WorldWideScience

Sample records for mcmurdo station mt

  1. Subsurface Assessment at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) EP-ANT-15-19, “Geotechnical Assessment for McMurdo Station Landscape and Infrastructure Improvements” ERDC/CRREL... Assessment for McMurdo Station Landscape and Infrastructure Improvements.” The technical monitor was Margaret Knuth (program manager), NSF-OPP, U.S...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 7- 4 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Subsurface Assessment at McMurdo Station

  2. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    unclear” (U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel 2012). These studies have predominantly considered solar , wind, geother- mal, and waste wood and paper...tides are called spring tides (Figure 3). When the moon is at a right angle , perpen- dicular to the earth–sun connecting line, the lunar and solar ...capabilities at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to reduce costs and emissions. Previous assessments considered wind, solar , and geothermal energy

  3. Electric Vehicle Performance at McMurdo Station (Antarctica) and Comparison with McMurdo Station Conventional Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, T.; Lammert, M.; Colby, K.; Walter, R.

    2014-09-01

    This report examines the performance of two electric vehicles (EVs) at McMurdo, Antarctica (McMurdo). The study examined the performance of two e-ride Industries EVs initially delivered to McMurdo on February 16, 2011, and compared their performance and fuel use with that of conventional vehicles that have a duty cycle similar to that of the EVs used at McMurdo.

  4. Vertical Temperature Simulation of Pegasus Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Steven F. Daly, Robert Haehnel...Vertical Temperature Simulation of Pegasus Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica Steven F. Daly, Robert Haehnel, and Christopher Hiemstra Cold Regions...Engineering Support, Continuation” ERDC/CRREL TR-15-2 ii Abstract Pegasus Runway, located 13 km south of McMurdo Station, Antarctica , on the

  5. Airfield Passenger Transportation System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    surface. Environmental Issues that affect the environment have an increased importance at McMurdo owing to Antarctic Treaty provisions. Some factors...is unlimited. Prepared for National Science Foundation ERDC/CRREL TR-12-8 ii Abstract: The United States Antarctic Program’s McMurdo... Antarctic Terminal Operations (ATO): Bill Turnbill, Kris Kornegay, and Pete Cruser. Excellent review comments were provided by Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A

  6. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  7. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-05-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  8. Indicators of Physical and Biological Trends around the McMurdo Station, Antarctica: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    industrial temperatures; and the sea level was at least 6.6 m higher than at pre- sent, suggesting significant loss of Greenland and Antarctic ice...foundations. • With enhanced melting of snow, ice, and ground ice above and around McMurdo Station, meltwater volume and rates may exceed the capacity

  9. Stratospheric trace gas and aerosol profiles at McMurdo and South Pole stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, D.J. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie); Rosen, J.M.; Kjome, N.T.; Olson, G.L.; Schmeltekopf, A.L.; Goldan, P.D.; Winkler, R.H.

    1979-10-01

    During January 1979, we conducted balloon soundings in Antarctica to measure stratospheric trace gas and aerosol profiles. For the first time, we took trace gas samples at Amundsen-Scott (South Pole) Station. Four days earlier a similar experiment had been conducted at McMurdo Station. The samples, obtained by automatically opening evacuated stainless steel spheres at several altitudes, were returned to the United States and analyzed by gas chromatography at the Aeronomy Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Boulder, CO. The excellent agreement between McMurdo and South Pole data up to 20 kilometers suggests that trace gas concentrations in the polar regions are very uniform over a time period of at least four days and that measurements at either station are probably representative of the general antarctic profile. The same conclusion may be drawn from data on the fluorocarbons. These constituents also are very inert in the troposphere, but they undergo photodissociation in the stratosphere. As a result, their concentration drops off rapidly with altitude in the stratosphere. In addition to measuring trace gases, we again measured the stratospheric sulfate aerosol profile at McMurdo Station. Finally, we conducted a number of condensation nuclei soundings from the clean air facility at South Pole Station.

  10. Upper-Bound Radiation Dose Assessment for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, between 1962 and 1979, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    existing methods used to evaluate the probability of radiation exposure at McMurdo Station causing an existing cancer (probability of causation) in...estimate upper-bound radiation doses for McMurdo Station military support personnel that includes an evaluation of potential exposures while working...Furthermore, the potential health effects due to radiation exposures at the McMurdo Station were evaluated . It is important to note that the present dose

  11. Comprehensive characterization report on Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; White, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Winter Quarters Bay is a small embayment located adjacent to the United States largest base in Antarctica, McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station, which is managed by the National Science Foundation`s Office of Polar Programs, was constructed in 1955, has been in constant use since that time, and has a population of about 1,000 persons during the summer and about 250 people for the winter. The bay offers shelter for ships and an ice dock is used during January and February to off load fuel and cargo. During earlier times, trash from the McMurdo Station was piled on the steep shoreline of the bay, doused with several thousand gallons of fuel and ignited. That practice has ceased and the site has been regraded to cover the waste. The bottom of the bay is littered with drums, equipment, tanks, tires, all sorts of metal objects, cables, etc., especially the southeastern side where dumping took place. The sediments are gravel in some places yet fine and fluid at other sites with coarse particles intermixed. The original benthic community is not well recorded but significant ecological changes have occurred. Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, metals, and hydrocarbon fuels. This report summarizes available information on Winter Quarters Bay and was originally intended to be used by workshop participants to become familiar with the bay prior to becoming updated with unpublished data by various Antarctic investigators. The proposed workshop was to assist the National Science Foundation in determining whether and how the bay should be remediated and to develop an integrated research plan if additional data were needed. However, plans changed, the workshop was never conducted, but the briefing report was prepared. Most of this report reviews and summarizes other published data. The only new data are those from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory`s investigation into the distribution of organic contaminants in the bay and sediment toxicity testing.

