid particles which bond harmful substances as metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and others together with high emissions of SO2 . Strong dependence between emissions of CO and low quality of combustion given by low combustion temperature, shortage of combustion air, not suitable design of after-combustion chamber and short duration of fuel presence in a combustion area was found out. Emissions of wide range of metals were investigated. The results of the research grant project describe and explain the combustion process and creation of harmful substances in small boilers plus give suggestions and recommendations leading to rational operation of the small boilers and lowering their negative impact to environment.
EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.
... Issues Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Hurtful Emotions Understanding Self-Harm En español Send us your ... help you learn new ways to cope with emotion. See the Wise Choices box for tips on ...
Risk assessments are the intellectual products of dedicated public health and environmental professionals. Like many other products, risk assessments carry with them the potential for both good and harm. This paper briefly examines some of the harms to which risk assessments have contributed, and then suggests that the legal 'duty to warn' doctrine offers a logical and practical way to reduce some of these harms. The paper suggests concepts that could be incorporated into warnings accompanying every formal risk assessment as routine 'boiler plate' addenda, just as other potentially harmful products, such as lawn mowers and cook stoves, are accompanied by warnings. Finally, the paper briefly examines the 'Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals' (promulgated by the National Association of Environmental Professionals) and shows that the suggested warnings are consistent with recommended practices for environmental professionals
IAEA is stepping up efforts to help countries understand the phenomenon and use more reliable methods for early detection and monitoring so as to limit harmful algal blooms (HABs) adverse effects on coastal communities everywhere.
Thalassiosira malaitalic> (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine diatom from Chilka Lake and other coastal localities of Odisha, India: Nomenclature, ... Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4370, USA; Department of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA ...
Full Text Available Abstract This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive. Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.
Lombardi, Michele; Veneziani, Roberto
This paper analyses Rawls's celebrated difference principle, and its lexicographic extension, in societies with a finite and an infinite number of agents. A unified framework of analysis is set up, which allows one to characterise Rawlsian egalitarian principles by means of a weaker version of a new axiom - the Harm Principle - recently proposed by marven09. This is quite surprising, because the Harm principle is meant to capture a liberal requirement of noninterference and it incorporates no...
Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin
Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schein, Chelsea; Ritter, Ryan S; Gray, Kurt
Many acts are disgusting, but only some of these acts are immoral. Dyadic morality predicts that disgusting acts should be judged as immoral to the extent that they seem harmful. Consistent with this prediction, 3 studies reveal that perceived harm mediates the link between feelings of disgust and moral condemnation-even for ostensibly harmless "purity" violations. In many cases, accounting for perceived harm completely eliminates the link between disgust and moral condemnation. Analyses also reveal the predictive power of anger and typicality/weirdness in moral judgments of disgusting acts. The mediation of disgust by harm holds across diverse acts including gay marriage, sex acts, and religious blasphemy. Revealing the endogenous presence and moral relevance of harm within disgusting-but-ostensibly harmless acts argues against modular accounts of moral cognition such as moral foundations theory. Instead, these data support pluralistic conceptions of harm and constructionist accounts of morality and emotion. Implications for moral cognition and the concept of "purity" are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Matzopoulos, R G; Truen, S; Bowman, B; Corrigall, J
BACKGROUND: The economic, social and health costs associated with alcohol-related harms are important measures with which to inform alcohol management policies and laws. This analysis builds on previous cost estimates for South Africa. METHODS: We reviewed existing international best-practice costing frameworks to provide the costing definitions and dimensions. We sourced data from South African costing literature or, if unavailable, estimated costs using socio-economic and health data from s...
Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin
This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...
Wang, Dizhong; Lin, Jiajian
Recent years, the flight control technology over quadcopter has been boosted vigorously and acquired the comprehensive application in a variety of industries. However, it is prominent for there to be problems existed in the stable and secure flight with the development of its autonomous flight. Through comparing with the characteristics of ultrasonic ranging and laser Time-of-Flight(abbreviated to ToF) distance as well as vision measurement and its related sensors, the obstacle detection and identification sensors need to be installed in order to effectively enhance the safety flying for aircraft, which is essential for avoiding the dangers around the surroundings. That the major sensors applied to objects perception at present are distance measuring instruments which based on the principle and application of non-contact detection technology . Prior to acknowledging the general principles of flight and obstacle avoiding, the aerodynamics modeling of the quadcopter and its object detection means has been initially determined on this paper. Based on such premise, this article emphasized on describing and analyzing the research on obstacle avoiding technology and its application status, and making an expectation for the trend of its development after analyzing the primary existing problems concerning its accuracy object avoidance.
Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin
Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.
Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin
Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337
Byung Chull An; Jae-Sung Kim; Seung Sik Lee; Shyamkumar Barampuram; Eun Mi Lee; Byung Yeoup Chung
Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.
Woolacott Nerys F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Balanced decisions about health care interventions require reliable evidence on harms as well as benefits. Most systematic reviews focus on efficacy and randomised trials, for which the methodology is well established. Methods to systematically review harmful effects are less well developed and there are few sources of guidance for researchers. We present our own recent experience of conducting systematic reviews of harmful effects and make suggestions for future practice and further research. Methods We described and compared the methods used in three systematic reviews. Our evaluation focused on the review question, study designs and quality assessment. Results One review question focused on providing information on specific harmful effects to furnish an economic model, the other two addressed much broader questions. All three reviews included randomised and observational data, although each defined the inclusion criteria differently. Standard methods were used to assess study quality. Various practical problems were encountered in applying the study design inclusion criteria and assessing quality, mainly because of poor study design, inadequate reporting and the limitations of existing tools. All three reviews generated a large volume of work that did not yield much useful information for health care decision makers. The key areas for improvement we identified were focusing the review question and developing methods for quality assessment of studies of harmful effects. Conclusions Systematic reviews of harmful effects are more likely to yield information pertinent to clinical decision-making if they address a focused question. This will enable clear decisions to be made about the type of research to include in the review. The methodology for assessing the quality of harmful effects data in systematic reviews requires further development.
... interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall promptly take appropriate measures to correct the problem. (b) If the operator of ISM equipment is notified...
Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna
Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of
Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna
Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of
Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil
Insecure attachment is associated with self-harm in young people, but little research has explored the pathways through which this relationship develops. We investigated whether attachment impacts on self-harm via its effect on coping strategies and appraisal of problem-solving abilities. A total of 314 students aged 18-20 years completed an online survey with measures of parental attachment, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, and psychological distress and self-harm. A mediational model was not supported as there were no direct effects between parental attachment and self-harm. However, analysis of specific indirect pathways revealed that perceived parental attachment impacts on self-harm through problem-focused coping. Higher quality of attachment was associated with greater reliance on problem-focused (adaptive) coping, which in turn was associated with a decreased risk of having self-harmed. Furthermore, poorer paternal attachment was associated with lower appraisal of problem-solving skills, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of having self-harmed. Individuals with insecure attachment may be more vulnerable to self-harm because they lack other more constructive coping strategies for relieving stress.
Evans, Travis C; Walukevich, Katherine A; Britton, Jennifer C
Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) often exhibit preferential attention for social threat, demonstrating abnormal orientation to threat (i.e., vigilance-avoidance) and/or difficulty disengaging from threat. However, no research has compared the relationship between attention indices (i.e., vigilance-avoidance, difficulty disengaging from threat) and characteristic features of the disorder such as fear during social situations (social fear) and avoidant behaviors (social avoidance). To address this issue, seventy adults (19.29±1.47 years, 33 females) were separated into low (n=37) or high (n=33) socially anxious groups using clinical cutoff scores on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Participants in both groups completed a dot-probe task with congruent, incongruent, and neutral trials to obtain measures of vigilance-avoidance and difficulty disengaging. Using linear regression, we examined the associations each attention index shared with self-reported social fear and social avoidance. Exclusively in the high anxious group, greater vigilance towards threat was associated with higher self-reported social fear, but not with social avoidance. However, difficulty disengaging was not associated with either social measure. In the low anxiety group, no relationships between attention indices and either social measure emerged. Future research with clinical samples is necessary to replicate and extend these findings. The small sample size studied may have limited our ability to detect other smaller effects. Indices of attention bias may contribute differently to the etiology and maintenance of SAD, which offers important implications for novel treatments that target attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark
The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nuralifmida Ayu Annisa
Full Text Available This study aims to find out how the influence of the corporate governance of tax avoidanceactivity in companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008. The samples are publiclytraded company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008 as many as 200 companies. Thisstudy uses data analysis and regression analysis of the elements of corporate governance and taxavoidance. The results of this study show that the elements of corporate governance that consist ofaudit quality and audit committee significantly influence the activity of tax avoidance as measuredusing proxy book tax gap. Other results show that the tax avoidance activity as measured withproxy book tax gap are not affected significantly by institutional ownership and board ofcommissioners. Limitation of this study is not to use each type of industries as control variable socan’t identify the direct effect from type of industry on tax avoidance. Another limitation of thisstudy is use corporate governance’s proxy separately, so it can’t capture the full effect ofcorporate governance. Keywords:corporate governance, ownership structure, board of commissioners, audit committee,tax avoidance, book tax gap.
Wu, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Mei-Feng; Yu, Shu-Hua
The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of self-harm and harm to others from the perspective of two adult offspring and a father, the latter of whom was prone to alcohol abuse and domestic violence and had attempted suicide. Written informed consents were obtained from the subjects after a detailed explanation of the research aims and procedures. A qualitative, phenomenological method was applied for the study. Three subjects were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide designed by the researchers and based on the aims of the study over a six-month period of home care. A qualitative content analysis based on a phenomenological method was used to identify themes in the data. Two main categories emerged: (1) the mutual harm to the couple subsystem, (2) the misplaced parental-child subsystem. Subsequently, two to four themes were identified from each category. These results provide a better analysis and understanding of the perceived experiences of the harm to the spouse, parental, and sibling subsystems. They should also help health professionals to improve awareness of the lived experiences associated with the issues of self-harm and threats of harm to others. This study could serve as a valuable reference in promoting possible prevention strategies aiming at the reduction of self-harm and harm to others in dysfunctional families within the community.
Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.
The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…
Gratz, Kim L.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Tull, Matthew T.
Despite the growing consensus that negative reinforcement in the form of emotional relief plays a key role in the maintenance of deliberate self-harm (DSH), most of the research in this area has relied exclusively on self-report measures of the perceived motives for and emotional consequences of DSH. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to extend extant research on the role of emotional relief in DSH by examining the strength of the association of DSH with emotional relief using a novel version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The strength of the DSH-relief association among both participants with (vs. without) DSH and self-harming participants with (vs. without) BPD, as well as its associations with relevant clinical constructs (including DSH characteristics, self-reported motives for DSH, BPD pathology, and emotion dysregulation and avoidance) were examined in a community sample of young adults (113 with recent recurrent DSH; 135 without DSH). As hypothesized, results revealed stronger associations between DSH and relief among participants with versus without DSH, as well as among DSH participants with versus without BPD. Moreover, the strength of the DSH-relief association was positively associated with DSH frequency and versatility (both lifetime and at 6-month follow-up), BPD pathology, emotion dysregulation, experiential avoidance, and self-reported emotion relief motives for DSH. Findings provide support for theories emphasizing the role of emotional relief in DSH (particularly among individuals with BPD), as well as the construct validity, predictive utility, and incremental validity (relative to self-reported emotion relief motives) of this IAT. PMID:26147069
Mars, Becky; Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David
Background There is a lack of consensus about whether self-harm with suicidal intent differs in aetiology and prognosis from non-suicidal self-harm, and whether they should be considered as different diagnostic categories. Method Participants were 4799 members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK population-based birth cohort who completed a postal questionnaire on self-harm with and without suicidal intent at age 16 years. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences in the risk factor profiles of individuals who self-harmed with and without suicidal intent. Results Many risk factors were common to both behaviours, but associations were generally stronger in relation to suicidal self-harm. This was particularly true for mental health problems; compared to those with non-suicidal self-harm, those who had harmed with suicidal intent had an increased risk of depression (OR 3.50[95% CI 1.64, 7.43]) and anxiety disorder (OR 3.50[95% CI 1.72, 7.13]). Higher IQ and maternal education were risk factors for non-suicidal self-harm but not suicidal self-harm. Risk factors that appeared specific to suicidal self-harm included lower IQ and socioeconomic position, physical cruelty to children in the household and parental self-harm. Limitations i) There was some loss to follow-up, ii) difficulty in measuring suicidal intent, iii) we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causation for some exposure variables, iv) we were unable to identify the subgroup that had only ever harmed with suicidal intent. Conclusion Self-harm with and without suicidal intent are overlapping behaviours but with some distinct characteristics, indicating the importance of fully exploring vulnerability factors, motivations, and intentions in adolescents who self harm. PMID:25108277
Application of the FTIR system K300 for the emission and immission measurement of atmospheric trace gases and harmful substances in the air: examples of cases and results. Anwendung des FTIR-Systems K300 zur Emissions- und Immissionsmessung atmosphaerischer Spurengase und Luftschadstoffe: Fallbeispiele und Ergebnisse
Eisenmann, T [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Mosebach, H [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Bittner, H [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)
The K300 double oscillation interferometer used for the investigations is a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer which, due to its special optical design, is very suitable for high resolution remote sensing emission and immission (long-path monitoring) measurements of harmful substances in the air and atmospheric trace gases, when used in the field. The spectrum of applications extends from the direct measurement of hot chimney waste gases and of engine exhaust gases via the monitoring of industrial plants or waste dumps (diffuse emission) to the immission measurement of sites with heavy traffic. For direct emission measurements, the infrared characteristic radiation of hot waste gases is used; for the measurement of cold diffuse emission or immission, one measures against an artificial infrared source of radiation, which can be erected at a distance of several hundred metres from the equipment (bistatic configuration, socalled long-path monitoring). The results of different applications, which were obtained in the context of various campaigns of measurements, are shown after a short introduction of the system. (orig./BBR)
Treasure, Janet; Crane, Anna; McKnight, Rebecca; Buchanan, Emmakate; Wolfe, Melissa
The aim of this paper is to reflect on the way that we as clinicians may play an inadvertent role in perpetuating eating disordered behaviour. This is considered within the theoretical framework of Schmidt and Treasures' maintenance model of anorexia nervosa (AN). The model includes four main domains; interpersonal factors, pro-AN beliefs, emotional style and thinking style. Interpersonal reactions are of particular relevance as clinicians (as with family members) may react with high expressed emotion and unknowingly encourage eating disorder behaviours to continue. Hostility in the form of coercive refeeding in either a hospital or outpatient setting may strengthen conditioned food avoidance and pessimism may hamper motivation to change. Negative schema common to eating disorders, for example low self-esteem, perfectionism and striving for social value may augment existing or initiate new eating disorder behaviour. Services can become a reinforcing influence by providing an overly protective, palliating environment which ensures safety, security and acceptance whilst reducing loneliness and isolation. This stifles the need for an individual to develop their own sense of responsibility, autonomy and independence allowing avoidance to dominate. Furthermore, the highly structured environment of inpatient care supports the rigid attention to detail and inflexibility that is characteristic of people with eating disorders, and allows these negative behaviours to thrive. Careful planning of service provision, reflective practice, supervision and regular team feedback is essential to prevent iatrogenic harm. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Thompson, Kara; Davis-MacNevin, Parnell; Teehan, Michael; Stewart, Sherry
There is a paucity of research on the prevalence and consequences of secondhand harms from alcohol. The current study (a) investigated whether secondhand harms can be clustered into latent factors that reflect distinct but related types of harms and (b) examined the associations between experiencing secondhand harms and mental health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, and subjective mental well-being, among first-year Canadian postsecondary students. The moderating effect of living arrangement (i.e., living on campus or not) on the associations was also tested. The sample included 1,885 first-year undergraduate students (49.8% female; mean age = 18.31 years) from three Canadian universities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine the factor structure of the harms measure. Path analysis was used to assess the association between harms and mental health outcomes. Models accounted for age, sex, and frequency of heavy drinking. Seventy-one percent of the sample reported experiencing at least one type of secondhand harm. The harms examined clustered into two distinct but related factors: strains (e.g., interrupted sleep) and threats (e.g., being harassed or insulted). Both threats and strains were associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression and poorer subjective well-being. Associations were stronger for threats and did not differ by living arrangement. Experiencing secondhand harms from alcohol, particularly threats, may have negative implications for student mental health over and above students' own drinking. Programs and policies on university campuses targeting both alcohol use and mental health should consider how to reduce both the prevalence and impact of secondhand harms from alcohol on students.
Sang, Biao; Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J.; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Feng, Xingyi
The goals of the present study were to (a) develop and validate a new self-report measure of social avoidance for use among early adolescents in mainland China and (b) explore the links between subtypes of social withdrawal (i.e., shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance) and indices of socio-emotional difficulties in this cultural context.…
To ensure patient safety, it is crucial that the airway is safeguarded. The single most important responsibility is to protect it. An unobstructed airway, with intact protective reflexes and respiratory drive, is essential to avoid complications. In some procedures, e.g. dental, the airway may need to be shared with the surgeon.
Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.
Chikritzhs Tanya N
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. Method We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable at an LGA level. Results A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death
K.D Joehnk; J. Huisman; J. Sharples; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben); P.M. Visser (Petra); J.M. Stroom
htmlabstractDense surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes may lead to mass mortalities of fish and birds, and provide a serious health threat for cattle, pets, and humans. It has been argued that global warming may increase the incidence of harmful algal blooms. Here, we report on a
Jöhnk, K.D.; Huisman, J.; Sharples, J.; Sommeijer, B.; Visser, P.M.; Stroom, J.M.
Dense surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes may lead to mass mortalities of fish and birds, and provide a serious health threat for cattle, pets, and humans. It has been argued that global warming may increase the incidence of harmful algal blooms. Here, we report on a lake
Nov 17, 2014 ... impact of harmful traditional home care practices on ... She was initially on breast milk and water until the tenth day of life ... and zygomatic bone as well as loss of subcutaneous fat. (fig 1). .... ity and protection during the neo-.
Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.
In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…
Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James
Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…
Kavurma, Canem; Varol Tas, Fatma; Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Demirci, Ferhat; Akan, Pınar; Eyuboglu, Damla; Guvenir, Taner
The aim of this study was to compare serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between adolescents that harm themselves, those that receive psychiatric treatment but do not harm themselves, healthy adolescents, and childhood traumas and to investigate the relationship between traumatic experiences and serum BDNF levels. The cases were divided into two groups of 40 adolescents exhibiting self-harm behavior (self-harm/diagnosed group) and 30 adolescents receiving psychiatric treatment but not exhibiting self-harm behaviors (non self-harm/diagnosed group). The control group (healthy control group) consisted of 35 healthy adolescents with no psychiatric disorders or self-harm behaviors. The adolescents were asked to fill in the Inventory of Statements About Self Injury (ISAS) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). For BDNF measurement, blood samples were taken from the cases and controls. The serum BDNF level of self-harming adolescents who used the self-cutting method was significantly lower than that of other groups, and serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in the emotional neglect and abuse severity of self-harming adolescents during childhood. In our study, serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in emotional abuse in self-harming adolescents. This finding may indicate that neuroplasticity can be affected by a negative emotional environment during the early period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simms, Jane; McCormack, Vinny; Anderson, Richard; Mulholland, Ciaran
This study compared acutely ill patients with schizophrenia with a history of self-harm (N=17) to those without a history of self-harm (N=16) on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and demographic and psychiatric variables. A subgroup of these patients who experience auditory hallucinations, with and without a history of self-harm, were selected and compared on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation and beliefs about voices. Employing a cross-sectional design, in-patients of two local psychiatric hospital, who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia and who were in an acute phase of the illness, were selected. Each patient was assessed using the Beck Depressions Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS). Patients who experienced auditory verbal hallucinations completed the Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire Revised (BAVQ-R). Patients with a history of self-harm completed the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (BSI). Patients with a history of self-harm (N=17) had significantly greater symptoms of depression, greater suicidal thoughts, increased number of hospital admissions, greater duration of illness and were more likely to be married, compared to patients without a history of self-harm (N=16). Among the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, those with a history of self-harm (N=9), believed their voice to be more malevolent, had a tendency to resist their voice and experienced significantly greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness compared to those without a history of self-harm (N=6). These findings highlight the importance for screening by clinicians during inpatient hospital stays and for monitoring to be ongoing following discharge. For the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, future research should seek to explore the relationship between self-harm and beliefs about voices.
Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.
Full Text Available The problem of resolving issues pertaining to tax avoidance, and particularly its aggressive forms, has been the focal point of discussion among tax scholars which is increasingly gaining attention of politicians alike. As opposed to tax evasion (which is illegal, the phenomenon of tax avoidance calls for careful consideration of state fiscal interests and a highly precise demarcation of the thin line between the acceptable and unacceptable conduct. In many contemporary states, tax avoidance (which implies a formal behaviour of tax payers within the limits of tax legislation but contrary to the tax regulation objectives is declared to be illegitimate. State authorities do not want to tolerate such activity, which results in tax payers' reduction or avoidance of tax liabilities. We should also bear in mind that all tax payers have the tax planning option at their disposal, by means of which they make sure that they do not pay more tax than they are legally obliged to. However, in case they skilfully use the tax regulation flaws and loopholes for the sole purpose of tax evasion, and/or resort to misrepresentation and deceptive constructs, they are considered to be exceeding the limits of acceptable tax behaviour. In comparison to the specific anti-abuse measures which have been built into some national tax legislations, there is a growing number of states that introduce the general anti-abuse legislations, which is based on judicial doctrines or statutory legislation. Yet, there is a notable difference among the envisaged anti-abuse measures depending on whether the national legislation is based on the Anglo-American or European-Continental legal system. The efficiency of applying these general anti-abuse rules in taxation largely rests on their interpretation as well as on their relationship with the principle of legality.
Ryckman, Richard M; Thornton, Bill; Gold, Joel A
The lack of an adequate psychometric instrument has impeded personality theory testing in the area of competition avoidance. The authors conducted 6 studies in an attempt to remedy this deficiency by constructing an individual-difference measure of competition avoidance. In line with K. Horney's (1937) interpersonal theory of neurosis, participants who were higher in competition avoidance showed higher levels of neuroticism, greater fears of both success and failure, a lower desire to prove themselves in competitive situations, higher levels of self-handicapping, and more maladaptiveness than those participants who were lower in competition avoidance. Also, they were more modest and willing to conform to group standards than were those lower in competition avoidance. The authors discuss the measure's potential usefulness as a diagnostic and assessment tool in academic, athletic, and clinical settings.
Smith, Marvin K; Werner, Brian C; Diduch, David R
To discuss the potentially significant complications associated with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Additionally, to review the most current and relevant literature with an emphasis on avoiding these potential complications. Multiple cadaveric studies have characterized the anatomy of the MPFL and the related morphologic abnormalities that contribute to recurrent lateral patellar instability. Such abnormalities include patella alta, excessive tibial tubercle to trochlear grove (TT-TG) distance, trochlear dysplasia, and malalignment. Recent studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with the treatment of concomitant pathology in combination with MPFL reconstruction, which is critical in avoiding recurrent instability and complications. Although there remains a lack of consensus regarding various critical aspects of MPFL reconstruction, certain concepts remain imperative. Our preferred methods and rationales for surgical techniques are described. These include appropriate work up, a combination of procedures to address abnormal morphology, anatomical femoral insertion, safe and secure patellar fixation, appropriate graft length fixation, and thoughtful knee flexion during fixation.
Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective t...
Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.
Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...
Full Text Available Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD, schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. Keywords: avoidant personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, social cognition, psychotherapy, attachment
Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl
The rationale for breast cancer screening with mammography is deceptively simple: catch it early and reduce mortality from the disease and the need for mastectomies. But breast cancer is a complex problem, and complex problems rarely have simple solutions. Breast screening brings forward the time of diagnosis only slightly compared to the lifetime of a tumour, and screen-detected tumours have a size where metastases are possible. A key question is if screening can prevent metastases, and if the screen-detected tumours are small enough to allow breast conserving surgery rather than mastectomy. A mortality reduction can never justify a medical intervention in its own right, but must be weighed against the harms. Overdiagnosis is the most important harm of breast screening, but has gained wider recognition only in recent years. Screening leads to the detection and treatment of breast cancers that would otherwise never have been detected because they grow very slowly or not at all and would not have been detected in the woman's lifetime in the absence of screening. Screening therefore turns women into cancer patients unnecessarily, with life-long physical and psychological harms. The debate about the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over a long time-period, which is unique in an international context. This was used to study breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, and the use of mastectomies. Also, a systematic review of overdiagnosis in five other countries allowed us to show that about half of the screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed. An effect on breast cancer mortality is doubtful in today's setting, and overdiagnosis causes an increase in the use of mastectomies. These findings are
Full Text Available Abstract Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included
Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres) which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy
Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Bowe, Steven J; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike
Gambling has quickly emerged as an important global public health issue. With new technologies used to develop high intensity gambling products and promotions aimed at driving consumption, public health organisations and researchers, community groups, and politicians have argued for a range of regulatory and education measures aimed at reducing gambling harm. However, there has been limited research seeking to understand community perceptions of the harms associated with gambling products and environments, and the level of community support for strategies designed to prevent and reduce gambling harm. An online study of 500 adolescents and adults (aged 16 and over) was conducted with a representative sample (by age and gender) of individuals who were current residents in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants were asked a range of questions about their own gambling behaviours, with the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) used as a measure of problem gambling. Participants were asked about their perceptions of harms associated with electronic gambling machines (EGMs), sports betting, horse betting, and casino gambling. They were also asked about the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with gambling harm reduction strategies related to marketing and promotions, restrictions on gambling products and venues, and public education campaigns. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and paired t tests, with thematic analysis used to interpret qualitative responses to open-ended questionnaire items. More than one third (n = 201, 40.2%) of participants were at risk of experiencing some level of harm from gambling (PGSI ≥ 1), with 83 participants (16.6%) recording scores that indicated problem gambling (PGSI ≥ 8). One in five participants gambled on EGMs at least monthly (n = 100, 20.0%). Those who gambled on sports did so frequently, with nearly 1 in 5 gambling on sport at least once a month (n = 87, 17.4%). Over
Becken, Katja; Graaf, Daniel de; Elsner, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Gabriele; Krueger, Franziska; Martens, Kerstin; Plehn, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Rolf
In comparison to carbon dioxide, fluorinated greenhouse gases are more harmful up to a factor of 24,000. Today the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases of the world-wide emissions of climatic harmful gases amounts 2 % and increases to 6 % in the year 2050. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities for the avoidance of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. The characteristics and ecological effects of fluorinated gases as well as the development of the emission in Germany are presented. Subsequently, the applications of fluorinated hydrocarbons are described.
Is it a legal or illegal activity to give money to establish offshore firms? What is the offshore practice is it a method of tax optimization, tax minimization or is it a harmful activity, which means tax avoidance or tax evasion. This question is very important in the European Union’s tax law system, because the EU tax law is against the harmful tax competition. Some member states’ legal system is permitted to use offshore companies’ rules, but in the European Union it is prohibited to estab...
Hock, B.; Elstner, E.F.
The book deals with accidentally or purposefully induced harmful effects on plants, i.e. eukariyotes and fungi, with emphasis being placed on chemicals as the main pollutants. After discussing the quantification of damage as a prerequisite for detecting, defining, and possibly preventing, damage to plants by toxic substances in the environment, the second part of the book deals with the harmful effects that are purposefully induced, for example in agriculture or horticulture, by employment of pesticides (herbicides or fungicides). In this context, all aspects of uptake, metabolism, and detoxication are discussed, especially referring to the molecular conditions of relevance to a selective elimination of metabolic or developmental processes in the plants, which is explained by the effects of pesticides and antibiotics. Injuries caused by autogenous substances in the plants, upon exceeding a certain amount or dose are also explained, together with effects of physical factors (as e.g. ionizing radiation), or biogenic factors (as e.g. parasites). (ECB) [de
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition. The author analyses OECD’s reports and literature related to the tax competition. In the beginning, the author presents the notion of tax competition and its division into fair and unfair tax competition. Differences between tax heaven and preferential tax regime are also discussed. In the summary, the author highlights that boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition are not obvious, but there are well-known guidelines, which let distinguish above-mentioned issues. The author considers that there are real tax burden, effective exchange of tax information and transparency in the fair tax regime. The author states that taxpayer can do justified tax planning in such tax system.
Party drug use, the intermittent use of stimulants, ecstasy and so-called 'designer drugs' at dance parties or 'raves', is now part of the culture of many young Australians. This article discusses the risks associated with the use of 'party drugs' and describes an useful approach to general practitioner assessment and management of patients who may be using party drugs. Party drug use is associated with a range of harms, including risks associated with behaviour while drug affected, toxicity and overdose, mental health complications and physical morbidity. Multiple substance use, particularly combining sedatives, further amplifies risk. If GPs have some understanding of these drugs and their effects, they are well placed to provide an effective intervention in party drug users by supporting the reduction of harm.
Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W
Objective The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan. Following 4 blocks of training, we tested if the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. We tested for task-related differences in brain activity in 3 ROIs, the caudate, putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex at a statistical threshold of phabit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyper-activation in the caudate. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyper-activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) during the acquisition of avoidance, however this did not relate directly to habit formation. Conclusions OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyper-activation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Prior studies suggest that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the build up of stimulus-response habits themselves. PMID:25526600
Hanousková, Irena; Boháč, Jaroslav; Sedláček, František; Šerá, Božena; Lepšová, A.; Zacharda, Miloslav
-, č. 23 (2004), s. 58-68 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC C11.001 Grant - others:ÚEK AV ČR(CZ) OC C11.001 Program:OC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : urban green areas, harmful organisms, management, * planning Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning
Hepach, Robert; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael
Little is known about the flexibility of children's prosocial motivation. Here, 2- and 3-year-old children's (n = 128) internal arousal, as measured via changes in pupil dilation, was increased after they accidentally harmed a victim but were unable to repair the harm. If they were able to repair (or if they themselves did not cause the harm and the help was provided by someone else) their arousal subsided. This suggests that children are especially motivated to help those whom they have harmed, perhaps out of a sense of guilt and a desire to reconcile with them. Young children care not only about the well-being of others but also about the relationship they have with those who depend on their help. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a robust obstacle avoidance method for service robot in indoor environment. The method for obstacles avoidance uses information about static obstacles on the landmark using edge detection. Speed and direction of people that walks as moving obstacle obtained by single camera using tracking and recognition system and distance measurement using 3 ultrasonic sensors. A new geometrical model and maneuvering method for moving obstacle avoidance introduced and combined with Bayesian approach for state estimation. The obstacle avoidance problem is formulated using decision theory, prior and posterior distribution and loss function to determine an optimal response based on inaccurate sensor data. Algorithms for moving obstacles avoidance method proposed and experiment results implemented to service robot also presented. Various experiments show that our proposed method very fast, robust and successfully implemented to service robot called Srikandi II that equipped with 4 DOF arm robot developed in our laboratory.
ZHAI Xianghua; XI Ping
The scalar phantom field Φ leads to various catastrophic fates of the universe including big rip,little rip and other future singularity depending on the choice of its potential.For example,little rip stems from a quadratic potential in general relativity.We suggest a new mechanism to avoid little rip in the 1/R gravity.The phantom field with different potentials,including quadratic,cubic and quantic potentials are studied via numerical calculation in the 1/R gravity with R2 correction.T...
Barnes, M C; Gunnell, D; Davies, R; Hawton, K; Kapur, N; Potokar, J; Donovan, J L
Self-harm and suicide increase in times of economic recession, but little is known about why people self-harm when in financial difficulty, and in what circumstances self-harm occurs. This study aimed to understand events and experiences leading to the episode of self-harm and to identify opportunities for prevention or mitigation of distress. Participants' homes or university rooms. 19 people who had attended hospital following self-harm in two UK cities and who specifically cited job loss, economic hardship or the impact of austerity measures as a causal or contributory factor. Semistructured, in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed cross-sectionally and as case studies. Study participants described experiences of severe economic hardship; being unable to find employment or losing jobs, debt, housing problems and benefit sanctions. In many cases problems accumulated and felt unresolvable. For others an event, such as a call from a debt collector or benefit change triggered the self-harm. Participants also reported other current or past difficulties, including abuse, neglect, bullying, domestic violence, mental health problems, relationship difficulties, bereavements and low self-esteem. These contributed to their sense of despair and worthlessness and increased their vulnerability to self-harm. Participants struggled to gain the practical help they felt they needed for their economic difficulties or therapeutic support that might have helped with their other co-existing or historically damaging experiences. Economic hardships resulting from the recession and austerity measures accumulated or acted as a 'final straw' to trigger self-harm, often in the context of co-existing or historically damaging life-experiences. Interventions to mitigate these effects should include providing practical advice about economic issues before difficulties become insurmountable and providing appropriate psychosocial support for vulnerable
Obiang-Mbomio, D.; Breteler, F.J.
Revision of the genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae). Th e African genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) of Lower Guinea is revised. Two species, E. tessmannii and E. unijugum, are recognized. Th ey are illustrated and their distributions are mapped. Eurypetalum
Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S
Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the "severity continuum hypothesis", in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment.
Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S
Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. PMID:29563846
Fethke, Nathan B; Merlino, Linda; Gerr, Fred
To evaluate the effect of ergonomics training on non-ergonomists' ability to recognize and characterize the potential for musculoskeletal harm in manufacturing tasks. Ergonomics training was delivered to members of a participatory ergonomics team in a manufacturing facility. Before and after training, participatory ergonomics team members and the research team rated the potential for musculoskeletal harm for each of 30 tasks. Measures of agreement included Pearson, concordance, and intraclass correlation coefficients. Measures of agreement generally improved after training. The greatest agreement was observed for ratings of the potential for musculoskeletal harm to the low back. The greatest improvement in agreement was observed for ratings of the potential for musculoskeletal harm to the neck/shoulder. The training seemed to improve non-experts' ability to identify the potential for musculoskeletal harm.
Darke, Shane; Torok, Michelle
Childhood physical abuse (CPA), non-suicidal self-harm and attempted suicide are all highly prevalent amongst injecting drug users (IDU). This paper reported on the association of CPA with self-harm and attempted suicide. Cross-sectional study, with 300 IDU administered a structured interview examining the prevalence of CPA, non-suicidal self-harm and suicide attempts. CPA was reported by 74.3%, and severe CPA by 40.3%. A history of non-suicidal self-harm was reported by 23.7%, and 25.7% had attempted suicide. Non-suicidal self-harm preceded the suicide attempt in 83.3% of cases where both had occurred. Independent correlates of non-suicidal self-harm were: female gender (OR 3.62), avoided home due to conflict (OR 2.28) and more extensive polydrug use (OR 1.32). Independent correlates of attempted suicide were: severe CPA (OR 3.18), frequent CPA (OR 2.54), avoided home due to conflict (OR 3.95), female gender (OR 2.99), a positive screen for Conduct Disorder (OR 3.53), and more extensive polydrug use (OR 1.52). Those presenting to treatment agencies are highly likely to have a history of CPA, that may still influence their behaviours. Screening for histories of CPA and non-suicidal self-harm appears warranted when determining suicide risk for this population. At the population level, reductions in the rate of CPA, could possibly reduce the rate of subsequent suicidality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McAuliffe, Carmel; McLeavey, Breda C; Fitzgerald, Tony; Corcoran, Paul; Carroll, Bernie; Ryan, Louise; O'Keeffe, Brian; Fitzgerald, Eva; Hickey, Portia; O'Regan, Mary; Mulqueen, Jillian; Arensman, Ella
Rates of self-harm are high and have recently increased. This trend and the repetitive nature of self-harm pose a significant challenge to mental health services. To determine the efficacy of a structured group problem-solving skills training (PST) programme as an intervention approach for self-harm in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) as offered by mental health services. A total of 433 participants (aged 18-64 years) were randomly assigned to TAU plus PST or TAU alone. Assessments were carried out at baseline and at 6-week and 6-month follow-up and repeated hospital-treated self-harm was ascertained at 12-month follow-up. The treatment groups did not differ in rates of repeated self-harm at 6-week, 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements in psychological and social functioning at follow-up. Only one measure (needing and receiving practical help from those closest to them) showed a positive treatment effect at 6-week (P = 0.004) and 6-month (P = 0.01) follow-up. Repetition was not associated with waiting time in the PST group. This brief intervention for self-harm is no more effective than treatment as usual. Further work is required to establish whether a modified, more intensive programme delivered sooner after the index episode would be effective.
Spivak, Benjamin; Borschmann, Rohan; Kinner, Stuart A.; Hachtel, Henning
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and correlates of self-harm among young people in detention in Australia. The sample included 215 (177 male; 38 female) young people who were in youth detention in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants were administered a series of questionnaires related to self-harm, mental health, socio-environmental experiences and behaviours. Overall, one-third (33%) of the sample reported previous self-harm and 12% reported at least one suicide attempt. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a history of childhood trauma, contact with mental health services, and low educational interest significantly increased the likelihood of self-harm. Young people who reported a suicide attempt scored significantly higher on the measure of childhood trauma than did youth who had engaged in non-suicidal self-harm. Findings demonstrate a strong connection between childhood traumatic experiences and suicidal behaviours for youth in detention. Trauma histories and mental health concerns must be considered when identifying youth at increased risk of self-harm. PMID:29447289
Imtiaz, Sameer; Shield, Kevin D; Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen
Consumption levels of prescription opioids (POs) have increased substantially worldwide, particularly the United States. An emerging perspective implicates increasing consumption levels of POs as the primary system level driving factor behind the observed PO-related harms. As such, the present study aimed to assess the correlations between consumption levels of POs and PO-related harms, including non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU), PO-related morbidity and PO-related mortality. Pearson's product-moment correlations were computed using published data from the United States (2001 - 2010). Consumption levels of POs were extracted from the technical reports published by the International Narcotics Control Board, while data for NMPOU was utilized from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Additionally, data for PO-related morbidity (substance abuse treatment admissions per 10,000 people) and PO-related mortality (PO overdose deaths per 100,000 people) were obtained from published studies. Consumption levels of POs were significantly correlated with prevalence of NMPOU in the past month (r =0.741, 95% CI =0.208-0.935), past year (r =0.638, 95% CI =0.014-0.904) and lifetime (r =0.753, 95% CI =0.235-0.938), as well as average number of days per person per year of NMPOU among the general population (r =0.900, 95% CI =0.625-0.976) and NMPOU users (r =0.720, 95% CI =0.165-0.929). Similar results were also obtained for PO-related morbidity and PO-related mortality measures. These findings suggest that reducing consumption levels of POs at the population level may be an effective strategy to limit PO-related harms.
Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Heron, Jon; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Gunnell, David
Low IQ is associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicide attempt in adults, but less is known about the relationship between IQ and aspects of suicidal/self-harm behaviours in adolescence. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based prospective UK cohort. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of IQ measured at age 8 with suicide-related outcomes amongst 4810 adolescents aged 16-17 years. There was some evidence that associations differed in boys and girls (p values for interaction ranged between 0.06 and 0.25). In boys higher IQ was associated with increased risk of suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio per 10 point increase in IQ score=1.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.28) and suicidal plans (1.15, 95% CI 0.93-1.43), although statistical evidence for the latter association was limited. There was also evidence for an association with non-suicidal self-harm (1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.45) but not suicidal self-harm (1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25). In girls higher IQ was associated with increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) but not suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicidal self-harm. Loss to follow up and questionnaire non-response may have led to selection bias. In contrast to previous studies of IQ-suicide associations in adults, we found that higher IQ was associated with an increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm in male and female adolescents and suicidal thoughts in males. Associations of IQ with self-harm differed for self-harm with and without suicidal intent, suggesting that the aetiology of these behaviours may differ. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks – especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other – as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center. The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level. To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the “new society” movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws. Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal.
