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Sample records for meal size increased

  1. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Karin E; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-08-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 36 lean, healthy men to a 40% hypercaloric diet for 6 weeks or a eucaloric control diet and measured intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), abdominal fat using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with a glucose isotope tracer before and after the diet intervention. The caloric surplus consisted of fat and sugar (high-fat-high-sugar; HFHS) or sugar only (high-sugar; HS) and was consumed together with, or between, the three main meals, thereby increasing meal size or meal frequency. All hypercaloric diets similarly increased body mass index (BMI). Increasing meal frequency significantly increased IHTG (HFHS mean relative increase of 45%; P = 0.016 and HS mean relative increase of 110%; P = 0.047), whereas increasing meal size did not (2-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] size versus frequency P = 0.03). Abdominal fat increased in the HFHS-frequency group (+63.3 ± 42.8 mL; P = 0.004) and tended to increase in the HS-frequency group (+46.5 ± 50.7 mL; P = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease in the HFHS-frequency group while peripheral insulin sensitivity was not affected. A hypercaloric diet with high meal frequency increased IHTG and abdominal fat independent of caloric content and body weight gain, whereas increasing meal size did not. This study suggests that snacking, a common feature in the Western diet, independently contributes to hepatic steatosis and obesity. ( www

  2. Incretin and islet hormone responses to meals of increasing size in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalim, Wathik; Omar, Bilal; Pacini, Giovanni; Bizzotto, Roberto; Mari, Andrea; Ahrén, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Postprandial glucose homeostasis is regulated through the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) through the stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion. However, how these processes dynamically adapt to demands created by caloric challenges achieved during daily life is not known. The objective of the study was to explore the adaptation of incretin and islet hormones after mixed meals of increasing size in healthy subjects. Twenty-four healthy lean subjects ingested a standard breakfast after an overnight fast followed, after 4 hours, by a lunch of a different size (511, 743, and 1034 kcal) but with identical nutrient composition together with 1.5 g paracetamol. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, intact GLP-1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and paracetamol were measured after the meals. Area under the 180-minute curve (AUC) for insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP and model-derived β-cell function and paracetamol appearance were calculated. Glucose profiles were similar after the two larger meals, whereas after the smaller meal, there was a postpeak reduction below baseline to a nadir of 3.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L after 75 minutes (P lunch meals of increasing size elicit a caloric-dependent insulin response due to increased β-cell secretion achieved by increased GIP and GLP-1 levels. The adaptation at larger meals results in identical glucose excursions, whereas after a lower caloric lunch, the insulin response is high, resulting in a postpeak suppression of glucose below baseline.

  3. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Karin E.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2014-01-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to

  4. Texture-Based Differences in Eating Rate Reduce the Impact of Increased Energy Density and Large Portions on Meal Size in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, Keri; Lim, Charlotte Mh; Leong, Claudia; Chia, Edwin M; Forde, Ciaran G

    2017-06-01

    Background: Large portions and high dietary energy density promote overconsumption at meal times. This could be reduced by eating slowly. Objective: Two studies investigated whether texture-based reductions in eating rate and oral processing moderate consumption at breakfast in combination with variations in energy density and portion size. Methods: Adults attended 4 breakfast sessions (2 × 2 repeated-measures design) to consume rice porridge, combining a 45% reduction in eating rate [thin porridge (140 g/min) compared with thick porridge (77 g/min)] with a 77% increase in energy density (0.57 compared with 1.01 kcal/g) in study 1 [ n = 61; aged 21-48 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 16-29] and a 50% increase in portion size (100% compared with 150%) in study 2 ( n = 53; aged 21-42 y; BMI: 16-29). Oral processing behaviors were coded by using webcams. Porridge intake was measured alongside changes in rated appetite. Results: Increases in energy density and portion size led to increases of 80% and 13% in energy intake at breakfast, respectively ( P portion size increased the weight of food consumed (13%). The thicker porridges were consumed at a slower rate and led to 11-13% reductions in food weight and energy intake compared with the thin versions ( P portion ( P portions, and natural variations in food texture to design meals that promote reductions in energy intake while maintaining satiety. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Aversion learning can reduce meal size without taste avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Schurdak, Jennifer D; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C

    2016-03-01

    Nausea and aversive food responses are commonly reported following bariatric surgery, along with post-surgical reduction in meal size. This study investigates whether a meal size limit can be conditioned by associating large meals with aversive outcomes. In rats, the intake of meals exceeding a pre-defined size threshold was paired with lithium chloride-induced gastric illness, and the effects on self-determined food intakes and body weight were measured. Rats given LiCl contingent on the intake of a large meal learned to reliably reduce intake below this meal size threshold, while post-meal saline or LiCl before meals did not change meal size. It was further demonstrated that this is not a conditioned taste aversion and that this effect transferred to foods not explicitly trained. Finally, when rats received LiCl following all large meals, the number of small meals increased, but total food intake and body weight decreased. While further work is needed, this is the first demonstration that meal size may be conditioned, using an aversion procedure, to remain under a target threshold and that this effect is distinct from taste avoidance. Corresponding reduction in food intake and body weight suggests that this phenomenon may have implications for developing weight loss strategies and understanding the efficacy of bariatric surgery. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

    2013-11-01

    Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal

  7. The effect of meal size on gastric evacuation in whiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1998-01-01

    Gastric evacuation experiments were performed on whiting Merlangius merlangus fed discrete meals of different sizes. Herring Clupea harengus, sandeel Ammodytes tobianus, common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and brown shrimp Crangon crangon were tested as prey. A simple power model to describe...

  8. Mind over platter: pre-meal planning and the control of meal size in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, J M

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that meal size is governed by psychological and physiological processes that generate fullness towards the end of a meal. However, observations of natural eating behaviour suggest that this preoccupation with within-meal events may be misplaced and that the role of immediate post-ingestive feedback (for example, gastric stretch) has been overstated. This review considers the proposition that the locus of control is more likely to be expressed in decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Consistent with this idea, we have discovered that people are extremely adept at estimating the 'expected satiety' and 'expected satiation' of different foods. These expectations are learned over time and they are highly correlated with the number of calories that end up on our plate. Indeed, across a range of foods, the large variation in expected satiety/satiation may be a more important determinant of meal size than relatively subtle differences in palatability. Building on related advances, it would also appear that memory for portion size has an important role in generating satiety after a meal has been consumed. Together, these findings expose the importance of planning and episodic memory in the control of appetite and food intake in humans.

  9. Dehydration-Anorexia Derives From A Reduction In Meal Size, But Not Meal Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina N.; Lorenzen, Sarah M.; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, make dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable. PMID:21854794

  10. Effect of meal size and frequency on postprandial thermogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Diamond, P

    1986-02-01

    The influence of meal size and frequency on postprandial thermogenesis was studied in nine mongrel dogs (congruent to 18 kg). Oxygen uptake (VO2) and respiratory quotient (R) were continuously monitored by indirect calorimetry during the following experiments. In expt 1, four dogs were fed on alternated days either a large (3.1 MJ) or small meal (0.77 MJ). In expt 2, five different dogs were fed on alternated days either one large meal (3.1 MJ) or four consecutive small meals (0.77 MJ) spaced at 1.5-h intervals. In expt 3, the four dogs of expt 1 after being sham fed 3 times at 1.5-h intervals were given one large meal (3.1 MJ). The VO2 increase during the initial or cephalic phase (congruent to 50 min) was independent of the meal size but it was directly proportional to the amount of food ingested during the digestive phase. The total thermogenic response to four small meals (125 g) fed at 1.5-h intervals was twice as large as that of one large meal (500 g). One large meal (500 g) preceded by three periods of sham feeding was also found to be more thermogenic than a large meal only. For all experiments the changes in R were seen to parallel the postprandial fluctuations in VO2. These findings indicate that the enhanced heat production obtained when meal frequency is increased is caused by the repeated sensory stimulation produced by palatable food.

  11. Variety within a cooked meal increases meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-12-01

    Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. We investigated if an increased variety of foods within a cooked meal results in a higher meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite. This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial among 19 older (>65 years) women with a poor appetite. Two cooked meals of similar weight and energy density (except starch) were served under standardized conditions on two weekdays: a test meal consisting of three different varieties of vegetables, meat or fish, and starch components, and a control meal without variety. Participants ate ad libitum and the actual consumed amounts and their nutritional content were calculated. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models. Average intake in energy was 427 kcal (SD 119) for the test meal with variety and 341 kcal (SD 115) for the control meal without variety. This resulted in a statistically significant (for period effects adjusted) mean difference of 79 kcal (95% CI = 25-134). Total meal intake in grams was also higher for the test meal with variety (48 g, 95% CI = 1-97) but protein intake (g) was not (3.7 g, 95% CI = -1.4 to 8.8). This was consistent for all meal components except starch and within each component three varieties were consumed equally. The results of the present study suggest that increasing meal variety may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in older adults with a poor appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-21

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  13. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ferriday

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12 attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i video-recordings of the mouth and (ii real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24 consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert. When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  14. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns food preference locomotor activity and

  15. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect. To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance, we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns, food preference, locomotor activity

  16. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-01-01

    An audit of ‘standard’ (STD) and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy)-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein. PMID:29461476

  17. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by 'Meals on Wheels' South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-02-20

    An audit of 'standard' (STD) and 'energy and protein fortified' (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia's summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia's kitchen and delivered to three 'sham(dummy)-clients' over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21-39% for energy and 42-63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29-55% for energy and 46-69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  18. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Arjuna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An audit of ‘standard’ (STD and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia. On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  19. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Syrad, Hayley; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Johnson, Laura; Boniface, David; Jebb, Susan A.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939 children aged 21 months from the Gemini twin cohort, we assessed prospective associations between meal size, meal frequency and weight gain from two to five years. Separate longitudinal analyses demo...

  20. Response of bread wheat to increasing mustard meal nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greenhouse experiment on the nitrogen uptake from the mustard meal using 15N showed significant difference on both soil types. On the Vertisol the per cent nitrogen derived from the meal and per cent nitrogen use efficiency varied from 18 to 40 and from 18 to 62%, respectively. On the Nitosol, these values varied from 25 ...

  1. Dietary standards for school catering in France: serving moderate quantities to improve dietary quality without increasing the food-related cost of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Dubois, Christophe; Allegre, Laëtitia; Mandon, Lionel; Ciantar, Laurent; Darmon, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    To assess the impact on food-related cost of meals to fulfill the new compulsory dietary standards for primary schools in France. A descriptive study assessed the relationship between the level of compliance with the standards of observed school meals and their food-related cost. An analytical study assessed the cost of series of meals published in professional journals, and complying or not with new dietary standards. The costs were based on prices actually paid for food used to prepare school meals. Food-related cost of meals. Parametric and nonparametric tests from a total of 42 and 120 series of 20 meals in the analytical and descriptive studies, respectively. The descriptive study indicated that meeting the standards was not related to cost. The analytical study showed that fulfilling the frequency guidelines increased the cost, whereas fulfilling the portion sizes criteria decreased it. Series of meals fully respecting the standards (ie, frequency and portion sizes) cost significantly less (-0.10 €/meal) than series not fulfilling them, because the standards recommend smaller portion sizes. Introducing portion sizes rules in dietary standards for school catering may help increase dietary quality without increasing the food cost of meals. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Postprandial oxidative stress in response to dextrose and lipid meals of differing size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Kabir, Mohammad M; Marshall, Kate E; Canale, Robert E; Farney, Tyler M

    2010-07-27

    We have recently noted that ingestion of dietary lipid (in the form of heavy whipping cream) leads to greater oxidative stress than dietary carbohydrate (in the form of dextrose), when consumed in isocaloric amounts. In the present investigation we attempted to replicate our work and also to determine the oxidative stress response to dextrose and lipid meals of two different kilocalorie (kcal) amounts. Nine young (22 +/- 2 years), healthy men consumed in a random order, cross-over design one of four meals/drinks: dextrose at 75 g (300 kcals), dextrose at 150 g (600 kcals), lipid at 33 g (300 kcals), lipid at 66 g (600 kcals). Blood samples were collected Pre meal, and at 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, and 180 min post meal. Samples were assayed for glucose, triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each variable, and a 4 x 5 ANOVA was utilized to further analyze data. A meal x time effect (p = 0.0002) and a time effect was noted for glucose (p Pre, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr). The dextrose meals primarily contributed to this time effect. No other effects were noted for glucose (p > 0.05). A meal effect was noted for TAG (p = 0.01; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). No other effects were noted for TAG (p > 0.05). An AUC effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.04; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). A meal x time effect (p = 0.02) and a meal effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.004; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). No time effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.72). An AUC effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.0001; 66 g lipid meal > 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). A meal x time effect (p = 0.0002), a meal effect (p 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals), and a time effect was noted for H2O2 (p Pre, 30 min, and 1 hr; 3 hr > Pre). The time effect for H2O2 was primarily influenced by the 66 g lipid meal. These data indicate that 1) minimal oxidative

  3. Postprandial oxidative stress in response to dextrose and lipid meals of differing size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canale Robert E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have recently noted that ingestion of dietary lipid (in the form of heavy whipping cream leads to greater oxidative stress than dietary carbohydrate (in the form of dextrose, when consumed in isocaloric amounts. Objective In the present investigation we attempted to replicate our work and also to determine the oxidative stress response to dextrose and lipid meals of two different kilocalorie (kcal amounts. Design Nine young (22 ± 2 years, healthy men consumed in a random order, cross-over design one of four meals/drinks: dextrose at 75 g (300 kcals, dextrose at 150 g (600 kcals, lipid at 33 g (300 kcals, lipid at 66 g (600 kcals. Blood samples were collected Pre meal, and at 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, and 180 min post meal. Samples were assayed for glucose, triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each variable, and a 4 × 5 ANOVA was utilized to further analyze data. Results A meal × time effect (p = 0.0002 and a time effect was noted for glucose (p Pre, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr. The dextrose meals primarily contributed to this time effect. No other effects were noted for glucose (p > 0.05. A meal effect was noted for TAG (p = 0.01; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals. No other effects were noted for TAG (p > 0.05. An AUC effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.04; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals. A meal × time effect (p = 0.02 and a meal effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.004; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals. No time effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.72. An AUC effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.0001; 66 g lipid meal > 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals. A meal × time effect (p = 0.0002, a meal effect (p 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals, and a time effect was noted for H2O2 (p Pre, 30 min, and 1 hr; 3 hr > Pre. The time effect for H2O2 was primarily influenced by the 66 g lipid meal. Conclusions

  4. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  5. Meal portion sizes and their potential impacts on food waste: case study of school meals in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Castrica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available School catering services are characterized by a significant level of inefficiency regarding the food processed but not consumed during meals. This work analyses the meal supply in primary schools in Italy in order to highlight new areas of inefficiency upstream of the food chain. A lack of conformity of food portions with nutritional guidelines can potentially lead to a double negative externality: overweight children and food waste. Data were collected between April and June 2017 from the municipality website of each regional capital (RC of the 20 Italian regions. From the tendering process for primary school meal provision, data on the portions (in grams of the most representative food categories were extracted and classified. To evaluate the degree of homogeneity amongst different regions, the average, minimum and maximum values, standard deviations and relative standard deviations of each individual food category were estimated. To verify the adherence to nutritional recommendations, ANOVA was performed for multiple comparisons combined with Duncan's multiple range test, with significance set at a p value < 0.05. The specific benchmarks for the evaluation of meal portion sizes were calculated based on the National Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intake Levels. The results (table 1 show a great variability of food portions amongst the RCs analyzed. Food categories with highest relative standard deviations values were cooked and raw vegetables (0.29 and 0.35 respectively that indicate great levels of heterogeneity in food portions amongst Italian regions. Conversely, pasta and rice portions were more uniform (0.10 and 0.13, although on average above than the recommended portion. The only food categories characterized by a smaller mean portion than recommended are fish, raw vegetables and cooked vegetables. The educational role of eating at school can contribute to raising children's awareness about one of the most urgent environmental

  6. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Johnson, L.; Boniface, D.; Jebb, S.A.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939

  7. Obese and overweight individuals are less sensitive to information about meal times in portion size judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A R; Mason, A; Rogers, P J; Brunstrom, J M

    2017-11-16

    Obesity is related to a tendency to discount the future. Information regarding inter-meal interval (IMI) allows meal planning. We sought to assess how obese, overweight, and lean people select portion sizes based on the length of an IMI. We hypothesised that individuals with a high BMI would discount information about the IMI. In addition, we investigated how reduced sensitivity to IMIs relates to monetary temporal discounting. Participants (lean, n=35; overweight, n=31; obese, n=22), selected lunchtime portion sizes in response to information about the timings of their next meal. In seven trials, the time of the IMI was systematically manipulated, ranging from 'right now' to '8 h'. Participants then completed a monetary temporal discounting task. BMI was included as a continuous measure. For each participant, we conducted a linear regression of portion size on IMI to yield a gradient that reflected reduced sensitivity to future meal timings. As expected, participants selected larger portion sizes in response to a long IMI. Consistent with our hypothesis, individuals with a high BMI discounted information about the IMI (β=-3.49, P=0.015; confidence interval (CI) 6.29 to -0.70). Monetary discounting also negatively predicted BMI (β=-8.1, P=0.003; CI=-13.43 to -2.77), but did not correlate with IMI sensitivity (P>0.05). These results are the first to demonstrate that temporal discounting operates in planning from one meal to the next, and is more prevalent in obese and overweight, relative to lean individuals. Participants with a high BMI discounted concerns about potential future fullness and hunger in the IMI. Our observations might begin to explain associations between obesity and irregular meal timings or help to form the basis for a targeted intervention that promotes future thinking in meal planning.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.275.

  8. Some effects of temperature, meal size, and body weight on gastric evacuation time in the dab Limanda limanda (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobling, M; Gwyther, D; Grove, D J

    1977-03-01

    Gastric emptying time in the dab, Limanda limanda, has been studied using an X-ray technique. The addition of 25% barium sulphate to a test meal did not significantly affect the transit time. Lowering the experimental temperature from 16.4 to 8.5/sup 0/C markedly decreased gastric evacuation time. An increase in ration size led to an increase in the time required to empty the stomach and also to increase the amount of food digested per unit of time. For any given ration size, expressed as percent body weight, the larger the animal the longer is the time required for evacuation of that meal. We suggest that the food intake per day, as a percentage of live body weight, will be smaller for larger L. limanda in the wild.

  9. Energy saving cement production by grain size optimisation of the raw meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Simons

    Full Text Available The production of cement clinker is an energy consuming process. At about 50% of the energy is associated with grinding and milling of the raw meal, that normally is in the range 100% <200 μm with 90% <90 μm. Question: is it possible to use coarser components of the raw meal without reducing the clinker quality. With synthetic raw meals of various grain sizes the clinker formation was studied at static (1100 - 1450°C and dynamic conditions (heating microscope. A routine to adjust the grain size of the components for industrial raw meals is developed. The fine fraction <90 μm should mainly contain the siliceous and argileous components, whereas the calcitic component can be milled separately to a grain size between 200-500 μm, resulting in lower energy consumption for milling. Considering the technical and economical realizability the relation fine/coarse should be roughly 1:1. The energy for milling can be reduced significantly, that in addition leads to the preservation of natural energy resources.

  10. Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kohrt, Wendy M; Melanson, Edward L

    2013-02-01

    Consuming smaller, more frequent meals is often advocated as a means of controlling body weight, but studies demonstrating a mechanistic effect of this practice on factors associated with body weight regulation are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of consuming three (3M) vs. six meals (6M) per day on 24-h fat oxidation and subjective ratings of hunger. Lean (body mass index meal frequency from three to six per day has no significant effect on 24-h fat oxidation, but may increase hunger and the desire to eat. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  11. Workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support are predictors of availability of healthy meals in Danish worksite canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-11-01

    Environmental strategies at worksites may help consumers change dietary behaviour towards a more healthy diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the availability of healthy meal options at Danish worksite canteens and to identify predictors of worksite canteens providing healthy meals. A self-administered questionnaire was randomly mailed to 1967 worksite canteen managers. Besides information and characteristics about the canteen and the worksite, the canteen managers specified the menus available. Two different health groups (Healthy and Less Healthy) were defined in three different meal categories (Sandwiches, Hot meals and Salads) as well as a combined category (Combined) combining all the three meal categories. The characteristics of the worksites were compared with regard to the different health groups. Randomly selected Danish worksite canteens. 553 Danish worksite canteen managers replied, resulting in a response rate of 29 %. Only 12 % of the canteens applied to the Healthy group combining all the three meal categories. In particular, worksites with more than 75 % female employees served healthy menus on a frequent basis. The size of the worksite was positively correlated with more healthy meal options. Furthermore, the present study suggests a positive relationship between corporate financial support and the availability of healthy meal options. Among the selected variables studied, workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support were significant predictors of the availability of healthy meal options in worksite canteens. More research is needed on the role that variance in organisation environment plays for the potential of worksite intervention, to make a difference in terms of healthy eating.

  12. [Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-02-01

    To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. The study included 2,927 adults

  13. Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. CONCLUSIONS Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. PMID:24789639

  14. Variety within a cooked meal increases meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. OBJECTIVE: We investigated if an

  15. A sulfur amino acid-free meal increases plasma lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J; Lee, Kichun S; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R; Jones, Dean P

    2011-08-01

    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (18-36 y, 5 males and 3 females) were equilibrated for 3 d to adequate SAA, fed chemically defined meals without SAA for 5 d (depletion), and then fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous meals containing 56 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) SAA for 4.5 d (repletion). On the first and last day of consuming the chemically defined meals, a morning meal containing 60% of the daily food intake was given and plasma samples were collected over an 8-h postprandial time course for characterization of metabolic changes by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. SAA-free food increased peak intensity in the plasma (1)H-NMR spectra in the postprandial period. Orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed changes in signals associated with lipids, some amino acids, and lactate, with notable increases in plasma lipid signals (TG, unsaturated lipid, cholesterol). Conventional lipid analyses confirmed higher plasma TG and showed an increase in plasma concentration of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, apoC-III. The results show that plasma (1)H-NMR spectra can provide useful macronutrient profiling following a meal challenge protocol and that a single meal with imbalanced SAA content alters postprandial lipid metabolism.

  16. Effect of particle size distribution of maize and soybean meal on the precaecal amino acid digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, W; Ganzer, C; Kluth, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2018-02-01

    1. Herein, it was investigated whether different particle size distributions of feed ingredients achieved by grinding through a 2- or 3-mm grid would have an effect on precaecal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility. Maize and soybean meal were used as the test ingredients. 2. Maize and soybean meal was ground with grid sizes of 2 or 3 mm. Nine diets were prepared. The basal diet contained 500 g/kg of maize starch. The other experimental diets contained maize or soybean meal samples at concentrations of 250 and 500, and 150 and 300 g/kg, respectively, instead of maize starch. Each diet was tested using 6 replicate groups of 10 birds each. The regression approach was applied to calculate the pc AA digestibility of the test ingredients. 3. The reduction of the grid size from 3 to 2 mm reduced the average particle size of both maize and soybean meal, mainly by reducing the proportion of coarse particles. Reducing the grid size significantly (P digestibility of all AA in the soybean meal. In maize, reducing the grid size decreased the pc digestibility of all AA numerically, but not significantly (P > 0.050). The mean numerical differences in pc AA digestibility between the grid sizes were 0.045 and 0.055 in maize and soybean meal, respectively. 4. Future studies investigating the pc AA digestibility should specify the particle size distribution and should investigate the test ingredients ground similarly for practical applications.

  17. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery Robert W; Story Mary T; Oakes J Michael; French Simone A; Harnack Lisa J; Rydell Sarah A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conduc...

  18. Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C...... reduced APS by 48% in maize, 30% in SBM and 26% in maize–SBM. No interaction between screen size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation was observed, but the interaction between microbial phytase and incubation time was significant (P... of screen size and feed on microbial phytase efficacy on phytate degradation. The interaction between screen size and feed affected the relative phytate degradation rate (Rd) of microbial phytase as well as the time to decrease 50% of the phytate P (t) (P

  19. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  20. Meal ingestion markedly increases liver stiffness suggesting the need for liver stiffness determination in fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Daniel; Orozco, Federico; Mella, José María; Anders, Maria; Antinucci, Florencia; Mastai, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of noninvasive liver stiffness (LS) determination has heralded a new stage in the diagnosis and treatment of liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of food intake on LS in patients with different degrees of liver disease. We evaluated 24 patients (F≤1, n=11 and F> 1, n=13). LS (Fibroscan®) and portal blood flow (PBF) (Doppler ultrasound) were studied before and 30min after ingestion of a standard liquid meal. Food intake increased PBF (51±10%, p1). Hemodynamic and LS values returned to baseline pre-meal levels within 2hours. LS increases markedly after ingestion of a standard meal, irrespective of the degree of fibrosis. Our results strongly suggest that LS should be measured in fasting conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Portion Size and Timing of Meals on Weight Balance and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christina; Forslund, Heléne Bertéus

    2015-03-01

    This review focuses on the influence of portion size and temporal distribution of food intake on weight balance and obesity in adults. The inconsistency of definitions in the area of meal patterns is also discussed. The conclusion is that regular eating habits might facilitate weight balance, while unplanned snacking as well as consuming the major part of the energy intake at the end of the day seem to be unfavourable. Altogether, the research suggests that large portions promote over-consumption and, therefore, limiting portion size of energy dense foods and drinks with added sugar could be recommended. Even if more research is needed, these factors should be taken into consideration in recommendations for obesity prevention.

  2. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Robert W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. Results No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu. Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Conclusion Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change.

  3. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: results from an experimental trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary T; Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah A

    2008-12-05

    Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu). Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change.

  4. The effects of meal size, body size and temperature on gastric evacuation in pikeperch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koed, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Prey size had no effect on the gastric evacuation rate of pikeperch Stizostedion lucioperca. The gastric evacuation was adequately described applying an exponent of 0.5 in the power model. Applying length instead of weight of pikeperch in the gastric evacuation model resulted in a change of estim...

  5. Food photography II: use of food photographs for estimating portion size and the nutrient content of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Atkinson, M; Darbyshire, S

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the errors in the conceptualization of portion size using photographs. Male and female volunteers aged 18-90 years (n 136) from a wide variety of social and occupational backgrounds completed 602 assessments of portion size in relation to food photographs. Subjects served themselves between four and six foods at one meal (breakfast, lunch or dinner). Portion sizes were weighed by the investigators at the time of serving, and any waste was weighed at the end of the meal. Within 5 min of the end of the meal, subjects were shown photographs depicting each of the foods just consumed. For each food there were eight photographs showing portion sizes in equal increments from the 5th to the 95th centile of the distribution of portion weights observed in The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults (Gregory et al. 1990). Subjects were asked to indicate on a visual analogue scale the size of the portion consumed in relation to the eight photographs. The nutrient contents of meals were estimated from food composition tables. There were large variations in the estimation of portion sizes from photographs. Butter and margarine portion sizes tended to be substantially overestimated. In general, small portion sizes tended to be overestimated, and large portion sizes underestimated. Older subjects overestimated portion size more often than younger subjects. Excluding butter and margarine, the nutrient content of meals based on estimated portion sizes was on average within +/- 7% of the nutrient content based on the amounts consumed, except for vitamin C (21% overestimate), and for subjects over 65 years (15-20% overestimate for energy and fat). In subjects whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m2, the energy and fat contents of meals calculated from food composition tables and based on estimated portion size (excluding butter and margarine) were 5-10% greater than the nutrient content calculated using actual portion size, but for those

  6. Improved meal presentation increases food intake and decreases readmission rate in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Abigail; Boaz, Mona; Krause, Ilan; Elis, Avishay; Chernov, Karina; Giabra, Mursi; Levy, Miriam; Giboreau, Agnes; Kosak, Sigrid; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Singer, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    .5%. Improvement of meal presentation at a hospital setting can increase food intake, reduce waste food substantially and reduce readmission rate to hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  8. Workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support are predictors of availability of healthy meals in Danish worksite canteens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2009-01-01

    . Design: A self-administered questionnaire was randomly mailed to 1967 worksite canteen managers. Besides information and characteristics about the canteen and the worksite. the canteen managers specified the Menus available Two different health groups (Healthy and Less Healthy) were defined in three...... Danish worksite canteen managers replied, resulting in a response rate of 29% Results Only 12% of the canteens applied to the Healthy group combining all the three meal categories in particular, worksites with more than 75% female employees served healthy menus on a. frequent basis The size...... of the worksite was positively correlated with more healthy meal options Furthermore, the present study suggest.,, I positive relationship between corporate financial support and the availability of healthy meal options Conclusions Among the selected variables Studied, workforce gender, company size and corporate...

  9. Increased left ventricular ejection fraction after a meal: potential source of error in performance of radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.M.; White, C.J.; Sobol, S.M.; Lull, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of a standardized meal on left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was determined by equilibrium radionuclide angiography in 16 patients with stable congestive heart failure but without pulmonary or valvular heart disease. LVEF was determined in the fasting state and 15, 30, and 45 minutes after a meal. Patients with moderately depressed fasting LVEF (30 to 50%), Group I, had a mean increase of 6.9 +/- 2.9% (p less than 0.005) in the LVEF at 45 minutes after the meal. Patients with severely depressed fasting LVEF (less than 30%), Group II, had no change after the meal. It is concluded that significant increases in LVEF may occur after meals in patients with moderate but not severe left ventricular dysfunction. Equilibrium radionuclide angiography studies that are not standardized for patients' mealtimes may introduce an important unmeasured variable that will affect the validity of data in serial studies of left ventricular function

  10. Increased left ventricular ejection fraction after a meal: potential source of error in performance of radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.M.; White, C.J.; Sobol, S.M.; Lull, R.J.

    1983-06-01

    The effect of a standardized meal on left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was determined by equilibrium radionuclide angiography in 16 patients with stable congestive heart failure but without pulmonary or valvular heart disease. LVEF was determined in the fasting state and 15, 30, and 45 minutes after a meal. Patients with moderately depressed fasting LVEF (30 to 50%), Group I, had a mean increase of 6.9 +/- 2.9% (p less than 0.005) in the LVEF at 45 minutes after the meal. Patients with severely depressed fasting LVEF (less than 30%), Group II, had no change after the meal. It is concluded that significant increases in LVEF may occur after meals in patients with moderate but not severe left ventricular dysfunction. Equilibrium radionuclide angiography studies that are not standardized for patients' mealtimes may introduce an important unmeasured variable that will affect the validity of data in serial studies of left ventricular function.

  11. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  12. Determination of digestible and metabolizable energy of fishmeal and soybean meal in rainbow trout with two different sizes (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allameh, Sayed Kamaleddin; Soofiani, Nasrollah Mahboobi; Pourreza, Javad

    2007-10-15

    The present research carried out to measure digestible (DE) and Metabolizable Energy (ME) for fishmeal and soybean meal in rainbow trout with two different sizes (120 and 220 g mean body weights). DE and ME are evaluation systems for feedstuffs and also, necessary for diet formulation. The fishes were maintained in metabolic chamber with single ingredient assay of feeding and chromic oxide (Cr2O3) was used as an external marker using total fecal collection method. Gross energy and chromic oxide values measured in feces, fishmeal and soybean meal. The results indicated that DE offishmeal was 3700 and 3591 kcal kg(-1) in 120 and 220 g body weight rainbow trout, respectively. Soybean meal had 3004 and 2889 kcal kg(-1) respectively. Calculated ME from DE were 3204 and 3110 kcal kg(-1) for fishmeal and 2601 and 2502 kcal kg(-1) for soybean meal in 120 and 220 g rainbow trout, respectively. The results showed that rainbow trout can utilize fishmeal more efficiently than soybean meal.

  13. How much does what you eat matter? The potential role of meal size, fat content, and gender on ratings of desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantcheva, B; Brindal, E

    2013-08-01

    This study examined how the amount and type of food that a person eats affects perceptions of their personal desirability, femininity/masculinity, and body size while accounting for any assumed similarity biases. Female students (18 to 59 years old) were recruited through the School of Psychology at the University of Adelaide. Participants (n = 191) rated the characteristics of a fictional person based on information in a personal profile. Profiles were identical aside from experimental manipulations of gender (male/female), meal size (small/large) and meal type (regular fat/high fat) with meal manipulations calculated using nutrient recommendations. Ratings of desirability and body size were affected primarily by meal type with targets described as eating a regular fat meal seen as more desirable (M = 5.40, SD = 0.56) and thinner (M = 3.93, SD = 1.05) than those having a high fat meal (M = 5.09, SD = 0.66; M = 4.29, SD = 1.04) (p = .001). Meal size manipulations affected only ratings of body size with larger meals (M = 4.25, SD = 0.88) resulting in higher ratings relative to smaller meals (M = 3.96, SD = 1.20) (p = .036). Despite a suggestion of interactions between target gender and both meal characteristics for ratings of femininity/masculinity in our results, post-hoc analyses largely failed to reveal any pairwise differences. Perceived similarity to the target did relate to levels of desirability (p = .006), and self-esteem positively associated with ratings of target body size (p = .010). Even though men's perceptions of eating behaviours were not reported in this paper, these findings have implications for a better understanding of social pressures faced not only by women, but also for men, as potentially both genders may be affected by eating norms regarding the healthiness of a meal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals......, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-ß-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P

  15. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...... not affect a composite MetS-score but reduced diastolic blood pressure -0.5 mmHg (95% CI -1.0;-0.0), total cholesterol -0.05 mmol/L (-0.08;-0.02) (P=0.001), HDL cholesterol -0.02 mmol/L (-0.03;-0.00), triglyceride -0.02 mmol/L (-0.04;-0.00) (both PHOMA-IR -0.10 points (-0.16;-0.04) (P=0...

  16. Increased Pre- and Post-Meal Free Fatty Acid Levels in Black, Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazeau, Rachel-Marie; Rauch, Lindsey; Huang, Hong; Bauer, John A; Hoffman, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    Black adolescents are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease but have lower fasting triglyceride, which is usually associated with decreased risk. No one has studied racial differences in triglycerides or free fatty acids (FFAs) after a high-fat meal. Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to assess insulin secretion, sensitivity, and disposition index (DI). Endothelial function, triglycerides, FFA, c-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL6), and adiponectin were measured both pre- and 3 hr postprandially (McDonald's Big Breakfast(®) and 12 ounce Sprite(®)) in obese adolescents (10-13 years, 9 black and 7 white). Endothelial function was assessed using reactive hyperemic changes in forearm vascular resistance (FVR). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed no difference in insulin sensitivity, but blacks tended to have (P = 0.08) higher insulin secretion and had increased DI (P = 0.003). After a high-fat meal, triglycerides increased in both groups (P < 0.001), tended to be lower in blacks compared with whites preprandially (64 ± 33 mg/dL vs 110 ± 80, P = 0.064), and was lower postprandially (112 ± 63 vs 188 ± 112, P = 0.039). Pre- and postprandial FFA (Black: 0.58 ± 0.15 and 0.39 ± 0.18 vs. white: 0.44 ± 0.14 and 0.26 ± 0.06, P = 0.020) and adiponectin (P = 0.002) were increased in blacks. FFA decreased in both groups postprandially (P = 0.002). IL6 increased after the meal (P = 0.022). Endothelial function decreased postprandially (P < 0.02), but this was due to a decrease in preocclusion FVR. These results indicate that differences in fat metabolism are present in both black and white obese adolescents. How these differences explain higher rates of cardiometabolic disease in blacks is unclear.

  17. Modelling gastric evacuation without meal size as a variable. A model applicable for the estimation of daily ration of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temming, Axel; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1994-01-01

    S=stomach content, T=time after ingestion, R and B=constants. This model allows for various curve shapes, including linear (B=O) and exponential (B=1), and the curve shape (B) was estimated from the data. Meal size was included in the model by modifying the constant R=R′ × MD, with M=meal size...... in weight and D=constant. When meal size was included in the model, the resulting B values were strongly dependent on the food type and the estimated D values were negatively correlated with B: capelin, B=1.37, D= -1.16; herring, B=0.84, D= -0.57; and prawn, B=0.35, D= -0.14. When meal size was excluded...

  18. Increasing intake of soybean protein or casein, but not cod meal, reduces nephrocalcinosis in female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Female weanling rats were fed diets with soybean protein, casein or cod meal at 171, 342 or 513 mmol nitrogen/100 g for 3 wk. The diets were isonitrogenous and balanced for fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cod meal feeding at 171 and 342 mmol nitrogen/100 g diet produced lower

  19. Uncomplicated human type 2 diabetes is associated with meal-induced blood pressure lowering and cardiac output increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Mark M; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Tushuizen, Maarten E; Kwa, Kelly A A; Karemaker, John M; van Raalte, Daniël H; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-12-01

    Since many type 2 diabetes patients experience postprandial hypotension, the aim of this study was to unravel meal-related changes in systemic hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ANS)-balance. Forty-two age-matched males (15 type 2 diabetes; 12 metabolic syndrome; 15 controls) without overt autonomic neuropathy received a standardized high-fat mixed meal after an overnight fast. Hemodynamic variables were measured by finger plethysmography. Fourier analysis was used to calculate the low-/high-frequency (LF/HF)-ratio, a marker of autonomic nervous system-balance, and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS). Following the meal, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased in type 2 diabetes patients only, paralleled by a significant decrement in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and an increase in cardiac index. All groups showed an increase in postprandial heart rate. Controls, but not metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes patients, showed a meal-related increase in LF/HF-ratio. When combining all study subjects, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was inversely correlated with changes in DBP, SVR, LF/HF-ratio and BRS. Based on these data, we hypothesize that in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance hampers adequate meal-induced sympathetic activation, leading to a decrease in SVR and resulting in a postprandial drop in DBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing the protein content of meals and its effect on daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-02-01

    High-protein preloads have been shown to enhance satiety, but little is known about the satiating effects of protein in more typical situations when meals are consumed ad libitum. To investigate the effects of protein in amounts commonly consumed over a day, a crossover study was conducted in 2008. In this experiment, 18 normal-weight women consumed ad libitum lunch and dinner entrées 1 day a week that were covertly varied in protein content (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, or 30% energy). Entrées were manipulated by substituting animal protein for starchy ingredients and were matched for energy density, fat content, palatability, and appearance. Unmanipulated breakfasts and evening snacks were consumed ad libitum. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals as well as the taste and appearance of entrées. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model. Results showed that mean 24-hour protein intake increased significantly across conditions, from 44±2 g/day in the 10% protein condition to 82±6 g/day in the 30% condition. Daily energy intake did not differ significantly across the 10% to 30% protein conditions (means 1,870±93, 1,887±93, 1,848±111, 1,876±100, and 1,807±98 kcal in the 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% energy groups, respectively). There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings across conditions or in taste and appearance ratings of the manipulated entrées. This study showed that varying the protein content of several entrées consumed ad libitum did not differentially influence daily energy intake or affect ratings of satiety. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  2. Thorough Mastication Prior to Swallowing Increases Postprandial Satiety and the Thermic Effect of a Meal in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Naho; Motokubota, Naoko; Suzuki, Maki; Hayashi, Ikuyo; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence to support that mastication may contribute to the prevention of weight gain via reduction of appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. However, the metabolic effect of mastication after consumption of a daily meal, composed of the staple food (rice), soup, main and side dishes, is limited. Therefore, the effect of thorough mastication on greater satiety and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM) was investigated in young women. In study 1, energy expenditure (EE) derived from masticatory muscle activity for 20 min was measured while chewing hard, tasteless, non-caloric gum in seven subjects. In study 2, ten subjects consumed a solid meal performing 30 chews per mouthful (30 CPM), or swallowed the same, pureed meal without chewing (0 CPM) on two separate days, and postprandial EE, substrate oxidation, subjective appetite ratings and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for 3 h were examined. Both test meals were iso-caloric (2,510 kJ) and -weighted (884 g), and consumed in 20 min. From study 1, the EE of mastication itself for the 20 min was estimated to be 3.7±0.8 kJ. From study 2, significantly higher TEM (134.2±15.5 vs. 67.8±13.8 kJ/3 h, pmastication before swallowing increased postprandial satiety and the TEM in young women, suggesting such eating behavior may be useful for preventing obesity.