  12. Scattered sky observations of stratospheric OCIO at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Henry L., Jr.; Smith, Joseph; Perliski, Lori M.; Sanders, Ryan W.; Mount, George H.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-02-01

    Ground-based measurements of scattered light were collected in the Antarctic fall, winter, and spring at McMurdo Station during the winter and spring of 1991. These measurements yielded values of the slant column amounts of the dioxides of chlorine and nitrogen found in the stratosphere. Two different viewing schemes were used to collect this data; a zenith viewing mode to collect light scattered from directly overhead, and a new off-axis viewing mode to collect light scattered along a path at 80 degree(s) zenith angle toward the sun. This new viewing geometry allowed measurements to be made much further into twilight and polar winter than was previously possible with only the zenith viewing mode. Results of this analysis showed that OClO levels were very high in late July and early August, declining through September, and dropping below detection levels in early October.

  13. Ground based observations of Pc3-Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation power at Antarctic McMurdo station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Maclennan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The two horizontal geomagnetic components and, measured by a fluxgate magnetometer at Antarctic McMurdo station (corrected geomagnetic coordinates 80.0° S, 327.5° E, are analyzed for the period May-June 1994; the spectral powers are calculated and integrated over three frequency intervals corresponding to the nominal ranges. The time dependence of those integrated powers and their correlations with northern auroral indices and solar wind speed are considered. The observations are compared with previous results reported from Terra Nova Bay station (located near McMurdo at the same corrected geomagnetic latitude during Antarctic summer intervals. The differences found between the two stations are discussed in terms of the seasonal dependence of geomagnetic field line configurations in the near cusp region.

  14. Analysis of the Use of Wind Energy to Supplement the Power Needs at McMurdo Station and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.; Robichaud, R.; McLain, K.

    2005-05-01

    This poster summarizes the analysis of the inclusion of wind-driven power generation technology into the existing diesel power plants at two U.S. Antarctic research stations, McMurdo and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Staff at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the analysis. Available data were obtained on the wind resources, power plant conditions, load, and component cost. We then used NREL's Hybrid2 power system modeling software to analyze the potential and cost of using wind turbine generators at the two aforementioned facilities.

  15. Analysis of the Use of Wind Energy to Supplement the Power Needs at McMurdo Station and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Robichaud, R.; McLain, K.

    2005-05-01

    This report summarizes an analysis of the inclusion of wind-driven power generation technology into the existing diesel power plants at two U.S. Antarctic research stations, McMurdo and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Staff at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the analysis. Raytheon Polar Services, which currently holds the private sector support contract for the two research stations, was a major contributor to this report. To conduct the analysis, available data were obtained on the wind resources, power plant conditions, load, and component cost. Whenever possible, we validated the information. We then used NREL's Hybrid2 power system modeling software to analyze the potential and cost of using wind turbine generators at the two aforementioned facilities. Unfortunately, the power systems and energy allocations at McMurdo and South Pole Station are being redeveloped, so it is not possible to validate future fuel use. This report is an initial assessment of the potential use of wind energy and should be followed by further, more detailed analysis if this option is to be considered further.

  16. FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

  17. Occurrence of microbial indicators and Clostridium perfringens in wastewater, water column samples, sediments, drinking water, and Weddell seal feces collected at McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T; Smith, James J; Edwards, Diane D; McFeters, Gordon A

    2004-12-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica, has discharged untreated sewage into McMurdo Sound for decades. Previous studies delineated the impacted area, which included the drinking water intake, by using total coliform and Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The estimation of risk to humans in contact with the impacted and potable waters may be greater than presumed, as these microbial indicators may not be the most appropriate for this environment. To address these concerns, concentrations of these and additional indicators (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, coliphage, and enteroviruses) in the untreated wastewater, water column, and sediments of the impacted area and drinking water treatment facility and distribution system at McMurdo Station were determined. Fecal samples from Weddell seals in this area were also collected and analyzed for indicators. All drinking water samples were negative for indicators except for a single total coliform-positive sample. Total coliforms were present in water column samples at higher concentrations than other indicators. Fecal coliform and enterococcus concentrations were similar to each other and greater than those of other indicators in sediment samples closer to the discharge site. C. perfringens concentrations were higher in sediments at greater distances from the discharge site. Seal fecal samples contained concentrations of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens similar to those found in untreated sewage. All samples were negative for enteroviruses. A wastewater treatment facility at McMurdo Station has started operation, and these data provide a baseline data set for monitoring the recovery of the impacted area. The contribution of seal feces to indicator concentrations in this area should be considered.