Full Text Available While there is a longer history of concern about alcohol’s harm to others, researchers’ interest has intensified in the last few years. The background of variation in concern over time in different societies is outlined. Three main traditions of research have emerged: population survey studies of such harm from the perspective of the ‘other’; analysis of register or case-record data which includes information on the involvement of another’s drinking in the case; and qualitative studies of interactions and experiences involved in particular harms from others’ drinking. In the course of the new spate of studies, many conceptual and methodological issues have arisen, some of which are considered in the paper. The diverse types of harms which have been studied are discussed. The social and personal nature of many of the harms means they do not fit easily into a disability or costing model, raising questions about how they might best be counted and aggregated. Harm from others’ drinking is inherently interactional, and subject to varying definitions of what counts as harm. The attribution to drinking, in the usual situation of conditional causation, is also subject to variation, with moral politics potentially coming into play. For measurement and comparison, account needs to be taken of cultural and individual variations in perceptions and thresholds of what counts as a harm, and attribution to alcohol. The view from the windows of a population survey and of a response agency case register are often starkly different, and research is needed, as an input and spur to policy initiatives, on what influences this difference and whether and how the views might be reconciled.
Background Although suicide has been postulated as a result of social breakdown, relatively little attention has been paid to the association between social relationships and non-fatal self-harm. We sought to investigate the extent to which social factors correlate with self-harm in this case–control study. Methods The primary outcome was self-harm with hospital presentation. Cases of self-harm from the Emergency Department in a general hospital in Northern Taiwan were recruited, and individually age-and-gender-matched control participants were recruited from non-psychiatric outpatient clinics at the same hospital. The Close Persons Questionnaire was administered and its social support and social network subscales were used to measure social relationships in the 12 months prior to the interview. Other covariates, comprising sociodemographic factors, major life events, physical and mental health, were adjusted in conditional logistic regression models. Results A total of 124 case–control pairs were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) age of the case group was 34.7 (12.8) years and 80.6% were female. Higher social isolation score remained significantly associated with self-harm after adjustment (adjusted odds ratio per standard deviation increase 2.92, 95% confidence interval 1.44-5.95) and household size was negatively associated with the outcome (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.94). Conclusions More limited social networks were associated with self-harm after adjustment for potential confounders. Enhancing social structure and effective networking of people with self-harm to community resources may be important for self-harm management in Asian societies and elsewhere. PMID:23531045
A generalized approach to the problem of collision avoidance in robotic environments is presented. This approach transforms the three dimensional but dynamic real-world changing geometric space of the robot in its environment into a multidimensional but static space such that any possible geometric arrangement of the robotic space becomes a point in hyperspace. Major advantages of this approach include clarification of and potential solution to the basic problem of finding optimized, collision free movements from an initial to a final configuration. A major disadvantage of the approach is related to computational and data storage problems. However these latter are technically solvable while the clarification of the control and guidance problem gained through the transformational approach and its general elucidation power remain prime conceptual tools for the problem of robot design and operation
Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.
. The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear whether......The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...... and will be treated unnecessarily. Furthermore, more than 200 women will experience substantial psychosocial distress for months because of false-positive findings. Regular breast self-examination does not reduce breast cancer mortality, but doubles the number of biopsies, and it therefore cannot be recommended...
Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel
The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the…
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the level of awareness of smoking and non smoking students on harmful impact of nicotine and cigarette smoke on human body. Material and methods: The study was carried out in March 2011 in high schools in Szczecin. Own elaborated questionnaire was used. 288 students from high school, technical college and vocational school were tested. Results: The majority of responders (95,1% claimed that cigarette smoke is harmful both for passive and active smokers. They most often pinpoint the direct cause connected with smoking to pulmonary diseases (264 persons and cancers (240 persons. Almost 90% of students found negative impact of tobacco products on development of fetus of pregnant women. Overwhelming majority of respondents (83,2% feels anxious if it comes to stay in a room filled with smoke. Conclusions: The awareness of high school students on negative influence of smoking on human body is quite satisfactory, but there is still a need for more education in the range of diseases and symptoms connected with smoking.
Full Text Available New innovations and advances in science and technology in the present day have made considerable and significant changes in the lifestyle of people all around the globe. Communication from one part of the world to another is possible at the hit of a button . Social networking is being rampantly used everywhere and by everybody, be it youngsters or the older generation. Facebook and Whatsapp are the most commonly used means of communication in social networking at present. Smart phones functioning as minicomp uters with fast internet connectivity in the pockets of today’s technosavy generation have made them create and spend most of their time interacting with people in a virtual world. There is an urgent need to understand the dynamics of social media and its effects on the lifestyle of people. Studies documenting the same have been very few. This study was conducted to understand the benefits and harms towards health and academics of MBBS students. This cross - sectional study on 147 MBBS students revealed inter esting findings and opinions of the students. Effects of Facebook and What Sapp on productivity and sleep disturbances due to it were the significant findings of the study. Facebook and Whatsapp can be considered both beneficial and harmful and it solely d epends on how it is being put to use
E. R. Black
Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-harm entails high costs to individuals and society in terms of suicide risk, morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Repetition of self-harm confers yet higher risk of suicide and risk assessment of self-harm patients forms a key component of the health care management of self-harm patients. To date, there has been no systematic review published which synthesises the extensive evidence on risk factors for repetition. OBJECTIVE: This review is intended to identify risk factors for prospective repetition of self-harm after an index self-harm presentation, irrespective of suicidal intent. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsychInfo and Scirus were used to search for relevant publications. We included cohort studies which examining factors associated with prospective repetition among those presenting with self-harm to emergency departments. Journal articles, abstracts, letters and theses in any language published up to June 2012 were considered. Studies were quality-assessed and synthesised in narrative form. RESULTS: A total of 129 studies, including 329,001 participants, met our inclusion criteria. Some factors were studied extensively and were found to have a consistent association with repetition. These included previous self-harm, personality disorder, hopelessness, history of psychiatric treatment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and living alone. However, the sensitivity values of these measures varied greatly across studies. Psychological risk factors and protective factors have been relatively under-researched but show emerging associations with repetition. Composite risk scales tended to have high sensitivity but poor specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Many risk factors for repetition of self-harm match risk factors for initiation of self-harm, but the most consistent evidence for increased risk of repetition comes from long-standing psychosocial vulnerabilities, rather than characteristics of an index episode
Full Text Available Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10 th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized.
... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...
In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord
Franck, Gustav Grønborg; Runchel, Daniel Theis; Mac, Martin Tuannhien; Ahmed, Jahanzeeb; Bang, Lars Seneca
The issue of tax avoidance has been subject for recommended regulations by the G20 countries in collaboration with OECD. We examine the usefulness of market failure theory to explain the economic and political issues of tax avoidance. We test our hypothesis using theory through a deductive approach incorporating content analysis to find convergence(s) between tax avoidance methods identified and the efforts of the G20 BEPS action plan to respond to those methods. The issue of tax avoidance...
Does tax avoidance have any implications for financial markets? This paper quantifies the general equilibrium implications of tax avoidance by setting up an incomplete markets production economy model in which households pay capital gains taxes and have access to tax avoidance technologies provided by financial institutions. I find that changes in the level of tax avoidance have disproportionate effects on different groups of agents and generally benefit the old, wealthy and high income house...
Gobler, C J; Grigoriev, I V; Berry, D L; Dyhrman, S T; Wilhelm, S W; Salamov, A; Lobanov, A V; Zhang, Y; Collier, J L; Wurch, L L; Kustka, A B; Dill, B D; Shah, M; VerBerkomes, N C; Kuo, A; Terry, A; Pangilinan, J; Lindquist, E A; Lucas, S; Paulsen, I; Hattenrath-Lehmann, T K; Talmage, S; Walker, E A; Koch, F; Burson, A M; Marcoval, M A; Tang, Y; LeCleir, G R; Coyne, K J; Berg, G M; Bertrand, E M; Saito, M A; Gladyshev, V N
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements demonstrated that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the first HAB genome (A. anophagefferens) and compared its gene complement to those of six competing phytoplankton species identified via metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on the gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 mbp) and more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen utilization, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.
Grigoriev, Igor; Gobler, Christopher; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Terry, Astrid; Pangillian, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Berry, Dianna; Dyhrman, Sonya; Wilhelm, Steven; Lobanov, Alexei; Zhang, Yan; Collier, Jackie; Wurch, Louie; Kusta, Adam; Dill, Brian; Shsh, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Paulsen, Ian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa; Talmage, Stephanie; Walker, Elyse; Koch, Florian; Burson, Amanda; Marcoval, Maria; Tang, Yin-Zhong; LeCleir, Gary; Coyne, Kathyrn; Berg, Gry; Bertrand, Erin; Saito, Mak; Gladyshev, Vadim
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.
Provisions within the HITECH Act require that covered entities notify individuals if their protected health information is breached. However, the current regulation allows an exemption if the risk of harm is slight. Assessing risk can be subjective, and privacy officers have been working to create methods to conduct and document their analyses.
Lam, Catherine K.; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu; Huang, Xin
This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a
McAuliffe, Carmel; Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen S; Arensman, Ella; Bille-Brahe, Unni; De Leo, Diego; Fekete, Sandor; Hawton, Keith; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Kelleher, Margaret; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Michel, Konrad; Salander-Renberg, Ellinor; Schmidtke, Armin; Van Heeringen, Kees; Wasserman, Danuta
While recent studies have found problem-solving impairments in individuals who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined repeaters and non-repeaters separately. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific types of problem-solving are associated with repeated DSH. As part of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, 836 medically treated DSH patients (59% repeaters) from 12 European regions were interviewed using the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule (EPSIS II) approximately 1 year after their index episode. The Utrecht Coping List (UCL) assessed habitual responses to problems. Factor analysis identified five dimensions--Active Handling, Passive-Avoidance, Problem Sharing, Palliative Reactions and Negative Expression. Passive-Avoidance--characterized by a pre-occupation with problems, feeling unable to do anything, worrying about the past and taking a gloomy view of the situation, a greater likelihood of giving in so as to avoid difficult situations, the tendency to resign oneself to the situation, and to try to avoid problems--was the problem-solving dimension most strongly associated with repetition, although this association was attenuated by self-esteem. The outcomes of the study indicate that treatments for DSH patients with repeated episodes should include problem-solving interventions. The observed passivity and avoidance of problems (coupled with low self-esteem) associated with repetition suggests that intensive therapeutic input and follow-up are required for those with repeated DSH.
Barsky, Allan E.; Wood, Lorinda
This ethnographic study explores patterns of conflict avoidance among university students, professors, administrators and staff. Analysis of their narratives of conflict avoidance suggests that avoidance can be beneficial in some circumstances, depending upon personality issues, cost?benefit analysis, power imbalance, type of work, length of…
In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually formulated in terms relating to a town's population. This treatment was sufficient in those studies where weapon yields were so large that great numbers of civilians were almost always placed at risk. As further studies developed, demonstrating that real progress could be made in reducing the numbers of civilians potentially placed at risk in tactical nuclear warfare situations, the inadequacies of the present treatment became obvious. The need existed for a more detailed description of the distribution of civilians. The method described determines the number of civilians at risk for a weapon under consideration being detonated at a given point and displays a symbol relating to the numbers at risk on a map or a transparency that overlays a 1:50,000 map of the region. Thus, a weapons planner making the selection of aimpoints for inflicting the necessary military damage required has the means to reduce potential civilian casualties by properly choosing the weapon and aimpoints
The aim of this thesis is to research whether tax avoidance could be made illegal at an EU level and if so to what extent. The thesis will cover the main tax avoidance strategies and take a closer look at what measures EU has taken in the field of combatting tax avoidance. Corporate tax avoidance is a heavily debated topic with increasing importance. The difficulty with tax avoidance is that the line between when tax avoidance is unacceptable and when it is acceptable is very subjective. ...
Wakefield, Melanie A; Brennan, Emily; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D
To compare the immediate effects on drinkers of television advertisements focusing upon short- versus long-term harms with and without low-risk drinking guidelines. Between-participants on-line experiment, with random assignment to view: (a) alcohol product advertisements (ALC control); (b) advertisements unrelated to alcohol (NON-ALC control); (c) advertisements featuring short-term harms (STH) of alcohol; (d) advertisements featuring STH plus a STH guideline (STH+G); (e) advertisements featuring long-term harms (LTH); or (f) advertisements featuring LTH plus a LTH guideline (LTH+G). Australia, 2016. A total of 3718 drinkers aged 18-64 years (48.5% male). Post-exposure likelihood that participants provided a correct estimate of drinking levels associated with short- and long-term harms; post-exposure intentions to avoid alcohol or reduce consumption. After exposure to STH+G or LTH+G advertisements, participants were more likely to estimate correctly rather than overestimate drinking levels associated with harm, compared with those exposed to STH (P < 0.001) and LTH advertisements without guidelines, respectively (P = 0.019) and ALC control (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P = 0.011). Drinkers exposed to STH conditions were more likely to intend to reduce next-week alcohol consumption than those exposed to ALC control (both P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH, P = 0.001; STH+G, P < 0.001); a similar pattern was observed for intentions to avoid alcohol. Drinkers exposed to LTH conditions were also more likely than drinkers exposed to ALC or NON-ALC controls to intend to avoid and reduce alcohol in the next week. Additionally, drinkers exposed to LTH+G were more likely to intend to reduce drinking than those exposed to LTH advertisements without guidelines (P = 0.022). Response patterns for low- and high-risk drinkers by condition were similar. Alcohol harm television
Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy
Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki; Hasegawa, Shin; Takeda, Hayato; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kawabata, Yukiya [Ebara Reseach Co., Ltd., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Onuma, Kenji [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)
Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S
We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.
Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.
Homburg, Christian; Wieseke, Jan; Lukas, Bryan A.; Mikolon, Sven
This study examines the performance implications that organizations may suffer when their salespeople develop negative stereotypes of their corporate headquarters. How such stereotypes can be remedied through managerial action is also examined. The study draws on matched data from four different sources: sales managers, salespeople, customers, and company reports. Findings indicate that negative headquarters stereotypes among salespeople are associated with poor marketing-related performance ...
Mariyadas, Jennifer; Amorim, Mónica J B; Jensen, John
Avoidance behaviour offers a highly relevant information as it reveals the ability to avoid (or not) possible toxic compounds in the field, hence it provides information on reasons for the presence/absence in the field. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to study avoidance behaviour to four si...... exposure durations and showed a continuous higher avoidance with time (based on EC50 values). The AgNMs avoidance was in the order NM300Ksoil solution fraction that correlated with EC50 across materials....
Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn
The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.
Full Text Available Since several years nanoparticles (NPs are produced by industries and used in several fields of activities. They are finally found in aquatic and terrestrial environments, where they are ingested by living organisms in which they accumulate, before being eliminated. In organisms, NPs represent foreign elements with their own physicochemical properties due to their small size. So NPs may interfere with the normal physiological mechanisms of the embryos, growing animals, and adults, and it is indispensable to understand their potentially direct or indirect harmful effects on living organisms. It has been already shown that NPs could be toxic to bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates. In this review, several examples of recent studies are given. We will examine successively the effects of NPs on terrestrial and semiaquatic and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn
The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971
Nellis, Georgi; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Varendi, Heili
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe administration of eight potentially harmful excipients of interest (EOI)-parabens, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, benzoates, saccharin sodium, sorbitol, ethanol and benzalkonium chloride-to hospitalised neonates in Europe and to identify risk factors for exposure....... METHODS: All medicines administered to neonates during 1 day with individual prescription and demographic data were registered in a web-based point prevalence study. Excipients were identified from the Summaries of Product Characteristics. Determinants of EOI administration (geographical region......, gestational age (GA), active pharmaceutical ingredient, unit level and hospital teaching status) were identified using multivariable logistical regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall 89 neonatal units from 21 countries participated. Altogether 2095 prescriptions for 530 products administered to 726 neonates...
Kim, Jayhyun; Woo, M.H.; Han, H.; In, Y.; Bak, J.G.; Eidietis, N.W.
The final target of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) aims advanced tokamak operation at plasma current 2 MA and toroidal field 3.5 T. In order to safely achieve the target, disruption counter-measures are unavoidable when considering the disruption risks, inevitably accompanied with high performance discharges, such as electro-magnetic load on conducting structures, collisional damage by run-away electrons, and thermal load on plasma facing components (PFCs). In this reason, the establishment of integrated disruption mitigation system (DMS) has been started for routine mega-ampere class operations of KSTAR since 2013 campaign. The DMS mainly consists of the disruption prediction and its avoidance/mitigation in company with logical/technical integration of them. We present the details of KSTAR DMS and the related experimental results in this article. (author)
Retrievals of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms in the West Florida Shelf from observations by the JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Satellite processed using Neural Network Algorithms, and Evaluation of the Impact of Temporal Variabilities on Attainable Accuracies against in-situ Measurements
El-Habashi, A.; Ahmed, S.; Lovko, V. J.
Retrievals of of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal blooms (KB HABS) in the West Florida Shelf (WFS) obtained from remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) measurements by the JPSS VIIRS satellite and processed using recently developed neural network (NN) algorithms are examined and compared with other techniques. The NN approach is used because it does not require observations of Rrs at the 678 nm chlorophyll fluorescence channel. This channel, previously used on MODIS-A (the predecessor satellite) to satisfactorily detect KB HABs blooms using the normalized fluorescence height approach, is unavailable on VIIRS. Thus NN is trained on a synthetic data set of 20,000 IOPs based on a wide range of parameters from NOMAD, and requires as inputs the Rrs measurements only at 486, 551 and 671 and 488, 555 and 667 nm channels, available from VIIRS and MODIS-A respectively. These channels are less vulnerable to atmospheric correction inadequacies affecting observations at the shorter blue wavelengths which are used with other algorithms. The NN retrieves phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm, which, when combined with backscatter information at 551 nm, is sufficient for effective KB HABs retrievals. NN retrievals of KB HABs in the WFS are found to compare favorably with retrievals using other retrieval algorithms, including OCI/OC3, GIOP and QAA version 5. Accuracies of VIIRS retrievals were then compared against all the in-situ measurements available over the 2012-2016 period for which concurrent or near concurrent match ups could be obtained with VIIRS observations. Retrieval statistics showed that the NN technique achieved the best accuracies. They also highlight the impact of temporal variabilities on retrieval accuracies. These showed the importance of having a shorter overlap time window between in-situ measurement and satellite retrieval. Retrievals within a 15 minute overlap time window showed very significantly improved accuracies over those attained with a 100 minute window
Fleischer, Aliza; Lichtman, Ivgenia [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Mendelsohn, Robert [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)
This paper utilizes a Ricardian model to test the relationship between annual net revenues and climate across Israeli farms. The study finds that it is important to include the amount of irrigation water available to each farm in order to measure the response of farms to climate. With irrigation water omitted, the model predicts climate change is strictly beneficial. However, with water included, the model predicts that only modest climate changes are beneficial while drastic climate change in the long run will be harmful. Using the AOGCM Scenarios we show that farm net revenue is expected to increase. Although Israel has a relatively warm climate a mild increase in temperature is beneficial due to the ability to supply international markets with farm product early in the season. (author)
Fleischer, Aliza; Lichtman, Ivgenia; Mendelsohn, Robert
This paper utilizes a Ricardian model to test the relationship between annual net revenues and climate across Israeli farms. The study finds that it is important to include the amount of irrigation water available to each farm in order to measure the response of farms to climate. With irrigation water omitted, the model predicts climate change is strictly beneficial. However, with water included, the model predicts that only modest climate changes are beneficial while drastic climate change in the long run will be harmful. Using the AOGCM Scenarios we show that farm net revenue is expected to increase. Although Israel has a relatively warm climate a mild increase in temperature is beneficial due to the ability to supply international markets with farm product early in the season. (author)
Wendt, Dennis C.; Gone, Joseph P.; Nagata, Donna K.