  3. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat does not affect nonheme iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The effect of increasing cooking temperatures of meat on nonheme iron absorption from a composite meal was investigated. Cysteine-containing peptides may have a role in the iron absorption enhancing effect of muscle proteins. Heat treatment can change the content of sulfhydryl groups produced from...... cysteine and thereby affect iron absorption. Twenty-one women (25 +/- 3 y) were served a basic meal without meat and two other meals consisting of the basic meal plus 75 g of pork meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120degreesC. The meals were extrinsically labeled with Fe-55 or Fe-59. Iron absorption was determined...... from measurements of wholebody Fe-59 retention and the activity of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood samples. Nonheme iron absorptions were 0.9 (0.5-4.0)% (P = 0.06), 0.7 (0.4-3.9)% (P = 0.1) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1)% (P cooked at 70, 95 or 120degreesC, respectively, was added to the basic...

  4. Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Increased to a Greater Degree in Young, Obese Women Following Consumption of a High Fat Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High fat meals induce oxidative stress, which is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Obese individuals have elevated resting biomarkers of oxidative stress compared to non-obese. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in obese (n = 14; 30 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg•m−2 and non-obese (n = 16; 24 ± 2 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg•m−2 women, in response to a high fat meal. Blood samples were collected pre-meal (fasted, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours post meal, and assayed for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, xanthine oxidase activity (XO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, triglycerides (TAG, and glucose. An obesity status effect was noted for all variables (p 0.05, contrasts revealed greater values in obese compared to non-obese women for XO, H2O2, MDA, TAG and glucose, and lower values for TEAC at times from 1–6 hours post feeding (p ≤ 0.03. We conclude that young, obese women experience a similar pattern of increase in blood oxidative stress biomarkers in response to a high fat meal, as compared to non-obese women. However, the overall oxidative stress is greater in obese women, and values appear to remain elevated for longer periods of time post feeding. These data provide insight into another potential mechanism related to obesity-mediated morbidity.

  5. A Sulfur Amino Acid–Free Meal Increases Plasma Lipids in Humans123

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J.; Lee, Kichun S.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Jones, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR (1H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (...

  6. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J; Gentile, Christopher L; Nindl, Bradley C; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Ruby, Maxwell

    2013-07-01

    Unrefined, complex carbohydrates and lean protein diets are used to combat obesity, although it's unknown whether more frequent meals may improve this response. The effects of consuming traditional (~15%) versus higher (~35%) protein intakes as three or six meals/day on abdominal fat, postprandial thermogenesis (TEM), and cardiometabolic biomarkers in overweight individuals during 28 days of energy balance (BAL) and deficit (NEG), respectively were compared. Overweight individuals (n = 30) were randomized into three groups: two high-protein groups (35% of energy) consumed as three (HP3) or six (HP6) meals/day and one group consumed three meals/day of a traditional intake (TD3). Following a 5-day baseline control (CON), subjects consumed their respective diets throughout a 56-day intervention consisting of two, 28 day phases: a BAL followed by a NEG phase (75% of energy needs). Total body fat (BF) and abdominal BF (ABF), body weight (BW), TEM, and fasting biomarkers were assessed at the end of CON, BAL, and NEG phases. BW remained stable throughout CON and BAL in all groups, whereas BF (P meals/day in overweight individuals during both BAL and NEG. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  7. Influence of housing system, grain type, and particle size on Salmonella colonization and shedding of broilers fed triticale or corn-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F B O; Sheldon, B W; Santos, A A; Ferket, P R

    2008-03-01

    Salmonella colonization in poultry may be influenced by grain type and particle size. Broilers reared either in nonlitter cage-based housing or in a conventionally floored litter house from 0 to 42 d were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) ground corn-soybean meal (C, 560 microm), 2) coarsely ground corn-soybean meal (CC, >1,700 microm), 3) ground triticale-soybean meal (T, 560 microm), or 4) whole triticale-soybean meal (WT). A 4-strain cocktail of Salmonella enterica was orally gavaged into each chick at placement. Growth performance, cecal and fecal Salmonella populations, gizzard and proventriculus pH, intestinal size, jejunum histomorphometry, and carcass yields were measured. Broilers responded differently to the dietary treatments according to the housing system used. At 42 d, birds reared on litter and fed ground grain had greater BW than those fed coarse grain (2.87 vs. 2.71 kg), whereas cage-reared broilers fed ground triticale were heavier than those fed corn (2.75 vs. 2.64 kg). Broilers raised on litter had a better feed conversion ratio than those raised in cages (1.71 vs. 1.81 g/g). Independent of the housing system, relative eviscerated carcass weights of birds fed T and C were heavier than those of CC- and WT-fed broilers (762 vs. 752 g/kg). Generally, the jejunum villus area and mucosal depth were larger, whereas the small intestine was lighter and shorter in broilers raised on litter. Relative gizzard weights of broilers raised on litter and fed the coarser diets were heavier than those of broilers reared in cages and fed finely ground diets. Feeding whole or coarsely ground grains decreased cecal Salmonella populations in 42-d-old broilers (3.8, 3.9, 4.4, and 4.4 log most probable number/g for CC, WT, C, and T, respectively). Additionally, 42-d-old broilers reared on litter had lower cecal Salmonella populations than those in cages (3.8 vs. 4.4 log most probable number/g). In conclusion, as a feed ingredient, triticale is a good

  8. Improving compliance to meal-replacement food regimens. Forming implementation intentions (conscious IF-THEN plans) increases compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, E H; den Hoed, W; van der Meer, N; van der Maas, A

    2010-12-01

    Creating and changing habits around dieting behaviour can be a way to help consumers to consume more healthy products and to control their weight. Previous studies suggested that implementation intentions - deliberate plans on when, where and how - increase the likelihood that consumers perform the intended behaviour (Armitage, 2004; Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006; Jackson et al., 2005). This study investigated the effect of forming implementation intentions on compliance to a regimen based on a range of meal-replacement food products and snacks. Participants (n = 57) were allocated to one of two groups, either: (1) an implementation-intention group, who formed deliberate plans (implementation intentions) to consume the products - these implementation intentions were formed only once at the beginning of the study -, or (2) a control group who formed no implementation intentions. Participants were then instructed to follow a daily regimen, which included the consumption of foods from a range of meal-replacement products and snacks provided gratis for four weeks. Results showed that the implementation-intention group consumed significantly more meal-replacement food products per week (p intentions was apparent for 18 days. These findings indicate that forming implementation intentions may assist individuals in their compliance to a meal-replacement product regimen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A blended- rather than whole-lentil meal with or without α-galactosidase mildly increases healthy adults' appetite but not their glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguah, Katherene O-B; Wonnell, Brittany S; Campbell, Wayne W; McCabe, George P; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-12-01

    Disrupting the physical structure of pulses by blending them or by using a digestive supplement (α-galactosidase) to reduce intestinal discomfort could potentially negate the previously observed beneficial effects of whole pulses of lowering appetitive and glycemic responses because of more rapid digestion. We hypothesized that blended lentils, α-galactosidase, or both increase postprandial appetite and blood glucose responses vs. whole lentils. Men and women [n = 12; means ± SDs body mass index (kg/m(2)): 23.3 ± 3.1; aged 28 ± 10 y] consumed breakfast meals containing whole (W), blended (B), or no lentils [control (C)], each with 3 α-galactosidase or placebo capsules in a randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Between each test day there was a 3- to 5-d washout period. Mixed-model ANOVA showed effects of meal on postprandial appetite and glucose (P = 0.0001-0.031). The B meal resulted in higher postprandial appetite ratings than did the W meal but not the C meal for hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption (Δ = 0.4-0.5 points; P = 0.002-0.044). Postprandial glucose concentration was 4.5 mg/dL lower for the B meal than for the C meal (P meal. There were no main effects of α-galactosidase, but there were meal × α-galactosidase interaction effects, with a greater postprandial desire to eat and lower postprandial fullness with the B meal than with the 2 other meals in the placebo condition but not in the α-galactosidase condition. Blending lentils increased appetite (∼6%), but not glycemic response, compared with whole lentils, whereas α-galactosidase did not. Both B and W meals may be consumed (with or without an α-galactosidase supplement) with little impact on appetite, without increasing glycemic response. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110511. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. RESPONSIVENESS OF SPATIAL PRICE VOLATILITY TO INCREASED GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN MAIZE GRAIN AND MAIZE MEAL MARKETING IN ZAMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Syampaku, E.M; Mafimisebi, Taiwo Ejiola

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the responsiveness of maize grain and maize meal spatial price volatilities to increased government participation in maize grain marketing in Zambia using descriptive statistics and vector auto-regression (VAR). This was achieved by comparing spatial price volatility means and spatial price means for the period under increased government participation with respective means for periods under limited government participation. Also, spatial price volatilities were regressed ag...

  11. Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Nilsson, Emil; Nilsson, Victor C; Chapman, Colin D; Vogel, Heike; Lundberg, Lina S; Zarei, Sanaz; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2013-09-01

    Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (pchoice after sleep loss depend on both an individual's hunger status, and the type of food offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intake and ingestive behavior of rams fed with increasing inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I in their diet (Orbignya spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sá,Hemilly Cristina Menezes de; Borges,Iran; Macedo Junior,Gilberto de Lima; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Silva,Veridiana Basoni; Sousa,Jhone Tallison Lira de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed with different inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I. The animals receive isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing the by-product in increasing levels of inclusion (zero; 7,5%; 15%; 22,5%). Twenty rams were used in this study and distributed in four treatments with five repetitions each. The ingestive behavior was conducted over a period of 24 hours, with visual observations at 5 minutes inte...

  13. Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, T; Krarup, T; Sonne, J

    2003-01-01

    in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate incretin secretion, in obesity and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its dependence on the magnitude of the meal stimulus. Plasma concentrations of incretin hormones (total, reflecting secretion and intact...... subjects (22% P = 0.04) during the large meal, compared with the small meal, perhaps reflecting the increased incretin response. We conclude: 1) that a decreased GLP-1 secretion may contribute to impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas GIP and GLP-1 secretion is normal in type 1......, reflecting potential action) were measured during two meal tests (260 kcal and 520 kcal) in eight type 1 diabetic patients, eight lean healthy subjects, eight obese type 2 diabetic patients, and eight obese healthy subjects. Both in diabetic patients and in healthy subjects, significant increases in GLP-1...

  14. Results from an experimental trial at a Head Start center to evaluate two meal service approaches to increase fruit and vegetable intake of preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnack Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption of preschool aged children are needed. Objectives Evaluate the independent effects of the following meal service strategies on intake of fruits and vegetables of preschool children: 1. Serving fruits and vegetables in advance of other menu items as part of traditional family style meal service; and 2. Serving meals portioned and plated by providers. Methods Fifty-three preschool aged children completed a randomized crossover experiment conducted at a Head Start center in Minneapolis, MN. Over a six week trial period each of the experimental meal service strategies (serving fruits and vegetable first and serving meals portioned by providers was implemented during lunch service for two one-week periods. Two one-week control periods (traditional family style meal service with all menu items served at once were also included over the six week trial period. Childrens lunch intake was observed as a measure of food and nutrient intake during each experimental condition. Results Fruit intake was significantly higher (p Conclusions Serving fruits in advance of other meal items may be a low cost easy to implement strategy for increasing fruit intake in young children. However, serving vegetables first does not appear to increase vegetable intake. Results provide support for current recommendations for traditional family style meal service in preschool settings.

  15. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  16. Effects of particle size on the morphology and waterand thermo-resistance of washed cottonseed meal-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water wash of cottonseed meal is more cost-efficient and environment-friendly than the protein isolation which involves alkaline extraction and acidic precipitation. Thus, water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) is more promising as biobased wood adhesives. In this work, we examined the effects of the p...

  17. Binge size increases with body mass index in women with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Janet L; Kissileff, Harry R; Devlin, Michael J; Zimmerli, Ellen; Walsh, B Timothy

    2002-10-01

    To determine whether meal size is related to body mass index (BMI) in obese subjects with binge-eating disorder (BED). Five groups of subjects each consumed two laboratory-test meals on nonconsecutive days. Forty-two women, categorized by BMI and BED diagnosis, were instructed to "binge" during one meal and to eat "normally" during another. Eighteen women had BMI values >38 kg/m(2) (more-obese) and 17 had BMI values between 28 to 32 kg/m(2) (less-obese). Twelve of the more-obese and nine of the less-obese individuals met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV criteria for BED. Seven normal-weight women also participated as controls. Subjects with BED ate significantly more in both meals than subjects without BED. Binge meals were significantly larger than normal meals only among subjects with BED. The more-obese subjects with BED ate significantly more than the less-obese subjects with BED, but only when they were asked to binge. Intake of the binge meal was significantly, positively correlated with BMI among subjects with BED. Subjects with BED reported significantly higher satiety ratings after the binge than after the normal meal, but subjects without BED reported similar ratings after both meals. Regardless of instructions and diagnosis, obese subjects consumed a significantly higher percentage of energy from fat (38.5%) than did normal-weight subjects (30.8%). During binge meals, the energy intake of subjects with BED is greater than that of individuals of similar body weight without BED and is positively correlated with BMI.

  18. Protein and fat meal content increase insulin requirement in children with type 1 diabetes – Role of duration of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van der Hoogt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Hyperglycaemia remains a challenge in type 1 diabetes since current regimes used to determine meal insulin requirements prove to be ineffective. This is particularly problematic for meals containing high amounts of protein and fat. We aimed to determine the post-prandial glycaemic response and total insulin need for mixed meals, using sensor-augmented insulin pumps in children with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Twenty-two children with type 1 diabetes, aged 4–17 years on insulin pump therapy completed this home-based, cross-over, randomised controlled trial. Two meals with identical carbohydrate content – one with low fat and protein (LFLP and one with high fat and protein (HFHP contents – were consumed using normal insulin boluses. Blood glucose monitoring was done for 10 h post-meal, with correction bolus insulin given two-hourly if required. Results: The HFHP meal required significantly more total insulin (3.48 vs. 2.7 units as a result of increased post-meal correction insulin requirement (1.2 vs. 0.15 units spread over a longer duration (6 vs. 3 h. The HFHP meals significantly increased the time spent above target glucose level. Duration of diabetes and total daily insulin use significantly influenced the post-prandial blood glucose response to the two meals. Conclusion: When consuming carbohydrate-based mixed meals, children with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy, required significantly more insulin over a longer period of time than the insulin requirement calculated using current regimes. This additional amount required is influenced by the duration of diabetes and total daily insulin use. Keywords: Carbohydrate, Protein and fat, Type 1 diabetes, Glucose, Insulin infusion systems

  19. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  20. Geometry, packing, and evolutionary paths to increased multicellular size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobeen, Shane; Graba, Elyes C.; Brandys, Colin G.; Day, Thomas C.; Ratcliff, William C.; Yunker, Peter J.

    2018-05-01

    The evolutionary transition to multicellularity transformed life on earth, heralding the evolution of large, complex organisms. Recent experiments demonstrated that laboratory-evolved multicellular "snowflake yeast" readily overcome the physical barriers that limit cluster size by modifying cellular geometry [Jacobeen et al., Nat. Phys. 14, 286 (2018), 10.1038/s41567-017-0002-y]. However, it is unclear why this route to large size is observed, rather than an evolved increase in intercellular bond strength. Here, we use a geometric model of the snowflake yeast growth form to examine the geometric efficiency of increasing size by modifying geometry and bond strength. We find that changing geometry is a far more efficient route to large size than evolving increased intercellular adhesion. In fact, increasing cellular aspect ratio is on average ˜13 times more effective than increasing bond strength at increasing the number of cells in a cluster. Modifying other geometric parameters, such as the geometric arrangement of mother and daughter cells, also had larger effects on cluster size than increasing bond strength. Simulations reveal that as cells reproduce, internal stress in the cluster increases rapidly; thus, increasing bond strength provides diminishing returns in cluster size. Conversely, as cells become more elongated, cellular packing density within the cluster decreases, which substantially decreases the rate of internal stress accumulation. This suggests that geometrically imposed physical constraints may have been a key early selective force guiding the emergence of multicellular complexity.

  1. Bacterial Contamination of Hands Increases Risk of Cross-Contamination among Low-Income Puerto Rican Meal Preparers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharod, Jigna Morarji; Paciello, Stefania; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Damio, Grace; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of microbial contamination of the meal preparer's hands with microbial status of food and kitchen/utensil surfaces during home preparation of a "Chicken and Salad" meal. Design and Setting: Observational home food safety assessment. Before starting meal preparation, participants' hands were tested to…

  2. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Family Meals KidsHealth / For Parents / Family Meals What's in ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  3. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  4. A Blended- Rather Than Whole-Lentil Meal with or without α-Galactosidase Mildly Increases Healthy Adults’ Appetite but Not Their Glycemic Response123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguah, Katherene O-B; Wonnell, Brittany S; Campbell, Wayne W; McCabe, George P; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disrupting the physical structure of pulses by blending them or by using a digestive supplement (α-galactosidase) to reduce intestinal discomfort could potentially negate the previously observed beneficial effects of whole pulses of lowering appetitive and glycemic responses because of more rapid digestion. Objective: We hypothesized that blended lentils, α-galactosidase, or both increase postprandial appetite and blood glucose responses vs. whole lentils. Methods: Men and women [n = 12; means ± SDs body mass index (kg/m2): 23.3 ± 3.1; aged 28 ± 10 y] consumed breakfast meals containing whole (W), blended (B), or no lentils [control (C)], each with 3 α-galactosidase or placebo capsules in a randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Between each test day there was a 3- to 5-d washout period. Results: Mixed-model ANOVA showed effects of meal on postprandial appetite and glucose (P = 0.0001–0.031). The B meal resulted in higher postprandial appetite ratings than did the W meal but not the C meal for hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption (Δ = 0.4–0.5 points; P = 0.002–0.044). Postprandial glucose concentration was 4.5 mg/dL lower for the B meal than for the C meal (P meal. There were no main effects of α-galactosidase, but there were meal × α-galactosidase interaction effects, with a greater postprandial desire to eat and lower postprandial fullness with the B meal than with the 2 other meals in the placebo condition but not in the α-galactosidase condition. Conclusions: Blending lentils increased appetite (∼6%), but not glycemic response, compared with whole lentils, whereas α-galactosidase did not. Both B and W meals may be consumed (with or without an α-galactosidase supplement) with little impact on appetite, without increasing glycemic response. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110511. PMID:25411033

  5. Components of postprandial thermogenesis in relation to meal frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Mercier, I; Nadeau, A

    1993-12-01

    Experiments on dogs have shown that the size of the meal has no effect on the early cephalic postprandial thermogenesis, and that four small meals are more thermogenic than a larger meal with the same total caloric content as the four meals. A study was repeated on human subjects who were fed during alternating weeks either one large meal (653 kcal (1 kcal = 4.1855 kJ)) or four small meals (163 kcal) at 40-min intervals. Oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio determinations indicated (i) larger overall increase in postprandial thermogenesis with the four meals than with one meal and (ii) an enhancement of glucose utilization with the large meal compared with greater lipid utilization with the four meals. On the basis of indirect evidence from previous investigations it is suggested that the enhanced thermogenesis observed in the four-meal experiment is due to lipid mobilization caused by repeated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system with palatable food. Blood analysis indicated a reduced elevation of plasma glucose in the four-meal experiment. The variations of insulin and C-peptide exactly paralleled those observed for glucose. It is concluded that the increased frequency of feeding significantly reduces insulin secretion in subjects fed a relatively high carbohydrate meal. In addition to this beneficial effect, increasing the number of meals increased thermogenesis and fat utilization.

  6. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Chris M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net. In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar sources, female An. gambiae appear to prefer a nearby human source of blood

  7. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea López, Ana Lorena; Johnson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19–64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, psnack or drink frequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all psnacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks. PMID:27227409

  8. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea López, Ana Lorena; Johnson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19-64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, pmeal frequency (r = 0.10, pfrequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all pmeals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2) and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8), but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks.

  9. Programmed heating of coke ovens for increased coke size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D.R.; Mahoney, M.R. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Large, uniform sized coke is desirable for blast furnace use. It has previously been shown that the coke oven flue temperature in the first few hours of coking is a key determinant of coke size. In this paper, the authors present a new programmed heating approach, which is called pulsed heating, aiming to increase coke mean size at a given average flue temperature. The approach takes into account the charging sequence in coke oven batteries and the authors demonstrate how existing operating practice can be modified in batteries with suitable heating systems to achieve the desired heating programme. A mathematical model of fissure formation provides a prediction of the increase in coke mean size using pulsed heating, compared with standard heating. Pilot scale experiments have also been performed to validate the modelling approach. The results of the modelling indicate that the mean coke size can be increased by several millimetres in some cases, although results from the pilot scale show that pulsed heating increases coke size, but by a smaller amount than that predicted by the model. The potential advantages and limitations of pulsed heating are discussed, as well as opportunities for further investigation of the approach.

  10. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  11. Evaluation of Jacaranda mimosifolia T. (Stans) leaf meal as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic benefit analysis indicated that as the leaf meal increased in the diets the cost of production of the broilers decreased. Jacaranda leaf meal could be best utilized at 5.0% level of inclusion though the 7.5% levels broilers attained market size in a recorded time. Animal Production Research Advances Vol.

  12. Does easily accessible nutritional labelling increase consumption of healthy meals away from home? A field experiment measuring the impact of a point-of-purchase healthy symbol on lunch sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect on meal consumption away from home of a point-of-purchase healthy symbol. We base the analysis on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant. Our results suggest that meal consumption does not increase if the meal is labelled with a healthy symbol. Also, the mean...

  13. Pre-meal screen-time activities increase subjective emotions, but not food intake in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Pollard, Damion; Welch, Jo M; Rossiter, Melissa; Faghih, Shiva; Bellissimo, Nick

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of pre-meal screen-time activities on subjective emotions, subjective appetite, and food intake (FI) in 9-14 year-old girls. In this clinical study, 31 girls completed four 45-min treatment conditions of television viewing (TVV), video game playing (VGP), a challenging computer task (CT), and sitting without screen exposure (control) in a randomized order. Each treatment condition was followed immediately by an ad libitum pizza lunch, and FI was calculated from the weight of the consumed pizza. Subjective appetite was assessed at baseline, 15, 30, and 45 min during the treatment condition, and upon trial completion at 75 min. Subjective emotions were assessed at baseline and at 45 min. FI was not affected by screen type, but was positively correlated with body composition (fat mass [FM, kg], fat free mass [FFM, kg]) in all treatment conditions. Subjective appetite was not affected by screen type, but increased with time in all treatment conditions (p < 0.0001). Subjective emotions were affected by VGP only. Anger, excitement, frustration, and upset feelings were increased at 45 min following VGP. VGP led to increased frustration compared to control (p = 0.0003), CT (p = 0.007) and TVV (p = 0.0002). Exposure to TVV or CT before eating did not affect subjective emotions, subjective appetite, or FI, and no difference was found between screen activities and the control condition for average appetite or FI. Despite a change in subjective emotions during the VGP condition, there was no increase in subjective appetite or subsequent FI. These findings suggest that physiologic signals of satiation and satiety are not overridden by environmental stimuli of pre-meal screen-time exposure among young girls. (Clinical trial number NCT01750177). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasting, fasting and freezing: energetic effects of meal size and temperature on torpor expression by little brown bats Myotis lucifugus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Amanda L; Campbell, Kevin L; Willis, Craig K R

    2010-06-15

    Torpor is an adaptation for energy conservation employed by many species of small-bodied endotherms. However, surprisingly little is known regarding proximate factors influencing day-to-day variation in torpor expression in the wild. We used open-flow respirometry to quantify torpor expression in nine little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, LeConte 1831) at two ambient temperatures (7 degrees C and 17 degrees C) following either sham feeding or consumption of a high-protein meal (50% or 100% of the mass required to reach satiation for each individual). Food consumption significantly increased the time spent normothermic before torpor entry but did not affect either the rate of body cooling or torpid metabolic rate. Bats did not fully exploit potential energy savings by maximising their use of torpor. Instead they varied torpor expression such that total energy expenditure over the course of each 22-h trial was balanced against gross energy intake immediately before the trial, independent of ambient temperature. This was accomplished by adjusting the timing of entry into torpor (thus altering the time spent torpid), rather than by modulating torpid metabolic rate. However, pre-trial body mass was also a significant predictor of torpor expression, which suggests that energy reserves combine with recent foraging success to influence individuals' decisions about depth and duration of their torpor bouts. We also present evidence that little brown bats use the heat generated through digestion (i.e. the heat increment of feeding) to substitute for active thermogenesis at sub-thermoneutral temperatures, thereby reducing the energetic costs of thermoregulation prior to torpor entry.

  15. Soybean meal fermented by Aspergillus awamori increases the cytochrome P-450 content of the liver microsomes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, T; Ataki, H; Takebe, M; Ebihara, K

    2000-04-01

    The effect of soybean meal fermented by Aspergillus awamori on the acute lethality of acetaldehyde, pentobarbital sleeping time, and cytochrome P-450 content of the hepatic microsomes was studied in mice. Most of the daidzin and genistin in soybean meal (SBM) were converted into the respective aglycones, daidzein and genistein, by fermentation. In experiment 1, mice were fed isonitrogenic test diets with one of the following five protein sources for 28 d: casein, SBM, fermented and hot-air-dried SBM (FSBM-HD), fermented and freeze-dried SBM (FSBM-FD), or methanol-extracted FSBM-FD (FSMB-FD-R). The acute lethality of acetaldehyde in mice fed the FSBM-FD diet was significantly lower than that in mice fed the SBM, FSBM-HD, or FSBM-FD-R diet. In experiments 2 and 3, mice were fed isonitrogenic test diets with one of the following four protein sources for 28 d: casein, SBM, FSBM-FD, and FSBM-FD-R. The pentobarbital sleeping time was significantly shorter and the cytochrome P-450 content was significantly higher in the mice fed the FSBM-FD diet than the respective value in mice fed the other test diets. In experiment 4, mice were fed one of eight diets which contained different levels of aglycone obtained by varying the proportion of FSBM-FD and FSBM-FD-R, for 28 d. The cytochrome P-450 content in hepatic microsomes increased as the dietary level of isoflavonoid aglycones increased, but there was a saturation phenomenon. These results suggest that soy isoflavonoid aglycones are more potent inducers of cytochrome P-450 than isoflavonoid glycosides.

  16. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  17. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  18. Fluoride Increase in Saliva and Dental Biofilm due to a Meal Prepared with Fluoridated Water or Salt: A Crossover Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carolina V; Tenuta, Livia M A; Cury, Jaime A

    2018-06-07

    Knowledge about fluoride delivery to oral fluids from foods cooked with fluoridated water and salt is scarce, and no study has evaluated fluoride concentrations in saliva or biofilm during meal consumption. In this randomized double-blind crossover study, 12 volunteers ingested meals (rice, beans, meat, and legumes) prepared with nonfluoridated water and salt (control group), fluoridated water (0.70 mg F/L; water group), and fluoridated salt (183.7 mg F/kg; salt group). Whole saliva was collected before meal ingestion, during mastication, and up to 2 h after meal ingestion. Dental biofilm was collected before and immediately after meal ingestion. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were determined by an ion-specific electrode. The mean (±standard deviation; n = 4) fluoride concentrations in meals prepared for the control, water, and salt groups were 0.039 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.04, and 1.71 ± 0.32 μg F/g, respectively. The three groups had significantly different fluoride concentrations in saliva collected during mastication (p water > control). The fluoride concentration in saliva returned to baseline 30 min after meal ingestion in the water group but remained high for up to 2 h in the salt group (p = 0.002). The fluoride concentration in biofilm fluid differed only between the salt and control groups (p = 0.008). The mastication of foods cooked with fluoridated water and salt increases fluoride concentrations in oral fluids and may contribute to the local effect of these community-based fluoride interventions on caries control. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Planning Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  20. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Tidehag, Per; Erik Bach Knudsen, Knud; Moazzami, Ali A; Aman, Per

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  1. Effects of Increasing Prepartum Dietary Protein Level Using Poultry by-Product Meal on Productive Performance and Health of Multiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hossein Yazdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two levels of crude protein using poultry by-product meals (PBPM fed during late gestation on the performance, blood metabolites, and colostrum composition of Holstein dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous cows 26±6 d before expected calving were assigned randomly to two treatments containing 1 14% and 2 16% crude protein. The cow’s BCS was 3.56 ± 0.5 on average, at the beginning of the trial. Yields of milk, protein, lactose, fat, and SNF were not affected by prepartum dietary CP level. Colostrum composition (fat, CP and Total solids, blood metabolites (Ca, Glucose, Total protein, Albumin, Globulin and Urea N, and metabolic diseases incidence were not influenced by prepartum dietary CP level. There was no significant difference between treatments in body weight and BCS changes. As expected, blood urea N before calving was higher in the cows fed 16% CP diets. Serum cholesterol during prepartum and postpartum periods was significantly decreased as the CP increased in the diet. In general, although postpartum glucose level increased in cows which received 16% CP in the diet, it seems that no other obvious advantages over feeding the 14% CP diet are apparent. So feeding this last diet is recommended to close up cows.

  2. Rate of duodenal-biliary reflux increases in patients with recurrent common bile duct stones: evidence from barium meal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Luo, Hui; Pan, Yanglin; Zhao, Lina; Dong, Junqiang; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiangping; Tao, Qin; Lu, Guohua; Guo, Xuegang

    2015-10-01

    Stone recurrence is a common late adverse event after ERCP in patients with common bile duct stones (CBDS). Duodenal-biliary reflux (DBR) is considered a major cause of CBDS recurrence. However, specific evidence is still lacking. To investigate the DBR rate in patients with recurrent CBDS after ERCP. A prospective case-control study. A tertiary center. During follow-up, patients with a history of either recurrent CBDS (recurrence group) or nonrecurrent CBDS (control group) were invited to participate in the study. All patients had previously undergone successful CBDS removal by ERCP. Patients in the control group were matched with the recurrence group by age and gender in a 1:1 ratio. Patients with gallbladder stones, hepatolithiasis, remnant CBDS, CBD strictures, or stents were excluded. Standard barium meal examination, MRCP, and enhanced abdominal CT. DBR. Thirty-two patients with a history of recurrent CBDS and 32 matched control subjects were enrolled. Baseline characteristics and parameters regarding the first ERCP were comparable between the 2 groups. The DBR rate was significantly higher in the recurrent than in the control group (68.8% vs 15.6%, P < .001). Multivariate analysis indicated that DBR (OR, 9.59; 95% CI, 2.65-34.76) and acute distal CBD angulation (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 1.52-19.78) were independent factors associated with CBDS recurrence. DBR rates in patients with no, single, or multiple recurrences were 15.6%, 60.9%, and 88.9%, respectively (P < .001). Intrahepatic bile duct reflux was more common in patients with multiple recurrences. Small sample size. DBR is correlated with CBDS recurrence in patients who had previously undergone ERCP. DBR and acute distal CBD angulation are 2 independent risk factors related to stone recurrence. ( NCT02329977.) Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial Offering Higher- Compared with Lower-Dairy Second Meals Daily in Preschools in Guinea-Bissau Demonstrates an Attendance-Dependent Increase in Weight Gain for Both Meal Types and an Increase in Mid-Upper Arm Circumference for the Higher-Dairy Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Schlossman, Nina; Balan, Ionela; Pruzensky, William; Balan, Adrian; Brown, Carrie; Gamache, Madeleine G; Schleicher, Molly M; de Sa, Augusto Braima; Saltzman, Edward; Wood, Lauren; Roberts, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Controversy remains over the most effective approaches to prevent childhood malnutrition. We tested the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSFs) as a second daily meal in preschool children aged 3-5 y in Guinea-Bissau, and compared RUSFs with different levels of dairy protein. This study was a 3 mo cluster-randomized controlled pilot trial of 2 RUSFs differing in dairy protein in 533 boys and girls from 9 preschools. Children receiving RUSFs were compared with wait-listed controls, and all students received a daily school lunch. The RUSFs were delivered 5 d/wk for 3 mo and contained 478 kcal and 11.5 g protein per 92-g daily serving. Deliveries included a ready-to-use supplementary food with 15% of protein from dairy sources (RUSF-15%) or one with 33% of protein from dairy sources (RUSF-33%). Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses (>50 d of RUSF consumption) were conducted. Changes in the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) and height-for-age z score were primary outcomes. Additional outcomes included changes in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), hemoglobin, and retinol binding protein. Baseline anthropometry was not different between groups (WAZ, -0.48 ± 1.04) and increased significantly over time (P 50 d had a significantly greater increase in WAZ relative to the increase in controls (+0.40 and +0.32 for RUSF-15% and RUSF-33%, respectively, compared with +0.24 in controls, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). RUSF-33%, but not RUSF-15%, also eliminated a decrease in MUAC observed in controls (-0.01 cm in RUSF-33% compared with -0.34 cm in controls, P < 0.05). The only difference between RUSF-15% and RUSF-33% was a mean decrease in hemoglobin in children receiving RUSF-15% (-0.5 compared with -0.002 g/dL, P = 0.05). Implementation of 2-meal preschool feeding programs is feasible in low-income countries, and there are measurable benefits relative to 1-meal programs in children attending preschool regularly. In

  4. Uncomplicated human type 2 diabetes is associated with meal-induced blood pressure lowering and cardiac output increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Mark M.; Muskiet, Marcel H. A.; Tushuizen, Maarten E.; Kwa, Kelly A. A.; Karemaker, John M.; van Raalte, Daniël H.; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Since many type 2 diabetes patients experience postprandial hypotension, the aim of this study was to unravel meal-related changes in systemic hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ANS)-balance. Forty-two age-matched males (15 type 2 diabetes; 12 metabolic syndrome; 15 controls) without overt

  5. Effects of Particle Size on the Morphology and Water- and Thermo-Resistance of Washed Cottonseed Meal-Based Wood Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water washing of cottonseed meal is more cost-efficient and environmentally friendly than protein isolation by means of alkaline extraction and acidic precipitation. Thus, water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM is more promising as biobased wood adhesives. In this work, we examined the effects of the particle size on the morphology and adhesive performance of WCSM. Pilot-scale produced and dried WCSM was treated by three grinding methods: (1 ground by a hammer mill and passed through a 0.5-mm screen, (2 further ground by a cyclone mill and passed through a 0.5-mm screen, or (3 further ground by a ball mill and passed through a 0.18-mm screen. Micro-morphological examination revealed two types of particles. The filament-like particles were mainly fibrous materials from residual linters. Chunk-like particles were more like aggregates or accumulations of small particles, with proteins as the major component. Further grinding of the 0.5-mm Hammer product with the Cyclone and Ball mill led to more fine (smaller particles in the WCSM products. The impact of further grinding on the dry and soaked adhesive strengths was minimal. However, the decrease of the hot and wet strengths of WCSM products by the additional grinding was significant (p ≤ 0.05. Data presented in this work is useful in developing the industrial standards of WCSM products used in wood bonding.

  6. Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Krarup, T; Sonne, J

    2003-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones secreted in response to meal ingestion, thereby enhancing postprandial insulin secretion. Therefore, an attenuated incretin response could contribute to the impaired insulin responses...... with healthy subjects, whereas decreased GLP-1 responses were seen in type 2 diabetic patients, compared with matched obese healthy subjects. Incremental GLP-1 responses were normal in type 1 diabetic patients. Increased fasting concentrations of GIP and an early enhanced postprandial GIP response were seen...

  7. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2015-12-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Amino acids digestibility of pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suthama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Commom protein sources for poultry, fish meal and soybean meal, were ground to obtain reduced particle size. The particle was then dissolved in distilled water (1 : 4 w/v, and added with 2 mL virgin coconut oil for every 500 mL solution prior to ultrasound transducer (ultrasonic bath treatment to obtain protein microparticle. Reducing particle size is one possible way to increase protein utilization.180 birds were used for forced feeding and 10 other birds were plotted for endogenous correction, when they were one month and a half old. Microparticle protein of both ingredients were tested separately in either mash or pelleted forms and compared to intact protein. Completely randomized design with 3 treatments (intact, mash, and pellet and 6 replications (10 bidrs each was arranged for the respective ingredient. Protein and essential amino acid digestibilities, and calcium retention were the parameters measured. Analysis of variance continued to Duncan test were applied to statistically evaluate the data. Pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal, respectively, resulted in significantly (P<0.05 highest protein and amino acids digestibilities, and Ca retention although lower disgestibility of fewer amino acids was found in mash form. In conclusion, pelleted form of microparticle protein of either fish meal or soybean meal improve protein and mostly amino acids digestibilities, and calcium retention in broiler.

  9. Failure of sucrose replacement with the non-nutritive sweetener erythritol to alter GLP-1 or PYY release or test meal size in lean or obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Joost; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Medic, Nenad; Henning, Elana; Keogh, Julia M; Forsyth, Faye; Stephenson, Cheryl; Kanning, Marja W; Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; van der Klaauw, Agatha A

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the effect of foods containing high intensity sweeteners on satiation. However, less is known about low-calorie bulk sweeteners such as erythritol. In this randomized three-way crossover study, we studied 10 lean and 10 obese volunteers who consumed three test meals on separate occasions: (a) control sucrose meal; (b) isovolumic meal with partial replacement of sucrose by erythritol; (c) isocaloric meal which contained more erythritol but equivalent calories to the control meal. We measured gut hormone levels, hunger and satiety scores, ad libitum food intake, sucrose preference and intake after the manipulations. There was a greater post-prandial excursion in glucose and insulin levels after sucrose than after the erythritol meals. There was no difference in GLP-1/PYY levels or subsequent energy intake and sucrose preference between sucrose control and isovolumic erythritol meals. In lean (but not obese) participants, hunger decreased to a greater extent after the isocaloric erythritol meal compared to the control meal (p = 0.003) reflecting the larger volume of this meal. Replacing sucrose with erythritol leads to comparable hunger and satiety scores, GLP-1 and PYY levels, and subsequent sucrose preference and intake. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased meal frequency does not promote greater weight loss in subjects who were prescribed an 8-week equi-energetic energy-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D; Cyr, Marie-Josée; Doucet, Eric

    2010-04-01

    There have been reports of an inverse relationship between meal frequency (MF) and adiposity. It has been postulated that this may be explained by favourable effects of increased MF on appetite control and possibly on gut peptides as well. The main goal of the present study was to investigate whether using a high MF could lead to a greater weight loss than that obtained with a low MF under conditions of similar energy restriction. Subjects were randomised into two treatment arms (high MF = 3 meals+3 snacks/d or low MF = 3 meals/d) and subjected to the same dietary energy restriction of - 2931 kJ/d for 8 weeks. Sixteen obese adults (n 8 women and 8 men; age 34.6 (sd 9.5); BMI 37.1 (sd 4.5) kg/m2) completed the study. Overall, there was a 4.7 % decrease in body weight (P weight loss under the conditions described in the present study.