  18. Skin Dose Assessment Methodology for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (1962-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD. May 20. WHO (World Health Organization), 2005. Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident and Special Health Care...Programmes, Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group “ Health ” (EGH), World Health Organization, Geneva. August 31. 18 This page intentionally...McMurdo Station Radiation Dose Assessment Integrated Project Team For: Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs and Deputy Assistant

  19. 2010/11 McMurdo Station Snow Road Strength and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and Maintenance Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Terry D. Melendy and Sally Shoop February 2017...Strength and Maintenance Terry D. Melendy and Sally Shoop U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Cold Regions Research and...McMurdo Station. Part of this study in- cluded tracking the road maintenance and temperature and testing the road strength at predetermined mile

  20. {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. [Canadian Musem of Nature, P.O. Box 3443 Station D, Ottawa, Ont., K1P 6P4 (Canada)]. E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kvitek, Rikk G. [Earth Systems Science and Policy, California State University Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  1. Observations of roAp stars at the Mt.Dushak-Erekdag station of Odessa Astronomical Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Dorokhova, T N

    1998-01-01

    Since 1992, observations of roAp stars have been carried out using the dual-channel photometer attached to the 0.8m telescope, which is situated in Central Asia, at the Mt. Dushak-Erekdag station of Odessa Astronomical Observatory. Some results of observations of gamma Equ and of HD 134214 are presented. 5 stars were investigated as roAp candidates. The Fourier spectra of 4 stars did not show any variability in the high-frequency region. The Fourier spectrum of HD 99563 revealed a peak at a frequency f=128.9 c/d and with a semi-amplitude of 3.98 mmag.

  2. Continuous measurements of aerosol physical parameters at the Mt. Cimone GAW Station (2165 m asl, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, A; Cristofanelli, P; Calzolari, F; Roccato, F; Bonafè, U; Bonasoni, P

    2008-03-01

    Particle size distribution in the range 0.3cycle with the highest values in spring-summer and the lowest value in autumn-winter. Except in winter, N 0.3-1 showed a clear diurnal variation with high values during day-time. N 1-20 showed a less marked diurnal variation (but with higher variability), suggesting the influence of non-continuous sources of coarse particle (i.e. Saharan dust events). Since July 2005, continuous measurement of black carbon (BC) concentrations was also available at the measurement site. On average low BC concentrations were recorded (average value: 0.28 microg m(-3)) even if a few events of high concentrations were recorded both in warm and cold season. Apart from wet scavenging processes which strongly affected aerosol concentrations, combined analysis of N 0.3-1, BC, meteorological parameters and air mass back-trajectories, suggests that the transport of polluted air masses from the lower troposphere (by local, regional or long-range transport) represents an important mechanism favouring N 0.3-1 and BC increases at Mt. Cimone. In particular, a trajectory statistical analysis for the period July 2005-July 2006 allowed the identification of the main source regions of BC and N 0.3-1 for Mt. Cimone: north Italy, west Europe and east Europe.

  3. Profile temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure from CTD casts in McMurdo Sound from 2011-11-26 to 2011-12-03 (NCEI Accession 0131073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Full-depth CTD profiles taken on along-sound and cross-sound transects of McMurdo Sound. Eleven stations with six independent sites were visited.

  4. Feasibility report: Operation of light air cushion vehicle at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbern, J. S.

    1987-02-01

    This report explores the viability of the use of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) or hovercraft to perform logistic and scientific support in the area of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. After a review of personnel assets and facilities at McMurdo Station to support the ACV plus a reconnaissance of the five major routes selected, it appears that an air cushion vehicle in the 1 to 1 1/2 ton payload class would be of significant value to support operations. It would reduce transit times for surface vehicle traverses on the routes selected and reduce requirements for expenditure of helicopter flight time in others. Of major significance is the ability to handle passenger/shuttle requirements between the Scott Base transition and Williams Field Skiway. Use of the ACV for high frequency passenger operations would help preserve the snow road for cargo operations during periods of road deterioration.

  5. Processes controlling the seasonal variations in 210Pb and 7Be at the Mt. Cimone WMO-GAW global station, Italy: a model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattich, Erika; Liu, Hongyu; Tositti, Laura; Considine, David B.; Crawford, James H.

    2017-01-01

    We apply the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model driven by NASA's MERRA assimilated meteorological data to simulate the seasonal variations in two radionuclide aerosol tracers (terrigenous 210Pb and cosmogenic 7Be) at the WMO-GAW station of Mt. Cimone (44°12' N, 10°42' E; 2165 m a.s.l.; Italy), which is representative of free-tropospheric conditions most of the year, during 2005 with an aim to understand the roles of transport and precipitation scavenging processes in controlling their seasonality. The total precipitation field in the MERRA data set is evaluated with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) observations, and generally good agreement is found. The model reproduces reasonably the observed seasonal pattern of 210Pb concentrations, characterized by a wintertime minimum due to lower 222Rn emissions and weaker uplift from the boundary layer and summertime maxima resulting from strong convection over the continent. The observed seasonal behavior of 7Be concentrations shows a winter minimum, a summer maximum, and a secondary spring maximum. The model captures the observed 7Be pattern in winter-spring, which is linked to the larger stratospheric influence during spring. However, the model tends to underestimate the observed 7Be concentrations in summer, partially due to the sensitivity to spatial sampling in the model. Model sensitivity experiments indicate a dominant role of precipitation scavenging (vs. dry deposition and convection) in controlling the seasonality of 210Pb and 7Be concentrations at Mt. Cimone.