In recent years psychologists have been increasingly concerned about potentially harmful therapy, yet this recent discourse has not addressed issues that have long been voiced by the multicultural counseling and psychotherapy movement. We aim to begin to bring these seemingly disparate discourses of harm into greater conversation with one another, in the service of placing the discipline on a firmer foothold in its considerations of potentially harmful therapy. After reviewing the two discourses and exploring reasons for their divergence, we argue that they operate according to differing assumptions pertaining to the sources, objects, and scope of harm. We then argue that these differences reveal the discipline’s need to better appreciate that harm is a social construct, that psychotherapy may be inherently ethnocentric, and that strategies for collecting evidence of harm should be integrated with a social justice agenda. PMID:26339075
Mork, Erlend; Mehlum, Lars; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Agartz, Ingrid; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Lorentzen, Steinar; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Walby, Fredrik A
This study describes the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and gender profile of self-harm in a cross-sectional sample of 388 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. All patients were interviewed and assessed with respect to lifetime self-harm and relevant clinical variables. An overall of 49% of the patients reported self-harm which was associated with female gender, having had a depressive episode, younger age at psychosis onset, alcohol abuse or dependence, current suicidality, awareness of illness, and low adherence to prescribed medication. Higher awareness of having a mental disorder was associated with self-harm in men only, while emotional dysregulation was associated with self-harm in women only. We conclude that while self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders is highly prevalent in both genders, risk factors in men and women differ in several important ways.
Atkinson, Jo-An; Prodan, Ante; Livingston, Michael; Knowles, Dylan; O'Donnell, Eloise; Room, Robin; Indig, Devon; Page, Andrew; McDonnell, Geoff; Wiggers, John
Evaluations of alcohol policy changes demonstrate that restriction of trading hours of both 'on'- and 'off'-licence venues can be an effective means of reducing rates of alcohol-related harm. Despite this, the effects of different trading hour policy options over time, accounting for different contexts and demographic characteristics, and the common co-occurrence of other harm reduction strategies in trading hour policy initiatives, are difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to use dynamic simulation modelling to compare estimated impacts over time of a range of trading hour policy options on various indicators of acute alcohol-related harm. An agent-based model of alcohol consumption in New South Wales, Australia was developed using existing research evidence, analysis of available data and a structured approach to incorporating expert opinion. Five policy scenarios were simulated, including restrictions to trading hours of on-licence venues and extensions to trading hours of bottle shops. The impact of the scenarios on four measures of alcohol-related harm were considered: total acute harms, alcohol-related violence, emergency department (ED) presentations and hospitalizations. Simulation of a 3 a.m. (rather than 5 a.m.) closing time resulted in an estimated 12.3 ± 2.4% reduction in total acute alcohol-related harms, a 7.9 ± 0.8% reduction in violence, an 11.9 ± 2.1% reduction in ED presentations and a 9.5 ± 1.8% reduction in hospitalizations. Further reductions were achieved simulating a 1 a.m. closing time, including a 17.5 ± 1.1% reduction in alcohol-related violence. Simulated extensions to bottle shop trading hours resulted in increases in rates of all four measures of harm, although most of the effects came from increasing operating hours from 10 p.m. to 11 p.m. An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle
Cheung, Gary; Foster, Gisele; de Beer, Wayne; Gee, Susan; Hawkes, Tracey; Rimkeit, Sally; Tan, Yu Mwee; Merry, Sally; Sundram, Frederick
A past history of self-harm is a significant risk factor for suicide in older people. The aims of this study are to (i) characterize older people who present with self-harm to emergency departments (EDs); and (ii) determine the predictors for repeat self-harm and suicide. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected on older people (age 65+ years), who presented to seven EDs in New Zealand following an episode of self-harm between 1st July 2010 and 30th June 2013. In addition, 12-month follow-up information on repeat self-harm and suicide was collected. The sample included 339 older people (55.2% female) with an age range of 65-96 years (mean age = 75.0; SD = 7.6). Overdose (68.7%) was the most common method of self-harm. 76.4% of the self-harm cases were classified as suicide attempts. Perceived physical illness (47.8%) and family discord (34.5%) were the most common stressors. 12.7% of older people repeated self-harm and 2.1% died by suicide within 12 months. Older people who had a positive blood alcohol reading (OR = 3.87, 95% Cl = 1.35-11.12, p = 0.012) and were already with mental health services at the index self-harm (OR = 2.73, 95% Cl = 1.20-6.25, p = 0.047) were more likely to repeat self-harm/suicide within 12 months. Older people who self-harm are at very high risk of repeat self-harm and suicide. Screening and assessment for alcohol use disorders should be routinely performed following a self-harm presentation, along with providing structured psychological treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological treatment for depression and interventions to improve the person's resilience resources.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify measures that can prevent violent conflict through the maintenance of traditional cultural values that guide conflict avoidance. Moreover, the article focuses on the concepts of conflict prevention and conflict avoidance as applied by the San community of Platfontein. The causes of the inter-communal tensions between the San community members are also examined. A selected conflict situation, that of superstition and witchcraft, is assessed as factors increasing interpersonal conflict in the Platfontein community. This investigation is made to determine if the San preventive measures have an impact in the community, so as to prevent ongoing conflicts from escalating further.
Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.
Researches often differentiate two groups of self-harming adolescents: those who attempters a suicide, and those who are harming themselves in a non-suicidal way, and they don‘t seek the death. However just a few community-based research, which would directly compare these groups, were done so far, and therefore information about the differences of the psychological peculiarity and self-harming behavior‘s internal factors between the groups is ambivalent. Lifestyle and Coping Skills Questionn...
Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C
This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.
Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J
Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.
Jutengren, Goran; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan
The predictive effects of peer victimization and harsh parenting on deliberate self-harm were examined. As derived from the experiential avoidance model, the study also tested whether these links were moderated by individual self-regulation approaches. Data were collected at two points in time from 880 junior high school students (mean age =…
Full Text Available AIMS – Problem gambling, even if it occurs in leisure time, can cause harm in the workplace. Problem gamblers are preoccupied with gambling and often suffer from psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms caused by their excessive gambling. This may lead to inefficiency at work and absenteeism. Severe gambling problems typically lead to a constant need for money, which may result in theft of money or goods from the workplace and in embezzlement. This paper outlines measures to prevent and respond to gambling-related harm and crime in the workplace.
Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Kapur, Navneet; Cooper, Jayne; Steeg, Sarah; Ness, Jennifer; Waters, Keith
Self-harm (intentional self-poisoning and self-injury) in children and adolescents is often repeated and is associated with increased risk of future suicide. We have investigated factors associated with these outcomes. We used data collected in the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England on all self-harm hospital presentations by individuals aged 10-18 years between 2000 and 2007, and national death information on these individuals to the end of 2010. Cox hazard proportional models were used to identify independent and multivariable predictors of repetition of self-harm and of suicide. Repetition of self-harm occurred in 27.3% of individuals (N = 3920) who presented between 2000 and 2005 and were followed up until 2007. Multivariate analysis showed that repetition was associated with age, self-cutting, and previous self-harm and psychiatric treatment. Of 51 deaths in individuals who presented between 2000 and 2007 and were followed up to 2010 (N = 5133) half (49.0%) were suicides. The method used was usually different to that used for self-harm. Multivariate analysis showed that suicide was associated with male gender [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8], self-cutting (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.7) and prior psychiatric treatment at initial presentation (HR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.7-10.5). It was also associated with self-cutting and history of psychiatric treatment at the last episode before death, and history of previous self harm. Self-cutting as a method of self-harm in children and adolescents conveys greater risk of suicide (and repetition) than self-poisoning although different methods are usually used for suicide. The findings underline the need for psychosocial assessment in all cases. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Al-Sharifi, Ali; Krynicki, Carl R; Upthegrove, Rachel
This review will focus on the rates, clinical characteristics, risk factors and methods of self-harm and suicide in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom, providing an update synthesis of recent literature. Studies that met the inclusion criteria between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed using the following databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL. The methodological quality of each study was then assessed using a structured scoring system. A total of 2,362 articles were retrieved, 10 of which matched the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Significant differences were found in the rates of self-harm between ethnic groups with Asian males being least likely to self-harm and Black females being most likely to self-harm. Also, Black and South Asian people were less likely to repeat self-harm. Factors that may help protect or predispose individuals to self-harm or attempt suicide (such as religion, mental health and coping styles) also differ between ethnic groups. There are clear ethnic differences in self-harm and suicide, which may be affected by factors such as cultural pressures and prevalence of mental illness. An awareness of these differences is vital to help prevent further attempts of self-harm and suicide. Further research into differences between ethnic and cultural groups and self-harm continues to be important. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rowe, Joanne; Jaye, Chrystal
INTRODUCTION Intentional self-harm is an international public health issue with high personal, social and financial costs to society. Poor relationship dynamics are known to have a negative influence on the psyche of people who self-harm, and this can increase anxiety and decrease self-esteem, both shown to be significant contributors to self-harm behaviours. Positive and functional social supports have been proposed as a cost-effective and constructive approach in diminishing self-harming behaviours. AIM This qualitative study investigated the aspects of professional, social, familial and romantic relationships that people who have self-harmed identified as having a positive and constructive effect on their self-harm behaviour. METHODS Twelve participants with a history of self-harming behaviours were recruited through free press advertising in primary care and interviewed. The participants ranged in age from 19 to 70 years, and represented New Zealand (NZ) European and Māori from across the Southern region of NZ. RESULTS This study shows that constructive relationships that inhibit self-harm behaviours are characterised by participants' perceptions of authenticity in their relationships, and knowing that other people genuinely care. Feeling cared for within an authentic therapeutic relationship enabled participants to overcome their perception of being damaged selves and gave them the skills and confidence to develop functional relationships within their communities. A relationship-centred care approach may be useful for general practitioners seeking to develop more effective therapeutic relationships with patients who deliberately self-harm.
Gidman, Wendy; Coomber, Ross
Internationally, community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in providing harm reduction services and health advice to people who use illicit drugs. This paper considers public opinion of community pharmacy services. It discusses attitudes to harm reduction services in the context of stigmatization of addiction and people who use drugs. This exploratory study involved twenty-six purposively sampled members of the public, from the West of Scotland, participating in one of 5 focus groups. The groups were composed to represent known groups of users and non-users of community pharmacy, none of whom were problem drug users. Three thematic categories were identified: methadone service users in community pharmacies; attitudes to harm reduction policies; contested space. Harm reduction service expansion has resulted in a high volume of drug users in and around some Scottish pharmacies. Even if harm reduction services are provided discretely users' behavior can differentiate them from other pharmacy users. Drug users' behavior in this setting is commonly perceived to be unacceptable and can deter other consumers from using pharmacy services. The results of this study infer that negative public opinion is highly suggestive of stereotyping and stigmatization of people who use drugs. Participants considered that (1) community pharmacies were unsuitable environments for harm reduction service provision, as they are used by older people and those with children; (2) current drug policy is perceived as ineffective, as abstinence is seldom achieved and methadone was reported to be re-sold; (3) people who use drugs were avoided where possible in community pharmacies. Community pharmacy harm reduction services increasingly bring together the public and drug users. Study participants were reluctant to share pharmacy facilities with drug users. This paper concludes by suggesting mechanisms to minimize stigmatization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Profissionais do sexo: perfil socioepidemiológico e medidas de redução de danos Profesionales del sexo: perfil socioepidemiológico y medidas de reducción de daños Sex workers: socioepidemiologic profile and measurements of harm reduction
Neiva de Alencar Salmeron
estas mujeres tengan perspectivas de mejoría de vida, valorizando y respetando la individualidad.OBJECTIVES: To identify the socioepidemiologic profile of sex workers and to establish measures to reduce harm. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory study, conducted with 50 sex workers from five nightclubs in São Paulo, with the use of a questionnaire. The data were presented in the form of tables and figures. During data collection, measures of harm reduction were adopted. RESULTS: The results showed that the age ranged between 21 and 41 years, the subject received between R $ 1,001.00 and R $ 3,000.00. Regarding personal history, 28% resulted in at least one abortion, and had, on average, 15 weekly programs. It was observed that 68% used some type of drug, and 86% had used the morning after pill. CONCLUSIONS: A behavioral change can be influenced by the environment, by information, but this was not sufficient to change their attitudes. It is necessary that these women have perspectives of a better life, valuing and respecting their individuality.
The recent publication of the Physical Science Basis volume of IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report reaffirms an already known conclusion: even drastic reductions of global greenhouse gas emissions will be insufficient to avoid some of the impacts of climate change, and is becoming increasingly clear that the temperature increase by the end of the century is likely to exceed the official target of +2 deg. C. Urgent efforts are thus more than ever needed to support socio-ecological systems threatened by climate change, but how to make adaptation happen on the ground remains vague. Consequently, there is a real risk that climate funding may support initiatives that are actually harmful for the socio-ecological systems, i.e. that foster adaptation in the short-term but insidiously affect systems' long-term vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity to climate change. This generally defines 'mal-adaptation', and this paper affirms that avoiding mal-adaptation is a first key concrete step towards adaptation in a broader sense. Focusing on coastal areas at a local scale and with the aim of providing insights to help avoiding mal-adaptation to climate change on the ground, this paper develops eleven practice-oriented guidelines that address the environmental, socio-cultural and economic dimensions of adaptation initiatives (policies, plans, projects). Based upon this, it affirms that the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of mal-adaptation. Together, these guidelines and this assumption constitute the 'Assessment framework' for approaching mal-adaptation to climate change at a local level. (author)
Walby, Fredrik A; Ness, Ewa
Patients who harm themselves are often considered difficult to treat. There are no evidence-based approaches available for the emergency setting. General practitioners should nevertheless be able to offer interventions directed towards emotional needs in self-harm patients. In this article we suggest how to intervene in such situations. Based on experience from Oslo psychiatric out-of-hours service and with elements from Dialectic Behavioural Therapy, we present a five-step model for treatment of these patients in an out-of-hours service within the primary health care services. The aim of this model is to bring the patient out of the acute crisis and to arrange for further treatment. Assessment, validation or confirmation, problem-solving, avoiding unnecessary hospitalisation, and focus on continuing established treatment, are important elements in the proposed intervention. This can all be carried out in 60 - 90 min. The model may be suitable for training general practitioners to meet and care for patients with self-harm behaviour in the out-hours-services. We have positive experience with the intervention, but systematic research is necessary to assess the effect of the model.
Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Górny, Rafał L
Regular inspection of the cleanliness of the ventilation systems, as well as their periodic cleaning and disinfection, if necessary, are the main factors of the proper maintenance of each system. Performing maintenance operations on the ventilation system, workers are exposed to risk associated with the exposure to harmful biological agents. The aim of this study was to assess the employees' exposure to bioaerosols during maintenance work on ventilation systems. Bioaerosol measurements were carried out using a button sampler. The microbial particles were collected on gelatin filters. Settled-dust samples from the inner surface of the air ducts and filter-mat samples were selected for the microbiological analysis. In the collected air, dust and filter samples the concentration of bacteria and fungi were determined. Bacteria and fungi concentrations ranged between 3.6 x 10(2)-2.2 x 10(4) CFU/m3 and 4.7 x 10(2)-4.5 x 10(3) CFU/m3 at workplaces where the operations connected with mechanical ventilation cleaning were performed and 2.2 x 10(4)-1.2 x 10(5) CFU/m2 and 9.8 x 10(1)-2.5 x 10(2) CFU/m3 at workplaces where filter exchange was performed, respectively. The qualitative analysis of microorganisms isolated from the air in all studied workplaces revealed that the most prevalent bacteria belonged to Bacillus genus. The average concentrations of bacteria and fungi in filter-mat samples were 3.3 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 1.4 x 10(4) CFU/cm2, respectively. In settled-dust samples, average concentrations were 591 CFU/100 cm2 and 52 CFU/100 cm2, for bacteria and fungi respectively. Workers cleaning ventilation systems are exposed to harmful biological agents classified into risk groups, 1 and 2, according to their level of the risk of infection. The research conducted in the workplace can be the basis of risk assessment related to exposure to harmful biological agents during maintenance work in ventilation.
Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.
This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction
Full Text Available With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs worldwide,healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling toprovide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year freeAquatic Toxins Hotline (1-888-232-8635 available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-relatedillness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot studyevaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingualHAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. Themajority (68% of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials.
Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R
Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Chiodini, Iacopo; Bolland, Mark J
Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are important social and economic problems worldwide and are due to both the loss of bone mineral density and sarcopenia. Indeed, fragility fractures are associated with increased disability, morbidity and mortality. It is known that a normal calcium balance together with a normal vitamin D status is important for maintaining well-balanced bone metabolism, and for many years, calcium and vitamin D have been considered crucial in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, recently, the usefulness of calcium supplementation (alone or with concomitant vitamin D) has been questioned, since some studies reported only weak efficacy of these supplementations in reducing fragility fracture risk. On the other hand, besides the gastrointestinal side effects of calcium supplements and the risk of kidney stones related to use of co-administered calcium and vitamin D supplements, other recent data suggested potential adverse cardiovascular effects from calcium supplementation. This debate article is focused on the evidence regarding both the possible usefulness for bone health and the potential harmful effects of calcium and/or calcium with vitamin D supplementation. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.
Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of
Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig; Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen William
A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer death being avoided by population-based mammography screening of appropriate quality is more than that of overdiagnosis by screening. These outcomes should be communicated to women offered service screening in Europe. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Full Text Available Abstract The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction and rates of drug use (demand reduction. However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to discuss and develop broader responses to injecting drug use (IDU including the introduction of harm reduction programs. The concept of harm reduction has just been introduced to Lao PDR and as yet there is no agreement on a definition of the concept. We highlight here a range of issues that remain controversial in Lao PDR in the HIV, drug use and harm reduction discourse, the definition of 'harm reduction' and related terms; and the scope of harm reduction. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with 27 law enforcement and 8 health officers who work in the fields of HIV and/or drug control about their understanding of HIV related to drug use, and concepts of harm reduction. Content analysis was performed to identify the coding, categories and themes. We found that law enforcement officers in particular had limited understanding about harm reduction and the feasibility and appropriateness of harm reduction services in the Lao context. Harm reduction should be a core element of a public health response to HIV where drug use and IDU exists. Recommendations include the necessity of increasing the awareness of harm reduction among law enforcement officers and providing appropriate evidence to support the needs of harm reduction policy and programs. HIV prevention and treatment strategies should be integrated within existing social and cultural frameworks, working with the task force for HIV/IDU and other government counterparts.
Boel, Machteld Elisabeth; Lee, Sue Jean; Rijken, Marcus Johannes; Paw, Moo Koo; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Tan, Saw Oo; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose
Castor oil is one of the most popular drugs for induction of labour in a non-medical setting; however, published data on safety and effectiveness of this compound to induce labour remain sparse. To assess the safety and effectiveness of castor oil for induction of labour in pregnancies with an ultrasound estimated gestational at birth of more than 40 weeks. Data were extracted from hospital-based records of all pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics on the Thai-Burmese border and who were more than 40 weeks pregnant. The effectiveness of castor oil to induce labour was expressed as time to birth and analysed with a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Measures associated with safety were fetal distress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, tachysystole of the uterus, uterine rupture, abnormal maternal blood pressure during labour, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation, stillbirth, post-partum haemorrhage, severe diarrhoea and maternal death. Proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. Of 612 women with a gestation of more than 40 weeks, 205 received castor oil for induction and 407 did not. The time to birth was not significantly different between the two groups (hazard ratio 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 1.20; n = 509)). Castor oil use was not associated with any harmful effects on the mother or fetus. Castor oil for induction of labour had no effect on time to birth nor were there any harmful effects observed in this large series. Our findings leave no justification for recommending castor oil for this purpose.