  11. Sugar Restriction Leads to Increased Ad Libitum Sugar Intake by Overweight Adolescents in an Experimental Test Meal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, Poverweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake and trait impulsivity may have implications for dietary interventions in this

  12. The effect of increased levels of dried coconut meal supplemented with an enzyme cocktail® on diet utilization in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prawit Rodjan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of increased levels of dried coconut meal supplemented with an enzyme cocktail® on diet utilization in growing pigs. A 4x4 latin square design was used in this study. Four crossbred (Duroc x Landrace x Large White barrows averaging 17.88±0.96 kg in body weight were allotted 4 diets, diet 1 (the control diet, diet 2, diet 3 and diet 4 (5, 10 and 15% dried coconut meal in each diet with an enzyme cocktail® , 1 kg of the enzyme cocktail containing the activities of phytase 1,000,000 units, amylase 5,000,000 units, xylanase 3,500,000 units, beta-glucanase 2,000,000 units, cellulase 1,500,000 units, pectinase 1,000,000 units and mannanase 800,000 units; 500 g/t of feed, at a level 0.05% in the diets, respectively. Pigs were raised in individual metabolism cages. Faeces and urine samples were collected 4 times a day for 5 days for data collection. The results showed that the nutrient digestibility percentage of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, nitrogen-free extract, blood urea nitrogen, digestible energy (kcal/kg and metabolizable energy (kcal/ kg were not significantly different (P>0.05 in pigs fed with different diets. However, pigs fed with 5, 10 and 15% dried coconut meal in the diet with an enzyme cocktail® at a level 0.05% had significantly (P0.05 from the other groups. Apparent biological values contrarily reduced (linear and quadratic, P<0.05 with increasing level of dried coconut meal in pig diets. In conclusion, our data indicate that pigs fed with 5% dried coconut meal in a diet with addition of an enzyme cocktail at a level of 0.05% can show obviously increasing the highest digestibility of crude fiber (79.25% without impairing nutrient digestibility.

  13. Effect of reducing portion size at a compulsory meal on later energy intake, gut hormones, and appetite in overweight adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, HB; Ahern, AL; Solis-Trapala, I; Walker, CG; Reimann, F; Gribble, FM; Jebb, SA

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. METHODS: In a randomized crossover design (n = 33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced b...

  14. Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase 2 Is Stable and Highly Active in Test Meals and Increases Fat Absorption in an Animal Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloulou, Ahmed; Schué, Mathieu; Puccinelli, Delphine; Milano, Stéphane; Delchambre, Chantal; Leblond, Yves; Laugier, René; Carrière, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) reduces pancreatic secretion of digestive enzymes, including lipases. Oral pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) with pancreatin produces unsatisfactory results. The lipase 2 produced by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (YLLIP2; GenBank: AJ012632) might be used in PERT. We investigated its ability to digest triglycerides in a test meal and its efficacy in reducing fecal fat in an animal model of PEI. YLLIP2 was produced by genetically engineered Y lipolytica and purified from culture media. YLLIP2 or other gastric (LIPF) and pancreatic (PNLIPD) lipases were added to a meal paste containing dietary triglycerides, at a range of pH values (pH 2-7), with and without pepsin or human bile and incubated at 37°C. We collected samples at various time points and measured lipase activities and stabilities. To create an animal model of PEI, steatorrhea was induced by embolization of the exocrine pancreas gland and pancreatic duct ligation in minipigs. The animals were given YLLIP2 (1, 4, 8, 40, or 80 mg/d) or pancreatin (100,000 US Pharmacopeia lipase units/d, controls) for 9 days. We then collected stool samples, measured fat levels, and calculated coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) values. YLLIP2 was highly stable and poorly degraded by pepsin, and had the highest activity of all lipases tested on meal triglyceride at pH 4-7 (pH 6 with bile: 94 ± 34 U/mg; pH 4 without bile: 43 ± 13 U/mg). Only gastric lipase was active and stable at pH 3, whereas YLLIP2 was sensitive to pepsin hydrolysis after pH inactivation. From in vitro test meal experiments, the lipase activity of YLLIP2 (10 mg) was estimated to be equivalent to that of pancreatin (1200 mg; 100,000 US Pharmacopeia units) at pH 6. In PEI minipigs, CFA values increased from 60.1% ± 9.3% before surgery to 90.5% ± 3.2% after administration of 1200 mg pancreatin (P meal triglycerides in a large pH range, with and without bile. Oral administration of milligram amounts of

  15. Meal Pattern of Male Rats Maintained on Amino Acid Supplemented Diets: The Effect of Tryptophan, Lysine, Arginine, Proline and Threonine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Ayaso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient composition of the diet has been shown to affect food intake, with proteins having distinct effects. The present study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with individual amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, arginine, proline and threonine on meal pattern among male rats. Meal pattern and body weight were monitored for two weeks. Proline and threonine had minimal effects on meal pattern, while the most pronounced changes were observed in the tryptophan group. Both tryptophan and lysine decreased overall food intake, which was translated into a reduction in body weight. The reduced food intake of the tryptophan group was associated with an increase in meal size, intermeal intervals (IMI and meal time and a decrease in meal number. The decrease in the food intake of the lysine group was associated with a reduction in both IMI and meal number, and this was accompanied by an increase in meal time. Arginine increased meal number, while decreasing IMI. Proline and threonine had a minimal effect on meal pattern. Lysine seems to increase satiety, and arginine seems to decrease it, while tryptophan seems to increase satiety and decrease satiation. Accordingly, changes in meal patterns are associated with the type of amino acid added to the diet.

  16. C-Peptide, Baseline and Postprandial Insulin Resistance after a Carbohydrate-Rich Test Meal - Evidence for an Increased Insulin Clearance in PCOS Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassek, J; Erdmann, J; Ohnolz, F; Berg, F D; Kiechle, M; Seifert-Klauss, V

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Known characteristics of patients with PCOS include infertility, menstrual disorders, hirsutism and also often insulin resistance. These symptoms increase with increasing body weight. In the LIPCOS study ( L ifestyle I ntervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [ PCOS ]) long-term changes of the PCOS in dependence on pregnancy and parenthood were systematically assessed. In the framework of the LIPCOS study, PCOS patients were given a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal in order to examine glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The results were compared with those of a eumenorrhoeic control group who all had corresponding BMI values and corresponding ages. Methods and Patients 41 PCOS patients (without diabetes) and 68 controls received a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal (260 kcal, 62 % carbohydrates, 32 % fat, 6 % proteins) in order to generate a submaximal insulin and glucose stimulation. The values were determined at baseline and postprandial after 60, 120 and 180 minutes. In addition, the corresponding C-peptide levels were recorded. Results In the PCOS patients (n = 41), the insulin secretion test after a standardised test meal showed almost identical baseline and postprandial insulin levels when compared with those of the age- and BMI-matched eumenorrhoeic controls (n = 68). In the PCOS patients, the baseline and postprandial glucose levels were significantly elevated (92.88 ± 10.28 [PCOS] vs. 85.07 ± 9.42 mg/dL [controls]; p PCOS patients formally exhibit a higher fasting insulin resistance than controls. In spite of the higher stimulated C-peptide levels, the insulin levels did not increase more strongly with increasing glucose levels than in controls which may be indicative of a higher insulin clearance in PCOS patients.

  17. Effect of reducing portion size at a compulsory meal on later energy intake, gut hormones, and appetite in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Walker, Celia G; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-07-01

    Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. In a randomized crossover design (n = 33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced by 20% and 40%. EI was measured at an ad libitum lunch (240 min) and snack (360 min) and by weighed diet diaries until bed. Blood was sampled until lunch in 20 participants. Appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales. EI at lunch (control: 2,930 ± 203; 20% reduction: 2,853 ± 198; 40% reduction: 2,911 ± 179 kJ) and over the whole day except breakfast (control: 7,374 ± 361; 20% reduction: 7,566 ± 468; 40% reduction: 7,413 ± 417 kJ) did not differ. Postprandial PYY, GLP-1, GIP, insulin, and fullness profiles were lower and hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption higher following 40% reduction compared to control. Appetite ratings profiles, but not hormone concentrations, were associated with subsequent EI. Smaller portions at breakfast led to reductions in gastrointestinal hormone secretion but did not affect subsequent energy intake, suggesting small reductions in portion size may be a useful strategy to constrain EI. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  19. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing substitutions of soyabean meal for breadfruit meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings led to weight increases in all dietary types with exception of diet G and higher growth induction in catfishes fed all diets with exception of diet B. Diets C had induced better ...

  20. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We use a field experiment in a lunch restaurant to analyze how meal attributes and a “nudge” impact healthy labeled meal consumption. The nudge consists of increasing the salience of healthy labeled meals by placing them at the top of the menu. We find that certain meal attributes (e.g. poultry...

  1. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing the MTU size for Energy Efficiency in Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Reviriego, P.; Sanchez-Macian, A.; Maestro, J.A.; Bleakley, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    The commonly used Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) on the Internet has remained unchanged for many years at around 1500 bytes due mainly to backward compatibility issues. This is in contrast with link data rate, which has increased by several orders of magnitude. In this paper, a new advantage of using larger MTUs is introduced, namely Energy Efficiency. In wire-line environments, the link power consumption is generally roughly independent of the number of frames that are t...

  3. Meal delivery practices do not meet needs of Alzheimer patients with increased cognitive and behavioral difficulties in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K W; Binns, M A; Greenwood, C E

    2001-10-01

    Alterations in circadian rhythms and behavioral difficulties likely impact meal consumption patterns in elderly individuals with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite these known changes, the profile of meals provided in the institution parallels the needs of younger, free-living, healthy populations. This investigation examined the impact of food delivery patterns on achieved intakes in elderly individuals with probable AD in a long-term care facility and how this relationship changes depending on time of day, body weight status, behavioral function, and cognitive ability. Twenty-one consecutive days of investigator-weighed food intake and delivery collections were conducted on 25 elderly individuals with probable AD who maintained the ability to self-feed. Energy consumed was positively associated with energy delivered for the majority of subjects, although the strength of this relationship varied across subjects and throughout the day. Energy delivered had the greatest impact on energy consumed at breakfast and the least impact at dinner in those with the greatest behavioral difficulties and cognitive impairment. Although those with low body mass indexes (BMIs) were likely to be delivered more energy, the impact of delivery on intakes decreased as energy delivered increased. Delivering excess energy to patients with poor BMIs likely does not result in increased energy consumption. Behavioral and cognitive deterioration leads to a shift in the time of day that energy delivered has an impact on energy consumption, with the most progressed individuals being most impacted by foods delivered in the morning, suggesting that traditional meal practices are inappropriate for elderly individuals with AD.

  4. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky A. Solah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® was compared to wheat dextrin (WD in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC, mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form gave higher satiety (AUC (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min, than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min (p < 0.001. Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules and WD. Glucose response (AUC was significantly lower (p < 0.001 after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study.

  5. Increasing preload volume with water reduces rated appetite but not food intake in healthy men even with minimum delay between preload and test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard W; French, Stephen J; Robinson, Tristan M; Yeomans, Martin R

    2003-02-01

    The role of gastric volume in the short-term control of eating in humans remains unclear, with some studies reporting that food volume alone can reduce appetite but others finding no such effect. A recent study in our laboratory, found effects of preload volume on subjective appetite (hunger, fullness) but not intake, and found effects of preload energy on intake but not appetite. That study used an interval of 30 min between serving preloads and the test meal, and the present study attempted to maximise the effects of the volume manipulation by removing the delay between the preload and test meal. We administered four soup-based preloads varying in volume (150 and 450 ml) using water, and energy density (1.4 and 4.2 kJ/ml) using maltodextrin, producing three energy levels (209, 629, 629 and 1886 kJ; repeated measures). These were followed immediately by an unlimited hot pasta lunch, during which food weight was monitored continuously by computer. Increasing soup volume at constant energy (629 kJ) reduced appetite ratings, but not intake. In contrast, increasing soup energy at constant volume (450 ml) reduced intake, without affecting appetite. The discrepancies between our results and other reported studies suggest that volume is more influential when intakes are large, or that there may be a threshold concentration for nutrients in the GI tract before volume alone is tangibly expressed in subsequent eating.

  6. A lactic acid-fermented oat gruel increases non-haem iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in healthy women of childbearing age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering, S.; Suchdev, S.; Sjoltov, L.

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid-fermented foods have been shown to increase Fe absorption in human subjects, possibly by lowering pH, activation of phytases, and formation of soluble complexes of Fe and organic acids. We tested the effect of an oat gruel fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on non-haem Fe...... absorption from a low-Fe bioavailability meal compared with a pasteurised, fermented oat gruel and non-fermented oat gruels. In a cross-over trial twenty-four healthy women with a mean age of 25 (sd 4) years were served (A) fermented gruel, (B) pasteurised fermented gruel, (C) pH-adjusted non-fermented gruel......, and (D) non-fermented gruel with added organic acids. The meals were extrinsically labelled with Fe-55 or Fe-59 and consumed on 4 consecutive days, for example, in the order ABBA or BAAB followed by CDDC or DCCD in a second period. Fe absorption was determined from isotope activities in blood samples...

  7. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  8. Improvement Utilization Efficiency of Sunflower Meal as a Feed for Ruminant Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; AL-Sultan, A.; AL-Shekhly, M.

    2001-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of blood, formaldehyde, heating or roasting on sunflower meal including chemical composition, particle size, solubility, in vitro digestion coefficient, dry matter and nitrogen degradability and true nitrogen digestion coefficient. Results of chemical composition indicated that treatments caused high significant (P<0.01) differences in comparison with untreated meal particularly in protein. It was shown that treatment with blood or roasting caused an increase in protein percentage about 7.75% and 3.81%; respectively. Treatments casued a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in particle size and reduction in small particle ratio in comparison with untreated meal. Superiority was for blood treatment. Meanwhile, solubility results reflected no significant differences between used solutions . Different treatments tended to reduce solubility compared to untreated meal. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in nitrogen solubility was for treating meal with blood or roasting . Results indicated that treatment tended to reduce (P<0.01) dry and organic mater digestion coefficients in comparison with untreated meal. Dry matter and nitrogen degradability was greatly reduced (P<0.01) compared to untreated meal, especially blood and roasting treatments . True nitrogen digestion coefficient showed high significance (P<0.01) due to treatment . This study indicated that sunflower meal protein could be protected effectively from degradation in rumen by treatment with blood or roasting without any inverse effect on nitrogen digestion and absorbability in ruminant animal abomasum and small intestine. (authors) 32 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  10. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (Pphytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  12. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  13. Nonheme-iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal is increased by the addition of small amounts of pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    of small amounts of meat on nonheme-iron absorption from a meal presumed to have low iron bioavailability. Design: Forty-five healthy women with a mean (+/-SD) age of 24 +/- 3 y were randomly assigned to I of 3 groups, each of which was served (A) a basic meal (rice, tomato sauce, pea puree, and a wheat...

  14. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    -fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread...... (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h...... was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management....

  15. Ghrelin receptor regulates appetite and satiety during aging in mice by regulating meal frequency and portion size but not total food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is often associated with overweight and obesity. There exists a long-standing debate about whether meal pattern also contributes to the development of obesity. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin regulates appetite and satiety by activating its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)...

  16. Meal frequency and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschke, André M; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse association between meal frequency and the prevalence of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between meal frequency and childhood obesity. Stature and weight of 4,370 German children ages 5 to 6 years were determined in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices during the obligatory school entry health examination in 2001/2002. An extensive questionnaire on risk factors for obesity was answered by their parents. Obesity was defined according to sex- and age-specific BMI cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The main exposure was daily meal frequency. The prevalence of obesity decreased by number of daily meals: three or fewer meals, 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8 to 6.1]; four meals, 2.8% (95% CI, 2.1 to 3.7); and 5 or more meals, 1.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4). These effects could not be explained by confounding due to a wide range of constitutional, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. The adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.21) for four meals and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.89) for five or more meals. Additional analyses pointed to a higher energy intake in nibblers compared with gorgers. A protective effect of an increased daily meal frequency on obesity in children was observed and appeared to be independent of other risk factors for childhood obesity. A modulation of the response of hormones such as insulin might be instrumental.

  17. Cultural/Favorite Recipe Day: Strengthening Approaches to Increase Culturally Diverse Foods Served in Head Start Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica A.; Agrawal, Tara; Carter, Sonia; Grinder, AnnMarie; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    One approach to halting the childhood obesity epidemic has been the modification of foods available to children during the school day. In recent years there has been an increased focus on obesity prevention efforts among children ages birth to 5 and the role of child care settings in prevention efforts. Head Start serves as an important venue for…

  18. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  19. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pinsulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The meal as a performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NYBERG, MARIA; Olsson, Viktoria; ÖRTMAN, GERD

    2018-01-01

    carried out with 11 of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjusting and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages......The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life....... By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were...

  1. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p effect of treatment on prepizza meal BG AUC (p = 0.07). Immediately after the pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  2. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Sung Woo

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. Soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. After fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. Proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characteristics were evaluated after electrophoresis. Fermented soybeans and fermented soybean meals contained 10% more (P 60 kDa) (P 60 kDa), whereas 22.1% of peptides in soybean meal were large-size (>60 kDa). Collectively, fermentation increased protein content, eliminated trypsin inhibitors, and reduced peptide size in soybeans and soybean meals. These effects of fermentation might make soy foods more useful in human diets as a functional food and benefit livestock as a novel feed ingredient.

  3. Small-for-Size Liver Transplantation Increases Pulmonary Injury in Rats: Prevention by NIM811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications after liver transplantation (LT often cause mortality. This study investigated whether small-for-size LT increases acute pulmonary injury and whether NIM811 which improves small-for-size liver graft survival attenuates LT-associated lung injury. Rat livers were reduced to 50% of original size, stored in UW-solution with and without NIM811 (5 μM for 6 h, and implanted into recipients of the same or about twice the donor weight, resulting in half-size (HSG and quarter-size grafts (QSG, respectively. Liver injury increased and regeneration was suppressed after QSG transplantation as expected. NIM811 blunted these alterations >75%. Pulmonary histological alterations were minimal at 5–18 h after LT. At 38 h, neutrophils and monocytes/macrophage infiltration, alveolar space exudation, alveolar septal thickening, oxidative/nitrosative protein adduct formation, and alveolar epithelial cell/capillary endothelial apoptosis became overt in the lungs of QSG recipients, but these alterations were mild in full-size and HSG recipients. Liver pretreatment with NIM811 markedly decreased pulmonary injury in QSG recipients. Hepatic TNFα and IL-1β mRNAs and pulmonary ICAM-1 expression were markedly higher after QSG transplantation, which were all decreased by NIM811. Together, dysfunctional small-for-size grafts produce toxic cytokines, leading to lung inflammation and injury. NIM811 decreased toxic cytokine formation, thus attenuating pulmonary injury after small-for-size LT.

  4. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  5. Changes in eating behaviour and meal pattern following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, A; Larsson, I; Bueter, M; Melanson, K J; Bosaeus, I; Forslund, H Bertéus; Lönroth, H; Fändriks, L; Olbers, T

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about eating behaviour and meal pattern subsequent to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), knowledge important for the nutritional care process. The objective of the study was to obtain basic information of how meal size, eating rate, meal frequency and eating behaviour change upon the RYGB surgery. Voluntary chosen meal size and eating rate were measured in a longitudinal, within subject, cohort study of 43 patients, 31 women and 12 men, age 42.6 (s.d. 9.7) years, body mass index (BMI) 44.5 (4.9) kg m(-2). Thirty-one non-obese subjects, 37.8 (13.6) years, BMI 23.7 (2.7) kg m(-2) served as a reference group. All subjects completed a meal pattern questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21). Six weeks postoperatively meal size was 42% of the preoperative meal size, (Pmeal size increased but was still lower than preoperative size 57% (Pmeal duration was constant before and after surgery. Mean eating rate measured as amount consumed food per minute was 45% of preoperative eating rate 6 weeks postoperatively (Pmeals per day increased from 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 4.4,5.4) preoperatively to 6 weeks: 5.2 (4.9,5.6), (not significant), 1 year 5.8 (5.5,6.1), (P=0.003), and 2 years 5.4 (5.1,5.7), (not significant). Emotional and uncontrolled eating were significantly decreased postoperatively, (both Pmeal patterns, which may lead to sustained weight loss.

  6. [School meals: state of the art and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Dalmau Serra, J; Gil Hernández, A; Lama More, R; Martín Mateos, M A; Martínez Suárez, V; Pavón Belinchón, P; Suárez Cortina, L

    2008-07-01

    School meals contribute substantially to overall energy and nutrient intake adequacy of children, but also play an important role in the development of child food habits and the socialisation process. Evidence shows that school based environmental actions, which include changes in school meals and school food policies related to increased availability and access to healthy foods and drinks while in the school are effective to foster healthy eating practices among children. A growing number of children engage in school meals. Available information to date shows that the quality of the food on offer is not always consistent with dietary guidelines. Vegetables and fish are served less often than desirable and excess added fats are used in food preparations. Norms and regulations are very detailed regarding food safety issues and administrative management of the service, including subcontracting of catering providers and care staff. Nutrition and health promotion issues should also be included in regulations by means of nutrition recommendations for school meals along with information on food based dietary guidelines and portion sizes. School meals should be part of the educational project using a whole school approach.

  7. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan; Chen, Rujin

    2016-11-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes.

  8. Soya bean meal increases litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in maize and wheat based diets for turkeys but maize and non-soya diets lower body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, P M; Vinco, L J; Veldkamp, T

    2018-04-01

    1. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of wheat or maize based diets differing in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in heavy-medium turkeys. A second objective was to investigate the effects on foot pad dermatitis of the interaction between dietary composition and artificially increasing litter moisture by adding water to the litter. 2. High DEB diets contained soya as the main protein source whereas low DEB diets did not contain soya bean meal. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous in each of 3 successive 4-week phases following recommended dietary compositions. DEB concentrations were 330, 290 and 250 mEq/kg in high DEB diets and 230, 200 and 180 mEq/kg in low DEB diets. 3. Litter moisture and mean FPD score were higher in turkeys fed on high DEB diets compared with low DEB diets whereas there was no difference between maize and wheat. 4. Food intake was similar and body weight was lower after litter moisture was artificially raised in the wet compared with the dry litter treatment and there was no interaction with dietary composition. 5. Mean body weight and feed intake were higher in turkeys fed on wheat compared with maize and in high DEB compared with low DEB diets at 12 weeks of age. 6. Lowering dietary DEB for turkeys may improve litter moisture and lower the prevalence of FPD in commercial turkey flocks.

  9. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4-6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S; Keller, Kathleen L

    2010-10-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4-6-year-old children's self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n=70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (ED(food+drink)) and ED for foods only (ED(foods)) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food+drink). In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food). There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children.

  10. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  11. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  12. Bound to lose: physical incapacitation increases the conceptualized size of an antagonist in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M T Fessler

    Full Text Available Because decision-making in situations of potential conflict hinges on assessing many features of the self and the foe, this process can be facilitated by summarizing diverse attributes in a single heuristic representation. Physical size and strength are evolutionarily ancient determinants of victory in conflict, and their relevance is reinforced during development. Accordingly, size and muscularity constitute ready dimensions for a summary representation of relative formidability, a perspective paralleled by the notion that social power is represented using envisioned relative size. Physical incapacitation constitutes a significant tactical disadvantage, hence temporary incapacitation should increase the envisioned size and strength of an antagonist. In Study 1, being bound to a chair increased men's estimates of the size of an angry man and decreased estimates of their own height. Study 2 conceptually replicated these effects: among men for whom standing on a balance board was challenging, the attendant experience of postural instability increased estimates of an angry man's size and muscularity, with similar patterns occurring at a reduced level among all but those whose equilibrium was apparently unaffected by this task.

  13. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  15. Larger ATV engine size correlates with an increased rate of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, C Caleb; Rostas, Jack W; Lee, Y L; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Ahmed, Naveed; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) to the United States in 1971, injuries and mortalities related to their use have increased significantly. Furthermore, these vehicles have become larger and more powerful. As there are no helmet requirements or limitations on engine-size in the State of Alabama, we hypothesised that larger engine size would correlate with an increased incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients following an ATV crash. Patient and ATV data were prospectively collected on all ATV crashes presenting to a level one trauma centre from September 2010 to May 2013. Collected data included: demographics, age of driver, ATV engine size, presence of helmet, injuries, and outcomes. The data were grouped according to the ATV engine size in cubic centimetres (cc). For the purposes of this study, TBI was defined as any type of intracranial haemorrhage on the initial computed tomography scan. There were 61 patients identified during the study period. Two patients (3%) were wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater had higher Injury Severity Scores (13.9 vs. 7.5, p ≤ 0.05) and an increased incidence of TBI (26% vs. 0%, p ≤ 0.05) when compared to patients on ATV's with an engine size less than 350 cc. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater were more likely to have a TBI. The use of a helmet was rarely present in this cohort. Legislative efforts to implement rider protection laws for ATVs are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  17. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  18. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  19. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.C.; Ostman, E.M.; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose...... tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P

  20. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  1. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Density-functional errors in ionization potential with increasing system size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittleton, Sarah R.; Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M., E-mail: cisborn@ucmerced.edu [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States); Johnson, Erin R., E-mail: erin.johnson@dal.ca [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, 6274 Coburg Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2015-05-14

    This work investigates the effects of molecular size on the accuracy of density-functional ionization potentials for a set of 28 hydrocarbons, including series of alkanes, alkenes, and oligoacenes. As the system size increases, delocalization error introduces a systematic underestimation of the ionization potential, which is rationalized by considering the fractional-charge behavior of the electronic energies. The computation of the ionization potential with many density-functional approximations is not size-extensive due to excessive delocalization of the incipient positive charge. While inclusion of exact exchange reduces the observed errors, system-specific tuning of long-range corrected functionals does not generally improve accuracy. These results emphasize that good performance of a functional for small molecules is not necessarily transferable to larger systems.

  3. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare's quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market's action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  4. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare’s quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market’s action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  5. INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE, DYNAMICS OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF FIRMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying FAN; Menghui LI; Zengru DI

    2006-01-01

    A multi-agent model is presented to discuss the market dynamics and the size distribution of firms.The model emphasizes the effects of increasing returns to scale and gives the description of the born and death of adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior under the technological shocks are investigated. Its dynamical results are in good agreement with some empirical "stylized facts" of industrial evolution. With the diversity of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the firm size in the generalized model obeys the power-law distribution. Three factors mainly determine the competitive dynamics and the skewed size distributions of firms: 1. Self-reinforcing mechanism; 2. Adaptive firm growing strategies; 3. Demand diversity or widespread heterogeneity in the technological capabilities of firms.

  6. Saturation in Phosphene Size with Increasing Current Levels Delivered to Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosking, William H; Sun, Ping; Ozker, Muge; Pei, Xiaomei; Foster, Brett L; Beauchamp, Michael S; Yoshor, Daniel

    2017-07-26

    Electrically stimulating early visual cortex results in a visual percept known as a phosphene. Although phosphenes can be evoked by a wide range of electrode sizes and current amplitudes, they are invariably described as small. To better understand this observation, we electrically stimulated 93 electrodes implanted in the visual cortex of 13 human subjects who reported phosphene size while stimulation current was varied. Phosphene size increased as the stimulation current was initially raised above threshold, but then rapidly reached saturation. Phosphene size also depended on the location of the stimulated site, with size increasing with distance from the foveal representation. We developed a model relating phosphene size to the amount of activated cortex and its location within the retinotopic map. First, a sigmoidal curve was used to predict the amount of activated cortex at a given current. Second, the amount of active cortex was converted to degrees of visual angle by multiplying by the inverse cortical magnification factor for that retinotopic location. This simple model accurately predicted phosphene size for a broad range of stimulation currents and cortical locations. The unexpected saturation in phosphene sizes suggests that the functional architecture of cerebral cortex may impose fundamental restrictions on the spread of artificially evoked activity and this may be an important consideration in the design of cortical prosthetic devices. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neural basis for phosphenes, the visual percepts created by electrical stimulation of visual cortex, is fundamental to the development of a visual cortical prosthetic. Our experiments in human subjects implanted with electrodes over visual cortex show that it is the activity of a large population of cells spread out across several millimeters of tissue that supports the perception of a phosphene. In addition, we describe an important feature of the production of phosphenes by

  7. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement......This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...

  8. Meal Frequency and Timing Are Associated with Changes in Body Mass Index in Adventist Health Study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Lloren, Jan Irene; Mashchak, Andrew; Hill, Martin; Fraser, Gary E

    2017-09-01

    Background: Scientific evidence for the optimal number, timing, and size of meals is lacking. Objective: We investigated the relation between meal frequency and timing and changes in body mass index (BMI) in the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a relatively healthy North American cohort. Methods: The analysis used data from 50,660 adult members aged ≥30 y of Seventh-day Adventist churches in the United States and Canada (mean ± SD follow-up: 7.42 ± 1.23 y). The number of meals per day, length of overnight fast, consumption of breakfast, and timing of the largest meal were exposure variables. The primary outcome was change in BMI per year. Linear regression analyses (stratified on baseline BMI) were adjusted for important demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Subjects who ate 1 or 2 meals/d had a reduction in BMI per year (in kg · m -2 · y -1 ) (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.065, -0.004 and -0.029; 95% CI: -0.041, -0.017, respectively) compared with those who ate 3 meals/d. On the other hand, eating >3 meals/d (snacking) was associated with a relative increase in BMI ( P meal at dinner, those who consumed breakfast as the largest meal experienced a significant decrease in BMI (-0.038; 95% CI: -0.048, -0.028), and those who consumed a big lunch experienced a smaller but still significant decrease in BMI than did those who ate their largest meal at dinner. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in relatively healthy adults, eating less frequently, no snacking, consuming breakfast, and eating the largest meal in the morning may be effective methods for preventing long-term weight gain. Eating breakfast and lunch 5-6 h apart and making the overnight fast last 18-19 h may be a useful practical strategy. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M; Masdeu, M; Hale, P; Sibbons, C M; Holt, W V

    2014-02-01

    Seahorses populations in the wild have been declining and to restore them a better knowledge of seahorse reproduction is required. This study examines the effect of dietary quality on seahorse fecundity and egg quality. Two different diets were tested with Hippocampus kuda females: frozen mysis (control) and frozen mysis enriched with a liposome spray containing essential fatty acids. Diets were given to females (two groups of five) over a seven week period. After this period, males (fed the control diet) and females were paired and the eggs dropped by the females were collected. Fatty acid profile were analysed and eggs were counted and measured. Results showed that females fed on enriched mysis had larger eggs and that these had a higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The size of the egg was especially affected in the first spawn, where egg size for females fed the enriched diet was significantly higher than the egg size from control females. This effect was reduced in the following spawning where no significant differences were found. Egg size is an important quality descriptor as seahorse juveniles originating from smaller eggs and/or eggs of poor quality will have less chances of overcoming adverse conditions in the wild and consequently have lower survival and growth rates. This study shows that enriching frozen mysis with polyunsaturated fatty acids increases egg size and egg quality of H. kuda. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in Actinidia chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Hu; Ferguson, A. Ross; Murray, Brian G.; Jia, Yilin; Datson, Paul M.; Zhang, Jingli

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Some otherwise promising selections of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. We have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of young leaves and chromosome analysis of flower buds and root tips was used to confirm the stability of induced autotetraploids. Fruit weight, size and crop load were measured in the third year after planting in the field and for three consecutive years. DNA fingerprinting was used to confirm the origin of the material. Key Results There was a very significant increase in fruit size in induced autotetraploids of different genotypes of A. chinensis. With the commercially important diploid cultivar ‘Hort16A’, most regenerants, Type A plants, had fruit which were much the same shape as fruit of the diploid but, at the same fruit load, were much larger and heavier. Some regenerants, Type B plants, produced fruit similar to ‘fasciated’ fruit. Fruit of the autotetraploids induced from three female red-fleshed A. chinensis selections were also 50–60 % larger than fruit of their diploid progenitors. The main increase in fruit dimensions was in their diameters. These improved fruit characteristics were stable over several seasons. Conclusions Chromosome doubling has been shown to increase significantly fruit size in autotetraploid A. chinensis, highlighting the considerable potential of this technique to produce new cultivars with fruit of adequate size. Other variants with differently shaped fruit were also produced but the genetic basis of this variation remains to be elucidated. Autoploids of other Actinidia species with commercial potential may also show improved fruit characteristics, opening up many new possibilities for commercial development. PMID:21980192

  11. Peptide YY induces characteristic meal patterns of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Fujitsuka, Naoki; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-01

    Changes in eating behavior occur in the elderly due to oral and swallowing dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify the difference between basal meal patterns of young and aged mice in relation to appetite regulating hormones. Thirty two of young (7-week-old) and aged (23-25-month-old) C57BL/6 male mice were acclimated to a single housing and then transferred to a highly sensitive automated feeding monitoring device. Feeding behavior was monitored from the onset of the dark phase after habituation to the device. Plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels were assessed under the several feeding status or after treatment of PYY. PYY and its receptor (NPY Y2 receptor, Y2R) antagonist were intraperitoneally administered 30min before the monitoring. Although the basal 24-h meal amounts did not differ by age, the total meal time and frequency of minimum feeding activity (bout) were significantly increased and the average bout size and time per bout were significantly decreased in aged mice. PYY dynamics were abnormal and the temporal reduction in food intake by exogenous PYY was more prominent in aged mice than in young mice. PYY administration to young mice induced aged-like meal patterns, and Y2R antagonist administration to aged mice induced young-like meal patterns. Aged mice exhibited characteristic meal patterns probably due to PYY metabolism dysfunction and/or enhanced PYY-Y2R signaling, suggesting a novel method for assessing eating difficulties in aged animals and a potential target for the remedy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Incision and Landsliding Lead to Coupled Increase in Sediment Flux and Grain Size Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda-Boluda, D. C.; Brooke, S.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Whittaker, A. C.; Armitage, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The rates and grain sizes of sediment fluxes modulate the dynamics and timing of landscape response to tectonics, and dictate the depositional patterns of sediment in basins. Over the last decades, we have gained a good quantitative understanding on how sediment flux and grain size may affect incision and basin stratigraphy. However, we comparably still have limited knowledge on how these variables change with varying tectonic rates. To address this question, we have studied 152 catchments along 8 normal fault-bounded ranges in southern Italy, which are affected by varying fault slip rates and experiencing a transient response to tectonics. Using a data set of 38 new and published 10Be erosion rates, we calibrate a sediment flux predictive equation (BQART), in order to estimate catchment sediment fluxes. We demonstrate that long-term sediment flux is governed by fault slip rates and the tectonically-controlled transient incision, and that sediment flux estimates from the BQART, steady-state assumptions, and incised volumes are highly correlated. This is supported by our 10Be erosion rates, which are controlled by fault slip and incision rates, and the associated landsliding. Based on a new landslide inventory, we show that erosion rate differences are likely due to differences in incision-related landslide activity across these catchments, and that landslides are a major component of sediment fluxes. From a data set of >13000 grain size counts on hillslope grain size supply and fluvial sediment at catchment outlets, we observe that landslides deliver material 20-200% coarser than other sediment sources, and that this coarse supply has an impact on the grain size distributions being exported from the catchments. Combining our sediment flux and grain size data sets, we are able to show that for our catchments, and potentially also for any areas that respond to changes in climate or tectonics via enhanced landsliding, sediment flux and grain size export increase

  13. Rationality on the rise: Why relative risk aversion increases with stake size

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr-Duda, Helga; Bruhin, Adrian; Epper, Thomas F.; Schubert, Renate

    2008-01-01

    How does risk tolerance vary with stake size? This important question cannot be adequately answered if framing effects, nonlinear probability weighting, and heterogeneity of preference types are neglected. We show that, contrary to gains, no coherent change in relative risk aversion is observed for losses. The increase in relative risk aversion over gains cannot be captured by the curvature of the utility function. It is driven predominantly by a change in probability weighting of a majority ...

  14. Meeting increased logistical demands : Developing as a small- and medium-sized system supplier

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Inga-Lill

    2009-01-01

    Many subcontractors choose to implement a strategy of “system supply” in order to meetincreasing global competition. They are then confronted with increased demands to take agreater overall responsibility in this role. It is important to investigate the implications of theseresponsibilities before investing in developing the organization, especially for a small- ormedium-sized subcontractor with limited resources. The customer’s view of different demandsdoes not necessarily correspond to how ...

  15. K-ras2 Activation and Genome Instability Increase Proliferation and Size of FAP Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rapallo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of K‐ras2 mutations and aneuploidy toward increase of proliferation and adenoma size in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP adenomas is not known. The present study addresses these issues by investigating 147 colorectal adenomas obtained from four FAP patients. The majority of adenomas had size lower than or equal to 10 mm (86%, low grade dysplasia (63%, and were preferentially located in the right colon (60%. Normal mucosa samples were obtained from 19 healthy donors. Three synchronous adenocarcinomas were also investigated. K‐ras2 mutation spectrum was analysed by PCR and Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide (SSO hybridization, while flow cytometry (FCM was used for evaluating degree of DNA ploidy and S‐phase fraction. Overall, incidences of K‐ras2 mutations, DNA aneuploidy and high S‐phase values (>7.2% were 6.6%, 5.4% and 10.5%, respectively. In particular, among the adenomas with size lower than 5 mm, K‐ras2 mutation and DNA aneuploidy frequencies were only slightly above 1%. Statistically significant correlations were found between K‐ras2 and size, DNA ploidy and size and K‐ras2 and S‐phase (p. In particular, among the wild type K‐ras2 adenomas, high S‐phase values were detected in 8% of the cases versus 57% among the K‐ras2 mutated adenomas (p=0.0005. The present series of FAP adenomas indicates that K‐ras2 activation and gross genomic changes play a role toward a proliferative gain and tumour growth in size.