  6. High-resolution elevation mapping of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew G.; Fernandez-Diaz, Juan C.; Obryk, Maciej; Levy, Joseph; Gooseff, Michael; Van Horn, David J.; Morin, Paul; Shrestha, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    We present detailed surface elevation measurements for the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica derived from aerial lidar surveys flown in the austral summer of 2014-2015 as part of an effort to understand geomorphic changes over the past decade. Lidar return density varied from 2 to > 10 returns m-2 with an average of about 5 returns m-2. Vertical and horizontal accuracies are estimated to be 7 and 3 cm, respectively. In addition to our intended targets, other ad hoc regions were also surveyed including the Pegasus flight facility and two regions on Ross Island, McMurdo Station, Scott Base (and surroundings), and the coastal margin between Cape Royds and Cape Evans. These data are included in this report and data release. The combined data are freely available at https://doi.org/10.5069/G9D50JX3" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5069/G9D50JX3.

  7. Long-term (2002–2012 investigation of Saharan dust transport events at Mt. Cimone GAW global station, Italy (2165 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Duchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mineral dust transport from North Africa towards the Mediterranean basin and Europe was monitored over an 11-y period (2002–2012 using the continuous observations made at Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (CMN. CMN is in a strategic position for investigating the impact of mineral dust transported from northern Africa on the atmospheric composition of the Mediterranean basin and southern Europe. The identification of “dusty days” is based on coupling the measured in situ coarse aerosol particle number concentration with an analysis of modeled back trajectories tracing the origin of air masses from North Africa. More than 400 episodes of mineral dust transport were identified, accounting for 15.7% of the investigated period. Our analysis points to a clear seasonal cycle, with the highest frequency from spring to autumn, and a dust-induced variation of the coarse particle number concentration larger than 123% on a seasonal basis. In addition, FLEXTRA 10-d back trajectories showed that northwestern and central Africa are the major mineral dust source regions. Significant inter-annual variability of dust outbreak frequency and related mineral dust loading were detected and during spring the NAO index was positively correlated (R2 = 0.32 with dust outbreak frequency. Lastly, the impact of transported mineral dust on the surface O3 mixing ratio was quantified over the 11-y investigation period. Evidence of a non-linear and negative correlation between mineral dust and ozone concentrations was found, resulting in an average spring and summer decrease of the O3 mixing ratio down to 7%.

  8. Runoff Characterization and Variations at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-13

    can potentially migrate into the permeable thawed ground and into the drainage channels during runoff. A review of the runoff data collection and...sensors. 7. We used long nails /stakes to center the sensor in the ditch as best as pos- sible (Figure A4a). 8. We installed stake upstream and

  9. Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    We found that the disaggregation was not uniform and it left the snow in larger clumps rather than fine particles . These data indicate that snow...33 Snow moisture ............................................................................................................................ 33...52 Snow moisture

  10. Engineering Manual for McMurdo Station. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    rise in ice temperature duringthethat form between parallel platelets of pure spring is caused mainly by solar radiation i h m n d n e n absorption...simpler than the initial and controlling crack development. opening. A recount of the DF-78 They produce less shatter ice than trimming indicates that the

  11. Pollutant Concentration in Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    Monitoring ERDC/CRREL TR-14-15 vii ICP-MS Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry Mn Manganese Ni Nickel NRDC National Resources Defense...indicated that snowmelt runoff transported metals, including arsenic (As), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). These metals are...soils and leach into ground and surface waters but are usually not at toxic levels. ERDC/CRREL TR-14-15 6 Kennicutt et al. (2010) and Klein et al

  12. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanyun; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Tang, Jie; Huang, Jianqing; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, climate, human and vegetation health can be impacted by the increase of the ozone level. Therefore, long-term determination of trends of baseline ozone is highly needed information for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies on the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China and many other developing countries. Measurements of surface ozone were carried out at a baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt Waliguan, 36°17' N, 100°54' E, 3816 m a.s.l.) for the period of 1994 to 2013. To uncover the variation characteristics, long-term trends and influencing factors of surface ozone at this remote site in western China, a two-part study has been carried out, with this part focusing on the overall characteristics of diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations and the trends of surface ozone. To obtain reliable ozone trends, we performed the Mann-Kendall trend test and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis on the ozone data. Our results confirm that the mountain-valley breeze plays an important role in the diurnal cycle of surface ozone at Waliguan, resulting in higher ozone values during the night and lower ones during the day, as was previously reported. Systematic diurnal and seasonal variations were found in mountain-valley breezes at the site, which were used in defining season-dependent daytime and nighttime periods for trend calculations. Significant positive trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (0.24 ± 0.16 ppbv year-1) and nighttime (0.28 ± 0.17 ppbv year-1). The largest nighttime increasing rate occurred in autumn (0.29 ± 0.11 ppbv year-1), followed by spring (0.24 ± 0.12 ppbv year-1), summer (0.22 ± 0