Background The UK continues to experience a rise in the number of anabolic steroid-using clients attending harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes. Methods The present study uses interviews conducted with harm reduction service providers as well as illicit users of anabolic steroids from different areas of England and Wales to explore harm reduction for this group of drug users, focussing on needle distribution policies and harm reduction interventions developed specifically for this population of drug users. Results The article addresses the complexity of harm reduction service delivery, highlighting different models of needle distribution, such as peer-led distribution networks, as well as interventions available in steroid clinics, including liver function testing of anabolic steroid users. Aside from providing insights into the function of interventions available to steroid users, along with principles adopted by service providers, the study found significant tensions and dilemmas in policy implementation due to differing perspectives between service providers and service users relating to practices, risks and effective interventions. Conclusion The overarching finding of the study was the tremendous variability across harm reduction delivery sites in terms of available measures and mode of operation. Further research into the effectiveness of different policies directed towards people who use anabolic steroids is critical to the development of harm reduction. PMID:24986546
Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M
Regret and guilt are emotions that are produced by negative outcomes for which one is responsible. Both emotions have received ample attention in the psychological literature; however, it is still unclear to what extent regret and guilt represent distinct psychological processes. We examined the extent to which the distinction between interpersonal harm (negative outcomes for others) and intrapersonal harm (negative outcomes for self) is crucial in differentiating these two emotions. In a series of 3 studies we found that guilt is predominantly felt in situations of interpersonal harm, whereas regret is felt in both situations of interpersonal harm and intrapersonal harm. Moreover, the results show that in situations of interpersonal harm the phenomenology of regret shares many, but not all features with the phenomenology of guilt. We conclude that the emotion processes resulting from interpersonal and intrapersonal harm are clearly distinct, but that regret as an emotion label is applied to both types of processes whereas the emotion label guilt is primarily used to refer to experiences of interpersonal harm. Implications for emotion research are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles
Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…
Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review and appraisal of monitoring from 1989 to 1997. ... The Benguela upwelling system is subjected to blooms of harmful and toxic algae, the incidence and consequences of which are documented here. Red tides are common and usually attributed to members of ...
A Norwegian monitoring system for harmful algal blooms, consisting of an Observer Network, the State Food Hygiene Control Agency, the Oceanographic Company of Norway, the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Fisheries, is reviewed. Potentially harmful algae on the Norwegian coast are found primarily ...
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidence of harm. 76.1203 Section 76.1203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A...
P. Karman; prof Berno van Meijel; I.E. Poslawsky; Nienke Kool
Self-harm is a growing health problem. Nurses in a variety of healthcare settings play a central role in the care of people who self-harm. Their professional attitudes towards these people are essential for high-quality care. This review aims to develop insight into nurses’ attitudes towards
Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Poslawsky, I.E.; van Meijel, B.
Accessible summary: People who self-harm experience many problems and needs related to management of emotional and practical stress. A positive attitude among nurses is especially important given the close contact they have with people who self-harm. This article is based on a review of the
Randomly assigned 42 men and 34 women classified as having avoidant personality disorder to one of three treatment conditions or to control group. Treatment subjects displayed significantly greater improvement on self-report and behavioral measures than did controls. Inclusion of skills-training procedures did not contribute to effects of…
Terry, W. Scott
Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…
Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Stout, Natasha K; Schechter, Clyde B; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Miglioretti, Diana L; Krapcho, Martin; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Munoz, Diego; Lee, Sandra J; Berry, Donald A; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tosteson, Anna N A; Near, Aimee M; Hoeffken, Amanda; Chang, Yaojen; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A; Chisholm, Gary; Huang, Xuelin; Huang, Hui; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Gangnon, Ronald; Sprague, Brian L; Plevritis, Sylvia; Feuer, Eric; de Koning, Harry J; Cronin, Kathleen A
Controversy persists about optimal mammography screening strategies. To evaluate screening outcomes, taking into account advances in mammography and treatment of breast cancer. Collaboration of 6 simulation models using national data on incidence, digital mammography performance, treatment effects, and other-cause mortality. United States. Average-risk U.S. female population and subgroups with varying risk, breast density, or comorbidity. Eight strategies differing by age at which screening starts (40, 45, or 50 years) and screening interval (annual, biennial, and hybrid [annual for women in their 40s and biennial thereafter]). All strategies assumed 100% adherence and stopped at age 74 years. Benefits (breast cancer-specific mortality reduction, breast cancer deaths averted, life-years, and quality-adjusted life-years); number of mammograms used; harms (false-positive results, benign biopsies, and overdiagnosis); and ratios of harms (or use) and benefits (efficiency) per 1000 screens. Biennial strategies were consistently the most efficient for average-risk women. Biennial screening from age 50 to 74 years avoided a median of 7 breast cancer deaths versus no screening; annual screening from age 40 to 74 years avoided an additional 3 deaths, but yielded 1988 more false-positive results and 11 more overdiagnoses per 1000 women screened. Annual screening from age 50 to 74 years was inefficient (similar benefits, but more harms than other strategies). For groups with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk, annual screening from age 40 years had similar harms and benefits as screening average-risk women biennially from 50 to 74 years. For groups with moderate or severe comorbidity, screening could stop at age 66 to 68 years. Other imaging technologies, polygenic risk, and nonadherence were not considered. Biennial screening for breast cancer is efficient for average-risk populations. Decisions about starting ages and intervals will depend on population characteristics and the
Wagner, Karl A; Flora, Jason W; Melvin, Matt S; Avery, Karen C; Ballentine, Regina M; Brown, Anthony P; McKinney, Willie J
U.S. FDA draft guidance recommends reporting quantities of designated harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in e-cigarette e-liquids and aerosols. The HPHC list comprises potential matrix-related compounds, flavors, nicotine, tobacco-related impurities, leachables, thermal degradation products, and combustion-related compounds. E-cigarettes contain trace levels of many of these constituents due to tobacco-derived nicotine and thermal degradation. However, combustion-related HPHCs are not likely to be found due to the relatively low operating temperatures of most e-cigarettes. The purpose of this work was to use highly sensitive, selective, and validated analytical methods to determine if these combustion-related HPHCs (three aromatic amines, five volatile organic compounds, and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene) are detectable in commercial refill e-liquids, reference e-cigarette e-liquids, and aerosols generated from rechargeable e-cigarettes with disposable cartridges (often referred to as "cig-a-likes"). In addition, the transfer efficiency of these constituents from e-liquid to aerosol was evaluated when these HPHCs were added to the e-liquids prior to aerosol formation. This work demonstrates that combustion-related HPHCs are not present at measurable levels in the commercial and reference e-liquids or e-cigarette aerosols tested. Additionally, when combustion-related HPHCs are added to the e-liquids, they transfer to the aerosol with transfer efficiencies ranging from 49% to 99%. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rattel, Julina A; Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H
Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task. After differential acquisitions of shock-expectancy to a predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+), participants underwent extinction where they could either take a risky shortcut, while anticipating shock signaled by the CS+, or choose a costly avoidance option (lengthy detour); thus, they were faced with an approach-avoidance conflict. Groups with higher avoidance costs (longer detours) showed lower proportions of avoiders. Avoiders gave heightened shock-expectancy ratings post-extinction, demonstrating 'protecting from extinction', i.e. failure to extinguish. Moreover, there was an indirect effect of avoidance costs on protection from extinction through avoidance behaviour. No moderating role of trait-anxiety was found. Theoretical implications of avoidance behaviour are discussed, considering the involvement of instrumental learning in the maintenance of fear responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Yirong; Fan, Jun; Peissig, Peggy; Berg, Richard; Tafti, Ahmad Pahlavan; Yin, Jie; Yuan, Ming; Page, David; Cox, Jennifer; Burnside, Elizabeth S.
Improved prediction of the "most harmful" breast cancers that cause the most substantive morbidity and mortality would enable physicians to target more intense screening and preventive measures at those women who have the highest risk; however, such prediction models for the "most harmful" breast cancers have rarely been developed. Electronic health records (EHRs) represent an underused data source that has great research and clinical potential. Our goal was to quantify the value of EHR variables in the "most harmful" breast cancer risk prediction. We identified 794 subjects who had breast cancer with primary non-benign tumors with their earliest diagnosis on or after 1/1/2004 from an existing personalized medicine data repository, including 395 "most harmful" breast cancer cases and 399 "least harmful" breast cancer cases. For these subjects, we collected EHR data comprised of 6 components: demographics, diagnoses, symptoms, procedures, medications, and laboratory results. We developed two regularized prediction models, Ridge Logistic Regression (Ridge-LR) and Lasso Logistic Regression (Lasso-LR), to predict the "most harmful" breast cancer one year in advance. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to assess model performance. We observed that the AUCs of Ridge-LR and Lasso-LR models were 0.818 and 0.839 respectively. For both the Ridge-LR and LassoLR models, the predictive performance of the whole EHR variables was significantly higher than that of each individual component (pbreast cancer, providing the possibility to personalize care for those women at the highest risk in clinical practice.
... of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville... harmful constituents, including smoke constituents, to health in each tobacco product by brand and by quantity in each brand and subbrand.'' The guidance discusses the meaning of the term ``harmful and...
Rees, Clare S; Pritchard, Rhian
Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is associated with a high level of impairment in multiple areas of functioning. However, research on the treatment of APD is scarce, and there is an absence of empirically evaluated effective treatment approaches available. This study offers a preliminary investigation of the use of brief cognitive therapy to treat APD. Two individuals, both with a principal diagnosis of APD, but who also possessed a number of comorbidities, participated in 12 weekly sessions. A series of diagnostic symptom severity, global functioning, and self-report measures were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment and at 6-week follow-up. In addition, regular monitoring of each participant's strength of belief in 4 personally identified cognitions associated with APD was completed. Reductions in APD symptoms, associated negative affect, and increases to quality of life were observed for both participants at posttreatment and follow-up phases. Results suggest that brief cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment for APD and that further studies with larger samples are warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
.Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow?
Sander, Gen; Scandurra, Alessio; Kamenska, Anhelita; MacNamara, Catherine; Kalpaki, Christina; Bessa, Cristina Fernandez; Laso, Gemma Nicolás; Parisi, Grazia; Varley, Lorraine; Wolny, Marcin; Moudatsou, Maria; Pontes, Nuno Henrique; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia; Libianchi, Sandro; Antypas, Tzanetos
While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be inadequate compared to the progress achieved in the broader community. This article provides a brief overview of harm reduction in prisons in Catalonia (Spain), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, and Portugal. While each country provides a wide range of harm reduction services in the broader community, the majority fail to provide these same services or the same quality of these services, in prison settings, in clear violation of international human rights law and minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners. Where harm reduction services have been available and easily accessible in prison settings for some time, better health outcomes have been observed, including significantly reduced rates of HIV and HCV incidence. While the provision of harm reduction in each of these countries' prisons varies considerably, certain key themes and lessons can be distilled, including around features of an enabling environment for harm reduction, resource allocation, collection of disaggregated data, and accessibility of services.
Lee, Woo Kyeong
Recently, self-injury is drawing the attention of researchers and clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and psychological characteristics of adolescents who engage in self-harm and to examine the risk factors for engaging in this harmful behavior among Korean mid-adolescents. Participants were 784 adolescents aged 13-15 years. They completed self-report questionnaires that assessed (1) Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: the Self-Harm Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale; (2) depression: Children's Depression Inventory; (3) adolescent-parent relationship: Parental Bonding Instrument; (4) peer attachment: Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment; and (5) academic stress. Overall, 12.4% (n=97) of participants reported engaging in self-destructive behavior at least once in their lives. The primary reason for engaging in self-harm was to regulate negative emotions such as anger and sadness. As expected, the self-harm group showed statistically significant higher levels of academic stress, alexithymia, depression, and poor relationships with their parents and peers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that alexithymia, depression, and peer relations were significant predictors of self-harming behavior. Given that the primary reason for engaging in self-harm is to cope with negative emotions, mental health professionals in school settings should regularly evaluate self-injurious behavior and provide prevention programs for adolescents at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D
Transmissible pathogens are the bane of social animals, so they have evolved behaviours to decrease the probability of infection. There is no record, however, of social animals avoiding diseased individuals of their own species in the wild. Here we show how healthy, normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) avoid conspecifics that are infected with a lethal virus. Early detection and avoidance of infected, though not yet infectious, individuals by healthy lobsters confers a selective advantage and highlights the importance of host behaviour in disease transmission among natural populations.
Owens, Christabel; Hansford, Lorraine; Sharkey, Siobhan; Ford, Tamsin
Presentation at an accident and emergency (A&E) department is a key opportunity to engage with a young person who self-harms. The needs of this vulnerable group and their fears about presenting to healthcare services, including A&E, are poorly understood. To examine young people's perceptions of A&E treatment following self-harm and their views on what constitutes a positive clinical encounter. Secondary analysis of qualitative data from an experimental online discussion forum. Threads selected for secondary analysis represent the views of 31 young people aged 16-25 with experience of self-harm. Participants reported avoiding A&E whenever possible, based on their own and others' previous poor experiences. When forced to seek emergency care, they did so with feelings of shame and unworthiness. These feelings were reinforced when they received what they perceived as punitive treatment from A&E staff, perpetuating a cycle of shame, avoidance and further self-harm. Positive encounters were those in which they received 'treatment as usual', i.e. non-discriminatory care, delivered with kindness, which had the potential to challenge negative self-evaluation and break the cycle. The clinical needs of young people who self-harm continue to demand urgent attention. Further hypothesis testing and trials of different models of care delivery for this vulnerable group are warranted. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; R?ssler, Wolfgang
Long-term behavioral changes related to learning and experience have been shown to be associated with structural remodeling in the brain. Leaf-cutting ants learn to avoid previously preferred plants after they have proved harmful for their symbiotic fungus, a process that involves long-term olfactory memory. We studied the dynamics of brain microarchitectural changes after long-term olfactory memory formation following avoidance learning in Acromyrmex ambiguus. After performing experiments to...
Pourquier, Francois-Xavier; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Demeulenaere, Laurence
As the reduction of public supports which are harmful to the environment is a major stake in terms of struggle against pollutions and greenhouse gases, this publication proposes a discussion of these subsidies which are still important in France despite recent improvements, notably regarding wastes and fuels. The author first discusses how these harmful subsidies are defined by international or research bodies. He outlines that some subsidies have been suppressed since 2013, that important reforms have been initiated, and that, however, the level of harmful subsidies remains high. Then, he discusses the necessary reconciliation of different objectives, and briefly evokes the German and Italian assessment examples
... Search English Español Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles KidsHealth / For Parents / Toddlers at the Table: ... common concerns into opportunities to teach healthy eating habits. Most Toddlers Are Picky Eaters Many toddlers express ...
... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...
Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...
Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J
This paper analyzes the performance of directional collision avoidance schemes, in which antenna systems are used to direct the transmission and reception of control and data packets in channel access...
... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... during pregnancy Foods to avoid or limit during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...
Fisher, E R; Partin, K M
Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...
... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...
Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with a concomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate. Numerous epidemiologic studies and subsequent meta-analyses confirm that smokeless tobacco (ST) use is associated with minimal risks for cancer and for myocardial infarction; a small increased risk for stroke cannot be excluded. Studies from Sweden document that ST use is not associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although any form of nicotine should be avoided during pregnancy, the highest risks for the developing baby are associated with smoking. It is documented that ST use has been a key factor in the declining rates of smoking and of smoking-related diseases in Sweden and Norway. For other countries, the potential population health benefits of ST are far greater than the potential risks. In follow-up studies, dual users of cigarettes and ST are less likely than exclusive smokers to achieve complete tobacco abstinence, but they are also less likely to be smoking. The health risks from dual use are probably lower than those from exclusive smoking. E-cigarette users are not exposed to the many toxicants, carcinogens and abundant free radicals formed when tobacco is burned. Although laboratory studies have detected trace concentrations of some contaminants, it is a small problem amenable to improvements in quality control and manufacturing that are likely with FDA regulation as tobacco products. There is limited evidence from clinical trials that e-cigarettes deliver only small doses of nicotine compared with conventional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use emulates successfully the cigarette handling rituals and cues of cigarette smoking, which produces
Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR, with a concomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate. Numerous epidemiologic studies and subsequent meta-analyses confirm that smokeless tobacco (ST use is associated with minimal risks for cancer and for myocardial infarction; a small increased risk for stroke cannot be excluded. Studies from Sweden document that ST use is not associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although any form of nicotine should be avoided during pregnancy, the highest risks for the developing baby are associated with smoking. It is documented that ST use has been a key factor in the declining rates of smoking and of smoking-related diseases in Sweden and Norway. For other countries, the potential population health benefits of ST are far greater than the potential risks. In follow-up studies, dual users of cigarettes and ST are less likely than exclusive smokers to achieve complete tobacco abstinence, but they are also less likely to be smoking. The health risks from dual use are probably lower than those from exclusive smoking. E-cigarette users are not exposed to the many toxicants, carcinogens and abundant free radicals formed when tobacco is burned. Although laboratory studies have detected trace concentrations of some contaminants, it is a small problem amenable to improvements in quality control and manufacturing that are likely with FDA regulation as tobacco products. There is limited evidence from clinical trials that e-cigarettes deliver only small doses of nicotine compared with conventional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use emulates successfully the cigarette handling rituals and cues of cigarette
Indah Dwi Pratama; Ujang Sumarwan; Hari Wijayanto
One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES), advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the p...
Bill B. Francis
Full Text Available We investigate whether tax avoidance substitutes for external financing. We exploit interstate banking deregulation as a quasi-external shock to examine whether firms engage in less tax avoidance after banking deregulation, because of cheaper and easier access to credit from banks. We find no empirical evidence to support this substitutive relation, even for firms with higher financial constraints or firms with higher external financing dependence.
COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C
O Nions, E.; Viding, E.; Greven, C. U.; Ronald, A.; Happé, F.
'Pathological Demand Avoidance' is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to 'socially manipulative' behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand avoidance is thought to share aspects of social impairment with autism spectrum disorders, but autism spectrum disorder-appropriate strategies, such as routine and repetition, ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.
Milcarz, Marek; Polańska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota
The aim of the study was to examine how social care beneficiaries rate the relative harmfulness of tobacco/nicotine-containing products compared to traditional cigarettes. This information is crucial for the development of effective tobacco control strategies targeting disadvantaged populations. The cross-sectional study covered 1817 respondents who were taking advantage of social aid services offered by the local social care institutions in the Piotrkowski district, via face-to-face interviews. The linear regression analysis indicated that relative to women, men consider slim cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes to be more harmful than traditional cigarettes ( p traditional cigarettes reported menthol cigarettes to be less harmful than traditional cigarettes, relative to the non-smokers ( p = 0.05). The current results demonstrate that social care beneficiaries are not aware of the fact that some products are less harmful than others. Education concerning tobacco/nicotine products should include advice on how to reduce the adverse health effects of smoking (e.g., avoiding inhalation of combusted products), while driving the awareness that no nicotine-containing products are safe.
Mialon, Melissa; McCambridge, Jim
There is growing awareness of the detrimental effects of alcohol industry commercial activities, and concern about possible adverse impacts of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, on public health. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize and examine what is known about CSR initiatives undertaken by alcohol industry actors in respect of harmful drinking globally. We searched for peer-reviewed studies published since 1980 of alcohol industry CSR initiatives in seven electronic databases. The basic search strategy was organized around the three constructs of 'alcohol', 'industry' and 'corporate social responsibility'. We performed the searches on 21 July 2017. Data from included studies were analyzed inductively, according to the extent to which they addressed specified research objectives. A total of 21 studies were included. We identified five types of CSR initiatives relevant to the reduction of harmful drinking: alcohol information and education provision; drink driving prevention; research involvement; policy involvement and the creation of social aspects organizations. Individual companies appear to undertake different CSR initiatives than do industry-funded social aspects organizations. There is no robust evidence that alcohol industry CSR initiatives reduce harmful drinking. There is good evidence, however, that CSR initiatives are used to influence the framing of the nature of alcohol-related issues in line with industry interests. This research literature is at an early stage of development. Alcohol policy measures to reduce harmful drinking are needed, and the alcohol industry CSR initiatives studied so far do not contribute to the attainment of this goal.
Full Text Available Soil samples in disturbed state were taken in order to control fertility and monitor contents of harmful and hazardous substances in Vojvodina soils and possibilities of soil degradation in general. Moderately contaminated soils were selected for examination. Microbial activity in contaminated soil and the impact of harmful and hazardous substances (pesticides on soil microorganisms were observed and most resistant microorganisms were isolated. Vegetation experiments were organized to study the effect of chelating agents EDTA and EDDS on copper adoption and translocation in rapeseed and sunflower. Importance of some ions in the complexation of copper chelators and their undesirable effects on copper uptake were established. Field trials were organized to study the effect of hydrogel on water uptakes by plants, increase in rate and the increase in rate of removal of hazardous and harmful substances from soil solution. At all phases of the project, we monitored the effectiveness of soil bioremediation soils by means of the application of chelating agents, stimulative preparations such as hydrogel and certain microorganisms. It effectiveness was measured in terms of plant growth rate and intensity in removal of hazardous and harmful substances from contaminated soil.
Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna
Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.
Mathur, Vani A; Cheon, Bobby K; Harada, Tokiko; Scimeca, Jason M; Chiao, Joan Y
Interpersonal pain perception is a fundamental and evolutionarily beneficial social process. While critical for navigating the social world, whether or not people rely on similar processes to perceive and respond to the harm of the non-human biological world remains largely unknown. Here we investigate whether neural reactivity toward the suffering of other people is distinct from or overlapping with the neural response to pain and harm inflicted upon non-human entities, specifically animals and nature. We used fMRI to measure neural activity while participants (n=15) perceived and reported how badly they felt for the pain or harm of humans, animals, and nature, relative to neutral situations. Neural regions associated with perceiving the pain of other people (e.g. dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral anterior insula) were similarly recruited when perceiving and responding to painful scenes across people, animals, and nature. These results suggest that similar brain responses are relied upon when perceiving the harm of social and non-social biological entities, broadly construed, and that activity within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral anterior insula in response to pain-relevant stimuli is not uniquely specific to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Joinson, Carol; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Lewis, Glyn
Being the victim of peer bullying is associated with increased risk of psychopathology, yet it is not known whether similar experiences of bullying increase risk of psychiatric disorder when the perpetrator is a sibling. We tested whether being bullied by a sibling is prospectively associated with depression, anxiety, and self-harm in early adulthood. We conducted a longitudinal study using data from >6900 participants of a UK community-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who reported on sibling bullying at 12 years. Our main outcome measures were depression, anxiety, and self-harm, assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised during clinic assessments when participants were 18. Children who were frequently bullied were approximately twice as likely to have depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.51; P siblings. The ORs were only slightly attenuated after adjustment for a range of confounding individual, family, and peer factors. The population-attributable fractions suggested that 13.0% (95% CI, 1.0%-24.7%) of depression and 19.3% (95% CI, 7.6%-29.6%) of self-harm could be explained by being the victim of sibling bullying if these were causal relationships. Being bullied by a sibling is a potential risk factor for depression and self-harm in early adulthood. Our results suggest that interventions designed to target sibling bullying should be devised and evaluated. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to i the role played by dopamine neurotransmission and ii the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinson’s disease (PD to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it.
Full Text Available The Internet has supported diverse types of multimedia content flowing freely on smart phones and tablet PCs based on its easy accessibility. However, multimedia content that can be emotionally harmful for children is also easily spread, causing many social problems. This paper proposes a method to assess the harmfulness of input images automatically based on an artificial neural network. The proposed method first detects human face areas based on the MCT features from the input images. Next, based on color characteristics, this study identifies human skin color areas along with the candidate areas of nipples, one of the human body parts representing harmfulness. Finally, the method removes nonnipple areas among the detected candidate areas using the artificial neural network. The experimental results show that the suggested neural network learning-based method can determine the harmfulness of various types of images more effectively by detecting nipple regions from input images robustly.
Wang, Y.; Y Li, Z.; Ding, J. X.; Hu, Z. J.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, G.; Huang, T. H.
For reducting tobacco harm, this paper prepared an ordered mesoporous silica by using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as template. The property of this material was characterized by the X-ray scattering spectrum(XRD), Transmission electron microscopy(TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Nitrogen adsorption/desorption. Then this ordered mesoporous silica was added into the cigarette filter in order to researching its effect of cigarette harm index. The result shows that the feature of SBA-15 was grain morphology, ordered arrangement, tubular porous 2-D hexagonal structure. The application of SBA-15 in cigarette filter can selectively reduce harmful components in cigarette smoke such as crotonaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, benzo pyrene and tar. The synthesized SBA-15 could properly reduce cigarette harm index.
These were numerically dominated by potentially toxic species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, which were present year-round at all stations. ... Canonical correspondence analyses revealed significant relationships between the harmful phytoplankton species monitored and the environmental conditions.
Gorobey Nikolaj Petrovich
Full Text Available The analysis of data of modern scientific literature is conducted on issue of harmful habits and dependences of students. It is shown that considerable part of student young people have harmful habits and dependences. Negative influence of harmful habits and dependences of students is exposed on the state of their health. Importance of delivering is well-proven from addiction behavior in practice of healthy way of life of students. It is set that one of foreground jobs of present time there is an increase of level of education of student young people on questions abandonment from harmful habits and dependences. The ways of decision of problem of addiction behavior of students are offered as an effective condition of improvement of the state of their health.
David G. Shaw
Conclusion: The FASH Model may inform future curriculum innovation. Adopting a holistic approach to education of nurses about self-harm may assist in developing attitudes and skills to make care provision more effective in secure mental health settings.
Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane
People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera, to other important bee species.
Tan, Ken; Chen, Weiwen; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Yuchong; Nieh, James C.
Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb) imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana) showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera), to other important bee species. PMID:25025334
Berdalet, Elisa; Fleming, Lora E.; Gowen, Richard
cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments...... maintaining intensive, multidisciplinary and collaborative scientific research, and strengthening the coordination with stakeholders, policymakers and the general public. Here we provide an overview of different aspects of the HABs phenomena, an important element of the intrinsic links between oceans...
Acts of deliberate self-harm (DSH) by adolescents are thought to be on the increase. Many of those who self-harm are of school age and it is to be expected that schools (and their teachers) will be aware of the problem and will respond appropriately as part of their pastoral-care provision. However, a recent survey of research in pastoral care and…
Bridge, Jamie; Hunter, Benjamin M; Atun, Rifat
Injecting drug use has been documented in 158 countries and is a major contributor to HIV epidemics. People who inject drugs have poor and inequitable access to HIV services. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is the leading multilateral donor for HIV programmes and encourage...... applicants to include harm reduction interventions in their proposals. This study is the first detailed analysis of Global Fund investments in harm reduction interventions....
Michelson, Daniel; Bhugra, Dinesh
Self-harm in young people is a complex and pervasive problem with a number of co-existing risk factors. Although research has implicated a range of family variables in understanding the onset, maintenance and prevention of adolescent self-harm, relatively little attention has been given to the expressed emotion (EE) construct. Based on a narrative review and synthesis of peer-reviewed literature up to and including 2011, this paper considers the conceptual background and empirical evidence for the role of family environment in the expression of adolescent self-harm, with a particular focus on EE. The clinical implications of this literature for working with young people and families from different cultures are also addressed. In summary, the surveyed research provides insufficient evidence for a direct causal link between family environment and adolescent self-harm, with questions raised about the temporal sequencing of measured variables, specificity of implicated family risk factors, and the nature and role of protective factors in families. Emerging evidence for an association between high EE and adolescent self-harm requires replication in well-controlled, prospective studies. There is also a lack of empirically-supported, family-based treatment modalities for adolescents who self-harm. Intervention strategies should be guided by personalised formulation, taking into account individual vulnerabilities, strengths and social contexts, as well as cultural norms for family environment.
Ann-Charlotte M Mardby
Full Text Available Background: the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits in sick-listed women and men, and whether the social gradient in sickness absence could be explained by the socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits.Methods: this cross-sectional questionnaire study included newly sick-listed individuals (n=2 798, 19-64 years, 66% women from Sweden. The outcome variable, self-reported harmful alcohol habits, was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Registered socioeconomic variables (education, income, occupational class were explanatory variables with age as confounder and selfreported health, symptoms, mental wellbeing, and self-efficacy as mediators. Chi2-tests and logistic regression models were applied.Results: 9% of sick-listed women and 22% of men had harmful alcohol habits. Women with a low annual income (≤149 000 SEK had higher odds ratios (OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.43-4.27 of harmful alcohol habits than those with ≥300 000 SEK/year. The significance of low income remained when mediators were introduced into the logistic regression model (OR=2.03, 95% CI=1.13-3.65. In the model including age, income was no longer significant. Men with low income were more likely to have harmful alcohol habits than men with high income (OR=2.59; 95% CI=1.45-4.62. When mediators were included low income remained significant (OR=2.88; 95% CI=1.56-5.31. Income was no longer significant when age was introduced. Education and occupational status were not significant.Conclusions: harmful alcohol habits were common among sick-listed women and men. The socioeconomic differences in harmful alcohol habits did not explain the social gradient in sickness absence.
James, Karen; Samuels, Isaac; Moran, Paul; Stewart, Duncan
Background: Harm reduction has had positive outcomes for people using sexual health and substance misuse services. Clinical guidance recommends these approaches may be appropriately adopted by mental health practitioners when managing some people who self-harm. There has, however, been very little research in this area. Methods: We explored practitioners’ views of harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm. The Self Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS) was administered to a rando...
Cook, Korrine; Atcherson, Samuel R
The purpose of this study is to identify whether or not different materials of softball bats (wooden, aluminum, and composite) are a potential risk harm to hearing when batting players strike a 12'' core .40 softball during slow, underhand pitch typical of recreational games. Peak sound pressure level measurements and spectral analyses were conducted for three controlled softball pitches to a batting participant using each of the different bat materials in an unused outdoor playing field with regulation distances between the pitcher's mound and batter's box. The results revealed that highest recorded peak sound pressure level was recorded from the aluminum (124.6 dBC) bat followed by the composite (121.2 dBC) and wooden (120.0 dBC) bats. Spectral analysis revealed composite and wooden bats with similar broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response. The aluminum bat also produced a broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response, but there were also two very distinct peaks at around 1700 Hz and 2260 Hz above the noise floor that produced its ringing (or ping) sound after being struck. Impulse (transient) sounds less than 140 dBC may permit multiple exposures, and softball bats used in a recreational slow pitch may pose little to no risk to hearing.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify whether or not different materials of softball bats (wooden, aluminum, and composite are a potential risk harm to hearing when batting players strike a 12′′ core .40 softball during slow, underhand pitch typical of recreational games. Peak sound pressure level measurements and spectral analyses were conducted for three controlled softball pitches to a batting participant using each of the different bat materials in an unused outdoor playing field with regulation distances between the pitcher’s mound and batter’s box. The results revealed that highest recorded peak sound pressure level was recorded from the aluminum (124.6 dBC bat followed by the composite (121.2 dBC and wooden (120.0 dBC bats. Spectral analysis revealed composite and wooden bats with similar broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response. The aluminum bat also produced a broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response, but there were also two very distinct peaks at around 1700 Hz and 2260 Hz above the noise floor that produced its ringing (or ping sound after being struck. Impulse (transient sounds less than 140 dBC may permit multiple exposures, and softball bats used in a recreational slow pitch may pose little to no risk to hearing.
Vera-Badillo, Francisco E; Al-Mubarak, Mustafa; Templeton, Arnoud J; Amir, Eitan
Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assess clinically important differences in endpoints that reflect benefit to and harm of patients. Defining benefit of cancer drugs can be difficult. Overall survival and quality of life are the most relevant primary endpoints, but difficulty in measuring these mean that other endpoints are often used, although their surrogacy or clinical relevance has not always been established. In general, advances in drug development have led to numerous new drugs to enter the market. Pivotal RCT of several new drugs have shown that benefit appeared greater for targeted anticancer agents than for chemotherapeutic agents. This effect seems particularly evident with targeted agents evaluated in biomarker-driven studies. Unfortunately, new therapies have also shown an increase in toxicity. Such toxicity is not always evident in the initial reports of RCTs. This may be a result of a statistical inability to detect differences between arms of RCTs, or occasionally due to biased reporting. There are several examples where reports of new toxicities could only be found in drug labels. In some cases, the small improvement in survival has come at a cost of substantial excess toxicity, leading some to consider such therapy as having equipoise.
Bentley, J A; Ramanathan, A K; Arnold, G P; Wang, W; Abboud, R J
Football players wear boots of varying cleat designs with some preferring the bladed cleats while others opting for the conventional studded cleats. The current study compares biomechanically the boots with differing cleat designs and their effect on feet, if any. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were recruited from amateur football teams. They were asked to perform three trials each of two activities: a straight run and a run cutting at a 60° angle wearing bladed and studded Adidas®-F series boots on artificial turf. Plantar pressure values were recorded using the Pedar®-X in-shoe pressure measuring device. Peak pressure and pressure-time integral were analysed over 11 clinically relevant areas under the foot. While the in-shoe pressure and pressure-time integral were higher under the medial half of the foot with studded boots, they were higher under the lateral half of the foot with the bladed design. The studded boots can be considered safer as the pressure distribution across the foot and the pattern of centre of pressure progression mimicked the normal motif, whereas the bladed boots could potentially be deemed relatively more harmful due to the unnatural increased loading under the lateral half of the foot, predisposing the foot to injuries. Copyright © 2010 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
It has recently been argued that drug-related harms cannot be compared, so making it impossible to choose rationally between various drug policy options. Attempts to apply international human rights law to this area are valid, but have found it difficult to overcome the problems in applying codified human rights to issues of drug policy. This article applies the rationalist ethical argument of Gewirth (1978) to this issue. It outlines his argument to the 'principle of generic consistency' and the hierarchy of basic, nonsubtractive and additive rights that it entails. It then applies these ideas to drug policy issues, such as whether there is a right to use drugs, whether the rights of drug 'addicts' can be limited, and how different harms can be compared in choosing between policies. There is an additive right to use drugs, but only insofar as this right does not conflict with the basic and nonsubtractive rights of others. People whose freedom to choose whether to use drugs is compromised by compulsion have a right to receive treatment. They retain enforceable duties not to inflict harms on others. Policies which reduce harms to basic and nonsubtractive rights should be pursued, even if they lead to harms to additive rights. There exists a sound, rational, extra-legal basis for the discussion of drug policy and related harms which enables commensurable discussion of drug policy options. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Presence of harmful insects and mites is almost inevitable in mercantile wheat stored in warehouses. They cause significant damages and therefore it is necessary to perform pest control and chemical treatment. Study of harmful and destructive entomophauna impacts on quality of mercantile wheat and flour has been presented. Mercantile wheat stored in silos has been used in the study. Testing of quality of rheological properties and presence of harmful entomophauna were done in the labs within the silos «Žitoprerada d.o.o. Valpovo « and Department of Plant Protection on Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek. Presence of harmful entomophauna, quality of mercantile wheat stored in a warehouse and rheological flour properties were determined. The following harmful entomophauna were found: mites (Acarinae, primary pests of order Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, secondary pests of order Coleoptera and other insects found belong to Coleoptera, Psocoptera and useful insects of Hymenoptera orders. Influence of harmful entomophauna on quality of mercantile wheat is manifested by reduced quality of stored wheat due to decrease of water content and hectoliter mass. Lower quality of flour obtained by milling of infected wheat is manifested by change in rheological properties: dough stability, water absorption, growth, resistance, energy, extensibility, maximum resistance, start of puffing up, and viscosity.
This paper argues that the rules that constitute a market protect autonomy and increase welfare in healthcare. Markets do the former through protecting rights to self-ownership and a cluster of rights that protect its exercise. Markets protect welfare by organizing and protecting trades. In contrast, prohibition destroys legitimate markets, giving rise to so-called black markets that harm both the autonomy and well-being of agents. For example, a fee-for-service medical system is a highly developed and specialized market. It is individuals working together, through the division of labor, to provide mutual insurance. This coordination, and the benefits it makes possible, is not possible without injunctions against harm. Prohibitions on harm are not mere ethical niceties, they are practice rules for both healthcare and markets. Placing the doctor within a healthcare market actually reinforces the doctor's moral obligation, and the legal enforcement of that obligation, not to harm. Similarly, markets reinforce patient rights to self-determination through legal and institutional enforcement of the harm principle in the form of the protection of certain basic welfare rights to life, bodily integrity, property, trade, and contract. Since the establishment of markets protects agent autonomy and welfare, and prohibition directly harms the same, there are strong reasons for establishing markets to protect trade in precisely those areas where autonomy and well-being are most vulnerable to exploitation, for example, the trade in human kidneys.
AVOID work stream (WS1)one has produced emission scenarios that simulate potential future global emission pathways for greenhouse gases during the 21st century. The study explored the influence of three key features of such pathways: (1) the year in which emissions peak globally, (2) the rate of emission reduction, and (3) the minimum level to which emissions are eventually reduced. It examined the resultant climate change, climate change impacts and economic implications using computer simulations. Avoided impacts, carbon taxes and GDP change increase throughout the 21st century in the models. AVOID-WS1 showed that in the absence of climate policy it is very likely that global mean temperatures would exceed 3 degrees and there are evens chances that the temperature would rise by 4 degrees relative to pre-industrial times. Scenarios that peak emissions in 2016 were more effective at constraining temperatures to below 3 degrees than those that peaked in 2030: one ‘2016' scenario achieved a probability of 45% of avoiding breaching of a 2 degree threshold. Scenarios peaking in 2030 were inconsistent with constraining temperatures to below 2 degrees. Correspondingly, scenarios that peak in 2030 are more effective at avoiding climate impacts than scenarios that peak in 2016, for all sectors that we studied. Hence the date at which emissions peak is more important than the rate of subsequent emissions reduction in determining the avoided impacts. Avoided impacts increase with time, being negligible in the 2030s, significant by the 2050s and large by the 2080s. Finally, the choice of GCM influences the magnitude of the avoided impacts strongly, so that the uncertainties in our estimates of avoided impacts for each scenario are larger than the difference between the scenarios. Our economic analysis is based on models which differ greatly in the assumptions that they make, but generally show that the date at which emissions peak is a stronger driver of induced GDP changes
Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.
Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Supurna; Ghosh, Abhijit
We present a theoretical treatment of DNA stretching and twisting experiments, in which we discuss global topological subtleties of self-avoiding ribbons and provide an underlying justification for the worm-like rod chain (WLRC) model proposed by Bouchiat and Mezard. Some theoretical points regarding the WLRC model are clarified: the 'local writhe formula' and the use of an adjustable cut-off parameter to 'regularize' the model. Our treatment brings out the precise relation between the worm-like chain (WLC), the paraxial worm-like chain (PWLC) and the WLRC models. We describe the phenomenon of 'topological untwisting' and the resulting collapse of link sectors in the WLC model and note that this leads to a free energy profile periodic in the applied link. This periodicity disappears when one takes into account the topology of self-avoidance or at large stretch forces (paraxial limit). We note that the difficult non-local notion of self-avoidance can be replaced (in an approximation) by the simpler local notion of 'south avoidance'. This gives an explanation for the efficacy of the approach of Bouchiat and Mezard in explaining the 'hat curves' using the WLRC model, which is a south avoiding model. We propose a new class of experiments to probe the continuous transition between the periodic and aperiodic behaviour of the free energy
Sicsic, Jonathan; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie; Moumjid, Nora
Over the past decade, the benefits and harms balance of breast cancer (BC) screening has been widely debated. To elicit women's trade-offs between the benefits and harms of BC screening and to analyze the main determinants of these trade-offs. A discrete-choice experiment with seven attributes depicting BC screening programs including varying levels of BC mortality, overdiagnosis, and false-positive result was used. Eight hundred twelve women aged 40 to 74 years with no personal history of BC recruited by a survey institute and representative of the French general population (age, socioeconomic level, and geographical location) completed the discrete-choice experiment. Preference heterogeneity was investigated using generalized multinomial logit models from which individual trade-offs were derived, and their main determinants were assessed using generalized linear models. Screening acceptance rates under various benefits and harms ratios were simulated on the basis of the distribution of individual preferences. The women would be willing to accept on average 14.1 overdiagnosis cases (median = 9.6) and 47.8 false-positive results (median = 27.2) to avoid one BC-related death. After accounting for preference heterogeneity, less than 50% of women would be willing to accept 10 overdiagnosis cases for one BC-related death avoided. Screening acceptance rates were higher among women with higher socioeconomic level and lower among women with poor health. Women are sensitive to both the benefits and the harms of BC screening and their preferences are highly heterogeneous. Our study provides useful results for public health authorities and clinicians willing to improve their recommendations of BC screening on the basis of women's preferences. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gordijn, E.H.; Yzerbyt, V.Y.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Dumont, M.