  16. Increase in tracheal investment with beetle size supports hypothesis of oxygen limitation on insect gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Alexander; Klok, C Jaco; Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Quinlan, Michael C; Harrison, Jon F

    2007-08-07

    Recent studies have suggested that Paleozoic hyperoxia enabled animal gigantism, and the subsequent hypoxia drove a reduction in animal size. This evolutionary hypothesis depends on the argument that gas exchange in many invertebrates and skin-breathing vertebrates becomes compromised at large sizes because of distance effects on diffusion. In contrast to vertebrates, which use respiratory and circulatory systems in series, gas exchange in insects is almost exclusively determined by the tracheal system, providing a particularly suitable model to investigate possible limitations of oxygen delivery on size. In this study, we used synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging to visualize the tracheal system and quantify its dimensions in four species of darkling beetles varying in mass by 3 orders of magnitude. We document that, in striking contrast to the pattern observed in vertebrates, larger insects devote a greater fraction of their body to the respiratory system, as tracheal volume scaled with mass1.29. The trend is greatest in the legs; the cross-sectional area of the trachea penetrating the leg orifice scaled with mass1.02, whereas the cross-sectional area of the leg orifice scaled with mass0.77. These trends suggest the space available for tracheae within the leg may ultimately limit the maximum size of extant beetles. Because the size of the tracheal system can be reduced when oxygen supply is increased, hyperoxia, as occurred during late Carboniferous and early Permian, may have facilitated the evolution of giant insects by allowing limbs to reach larger sizes before the tracheal system became limited by spatial constraints.

  17. Alpha Meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra A. Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that our ability to recall information increases when atypical items are presented within otherwise homogeneous sets. We investigated whether this effect applied to performance on practical, everyday tasks. In a computer-simulated restaurant scenario, participants acted as virtual servers, delivering “plates of food orders” to tables set up in different “rooms.” Plate destination was communicated using either a distinctive alphanumeric code or a homogeneous numeric code, both of which indicated the room and table number for delivery of food orders. We examined accuracy of plate delivery when two (low load or three (high load coded assignments were given per delivery trial. As expected, performance declined from the low- to high-load condition. Importantly, performance declined less with alphanumeric compared with all-numeric communication of assignments. Results suggest that increasing the distinctiveness of assignments, by using alphanumeric codes, can boost performance in real-life situations to significantly improve memory-related task performance, particularly when cognitive load is taxed.

  18. Seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by nuclear size reduction and increased chromatin condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Martijn; Koini, Maria A; Geyer, Regina; Liu, Yongxiu; Brambilla, Vittoria; Bartels, Dorothea; Koornneef, Maarten; Fransz, Paul; Soppe, Wim J J

    2011-12-13

    Most plant species rely on seeds for their dispersal and survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Seeds are characterized by their low moisture content and significantly reduced metabolic activities. During the maturation phase, seeds accumulate storage reserves and become desiccation-tolerant and dormant. Growth is resumed after release of dormancy and the occurrence of favorable environmental conditions. Here we show that embryonic cotyledon nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds have a significantly reduced nuclear size, which is established at the beginning of seed maturation. In addition, the chromatin of embryonic cotyledon nuclei from mature seeds is highly condensed. Nuclei regain their size and chromatin condensation level during germination. The reduction in nuclear size is controlled by the seed maturation regulator ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 3, and the increase during germination requires two predicted nuclear matrix proteins, LITTLE NUCLEI 1 and LITTLE NUCLEI 2. Our results suggest that the specific properties of nuclei in ripe seeds are an adaptation to desiccation, independent of dormancy. We conclude that the changes in nuclear size and chromatin condensation in seeds are independent, developmentally controlled processes.

  19. Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentel Paul R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study experimentally examined the effects of repeated exposure to different meal portion sizes on energy intake. Methods Nineteen employees of a county medical center were given free box lunches for two months, one month each of 1528 and 767 average kcal. Foods were identical in the two conditions, but differed in portion size. Meals averaged 44% calories from fat. Participants self-reported how much of each lunch was eaten. Unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls were also conducted by phone twice per week during each exposure period. Results Mean energy intake at the lunch meal was 332 kcal/day higher in large lunch than in small lunch periods (p Conclusion This study suggests that chronic exposure to large portion size meals can result in sustained increases in energy intake and may contribute to body weight increases over time.

  20. NDA PDP Program PuO2 increased particle size specification and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Taggart, D.P.; Becker, G.K.; Woon, W.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Provisions in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan require an assessment of performance for nondestructive waste assay (NDA) systems employed in the program. This requirement is in part fulfilled through the use of Performance Demonstration programs. In order to optimize the quality and quantity of information acquired during a given Performance Demonstration Program cycle, the assessment employed is to be carefully specified and designed. The assessment must yield measurement system performance data meaningful with respect to NDA system capability to accommodate attributes of interest known to occur in actual waste forms. The design and specification of the increased particle size PuO 2 PDP working reference materials (WRMs) is directed at providing a straightforward mechanism to assess waste NDA system capability to account for biases introduced by large PuO 2 particles. The increased particle size PuO 2 PDP WRM design addresses actual waste form attributes associated with PuO 2 particle size and distributions thereof, the issue of a known and stable WRM configuration and equally important appropriate certification and tractability considerations

  1. Parameters of Alumina Cement and Portland Cement with Addition of Chalcedonite Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwa, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Aluminous cement is a quick binder with special properties. It is used primarily to make non-standard monolithic components exposed to high temperatures, + 1300°C. It is also a component of adhesives and mortars. It has a very short setting time. It is characterized by rapid increase in mechanical strength and resistance to aggressive sulphates. It can be used in reinforced concrete structures. Laying of concrete, construction mortar made of alumina cement can be carried out even at temperatures of -10°C. This article discusses a comparison of the parameters of hardened mortar made of alumina cement GÓRKAL 40 and Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. The mortars contain an addition of chalcedonite meal with pozzolanic properties, with particle size of less than 0.063μm. The meal was added in amounts of 5% and 20% of cement weight. Chalcedonite meal used in the laboratory research is waste material, resulting from chalcedonite aggregate mining. It has the same properties as the rock from which it originates. We have compared the parameters of hardened mortar i.e. compressive strength, water absorption and capillarity. The addition of 20% chalcedonite meal to mortars made from aluminous cement will decrease durability by 6.1% relative to aluminous cement mortar without addition of meal. Considering the results obtained during the absorbency tests, it can be stated that the addition of chalcedonite meal reduces weight gains in mortars made with cement CEM I 42.5 R and alumina cement. Use of alumina cement without addition of meal in mortars causes an increase of mass by 248% compared to Portland cement mortars without additions, in the absorption tests. The addition of chalcedonite meal did not cause increased weight gain in the capillary action tests. For the alumina cement mortars, a lesser weight gains of 24.7% was reported, compared to the Portland cement mortar after 28 days of maturing.

  2. Effectiveness of strategies to increase the validity of findings from association studies: size vs. replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallischnigg Gerd

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capacity of multiple comparisons to produce false positive findings in genetic association studies is abundantly clear. To address this issue, the concept of false positive report probability (FPRP measures "the probability of no true association between a genetic variant and disease given a statistically significant finding". This concept involves the notion of prior probability of an association between a genetic variant and a disease, making it difficult to achieve acceptable levels for the FPRP when the prior probability is low. Increasing the sample size is of limited efficiency to improve the situation. Methods To further clarify this problem, the concept of true report probability (TRP is introduced by analogy to the positive predictive value (PPV of diagnostic testing. The approach is extended to consider the effects of replication studies. The formula for the TRP after k replication studies is mathematically derived and shown to be only dependent on prior probability, alpha, power, and number of replication studies. Results Case-control association studies are used to illustrate the TRP concept for replication strategies. Based on power considerations, a relationship is derived between TRP after k replication studies and sample size of each individual study. That relationship enables study designers optimization of study plans. Further, it is demonstrated that replication is efficient in increasing the TRP even in the case of low prior probability of an association and without requiring very large sample sizes for each individual study. Conclusions True report probability is a comprehensive and straightforward concept for assessing the validity of positive statistical testing results in association studies. By its extension to replication strategies it can be demonstrated in a transparent manner that replication is highly effective in distinguishing spurious from true associations. Based on the generalized TRP

  3. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Oxidative Damage Does Not Occur in Striped Hamsters Raising Natural and Experimentally Increased Litter Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ya Zhao

    Full Text Available Life-history theory assumes that animals can balance the allocation of limited energy or resources to the competing demands of growth, reproduction and somatic maintenance, while consequently maximizing their fitness. However, somatic damage caused by oxidative stress in reproductive female animals is species-specific or is tissue dependent. In the present study, several markers of oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and malonadialdehyde, MDA and antioxidant (catalase, CAT and total antioxidant capacity, T-AOC were examined in striped hamsters during different stages of reproduction with experimentally manipulated litter size. Energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR, and mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT and UCP3 in skeletal muscle were also examined. H2O2 and MDA levels did not change in BAT and liver, although they significantly decreased in skeletal muscle in the lactating hamsters compared to the non-reproductive group. However, H2O2 levels in the brain were significantly higher in lactating hamsters than non-reproductive controls. Experimentally increasing litter size did not cause oxidative stress in BAT, liver and skeletal muscle, but significantly elevated H2O2 levels in the brain. CAT activity of liver decreased, but CAT and T-AOC activity of BAT, skeletal muscle and the brain did not change in lactating hamsters compared to non-reproductive controls. Both antioxidants did not change with the experimentally increasing litter size. RMR significantly increased, but BAT UCP1 mRNA expression decreased with the experimentally increased litter size, suggesting that it was against simple positive links between metabolic rate, UCP1 expression and free radicals levels. It may suggest that the cost of reproduction has negligible effect on oxidative stress or even attenuates oxidative stress in some active tissues in an extensive range of animal species. But the increasing reproductive effort may

  5. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...

  6. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  7. Stated response to increased enforcement density and penalty size for speeding and driving unbelted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hössinger, Reinhard; Berger, Wolfgang J

    2012-11-01

    To what extent can traffic offences be reduced through stronger enforcement, higher penalties, and the provision of information to road users? This question was addressed with respect to the offences of "speeding" and "driving unbelted." Data were collected by a telephone survey of admitted speeders, followed by 438 face-to-face stated response interviews. Based on the data collected, separate statistical models were developed for the two offences. The models predict the behavioral effect of increasing enforcement density and/or penalty size as well as the additional effect of providing information to car drivers. All three factors are predicted to be effective in reducing speeding. According to the model, one additional enforcement event per year will cause a driver to reduce his current frequency of speeding by 5%. A penalty increase of 10 Euros is predicted to have the same effect. An announcement of stronger enforcement or higher fines is predicted to have an additional effect on behavior, independent of the actual magnitudes of increase in enforcement or fines. With respect to the use of a seat belt, however, neither an increase in enforcement density nor its announcement is predicted to have a significant effect on driver behavior. An increase in the penalty size is predicted to raise the stated wearing rate, which is already 90% in Austria. It seems that both the fear of punishment and the motivation for driving unbelted are limited, so that there is only a weak tradeoff between the two. This may apply to most traffic offences, with the exception of speeding, which accounts for over 80% of tickets alone, whereas all other offences account for less than 3% each. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of flax seed mucilage or its active component for increasing suppression of hunger, increasing reduction of prospective consumption, increasing reduction of appetite in a subject during or between meals or feedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and/or reducing non-fat energy uptake in the gastrointestinal tract...... intervention comprises mucilage such as flax seed mucilage and/or one or more active compounds of mucilage useful for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and...

  9. REPERCUSSIONS OF THE INCREASE IN GROUP SIZE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: THE PERSPECTIVE OF EDUCATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casla, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes some of the consequences of new regulations on nurseries in the Madrid area that are related to ratios and group size (especially after the decree 18/2008. Analyses are based on educators and education staff’s point of view. Special emphasis is made on consequences on children behavior. Two hundred and seventy seven professionals that belonged to more than 53 nurseries of Madrid area voluntarily answered a survey with open questions about educative process and child’s behavior. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that, from educator’s point of view, increasing ratio child-educator has consequences in the variables explored. Main effects were found for the activities made in classrooms (loosing educative standards, hygiene and supply routines (loosing intrinsic values and autonomy support, space and time distribution, support staff organization and relation with families (reduced to quick information interchanges. Directors, classroom tutors and support educators perceive these changes in a similar fashion. The vast majority perceived changes on children’s behavior- increases in the number of conflicts and anxiety. These results agree with previous research on the influence of child-educators ratios and group size on quality of education. Implications for child development are discussed. This paper is published in Spanish.

  10. Competitive helping increases with the size of biological markets and invades defection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Pat

    2011-07-21

    Cooperation between unrelated individuals remains a puzzle in evolutionary biology. Recent work indicates that partner choice can select for high levels of helping. More generally, helping can be seen as but one strategy used to compete for partners within a broader biological market, yet giving within such markets has received little mathematical investigation. In the present model, individuals help others to attract attention from them and thus receive a larger share of any help actively or passively provided by those others. The evolutionarily stable level of helping increases with the size of the biological market and the degree of partner choice. Furthermore, if individuals passively produce some no-cost help to partners, competitive helping can then invade populations of non-helpers because helpers directly benefit from increasing their access to potential partners. This framework of competitive helping demonstrates how high helping can be achieved and why different populations may differ in helping levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  12. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-09-01

    The absorption of iron from tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  13. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, L; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  14. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Ekenved, G.; Garby, L.; Rossander, L.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.; Arvidsson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  15. Hole-Size Increasing PCFs for Blue-Extended Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Jakobsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    into the deep-blue in a single mode PCF with varying hole-size and pitch fabricated directly at the draw-tower. The PCFs in this work are fabricated by increasing the pressure on the air holes during the drawing. However, this process alone will lead to an undesirable structure where both the relative hole......Supercontinuum (SC) sources with spectra extending into the deep-blue region below 400 nm are highly desirable in areas such as fluorescent microscopy [1]. Tapering of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with high air-fill fractions has proven an effective way of extending the spectra into the deep...... wavelength spectral edge to wavelengths in the deep-blue or even UV. Previous reports on blue-extended SC generation were typically achieved in tapered PCFs where the air-hole structure was preserved [1-4], i.e. the relative hole-size constant. However, such PCFs with high air-fill fractions are inevitably...

  16. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p [es

  17. A review of associations between family or shared meal frequency and dietary and weight status outcomes across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Larson, Nicole; Horning, Melissa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the research literature on associations between family meal frequency and dietary outcomes as well as weight status across the lifespan. Reviewed literature of family or shared meals with dietary and weight outcomes in youth, adults, and older adults. Across the lifespan, eating with others, particularly family, is associated with healthier dietary outcomes. Among children and adolescents, these findings appear to be consistent for both boys and girls, whereas mixed findings are seen by gender for adult men and women. The findings of associations between family or shared meals and weight outcomes across the lifespan are less consistent and more complicated than those of dietary outcomes. Now is the time for the field to improve understanding of the mechanisms involved in the positive associations seen with family meal frequency, and to move forward with implementing interventions aimed at increasing the frequency of, and improving the quality of, food served at family meals, and evaluating their impact. Given the more limited findings of associations between family or shared meals and weight outcomes, capitalizing on the positive benefits of family and shared meals while addressing the types of foods served, portion sizes, and other potential mechanisms may have a significant impact on obesity prevention and reduction. Future research recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E; Johnson, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NMR Study of Solvation Effect on Geometry of Proton-Bound Homodimers of Increasing Size

    KAUST Repository

    Gurinov, Andrei A.; Denisov, Gleb S.; Borissova, Alexandra O.; Goloveshkin, Alexander S.; Greindl, Julian; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Shenderovich, Ilya G.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen bond geometries in the proton-bound homodimers of quinoline and acridine derivatives in an aprotic polar solution have been experimentally studied using 1H NMR at 120 K. The reported results show that increase of the dielec-tric permittivity of the medium results in contraction of the N…N distance. The degree of contraction depends on the homodimer's size and its substituent-specific solvation features. Neither of these effects can be reproduced using conven-tional implicit solvent models employed in computational studies. In general, the N…N distance in the homodimers of pyridine, quinoline, and acridine derivatives decreases in the sequence gas phase > solid state > polar solvent.

  20. NMR Study of Solvation Effect on Geometry of Proton-Bound Homodimers of Increasing Size

    KAUST Repository

    Gurinov, Andrei A.

    2017-10-24

    Hydrogen bond geometries in the proton-bound homodimers of quinoline and acridine derivatives in an aprotic polar solution have been experimentally studied using 1H NMR at 120 K. The reported results show that increase of the dielec-tric permittivity of the medium results in contraction of the N…N distance. The degree of contraction depends on the homodimer\\'s size and its substituent-specific solvation features. Neither of these effects can be reproduced using conven-tional implicit solvent models employed in computational studies. In general, the N…N distance in the homodimers of pyridine, quinoline, and acridine derivatives decreases in the sequence gas phase > solid state > polar solvent.

  1. Grain size increase in pentacene thin films prepared in low-pressure gas ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takamichi; Park, Chang Bum; Nagashio, Kosuke; Kita, Koji; Toriumi, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied a mechanism of grain size increase (that is, island density decrease) in pentacene film prepared in hydrogen (H 2 ) ambient. The island densities of pentacene films prepared in helium and deuterium were lower than those of vacuum-deposited films. This indicates that the decrease in the island density was not due to the chemical interaction between H 2 and pentacene or the substrate surface. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the island density indicates that there is no difference in the surface diffusion energy in a vacuum and in H 2 . We also improved mobility significantly in the pentacene thin film transistor fabricated on film grown in H 2 ambient on a chemically treated substrate.

  2. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...... is considered to be an effective strategy to promote such changes and increasingly such strategies become embedded organic supply polices and strategies that pursue environmental goals. The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look into the current status of the organic school meal programme in Denmark....... Three municipalities which are involved in the organic school meal programme are chosen as the study subjects....

  3. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    were encouraged to eat the calf starter meal by placing meal into the buckets after they had finished drinking milk. Calves were weaned at 35 days of age and thereafter they received only calf starter meal ad libitum. Fresh water was freely available from day 10. The quantity of meal offered was increased on an individual ...

  4. Meal Frequency and Nutrient Distribution: What is Ideal for Body Composition?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan P Lowery

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effects of meal frequency on protein synthesis, muscle mass and fat mass. Current research appears to indicate that manipulating meal frequency increases net protein balance and body composition when each meal provides an adequate supply of the amino acid leucine to optimize skeletal muscle anabolism. In contrast, research demonstrating no benefits to increased meal frequency generally employed small, inadequate boluses of protein per meal. The purpose of this paper ...

  5. Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Catalán, Luis; Carrasco, Jaime; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego; Pardo, José

    2016-08-01

    This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non-supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt(-1) , when applied to the 15 g kg(-1) compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  7. Acute effects on metabolism and appetite profile of one meal difference in the lower range of meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-06-01

    A gorging pattern of food intake has been shown to enhance lipogenesis and increase body weight, which may be due to large fluctuations in storage and mobilisation of nutrients. In a state of energy balance, increasing meal frequency, and thereby decreasing inter-meal interval, may prevent large metabolic fluctuations. Our aim was to study the effect of the inter-meal interval by dividing energy intake over two or three meals on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and 24 h satiety, in healthy, normal-weight women in a state of energy balance. The study was a randomised crossover design with two experimental conditions. During the two experimental conditions subjects (fourteen normal-weight women, aged 24.4 (SD 7.1) years, underwent 36 h sessions in energy balance in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. The subjects were given two (breakfast, dinner) or three (breakfast, lunch, dinner) meals per d. We chose to omit lunch in the two meals condition, because this resulted in a marked difference in inter-meal-interval after breakfast (8.5 h v. 4 h). Eating three meals compared with two meals had no effects on 24 h energy expenditure, diet-induced thermogenesis, activity-induced energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate. Eating three meals compared with two meals increased 24 h fat oxidation, but decreased the amount of fat oxidised from the breakfast. The same amount of energy divided over three meals compared with over two meals increased satiety feelings over 24 h. In healthy, normal-weight women, decreasing the inter-meal interval sustains satiety, particularly during the day, and sustains fat oxidation, particularly during the night.

  8. Trends in size of tropical deforestation events signal increasing dominance of industrial-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; González-Roglich, Mariano; Schaffer-Smith, Danica; Schwantes, Amanda M.; Swenson, Jennifer J.

    2017-05-01

    Deforestation continues across the tropics at alarming rates, with repercussions for ecosystem processes, carbon storage and long term sustainability. Taking advantage of recent fine-scale measurement of deforestation, this analysis aims to improve our understanding of the scale of deforestation drivers in the tropics. We examined trends in forest clearings of different sizes from 2000-2012 by country, region and development level. As tropical deforestation increased from approximately 6900 kha yr-1 in the first half of the study period, to >7900 kha yr-1 in the second half of the study period, >50% of this increase was attributable to the proliferation of medium and large clearings (>10 ha). This trend was most pronounced in Southeast Asia and in South America. Outside of Brazil >60% of the observed increase in deforestation in South America was due to an upsurge in medium- and large-scale clearings; Brazil had a divergent trend of decreasing deforestation, >90% of which was attributable to a reduction in medium and large clearings. The emerging prominence of large-scale drivers of forest loss in many regions and countries suggests the growing need for policy interventions which target industrial-scale agricultural commodity producers. The experience in Brazil suggests that there are promising policy solutions to mitigate large-scale deforestation, but that these policy initiatives do not adequately address small-scale drivers. By providing up-to-date and spatially explicit information on the scale of deforestation, and the trends in these patterns over time, this study contributes valuable information for monitoring, and designing effective interventions to address deforestation.

  9. Increase of efficiency and reliability of liquid fuel combustion in small-sized boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2017-11-01

    One of the ways to increase the efficiency of using fuels is to create highly efficient domestic energy equipment, in particular small-sized hot-water boilers in autonomous heating systems. Increasing the efficiency of the boiler requires a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases leaving, which, in turn, can be achieved by installing additional heating surfaces. The purpose of this work was to determine the principal design solutions and to develop a draft design for a high-efficiency 3-MW hot-water boiler using crude oil as its main fuel. Ensuring a high efficiency of the boiler is realized through the use of an external remote economizer, which makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the boiler, facilitate the layout of equipment in a limited size block-modular boiler house and virtually eliminate low-temperature corrosion of boiler heat exchange surfaces. In the article the variants of execution of the water boiler and remote economizer are considered and the preliminary design calculations of the remote economizer for various schemes of the boiler layout in the Boiler Designer software package are made. Based on the results of the studies, a scheme was chosen with a three-way boiler and a two-way remote economizer. The design of a three-way fire tube hot water boiler and an external economizer with an internal arrangement of the collectors, providing for its location above the boiler in a block-modular boiler house and providing access for servicing both a remote economizer and a hot water boiler, is proposed. Its mass-dimensional and design parameters are determined. In the software package Boiler Designer thermal, hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations of the developed fire tube boiler have been performed. Optimization of the boiler design was performed, providing the required 94% efficiency value for crude oil combustion. The description of the developed flue and fire-tube hot water boiler and the value of the main design and technical and

  10. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  11. Holiday Meal Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... plan ahead. Fitting in Sweets Learn about eating desserts on special occasions. In this section Planning Meals ...

  12. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  13. Cayenne pepper in a meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B. V.; Byrne, D. V.; Bredie, W. L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated appetite sensations, hedonics, sensory specific desires, physical- and psychological well-being sensations during and after intake of a meal with- and without increased oral heat induced by addition of cayenne pepper. Subjects (n = 66) completed a randomized cross......-over study involving a tomato soup with and without added cayenne pepper (0.593 mg capsaicin). Self-reports were evaluated at 5 min intervals during intake and at 1 h intervals until four hours post intake using VAS-scales and 9-point scales. Sensory specific desires were further studied by liking...... and wanting of food samples representing the sensory profiles: sweet, sour, salt, bitter, fat and spicy, respectively. The soup with cayenne pepper added was perceived significantly more spicy but equally liked, and resulted in significant higher satiation at the end of the meal and one hour post intake...

  14. Roles of gibberellic acid and zinc sulphate in increasing size and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... to fruit characteristics (fruit, pit and pulp weight, pulp/pit weight ratio, fruit length and diameter, pit length and ... weather, high soil salinity levels and infertile soil. The size .... 77 (at 70% of their final size, mid august) of the BBCH scale (Sanz-. Cortés et .... metabolism and compartmentalization of sugar and its.

  15. Early exposure to nonlethal predation risk by size-selective predators increases somatic growth and decreases size at adulthood in threespined sticklebacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, A. M.; Dingemanse, N. J.; Hankison, S. J.; Langenhof, M. B. W.; Rollins, K.

    Predation has an important influence on life history traits in many organisms, especially when they are young. When cues of trout were present, juvenile sticklebacks grew faster. The increase in body size as a result of exposure to cues of predators was adaptive because larger individuals were more

  16. Covariate adjustments in randomized controlled trials increased study power and reduced biasedness of effect size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to show that under several assumptions, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), unadjusted, crude analysis will underestimate the Cohen's d effect size of the treatment, and an unbiased estimate of effect size can be obtained only by adjusting for all predictors of the outcome. Four simulations were performed to examine the effects of adjustment on the estimated effect size of the treatment and power of the analysis. In addition, we analyzed data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study (older adults aged 65-94), an RCT with three treatment arms and one control arm. We showed that (1) the number of unadjusted covariates was associated with the effect size of the treatment; (2) the biasedness of effect size estimation was minimized if all covariates were adjusted for; (3) the power of the statistical analysis slightly decreased with the number of adjusted noise variables; and (4) exhaustively searching the covariates and noise variables adjusted for can lead to exaggeration of the true effect size. Analysis of the ACTIVE study data showed that the effect sizes adjusting for covariates of all three treatments were 7.39-24.70% larger than their unadjusted counterparts, whereas the effect size would be elevated by at most 57.92% by exhaustively searching the variables adjusted for. All covariates of the outcome in RCTs should be adjusted for, and if the effect of a particular variable on the outcome is unknown, adjustment will do more good than harm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence....... In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster......-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  18. Large increase in nest size linked to climate change: an indicator of life history, senescence and condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup

    2015-11-01

    Many animals build extravagant nests that exceed the size required for successful reproduction. Large nests may signal the parenting ability of nest builders suggesting that nests may have a signaling function. In particular, many raptors build very large nests for their body size. We studied nest size in the goshawk Accipiter gentilis, which is a top predator throughout most of the Nearctic. Both males and females build nests, and males provision their females and offspring with food. Nest volume in the goshawk is almost three-fold larger than predicted from their body size. Nest size in the goshawk is highly variable and may reach more than 600 kg for a bird that weighs ca. 1 kg. While 8.5% of nests fell down, smaller nests fell down more often than large nests. There was a hump-shaped relationship between nest volume and female age, with a decline in nest volume late in life, as expected for senescence. Clutch size increased with nest volume. Nest volume increased during 1977-2014 in an accelerating fashion, linked to increasing spring temperature during April, when goshawks build and start reproduction. These findings are consistent with nest size being a reliable signal of parental ability, with large nest size signaling superior parenting ability and senescence, and also indicating climate warming.

  19. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children's energy and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K; Birch, Leann L; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-08-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 min to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children's intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children’s energy and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K.; Birch, Leann L.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 minutes to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children’s intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. PMID:21596073

  1. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Parameters of Concrete Modified with Glass Meal and Chalcedonite Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwa, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Additives used for production of concrete mixtures affect the rheological properties and parameters of hardened concrete, including compressive strength, water resistance, durability and shrinkage of hardened concrete. By their application, the use of cement and production costs may be reduced. The scheduled program of laboratory tests included preparation of six batches of concrete mixtures with addition of glass meal and / or chalcedonite dust. Mineral dust is a waste product obtained from crushed aggregate mining, with grain size below 0,063μm. The main ingredient of chalcedonite dust is silica. Glass meal used in the study is a material with very fine grain size, less than 65μm. This particle size is present in 60% - 90% of the sample. Additives were used to replace cement in concrete mixes in an amount of 15% and 25%. The amount of aggregate was left unchanged. The study used Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. Concrete mixes were prepared with a constant rate w / s = 0.4. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of the addition of chalcedonite dust and / or glass meal on the parameters of hardened concrete, i.e. compressive strength, water absorption and capillarity. Additives used in the laboratory tests significantly affect the compressive strength. The largest decrease in compressive strength of concrete samples was recorded for samples with 50% substitutes of cement additives. This decrease is 34.35%. The smallest decrease in compressive strength was noted in concrete with the addition of 15% of chalcedonite dust or 15% glass meal, it amounts to an average of 15%. The study of absorption shows that all concrete with the addition of chalcedonite dust and glass meal gained a percentage weight increase between 2.7 ÷ 3.1% for the test batches. This is a very good result, which is probably due to grout sealing. In capillary action for the test batches, the percentage weight gains of samples ranges from 4.6% to 5.1%. However, the reference concrete obtained

  3. Effect of limb regeneration on size increase at molt of the shore crabs Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuris, A M; Mager, M

    1975-09-01

    Size increase at molt is reduced following multiple limb regeneration in the shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes. Limb loss per se does not influence postmolt size. Effect of increasing number of regenerating limbs is additive. Postmolt size is programmed early in the premolt period of the preceding instar and is probably not readily influenced by water uptake mechanics at ecdysis. A simple model for growth, molting, and regeneration in heavily calcified Crustacea is developed from the viewpoint of adaptive strategies and energetic considerations.

  4. Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    The mature jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is consumed in Sri Lanka either as a main meal or a meal accompaniment. However, there is no scientific data on the nutrient compositions of cooked jackfruit meals. Thus, the objective of the study was to carry out a nutritional assessment of a composite jackfruit breakfast meal comprising seeds and flesh. A jackfruit meal comprising of flesh (80% available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available carbohydrate) was included in the study. The study was carried out in a random cross over design. Setting University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Study participants Healthy individuals (n=10, age: 20-30 yrs). The macronutrient contents, rapidly and slowly available glucose (SAG) contents, water solubility index of the jackfruit meal were determined according to standard methods. The GI of the meal was calculated according to FAO/WHO guidelines. The moisture content of the boiled jackfruit flesh was high (82% FW). Jack seeds contained 4.7% protein (FW), 11.1% total dietary fibre (FW) and 8% resistant starch (FW). Jackfruit meal elicited a GI of 75. The Glycaemic Load (GL) of the normal serving size of the meal is medium. The slowly available glucose (SAG) percentage of jackfruit meal (30%) was twice that of the standard. The boiled jackfruit flesh contained disintegrated starch granules while seeds contained intact swollen and disintegrated granules. The jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fibre. The meal is categorized as a low GI meal. The low GI could be dueto the collective contributions from dietary fibre, slowly available glucose and un-gelatinised (intact) starch granules in the seeds.

  5. Meal frequency and timing: impact on metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Krista A

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the most recent human intervention trials that have examined the impact of meal frequency or meal timing on metabolic disease risk factors. Findings from intervention studies published over the past 12 months indicate that weight loss may be more pronounced with decreased meal frequency (two meals per day) versus increased meal frequency (six meals per day) under hypocaloric conditions. However, under isocaloric conditions, no effect on body weight was noted. Plasma lipid concentrations and glucoregulatory factors (fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin sensitivity) were not affected by alterations in meal frequency. As for meal timing, delaying the lunchtime meal by 3.5 h (from 1.30 p.m. to 4.30 p.m.) has no impact on body weight, but may impair glucose tolerance in young healthy adults. In sum, altering meal frequency has little impact on body weight, plasma lipids, or glucoregulatory factors, whereas eating the majority of calories later in the day may be detrimental for glycemic control. These preliminary findings, however, still require confirmation by longer term, larger scale controlled trials.

  6. Do children eat less at meals when allowed to serve themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Haisfield, Lisa; Fisher, Jennifer O; Marini, Michele; Birch, Leann L

    2012-07-01

    The effect of self-serving on young children's energy intake is not well understood. The objective was to examine individual differences in the effects of plated and self-served entrée portions on children's energy intake. Two within-subjects experiments were used to examine ad libitum intake at meals in 63 children aged 3-5 y when 400 g of a pasta entrée was either plated or available for children to self-serve. Child age, sex, BMI, and responsiveness to increasing portion size (defined as individual slope estimates relating ad libitum intake of the entrée across a range of entrée portions) were evaluated as predictors of self-served portions. Children's entrée and meal intakes did not differ between the self-served and plated conditions for the total sample or by child weight status. However, larger self-served entrée portions were associated with greater entrée and meal intakes. Children who served themselves larger entrée portions tended to be overweight and more responsive to portion size (ie, greater increases in entrée intake as plated portion size increased). Last, self-served portion predicted both entrée and meal intake over and above BMI z score and responsiveness to portion. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative to plated portions, allowing children to self-serve the entrée portion did not reduce energy intake. Children who were more responsive to portion-size effects were likely to self-serve and eat larger entrée portions. Self-serving is not a one-size-fits-all approach; some children may need guidance and rules to learn how to self-select appropriate portion sizes.

  7. Increased Adipocyte Size, Macrophage Infiltration, and Adverse Local Adipokine Profile in Perirenal Fat in Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerink, Sean H P P; Wagenmakers, Margreet A E M; Langenhuijsen, Johan F; Ballak, Dov B; Rooijackers, Hanne M M; d'Ancona, Frank C; van Dielen, François M; Smit, Jan W A; Plantinga, Theo S; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Hermus, Ad R M M

    2017-08-01

    To analyze changes in fat cell size, macrophage infiltration, and local adipose tissue adipokine profiles in different fat depots in patients with active Cushing's syndrome. Subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue of 10 patients with Cushing's syndrome was compared to adipose tissue of 10 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched controls with regard to adipocyte size determined by digital image analysis on hematoxylin and eosin stainings, macrophage infiltration determined by digital image analysis on CD68 stainings, and adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin levels using fluorescent bead immunoassays and ELISA techniques. Compared to the controls, mean adipocyte size was larger in PR adipose tissue in patients. The percentage of macrophage infiltration of the PR adipose tissue and PR adipose tissue lysate leptin levels were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in SC and PR adipose tissue lysates in patients. The adiponectin levels were also lower in the SC adipose tissue supernatants of patients. Associations were found between the severity of hypercortisolism and PR adipocyte size. Cushing's syndrome is associated with hypertrophy of PR adipocytes and a higher percentage of macrophage infiltration in PR adipose tissue. These changes are associated with an adverse local adipokine profile. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Asymmetric forceps increase fighting success among males of similar size in the maritime earwig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Nicole E.; Zink, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme asymmetric morphologies are hypothesized to serve an adaptive function that counteracts sexual selection for symmetry. However direct tests of function for asymmetries are lacking, particularly in the context of animal weapons. The weapon of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima, exhibits sizeable variation in the extent of directional asymmetry within and across body sizes, making it an ideal candidate for investigating the function of asymmetry. In this study, we characterized the extent of weapon asymmetry, characterized the manner in which asymmetric weapons are used in contests, staged dyadic contests between males of different size classes and analyzed the correlates of fighting success. In contests between large males, larger individuals won more fights and emerged as the dominant male. In contests between small males, however, weapon asymmetry was more influential in predicting overall fighting success than body size. This result reveals an advantage of asymmetric weaponry among males that are below the mean size in the population. A forceps manipulation experiment suggests that asymmetry may be an indirect, correlate of a morphologically independent factor that affects fighting ability. PMID:22984320

  9. Automated thinning increases uniformity of in-row spacing and plant size in romaine lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low availability and high cost of farm hand labor make automated thinners a faster and cheaper alternative to hand thinning in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). However, the effects of this new technology on uniformity of plant spacing and size as well as crop yield are not proven. Three experiments wer...

  10. High risk of misinterpreting liver and spleen stiffness using 2D shear-wave and transient elastography after a moderate or high calorie meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Jansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    ) and real-time 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE). Patients ingested a 625 kcal and a 1250 kcal liquid meal on two consecutive days. We measured liver and spleen elasticity, Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and portal flow at baseline and after 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Sixty......Food intake increases liver stiffness, but it is believed that liver stiffness returns to baseline two hours after a meal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different sized meals on liver stiffness. Liver and spleen stiffness was measured with transient elastography (TE...... patients participated, 83% with alcoholic liver disease. Twenty-eight patients had METAVIR fibrosis score F0-3 and 32 patients had cirrhosis. Liver stiffness, spleen stiffness and CAP increased after both meals for all stages of fibrosis. False positive 2D-SWE liver stiffness measurements caused 36% and 52...

  11. Nutritional value, for pigs and rats, of sunflower oilcake meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    differences (P> 0.05) could be found in mean growth rate (0.77 kg/day and 0.80 kg/day) and ... Digestible energy, pigs, poultry, protein content, rats, relative nutritive value, sunflower oilcake meal, ... density of the meal is increased while the crude fibre content ..... two meals differed by only 3.5%, while a range of 6% to 28%.

  12. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Haojie; Zhang, Shouchun; Lu, Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A polyether sulfone emulsion (PES) sizing was prepared for the first time. • The sizing enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • Compared to the original sizing, the PES emulsion sizing resulted in an 18.4% increase in the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/PES composites. • Important influences of emulsifier on the fiber surface and composite interface were demonstrated. • The reinforcing mechanisms are the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility in composites. - Abstract: Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of −52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES

  13. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Haojie [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shouchun, E-mail: zschun@sxicc.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Lu, Chunxiang [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • A polyether sulfone emulsion (PES) sizing was prepared for the first time. • The sizing enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • Compared to the original sizing, the PES emulsion sizing resulted in an 18.4% increase in the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/PES composites. • Important influences of emulsifier on the fiber surface and composite interface were demonstrated. • The reinforcing mechanisms are the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility in composites. - Abstract: Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of −52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES.

  14. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2015-12-01

    Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias.

  15. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on nitrogen metabolism and total tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary canola meal (CM) has been shown to improve N efficiency in dairy cows when compared with soybean meal (SBM). Treating CM may increase amino acid (AA) supply from the rumen undegradable protein fraction and improve absorbable AA in the metabolizable protein. The objective of this study was to...

  16. The influence of ration size on energetics and nitrogen retention in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Duodu, Collins Prah; Adjei-Boateng, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    with ration size, feed conversion and protein retention were most efficient at ration sizes of 3%. Although the magnitude of the SDA response following feeding also increased with ration size, this was not proportionate to meal size. Therefore the metabolic cost of meal processing (SDA coefficient) was found......Proper nutrient management is essential for the environmental sustainability of aquaculture. While increasing daily rations generally may lead to improved growth rates, this does not necessarily mean that nutrients are utilized more efficiently. To investigate how ration size affects partitioning...... of dietary nutrient intake, the effects of meal size on growth and metabolism were examined in triplicate groups of adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) receiving daily rations corresponding to 1, 2, 3, or 4% of their biomass. While biomass gain and specific growth rates were positively correlated...

  17. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  18. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet...... through questionnaires and on covariates through telephone interviews and ascertained birth outcomes through registry linkages. Findings were adjusted for mother's parity, age, height, prepregnant BMI, gestational weight gain, smoking status, and total energy intake; father's height; and family...

  19. Distributional impacts of meal vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Röhryová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze distributional impacts of meal voucher sys- tem in the Czech Republic, especially in the context of income inequality between different income groups. In the first part, we study the features of the Czech meal voucher scheme, relevant legislative framework and offer a comparison of the Czech meal voucher system with other European coun- tries. In the second part, we perform an analysis of the redistributive effects of meal allowances on various income deciles, quant...