  13. McMurdo Ice Shelf Sounding and Radar Statistical Reconnaissance at 60-MHz: Brine Infiltration Extent and Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, C.; Rosales, A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Young, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, is characterized by two particular geophysical processes. (1) Marine ice accretion supplies most of the ice shelf material rather than meteoric ice from glacier outflow and snow-falls. (2) A brine layer infiltrates the ice shelf laterally up to 20-km inward. The infiltration mainly initiates at the ice-front from sea water percolation when the firn/snow transition is below sea-level. A better characterization of the McMurdo ice shelf could constrain our knowledges of these mechanisms and assess the stability of the region that hosts numerous human activities from the close McMurdo station (USA) and Scott base (New-Zealand). McMurdo ice shelf is also an analog for the Jovian icy moon Europa where brine pockets are supposed to reside in the ice crust and accretion to occur at the 10-30-km deep ice-ocean interface.The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) acquired two radar survey grids over the McMurdo Ice Shelf during southern summers 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 with the High Capability Radar Sounder (HiCARS) on-board a Basler DC-3 aircraft. HiCARS transmits a chirped signal at 60-MHz central frequency and 15-MHz bandwidth. The corresponding vertical resolution in ice is 5-10 m. An important design goal of the radar was to maintain sufficient dynamic range to correctly measure echo intensities.Here we present the brine infiltration extent and bathymetry derived from its dielectric horizon well distinguishable on the HiCARS radargram. We complement the ice-shelf characterization by classifying its surface thanks to the novel Radar Statistical Reconnaissance (RSR) methodology. The RSR observable is the statistical distribution of the surface echo amplitudes from successive areas defined along-track. The distributions are best-fitted with a theoretical stochastic envelop parameterized with the signal reflectance and scattering. Once those two components are deduced from the fit, they are used in a backscattering model to invert

  14. The advantages of complementing MT profiles in 3-D environments with geomagnetic transfer function and inter-station horizontal magnetic transfer function data: Results from a synthetic case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanyà, Joan; Ogaya, Xènia; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Vozar, Jan; Meqbel, Naser

    2016-09-01

    As a consequence of measuring time variations of the electric and the magnetic field, which are related to current flow and charge distribution, magnetotelluric (MT) data in two dimensional (2-D) and three dimensional (3-D) environments are not only sensitive to the geoelectrical structures below the measuring points but also to any lateral anomalies surrounding the acquisition site. This behaviour complicates the characterisation of the electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface, particularly in complex areas. In this manuscript we assess the main advantages of complementing the standard MT impedance tensor (Z) data with inter-station horizontal magnetic tensor (H) and geomagnetic transfer function (T) data in constraining the subsurface in a 3-D environment beneath a MT profile. Our analysis was performed using synthetic responses with added normally distributed and scattered random noise. The sensitivity of each type of data to different resistivity anomalies is evaluated, showing that the degree to which each site and each period is affected by the same anomaly depends on the type of data. A dimensionality analysis, using Z, H and T data, identifies the presence of the 3-D anomalies close to the profile, suggesting a 3-D approach for recovering the electrical resistivity values of the subsurface. Finally, the capacity for recovering the geoelectrical structures of the subsurface is evaluated by performing joint inversion using different data combinations, quantifying the differences between the true synthetic model and the models from inversion process. Four main improvements are observed when performing joint inversion of Z, H and T data: (1) superior precision and accuracy at characterising the electrical resistivity values of the anomalies below and outside the profile; (2) the potential to recover high electrical resistivity anomalies that are poorly recovered using Z data alone; (3) improvement in the characterization of the bottom and lateral

  15. Phenology of the McMurdo Sound Spring Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K. L.; Kim, S.; Broadbent, H.; Saenz, B.; Ainley, D. G.; Ballard, G.; Pitman, R.; DiTullio, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The phenology of spring blooms in most cases has important consequences for the food web that supports upper trophic level predators. An investigation during spring/summer of 2012/13 and 2014/15 of the McMurdo Sound ecosystem, at the southern end of the Ross Sea, revealed that maximum concentrations of fast ice algae occurred during November, with higher concentrations on the eastern side of the Sound near Ross Island and lower concentrations on the western side in the cold water outflow from under the Ross Ice Shelf. In early to mid-December, warming surface water ablated the undersurface of the fast ice and ice algae likely sank rapidly out of the water column to provide food for the benthos. Also in early to mid-December, the McMurdo system transitioned to a phytoplankton bloom at the fast ice edge and under the ice, which co-occurred with the timing of Adelie penguin reproduction (chick hatching) at Cape Royds and the arrival of minke whales and fish-eating killer whales at the fast ice edge. The phytoplankton bloom was initially advected from the Ross Sea into the eastern side of McMurdo Sound and then spread across the Sound to the western side. The phytoplankton community, which was dominated by diatoms and Phaeocystis, was not grazed down by zooplankton and appeared to sink out of the water column. Results support recent findings that a wasp-waist food web structure exists in the Ross Sea, whereby upper trophic levels are not closely coupled to phytoplankton dynamics.