In this paper, we examined reactions to situations in which, although one is not personally involved, one could see oneself connected to either the perpetrators or the victims of unfair behavior. We manipulated participants' similarity and measured their identification to either one of two groups
Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Wigboldus, Daniël; Dumont, Muriel
In this paper, we examined reactions to situations in which, although one is not personally involved, one could see oneself connected to either the perpetrators or the victims of unfair behavior We 14 manipulated participants' similarity and measured their identification to either one of two groups
Carcioppolo, Nick; John, Kevin K; Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J
Findings from years of research on fear appeals suggest that individuals with low efficacy utilize avoidance strategies when they perceive a significant threat-a process called fear control. Some research suggests that joking could be an avoidance strategy. The current study identifies conditions in which people are more likely to joke about colorectal cancer and explores how this behavior may be associated with screening avoidance. Older adults (N = 209) recruited from eight different worksites completed a survey measuring fear appeal constructs and enactment of colorectal cancer-related joking. Results of a moderated mediation analysis suggest that men were more likely to joke about colorectal cancer than women, particularly if they perceived significant threat but had limited self-efficacy, signifying fear control. Results support prior fear appeal research, suggesting that an increase in joking behavior concerning colorectal cancer may be indicative of screening avoidance, and describe belief-based mechanisms that explain differences between biological sex and joking. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
In March 1991, following a wide ranging inquiry into community needs and high voltage transmission line development, Sir Harry Gibbs, an ex-Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia concluded that adverse health effects from power frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) had not been established. He went on to find that there was some evidence that they might pose a risk to health. On this basis, he recommended a policy of prudent avoidance in the construction of new transmission lines. Since that time, a succession of inquiries in Australia and overseas have made similar findings and recommended prudent avoidance. This paper provides practical guidance to electricity transmission and distribution utilities and other interested stakeholders in the application of prudent avoidance to the design and siting of new electrical facilities. The paper provides background information and a range of general measures which might prudently be applied. It is not the authors' intention to provide precise instructions for the application of prudent avoidance but, rather, to provide a series of guiding principles which may be applied to particular situations, having regard to the specific design practices and other policies of individual electricity utilities. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc
Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W
The purpose of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors aimed to test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and to infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 healthy comparison subjects learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional MRI scan. Following four blocks of training, the authors tested whether the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. Task-related differences in brain activity in three regions of interest (the caudate, the putamen, and the medial orbitofrontal cortex) were tested at a statistical threshold set at habit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyperactivation in the caudate, was observed. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyperactivation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex during the acquisition of avoidance; however, this did not relate directly to habit formation. OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyperactivation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Previous studies indicate that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the buildup of stimulus-response habits themselves.
Pultorak, Katherine J.; Schelp, Scott A.; Isaacs, Dominic P.; Krzystyniak, Gregory
Abstract While an extensive literature supports the notion that mesocorticolimbic dopamine plays a role in negative reinforcement, recent evidence suggests that dopamine exclusively encodes the value of positive reinforcement. In the present study, we employed a behavioral economics approach to investigate whether dopamine plays a role in the valuation of negative reinforcement. Using rats as subjects, we first applied fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine that dopamine concentration decreases with the number of lever presses required to avoid electrical footshock (i.e., the economic price of avoidance). Analysis of the rate of decay of avoidance demand curves, which depict an inverse relationship between avoidance and increasing price, allows for inference of the worth an animal places on avoidance outcomes. Rapidly decaying demand curves indicate increased price sensitivity, or low worth placed on avoidance outcomes, while slow rates of decay indicate reduced price sensitivity, or greater worth placed on avoidance outcomes. We therefore used optogenetics to assess how inducing dopamine release causally modifies the demand to avoid electrical footshock in an economic setting. Increasing release at an avoidance predictive cue made animals more sensitive to price, consistent with a negative reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a worse outcome than expected). Increasing release at avoidance made animals less sensitive to price, consistent with a positive reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a better outcome than expected). These data demonstrate that transient dopamine release events represent the value of avoidance outcomes and can predictably modify the demand to avoid. PMID:29766047
Full Text Available The state of stress and styles of coping with stress constitute an important component of life of every human being, particularly during adolescence. Effective coping mechanisms enable reduction of severity of stress experienced, while inability to manage stressful situations results in alterations in emotional and physiological domains, disturbances of mental well-being, somatic health and social functioning. Since a few years, we are witnessing a significant aggravation of the phenomenon of auto-aggression among children and adolescents, particularly in populations already undergoing psychiatric treatment. Such behaviours fulfil several functions: they may represent a way to express emotions, a means of adaptation or a style of coping with difficulties encountered in everyday life and emotional tension associated therewith. The aim of this study was to analyse predominating styles of coping with stressful situations, adopted by adolescen patients performing self-harm. The study population encompassed 35 patients, aged 16.60±0.18 years, there of 27 girls and 8 boys, hospitalised at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry of the Medical University in Łódź, who had a history of deliberate self-harm (DSH. Control group included 32 healthy volunteers aged 16.91±0.16 years, thereof 23 girls and 9 boys. In view of the size of study population, it was subdivided into subgroups depending on whether episodes of DSH were sporadic or repetitive. Data were collected using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS. This questionnaire was designed specifically to explore styles of coping with stress. Self-harming adolescents, both girls and boys, significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style. Patients with repetitive DSH (over 4 episodes significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style and/or avoidance-oriented style, particularly in the form of seeking social contacts – social diversion, as compared with those committing
Carter, Emily; Bryce, Jennifer; Perin, Jamie; Newby, Holly
correct management of diarrheal disease in children and result in treatment failure, sustained nutritional deficits, and increased diarrhea mortality. The lack of consistency in sampling, measurement, and reporting identified in this literature review highlights the need to document harmful practices using standard methods of measurement and reporting for the continued reduction of diarrhea mortality.
De Callatay, A.
A project of layered software architecture is proposed: a safety-critical real-time non-stop simple kernel system includes a layer avoiding threatening actions from operators or programs in other control systems. Complex process-control applications (such as fuzzy systems) are useful for the smooth operation of the system, optimum productivity, efficient diagnostics, and safe management of degraded modes of operation. Defects in these complex process-control applications do not have an impact on safety if their commands have first to be accepted by a safety-critical module. The development, testing, and certification of complex applications computed in the outside layers can be made simpler and less expensive than for those in the kernel. Avoidance systems use rule-base systems having negative fuzzy conditions and actions. Animal and human behaviour cannot be explained without active avoidance
A new apparatus for active avoidance training in rats consists of a short, wide runway which can be tilted from a horizontal to vertical position. One half of the electrifiable grid floor is covered by a nonconducting sheet. For brightness (black-white) discrimination training a white walled goal box can be inserted into the runway and shifted from left to right during training. Avoidance training of 24 rats (female Wistar SPF) required 14.1 +/- 2.6 (mean +/- SEM) to-criterion trials (9/10) and was completed in less than 4 min. Brightness discrimination training required 21.3 +/- 2.1 to-criterion trials and the time of training did not exceed 12 min. The retention of the acquired responses was very good in both cases. The main advantage of the apparatus is very rapid acquisition of the one-way and discriminated avoidance without the necessity of manual manipulation of the animal.
M. Paul Latiolais
Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.
North, Adrian C; Hargreaves, David J
Academics and protest groups have claimed that "problem music" (hard rock, hip hop/rap, & punk) causes self-injurious thoughts/behaviors among fans. In this study we investigated whether the relationship is mediated by self-esteem, delinquency, and conservatism; and whether first exposure to problem music preceded self-injurious thoughts. A liking for problem music was associated with four of the five self-injurious measures, although these significant relationships were weakened (into nonsignificance in the case of two self-injurious measures) when the mediating variables were included. Listening to problem music did not precede self-injurious thoughts. Problem music is associated with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, but this relationship is mediated by other factors and the former does not seem to cause the latter.
Quigley, Jody; Rasmussen, Susan; McAlaney, John
Social influences-including the suicidal and self-harming behaviors of others-have been highlighted as a risk factor for suicidal and self-harming behavior in young people, but synthesis of the evidence is lacking. A systematic review of 86 relevant papers was conducted. Considerable published evidence was obtained for positive associations between young people's suicidal and self-harming behavior and that of people they know, with those reporting knowing people who had engaged in suicidal or self-harming behaviors more likely to report engaging in similar behaviors themselves. Findings are discussed in relation to a number of methodological and measurement issues-including the role of normative perceptions-and implications for the prevention of suicidal and self-harming behavior are considered.
Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla
Background Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg’s classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. Methods We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946–1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users’ perspectives. Results Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Conclusion Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define “normal” or “acceptable” cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. PMID:25911027
Sahlin, Hanna; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Bjureberg, Johan; Lichtenstein, Paul; Molero, Yasmina; Rydell, Mina; Hedman, Erik; Runeson, Bo; Jokinen, Jussi; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hellner, Clara
Individuals who self-harm may have an increased risk of aggression toward others, but this association has been insufficiently investigated. More conclusive evidence may affect assessment, treatment interventions, and clinical guidelines. To investigate the association between nonfatal self-harm and violent crime. This population-based longitudinal cohort study, conducted from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2013, studied all Swedish citizens born between 1982 and 1998 who were 15 years and older (N = 1 850 252). Individuals who emigrated from Sweden before the age of 15 years (n = 104 051) or immigrated to Sweden after the age of 13 years (ie, crime according to the Swedish penal code. The study cohort consisted of 1 850 525 individuals (950 382 males and 900 143 females), and the mean (SD) follow-up time was 8.1 (4.7) years (range, 0-17.0 years; minimum age, 15 years; maximum age, 32 years). During a mean follow-up period of 8.1 years, 55 185 individuals (3.0%) received clinical care for self-harm. The crude hazard ratio was 4.9 (95% CI, 4.8-5.0) for violent crime conviction in exposed individuals compared with the unexposed group. Women who self-harm were at particularly high risk for expressing violent behaviors. After adjustment for relevant psychiatric comorbidities and socioeconomic status, an almost doubled hazard of violent offense remained (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.8-1.9). Self-harm is associated with an increased risk of conviction for a violent offense in both sexes. The risk of violence, as well as the risk of suicide and self-harm, should be assessed among offending and self-harming individuals.
Friedman, S R.; Southwell, M; Bueno, R; Paone, D; Byrne, J; Crofts, N
The harm reduction movement formed during a period in which social movements of the working class and the excluded were weak, neo-liberalism ideologically triumphant, and potential opposition movements were viewed as offering "tinkering" with the system rather than a total social alternative. This climate shaped and limited the perspectives, strategies, and tactics of harm reductionists almost everywhere. In many countries, this period was also marked by a "political economy of scapegoating" that often targeted drug users as the cause of social woes. This scapegoating took the form of "divide and rule" political initiatives by business and political leaderships to prevent social unrest in a long period of worldwide economic trends toward lowered profit rates and toward increasing income inequality. However, times have changed. Mass strikes and other labor struggles, opposition to the World Trade Organisation and other agencies of neo-liberalism, community-based protests against belt-tightening, and other forms of social unrest have been increasing in many countries. This opens up the possibility of new allies for the harm reduction movement, but also poses difficult problems for which we need to develop answers. On-the-ground experience in alliance formation needs to be combined with careful discussion of and research about what approaches work to convince other movements to work for and with harm reduction, and which approaches do not. Class differences within the harm reduction movement are likely to become more salient in terms of (a) creating internal tensions, (b) increasingly, opening up new ways in which working class harm reductionists can organize within their own communities and workplaces, and (c) producing different strategic orientations that will need to be discussed and debated. As a movement, we will need to find ways to accommodate and discuss differing perspectives, needs, and assessments of opportunities and threats without paralyzing harm
Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla
Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg's classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users' perspectives. Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define "normal" or "acceptable" cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier
from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... on information control to insulating leaders by using technical experts and agencies as 'lightning rods.' In 2003, the Chinese strategy of information containment and secrecy backfired, and the Chinese leadership eventually received blame at home and internationally for crisis mismanagement. In 2009, China put...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....
Peer, J.M. van; Roelofs, K.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijk, J.G. van; Spinhoven, P.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.
We investigated the effects of cortisol administration (50 mg) on approach and avoidance tendencies in low and high trait avoidant healthy young men. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which participants evaluated the emotional expression of
Background This study sought to investigate the mediating effects of rumination and cognitivebehavioural avoidance in the relationship between self-compassion and depression amongst adolescents. Method Ninety nonclinical adolescents completed self-report measures of self-compassion, depressive symptomatology, rumination (reflection and brooding subtypes) and cognitive-behavioural avoidance. Results Results showed that for the relationship between self-compassion and...
Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N
The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.
Knibbe, Ronald A; Derickx, Mieke; Allamani, Allaman; Massini, Giulia
to establish which unplanned (social developments) and planned (alcohol policy measures) factors are related to per capita consumption and alcohol-related harms in the Netherlands. linear regression was used to establish which of the planned and unplanned factors were most strongly connected with alcohol consumption and harms. Artificial Neural Analysis (ANN) was used to inspect the interconnections between all variables. mothers age at birth was most strongly associated with increase in consumption. The ban on selling alcoholic beverages at petrol station was associated with a decrease in consumption. The linear regression of harms did not show any relation between alcohol policy measures and harms. The ANN-analyses indicate a very high interconnectedness between all variables allowing no causal inferences. Exceptions are the relation between price of beer and wine and the consumption of these beverages and the relation between a decrease in transport mortality and the increased use of breathalyzers tests and a restriction of paracommercial selling. unplanned factors are most strongly associated with per capita consumption and harms. ANN-analysis indicates that price of alcoholic beverages, breath testing, and restriction of sales may have had some influence. The study's limitations are noted.
Knockaert, J.; Bakens, J.; Ettema, D.F.; Verhoef, E.
The Dutch road network is becoming increasingly congested. In late 2006, a group of companies, universities and government institutions established the Spitsmijden project. ‘Spitsmijden’ is the Dutch term for ‘avoiding the peak’. This joint initiative aimed to identify and assess a short-term
Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.
The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to
Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive
Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W
Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive
O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca
"Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…
HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; KUIPER, PJC
The hypothesis was tested that the avoidance of acid subsoil by the velvet bean Mucuna pruriens is based on a mechanism acting on the whole root system rather than on individual roots. In a split-root experiment with circulating nutrient solution the growth of plants with Al-containing (+/+) or
Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...
Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van
Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM.
Renshaw, Domeena C.
Discusses the complexities of sexual avoidance, or Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD), a previously neglected aspect of a couple's relationship. Suggests that learning from a therapist to accept and enjoy other forms of sexual exchange can open up new horizons of physical and emotional intimacy. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)
... to-date information, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) website -- www.cdc.gov/zika . To prevent getting the Zika virus, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Sexual transmission of the virus can be prevented by using condoms ...
Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan
The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.
Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.
We examined attitudes towards spiders by employing an Approach-Avoidance Task, in which participants respond to pictures by pulling a joystick towards themselves or by pushing it away from themselves. For spider fearfuls, this stimulus–response assignment is either compatible (push spiders away) or
The efficacy of diets advocating extreme macronutrient manipulation has been reviewed extensively. Studies involving participation for 12 months or longer revealed that diet adherence, length of intervention and level of calorie. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity. Maria Elizabeth Catsicas.
Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…
Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both
Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)
A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.
Andersen, Martin Marchman
In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about...
Stuyt, Floran H.A.; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry .J.A.
The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm
Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E
around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...
Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry
Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…
Zhou, Zhuping; Cai, Yifei; Ke, Ruimin; Yang, Jiwei
Grouping is a common phenomenon in pedestrian crowds and group modeling is still an open challenging problem. When grouping pedestrians avoid each other, different patterns can be observed. Pedestrians can keep close with group members and avoid other groups in cluster. Also, they can avoid other groups separately. Considering this randomness in avoidance patterns, we propose a collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups. In our model, the avoidance model is proposed based on velocity obstacle method at first. Then grouping model is established using Distance constrained line (DCL), by transforming DCL into the framework of velocity obstacle, the avoidance model and grouping model are successfully put into one unified calculation structure. Within this structure, an algorithm is developed to solve the problem when solutions of the two models conflict with each other. Two groups of bidirectional pedestrian experiments are designed to verify the model. The accuracy of avoidance behavior and grouping behavior is validated in the microscopic level, while the lane formation phenomenon and fundamental diagrams is validated in the macroscopic level. The experiments results show our model is convincing and has a good expansibility to describe three or more pedestrian groups.
Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.
Neufeld, Maria; Rehm, Jürgen
Consumption of unrecorded alcohol (alcohol that is not taxed and reflected in official statistics, but consumed as a beverage) has been identified as one of the main contributors to alcohol-attributable premature mortality in Russia. The problem was highlighted by a recent a mass poisoning with surrogate alcohol occurred in the Siberian city of Irkutsk. Based on key publications and legislative documents, a narrative review was undertaken about alcohol-related harm reduction policies in Russia for the period between 2005 and 2017, as well as the impact of these policies on the recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption and alcohol market. Various policy measures mainly targeting availability and price of recorded and unrecorded alcohol have been introduced since 2005, which generally coincided with the decreases in alcohol-related mortality observed at that time. However, regulations on medicinal and cosmetic products have remained inconsistent providing the foundations for the continued existence of a legal industry of surrogates with broad availability and misuse. The Russian experiences of introducing alcohol policies demonstrate that there are effective measures to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption and attributable harm. The government's multi-level strategy of alcohol consumption and harm reduction should be pursued stringently and all the possible loop-holes for producers, sellers and distributors of illegal and/or unrecorded alcohol should be eliminated or at least critically reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Impett, Emily A; Gere, Judith; Kogan, Aleksandr; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher
This study investigated how sacrificing for approach versus avoidance goals shapes the giver's and the recipient's emotions and relationship quality. A sample of 80 dating couples participated in a three-part study in which they discussed sacrifice in the laboratory (Part 1), reported on their daily sacrifices for 14 days (Part 2), and completed a follow-up survey 3 months later (Part 3). When partners discussed a sacrifice they had made for approach goals, they experienced greater relationship quality, whereas when they discussed a sacrifice they had made for avoidance goals, they experienced poorer relationship quality. These effects were replicated with outside observer reports. On days when partners sacrificed for approach goals, both partners experienced increased relationship quality, but on days when people sacrificed for avoidance goals, the giver experienced decreased relationship quality. These effects were mediated by positive and negative emotions, respectively. Approach sacrifice goals predicted increases in relationship quality and avoidance sacrifice goals predicted decreases in relationship quality, as reported by both partners 3 months later. Sacrifice per se does not help or harm relationships, but the goals that people pursue when they give up their own interests can critically shape the quality of intimate bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kunneman, Marleen; Pieterse, Arwen H.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.
Background and purpose: We previously found considerable variation in information provision on preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) in rectal cancer. Our aims were to reach consensus among patients and oncologists on which benefits/harms of PRT should be addressed during the consultation, and to assess congruence with daily clinical practice. Materials and methods: A four-round Delphi-study was conducted with two expert panels: (1) 31 treated rectal cancer patients and (2) 35 radiation oncologists. Thirty-seven possible benefits/harms were shown. Participants indicated whether addressing the benefit/harm was (1) essential, (2) desired, (3) not necessary, or (4) to be avoided. Consensus was assumed when ⩾80% of the panel agreed. Results were compared to 81 audio-taped consultations. Results: The panels reached consensus that six topics should be addressed in all patients (local control, survival, long term altered defecation pattern and faecal incontinence, perineal wound healing problems, advice to avoid pregnancy), three in male patients (erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, infertility), and four in female patients (vaginal dryness, pain during intercourse, menopause, infertility). On average, less than half of these topics were addressed in daily clinical practice. Conclusions: This study showed substantial overlap between benefits/harms that patients and oncologists consider important to address during the consultation, and at the same time poor congruence with daily clinical practice
Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat
Why should organisms incur a cost in order to inflict a (usually greater) cost on others? Such costly harming behavior may be favored when competition for resources occurs locally, because it increases individuals' fitness relative to close competitors. However, there is no explicit experimental...... evidence supporting the prediction that people are more willing to harm others under local versus global competition. We illustrate this prediction with a game theoretic model, and then test it in a series of economic games. In these experiments, players could spend money to make others lose more. We...... manipulated the scale of competition by awarding cash prizes to the players with the highest payoffs per set of social partners (local competition) or in all the participants in a session (global competition). We found that, as predicted, people were more harmful to others when competition was local (study 1...