  20. Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Harris, Simon R.; Cornick, Jennifer E.; Yang, Marie; Bricio-Moreno, Laura; Kamng’ona, Arox W.; French, Neil; Heyderman, Robert S.; Kadioglu, Aras; Everett, Dean B.; Bentley, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate) and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency). Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions. PMID:27677790

  1. Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispin Chaguza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency. Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions.

  2. Design incentives to increase vehicle size created from the U.S. footprint-based fuel economy standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitefoot, Kate S.; Skerlos, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The recently amended U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards determine fuel-economy targets based on the footprint (wheelbase by track width) of vehicles such that larger vehicles have lower fuel-economy targets. This paper considers whether these standards create an incentive for firms to increase vehicle size by presenting an oligopolistic-equilibrium model in which automotive firms can modify vehicle dimensions, implement fuel-saving technology features, and trade off acceleration performance and fuel economy. Wide ranges of scenarios for consumer preferences are considered. Results suggest that the footprint-based CAFE standards create an incentive to increase vehicle size except when consumer preference for vehicle size is near its lower bound and preference for acceleration is near its upper bound. In all other simulations, the sales-weighted average vehicle size increases by 2–32%, undermining gains in fuel economy by 1–4 mpg (0.6–1.7 km/L). Carbon-dioxide emissions from these vehicles are 5–15% higher as a result (4.69×10 11 –5.17×10 11 kg for one year of produced vehicles compared to 4.47×10 11 kg with no size changes), which is equivalent to adding 3–10 coal-fired power plants to the electricity grid each year. Furthermore, results suggest that the incentive is larger for light trucks than for passenger cars, which could increase traffic safety risks. - Highlights: ► New U.S. fuel-economy standards may create an incentive to increase vehicle size. ► We model firms as choosing vehicle designs and prices in oligopolistic equilibrium. ► Vehicle size increases 2–32% for 20 out of 21 scenarios of consumer preferences. ► Increases in size reduce fuel economy gains from 5–13%, resulting in 5–15% higher CO 2 emissions. ► Incentive is larger for trucks than cars, which may increase traffic safety risks.

  3. How much should I eat? Estimation of meal portions in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Gabriella; Kuenzli, Cornelia; Soelch, Chantal Martin; Schumacher, Sonja; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Pathological concern regarding one's weight and weight gain is a crucial feature of anorexia nervosa. Consequently, anorexia nervosa patients often claim that they are uncertain regarding the amount of food they should eat. The present study investigated whether individuals with anorexia nervosa show an altered estimation of meal portion sizes and whether this estimation is modulated by an intent-to-eat instruction (where patients are asked to imagine having to eat the presented meal), meal type and meal portion size. Twenty-four women with anorexia nervosa and 27 healthy women estimated, using a visual analogue scale, the size of six different portions of three different meals, with and without intent-to-eat instructions. Subjects with anorexia nervosa estimated the size of small and medium meal portions (but not large meal servings) as being significantly larger, compared to estimates of healthy controls. The overestimation of small meal portions by anorexia nervosa subjects was significantly greater in the intent-to-eat, compared to general, condition. These findings suggest that disturbed perceptions associated with anorexia nervosa not only include interoceptive awareness (i.e., body weight and shape), but also extend to external disorder-related objects such as meal portion size. Specific therapeutic interventions, such as training regarding meal portion evaluation, could address these difficulties. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Differences in the validity of a visual estimation method for determining patients' meal intake between various meal types and supplied food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yui; Akamatsu, Rie; Tamaura, Yuki; Sakai, Masashi; Fujiwara, Keiko; Tsutsuura, Satomi

    2018-02-12

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the validity of a visual estimation method for determining patients' meal intake between various meal types and supplied food items in hospitals and to find factors influencing the validity of a visual estimation method. There are two procedures by which we obtained the information on dietary intake of the patients in these hospitals. These are both by visual assessment from the meal trays at the time of their clearing, by the attending nursing staff and by weighing conducted by researchers. The following criteria are set for the target trays: A) standard or therapeutic meals, which are monitored by a doctor, for energy and/or protein and/or sodium; B) regular, bite-sized, minced and pureed meal texture, and C) half-portion meals. Visual assessment results were tested for their validity by comparing with the corresponding results of weighing. Differences between these two methods indicated the estimated and absolute values of nutrient intake. A total of 255 (76.1%) trays were included in the analysis out of the 335 possible trays and the results indicated that the energy consumption estimates by visual or weighing procedures are not significantly different (412 ± 173 kcal, p = 0.15). However, the mean protein consumption was significantly different (16.3 ± 6.7 g/tray, p food items were significantly misestimated for energy intake (66 ± 58 kcal/tray) compared to trays with no additions (32 ± 39 kcal/tray, p food items were significantly associated with increased odds of a difference between the two methods (OR: 3.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-13.85). There were high correlations between the visual estimation method and the weighing method measuring patients' dietary intake for various meal types and textures, except for meals with added supplied food items. Nursing staff need to be attentive to supplied food items. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical

  5. Self-Reported Consumption of Fast-Food Meals by University Students

    OpenAIRE

    McLean-Meyinsse, Patricia E.; Taylor, Shervia S.; Gager, Janet V.

    2015-01-01

    Students’ consumption of fast-food meals depends on perceptions of health status, label use, knowledge about sugars, household income levels, age, and marital status. Consumption is independent of weight status, knowledge of total fat and sodium, gender, household size, academic classification, and areas of residence. Perceptions of weight status statistically significantly differ from body mass indices. U.S. overweight and obesity rates have been steadily increasing in the 18 to 29 age gro...

  6. Effects of blood meal, chicken offal meal and fish meal as sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were studied of using combinations or plant protein sources, GNC, Palm Kernel cake, and cotton and seed cake diets, supplementeil with 4 sources of methionine (M) and Lysine (L), synthetic M + L, blood meal + M, fish meal, or chicken offal meal (COM) in 8-Week 3 x 4 factorial experiment with sta11er cockerels ...

  7. Myostatin (GDF-8) Deficiency Increases Fracture Callus Size, Sox-5 Expression, and Callus Bone Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Kellum, Ethan; Starr, Harlan; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Immel, David; Fulzele, Sadanand; Wenger, Karl; Hamrick, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and mice lacking myostatin show increased muscle mass. We have previously shown that myostatin deficiency increases bone strength and biomineralization throughout the skeleton, and others have demonstrated that myostatin is expressed during the earliest phase of fracture repair. In order to determine the role of myostatin in fracture callus morphogenesis, we studied fracture healing in mice lacking myostatin. Adult wild-type ...

  8. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haojie; Zhang, Shouchun; Lu, Chunxiang

    2014-10-01

    Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of -52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES.

  9. Increased myocardial infarct size because of reduced coronary collateral blood flow in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, N.; Knight, D.R.; Shen, Y.T.; Nejima, J.; Cohen, M.V.; Thomas, J.X. Jr.; Vatner, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of permanent left circumflex coronary artery occlusion (CAO) were examined in conscious purebred beagles and mongrel dogs, instrumented with miniature left ventricular (LV) pressure gauges, wall thickness gauges in the ischemic zone, catheters in left atrium and aorta, and snares around the left circumflex coronary artery. Blood flow was measured using the radioactive microsphere technique before CAO and at 5 min, 1, 3, and 24 h after CAO. Although CAO reduced myocardial blood flow similarly in beagles and mongrels, significantly less (P less than 0.05) recovery of myocardial blood flow was observed over the following 24-h period in beagles. Infarct size, as determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and expressed as percentage of area at risk, was larger (P less than 0.05) in beagles (62.0 ± 5.1%) than mongrels (42.5 ± 4.2%). Thus beagles do not tolerate ischemia as well as mongrel dogs and possess fewer functional coronary collaterals resulting in larger infarcts after CAO

  10. Biochemical evaluation of Gmelina arborea fruit meal as a swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Gmelina arborea fruits (GAF) meal on haematology and certain biochemical parameters including blood ... regards to blood urea nitrogen, creatinine in blood and urine and uric acids) though not significantly as the dietary inclusion level of raw GAF meal increased.

  11. Litter size of Danish crossbred sows increased without changes in sow body dimensions over a thirteen year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Kristensen, A. R.; Moustsen, V. Aa

    2018-01-01

    dimensions and litter size was also investigated. Depth, width, length and height were measured from 405 Danish crossbred sows in 10 different herds, classified in groups of parity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and ≥ 7. By Linear Mixed-Effects Models with depth, width, length and height in turn as response variable......The purpose of this study was to investigate if body dimensions of Danish crossbred sows (Yorkshire x Landrace) had increased compared to a previous Danish study from 2004. In addition, and as an expected potential benefit of increased body dimensions, a potential correlation between body...... and parity and herd as explanatory variables, estimated means, 5th and 95th percentiles, minimum and maximum observation were recorded. Furthermore, a weighted index for litter size (denoted as the “litter size potential”) was used as response variable with depth, width, length, height and parity...

  12. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  13. Irradiation of ready made meals -Lasagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkia, Ines

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological, nutritional, chemical and sensory quality of chilled ready-made meals was assessed. The ready meals used for this experimental work are lasagne. Following arrival at the semi-industrial Cobalt 60 irradiation facility, the meals were either left unirradiated or irradiated with doses of 2 or 4 kGy after which they were stored for up to 23 days at 3C. Results showed that 2 or 4 kGy doses of gamma irradiation decreased the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and increased the shelf-life of lasagne. In terms of nutritional quality, it was found that losses of vitamin A and E due to irradiation treatment were considerable at 4 kGy. Total acidity, and p H, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to one week for ready meals treated with 2 and 4 kGy whereas peroxide index showed high values at 4 kGy. Sensory results showed no significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meals at 2 kGy. However, the results were less promising at 4 kGy since differences were significant. (Author). 60 refs

  14. Investigating the Efficacy of a Preschool Vocabulary Intervention Designed to Increase Vocabulary Size and Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study investigated the efficacy of a supplementary preschool embedded multimedia curriculum that was designed to increase one type of conceptual knowledge: taxonomic categories. Named the World of Words (WOW), this curriculum focused on teaching the properties and concepts associated with seven taxonomic categories and providing…

  15. Founding weaver ant queens (Oecophylla longinoda) increase production and nanitic worker size when adopting non-nestmate pupae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Offenberg, Joachim; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille) are used commercially to control pest insects and for protein production. In this respect fast colony growth is desirable for managed colonies. Transplantation of non-nestmate pupae to incipient colonies has been shown to boost colony growth. Our...... of 300 pupae increased total colony size more than 10-fold whereas 100 pupae increased the size 5.6 fold, compared to control. This increase was due not only to the individuals added in the form of pupae but also to an increased per capita brood production by the resident queen, triggered by the adopted...... objectives were to find the maximum number of pupae a founding queen can handle, and to measure the associated colony growth. Secondly, we tested if transplantation of pupae led to production of larger nanitic workers (defined as unusually small worker ants produced by founding queens in their first batch...

  16. Hospitality and Institutional Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Strøjer, Anna-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: There is a growing interest in articulating institutional meal serving practices as a hospitality activity involving host and guest interactions. This study aims to qualify institutional hospitality and meal activities by exploring private hospitality events. The study is based......-structured interview, students reflected on their hospitality experiences. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic analysis method. The emerging themes on hospitality activities were identified. It was found that hospitality activities could be characterized as a process where the individual...... was transformed into a guest. Information on purpose of the event and other information given in the invitation were part of this process. Furthermore, hospitality activities could be characterized by blurred host-guest relations and by being able to embrace unexpected events as well. The activities were...

  17. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Results Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = -0.174, SE = 0.054, p social desirability scores. Participants consuming a high percentage of meals at home were less likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = 0.181, SE = 0.053, p diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are significantly different between the calibration equations with or without the six psychosocial and diet variables for protein density (p = 0.02), but not for energy (p = 0.119) or protein intake (p = 0.077). Conclusions The addition of psychosocial and diet behavior factors to calibration equations significantly increases the amount of total variance

  18. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Tinker, Lesley F; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; McCann, Susan E; Seguin, Rebecca A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Curb, J David; Prentice, Ross L

    2013-05-16

    The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = -0.174, SE = 0.054, p social desirability scores. Participants consuming a high percentage of meals at home were less likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = 0.181, SE = 0.053, p diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are significantly different between the calibration equations with or without the six psychosocial and diet variables for protein density (p = 0.02), but not for energy (p = 0.119) or protein intake (p = 0.077). The addition of psychosocial and diet behavior factors to calibration equations significantly increases the amount of total variance explained for protein density and their

  19. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  20. Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Wang

    Full Text Available Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT, a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery. RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W, lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration and satiety (meal interval and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition

  1. Symbiotic bacteria contribute to increasing the population size of a freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Tsukada, Koji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    The filter-feeding crustacean Daphnia is a key organism in freshwater ecosystems. Here, we report the effect of symbiotic bacteria on ecologically important life history traits, such as population dynamics and longevity, in Daphnia magna. By disinfection of the daphniid embryos with glutaraldehyde, aposymbiotic daphniids were prepared and cultured under bacteria-free conditions. Removal of bacteria from the daphniids was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The population of aposymbiotic daphniids was reduced 10-folds compared with that of the control daphniids. Importantly, re-infection with symbiotic bacteria caused daphniids to regain bacteria and increase their fecundity to the level of the control daphniids, suggesting that symbiotic bacteria regulate Daphnia fecundity. To identify the species of symbiotic bacteria, 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in daphniids were sequenced. This revealed that 50% of sequences belonged to the Limnohabitans sp. of the Betaproteobacteria class and that the diversity of bacterial taxa was relatively low. These results suggested that symbiotic bacteria have a beneficial effect on D. magna, and that aposymbiotic Daphnia are useful tools in understanding the role of symbiotic bacteria in the environmental responses and evolution of their hosts. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Recovery of aging-related size increase of skin epithelial cells: in vivo mouse and in vitro human study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    Full Text Available The size increase of skin epithelial cells during aging is well-known. Here we demonstrate that treatment of aging cells with cytochalasin B substantially decreases cell size. This decrease was demonstrated on a mouse model and on human skin cells in vitro. Six nude mice were treated by topical application of cytochalasin B on skin of the dorsal left midsection for 140 days (the right side served as control for placebo treatment. An average decrease in cell size of 56±16% resulted. A reduction of cell size was also observed on primary human skin epithelial cells of different in vitro age (passages from 1 to 8. A cell strain obtained from a pool of 6 human subjects was treated with cytochalasin B in vitro for 12 hours. We observed a decrease in cell size that became statistically significant and reached 20-40% for cells of older passage (6-8 passages whereas no substantial change was observed for younger cells. These results may be important for understanding the aging processes, and for cosmetic treatment of aging skin.

  3. Eating a meal is associated with elevations in agreeableness and reductions in dominance and submissiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    aan het Rot, Marije; Moskowitz, D.S.; Hsu, Zoe Y.; Young, Simon N.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown that having a meal together with others increases food intake. In contrast, the effects of having a meal on interactions with others have rarely been examined. More specifically, it is unknown if having a social interaction during a meal alters how people feel, behave, and

  4. Nutritional evaluation of canola meals produced from new varieties of canola seeds for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Parr, C; Utterback, P; Parsons, C M

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the nutritional value of 14 canola meals from new varieties of canola and compared them to conventional canola meal samples and soybean meals in chickens. Five experiments that included different sources of canola meals or soybean meals were conducted. For each experiment, a precision-fed rooster assay with conventional or cecectomized roosters was conducted to determine TMEn or amino acid digestibility. Analyzed nutritional composition of the canola meal samples indicated increases in crude protein and amino acids for all test canola meals (49.41 to 50.58% crude protein on a dry matter basis) compared to conventional canola meals (40.73 to 43.01%). All test canola meals also contained lower amounts of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Most test canola meals had significantly higher TMEn values than the conventional canola meals (P nutritional value of the canola meal from new varieties of canola was greater than conventional canola meal for poultry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. "What time is my next meal?" delay-discounting individuals choose smaller portions under conditions of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Annie R; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R; Martin, Ashley A; Rogers, Peter J; Mason, Alice; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2017-09-01

    'Dietary' delay discounting is typically framed as a trade-off between immediate rewards and long-term health concerns. Our contention is that prospective thinking also occurs over shorter periods, and is engaged to select portion sizes based on the interval between meals (inter-meal interval; IMI). We sought to assess the extent to which the length of an IMI influences portion-size selection. We predicted that delay discounters would show 'IMI insensitivity' (relative lack of concern about hunger or fullness between meals). In particular, we were interested in participants' sensitivity to an uncertain IMI. We hypothesized that when meal times were uncertain, delay discounters would be less responsive and select smaller portion sizes. Participants (N = 90) selected portion sizes for lunch. In different trials, they were told to expect dinner at 5pm, 9pm, and either 5pm or 9pm (uncertain IMI). Individual differences in future-orientation were measured using a monetary delay-discounting task. Participants chose larger portions when the IMI was longer (p relationship between BMI and smaller portion selection in uncertainty (p < 0.05). This is the first study to report an association between delay discounting and IMI insensitivity. We reason that delay discounters selected smaller portions because they were less sensitive to the uncertain IMI, and overlooked concerns about potential future hunger. These findings are important because they illustrate that differences in discounting are expressed in short-term portion-size decisions and suggest that IMI insensitivity increases when meal timings are uncertain. Further research is needed to confirm whether these findings generalise to other populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Intracerebroventricular C75 decreases meal frequency and reduces AgRP gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Susan; Bi, Sheng; Knipp, Susan B; McFadden, Jill M; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H

    2006-07-01

    3-Carboxy-4-alkyl-2-methylenebutyrolactone (C75), an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase and stimulator of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, reduces food intake and body weight in rodents when given systemically or centrally. Intracellular molecular mechanisms involving changes in cellular energy status are proposed to initiate the feeding and body weight reductions. However, effectors that lie downstream of these initial steps are not yet fully identified. Present experiments characterize the time courses of hypophagia and weight loss after single injections of C75 into the lateral cerebroventicle in rats and go on to identify specific meal pattern changes and coinciding alterations in gene expression for feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides. C75 reduced chow intake and body weight dose dependently. Although the principal effects occurred on the first day, weight losses relative to vehicle control were maintained over multiple days. C75 did not affect generalized locomotor activity. C75 began to reduce feeding after a 6-h delay. The hypophagia was due primarily to decreased meal number during 6-12 h without a significant effect on meal size, suggesting that central C75 reduced the drive to initiate meals. C75 prevented the anticipated hypophagia-induced increases in mRNA for AgRP in the arcuate nucleus at 22 h and at 6 h when C75 begins to suppress feeding. Overall, the data suggest that gene expression changes leading to altered melanocortin signaling are important for the hypophagic response to intracerebroventricular C75.

  7. Rapid Increase in Genome Size as a Consequence of Transposable Element Hyperactivity in Wood-White (Leptidea) Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Venkat; Suh, Alexander; Kalsoom, Faheema; Dinca, Vlad; Vila, Roger; Friberg, Magne; Wiklund, Christer; Backström, Niclas

    2017-10-01

    Characterizing and quantifying genome size variation among organisms and understanding if genome size evolves as a consequence of adaptive or stochastic processes have been long-standing goals in evolutionary biology. Here, we investigate genome size variation and association with transposable elements (TEs) across lepidopteran lineages using a novel genome assembly of the common wood-white (Leptidea sinapis) and population re-sequencing data from both L. sinapis and the closely related L. reali and L. juvernica together with 12 previously available lepidopteran genome assemblies. A phylogenetic analysis confirms established relationships among species, but identifies previously unknown intraspecific structure within Leptidea lineages. The genome assembly of L. sinapis is one of the largest of any lepidopteran taxon so far (643 Mb) and genome size is correlated with abundance of TEs, both in Lepidoptera in general and within Leptidea where L. juvernica from Kazakhstan has considerably larger genome size than any other Leptidea population. Specific TE subclasses have been active in different Lepidoptera lineages with a pronounced expansion of predominantly LINEs, DNA elements, and unclassified TEs in the Leptidea lineage after the split from other Pieridae. The rate of genome expansion in Leptidea in general has been in the range of four Mb/Million year (My), with an increase in a particular L. juvernica population to 72 Mb/My. The considerable differences in accumulation rates of specific TE classes in different lineages indicate that TE activity plays a major role in genome size evolution in butterflies and moths. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: Admittedly, research to date examining the physiological effects of meal frequency in humans is somewhat limited. More specifically, data that has specifically examined the impact of meal frequency on body composition, training adaptations, and performance in physically active individuals and athletes is scant. Until more research is available in the physically active and athletic populations, definitive conclusions cannot be made. However, within the confines of the current scientific literature, we assert that: 1. Increasing meal frequency does not appear to favorably change body composition in sedentary populations. 2. If protein levels are adequate, increasing meal frequency during periods of hypoenergetic dieting may preserve lean body mass in athletic populations. 3. Increased meal frequency appears to have a positive effect on various blood markers of health, particularly LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and insulin. 4. Increased meal frequency does not appear to significantly enhance diet induced thermogenesis, total energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate. 5. Increasing meal frequency appears to help decrease hunger and improve appetite control. The following literature review has been prepared by the authors in support of the aforementioned position statement.

  9. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  10. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  11. Founding weaver ant queens (Oecophylla longinoda) increase production and nanitic worker size when adopting non-nestmate pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Offenberg, Joachim; Sinzogan, Antonio; Adandonon, Appolinaire; Kossou, Dansou; Vayssières, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille) are used commercially to control pest insects and for protein production. In this respect fast colony growth is desirable for managed colonies. Transplantation of non-nestmate pupae to incipient colonies has been shown to boost colony growth. Our objectives were to find the maximum number of pupae a founding queen can handle, and to measure the associated colony growth. Secondly, we tested if transplantation of pupae led to production of larger nanitic workers (defined as unusually small worker ants produced by founding queens in their first batch of offspring). Forty-five fertilized queens were divided into three treatments: 0 (control), 100 or 300 non-nestmate pupae transplanted to each colony. Pupae transplantation resulted in highly increased growth rates, as pupae were readily adopted by the queens and showed high proportions of surviving (mean = 76%). However, survival was significantly higher when 100 pupae were transplanted compared to transplantation of 300 pupae, indicating that queens were unable to handle 300 pupae adequately and that pupae require some amount of nursing. Nevertheless, within the 60-day experiment the transplantation of 300 pupae increased total colony size more than 10-fold whereas 100 pupae increased the size 5.6 fold, compared to control. This increase was due not only to the individuals added in the form of pupae but also to an increased per capita brood production by the resident queen, triggered by the adopted pupae. The size of hatching pupae produced by the resident queen also increased with the number of pupae transplanted, leading to larger nanitic workers in colonies adopting pupae. In conclusion, pupae transplantation may be used to produce larger colonies with larger worker ants and may thus reduce the time to produce weaver ant colonies for commercial purposes. This in turn may facilitate the implementation of the use of weaver ants.

  12. Placement of a take-out container during meal influences energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kate J; Byker Shanks, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that increased portion sizes are contributing to the rising rates of obesity. However, studies that focus on environmental cues to promote portion control are relatively limited. Thus, a randomized study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting to determine if the presence of a take-out container, given at the start of a meal, would prompt experimental group participants to decrease the portion of food consumed and reduce energy intake. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and analysis of covariance. Results showed that placing a take-out container with the test meal led to a significant difference in energy intake (p=0.000) when compared to the control group. Participants (n=25) who were given a take-out container with their test meal consumed an average of 90 kcal less than participants (n=25) who were not given the condition. These findings suggest that a to-go container may be utilized as an effective environmental cue for guiding consumers to control serving size when faced with over-sized portions at restaurants or other food outlets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Addition of different tuna meal levels to pizza dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abreu Vasconcelos Campelo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop pizza dough with different levels of tuna meal (Tunnus spp.. In order to produce tuna meal, tuna torsos without fins were used, cooked for 1 hour, pressed, milled and dehydrated for 24 hours at 60 °C. Pizza dough was produced without (0% or with the addition of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of tuna meal, calculated based on the quantity of wheat flour. The tuna meal and different pizza pastries were analyzed for moisture content, crude protein, total lipids, ash, carbohydrates, caloric value and fatty acid profiles. Microbiological and sensory analyses were also carried out on the pizza pastries. The increasing addition of tuna meal resulted in gains in the crude protein (10.89 to 18.94%, total lipid (4.63 to 5.89% and ash (2.54 to 3.54% contents of the pizza pastries, not influencing the moisture content or caloric value. The inclusion of tuna meal linearly increased the quantity of n-3 series fatty acids in the pizza pastry, from 1.56 to 5.93 g/kg with the addition of 20% tuna meal. The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the tuna meal and pizza pastries varied from 1.21 to 1.85. The microbiological analyses showed that the pizza pastries were produced under proper hygiene conditions. It was also observed that the addition of 5 to 20% of tuna meal to the pizza pastry did not significantly (p>0.05 alter the parameters of aroma, flavor, overall impression and purchase intention. It was therefore concluded that the addition of 5 to 20% tuna meal is effective in improving the nutritional value and fatty acid profile of pizza pastry.

  14. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  15. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  16. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  17. Energy and nutrient intake and acceptability of nutritionally balanced school meals in Filipino students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Neufingerl, Nicole; Magsadia, Clarita; Hiemstra, Harry; Patalen, Chona; Eilander, Ans

    2014-09-01

    School meals provide an excellent opportunity to improve children's diet. To investigate dietary intakes and acceptance of nutritionally balanced school meals ("nutrimeals") as compared with regular ("baseline") school meals among Filipino students. The study employed a before-after intervention design with one group. Students 13 to 16 years of age from a public school in Metro Manila (n = 112) consumed baseline school meals for 2 weeks followed by consumption of nutri-meals for 7 weeks. Served meals and plate waste were weighed to calculate food and nutrient intakes. Acceptability of meals was assessed daily in a random subsample using a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of covariance corrected for age and sex was conducted to test for differences in nutrient intakes and acceptability between nutri-meals and baseline meals. Feeding nutri-meals resulted in a higher intake of vegetables (95.3 ± 13.8 g), fruit (76.5 ± 6.3 g), and fish (19.1 ± 3.3 g) than baseline meals. Energy and protein intakes significantly increased by 140.7 ± 2.8 kcal and 3.2 ± 0.1 g, respectively. The quality of fat intake improved compared with baseline meals (p 90%) liked both baseline and nutrimeals; however, the mean acceptability score for baseline meals was slightly higher (0.2 ± 0.07 points, p = .004). Nutritionally balanced nutri-meals may be a healthier and acceptable alternative to regular Filipino school meals. Further optimization of nutri-meals is required to meet the nutritional needs of adolescents and reduce sodium content.

  18. Daily meal frequency and associated variables in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Lower frequency of meals was related to lower income in children and adolescents, larger number of sons in the family, and increased values of body mass index and low‐density lipoprotein.

  19. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  20. The effect of increase in humidity on the size and activity distributions of radon progeny laden aerosols from hydrocarbon combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Atika; Phillips, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a humidity increase on the distributions of aerosol size and activity for hydrocarbon combustion aerosols laden with radon progeny were determined. Pre-humidification aerosol conditions were 20 0 C and 35% RH. Post-humidification aerosol conditions were 37 0 C and 100% RH, intended to simulate conditions in the human respiratory tract. Using kerosene combustion aerosols, a growth factor of 1.3 ± 0.2 (standard deviation) was found for both the aerosol median diameter and the activity median diameter. (author)

  1. A tetraethylene glycol coat gives gold nanoparticles long in vivo half-lives with minimal increase in size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willett JDS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Julian DS Willett, Marlon G Lawrence, Jennifer C Wilder, Oliver Smithies† Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA †Dr Oliver Smithies passed away on January 10, 2017 Abstract: In this study, we describe the experiments determining whether coating gold nanoparticles with tetraethylene glycol (TEG provides pharmacologically relevant advantages, such as increased serum half-life and resistance to protein adsorption. Monodisperse TEG-coated, NaBH4-reduced gold nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size comparable to albumin were synthesized by reducing gold chloride with NaBH4 under alkaline conditions in the presence of TEG-SH. The particles were characterized by gel electrophoresis, column chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were subsequently injected intravenously into mice, and their half-lives and final destinations were determined via photometric analysis, light microscopy (LM, and transmission electron microscopy. The TEG particles had a long half-life (~400 minutes that was not influenced by splenectomy. After 500 minutes of injection, TEG particles were found in kidney proximal tubule cell vesicles and in spleen red and white pulp. The particles induced apoptosis in the spleen red pulp but not in white pulp or the kidney. Some of the TEG particles appeared to have undergone ligand exchange reactions that increased their charge. The TEG particles were shown to be resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, as judged by gel electrophoresis and column chromatography. These results demonstrate that naturally monodisperse, small-sized gold nanoparticles coated with TEG have long in vivo plasma half-lives, are minimally toxic, and are resistant to protein adsorption. This suggests that a TEG coating should be considered as an alternative to a polyethylene glycol coating, which is polydisperse and of much larger size. Keywords

  2. MicroCT and microMRI imaging of a prenatal mouse model of increased brain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Elisabeth K. N.; Stock, Stuart R.; Taketo, Makoto M.; Chenn, Anjen; Ravosa, Matthew J.

    2008-08-01

    There are surprisingly few experimental models of neural growth and cranial integration. This and the dearth of information regarding fetal brain development detract from a mechanistic understanding of cranial integration and its relevance to the patterning of skull form, specifically the role of encephalization on basicranial flexion. To address this shortcoming, our research uses transgenic mice expressing a stabilized form of β-catenin to isolate the effects of relative brain size on craniofacial development. These mice develop highly enlarged brains due to an increase in neural precursors, and differences between transgenic and wild-type mice are predicted to result solely from variation in brain size. Comparisons of wild-type and transgenic mice at several prenatal ages were performed using microCT (Scanco Medical MicroCT 40) and microMRI (Avance 600 WB MR spectrometer). Statistical analyses show that the larger brain of the transgenic mice is associated with a larger neurocranium and an altered basicranial morphology. However, body size and postcranial ossification do not seem to be affected by the transgene. Comparisons of the rate of postcranial and cranial ossification using microCT also point to an unexpected effect of neural growth on skull development: increased fetal encephalization may result in a compensatory decrease in the level of cranial ossification. Therefore, if other life history factors are held constant, the ontogeny of a metabolically costly structure such as a brain may occur at the expense of other cranial structures. These analyses indicate the benefits of a multifactorial approach to cranial integration using a mouse model.

  3. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  4. Unidentified Factors in Jojoba Meal Prevent Oviduct Development in Broiler Breeder Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaut; Onagbesan; Bruggeman; Verhoeven; Berghman; Flo; Cokelaere; Decuypere

    1998-01-19

    Supplementation of feed with jojoba meal, as a means for autonomous feed restriction, was successful in depressing feed intake and controlling body weight of broiler breeder pullets to the extent recommended by the breeder company. However, these broiler breeders never produced eggs. At the level of ovary, normal follicle development and maturation did occur. A considerable number of ovulations occurred which were not followed by oviposition. After ovulation, the ova could not be captured by the oviduct, because of the small size of the oviduct, resulting in "internal laying". The virtual absence of oviduct development cannot be explained presently but it must be due to some yet unidentified factor(s) in jojoba meal which prevent(s) the normal development of the oviduct. These factors may be acting by abnormally increasing plasma progesterone or triiodothyronin levels and/or directly by themselves interfering with oviduct development. The nature of these factors requires further investigations.

  5. Effect of penile-extender device in increasing penile size in men with shortened penis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoobakht, Mohammadreza; Shahnazari, Alireza; Rezaeidanesh, Maedeh; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Pourmand, Gholamreza

    2011-11-01

    It has been suggested that the application of penile-extender devices increases penile length and circumference. However, there are a few scientific studies in this field. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a penile-extender (Golden Erect(®) , Ronas Tajhiz Teb, Tehran, Iran) in increasing penile size. This prospective study was performed on subjects complaining about "short penis" who were presented to our clinic between September 15, 2008 and December 15, 2008. After measuring the penile length in flaccid and stretched forms and penile circumference, patients were instructed to wear Golden Erect(®) , 4-6 hours per day during the first 2 weeks and then 9 hours per day until the end of the third month. The subjects were also trained how to increase the force of the device during determined intervals. The patients were visited at the end of the first and third months, and penile length and circumference were measured and compared with baseline. The primary end point of the study was changes in flaccid and stretched penile lengths compared with the baseline size during the 3 months follow-up. Twenty-three cases with a mean age of 26.5 ± 8.1 years entered the study. The mean flaccid penile length increased from 8.8 ± 1.2 cm to 10.1 ± 1.2 cm and 10.5 ± 1.2 cm, respectively, in the first and third months of follow-up, which was statistically significant (P penis (9.3 ± 0.86 cm vs. 8.8 ± 0.66 cm, P penis girth enhancement using penile extender. Performing more studies is recommended. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  7. Comparison of the adhesive performances of soy meal, water washed meal fractions, and protein isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhesive bonding of wood plays an increasing role in the forest products industry and is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. In this work, we obtained five soy meal products through commercial sources or in-house preparations. The protein content was 49...

  8. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However...... consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate....... Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows....

  9. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  10. Influence of BMI and dietary restraint on self-selected portions of prepared meals in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, David; Rytz, Andréas; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Forde, Ciarán G; Martin, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking. A representative sample of female consumers (N = 300, range 18-55 years) evaluated 15 frozen savoury prepared meals. For each meal, participants rated their expected satiation and expected liking, and selected their ideal portion using a previously validated computer-based task. Dietary restraint was quantified using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ-R). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed on self-selected portions with age, hunger level, and meal familiarity entered as control variables in the first step of the model, expected satiation and expected liking as predictor variables in the second step, and DEBQ-R and BMI as exploratory predictor variables in the third step. The second and third steps significantly explained variance in portion size selection (18% and 4%, respectively). Larger portion selections were significantly associated with lower dietary restraint and with lower expected satiation. There was a positive relationship between BMI and portion size selection (p = 0.06) and between expected liking and portion size selection (p = 0.06). Our discussion considers future research directions, the limited variance explained by our model, and the potential for portion size underreporting by overweight participants. Copyright © 2016 Nestec S.A. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  11. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Martin; Lane, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy) with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories), but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories), would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles). A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42) participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  12. Factor VIIa response to a fat-rich meal does not depend on fatty acid composition: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.; Maat, M. de; Meijer, G.; Zock, P.; Grobbee, D.; Kok, F.; Kluft, C.; Schouten, E.

    1998-01-01

    A fat-rich meal increases activated factor VII (FVIIa), but it is not clear whether this increase depends on the fatty acid composition of the meal. Therefore, we studied the FVIIa response to fat-rich meals with different fatty acid composition in a randomized controlled crossover trial and

  13. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  14. Diabetes Increases Cryoinjury Size with Associated Effects on Cx43 Gap Junction Function and Phosphorylation in the Mouse Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinus, Joseph A; Gourdie, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients develop larger myocardial infarctions and have an increased risk of death following a heart attack. The poor response to myocardial injury in the diabetic heart is likely related to the many metabolic derangements from diabetes that create a poor substrate in general for wound healing, response to injury and infection. Studies in rodents have implicated a role for the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in regulating the injury response in diabetic skin wounds. In this study, we sought to determine whether diabetes alters Cx43 molecular interactions or intracellular communication in the cryoinjured STZ type I diabetic mouse heart. We found that epicardial cryoinjury size is increased in diabetic mice and this increase is prevented by preinjury insulin administration. Consistent with these findings, we found that intercellular coupling via gap junctions is decreased after insulin administration in diabetic and nondiabetic mice. This decrease in coupling is associated with a concomitant increase in phosphorylation of Cx43 at serine 368, a residue known to decrease channel conductance. Taken together, our results suggest that insulin regulates both gap junction-mediated intercellular communication and injury propagation in the mouse heart.

  15. Short-Term Effect of Convenience Meal Intake on Glycemic Response and Satiety among Healthy College Students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunji; Lee, Jeunghyun; Lee, Sukyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effect of convenience meals purchased at convenience stores on glycemic response and satiety in healthy college students. A total of 9 non-obese volunteers (4 males and 5 females) aged 20 to 24 years participated in this study. On 3 separate days, participants consumed a standard diet (cooked rice and side dishes), type 1 convenience meal (kimbap and instant ramen), and type 2 convenience meal (sweet bread and flavored milk). Capillary blood-glucose response and satiety were measured every 30 minutes for 2 hours after consuming the 3 different test meals. Although mean fasting glucose levels were not different, glucose levels at 30 minutes and 120 minutes after the type 1 convenience meal intake were significantly higher than those in the standard meal (p convenience meal, followed by the type 2 convenience meal and standard meal (p convenience meal contained higher calorie than the other meals, satiety of the type 2 convenience meal was lowest at 30 minutes and 60 minutes after consumption (p convenience meals may increase glycemic response or induce higher calorie intake with low satiety compared with nutritionally balanced Korean style meal.

  16. Effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on small and intermediate sized osmotrophs during a nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Larsen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the transient population dynamic response of the osmotrophic community initiated by a nutrient pulse in mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. Differences in phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria abundances associated with the CO2 treatment are also described. Coastal seawater was enclosed in floating mesocosms (27 m3 and nutrients were supplied initially in order to stimulate growth of microbial organisms, including the coccolitophorid Emiliania huxleyi. The mesocosms were modified to achieve 350 μatm (1×CO2, 700 μatm (2×CO2 and 1050 μatm (3×CO2 CO2 pressure. The temporal dynamics was related to nutrient conditions in the enclosures. Numerically small osmotrophs (picoeukaryotes and Synechoccocus sp. dominated initially and towards the end of the experiment, whereas intermediate sized osmotrophs bloomed as the initial bloom of small sized osmotrophs ceased. Maximum concentrations of E. huxleyi were approximately 4.6×103 cells ml−1 whereas other intermediate sized osmotrophs reached approximately twice as high concentrations. The osmotrophic succession pattern did not change, and neither were we able to detect differences with regard to presence or absence of specific osmotrophic taxa as a consequence of altered pCO2. Towards the end of the experiment we did, however, record significantly higher picoeukaryotic- and lower Synechococcus-abundances in the higher CO2 treatments. Slightly increased cell concentrations of E. huxleyi and other nanoeukaryotes were also recorded at elevated pCO2 on certain days.