  16. Comments on the Regional Climate Variability Driven by Foehn Winds in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Sienicki, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The main objection to Speirs, McGowan, Steinhoff and Bromwich work arises from the lack of analyses of the probability distribution functions of underlying processes leading to wind formation of which velocities are measured by automated weather stations and reported in the paper. Mathematically a rigorous definition of calculating the correlation coefficient (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient) of averages does not exist. Therefore the authors numbers as given in Table II represent a set of randomly calculated figures. The authors suggestion in relation to a few of these random numbers that some of them have statistical significance at the 95% level is erroneous since no relationship exists between correlation coefficient of averages and statistical significance. Therefore Speirs et al. main conclusion that the - SAM is found to significantly influence foehn wind frequency at McMurdo Dry Valleys is unfounded.

  17. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... and renamed as MT-III. In this study we have raised polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against recombinant rat MT-III (rMT-III). The sera obtained reacted specifically against recombinant zinc-and cadmium-saturated rMT-III, and did not cross-react with native rat MT-I and MT-II purified from the liver of zinc...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...

  18. Summer atmospheric composition over the Mediterranean basin: Investigation on transport processes and pollutant export to the free troposphere by observations at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Landi, T. C.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Marinoni, A.; Rinaldi, M.; Bonasoni, P.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we analysed reactive gases (O3, CO, NOx) and aerosol properties (eqBC, σs and particle number concentration) collected at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy) during the summer of 2012 in the framework of PEGASOS project. The major aim of this experiment is providing a characterization of the variability of summer atmospheric composition over the central Mediterranean basin, which is considered as a global "hot-spot" for atmospheric pollution and climate change. The atmospheric tracers have been analysed as a function of (i) meteorological parameters, (ii) synoptic-scale circulation and (iii) anthropogenic emission source proximity as estimated by O3/NOx ratio variability. In particular, we identified three O3/NOx regimes which tagged the distance of anthropogenic sources: near outflow (23% of hourly data), far-outflow (38% of data) and background (39% of data). The highest levels of anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. O3, CO, eqBC, accumulation particles) were concomitant with fresh emissions from northern Italy under near-outflow conditions: once injected to the free troposphere, these air-masses, rich in pollutants and climate-forcers (i.e. O3, eqBC) and soil dust, can be spread over a large region, thus significantly affecting regional climate. Moreover, based on the anthropogenic source proximity, atmospheric tracer variability and synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation, we categorized and characterised four types of atmospheric regimes associated with (1) air-mass transport from the free troposphere, (2) transport of fresh emitted pollutants from the PBL, (3) transport at regional/continental scale of aged anthropogenic (4) transport of air-mass rich in mineral dust from northern Africa (i.e. coming from more than 1000 km). Lastly, by analysing the probability density functions (PDFs) of trace gases and aerosol properties, "fingerprints" of the mentioned atmospheric regimes were pointed out. Such information is useful for the

  19. Summer atmospheric composition over the Mediterranean basin: investigation on transport processes and pollutant export to the free troposphere by observations at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Cristian Landi, Tony; Rinaldi, Matteo; Calzolari, Francesopiero; Duchi, Rocco; Marinoni, Angela; Roccato, Fabrizio; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we analysed reactive gases (O3, CO, NOx) and aerosol properties (eqBC, s and particle number concentration) collected at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy) during the summer of 2012 in the framework of PEGASOS project. The major aim of this experiment is providing a characterization of the variability of summer atmospheric composition over the central Mediterranean basin, which is considered as a global "hot-spot" for atmospheric pollution and climate change. The atmospheric tracers have been analysed as a function of (i) meteorological parameters, (ii) synoptic-scale circulation and (iii) anthropogenic emission source proximity as estimated by O3/NOx ratio variability. In particular, we identified three O3/NOx regimes which tagged the distance of anthropogenic sources: near outflow (23% of hourly data), far-outflow (38% of data) and background (39% of data). The highest levels of anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. O3, CO, eqBC, accumulation particles) were concomitant with fresh emissions from northern Italy under near-outflow conditions: once injected to the free troposphere, these air-masses, rich in pollutants and climate-forcers (i.e. O3, eqBC) and soil dust, can be spread over a large region, thus significantly affecting regional climate. Moreover, based on the anthropogenic source proximity, atmospheric tracer variability and synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation, we categorized and characterised four types of atmospheric regimes associated with (1) air-mass transport from the free troposphere, (2) transport of fresh emitted pollutants from the PBL, (3) transport at regional/continental scale of aged anthropogenic (4) transport of air-mass rich in mineral dust from northern Africa (i.e. coming from more than 1000 km). Lastly, by analysing the probability density functions (PDFs) of trace gases and aerosol properties, "fingerprints" of the mentioned atmospheric regimes were pointed out. Such information is useful for the

  20. Assessment of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in Weddell seal tissue (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Stephen J; Robinson, Eleanor M; Noren, Shawn R; Usenko, Sascha; Davis, Jay; Kanatous, Shane B