Wolff, Hans; Casillas, Alejandra; Perneger, Thomas; Heller, Patrick; Golay, Diane; Mouton, Elisabeth; Bodenmann, Patrick; Getaz, Laurent
Prison institutional conditions affect risk for self-harm among detainees. In particular, prison overcrowding may increase the likelihood of self-harm by creating competition for resources, space, and enhancing a "deprivation state." The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between overcrowding and prisoner acts of self-harm. This cross-sectional study took place at Geneva's pre-trial prison (capacity:376) between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes were acts of self-harm that required medical attention, and self-strangulation/hanging events (combined into one group, as these are difficult to differentiate). Dichotomous predictors were overcrowding index- annual mean daily population divided by capacity ( > 200 percent vs prison change in gender, area of origin, foreign residency, religion, or psychiatric treatment. The present study is limited by the definition and identification of self-harm. The distinction between self-strangulation and self-hanging, and the precise classification of an intent to die is difficult to make in practice, especially with limited prison data records available. The relevant literature addresses the complexity of the association between non-suicidal and suicidal behavior. Despite this, the combined category self-strangulations/hangings gives some indication of severe self-harm events, especially since the methodology of categorization employed was consistent throughout the entire period of the study. Other limitations include the small sample size and the lack of individual patient data and prison data to help control for confounding factors. Despite these drawbacks, pertinent data (socio-demographics and number of prisoners treated for mental health and drug abuse) remained stable over the years. Thus, there are no apparent changes in the inmate population that could be linked to an increase in self-harm. High-security placements and mean prisoner stay have increased over time, with a decrease in staff to prisoner ratio - and these
Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Ruberto, Amedeo; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Tatarelli, Roberto
Staff in the emergency departments of hospitals are reported as being negative or ambivalent toward suicidal or self-harming individuals. According to the literature, these patients are subjected to stigmatization and lack of empathy. This phenomenon has been linked to a decreased quality of care offered to these individuals and to missing an important opportunity to prevent further suicidal behavior or repetition of deliberate self-harm. Also, protocols, proper guidelines and education for the emergency staff call for a revision and an implementation. In this paper, evidence suggesting staff attitudes toward suicidal and self-harming patients is reviewed. An overview of related issues such as clinical judgment, the use of scales and nurses' role is also included in this report.
Full Text Available The process of globalisation has led, among other things, to harmful tax competition. This paper considers the efforts within the EU in combating harmful tax competition (Code of Conduct on Business Taxation and their effects when taking into account the EU regulations in relation to state aids. Considering a number of problems in the implementation of the Code, and the numerous criticisms with regard to the validity of the combat against harmful tax competition – it is difficult to give a final answer about its success. Croatian tax system, and the corporation tax in particular, are analysed in the light of the aforementioned problems. The advantages of the equal treatment of domestic and foreign investors, as well as the certain elements of state aids in tax benefits, are pointed out.
Doping in sport is a widespread problem not just among elite athletes, but even more so in recreational sports. In scientific literature, major emphasis is placed on doping detection, whereas detrimental effects of doping agents on athletes' health are seldom discussed. Androgenic anabolic steroids are well known for their positive effects on muscle mass and strength. Human growth hormone also increases muscle mass, although the majority of that is an increase in extracellular fluid and not the functional muscle mass. In recreational athletes, growth hormone does not have major effect on muscle strength, power or aerobic capacity, but stimulates anaerobic exercise capacity. Erythropoietin administration increases oxygen-carrying capacity of blood improving endurance measures, whereas systemic administration of beta-adrenergic agonists may have positive effect on sprint capacity, and beta-adrenergic antagonists reduce muscle tremor. Thus, there are certain drugs that can improve selective aspects of physical performance. However, most of the doping agents exert serious side-effects, especially when used in combination, at high doses and for a long duration. The extent of long-term health consequences is difficult to predict, but likely to be substantial, especially when gene doping is considered. This review summarises the main groups of doping agents used by athletes, with the main focus on their effects on athletic performance and adverse effects. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
van de Plas, Afke; Slikkerveer, Mariëlle; Hoen, Saskia; Schrijnemakers, Rick; Driessen, Johanna; de Vries, Frank; van den Bemt, Patricia
In this controlled before-after study the effect of improvements, derived from Lean Six Sigma strategy, on parenteral medication administration errors and the potential risk of harm was determined. During baseline measurement, on control versus intervention ward, at least one administration error occurred in 14 (74%) and 6 (46%) administrations with potential risk of harm in 6 (32%) and 1 (8%) administrations. Most administration errors with high potential risk of harm occurred in bolus injections: 8 (57%) versus 2 (67%) bolus injections were injected too fast with a potential risk of harm in 6 (43%) and 1 (33%) bolus injections on control and intervention ward. Implemented improvement strategies, based on major causes of too fast administration of bolus injections, were: Substitution of bolus injections by infusions, education, availability of administration information and drug round tabards. Post intervention, on the control ward in 76 (76%) administrations at least one error was made (RR 1.03; CI95:0.77-1.38), with a potential risk of harm in 14 (14%) administrations (RR 0.45; CI95:0.20-1.02). In 40 (68%) administrations on the intervention ward at least one error occurred (RR 1.47; CI95:0.80-2.71) but no administrations were associated with a potential risk of harm. A shift in wrong duration administration errors from bolus injections to infusions, with a reduction of potential risk of harm, seems to have occurred on the intervention ward. Although data are insufficient to prove an effect, Lean Six Sigma was experienced as a suitable strategy to select tailored improvements. Further studies are required to prove the effect of the strategy on parenteral medication administration errors.
Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Weng, Jo-Hao; Talbot, Prue
This study evaluated the hypothesis that smoke from harm reduction cigarettes impedes attachment and proliferation of H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Smoke from three harm reduction brands was compared with smoke from a conventional brand. Doses of smoke were measured in puff equivalents (PE) (1 PE = the amount of smoke in one puff that dissolves in 1 ml of medium). Cytotoxic doses were determined using morphological criteria and trypan blue staining, and apoptosis was confirmed using Magic Red staining. Attachment and proliferation of hESC were followed at a noncytotoxic dose in time-lapse videos collected using BioStation technology. Data were mined from videos either manually or using video bioinformatics subroutines developed with CL-Quant software. Mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke from conventional and harm reduction cigarettes induced apoptosis in hESC colonies at 1 PE. At 0.1 PE (noncytotoxic), SS smoke from all brands inhibited attachment of hESC colonies to Matrigel with the strongest inhibition occurring in harm reduction brands. At 0.1 PE, SS smoke, but not MS smoke, from all brands inhibited hESC growth, and two harm reduction brands were more potent than the conventional brand. In general, hESC appeared more sensitive to smoke than their mouse ESC counterparts. Although harm reduction cigarettes are often marketed as safer than conventional brands, our assays show that SS smoke from harm reduction cigarettes was at least as potent or in some cases more potent than smoke from a conventional brand and that SS smoke was more inhibitory than MS smoke in all assays.
Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius
Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to investigate household disposal practices and harm resulting from SMW generated in households and the community. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 600 households was undertaken in Ga South Municipal Assembly in Accra, Ghana from mid-April to June, 2014. Factors investigated included socio-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins respectively. A corresponding 23% and 35% of respondents discarded these items without a container. Harm from SMW in the household and in the community was reported by 5% and 3% of respondents respectively. Persons who believed they were at risk of diseases associated with SMW were nearly three times more likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring on it hazardous properties. Given the low rates of harm reported, elimination of preventable harm might justify community intervention.
Emilia Asuquo Udofia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid medical waste (SMW in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to investigate household disposal practices and harm resulting from SMW generated in households and the community. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 600 households was undertaken in Ga South Municipal Assembly in Accra, Ghana from mid-April to June, 2014. Factors investigated included socio-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. Results Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins respectively. A corresponding 23% and 35% of respondents discarded these items without a container. Harm from SMW in the household and in the community was reported by 5% and 3% of respondents respectively. Persons who believed they were at risk of diseases associated with SMW were nearly three times more likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15–6.54. Conclusion The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring on it hazardous properties. Given the low rates of harm reported, elimination of preventable harm might justify community
Jørgensen, K J; Brodersen, J; Hartling, O J
women is seriously biased in favour of participation. Women are not informed about the major harms of screening, and the decision to attend has already been made for them by a public authority. This short-circuits informed decision-making and the legislation on informed consent, and violates...... the autonomy of the women. Screening invitations must present both benefits and harms in a balanced fashion, and should offer, not encourage, participation. It should be stated clearly that the choice not to participate is as sensible as the choice to do so. To allow this to happen, the responsibility...
King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a proposed condition that refers to persistent gaming leading to clinically significant impairment. However, there have been few attempts to study the different types and degrees of harm caused by IGD. This commentary describes some of the negative intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of an extreme time investment in gaming activities in the context of IGD. Future research should examine the way in which IGD harms may occur at different levels and degrees. This may enhance the screening of individuals whose behavior is suspected to meet the definition of the proposed IGD criteria.
Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia
Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.
Medical science can determine the effects and consequences of thirst and hunger during the month of Ramadan. In the religious perspective, it has been emphasized that fasting is for achieving the divine virtue, and this shouldn’t be in conflict with maintaining man’s health. Therefore, the conditions in which there is the probability of harmfulness to man’s health due to fasting, man shouldn’t fast. As a result, medical science could recognize the conditions in which there is probable harmfulness to man’s health.
Signal, Tania; Taylor, Nik; Burke, Karena J; Brownlow, Luke
Although the role of companion animals within the dynamic of domestic violence (DV) is increasingly recognized, the overlap of animal harm and insurance discrimination for victims/survivors of DV has not been considered. Prompted by a case study presented in a National Link Coalition LINK-Letter, this research note examines "Pet Insurance" policies available in Australia and whether nonaccidental injury caused by an intimate partner would be covered. We discuss the implications of exclusion criteria for victims/survivors of DV, shelters providing places for animals within a DV dynamic, and, more broadly, for cross- or mandatory-reporting (of animal harm) initiatives.
Mesri, Bita; Niles, Andrea N; Pittig, Andre; LeBeau, Richard T; Haik, Ethan; Craske, Michelle G
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have both garnered empirical support for the effective treatment of social anxiety disorder. However, not every patient benefits equally from either treatment. Identifying moderators of treatment outcome can help to better understand which treatment is best suited for a particular patient. Forty-nine individuals who met criteria for social anxiety disorder were assessed as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing 12 weeks of CBT and ACT. Pre-treatment avoidance of social situations (measured via a public speaking task and clinician rating) was investigated as a moderator of post-treatment, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up social anxiety symptoms, stress reactivity, and quality of life. Public speaking avoidance was found to be a robust moderator of outcome measures, with more avoidant individuals generally benefitting more from CBT than ACT by 12-month follow-up. In contrast, clinician-rated social avoidance was not found to be a significant moderator of any outcome measure. Results were found only at 12-month follow-up. More comprehensive measures of avoidance would be useful for the field moving forward. Findings inform personalized medicine, suggesting that social avoidance measured behaviorally via a public speaking task may be a more robust factor in treatment prescription compared to clinician-rated social avoidance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Glendenning, Alexander Charles; Marchant, Amanda; Montgomery, Paul; Stewart, Anne; Wood, Sophie; Lloyd, Keith; Hawton, Keith
Background Given the concerns about bullying via electronic communication in children and young people and its possible contribution to self-harm, we have reviewed the evidence for associations between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors (such as suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts) in children and young people. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review the current evidence examining the association between cyberbullying involvement as victim or perpetrator and self-harm and suicidal behaviors in children and young people (younger than 25 years), and where possible, to meta-analyze data on the associations. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted for all studies published between January 1, 1996, and February 3, 2017, across sources, including MEDLINE, Cochrane, and PsycINFO. Articles were included if the study examined any association between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors and reported empirical data in a sample aged under 25 years. Quality of included papers was assessed and data were extracted. Meta-analyses of data were conducted. Results A total of 33 eligible articles from 26 independent studies were included, covering a population of 156,384 children and young people. A total of 25 articles (20 independent studies, n=115,056) identified associations (negative influences) between cybervictimization and self-harm or suicidal behaviors or between perpetrating cyberbullying and suicidal behaviors. Three additional studies, in which the cyberbullying, self-harm, or suicidal behaviors measures had been combined with other measures (such as traditional bullying and mental health problems), also showed negative influences (n=44,526). A total of 5 studies showed no significant associations (n=5646). Meta-analyses, producing odds ratios (ORs) as a summary measure of effect size (eg, ratio of the odds of cyber victims who have experienced SH vs nonvictims who
John, Ann; Glendenning, Alexander Charles; Marchant, Amanda; Montgomery, Paul; Stewart, Anne; Wood, Sophie; Lloyd, Keith; Hawton, Keith
Given the concerns about bullying via electronic communication in children and young people and its possible contribution to self-harm, we have reviewed the evidence for associations between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors (such as suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts) in children and young people. The aim of this study was to systematically review the current evidence examining the association between cyberbullying involvement as victim or perpetrator and self-harm and suicidal behaviors in children and young people (younger than 25 years), and where possible, to meta-analyze data on the associations. An electronic literature search was conducted for all studies published between January 1, 1996, and February 3, 2017, across sources, including MEDLINE, Cochrane, and PsycINFO. Articles were included if the study examined any association between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors and reported empirical data in a sample aged under 25 years. Quality of included papers was assessed and data were extracted. Meta-analyses of data were conducted. A total of 33 eligible articles from 26 independent studies were included, covering a population of 156,384 children and young people. A total of 25 articles (20 independent studies, n=115,056) identified associations (negative influences) between cybervictimization and self-harm or suicidal behaviors or between perpetrating cyberbullying and suicidal behaviors. Three additional studies, in which the cyberbullying, self-harm, or suicidal behaviors measures had been combined with other measures (such as traditional bullying and mental health problems), also showed negative influences (n=44,526). A total of 5 studies showed no significant associations (n=5646). Meta-analyses, producing odds ratios (ORs) as a summary measure of effect size (eg, ratio of the odds of cyber victims who have experienced SH vs nonvictims who have experienced SH), showed that
Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Whitley, Elise; Lewsey, Jim; Gray, Linsay; Leyland, Alastair H
Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors. The Scottish Health Surveys are record-linked cross-sectional surveys representative of the adult population of Scotland. We obtained baseline demographics and data for alcohol consumption (units per week and binge drinking) from Scottish Health Surveys done in 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. We matched these data to records for deaths, admissions, and prescriptions. The primary outcome was alcohol-attributable admission or death. The relation between alcohol-attributable harm and socioeconomic status was investigated for four measures (education level, social class, household income, and area-based deprivation) using Cox proportional hazards models. The potential for alcohol consumption and other risk factors (including smoking and body-mass index [BMI]) mediating social patterning was explored in separate regression models. Reverse causation was tested by comparing change in area deprivation over time. 50 236 participants (21 777 men and 28 459 women) were included in the analytical sample, with 429 986 person-years of follow-up. Low socioeconomic status was associated consistently with strikingly raised alcohol-attributable harms, including after adjustment for weekly consumption, binge drinking, BMI, and smoking. Evidence was noted of effect modification; for example, relative to light drinkers living in
Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas
The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.
Freeman, Todd I
Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.
Weinbrecht, Anna; Schulze, Lars; Boettcher, Johanna; Renneberg, Babette
This review focuses on recent research on diagnostic aspects, etiology, and treatment of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Current studies stress the close relation between AVPD and social anxiety disorder, the influence of genetic factors in the development of AVPD, and the relative stability of symptoms. Treatment approaches should target the pervasive patterns of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Empirical evidence for cognitive-behavior and schema therapy is promising. Few other therapeutic approaches have been developed, but until now, these have only been investigated in case studies. We conclude that AVPD qualifies as a neglected disorder and that more research specifically on avoidant personality disorder symptoms and its treatment is needed.
Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.
There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute. The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science. The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...
Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard
Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.
Hallford, D J; Austin, D W; Raes, F; Takano, K
Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to the failure to recall memories of specific personally experienced events, which occurs in various psychiatric disorders. One pathway through which OGM is theorized to develop is the avoidance of thinking of negative experiences, whereby cumulative avoidance may maladaptively generalize to autobiographical memory (AM) more broadly. We tested this, predicting that negative experiences would interact with avoidance to predict AM specificity. In Study 1 (N = 281), negative life events (over six months) and daily hassles (over one month) were not related to AM specificity, nor was avoidance, and no interaction was found. In Study 2 (N = 318), we revised our measurements and used an increased timeframe of 12 months for both negative life events and daily hassles. The results showed no interaction effect for negative life events, but they did show an interaction for daily hassles, whereby increased hassles and higher avoidance of thinking about them were associated with reduced AM specificity, independent of general cognitive avoidance and depressive symptoms. No evidence was found that cognitive avoidance or AM specificity moderated the effect of negative experiences on depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that life events over 6-12 months are not associated with AM specificity, but chronic daily hassles over 12 months predict reduced AM specificity when individuals avoid thinking about them. The findings provide evidence for the functional-avoidance hypothesis of OGM development and future directions for longitudinal studies.
Rees, Joanna; Langdon, Peter E
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between depression, hopelessness, problem-solving ability and self-harming behaviours amongst people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Thirty-six people with mild IDs (77.9% women, Mage = 31.77, SD = 10.73, MIQ = 62.65, SD = 5.74) who had a history of self-harm were recruited. Participants were asked to complete measures of depression, hopelessness and problem-solving ability. Cutting was most frequently observed, and depression was prevalent amongst the sample. There was a significant positive relationship between depression and hopelessness, while there was no significant relationship between self-harm and depression or hopelessness. Problem-solving ability explained 15% of the variance in self-harm scores. Problem-solving ability appears to be associated with self-harming behaviours in people with mild IDs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
James, Karen; Samuels, Isaac; Moran, Paul; Stewart, Duncan
Harm reduction has had positive outcomes for people using sexual health and substance misuse services. Clinical guidance recommends these approaches may be appropriately adopted by mental health practitioners when managing some people who self-harm. There has, however, been very little research in this area. We explored practitioners' views of harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm. The Self Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS) was administered to a random sample of 395 mental health practitioners working on 31 wards in England, semi-structured interviews were then conducted with 18 survey respondents. Practitioners who had implemented the approach reported positive outcomes including a reduction in incidence and severity of self-harm and a perceived increase in empowerment of service users. Practitioners with no experience of using harm reduction were concerned that self-harm would increase in severity, and were unsure how to assess and manage risk in people under a harm reduction care plan. Some fundamentally disagreed with the principle of harm reduction for self-harm because it challenged their core beliefs about the morality of self-harm, or the ethical and potential legal ramifications of allowing individuals to harm themselves. This study was conducted solely with practitioners working on inpatient units. The majority of staff interviewed had no experience of harm reduction and so their concerns may not reflect challenges encountered by practitioners in clinical practice. Harm reduction is being used to support people who self-harm within inpatient psychiatry and some practitioners report potential benefits of this approach. However, this raises particularly complex practical, ethical and legal issues and further research is needed to assess the safety, acceptability and efficacy of the approach. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Uziel, Guy; El-Yaniv, Ran
We present a novel online ensemble learning strategy for portfolio selection. The new strategy controls and exploits any set of commission-oblivious portfolio selection algorithms. The strategy handles transaction costs using a novel commission avoidance mechanism. We prove a logarithmic regret bound for our strategy with respect to optimal mixtures of the base algorithms. Numerical examples validate the viability of our method and show significant improvement over the state-of-the-art.
GUY A. FRENCH JOSEPH C. PRICE, MAJ, USAF Work Unit Manager Acting Chief, Supervisory Control and Cognition Branch Supervisory Control and Cognition...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON (Monitor) a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Guy French 19b. TELEPHONE...the ability to detect and safely avoid other aircraft in flight ( Cook & Davis, 2013). In order to increase UAS flight safety and support UAS
the top of a flight of stairs selects for climbing ; suspending the robot and the target object above the ground and creating rungs between the two will...REPORT Avoiding Local Optimawith Interactive Evolutionary Robotics 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The main bottleneck in evolutionary... robotics has traditionally been the time required to evolve robot controllers. However with the continued acceleration in computational resources, the
The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...
Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi
The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of