  17. Increased Back-Bonding Explains Step-Edge Reactivity and Particle Size Effect for CO Activation on Ru Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Lucas; Copéret, Christophe; Comas-Vives, Aleix

    2016-12-28

    Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous molecule, a key feedstock and intermediate in chemical processes. Its adsorption and activation, typically carried out on metallic nanoparticles (NPs), are strongly dependent on the particle size. In particular, small NPs, which in principle contain more corner and step-edge atoms, are surprisingly less reactive than larger ones. Hereby, first-principles calculations on explicit Ru NP models (1-2 nm) show that both small and large NPs can present step-edge sites (e.g., B 5 and B 6 sites). However, such sites display strong particle-size-dependent reactivity because of very subtle differences in local chemical bonding. State-of-the-art crystal orbital Hamilton population analysis allows a detailed molecular orbital picture of adsorbed CO on step-edges, which can be classified as flat (η 1 coordination) and concave (η 2 coordination) sites. Our analysis shows that the CO π-metal d π hybrid band responsible for the electron back-donation is better represented by an oxygen lone pair on flat sites, whereas it is delocalized on both C and O atoms on concave sites, increasing the back-bonding on these sites compared to flat step-edges or low-index surface sites. The bonding analysis also rationalizes why CO cleavage is easier on step-edge sites of large NPs compared to small ones irrespective of the site geometry. The lower reactivity of small NPs is due to the smaller extent of the Ru-O interaction in the η 2 adsorption mode, which destabilizes the η 2 transition-state structure for CO direct cleavage. Our findings provide a molecular understanding of the reactivity of CO on NPs, which is consistent with the observed particle size effect.

  18. Adolescents' unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-01

    Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Sheena M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources...... on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. DESIGN: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double......-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (pVegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content...

  20. Spatial prisoner's dilemma games with increasing neighborhood size and individual diversity on two interdependent lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Xiao-Kun; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Wang, Li; Sun, Shi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel PDG model with individual diversity and utility interdependency is proposed. • Diversity can be represented by players with different strategy spreading abilities. • Interdependency is implemented by the payoff correlation between two lattices. • Cooperation can be remarkably promoted by combining these two kinds of mechanisms. - Abstract: We present an improved spatial prisoner's dilemma game model which simultaneously considers the individual diversity and increasing neighborhood size on two interdependent lattices. By dividing the players into influential and non-influential ones, we can discuss the impact of individual diversity on the cooperative behaviors. Meanwhile, we implement the utility interdependency by integrating the payoff correlations between two lattices. Extensive simulations indicate that the optimal density of influential players exists for the cooperation to be promoted, and can be further facilitated through the utility coupling. Current results are beneficial to understanding the origin of cooperation among selfish agents among realistic scenarios

  1. Spatial prisoner's dilemma games with increasing neighborhood size and individual diversity on two interdependent lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao-Kun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xia, Cheng-Yi, E-mail: xialooking@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Gao, Zhong-Ke [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Li; Sun, Shi-Wen [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2015-04-03

    Highlights: • A novel PDG model with individual diversity and utility interdependency is proposed. • Diversity can be represented by players with different strategy spreading abilities. • Interdependency is implemented by the payoff correlation between two lattices. • Cooperation can be remarkably promoted by combining these two kinds of mechanisms. - Abstract: We present an improved spatial prisoner's dilemma game model which simultaneously considers the individual diversity and increasing neighborhood size on two interdependent lattices. By dividing the players into influential and non-influential ones, we can discuss the impact of individual diversity on the cooperative behaviors. Meanwhile, we implement the utility interdependency by integrating the payoff correlations between two lattices. Extensive simulations indicate that the optimal density of influential players exists for the cooperation to be promoted, and can be further facilitated through the utility coupling. Current results are beneficial to understanding the origin of cooperation among selfish agents among realistic scenarios.

  2. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Erik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43% and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%. Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when provided in both small and large meals. The same was true for the serum glucose response but only in large meals. Glycemic load was useful in predicting the acute impact on blood glucose and insulin responses within the context of mixed meals.

  3. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meals About Meals on Wheels Get Started The Issue The Problem & Our Solution Meals on Wheels Health Facts & Resources Senior Facts Map State Fact Sheets Research More Than a Meal Pilot Research Study Medicare Claims Analyses Policy Myths Hunger in Older Adults Take Action Volunteer Advocate #SAVELUNCH ...

  4. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  5. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  6. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  7. Substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Maza Ortega

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements on the nutritional characteristics and performance of beef heifers in their postweaning phase on Brachiaria decumbens pastures during the dry season. Twenty-four Nellore beef heifers (average initial age and weight of 8 mo and 210±6 kg, respectively were used. The design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal (0, 50 and 100%. The control animals received only a mineral mixture ad libitum, and those on the other treatments received supplementation at 1.0 kg/animal/day. No differences were found in ADG between supplemented and control animals (P>0.10. Supplementation increased crude protein (CP intake only (P<0.10. The level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal did not affect (P>0.10 the intake of supplemented animals. Supplementation elevated the apparent digestibility coefficients (P<0.10 of OM, CP, NFC and TDN, but not EE or NDFap (P>0.10. A positive linear effect (P<0.10 of the level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed cake was observed on the digestibility of OM, NFC and TDN. Supplementation and the level of substitution had an effect (P<0.10 on the serum urea nitrogen and urine urea nitrogen contents. Supplementation or substitution level had no effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the intestine (MICN or efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS (P>0.10. Substitution caused a decreasing linear effect (P<0.10 on microbial nitrogen/nitrogen intake ratio (MICNR. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements during the dry season does not impair the productive performance of beef heifers.

  8. Evaluation of sampling plans to detect Cry9C protein in corn flour and meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Thomas B; Trucksess, Mary W; Giesbrecht, Francis G; Slate, Andrew B; Thomas, Francis S

    2004-01-01

    StarLink is a genetically modified corn that produces an insecticidal protein, Cry9C. Studies were conducted to determine the variability and Cry9C distribution among sample test results when Cry9C protein was estimated in a bulk lot of corn flour and meal. Emphasis was placed on measuring sampling and analytical variances associated with each step of the test procedure used to measure Cry9C in corn flour and meal. Two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used: one for the determination of Cry9C protein concentration and the other for % StarLink seed. The sampling and analytical variances associated with each step of the Cry9C test procedures were determined for flour and meal. Variances were found to be functions of Cry9C concentration, and regression equations were developed to describe the relationships. Because of the larger particle size, sampling variability associated with cornmeal was about double that for corn flour. For cornmeal, the sampling variance accounted for 92.6% of the total testing variability. The observed sampling and analytical distributions were compared with the Normal distribution. In almost all comparisons, the null hypothesis that the Cry9C protein values were sampled from a Normal distribution could not be rejected at 95% confidence limits. The Normal distribution and the variance estimates were used to evaluate the performance of several Cry9C protein sampling plans for corn flour and meal. Operating characteristic curves were developed and used to demonstrate the effect of increasing sample size on reducing false positives (seller's risk) and false negatives (buyer's risk).

  9. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Stancu, Catalin M.; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2016-01-01

    before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but equally important...... is the ambience in the lunch situation. Most of the ambience factors were related to available time and mental resources of the participants and the possibility to share the meal with close colleagues. These are factors that can be facilitated by the service provider, but not directly influenced.......Workplace lunches are recurrent meal occasions that can contribute to the general well-being of employees. The objective of our research was to study which factors influence consumers' satisfaction with these meals by exploring the relative role of food-related, personal, situational factors. Using...

  10. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liao

    Full Text Available Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS, the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant

  11. Warring arthropod societies: Social spider colonies can delay annihilation by predatory ants via reduced apparency and increased group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Carl N; Wright, Colin M; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2015-10-01

    Sociality provides individuals with benefits via collective foraging and anti-predator defense. One of the costs of living in large groups, however, is increased apparency to natural enemies. Here, we test how the individual-level and collective traits of spider societies can increase the risk of discovery and death by predatory ants. We transplanted colonies of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola into a habitat dense with one of their top predators, the pugnacious ant Anoplolepis custodiens. With three different experiments, we test how colony-wide survivorship in a predator-dense habitat can be altered by colony apparency (i.e., the presence of a capture web), group size, and group composition (i.e., the proportion of bold and shy personality types present). We also test how spiders' social context (i.e., living solitarily vs. among conspecifics) modifies their behaviour toward ants in their capture web. Colonies with capture webs intact were discovered by predatory ants on average 25% faster than colonies with the capture web removed, and all discovered colonies eventually collapsed and succumbed to predation. However, the lag time from discovery by ants to colony collapse was greater for colonies containing more individuals. The composition of individual personality types in the group had no influence on survivorship. Spiders in a social group were more likely to approach ants caught in their web than were isolated spiders. Isolated spiders were more likely to attack a safe prey item (a moth) than they were to attack ants and were more likely to retreat from ants after contact than they were after contact with moths. Together, our data suggest that the physical structures produced by large animal societies can increase their apparency to natural enemies, though larger groups can facilitate a longer lag time between discovery and demise. Lastly, the interaction between spiders and predatory ants seems to depend on the social context in which spiders reside

  12. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( Pruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  13. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Jonathan C.; Barr, Sadie B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF) consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF) meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, there...

  14. Spermidine Suppresses Age-Associated Memory Impairment by Preventing Adverse Increase of Presynaptic Active Zone Size and Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun K Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ, increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age. These age-induced AZ changes, however, were fully suppressed by spermidine feeding. A genetically enforced enlargement of AZ scaffolds (four gene-copies of BRP impaired memory formation in young animals. Thus, in the Drosophila nervous system, aging AZs seem to steer towards the upper limit of their operational range, limiting synaptic plasticity and contributing to impairment of memory formation. Spermidine feeding suppresses age-dependent memory impairment by counteracting these age-dependent changes directly at the synapse.

  15. Fibromodulin reduces scar size and increases scar tensile strength in normal and excessive-mechanical-loading porcine cutaneous wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenlu; Ting, Kang; Lee, Soonchul; Zara, Janette N; Song, Richard; Li, Chenshuang; Chen, Eric; Zhang, Xinli; Zhao, Zhihe; Soo, Chia; Zheng, Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is a major postoperative complication which leads to severe disfigurement and dysfunction in patients and usually requires multiple surgical revisions due to its high recurrence rates. Excessive-mechanical-loading across wounds is an important initiator of hypertrophic scarring formation. In this study, we demonstrate that intradermal administration of a single extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule-fibromodulin (FMOD) protein-can significantly reduce scar size, increase tensile strength, and improve dermal collagen architecture organization in the normal and even excessive-mechanical-loading red Duroc pig wound models. Since pig skin is recognized by the Food and Drug Administration as the closest animal equivalent to human skin, and because red Duroc pigs show scarring that closely resembles human proliferative scarring and hypertrophic scarring, FMOD-based technologies hold high translational potential and applicability to human patients suffering from scarring-especially hypertrophic scarring. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Meal parameters and vagal gastrointestinal afferents in mice that experienced early postnatal overnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddinger, Jessica E; Fox, Edward A

    2010-08-04

    Early postnatal overnutrition results in a predisposition to develop obesity due in part to hypothalamic and sympathetic dysfunction. Potential involvement of another major regulatory system component--the vagus nerve--has not been examined. Moreover, feeding disturbances have rarely been investigated prior to development of obesity when confounds due to obesity are minimized. To examine these issues, litters were culled on the day of birth to create small litters (SL; overnutrition), or normal size litters (NL; normal nutrition). Body weight, fat pad weight, meal patterns, and vagal sensory duodenal innervation were compared between SL and NL adult mice prior to development of obesity. Meal patterns were studied 18 h/day for 3 weeks using a balanced diet. Then vagal mechanoreceptors were labeled using anterograde transport of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injected into the nodose ganglion and their density and morphology were examined. Between postnatal day 1 and weaning, body weight of SL mice was greater than for NL mice. By young adulthood it was similar in both groups, whereas SL fat pad weight was greater in males, suggesting postnatal overnutrition produced a predisposition to obesity. SL mice exhibited increased food intake, decreased satiety ratio, and increased first meal rate (following mild food deprivation) compared to NL mice, suggesting postnatal overnutrition disrupted satiety. The density and structure of intestinal IGLEs appeared similar in SL and NL mice. Thus, although a vagal role cannot be excluded, our meal parameter and anatomical findings provided no evidence for significant postnatal overnutrition effects on vagal gastrointestinal afferents. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwakeel Eman A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration

  18. A Note on the impact on sales from introducing healthy labeled meals on the lunch menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Menu labeling of prepared meals away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper, we use a field experiment to analyze if a restaurant benefits from introducing a healthy labeled meal on its menu by experiencing an overall increase in sales. We cann...... reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a healthy labeled meal on the menu, i.e., our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a healthy labeled meal....

  19. Effect of a holistic meal and ambiance concept on main meal enjoyment and food intake of Dutch nursing home residents: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Derks, J.; Nijenhuis, M.A.; Boer, E.; Gorselink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether or not the implementation of a holistic meal and ambiance concept has the potential to increase the meal enjoyment and/or influence food intake of the elderly in nursing homes who already eat in a social setting. Design: In a longitudinal design two groups of subjects

  20. Salt as a public health challenge in continental European convenience and ready meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Hartmann, Christina; Gruber, Anita; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2014-11-01

    To assess the salt content of continental European convenience and ready meals. A multistage study in which, after laboratory analysis of the products' salt contents (n 32), new salt-reduced meals were developed through food reformulation. Additionally, a comprehensive survey of convenience meals from the Austrian market (n 572) was conducted to evaluate the salt contents of a wider product range. Six continental European countries participated. No subjects enrolled. The salt contents of continental European convenience and ready meals mostly exceeded 1·8 g/100 g, which is 30 % of the targeted daily intake level; some contained even more than the recommended daily intake of 6 g. The highest salt contents were found in pizzas and pasta dishes, the lowest ones in sweet meals. Large variations in salt levels were found not only between and within meal type categories, but also between similar meals from different producers. In addition, our approach to develop new salt-reduced meals showed that a stepwise reduction of the ready meals' salt contents is possible without compromising the sensory quality. To address the problem of hypertension and increased risk for CVD through high salt intake, a reduction of the salt levels in continental European convenience and ready meals is urgently needed, since they are providing a major part of the daily salt intake. Successful national-wide salt reduction strategies in the UK or Finland have already demonstrated the public health impact of this setting.

  1. How to Define Family Meals in "Shokuiku" (Food and Nutrition Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Hidemi; Sarukura, Nobuko; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese government has set 11 targets to promote "Shokuiku." However, among the 11 targets, only two targets (frequency of shared family meals and the proportion of breakfast skipping in children and young men) are quantitative goals. The increase in children eating alone is often lamented in the popular media, but the methodology for identifying the status of family meals ("Kyoshoku"), or how the responses should be validated, is rarely discussed. In the current review, we attempt to clarify how a family meal and survey responses are defined, by searching literature published after 2009, using the following keywords: "family meals" or "shared meals," in the PubMed database for English. For literature published in Japanese, we searched the Igakuchuo-Zassi Database and Google Scholar for relevant studies. In the English literature, questions were likely to focus on whether a dinner or any meal was eaten together with family members living together, while Japanese literature was more focused on "breakfast or dinner" eaten together with family members. The response options varied across different studies, such as the number of family meals a week, or the number of days (per week) these family meals were eaten. We found it quite difficult to compare across the studies, as there is no standardized definition or response options for "family meals." Further studies are needed in order to develop a standardized method to assess the current status of "family meals."

  2. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Meal pattern among Norwegian primary-school children and longitudinal associations between meal skipping and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje H; Vik, Frøydis N; Bere, Elling; Svendsen, Martin V; Oellingrath, Inger M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate meal pattern longitudinally and explore whether meal skipping was associated with overweight among Norwegian children and adolescents. Longitudinal study. Children's meal frequencies were reported by their parents using a retrospective FFQ. Weight and height were measured by public health nurses. Descriptive data comparing 4th and 7th grade were analysed by paired-sample t tests for continuous variables and χ 2 tests for categorical variables. Odds ratio estimates, including confidence intervals, with BMI category (normal/overweight) as the dependent variable, were determined through logistic regression analyses. Primary schools, Telemark County, Norway. A cohort of 428 Norwegian boys and girls; 4th graders in 2007, 7th graders in 2010. The number of children eating four main meals per day (regular meal frequency) decreased from 4th grade (47 %) to 7th grade (38 %; P = 0·001). Those who ate regular meals in 4th grade but not in 7th grade had higher odds (OR = 3·1; 95 % CI 1·1, 9·0) of being overweight in 7th grade after adjusting for gender, maternal education and physical activity, but the odds ratio was not statistically significant after adjusting for overweight in 4th grade (OR = 2·8; 95 % CI 0·7, 11·6). The present study showed significant increases in overall meal skipping among children between 4th and 7th grade. The results indicate an association between overweight and meal skipping, but additional prospective and longitudinal analyses and intervention trials are warranted to confirm this relationship.

  4. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  5. Associations between meal complexity and social context in four Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahma, Nina; Mäkelä, Johanna; Niva, Mari; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary eating is often portrayed by images of snacking, solitary grazing, disintegration of sociability, demise of family meals, and increasingly irregular eating patterns –what Claude Fischler has famously described as gastroanomy. Inspired by the concept of eating system, this article contributes to the discussion about the ongoing changes by examining the relation between meal complexity, sociability and the duration of meals in contemporary Nordic societies. We examine the differenc...

  6. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  7. Crambe meal : evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein

  8. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  9. When larger brains do not have more neurons: Increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.

  10. Meals for Good: An innovative community project to provide healthy meals to children in early care and education programs through food bank catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Leah R; Smith, Teresa M; Stern, Katherine; Boyd, Lisa Weissenburger-Moser; Rasmussen, Cristy Geno; Schaffer, Kelly; Shuell, Julie; Broussard, Karen; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-12-01

    Innovative approaches to childhood obesity prevention are warranted in early care and education (ECE) settings, since intervening early among youth is recommended to promote and maintain healthy behaviors. The objective of the Meals for Good pilot was to explore feasibility of implementing a food bank-based catering model to ECE programs to provide more nutritious meals, compared to meals brought from home (a parent-prepared model). In 2014-2015, a 12-month project was implemented by a food bank in central Florida in four privately-owned ECE programs. An explanatory sequential design of a mixed-methods evaluation approach was utilized, including a pre-post menu analysis comparing parent-prepared meals to the catered meals, and stakeholder interviews to determine benefits and barriers. The menu analysis of lunches showed daily reductions in calories, fat, and saturated fat, but an increase in sodium in catered meals when compared to parent-prepared meals. Interviews with ECE directors, teachers, parents, and food bank project staff, identified several benefits of the catered meals, including healthfulness of meals, convenience to parents, and the ECE program's ability to market this meal service. Barriers of the catered meals included the increased cost to parents, transportation and delivery logistics, and change from a 5 to a 2-week menu cycle during summer food service. This pilot demonstrated potential feasibility of a food bank-ECE program partnership, by capitalizing on the food bank's existing facilities and culinary programming, and interest in implementing strategies focused on younger children. The food bank has since leveraged lessons learned and expanded to additional ECE programs.

  11. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & Licensure Vital Records ... food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. Many holiday dinners include meat and poultry, ...

  12. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Leeuwis, F.H.; Heijmans, M.W.; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake.Objective:To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal.Design:Longitudinal randomized

  13. Selection for number of live piglets at five-days of age increased litter size and reduced mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjarne; Madsen, Per; Henryon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    . The heritabilities of maternal effect on litter size were 0.079 and 0.095 in Landrace and Yorkshir e. The heritabilities of maternal effect on piglet-mortality rates were 0.069 and 0.082 in Landrace and Yorkshire. The genetic correlation between litter size and mortality rate were unfavourable; and the estimates......-netic gain has reduced the piglet mortality rate by 4 %-points in Landrace and Yorkshire from 2004 to 2010. The genetics gain was confirmed by decreased phenotypic annual mortality rates in the breeding and multiplier herds....

  14. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) meal as protein source by laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, Siaka Seriba; Kant, Rashmi; Tanhimana, Jemarlyn; Lela, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control), 33, 67 and 100%. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compa...

  15. Parenting Style and Family Meals: Cross-Sectional and 5-year Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on family meals in the last decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, which may be associated with family meal patterns. Objective The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and five-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Study Design Data were from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school, high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n = 4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n = 806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Results Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals five years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Conclusions Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency in order to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors

  16. Parenting style and family meals: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Research on family meals in the past decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, that may be associated with family meal patterns. The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Data were from Project Eating Among Teens, a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school and high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n=4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n=806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals 5 years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors of authoritative parents and identify specific behaviors that dietetics

  17. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from hours...

  18. Disruption of growth hormone receptor gene causes diminished pancreatic islet size and increased insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Li; Coschigano, Karen T; Robertson, Katie; Lipsett, Mark; Guo, Yubin; Kopchick, John J; Kumar, Ujendra; Liu, Ye Lauren

    2004-09-01

    Growth hormone, acting through its receptor (GHR), plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism and in promoting postnatal growth. GHR gene-deficient (GHR(-/-)) mice exhibit severe growth retardation and proportionate dwarfism. To assess the physiological relevance of growth hormone actions, GHR(-/-) mice were used to investigate their phenotype in glucose metabolism and pancreatic islet function. Adult GHR(-/-) mice exhibited significant reductions in the levels of blood glucose and insulin, as well as insulin mRNA accumulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic sections revealed normal distribution of the islets despite a significantly smaller size. The average size of the islets found in GHR(-/-) mice was only one-third of that in wild-type littermates. Total beta-cell mass was reduced 4.5-fold in GHR(-/-) mice, significantly more than their body size reduction. This reduction in pancreatic islet mass appears to be related to decreases in proliferation and cell growth. GHR(-/-) mice were different from the human Laron syndrome in serum insulin level, insulin responsiveness, and obesity. We conclude that growth hormone signaling is essential for maintaining pancreatic islet size, stimulating islet hormone production, and maintaining normal insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.

  19. Influência do tamanho das partículas na solubilização enzimática da proteína do farelo de soja = The influence of particle size in the enzymatic extraction of soybean meal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Stenzel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho das partículas na quantidade de proteína solubilizada a partir do farelo de soja. O farelo foi peneirado e cada fração foi submetida à hidrólise enzimática com as proteases Alcalase e Flavourzyme. Ashidrólises foram realizadas a 60ºC, agitação de 100 rpm, concentração de Alcalase 0,5% (proteína/proteína por 3h e concentração de Flavourzyme 1% (proteína/proteína por 5h. A quantidade de proteína solubilizada foi determinada pelo método de Lowry. A análisegranulométrica do farelo mostrou que quase metade da amostra corresponde a partículas maiores que 1,68 mm. O modelo que resultou em melhor ajuste dos dados foi o GGS, e o diâmetro médio de Sauter da amostra foi 1,150 mm. Com relação à hidrólise enzimática,para as duas enzimas foi verificada uma tendência de aumento na quantidade solubilizada para as frações mais finas e maior efetividade da Alcalase na solubilização proteica. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of particlesize in the results of enzymatic extraction of soybean meal protein. The meal was classified in homogeneous fractions, and each was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with Alcalase and Flavourzyme proteases. The hydrolyses were conducted at 60ºC, with agitation of 100 rpm, 0.5% concentration of Alcalase (protein/protein for three hours, and 1% concentration of Flavourzyme (protein/protein for five hours. The results were analyzed based on the amount of solubilized protein, determined through the Lowry method. The granulometric analysis of the meal showed that almost half of the sample is composed of particles larger that 1.68 mm. The model that resulted in the best adjustment of experimental data was GGS, and the Sauter mean diameter of the sample was 1.150 mm. Regarding enzymatic hydrolysis, a trend of increase in the amount of solubilized proteinwas verified for both enzymes for the finer fractions and greater

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with krill meal on pigmentation and quality of flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of administration of krill meal and synthetic astaxanthin during the finisher phase of the fattening cycle of rainbow trout on flesh pigmentation and quality traits were studied. The inclusion of krill meal increased the body weight and size and decreased the peri-visceral fat and visceral weight indices. The astaxanthin diet produced the highest accumulation of total carotenoids in the fillet compared to the krill meal diet: the difference was significant after 15 days of feeding (2.50 vs 2.10 mg/kg till the end of the trial (5.00 vs 4.80 mg/kg. The same pattern was observed for astaxanthin concentration with the highest values in the fillets of fish fed the astaxanthin diet. Fillet lightness (L* was not affected by trout diets whereas redness (a* and yellowness (b* were significantly higher in fish fed the astaxanthin diet until day 30 of the trial. Hue was not affected by feeding, whereas chroma was significantly higher in the fish fed astaxanthin throughout the trial except on day 45 of sampling. Trout fed the krill meal diet had a paler pink-red colour on the SalmoFan scale than those receiving the astaxanthin diet. No significant differences emerged in proximate composition and cholesterol content of trout in the two groups. The fatty acid profile of the fillets reflected the fatty acids of the diets administered to the trout: eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in the fish fed the krill meal.

  1. Improvement of Aspergillus niger 55, a raw corn meal saccharifying enzyme hyperproducer, through mutation and selective screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; O, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Mutation experiments were performed to select the mutant of Aspergillus niger 55, which had lost almost all the ability to produce transglucosidases but retained that of high productivity of raw meal saccharifying enzyme, by means of successive induction with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG), ultraviolet(UV) light, and γ-rays. Also, we used the mutant enrichment techniques, such as liquid culture-filtration procedure and differential heat sensitivity of conidia, in order to increase the possibility of obtaining a mutant. The glucoamylase productivity of mutant PFST-38 was 11 times higher than that of the parent strain. The mutant PFST-38 was morphologically identical to the parent strain, except for the size of conidia, the tendency to form conidia and the length of conidiophore. Asp. niger mutant PFST-38 appeared to be useful for the submerged production of the raw corn meal saccharifying enzyme

  2. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean ± SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52±17% and 52±16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  3. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H. [School of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2010-12-15

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean {+-} SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52{+-}17% and 52{+-}16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  4. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reimann

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories, but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories, would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles. A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42 participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P < .001, suggesting that children can be incentivized to choose less food when such is paired with a toy. BMI neither moderated nor nullified the effect of toy on smaller-sized meal choice (P = .125, suggesting that children with overweight and obesity can also be incentivized to choose less. This article is the first to suggest that fast-food restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  5. Effects of intra-VMN mianserin and IL-1ra on meal number in anorectic tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, A; Gleason, J R; Meguid, M M; Yang, Z J; Cangiano, C; Rossi Fanelli, F

    2000-01-01

    Tumor growth in animals and humans is associated with the onset of anorexia and reduced food intake. We previously demonstrated that the ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMN) plays a contributory role in mediating cancer anorexia. Because serotonin and interleukin-1 (IL-1) are putative mediators of cancer anorexia, we hypothesized that their influence on food intake during tumor growth might occur via their action within the VMN. To test this hypothesis, 12 Fischer rats injected subcutaneously with 10(6) viable MCA sarcoma cells (TB rats) and their nontumor-bearing controls (NTB, n = 13) were studied. When anorexia developed, TB and NTB rats received bilateral intra-VMN microinjections of the serotonin antagonist mianserin (200 nmol) or the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, 25 ng). Food intake and its determinants of meal number and size were continuously recorded via a computerized device. In NTB rats, intra-VMN mianserin did not affect food intake, whereas after IL-1ra or vehicle a momentary decrease in food intake due to a predominant reduction of meal size occurred. In TB rats, intra-VMN mianserin or IL-1ra selectively increased meal number, leading to improved food intake. Data suggest that intra-VMN serotonin and IL-1 are involved in influencing cancer related anorexia.

  6. Family meals and adolescents: what have we learned from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole I; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an integrated overview of the research methodology and key findings from a decade of research on family meals as part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a large, population-based study of adolescents. Focus groups conducted with 141 middle-school and high-school adolescents suggested the importance of family meals in influencing adolescents' food choices. These findings led to the inclusion of questions on family meals in the Project EAT-I survey, completed by 4746 middle-school and high-school students, and in the Project EAT-II longitudinal survey, completed by 2516 of the original participants five years later. A subset of 902 parents also participated in telephone interviews as part of Project EAT-I. Findings indicate that many adolescents and parents view family meals in a positive light, but there is great diversity in the context and frequency of family meal patterns in the homes of adolescents. Findings further suggest that family meals may have benefits in terms of dietary intake, disordered eating behaviours, substance use and psychosocial health. Findings from Project EAT, in conjunction with other research studies on family meals, suggest the importance of working with families to increase the frequency and improve the quality of family meals. Further research is needed in order to elucidate the pathways that underpin the relationships between family meals and health outcomes. Suggestions for a future research agenda based on what was learned from Project EAT are provided.

  7. Family Meals and Adolescent Emotional Well-Being: Findings From a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Peiris-John, Roshini; Moselen, Emma; Dyson, Ben; Clark, Terryann

    2017-01-01

    To describe the relationship between family meals and adolescent mental health and determine whether the relationship differs by sex. Secondary analyses of a cross-sectional survey. A total of 8,500 nationally representative students. Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; World Health Organization Well-being Index. Multiple regression models determined the relationships between family meals and mental health indicators; sociodemographic variables and family connection were included as covariates. Approximately 60% of adolescents shared family meals ≥5 times in the previous week, whereas 22% reported that they shared ≤2 meals in the previous week. Greater frequency of family meals was associated with fewer depressive symptoms (P well-being (family meals and depressive symptoms were attenuated by sex; the relationship was stronger for females than for males. Frequent family meals may have a protective effect on the mental health of adolescents, particularly for depressive symptoms in girls. Interventions that aim to increase the frequency of family meals are needed to evaluate whether family meals alone can have an emotional benefit for adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue is stimulated by a single meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, Z.; Raum, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    A single meal stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in rats. In the present study the role of norepinephrine in this thermogenic response was assessed from the rate of its turnover in BAT after a single test meal. For comparison, norepinephrine turnover was determined in the heart and spleen. A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (n = 24) was meal deprived and the other (n = 24) was given a low-protein high-carbohydrate test meal for 2 h. The synthesis inhibition method with α-methyl-p-tyrosine was employed to determine norepinephrine turnover from its concentration at four hourly time points after the meal. Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine concentration and turnover rate were increased more than threefold in BAT of the meal-fed compared with the meal-deprived rats. Neither were significantly altered by the meal in the heart or spleen. The data suggest that norepinephrine mediates a portion of the thermic effect of meals that originate in BAT

  9. Meal patterns among children and adolescents and their associations with weight status and parental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würbach, Ariane; Zellner, Konrad; Kromeyer-Hauschild, Katrin

    2009-08-01

    To describe the meal patterns of Jena schoolchildren and their associations with children's weight status and parental characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Twenty schools in Jena (100,000 inhabitants), south-east Germany. A total of 2054 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years with information on BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and weight status (based on German reference values), of whom 1571 had additional information about their parents (parental education and employment status, weight status according to WHO guidelines) and meal patterns (school lunch participation rate, meal frequencies, breakfast consumption and frequency of family meals). Weight status of the children was associated with weight status, education and employment status of the parents. Meal patterns were strongly dependent on children's age and parental employment. As age increased, the frequency of meal consumption, participation rate in school lunches and the number of family meals decreased. Using linear regression analysis, a high inverse association between BMI-SDS and meal frequency was observed, in addition to relationships with parental weight status and paternal education. Age-specific prevention programmes should encourage greater meal frequency. The close involvement of parents is essential in any strategy for improving children's (families') diets.

  10. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Marlene D.; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Christensen, Sheena M.; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). Results HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (ppeas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content was as satiating and palatable as an animal-based meal with high protein content. PMID:27765144

  11. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  12. Successes and Challenges in School Meal Reform: Qualitative Insights from Food Service Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to…

  13. Middle school student perceptions of school lunch following revised federal school meal guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed student perceptions of school meals under the new federal meal patterns for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Student feedback is instrumental in developing strategies to increase and maintain NSLP participation, satisfaction, and ultimately provide students with a health...

  14. Daily meal frequency and associated variables in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fabiana A; Candiá, Samara M; Pequeno, Marina S; Sartorelli, Daniela S; Mendes, Larissa L; Oliveira, Renata M S; Netto, Michele P; Cândido, Ana Paula C

    To investigate the frequency distribution of daily meals and its relation to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, anthropometric and biochemical factors in children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 708 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. Data on personal information, socioeconomic status, physical activity and number of meals were obtained through semi-structured questionnaire and consumption by 24-h recall and food record. Weight and height measurements were also performed to calculate the body mass index. Finally, blood samples were collected for analysis of total cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and glucose levels. Descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney test, and Poisson regression were used in statistical analysis. Meal frequency 2 (PR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.11-2.11; p=0.010). Even in the age group of 10-14 years, <4 meals was related to higher prevalence of body mass index (PR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.02-1.74; p=0.032) and low-density lipoprotein (PR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.03-1.87; p=0.030) higher after adjustments. Lower frequency of meals was related to lower income in children and adolescents, larger number of sons in the family, and increased values of body mass index and low-density lipoprotein. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Daily meal frequency and associated variables in children and adolescents,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To investigate the frequency distribution of daily meals and its relation to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, anthropometric and biochemical factors in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 708 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. Data on personal information, socioeconomic status, physical activity and number of meals were obtained through semi-structured questionnaire and consumption by 24-h recall and food record. Weight and height measurements were also performed to calculate the body mass index. Finally, blood samples were collected for analysis of total cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and glucose levels. Descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney test, and Poisson regression were used in statistical analysis. Results: Meal frequency 2 (PR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.11-2.11; p = 0.010. Even in the age group of 10-14 years, <4 meals was related to higher prevalence of body mass index (PR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.02-1.74; p = 0.032 and low-density lipoprotein (PR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03-1.87; p = 0.030 higher after adjustments. Conclusion: Lower frequency of meals was related to lower income in children and adolescents, larger number of sons in the family, and increased values of body mass index and low-density lipoprotein.

  16. Home-Living Elderly People's Views on Food and Meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Edfors

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to describe home-living elderly people's views on the importance of food and meals. Methods. Semistructured interviews with twelve elderly people. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results. Respondents described how their past influenced their present experiences and views on food and meals. Increased reliance on and need of support with food and meals frequently arose in connection with major changes in their life situations. Sudden events meant a breaking point with a transition from independence to dependence and a need for assistance from relatives and/or the community. With the perspective from the past and in the context of dependency, respondents described meals during the day, quality of food, buying, transporting, cooking, and eating food. Conclusions. Meeting the need for optimal nutritional status for older people living at home requires knowledge of individual preferences and habits, from both their earlier and current lives. It is important to pay attention to risk factors that could compromise an individual's ability to independently manage their diet, such as major life events and hospitalisation. Individual needs for self-determination and involvement should be considered in planning and development efforts for elderly people related to food and meals.

  17. Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Seda, P.; Killeen, G.F.; Hawley, W.A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The success of distinguishing blood meal sources of Anopheles gambiae Giles through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification at the TC-11 and VWA human short tandem repeats (STR) loci. Blood meal size and locus had no significant effect

  18. The snacking rat as model of human obesity: effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Fleur, S E; Luijendijk, M C M; van der Zwaal, E M; Brans, M A D; Adan, R A H

    2014-05-01

    Rats subjected to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet persistently overeat, exhibit increased food-motivated behavior and become overtly obese. Conversely, several studies using a non-choice (nc) high-energy diet showed only an initial increase in food intake with unaltered or reduced food-motivated behavior. This raises the question of the importance of choice in the persistence of hyperphagia in rats on a fcHFHS diet. Meal patterns, food intake and body weight gain were studied in male Wistar rats on free-choice diets with fat and/or sugar and in rats on nc diets with fat and sugar (custom made with ingredients similar to the fcHFHS diet). Rats on a ncHFHS diet initially overconsumed, but reduced intake thereafter, whereas rats on a fcHFHS diet remained hyperphagic. Because half of the sugar intake in the fcHFHS group occurred during the inactive period, we next determined whether sugar intake during the light phase was a necessary requirement for hyperphagia, by restricting access to liquid sugar to either the light or dark period with unlimited access to fat and chow. Results showed that hyperphagia occurred irrespective of the timing of sugar intake. Meal pattern analysis revealed consumption of larger but fewer meals in the ncHFHS group, as well as the fcHF group. Interestingly, meal number was increased in all rats drinking liquid sugar (whether on a fcHFHS or a fcHS diet), whereas a compensatory decrease in meal size was only observed in the fcHS group, but not the fcHFHS group. We hereby show the importance of choice in the observation of fcHFHS diet-induced hyperphagia, which results in increases in meal number due to sugar drinking without any compensatory decrease in meal size. We thus provide a novel dietary model in rats that mimics important features of human overconsumption that have been ignored in rodent models of obesity.

  19. Determination of glycaemic index; some methodological aspects related to the analysis of carbohydrate load and characteristics of the previous evening meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfeldt, Y; Wu, X; Björck, I

    2006-01-01

    To determine the possible differences in glycaemic index (GI) depending on (1) the analytical method used to calculate the 'available carbohydrate' load, that is, using carbohydrates by difference (total carbohydrate by difference, minus dietary fibre (DF)) as available carbohydrates vs available starch basis (total starch minus resistant starch (RS)) of a food rich in intrinsic RS and (2) the effect of GI characteristics and/or the content of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) of the evening meal prior to GI testing the following morning. Blood glucose and serum insulin responses were studied after subjects consuming (1) two levels of barley kernels rich in intrinsic RS (15.2%, total starch basis) and (2) after a standard breakfast following three different evening meals varying in GI and/or indigestible carbohydrates: pasta, barley kernels and white wheat bread, respectively. Healthy adults with normal body mass index. (1) Increasing the portion size of barley kernels from 79.6 g (50 g 'available carbohydrates') to 93.9 g (50 g available starch) to adjust for its RS content did not significantly affect the GI or insulin index (11). (2) The low GI barley evening meal, as opposed to white wheat bread and pasta evening meals, reduced the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic (23 and 29%, respectively, P base carbohydrate load on specific analyses of the available carbohydrate content. (2) A low GI barley evening meal containing high levels of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) substantially reduced the GI and II of white wheat bread determined at a subsequent breakfast meal.

  20. The effect of a home delivery meal service of energy- and protein-rich meals on quality of life in malnourished outpatients suffering from lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedo, Eva; Gade, Josephine; Granov, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition is prevalent in cancer patients and associated with increased incidence of complications and mortality. We investigated the effects of a home delivery meal service, providing a selection of energy-dense, protein-rich meals, on quality of life (QoL) in malnourished lung cancer....... Intervention exerted a significant positive effect on performance score after 12 wk (P = 0.047). Increased energy and protein intakes were strongly associated with improved QoL, functional score, hand grip strength, symptom and performance scores. Food delivery service with energy- and protein-rich main meals...