    2012-11-15

    Muscle samples were collected from pup, juvenile and adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2006. Blubber samples were collected from juvenile and adult seals. Samples were analyzed for emerging and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including current and historic-use organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Of the 41 target analytes, 28 contaminants were recovered from the Weddell seal blubber, in this order of prevalence: p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 153, PCB 138, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, nonachlor III, PCB 187, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, PCB 118, PBDE 47, PCB 156, PCB 149, PCB 180, PCB 101, PCB 170, PCB 105, o,p'-DDT, PCB 99, trans-chlordane, PCB 157, PCB 167, PCB 189, and PCB 114. Fewer POPs were found in the muscle samples, but were similar in the order of prevalence to that of the blubber: p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, nonachlor III, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 138, and PCB 105. Besides differences in toxicant concentrations reported between the muscle and blubber, we found differences in POP levels according to age class and suggest that differences in blubber storage and/or mobilization of lipids result in age class differences in POPs. To our knowledge, such ontogenetic associations are novel. Importantly, data from this study suggest that p,p'-DDT is becoming less prevalent temporally, resulting in an increased proportion of its metabolite p,p'-DDE in the tissues of this top predator. In addition, this study is among the first to identify a PBDE congener in Weddell seals near the McMurdo Station. This may provide evidence of increased PBDE transport and encroachment in Antarctic wildlife.

  1. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cristofanelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and equivalent black carbon (BC at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV, part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy. For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007–June 2009, have been analyzed and correlated with the outputs of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppb, 122 ± 7 ppb and 213 ± 34 ng m−3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p < 95%, with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO.

    According to FLEXPART outputs, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracers only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five "representative" events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local, source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from −0.22 to 0.71 and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m−3 ppb−1 were observed.

    CO contributions related with anthropogenic emissions (COant contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May–September for CO, 19% (in May–September for O3 and 32% (in January–April for BC. During May–September, the analysis of the correlation

  2. Design and Implementation of a Consolidated Airfield at McMurdo, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    August) WO Whiteout WWTP Waste Water Treatment Plant ERDC/CRREL TR-14-22 xi Unit Conversion Factors Multiply By To Obtain bars 100 kilopascals...of concepts—treating the waste at the waste water treatment plant ( WWTP ) in McMurdo and on-site incineration—at Pega- sus during the three summer...To treat the wastewater using the WWTP in McMurdo, the waste needs to be transported 16.5 miles—14.5 miles on snow roads—back to the plant in

  3. Patterns in Seismicity at Mt St Helens and Mt Unzen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Cyclic behaviour on a range of timescales is a well-documented feature of many dome-forming volcanoes. Previous work on Soufrière Hills volcano (Montserrat) and Volcán de Colima (Mexico) revealed broad-scale similarities in behaviour implying the potential to develop general physical models of sub-surface processes [1]. Using volcano-seismic data from Mt St Helens (USA) and Mt Unzen (Japan) this study explores parallels in long-term behaviour of seismicity at two dome-forming systems. Within the last twenty years both systems underwent extended dome-forming episodes accompanied by large Vulcanian explosions or dome collapses. This study uses a suite of quantitative and analytical techniques which can highlight differences or similarities in volcano seismic behaviour, and compare the behaviour to changes in activity during the eruptive episodes. Seismic events were automatically detected and characterized on a single short-period seismometer station located 1.5km from the 2004-2008 vent at Mt St Helens. A total of 714 826 individual events were identified from continuous recording of seismic data from 22 October 2004 to 28 February 2006 (average 60.2 events per hour) using a short-term/long-term average algorithm. An equivalent count will be produced from seismometer recordings over the later stages of the 1991-1995 eruption at MT Unzen. The event count time-series from Mt St Helens is then analysed using Multi-taper Method and the Short-Term Fourier Transform to explore temporal variations in activity. Preliminary analysis of seismicity from Mt St Helens suggests cyclic behaviour of subannual timescale, similar to that described at Volcán de Colima and Soufrière Hills volcano [1]. Frequency Index and waveform correlation tools will be implemented to analyse changes in the frequency content of the seismicity and to explore their relations to different phases of activity at the volcano. A single station approach is used to gain a fine-scale view of variations in

  4. Welcome to Mt. Huangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The newly developed tourist city of Huangshan possesses the extremely beautiful natural scenery of Mt. Huangshan, as well as the splendid culture of its 2,300-year history, providing marvelous enjoyment for both domestic and foreign tourists. The scenery in Mt. Huangshan is lovely all year round, with its "four unique views"—the rocks, the pine trees, the sea of clouds and the hot springs. In the areas around Mt. Huangshan, people can see folk customs as well as ancient architecture in the form of bridges, residences, arch towers, streets and ancestral halls.