  1. Elevated insulin and reduced insulin like growth factor binding protein-3/prostate specific antigen ratio with increase in prostate size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Karli; Nandeesha, Hanumanthappa; Dorairajan, Lalgudi Narayanan; Rajappa, Medha; Vinayagam, Vickneshwaran

    2017-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have growth promoting effects, while insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has growth inhibitory effects. The present study was designed to assess the concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their association with prostate size in patients with BPH. Ninety 90 BPH cases and 90 controls were enrolled in the study. Insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, PSA, testosterone and estradiol were estimated in both the groups. Insulin, IGF-1 and estradiol were increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was decreased in BPH cases when compared with controls. Insulin (r=0.64, p=0.001) and IGF-1 (r=0.22, p=0.03) were positively correlated and IGFBP-3/PSA (r=-0.316, p=0.002) were negatively correlated with prostate size in BPH. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin (p=0.001) and IGFBP-3/PSA (p=0.004) predicts the prostate size in patients with BPH. Insulin was increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was reduced in BPH patients with increased prostate size. At a cutoff concentration of 527.52, IGFBP-3/PSA ratio was found to differentiate benign growth of prostate from normal prostate with 96% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Insulin is elevated and IGFBP-3/PSA is reduced with increase prostate size in BPH cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of protein supplements consumed with meals, versus between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joshua L; Bergia, Robert E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2018-06-01

    The impact of timing the consumption of protein supplements in relation to meals on resistance training-induced changes in body composition has not been evaluated systematically. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of consuming protein supplements with meals, vs between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults. Studies published up to 2017 were identified with the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases. Two researchers independently screened 2077 abstracts for eligible randomized controlled trials of parallel design that prescribed a protein supplement and measured changes in body composition for a period of 6 weeks or more. In total, 34 randomized controlled trials with 59 intervention groups were included and qualitatively assessed. Of the intervention groups designated as consuming protein supplements with meals (n = 16) vs between meals (n = 43), 56% vs 72% showed an increase in body mass, 94% vs 90% showed an increase in lean mass, 87% vs 59% showed a reduction in fat mass, and 100% vs 84% showed an increase in the ratio of lean mass to fat mass over time, respectively. Concurrently with resistance training, consuming protein supplements with meals, rather than between meals, may more effectively promote weight control and reduce fat mass without influencing improvements in lean mass.

  3. Perspectives about family meals from single-headed and dual-headed households: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- vs dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. In addition, parents' perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more widespread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents' perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes, and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in substudy of two linked multilevel studies-EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (eg, provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (eg, single-headed=cost vs dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (eg, single-headed=give fewer options vs dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings can help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals, and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. Copyright

  4. [Nutritional information of meals supplied by companies participating in the Workers' Meal Program in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, Ana Paula Gines; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Jaime, Patrícia Constante

    2008-01-01

    To compare the nutritional value of meals provided by companies participating in the Workers' Meal Program in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, to the nutritional recommendations and guidelines established by the Ministry of Health for the Brazilian population. The 72 companies studied were grouped according to economic sector (industrial, services, or commerce), size (micro, small, medium, or large), meal preparation modality (prepared on-site by the company itself, on-site by a hired caterer, or off-site by a hired caterer), and supervision by a dietitian (yes or no). The per capita amount of food was determined based on the lunch, dinner, and supper menus for three days. The nutritional value of the meals was defined by the amount of calories, carbohydrates, protein, total fat, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, trans fat, sugars, cholesterol, and fruits and vegetables. Most of the menus were deficient in the number of fruits and vegetables (63.9%) and amount of polyunsaturated fat (83.3%), but high in total fat (47.2%) and cholesterol (62.5%). Group 2, composed of mostly medium and large companies, supervised by a dietician, belonging to the industrial and/or service sectors, and using a hired caterer, on averaged served meals with higher calorie content (P<0.001), higher percentage of polyunsaturated fat (P<0.001), more cholesterol (P=0.015), and more fruits and vegetables (P<0.001) than Group 1, which was composed of micro and small companies from the commercial sector, that prepare the meals themselves on-site, and are not supervised by a dietitian. Regarding the nutrition guidelines set for the Brazilian population, Group 2 meals were better in terms of fruit and vegetable servings (P<0.001). Group 1 meals were better in terms of cholesterol content (P=0.05). More specific action is required targeting company officers and managers in charge of food and nutrition services, especially in companies without dietitian supervision.

  5. Drinking a hot blood meal elicits a protective heat shock response in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B; Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Patrick, Kevin R; Phillips, Zachary P; Krause, Tyler B; Denlinger, David L

    2011-05-10

    The mosquito's body temperature increases dramatically when it takes a blood meal from a warm-blooded, vertebrate host. By using the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, we demonstrate that this boost in temperature following a blood meal prompts the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). This response, elicited by the temperature of the blood meal, is most robust in the mosquito's midgut. When RNA interference is used to suppress expression of hsp70, protein digestion of the blood meal is impaired, leading to production of fewer eggs. We propose that Hsp70 protects the mosquito midgut from the temperature stress incurred by drinking a hot blood meal. Similar increases in hsp70 were documented immediately after blood feeding in two other mosquitoes (Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae) and the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, suggesting that this is a common protective response in blood-feeding arthropods.

  6. Utilization of fish offal meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effect of replacing fish meal (FM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% with fish offal meal (FOM) in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. At the start of experiment, ten glass aquaria of size 70 cm x 45 cm x 40 cm/each, filled with well water up to 70 L of its volume were stocked with 100 ...

  7. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf-life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, J; Adu-Gyamfi, A; Owusu-Biney, Alex; Apea Bah, F; Akomeah-Adjei, F [Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon (Ghana)

    2004-07-01

    Current trends suggest increasing world-wide demand for convenience foods such as prepared meals and those that require minimum preparation before consumption. In Ghana, the trend is the same with ready-to-eat or prepared meals mostly sold in the informal sector, playing a major role in meeting the nutritional needs of the people these meals are prepared on daily basis as in most developing countries. With increasing urbanization and rapid adoption of refrigeration for food preservation in developing countries, the demand for such foods in supermarkets should be expected. Over 90% of ready-to-eat meals prepared in Ghana are marketed under ambient conditions and have shelf-life of less than 12 hours. However, there are a few caterers who prepare cook-chill meals using hygienic and preventative approach (e.g. HACCP) in order to enhance the safety of their meals. Preliminary investigations have demonstrated that these cook-chill meals are potential sources of pathogenic bacteria and have been implicated in food-borne disease outbreaks. There is therefore the need to ensure the safety of ready-to-eat meals through effective processing such as irradiation.

  8. Characterization of four Paenibacillus species isolated from pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmond, Mariette; Nierop Groot, Masja N; van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien

    2017-07-03

    Food spoilage is often caused by microorganisms. The predominant spoilage microorganisms of pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat (RTE) mixed rice-vegetable meals stored at 7°C were isolated and determined as Paenibacillus species. These sporeforming psychrotrophic bacteria are well adapted to grow in the starch-rich environment of pasteurized and chilled meals. Growth of the Paenibacillus isolates appeared to be delayed by decreased (5.5%, corresponding with an a w meal on spore inactivation, heat-inactivation kinetics were determined and D-values were calculated. According to these kinetics, pasteurization up to 90°C, necessary for inactivation of vegetative spoilage microorganisms and pathogens, does not significantly contribute to the inactivation of Paenibacillus spores in the meals. Furthermore, outgrowth of pasteurized spores was determined in the mixed rice-vegetable meal at several temperatures; P. terrae FBR-61 and P. pabuli FBR-75 isolates did not substantially increase in numbers during storage at 2°C, but had a significant increase within a month of storage at 4°C or within several days at 22°C. Overall, this work shows the importance of Paenibacillus species as spoilage microorganisms of pasteurized, chilled RTE meals and that the meals' matrix, processing conditions, and storage temperature are important hurdles to control microbial meal spoilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Second-meal effects of pulses on blood glucose and subjective appetite following a standardized meal 2 h later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Cho, France; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated whether pulses (chickpeas, yellow peas, navy beans, lentils) have an effect on blood glucose (BG) and appetite following a fixed-size meal 2 h later. Over the following 2 h, all pulses lowered BG area under the curve (AUC) and lentils reduced appetite AUC compared with white bread (p AUC was lower after lentils compared with white bread (p < 0.05).

  10. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05. ii Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05. iii Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  11. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sadie B; Wright, Jonathan C

    2010-07-02

    Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF) consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF) meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5-6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either 'whole' or 'processed' cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15-20%), carbohydrate (40-50%), and fat (33-39%) composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12) and men (n=5) studied in a crossover design. There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137+/-14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy) was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1+/-10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy). Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  12. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie B. Barr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%, carbohydrate (40–50%, and fat (33–39% composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12 and men (n=5 studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy. Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  13. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Translocation of differently sized and charged polystyrene nanoparticles in in vitro intestinal cell models of increasing complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walczak, A.P.; Kramer, E.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Tromp, P.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Zande, M. van der; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal translocation is a key factor for determining bioavailability of nanoparticles (NPs) after oral uptake. Therefore, we evaluated three in vitro intestinal cell models of increasing complexity which might affect the translocation of NPs: a mono-culture (Caco-2 cells), a co-culture with

  15. Size makes a difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate status and trends in portion size of foods rich in fat and/or added sugars during the past decades, and to bring portion size into perspective in its role in obesity and dietary guidelines in Denmark. Data sources: Information about portion sizes of low-fat and full-fat food...... nation-wide dietary surveys and official sales statistics (Study 3). Results: Study 1: Subjects ate and drank significantly more when they chose low-fat food and meal items (milk used as a drink, sauce and sliced cold meat), compared with their counterparts who chose food and meal items with a higher fat...... content. As a result, almost the same amounts of energy and fat were consumed both ways, with the exception of sliced cold meat (energy and fat) and milk (fat). Study 2: Portion sizes of commercial energy-dense foods and beverages, and fast food meals rich in fat and/or added sugars, seem to have...

  16. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  17. Electromagnetic Transponders Indicate Prostate Size Increase Followed by Decrease During the Course of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Benjamin L.; Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Kurko, Brian S.; Reed, Joshua L.; Murray, Brian C.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time image guidance enables more accurate radiation therapy by tracking target movement. This study used transponder positions to monitor changes in prostate volume that may be a source of dosimetric and target inaccuracy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four men with biopsy-proven T1c-T3a prostate cancer each had three electromagnetic transponders implanted transperineally. Their coordinates were recorded by the Calypso system, and the perimeter of the triangle formed by the transponders was used to calculate prostate volumes at sequential time points throughout the course of radiation therapy to a dose of 81 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean prostate volume of 10.9% from the first to the final day of radiation therapy. The volume loss did not occur monotonically but increased in most patients (75%) during the first several weeks to a median maximum on Day 7. The volume increased by a mean of 6.1% before decreasing by a mean maximum difference of 18.4% to nadir (p < 0.001 for both increase and decrease). Glandular shrinkage was asymmetric, with the apex to right base dimension varying more than twice that of the lateral dimension. For all dimensions, the mean change was <0.5 cm. Conclusion: Real-time transponder positions indicated a volume increase during the initial days of radiation therapy and then significant and asymmetric shrinkage by the final day. Understanding and tracking volume fluctuations of the prostate during radiation therapy can help real-time imaging technology perform to its fullest potential.

  18. Effects of Streptomycin Administration on Increases in Skeletal Muscle Fiber Permeability and Size Following Eccentric Muscle Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayao, Keishi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Kouki; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Yotani, Kengo; Ogita, Futoshi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of streptomycin (Str) administration on changes in membrane permeability and the histomorphological characteristics of damaged muscle fibers following eccentric contraction (ECC ). Eighteen 7-week-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control (Cont), ECC, and ECC with Str (ECC + Str). The tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in both ECC groups were stimulated electrically and exhibited ECC. Evans blue dye (EBD), a marker of muscle fiber damage associated with increased membrane permeability, was injected 24 hr before TA muscle sampling. The number of EBD-positive fibers, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and roundness were determined via histomorphological analysis. The ECC intervention resulted in an increased fraction of EBD-positive fibers, a larger CSA, and decreased roundness. The fraction of EBD-positive fibers was 79% lower in the ECC + Str group than in the ECC group. However, there was no difference in the CSA and roundness of the EBD-positive fibers between the two ECC groups. These results suggest that Str administration can reduce the number of myofibers that increase membrane permeability following ECC, but does not ameliorate the extent of fiber swelling in extant EBD-positive fibers. Anat Rec, 301:1096-1102, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  20. Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Ella H; Gaban-Chong, Natasha; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-10

    In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma γ-tocopherol but not for α-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC(0-5h)) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial

  1. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  2. Neonatal Overnutrition Increases Testicular Size and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone β-Subunit in Peripubertal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Argente-Arizón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms. However, obesity-associated hyperleptinemia is linked to decreased leptin sensitivity, at least in adults. Here, we analyzed whether neonatal overnutrition modifies the response to an increase in leptin in peripubertal male rats, as previously demonstrated in females. Wistar rats were raised in litters of 4 (neonatal overnutrition or 12 pups (controls per dam. Leptin was administered sc (3 µg/g body weight at postnatal day 35 and the rats killed 45 min or 2 h later. Postnatal overfeeding resulted in increased body weight and circulating leptin levels; however, we found no overweight-related changes in the mRNA levels of neuropeptides involved in metabolism or reproduction. In contrast, pituitary expression of luteinizing hormone (LH beta-subunit was increased in overweight rats, as was testicular weight. There were no basal differences between L4 and L12 males or in their response to leptin administration in pSTAT3 levels in the hypothalamus at either 45 min or 2 h. In contrast, pJAK2 was found to be higher at 45 min in L4 compared to L12 males regardless of leptin treatment, while at 2 h it was higher in L4 leptin-treated males compared to L12 leptin-treated males, as well as L4 vehicle-treated rats. There were no changes in response to leptin administration in the expression of the neuropeptides analyzed. However, serum LH levels rose only in L4 males in response to leptin, but

  3. Neonatal Overnutrition Increases Testicular Size and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone β-Subunit in Peripubertal Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Castro-González, David; Díaz, Francisca; Fernández-Gómez, María J.; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms. However, obesity-associated hyperleptinemia is linked to decreased leptin sensitivity, at least in adults. Here, we analyzed whether neonatal overnutrition modifies the response to an increase in leptin in peripubertal male rats, as previously demonstrated in females. Wistar rats were raised in litters of 4 (neonatal overnutrition) or 12 pups (controls) per dam. Leptin was administered sc (3 µg/g body weight) at postnatal day 35 and the rats killed 45 min or 2 h later. Postnatal overfeeding resulted in increased body weight and circulating leptin levels; however, we found no overweight-related changes in the mRNA levels of neuropeptides involved in metabolism or reproduction. In contrast, pituitary expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) beta-subunit was increased in overweight rats, as was testicular weight. There were no basal differences between L4 and L12 males or in their response to leptin administration in pSTAT3 levels in the hypothalamus at either 45 min or 2 h. In contrast, pJAK2 was found to be higher at 45 min in L4 compared to L12 males regardless of leptin treatment, while at 2 h it was higher in L4 leptin-treated males compared to L12 leptin-treated males, as well as L4 vehicle-treated rats. There were no changes in response to leptin administration in the expression of the neuropeptides analyzed. However, serum LH levels rose only in L4 males in response to leptin, but with no change

  4. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...... measured by frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted adjusted by age, gender and family structure. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents from low family social class had significantly higher odds of low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency than adolescents from...... high family social class (breakfast: odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, lunch: OR = 1.56, evening meal: OR = 1.80). For all three meal types the odds of low frequency increased gradually by decreasing social class. There were no significant interactions with gender. Conclusion: The results indicate social...

  5. Decreasing size of radiosensitive capsules from micro to nano, and its increased antitumor effect and decreasing adverse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, S.; Ehara, S.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Matsuyama, S.; Sato, Takahiro; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Sera, K.; Saito, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We have been developing microcapsules that release anticancer drug with response to radiation. We attempted to decrease the diameter of capsules. Then, two categories were tested in VIVO in C3He mice: (1) the antitumor effect in combination with radiation and subcutaneously injected nanocapsules, (2) the kidnetics of nanocapsules when they were injected intravenously. Microcapsules were produced by spraying a mixture of 3.0 % hyaluronic acid, 2.0 % alginate, 3.0 % H 2 O 2 , and 0.3 mmol carboplatin (Pt containing anticancer drug) onto a mixture of vibrated 0.3 mol FeCl 2 and 0.15 mol CaCl 2 . The antitumor effect was measured by measuring tumor diameter every day. The kinetics of microcapsules were expressed as the numbers of capsules in 5 views (25 x 25 μm) of micro PIXE camera and Pt concentration of quantiative PIXE. The generated microcapsules 752 ± 64 nm, which were significantly downsized relative to previous capsules. The accumulations of capsules in lungs, liver, and kidneys were decreased by downsizing, whereas those of tumors were increased. By adjusting Pt concentration in tumor, there were no significant differences in antitumor effect between not downsized and downsized microcapsules with combination with radiation. Decreased trapping of downsized microcapsules to lungs, liver, and kidneys, also increased trapping in tumors will lead to new targeted chemoradiotherapy via intravenous injection of microcapsules. (author)

  6. Scaling down the size and increasing the throughput of glycosyltransferase assays: activity changes on stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shilpa A; Chandrasekaran, E V; Matta, Khushi L; Parikh, Abhirath; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2012-06-15

    Glycosyltransferases (glycoTs) catalyze the transfer of monosaccharides from nucleotide-sugars to carbohydrate-, lipid-, and protein-based acceptors. We examined strategies to scale down and increase the throughput of glycoT enzymatic assays because traditional methods require large reaction volumes and complex chromatography. Approaches tested used (i) microarray pin printing, an appropriate method when glycoT activity was high; (ii) microwells and microcentrifuge tubes, a suitable method for studies with cell lysates when enzyme activity was moderate; and (iii) C(18) pipette tips and solvent extraction, a method that enriched reaction product when the extent of reaction was low. In all cases, reverse-phase thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC) coupled with phosphorimaging quantified the reaction rate. Studies with mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) demonstrated an increase in overall β(1,3)galactosyltransferase and α(2,3)sialyltransferase activity and a decrease in α(1,3)fucosyltransferases when these cells differentiate toward cardiomyocytes. Enzymatic and lectin binding data suggest a transition from Lewis(x)-type structures in mESCs to sialylated Galβ1,3GalNAc-type glycans on differentiation, with more prominent changes in enzyme activity occurring at later stages when embryoid bodies differentiated toward cardiomyocytes. Overall, simple, rapid, quantitative, and scalable glycoT activity analysis methods are presented. These use a range of natural and synthetic acceptors for the analysis of complex biological specimens that have limited availability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759

  9. Family meals. Associations with weight and eating behaviors among mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-06-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n=3488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Does increasing the size of bi-weekly samples of records influence results when using the Global Trigger Tool? An observational study of retrospective record reviews of two different sample sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevik, Kjersti; Griffin, Frances A; Hansen, Tonje E; Deilkås, Ellen T; Vonen, Barthold

    2016-04-25

    To investigate the impact of increasing sample of records reviewed bi-weekly with the Global Trigger Tool method to identify adverse events in hospitalised patients. Retrospective observational study. A Norwegian 524-bed general hospital trust. 1920 medical records selected from 1 January to 31 December 2010. Rate, type and severity of adverse events identified in two different samples sizes of records selected as 10 and 70 records, bi-weekly. In the large sample, 1.45 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.97) times more adverse events per 1000 patient days (39.3 adverse events/1000 patient days) were identified than in the small sample (27.2 adverse events/1000 patient days). Hospital-acquired infections were the most common category of adverse events in both the samples, and the distributions of the other categories of adverse events did not differ significantly between the samples. The distribution of severity level of adverse events did not differ between the samples. The findings suggest that while the distribution of categories and severity are not dependent on the sample size, the rate of adverse events is. Further studies are needed to conclude if the optimal sample size may need to be adjusted based on the hospital size in order to detect a more accurate rate of adverse events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  14. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  15. Effects of a nitrate-rich meal on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alex H; Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Rich, Lisa; Ward, Natalie C; Vita, Joseph A; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2013-11-30

    An increase in nitrate intake can augment circulating nitrite and nitric oxide. This may lead to lower blood pressure and improved vascular function. Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, are rich sources of nitrate. We aimed to assess the acute effects of a nitrate-rich meal containing spinach on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy men and women. Twenty-six participants aged 38-69years were recruited to a randomized controlled cross-over trial. The acute effects of two energy-matched (2000kJ) meals, administered in random order, were compared. The meals were either high nitrate (220mg of nitrate derived from spinach [spinach]) or low nitrate [control]. Outcome measurements were performed pre-meal and at specific time points up to 210min post meal. Spinach resulted in an eightfold increase in salivary nitrite and a sevenfold increase in salivary nitrate concentrations from pre-meal (Pnitrate-rich meal can lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure and increase large artery compliance acutely in healthy men and women. If sustained, these effects could contribute to better cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecosystem size structure response to 21st century climate projection: large fish abundance decreases in the central North Pacific and increases in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth-Jefcoats, Phoebe A; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Dunne, John P; Blanchard, Julia L

    2013-03-01

    Output from an earth system model is paired with a size-based food web model to investigate the effects of climate change on the abundance of large fish over the 21st century. The earth system model, forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special report on emission scenario A2, combines a coupled climate model with a biogeochemical model including major nutrients, three phytoplankton functional groups, and zooplankton grazing. The size-based food web model includes linkages between two size-structured pelagic communities: primary producers and consumers. Our investigation focuses on seven sites in the North Pacific, each highlighting a specific aspect of projected climate change, and includes top-down ecosystem depletion through fishing. We project declines in large fish abundance ranging from 0 to 75.8% in the central North Pacific and increases of up to 43.0% in the California Current (CC) region over the 21st century in response to change in phytoplankton size structure and direct physiological effects. We find that fish abundance is especially sensitive to projected changes in large phytoplankton density and our model projects changes in the abundance of large fish being of the same order of magnitude as changes in the abundance of large phytoplankton. Thus, studies that address only climate-induced impacts to primary production without including changes to phytoplankton size structure may not adequately project ecosystem responses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  18. Increased energy intake following sleep restriction in men and women: A one-size-fits-all conclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Jessica; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the degree of interindividual responses in energy intake (EI) to an imposed sleep restriction versus habitual sleep duration protocol. It also investigated participant (age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI) and study (study site and protocol order) characteristics as potential contributors to the variance in EI responses to sleep restriction between individuals. Data from two randomized crossover trials were combined. All participants (n = 43; age: 31 ± 7 years, BMI: 23 ± 2 kg/m 2 ) were free of medical/sleep conditions, were nonsmokers, reported not performing shift work, and had an average sleep duration of 7 to 9 hours per night. Ad libitum, 24-hour EI was objectively assessed following sleep restriction (3.5-4 hours in bed per night) and habitual sleep (7-9 hours in bed per night) conditions. Large interindividual variations in EI change (ΔEI) between restricted and habitual sleep conditions were noted (-813 to 1437 kcal/d). Only phase order was associated with ΔEI (β = -568 kcal/d, 95% confidence interval for β = -921 to -215 kcal/d; P = 0.002); participants randomized to the habitual sleep condition first had greater increases in EI when sleep was restricted (P = 0.01). Large interindividual variations in ΔEI following sleep restriction were noted, suggesting that not all participants were negatively impacted by the effects of sleep restriction. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  19. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R

    1983-01-01

    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  20. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Exploratory analysis of meal composition in Australia: meat and accompanying foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Rangan, Anna

    2017-08-01

    The study of meal patterns and overall diet in relation to health outcomes may be more important than focusing on single nutrients or food groups. The present study aimed to explore the composition of main meals and snacks in the Australian population and examine associations between meat/poultry/fish and other foods. The study utilised 24 h recalls. Meal composition was defined based on average intakes of food groups per meal disaggregated from all food sources. 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Australian people (n12153) aged 2 years or above. Overall, breakfast was the smallest meal of the day, typically consisting of grains, dairy products and fruit. Lunch was the second largest meal, consisting mostly of grains, non-starchy vegetables and meat/poultry/fish. The largest meal was dinner, comprising meat/poultry/fish, vegetables (starchy and non-starchy), grains and often including discretionary beverages (children) or alcohol (adults). The main food groups consumed at snacking occasions were dairy, fruit, discretionary foods and beverages (including alcohol for adults). The most frequently consumed meat types were beef and chicken at dinner and ham at lunch. Non-starchy vegetables were accompanying foods for red meat, poultry and fish/seafood consumed in varying portion sizes, but did not accompany processed meat. The present study considered meat, poultry and fish as the meal centre and their accompaniments of other food groups at different eating occasions. These findings expand the background evidence for health professionals developing meal-based framework/guidelines and public health messages.

  2. Posting point-of-purchase nutrition information in university canteens does not influence meal choice and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-08-01

    Growing concern over the relation between out-of-home eating and overweight has triggered the use of point-of-purchase (POP) nutrition information when eating out of the home. In canteens that offer various unhealthy choices, the posting of POP nutrition information has the potential to improve meal choices and dietary intakes. The objective of this study was to increase the proportion of consumed meals that comply with recommendations for energy, saturated fat, sodium, and vegetable content by 5%. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. A total of 224 customers of 2 university canteens completed a questionnaire used for consumer profiling and 3-d food records to assess their meal choices and nutrient intakes. The 12 best meal combinations received star ratings and descriptors for nutrients or food groups that did not comply. Reported meal choices in canteens and nutrient intakes did not improve after the intervention (P > 0.05). The nutritional profile of the meal choice, obtained from a qualitative and quantitative nutritional assessment of meals, mirrored the nutritional profile of all meals offered (P > 0.05) and not that of the recommended meals offered (P choices were not compensated for later in the day (P > 0.05). The healthiest choices were made by participants with greater objective nutrition knowledge, stronger health and weight-control motives, and a greater openness to change meal choices at baseline (P choices and nutrient intakes. Despite the intervention, meal choices were largely determined by meals offered. Therefore, nutrition-information interventions in canteens may be more effective with a healthier meal supply. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01249508.

  3. Protein from meat or vegetable sources in meals matched for fiber content has similar effects on subjective appetite sensations and energy intake - A randomized acute cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy......-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations....... intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19...

  4. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  5. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956. The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  6. Meals at medical specialty society annual meetings: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Puma, John; Schiedermayer, David; Becker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Little isd known about how meals are chosen for medical meetings. We surveyed the annual meeting planners for 20 major specialty societies. Thirteen (65%) responded; all were currently planning their next meeting. Attendance in 2000 was reported at 113,477 physicians, with 2 million planned meals and snacks. No physician was named as responsible for food choices; the meeting planner and staff were primarily responsible for deciding what food to serve, excluding exhibit halls. Twelve (92%) respondents rated "available budget" as the most important factor. "Nutritional guidelines" were rated "very important" by eight of 13 (63%). However, no specific nutritional guidelines could be identified by any planner. All respondents indicated that members would attend a meeting if "healthy" food were the only option. For 2000, 100% of respondents indicated that for each lunch and for each dinner, a dessert had been included. No annual meeting and no planned 2001 meeting excluded potato chips, snack mixes, or candies at breaks; soda pop was offered at each break. Most respondents (89%) relied on a concluding questionnaire about the meeting facilities to evaluate the food. Respondents reported no difference in charges for "special meals," including vegetarian and kosher meals. Physicians may be unaware that some food served at medical meetings may impair learning, with excessive calorie, fat, and carbohydrate consumption. Small changes can improve the quality of food and beverages selected, without increased cost, and provide choices that conform to national nutritional guidelines. Medical meetings should serve flavorful, healthful food.

  7. Combustion characterization of rape seed meal and suggestions for optimal use in combustion appliances; Foerbraenningskarakterisering av rapsmjoel och foerslag till optimalt nyttjande i olika foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Pettersson, Esbjoern; Pommer, Linda; Lindstroem, Erica; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Rikard

    2007-12-15

    pellet burner, were roughly doubled with fuels containing rape seed meal compared to bark. In the powder burner tests, particle emissions increased with a factor 17 with rape seed meal compared to wood powder. The emitted particles were mainly found in the fine (< 1 mum) mode during grate and powder combustion. During fluidized bed combustion the total particulate matter consisted both of a coarse (>1 mum) and a fine mode fraction. The particles from grate combustion of bark contain mostly K, S, Na and Cl apart from oxygen and carbon. When rape seed meal is present, Cl and Na concentrations decrease considerably and the main contents of the particles are K and S (and O and C). The results from the X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD) analyses showed the presence of crystalline K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and KCl. The fine particles (<1 mum) from powder combustion contain mainly K, P and S. The only identified crystalline phase was K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, suggesting that most phosphorus was in the amorphous phase, i.d. most probably molten. The deposit formation on a cooled probe was studied during the fluidized bed and powder combustion experiments. The fine particles deposited during fluidised bed combustion contained K, Cl and S. When bark was combusted in the fluidised bed, the coarse fraction contained Ca and Si, when rape seed meal in different mixes was combusted this changed to P, K, Ca and Mg. The deposits formed during combustion of rape seed meal in the powder burner were mainly made up of phosphates (Ca-, Mg/K-, Ca/Mg-phosphates) and MgO. Sintered material (slag) from grate combustion of bark contained mainly Si, Ca, K and Al, probably as silicates. Adding rape seed meal tended to increase P, Ca and Mg while Si and Ca content tended to decrease. Through XRD a number o crystalline phases in the sintered material and the rest of the bottom ashes could be identified. NO emissions from the combustions tests increased two to four times with rape seed meal compared to typical wood

  8. Metabolic changes in serum metabolome in response to a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Aahana; Müllner, Elisabeth; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Moazzami, Ali A

    2017-03-01

    The change in serum metabolic response from fasting state to postprandial state provides novel insights into the impact of a single meal on human metabolism. Therefore, this study explored changes in serum metabolite profile after a single meal. Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. They received a meal consisting of refined wheat bread (50 g carbohydrates, 9 g protein, 4.2 g fat and 2.7 g dietary fibre), 40 g cucumber and 300 mL noncaloric orange drink. Blood samples were collected at fasting and five postprandial time points. Metabolic profile was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Changes over time were assessed with multivariate models and ANOVA, with baseline as control. The metabolomic analyses demonstrated alterations in phospholipids, amino acids and their breakdown products, glycolytic products, acylcarnitines and ketone bodies after a single meal. More specifically, phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and citrate displayed an overall declining pattern, while leucine, isoleucine, methionine and succinate increased initially but declined thereafter. A sharp decline in acylcarnitines and ketone bodies and increase in glycolytic products postprandially suggest a switch in the body's energy source from β-oxidation to glycolysis. Moreover, individuals with relatively high postprandial insulin responses generated a higher postprandial leucine responses compared to participants with lower insulin responses. The study demonstrated complex changes from catabolic to anabolic metabolism after a meal and indicated that the extent of postprandial responses is different between individuals with high and low insulin response.

  9. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9......) and the other with a less healthy diet (n 8). Both groups were recruited from respondents to a dietary survey. Semi-structured interviews took their starting point in photographs of their meals and snacks taken by the children themselves. RESULTS: Both subgroups of children had a meal pattern with three main...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  10. Replacing soybean meal for cottonseed meal on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Hugo; De Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an alternative source of protein, and previous studies have been shown that it can replace soybean meal (SBM) without decrease animal performance. However, Brazilian CSM has a different chemical composition compared with the usual CSM reported in the literature. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing SBM for Brazilian CSM on performance and energy balance of mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design. Increasing contents of CSM (0, 15, and 30% of dry matter (DM)) were fed in diets to replace SBM. Milk yield and feed efficiency were linearly reduced with the replacement of CSM for SBM (P = 0.001). Milk fat content tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.07) with CSM addition. Replacing SBM for CSM affected milk protein content quadratically (P = 0.05). Milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.06 and 0.10) when CSM replaced SBM to the diets. Variation in body weight (BW) also responded quadratically as CSM replaced SBM (P = 0.05). Altogether, the findings suggest better performance when cows receive SBM diet compared with the Brazilian CSM diet.

  11. Meal patterns and frequencies: do they affect body weight in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Toschke, Andre Michael

    2010-02-01

    Some previous studies reported a higher meal frequency associated with a lower body weight both in obese and in normal weight adults. We review recent studies addressing the relation between meal frequency and obesity risk in children and adolescents. In a Medline search, we identified 5 observational studies published between 2004 and 2009 that reviewed data on a total of 13,998 children and adolescents from the United States, Germany, and Portugal. Three of the five studies found a significant reduction of obesity risk with increasing number of meals, which persisted after adjustment for confounders, while the two other studies found a non-significant trend in the same direction. Given the consistent association of skipping meals with an increased obesity risk in children, it appears prudent to promote a regular meal pattern with 5 meals per day with adequate composition to children and their families. Prospective controlled trials to assess the protective potential of promoting regular and frequent meals in children and their families are highly desirable to strengthen the evidence base for such preventive approaches, which should explore the feasibility and effects of interventions.

  12. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  13. Fluidized bed treatment of rapeseed meal and cake as possibility for the production of canolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudel Frank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canolol (2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylsyringol, which is formed by thermally initiated CO2splitting off from sinapic acid, possesses a high antioxidant potential. Furthermore different positive physiological properties are described. Due to rapeseed’s high content of phenolic acids, particularly sinapic acid, it is obvious to produce canolol as by-product of rapeseed processing. Roasting of rapeseed meal or cake in a fluidized bed followed by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide of the formed canolol represents a production procedure which not impairs the commercial oil mill process. This article summarizes results from the roasting process with rapeseed meal and cake in fluidized bed equipments of different design and size showing that it is a suitable technique to transform sinapic acid into canolol. The achieved canolol contents are at 500 mg/kg in minimum, if the material is rapidly cooled-down after reaching the optimal temperature of 165 °C. Further roasting leads to a fast reduction of the canolol content. In addition it could be observed, that the sinapic acid content is not decreasing in the same amount as the canolol content increases. Sinapic acid seems to be “reproduced” during roasting. The reaction mechanisms of the described phenomena are not known.

  14. Performance characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-Ajasa, O.Y.; Abiona, J.A.; Fafiolu, A.O.; Egbeyale, L.T.; Njoku1, C.P.; Omotayo1, I.G.; Odeyemi1, A.Y.; Abel, F.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cost of conventional protein sources is on the increase recently; hence, there is the need for cheaper alternative sources that will not compromise the performance characteristics of broiler birds taking into consideration the cost of production. Moringa leaf meal has been reported to increase the performance of broiler birds due to its rich protein content. Two hundred day-old broiler chicks were used to assess the effects of partial replacement of soya bean meal with Moringa (Moringa oleife...

  15. Evaluating sampling strategy for DNA barcoding study of coastal and inland halo-tolerant Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae: A case study for increased sample size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Yao

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions in coastal salt marsh habitats have led to the development of specialist genetic adaptations. We evaluated six DNA barcode loci of the 53 species of Poaceae and 15 species of Chenopodiaceae from China's coastal salt marsh area and inland area. Our results indicate that the optimum DNA barcode was ITS for coastal salt-tolerant Poaceae and matK for the Chenopodiaceae. Sampling strategies for ten common species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were analyzed according to optimum barcode. We found that by increasing the number of samples collected from the coastal salt marsh area on the basis of inland samples, the number of haplotypes of Arundinella hirta, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Setaria viridis, and Chenopodium glaucum increased, with a principal coordinate plot clearly showing increased distribution points. The results of a Mann-Whitney test showed that for Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, and Setaria viridis, the distribution of intraspecific genetic distances was significantly different when samples from the coastal salt marsh area were included (P < 0.01. These results suggest that increasing the sample size in specialist habitats can improve measurements of intraspecific genetic diversity, and will have a positive effect on the application of the DNA barcodes in widely distributed species. The results of random sampling showed that when sample size reached 11 for Chloris virgata, Chenopodium glaucum, and Dysphania ambrosioides, 13 for Setaria viridis, and 15 for Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica and Chenopodium album, average intraspecific distance tended to reach stability. These results indicate that the sample size for DNA barcode of globally distributed species should be increased to 11-15.

  16. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene D. Kristensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E% fat were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g; high protein based on legumes (beans and peas, HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g; or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS. Results: HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05. Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05. When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05. Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05. A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01. Conclusion: Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals

  17. Design and deployment strategies for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2007-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs (Small and Medium size Reactor) depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  18. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets

    OpenAIRE

    A. Al-Thobaiti; K. Al-Ghanim; Z. Ahmed; E. M. Suliman; S. Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight w...

  19. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P meal in the diets of layer chicks showed a similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control. Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this study is a good source of crude protein, ether extract, and amino acids and had the potential to serve as feeding stuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive value of undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved for layer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Improving the Supply Chain and Food Quality of Professionally Prepared Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Akkerman, R.; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    of the meal production in order to transfer labour-intensive operations from the kitchens to the industry; 2) Systemic use of a new concept: thawing during distribution, which improves shelf-life and reduces waste; 3) Supply chain modelling to improve delivery schedules and reduce environmental impact......An increasing share of the daily meals served in Europe is prepared out-of-home by professionals in foodservice. The quality of such meals is highly debated. This paper presents and discusses obstacles to improving quality in a cost-effective way and suggests solutions: 1) Modularisation...

  2. Warm water temperatures and shifts in seasonality increase trout recruitment but only moderately decrease adult size in western North American tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2018-01-01

    Dams throughout western North America have altered thermal regimes in rivers, creating cold, clear “tailwaters” in which trout populations thrive. Ongoing drought in the region has led to highly publicized reductions in reservoir storage and raised concerns about potential reductions in downstream flows. Large changes in riverine thermal regimes may also occur as reservoir water levels drop, yet this potential impact has received far less attention. We analyzed historic water temperature and fish population data to anticipate how trout may respond to future changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river temperatures. We found that summer temperatures were inversely related to reservoir water level, with warm temperatures associated with reduced storage and with dams operated as run-of-river units. Variation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) recruitment was linked to water temperature variation, with a 5-fold increase in recruitment occurring at peak summer temperatures (18 °C vs. 7 °C) and a 2.5-fold increase in recruitment when peak temperatures occurred in summer rather than fall. Conversely, adult trout size was only moderately related to temperature. Rainbow and brown trout (Salmo trutta) size decreased by ~24 mm and 20 mm, respectively, as mean annual and peak summer temperatures increased. Further, rainbow trout size decreased by ~29 mm with an earlier onset of cold winter temperatures. While increased recruitment may be the more likely outcome of a warmer and drier climate, density-dependent growth constraints could exacerbate temperature-dependent growth reductions. As such, managers may consider implementing flows to reduce recruitment or altering infrastructure to maintain coldwater reservoir releases.

  3. Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V.; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Miasnikova, Galina Y.; Sergueeva, Adelina I.; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L.; Prchal, Josef T.

    2010-01-01

    Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHLR200W) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. HIF-1α inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21Cip1, thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2α promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a+/− mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1α, hepatic HIF-2α mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21Cip1 mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a+/− mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2α and decreased p21Cip1 levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:20140661

  4. 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the US population. Yet little is known about whether or not characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. To examine time trends in the distribution of day's intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the US adult population. The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971-1974 to 2009-2010 (N=62,298 participants aged 20-74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters, relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake, the clock time of report, and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Over the 40-year span examined reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after-dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (eg, report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Several meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults changed over time, with a greater change in snack behaviors of women relative to men

  5. [School meals: planning, production, distribution, and adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Letícia Freitas; Francisco, Raquel Rocha Jabour; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; dos Anjos, Adriana Fernandez Versiani; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the planning, production, distribution, and nutritional adequacy of meals served at city schools. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2012 and included a representative sample (n = 42 schools) of extended shift city schools from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Five meals from each school were randomly selected and analyzed by direct weighing. Production indicators and nutritional adequacy were evaluated in contrast to the recommendations of the city food security bureau and the Brazilian National Program of School Meals (PNAE). Seventy-nine percent of the analyzed meals did not meet the recommendations of the city food security bureau. The rate of waste (food left on plates) was acceptable at 4,90%, but the rates of cooked and not served food (7,06%) and counter leftovers (5,30%) were high. Both the city planned meals and the meals served in the schools were nutritionally inadequate in terms of the PNAE, particularly for children aged 11-15 years. There was a relationship between consumption by school staff and the amount of food that was cooked (r = 0.353; P planning, production, and distribution of school meals and of food and nutrition education in order to improve the quality of food and to reduce waste in schools.

  6. Circadian Clocks for All Meal-Times: Anticipation of 2 Daily Meals in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Kent, Brianne A.; Chan, Sofina; Patton, Danica F.; Weinberg, Alexander; Parfyonov, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    Anticipation of a daily meal in rats has been conceptualized as a rest-activity rhythm driven by a food-entrained circadian oscillator separate from the pacemaker generating light-dark (LD) entrained rhythms. Rats can also anticipate two daily mealtimes, but whether this involves independently entrained oscillators, one ‘continuously consulted’ clock, cue-dependent non-circadian interval timing or a combination of processes, is unclear. Rats received two daily meals, beginning 3-h (meal 1) and 13-h (meal 2) after lights-on (LD 14∶10). Anticipatory wheel running began 68±8 min prior to meal 1 and 101±9 min prior to meal 2 but neither the duration nor the variability of anticipation bout lengths exhibited the scalar property, a hallmark of interval timing. Meal omission tests in LD and constant dark (DD) did not alter the timing of either bout of anticipation, and anticipation of meal 2 was not altered by a 3-h advance of meal 1. Food anticipatory running in this 2-meal protocol thus does not exhibit properties of interval timing despite the availability of external time cues in LD. Across all days, the two bouts of anticipation were uncorrelated, a result more consistent with two independently entrained oscillators than a single consulted clock. Similar results were obtained for meals scheduled 3-h and 10-h after lights-on, and for a food-bin measure of anticipation. Most rats that showed weak or no anticipation to one or both meals exhibited elevated activity at mealtime during 1 or 2 day food deprivation tests in DD, suggesting covert operation of circadian timing in the absence of anticipatory behavior. A control experiment confirmed that daytime feeding did not shift LD-entrained rhythms, ruling out displaced nocturnal activity as an explanation for daytime activity. The results favor a multiple oscillator basis for 2-meal anticipatory rhythms and provide no evidence for involvement of cue-dependent interval timing. PMID:22355393

  7. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone V. Nielsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs. Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ 19% of energy from protein, based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber, pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber, or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05. Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05. Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  8. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake-A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars; Ritz, Christian; Belza, Anita; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2018-01-16

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals ( p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  9. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V.; Kristensen, Marlene D.; Klingenberg, Lars; Belza, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations. PMID:29337861

  10. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of Thai prepared meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noomhorm, A; Koomsanit, T; Biramontri, S; Sirisoontaralak, P; Srisawas, W; Vongsawasdi, P [Asian Institute of Technlogy, Food Engineering and Bioprocess Technology, Klongluang, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the change of life style of people in developed and developing countries, there is an increased economic growth of prepared meals. In Thailand, there is a dynamic growth of market for chilled prepared meals because of the growth of food services in supermarkets and convenient stores. However, the shelf-life for ready-to-eat chilled food including chilled prepared meals is quite short and sometimes insufficient to meet market requirements and it is implicated in a number of serious foodborne disease outbreaks. Irradiation could provide a potential to improve the microbiological safety and extend the shelf-life of chilled prepared meals. Therefore, the study about the possibility to use irradiation for extending shelf-life and ensure microbiological safety of chilled prepared meals should be conducted. Also, information relevant to the application of food safety control system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) should be gathered to ensure more safety of the irradiated prepared meals. Many traditional Thai dishes are popular in Thai restaurants over the world. Thai dishes are normally composed of herb and spicy with different types of meat. All dishes are eaten along with rice. Aromatic rice is the most preference for Thai consumers and foreigners. Thai spicy basil rice dish with selected meat such as chicken is selected as a prepared meal in this study due to its popularity and feasibility of commercial production.

  11. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of Thai prepared meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Koomsanit, T.; Biramontri, S.; Sirisoontaralak, P.; Srisawas, W.; Vongsawasdi, P.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the change of life style of people in developed and developing countries, there is an increased economic growth of prepared meals. In Thailand, there is a dynamic growth of market for chilled prepared meals because of the growth of food services in supermarkets and convenient stores. However, the shelf-life for ready-to-eat chilled food including chilled prepared meals is quite short and sometimes insufficient to meet market requirements and it is implicated in a number of serious foodborne disease outbreaks. Irradiation could provide a potential to improve the microbiological safety and extend the shelf-life of chilled prepared meals. Therefore, the study about the possibility to use irradiation for extending shelf-life and ensure microbiological safety of chilled prepared meals should be conducted. Also, information relevant to the application of food safety control system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) should be gathered to ensure more safety of the irradiated prepared meals. Many traditional Thai dishes are popular in Thai restaurants over the world. Thai dishes are normally composed of herb and spicy with different types of meat. All dishes are eaten along with rice. Aromatic rice is the most preference for Thai consumers and foreigners. Thai spicy basil rice dish with selected meat such as chicken is selected as a prepared meal in this study due to its popularity and feasibility of commercial production

  12. Can Latino food trucks (loncheras) serve healthy meals? A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Colaiaco, Ben; Martinez-Wenzl, Mary; Montes, Monica; Han, Bing; Berry, Sandy H

    2017-05-01

    To conduct a pilot study to assess the feasibility of modifying food truck meals to meet the My Plate guidelines as well as the acceptability of healthier meals among consumers. We recruited the owners of Latino food trucks (loncheras) in 2013-2014 and offered an incentive for participation, assistance with marketing and training by a bilingual dietitian. We surveyed customers and we audited purchases to estimate sales of the modified meals. City of Los Angeles, CA, USA. Owners or operators of Latino food trucks (loncheras) and their customers. We enrolled twenty-two lonchera owners and eleven completed the intervention, offering more than fifty new menu items meeting meal guidelines. Sales of the meals comprised 2 % of audited orders. Customers rated the meals highly; 97 % said they would recommend and buy them again and 75 % of participants who completed the intervention intended to continue offering the healthier meals. However, adherence to guidelines drifted after several months of operation and participant burden was cited as a reason for dropout among three of eleven lonchera owners who dropped out. Lonchera owners/operators who participated reported minimal difficulty in modifying menu items. Given the difficulty in enrolment, expanding this programme and ensuring adherence would likely need to be accomplished through regulatory requirements, monitoring and feedback, similar to the methods used to achieve compliance with sanitary standards. A companion marketing campaign would be helpful to increase consumer demand.

  13. Frequency of family meals and 6-11-year-old children's social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Sisson, Susan B; DeGrace, Beth W; Morris, Amanda S

    2014-08-01

    Family meals are regarded as an opportunity to promote healthy child development. In this brief report, we examined the relationship between frequency of family meals and children's social behaviors in 6-11-year-olds. The 2007 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) provided data on the frequency of family meals in a sample of 6-11-year-old children (N = 24,167). The following social behavior indicators were examined: child positive social skills, child problematic social behaviors, child engagement in school, and parental aggravation with the child. Individual logistic regression analyses were calculated in unadjusted and adjusted models. On average, families had 5.3 meals together per week. In adjusted models, more frequent family meals increased the odds of child positive social skills (OR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02, 1.16]) and child engagement in school (OR = 1.11, 95% CI [1.06, 1.15]), and decreased the likelihood of child problematic social behaviors (OR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.87, 0.98]). There was no association between frequency of family meals and parental aggravation with the child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI [0.93, 1.04]). Findings support the promotion of family meals to benefit children's development of healthy social behaviors.

  14. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with 51 Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK

  15. How about Lunch? Consequences of the Meal Context on Cognition and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Werner; Stürmer, Birgit; Shmuilovich, Olga; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2013-01-01

    Although research addresses the effects of a meal’s context on food preference, the psychological consequences of meal situations are largely unexplored. We compared the cognitive and emotional effects of a restaurant meal eaten in the company of others to a solitary meal consumed in a plain office using pre- and post-tests analysis and controlling for the kind and amount of food consumed. Three tasks were conducted, measuring: (1) semantic memory (2) cognitive control and error monitoring, and (3) processing of emotional facial expressions. Covert processes in these tasks were assessed with event-related brain potentials. A mood rating questionnaire indicated a relaxation effect of the restaurant as compared to the plain meal situation. The restaurant meal increased sensitivity to threatening facial expressions and diminished cognitive control and error monitoring. No effects were observed for semantic memory. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that a restaurant meal with a social component may be more relaxing than a meal eaten alone in a plain setting and may reduce cognitive control. PMID:23936184

  16. Postprandial effects of consuming a staggered meal on gut peptide and glycemic responses in obese women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lisa; Haddad, Ella H; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Eating slowly by staggering a meal may reduce energy intake. Our aim was to examine the effect of eating a portion of beans 15min before the rest of the meal, on gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, glucose and insulin concentrations and subsequent energy intake in obese adults. This was a randomised crossover design study with 28 obese subjects. Participants consumed a standardised breakfast on test days followed by test meals: (1) control meal containing 86g (0.5 cup) of beans, and (2) staggered meal in which 86g (0.5 cup) of beans were consumed 15min before the rest of the meal. Blood obtained prior to and at 30, 60, and 120min following the meals was analysed for acylated ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose and insulin. Feelings of hunger and satiety were assessed using analog visual scales. Energy intake following the test meal was obtained by computer assisted dietary recalls. Mixed model statistical analysis of data showed time effects for unacylated ghrelin, GLP-1, glucose, insulin, hunger and fullness, however, meal effects were not shown for any of the parameters. GLP-1 area under the curve from baseline to 120min (AUC0-120) decreased by 19% (P=0.024) and that of glucose increased by 7% (P=0.046) following the staggered compared to the control bean meal. Energy intake subsequent to the test meals did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, lengthening meal times by staggering eating did not benefit hormonal, metabolic or appetite control in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. From the children's perspective: What are candy, snacks, and meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elizabeth L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-09-01

    There remains a lack of consensus on what distinguishes candy (i.e. features sugar as a principal ingredient, also called sweets or lollies), snack foods, and foods served at meals; therefore, this study examined characteristics elementary-aged children use to distinguish between these food categories. Participants were children aged 5-8 years (N = 41). Children were given 39 cards, each containing an image of a common American food (e.g. ice cream, fruit). Children sorted each card into either a "snack" or "candy" pile followed by a semi-structured one-on-one interview to identify children's perceptions of candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a grounded theory approach to derive major themes. All children classified foods such as crackers and dry cereal as snacks; all children classified foods such as skittles and solid chocolate as candy. There was less agreement for "dessert like foods," such as cookies and ice cream, whereby some children classified these foods as candy and others as snacks. Specifically, more children categorized ice cream and chocolate chip cookies as candy (61% and 63%, respectively), than children who categorized these as snack foods (39% and 36%, respectively). Qualitative interviews revealed 4 overarching themes that distinguished among candy, snack foods, and food served at meals: (1) taste, texture, and type; (2) portion size; (3) perception of health; and (4) time of day. Children categorized a variety of foods as both a candy and a snack. Accurate measurement of candy and snack consumption is needed through the use of clear, consistent terminology and comprehensive diet assessment tools. Intervention messaging should clearly distinguish between candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals to improve children's eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Autism-Specific Maternal Autoantibodies Alters Proliferation of Cortical Neural Precursor Cells, Enlarges Brain, and Increases Neuronal Size in Adult Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica; Camacho, Jasmin; Fox, Elizabeth; Miller, Elaine; Ariza, Jeanelle; Kienzle, Devon; Plank, Kaela; Noctor, Stephen C; Van de Water, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect up to 1 in 68 children. Autism-specific autoantibodies directed against fetal brain proteins have been found exclusively in a subpopulation of mothers whose children were diagnosed with ASD or maternal autoantibody-related autism. We tested the impact of autoantibodies on brain development in mice by transferring human antigen-specific IgG directly into the cerebral ventricles of embryonic mice during cortical neurogenesis. We show that autoantibodies recognize radial glial cells during development. We also show that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies increased stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the embryonic neocortex, increased adult brain size and weight, and increased the size of adult cortical neurons. We propose that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies directly affects radial glial cell development and presents a viable pathologic mechanism for the maternal autoantibody-related prenatal ASD risk factor. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Curd development associated gene (CDAG1) in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) could result in enlarged organ size and increased biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qingli; Qin, Erjun; Jin, Chuan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Shen, Guangshuang; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    The curd is a specialized organ and the most important product organ of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis). However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of curd formation and development remains largely unknown. In the present study, a novel homologous gene containing the Organ Size Related (OSR) domain, namely, CDAG1 (Curd Development Associated Gene 1) was identified in cauliflower. Quantitative analysis indicated that CDAG1 showed significantly higher transcript levels in young tissues. Functional analysis demonstrated that the ectopic overexpression of CDAG1 in Arabidopsis and cauliflower could significantly promote organ growth and result in larger organ size and increased biomass. Organ enlargement was predominantly due to increased cell number. In addition, 228 genes involved in the CDAG1-mediated regulatory network were discovered by transcriptome analysis. Among these genes, CDAG1 was confirmed to inhibit the transcriptional expression of the endogenous OSR genes, ARGOS and ARL, while a series of ethylene-responsive transcription factors (ERFs) were found to increased expression in 35S:CDAG1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants. This implies that CDAG1 may function in the ethylene-mediated signal pathway. These findings provide new insight into the function of OSR genes, and suggest potential applications of CDAG1 in breeding high-yielding crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effect of meal frequency and carbohydrate intake on the metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Tamara; Basfi-Fer, Karen; Rojas, Pamela; Carrasco, Fernando; Ruz O, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Increasing meal frequency is commonly used in the clinical practice as part of the nutritional treatment of patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), although its effect on metabolic control parameters is controversial. To evaluate the association of energy intake, meal frequency, and amount of carbohydrates with fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in a group of patients with DM2 without insulin therapy. Dietary intake was evaluated in 60 subjects with DM2 through three-day food records. The meal frequency was estimated establishing the main meal times considering snacks. Meal frequency was 4.7 ± 1.1 times per day. There was a positive association between glycosylated and fasting blood glucose levels (p Meal frequency was associated with energy intake (p meal frequency, available carbohydrates and energy intake, body mass index and fasting plasma glucose were analyzed in a multiple linear regression model, fasting blood glucose was the variable that best predicted changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (45.5%). Meal frequency had no association with glycosylated hemoglobin. Meal frequency showed no association with metabolic control parameters in DM2 patients.

  1. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Sociodemographics and Meal Patterns at Fast Food Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013-2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Respondents aged 18-29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (pbeverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, pbeverage based on price (AOR=2.02, pbeverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Eating meals before wheel-running exercise attenuate high fat diet-driven obesity in mice under two meals per day schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yuta; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-06-01

    Mice that exercise after meals gain less body weight and visceral fat compared to those that exercised before meals under a one meal/exercise time per day schedule. Humans generally eat two or three meals per day, and rarely have only one meal. To extend our previous observations, we examined here whether a "two meals, two exercise sessions per day" schedule was optimal in terms of maintaining a healthy body weight. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). We found that 2-h feeding before 2-h exercise in the morning and evening (F-Ex/F-Ex) resulted in greater attenuation of high fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain compared to other combinations of feeding and exercise under two daily meals and two daily exercise periods. There were no significant differences in total food intake and total wheel counts, but feeding before exercise in the morning groups (F-Ex/F-Ex and F-Ex/Ex-F) increased the morning wheel counts. These results suggest that habitual exercise after feeding in the morning and evening is more effective for preventing HFD-induced weight gain. We also determined whether there were any correlations between food intake, wheel rotation, visceral fat volume and skeletal muscle volumes. We found positive associations between gastrocnemius muscle volumes and morning wheel counts, as well as negative associations between morning food intake volumes/body weight and morning wheel counts. These results suggest that morning exercise-induced increase of muscle volume may refer to anti-obesity. Evening exercise is negatively associated with fat volume increases, suggesting that this practice may counteract fat deposition. Our multifactorial analysis revealed that morning food intake helps to increase exercise, and that evening exercise reduced fat volumes. Thus, exercise in the morning or evening is important for preventing the onset of obesity.

  3. Montana Cook Fresh Workshop Pilot: A K-12 School Nutrition Professional Training to Incorporate Whole Foods in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new school meal guidelines, create meals that appeal to students, and promote positive food choices and health status among students, school nutrition programs are increasingly moving towards scratch cooking. This pilot research aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Montana Cook Fresh Workshop, a culinary skills class…

  4. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  5. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26–27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  6. Preventing gastric sieving by blending a solid/water meal enhances satiation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Luca; Hall, Nicholas; Pritchard, Susan E; Cox, Eleanor F; Totman, John J; Lad, Mita; Hoad, Caroline L; Foster, Tim J; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2012-07-01

    Separation of solids and liquids within the stomach allows faster gastric emptying of liquids compared with solids, a phenomenon known as sieving. We tested the hypothesis that blending a solid and water meal would abolish sieving, preventing the early rapid decrease in gastric volume and thereby enhancing satiety. We carried out 2 separate studies. Study 1 was a 2-way, crossover, satiety study of 22 healthy volunteers who consumed roasted chicken and vegetables with a glass of water (1008 kJ) or the same blended to a soup. They completed satiety visual analogue scales at intervals for 3 h. Study 2 was a 2-way, crossover, mechanistic study of 18 volunteers who consumed the same meals and underwent an MRI to assess gastric emptying, gallbladder contraction, and small bowel water content (SBWC) at intervals for 3 h. In Study 1, the soup meal was associated with reduced hunger (P = 0.02). In Study 2, the volume of the gastric contents after the soup meal decreased more slowly than after the solid/liquid meal (P = 0.0003). The soup meal caused greater gallbladder contraction (P < 0.04). SBWC showed a biphasic response with an initial "gastric" phase during which SBWC was greater when the solid/liquid meal was consumed (P < 0.001) and a later "small bowel" phase when SBWC was greater when the soup meal was consumed (P < 0.01). Blending the solid/liquid meal to a soup delayed gastric emptying and increased the hormonal response to feeding, which may contribute to enhanced postprandial satiety.

  7. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  8. Effect of lime treatment of olive meal on in vitro utilization of total mixed ration containing olive meal as partial maize replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Ashraf

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study pertains to lime treatment of olive meal to improve its digestibility. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro dry matter degradability of total mixed ration containing lime treated olive meal at varied levels of maize replacement to know the optimum level of lime and treated olive meal as maize replacement in small ruminant diets. Materials and methods: Study was carried out in two phases. In phase I, A complete diet was formulated and treated with lime at variable concentrations (0-8% at 25% of maize replacement and subjected to in vitro studies as per Tilley and Terry. On the basis of the results of this phase, a concentration of lime for olive treatment was selected and tested at variable levels of maize replacement (0-50% by treated olive cake in phase II. Data was analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor and Cochran. Results: The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of composite diet increased from 43.95% at 0% lime treatment to 48.68% on treating with 8% lime with significant (P<0.05 increase at 6% treatment level. Lime treatment beyond 6% had no further significant effect on improving the digestibility. Graded levels of maize replacement by olive meal treated with 6% lime (lime percentage selected from phase I showed that the in vitro digestibility of mixed ration was not compromised up to 40% replacement level of maize by treated olive meal. Improved digestibility with lime treatment may be due to weakening of internal Hydrogen bonding, thereby disrupting the fiber structure in olive meal. Further lime may be saponifying the high level of fat present in olive meal, which may otherwise negatively impact the digestibility values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment with up to 6% of lime can effectively increase the digestibility of olive meal. Treated olive meal can replace up to 40% of maize from daily ration without affecting the digestibility of composite ration

  9. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Lupin Seed-based Meal in Chicken Diet on Performance, Carcass Value and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this experimental study was to determine how diets containing lupin meal affect the performance indicators, carcass value, and chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens. The diets tested in experimental groups E1 and E2 differed as follows: in group E1, one third of nitrogen-containing substances (NSs from extracted soybean meal was replaced with NSs from lupin meal; in group E2, two thirds were replaced compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal in experimental diets failed to produce any significant effect on the average live weight of chickens on Day 42 of the fattening period compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal resulted in decreased average weight of carcass and breast muscles and in decreased yield of breast muscles. Differences between the control group (C and group E2 were significant (P ⪬ 0.01. Chickens in group E2 also showed a significant increase (P ⪬ 0.01 in the yield of the heart and stomach compared to the control group. The differences in weight and yield of thigh muscles between the control group and the experimental groups (E1 and E2 were not significantly affected. As far as chemical composition is concerned, chickens receiving the lupin-containing feed showed a significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in the ash content in breast muscles. On the contrary, in thigh muscles in group E2, the ash content decreased significantly (P ⪬ 0.01. The content of calcium showed an increasing trend in both breast and thigh muscles in both experimental groups. In contrast, the content of magnesium in chicken muscles in both experimental groups decreased. These differences were significant (P ⪬ 0.01 only in thigh muscles. Our results show that lupin seed is a suitable substitute for NSs contained in soybean extracted meal. It is considered optimal to replace up to one third of NSs contained in

  10. Effect of a test meal on meal responses of satiation hormones and their association to insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglinger, Svetlana; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Graf, Steffi; Zumsteg, Urs; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Gutzwiller, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The role of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones in the pathophysiology of obesity is unclear, although they are involved in the regulation of satiation and glucose metabolism. To (i) examine glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), amylin, ghrelin, and glucagon responses to a meal in obese adolescents and to (ii) test which GI peptides are associated with insulin resistance are presented. A total of 16 obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 97th percentile for age and gender) and 14 control (BMI between 25th and 75th percentiles) adolescents were included. Subjects were instructed to eat a test meal (490 kcal). Plasma samples were collected for hormone and glucose analysis. Obese adolescents were insulin resistant as expressed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and had significantly increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels compared to the control group (P = 0.003 and 0.044, respectively). In response to the meal, the increase in GLP-1 levels was reduced in obese adolescents (P < 0.001). In contrast, amylin secretion was significantly increased in the obese population compared to the control group (P < 0.005). Obese adolescents have increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels and attenuated post-prandial GLP-1 concentrations compared with the control group. These factors could contribute to the metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  12. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  13. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  14. Options for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  15. Supplementing five-point body condition score with body fat percentage increases the sensitivity for assessing overweight status of small to medium sized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gebin Li,1 Peter Lee,1 Nobuko Mori,1 Ichiro Yamamoto,1 Koh Kawasumi,1 Hisao Tanabe,2 Toshiro Arai11Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 2Komazawa Animal Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground and methods: Currently, five-point body condition scoring (BCS is widely used by veterinarians and clinicians to assess adiposity in dogs in Japan. However, BCS score assignment is subjective in nature, and most clinicians do not score with half points, instead preferring to round off values, thereby rendering less accurate assessments. Therefore, we sought to determine whether assessing body fat percentage using simple morphometric measurements and supplementing this with five-point BCS can have increased sensitivity for detecting increasing adiposity in overweight small-medium sized dog breeds via plasma metabolite validation.Results: Overall, lean body fat percentage was determined to be 15%–22% for male (non-neutered/neutered dogs and 15%–25% for female (nonspayed/spayed. Dogs categorized as overweight by BCS had significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.005, whereas animals categorized as overweight by BCS + body fat percentage were observed to have significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.006, total cholesterol (P = 0.029, and triglycerides (P = 0.001 than lean animals. The increased sensitivity due to body fat percentage for gauging alterations in plasma metabolite levels may be due to increased correlation strength. Body fat percentage correlated positively with plasma insulin (r = 0.627, P = 0.002, nonesterified fatty acids (r = 0.674, P < 0.001, total cholesterol (r = 0.825, P < 0.0001, triglycerides (r = 0.5823, P < 0.005, blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.429, P < 0.05, creatinine (r = 0.490, P = 0.021, and total protein (r = 0.737, P< 0.0001 levels, which all tend to increase as a result of increasing adiposity

  16. A meal replacement regimen improves blood glucose levels in prediabetic healthy individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Daniel; Kookhan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-wk intervention with either lifestyle intervention (increased physical activity and a low-calorie diet) or a meal replacement regimen on glycemic control in patients who are prediabetic and have impaired fasting glucose. Forty-two overweight or obese men and women (age 54 ± 8 y; weight 95.1 ± 11.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 32.8 ± 2.89 kg/m(2)) were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients in the lifestyle group (LS; n = 14) received dietary counseling sessions (fat-restricted low-calorie diet) and instructions on how to increase physical activity. Patients in the meal replacement group (MR; n = 28) were instructed to replace two daily meals with a low-calorie, high soy-protein drink with a low glycemic index. Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and BMI, although the reduction was more pronounced (P meal replacement is an effective intervention for rapid improvement of elevated fasting glucose and increased insulin concentrations, these being important biomarkers of the prediabetic state. The 6-wk intervention has shown that the effect of meal replacement on fasting blood glucose was comparable to the effect of lifestyle intervention. The alterations in BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly more pronounced following the meal replacement regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Per meal dose and frequency of protein consumption is associated with lean mass and muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D; Murphy, Caoileann H; Phillips, Stuart M

    2016-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that for older adults evenly distributing consumption of protein at 30-40 g per meal throughout the day may result in more favorable retention of lean mass and muscular strength. Such a thesis has not, to our knowledge, been tested outside of short-term studies or acute measures of muscle protein synthesis. To examine whether the number of times an individual consumed a minimum of 30 g of protein at a meal is associated with leg lean mass and knee extensor strength. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used, with 1081 adults (50-85 y) constituting the analytic sample. A "multiple pass" 24-h dietary interview format was used to collect detailed information about the participants' dietary intake. Knee extensor strength was assessed objectively using the Kin Com MP dynamometer. Leg lean mass was estimated from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Participants with 1 vs. 0 (β adjusted  = 23.6, p = 0.002) and 2 vs. 0 (β adjusted  = 51.1, p = 0.001) meals of ≥30 g protein/meal had greater strength and leg lean mass (1 vs. 0, β adjusted  = 1160, p frequency with leg lean mass and strength plateaued at ∼45 g protein/meal for those consuming 2 vs. 0 meals above the evaluated protein/meal threshold. However, for those with only 1 meal at or above the evaluated threshold, the response plateaued at 30 g/meal. Leg lean mass mediated the relationship between protein frequency and strength, with the proportion of the total effect mediated being 64%. We found that more frequent consumption of meals containing between 30 and 45 g protein/meal produced the greatest association with leg lean mass and strength. Thus, the consumption of 1-2 daily meals with protein content from 30 to 45 g may be an important strategy for increasing and/or maintaining lean body mass and muscle strength with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative validity of micronutrient and fiber intake assessed with two new interactive meal- and Web-based food frequency questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sara E; Möller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie E; Ploner, Alexander; Bälter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Bälter, Katarina

    2014-02-21

    The meal- and Web-based food frequency questionnaires, Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q, were developed for cost-efficient assessment of dietary intake in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of micronutrient and fiber intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q. The reproducibility of Meal-Q was also evaluated. A total of 163 volunteer men and women aged between 20 and 63 years were recruited from Stockholm County, Sweden. Assessment of micronutrient and fiber intake with the 174-item Meal-Q was compared to a Web-based 7-day weighed food record (WFR). Two administered Meal-Q questionnaires were compared for reproducibility. The 126-item MiniMeal-Q, developed after the validation study, was evaluated in a simulated validation by using truncated Meal-Q data. The study population consisted of approximately 80% women (129/163) with a mean age of 33 years (SD 12) who were highly educated (130/163, 80% with >12 years of education) on average. Cross-classification of quartiles with the WFR placed 69% to 90% in the same/adjacent quartile for Meal-Q and 67% to 89% for MiniMeal-Q. Bland-Altman plots with the WFR and the questionnaires showed large variances and a trend of increasing underestimation with increasing intakes. Deattenuated and energy-adjusted Spearman rank correlations between the questionnaires and the WFR were in the range ρ=.25-.69, excluding sodium that was not statistically significant. Cross-classifications of quartiles of the 2 Meal-Q administrations placed 86% to 97% in the same/adjacent quartile. Intraclass correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted intakes were in the range of .50-.76. With the exception of sodium, this validation study demonstrates Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q to be useful methods for ranking micronutrient and fiber intake in epidemiological studies with Web-based data collection.

  19. Relative Validity of Micronutrient and Fiber Intake Assessed With Two New Interactive Meal- and Web-Based Food Frequency Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie E; Ploner, Alexander; Bälter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Bälter, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background The meal- and Web-based food frequency questionnaires, Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q, were developed for cost-efficient assessment of dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of micronutrient and fiber intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q. The reproducibility of Meal-Q was also evaluated. Methods A total of 163 volunteer men and women aged between 20 and 63 years were recruited from Stockholm County, Sweden. Assessment of micronutrient and fiber intake with the 174-item Meal-Q was compared to a Web-based 7-day weighed food record (WFR). Two administered Meal-Q questionnaires were compared for reproducibility. The 126-item MiniMeal-Q, developed after the validation study, was evaluated in a simulated validation by using truncated Meal-Q data. Results The study population consisted of approximately 80% women (129/163) with a mean age of 33 years (SD 12) who were highly educated (130/163, 80% with >12 years of education) on average. Cross-classification of quartiles with the WFR placed 69% to 90% in the same/adjacent quartile for Meal-Q and 67% to 89% for MiniMeal-Q. Bland-Altman plots with the WFR and the questionnaires showed large variances and a trend of increasing underestimation with increasing intakes. Deattenuated and energy-adjusted Spearman rank correlations between the questionnaires and the WFR were in the range ρ=.25-.69, excluding sodium that was not statistically significant. Cross-classifications of quartiles of the 2 Meal-Q administrations placed 86% to 97% in the same/adjacent quartile. Intraclass correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted intakes were in the range of .50-.76. Conclusions With the exception of sodium, this validation study demonstrates Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q to be useful methods for ranking micronutrient and fiber intake in epidemiological studies with Web-based data collection. PMID:24565605

  20. Risk of mental health problems in adolescents skipping meals: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Hyunju

    Adolescents frequently skip meals, doing so even more than once per day. This is associated with more mental health problems. This study identified mental health problems' associations with skipping meals and the frequency thereof among adolescents. This cross-sectional population-based study used a data set of 1,413 adolescents from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the risk of mental health problems, including stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation in relation to skipping meals and the frequency thereof per day. Breakfast skipping significantly increased the risks of stress and depressive mood. Stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly prevalent as the daily frequency of skipping meals increased. Specific strategies should be developed at government or school level to decrease the frequency of skipping meals per day, associated with serious mental health problems in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a Single High Fat Meal Challenge to Unmask ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress tests are used clinically to determine the presence of underlying disease and predict future cardiovascular risk. In previous studies, we used treadmill exercise stress in rats to unmask the priming effects of air pollution inhalation. Other day-to-day activities stress the cardiovascular system, and when modeled experimentally, may be useful in identifying latent effects of air pollution exposure. For example, a single high fat (HF) meal can cause transient vascular endothelial dysfunction and increases in LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oxidative stress, and inflammation. Given the prevalence of HF meals in western diets, the goal of this study was to develop a HF meal challenge in rats to see if air pollution primes the body for a subsequent stress-induced adverse response. Healthy male Wistar Kyoto rats were fasted for six hours and then administered a single oral gavage of isocaloric lard-based HF or low fat (LF) suspensions, or a water vehicle control. We hypothesized that rats given a HF load would elicit postprandial changes in cardiopulmonary function that were distinct from LF and vehicle controls. One to four hours after gavage, rats underwent whole body plethysmography to assess breathing patterns, cardiovascular ultrasounds, blood draws for measurements of systemic lipids and hormones and a test for sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia. HF gavage caused an increase in circulating TG relative to LF and vehicle controls and an incre

  2. Associations between meal complexity and social context in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahma, Nina; Mäkelä, Johanna; Niva, Mari

    2014-01-01

    main meals, lunch and dinner. The analysis builds on the concept of eating system, examining the effect sociability has on meal complexity. In the end we ask whether complexity can better be explained by social context, or if it, rather, results from social differentiation. The data (N=8248) are drawn......Contemporary eating is often portrayed by images of snacking, solitary grazing, disintegration of sociability, demise of family meals, and increasingly irregular eating patterns –what Claude Fischler has famously described as gastroanomy. Inspired by the concept of eating system, this article...... from the Food in Nordic Everyday Life survey conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden in 2012. The Finns and Swedes typically had two hot meals a day, whereas the Danes and Norwegians only had one. Moreover, the differences in the complexity were the greatest in hot dinners, the Danes...

  3. Evaluating sampling strategy for DNA barcoding study of coastal and inland halo-tolerant Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae: A case study for increased sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng-Cheng; Gao, Hai-Yan; Wei, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hang; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Li, Hong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Environmental conditions in coastal salt marsh habitats have led to the development of specialist genetic adaptations. We evaluated six DNA barcode loci of the 53 species of Poaceae and 15 species of Chenopodiaceae from China's coastal salt marsh area and inland area. Our results indicate that the optimum DNA barcode was ITS for coastal salt-tolerant Poaceae and matK for the Chenopodiaceae. Sampling strategies for ten common species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were analyzed according to optimum barcode. We found that by increasing the number of samples collected from the coastal salt marsh area on the basis of inland samples, the number of haplotypes of Arundinella hirta, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Setaria viridis, and Chenopodium glaucum increased, with a principal coordinate plot clearly showing increased distribution points. The results of a Mann-Whitney test showed that for Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, and Setaria viridis, the distribution of intraspecific genetic distances was significantly different when samples from the coastal salt marsh area were included (P Imperata cylindrica and Chenopodium album, average intraspecific distance tended to reach stability. These results indicate that the sample size for DNA barcode of globally distributed species should be increased to 11-15.

  4. Postprandial metabolic profiles following meals and snacks eaten during simulated night and day shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimi, S; Hampton, S M; Richard, P; Tzung, C; Morgan, L M

    2004-01-01

    Shift workers are known to have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with day workers. An important factor contributing to this increased risk could be the increased incidence of postprandial metabolic risk factors for CVD among shift workers, as a consequence of the maladaptation of endogenous circadian rhythms to abrupt changes in shift times. We have previously shown that both simulated and real shift workers showed relatively impaired glucose and lipid tolerance if a single test meal was consumed between 00:00-02:00 h (night shift) compared with 12:00-14:00 h (day shift). The objective of the present study was to extend these observations to compare the cumulative metabolic effect of consecutive snacks/meals, as might normally be consumed throughout a period of night or day shift work. In a randomized crossover study, eight healthy nonobese men (20-33 yrs, BMI 20-25kg/m2) consumed a combination of two meals and a snack on two occasions following a standardized prestudy meal, simulating night and day shift working (total energy 2500 kcal: 40% fat, 50% carbohydrate, 10% protein). Meals were consumed at 01:00/ 13:00 h and 07:00/19:00h, and the snack at 04:00/16:00 h. Blood was taken after an overnight fast, and for 8 h following the first meal on each occasion, for the measurement of glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). RM-ANOVA (factors time and shift) showed a significant effect of shift for plasma TAG, with higher levels on simulated night compared to day shift (p effect of shift for plasma glucose, with higher plasma glucose at night (p = 0.08), and there was a time-shift interaction for plasma insulin levels (p shift. Inspection of the area under the plasma response curve (AUC) following each meal and snack revealed that the differences in lipid tolerance occurred throughout the study, with greatest differences occurring following the mid-shift snack. In contrast, glucose tolerance was

  5. Environmentally-relevant concentrations of atrazine induce non-monotonic acceleration of developmental rate and increased size at metamorphosis in Rhinella arenarum tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Julie C; Sassone, Alina; Hermida, Gladys N; Codugnello, Nadia

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the various studies reporting on the subject, anticipating the impacts of the widely-used herbicide atrazine on anuran tadpoles metamorphosis remains complex as increases or decreases of larval period duration are almost as frequently reported as an absence of effect. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of atrazine (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L) on the timings of metamorphosis and body size at metamorphosis in the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura: bufonidae). None of the atrazine concentrations tested significantly altered survival. Low atrazine concentrations in the range of 1-100μg/L were found to accelerate developmental rate in a non-monotonic U-shaped concentration-response relationship. This observed acceleration of the metamorphic process occurred entirely between stages 25 and 39; treated tadpoles proceeding through metamorphosis as control animals beyond this point. Together with proceeding through metamorphosis at a faster rate, tadpoles exposed to atrazine concentrations in the range of 1-100μg/L furthermore transformed into significantly larger metamorphs than controls, the concentration-response curve taking the form of an inverted U in this case. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.1μg atrazine/L for both size at metamorphosis and timings of metamorphosis. Tadpoles exposed to 100μg/L 17β-estradiol presented the exact same alterations of developmental rate and body size as those treated with 1, 10 and 100μg/L of atrazine. Elements of the experimental design that facilitated the detection of alterations of metamorphosis at low concentrations of atrazine are discussed, together with the ecological significance of those findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Circadian and ultradian components of hunger in human non-homeostatic meal-to-meal eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T

    2013-10-02

    A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östman, Elin; Forslund, Anna; Tareke, Eden; Björck, Inger

    2016-06-03

    The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol), or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol). A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol) was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB) as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC) was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (-47%, p = 0.0000) but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019), compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite) revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  8. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Östman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol, or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol. A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (−47%, p = 0.0000 but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019, compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  9. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  10. A Journey to Improved Inpatient Glycemic Control by Redesigning Meal Delivery and Insulin Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Martha; Ferguson, Allison; Fields, Willa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to redesign a hospital meal delivery process in order to shorten the time between blood glucose monitoring and corresponding insulin administration and improve glycemic control. This process change redesigned the workflow of the dietary and nursing departments. Modifications included nursing, rather than dietary, delivering meal trays to patients receiving insulin. Dietary marked the appropriate meal trays and phoned each unit prior to arrival on the unit. The process change was trialed on 2 acute care units prior to implementation hospital wide. Elapsed time between blood glucose monitoring and insulin administration was analyzed before and after process change as well as evaluation of glucometrics: percentage of patients with blood glucose between 70 and 180 mg/dL (percent perfect), blood glucose greater than 300 mg/dL (extreme hyperglycemia), and blood glucose less than 70 mg/dL (hypoglycemia). Percent perfect glucose results improved from 45% to 53%, extreme hyperglycemia (blood glucose >300 mg/dL) fell from 11.7% to 5%. Hypoglycemia demonstrated a downward trend line, demonstrating that with improving glycemic control hypoglycemia rates did not increase. Percentage of patients receiving meal insulin within 30 minutes of blood glucose check increased from 35% to 73%. In the hospital, numerous obstacles were present that interfered with on-time meal insulin delivery. Establishing a meal delivery process with the nurse performing the premeal blood glucose check, delivering the meal, and administering the insulin improves overall blood glucose control. Nurse-led process improvement