  5. Flow Control and Design Assessment for Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    discontinuous and highly permeable , our estimate is that the weir will most likely fail by breaking apart instead of overturning. Thus, the sliding or shearing...sheet o One 12 × 9 ft sheet o One 20 × 36 in. sheet • Two spruce 2 × 8 in. rough sawn 2 ft planks • Nails to fasten planks together Rock weir...Knoxville 2003). • A flow net consisting of a piece of wood (two 2 × 8 in. nailed togeth- er edge to edge) with holes drilled in it and geotextile

  6. Construction, Maintenance, and Operation of a Glacial Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    the glacial ice which would even- tually lead to the Pegasus runway. We regret that, because of his untimely death, he did not have the opportunity... lineal meter of Additionally, operators can remain in visual con- actual cutting edge (50 hp per lineal ft) to propel. tact with each other in case of a

  7. Vehicle Impact Testing of Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    including the im- portance of the tire and suspension components, on preserving satisfacto- ry snow-road surfaces through the melt season. DISCLAIMER: The...in kilo- grams force, kgf). The hardness reading is calculated from the number of hammer blows (drops) required to penetrate a measured distance...Clegg Impact Value (CIV). Although the fourth drop CIV reading is usually used for soil-strength calculations , we used an average of the third

  8. Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil ...best management practices and lessons learned for sustained elimination of erosion and for reduced drainage-system maintenance . DISCLAIMER: The...logistical guidance and technical supervision were pro- vided by Margaret Knuth (program manager), NSF-OPP, U.S. Antarctic Program. The work was

  9. Preliminary Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedure for Drainage and Erosion Control at McMurdo Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    NSF National Science Foundation O&M Operations and Maintenance PAH Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PLR Division of Polar Programs SOP Standard...merges downstream into WQB. Sub-basin 5 drains the area around the dorm, along the road towards the bay, and below the Wa- ter Treatment Plant . Sub...included heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs ), total hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Sources of these contaminants are

  10. Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 7- 1 Engineering for Polar Operations , Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for...online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Engineering for Polar Operations , Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) ERDC/CRREL TR-17-1...Antarctic Infrastructure and Logistics Arlington, VA 22230 Under Engineering for Polar Operations , Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) EP-ANT-15-04

  11. Evaluation of a New SnowPaver at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    surrounding airfields. However, during warm spells , deterio- rating road conditions can seriously limit payloads for all types of vehicles. The Cold Regions...SnowPaver is great at leveling and packing down moist snow like this. However, when it is wet like this, sometimes the snow seems to stick to the...drift until the wall is “feathered” out by a Goose or otherwise dealt with (i.e., track-packing along the flag line, etc.). • Wet snow, annually seen

  12. Waste Water Handling Proof of Concepts at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    2-Chlorotoluene Diisopropyl ether trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 2-Hexanone Ethyl acetate Trichloroethene 4-Ethyltoluene Ethylbenzene...Trichlorofluoromethane 4-Methyl-2-pentanone Ethyl tert-butyl ether Trichlorotrifluoroethane Acetone Heptane Vinyl acetate Acetonitrile Hexachlorobutadiene Vinyl... production at the runway was limited before the start of these projects and was estimated to determine proper sizing of the two methods used. During

  13. Inland diatoms from the McMurdo Dry Valleys and James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.M.M.; Spaulding, S.A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Van De Vijver, B.; Kopalova, K.; Lubinski, D.; Hall, B.; Whittaker, T.

    2008-01-01

    Diatom taxa present in the inland streams and lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and James Ross Island, Antarctica, are presented in this paper. A total of nine taxa are illustrated, with descriptions of four new species (Luticola austroatlantica sp. nov., Luticola dolia sp. nov., Luticola laeta sp. nov., Muelleria supra sp. nov.). In the perennially ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, diatoms are confined to benthic mats within the photic zone. In streams, diatoms are attached to benthic surfaces and within the microbial mat matrix. One species, L. austroatlantica, is found on James Ross Island, of the southern Atlantic archipelago, and the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The McMurdo Dry Valley populations are at the lower range of the size spectrum for the species. Streams flow for 6-10 weeks during the austral summer, when temperatures and solar radiation allow glacial ice to melt. The diatom flora of the region is characterized by species assemblages favored under harsh conditions, with naviculoid taxa as the dominant group and several major diatom groups conspicuously absent. ?? 2008 NRC.

  14. Assessment of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in Weddell seal tissue (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M. [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Noren, Shawn R. [Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Usenko, Sascha, E-mail: Sascha_Usenko@baylor.edu [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Davis, Jay [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Washington Fish and Wildlife Office, Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Kanatous, Shane B. [Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1878 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Muscle samples were collected from pup, juvenile and adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2006. Blubber samples were collected from juvenile and adult seals. Samples were analyzed for emerging and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including current and historic-use organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Of the 41 target analytes, 28 contaminants were recovered from the Weddell seal blubber, in this order of prevalence: p,p Prime -DDE, p,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 153, PCB 138, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, nonachlor III, PCB 187, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, PCB 118, PBDE 47, PCB 156, PCB 149, PCB 180, PCB 101, PCB 170, PCB 105, o,p Prime -DDT, PCB 99, trans-chlordane, PCB 157, PCB 167, PCB 189, and PCB 114. Fewer POPs were found in the muscle samples, but were similar in the order of prevalence to that of the blubber: p,p Prime -DDE, o,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, nonachlor III, oxychlordane, p,p Prime -DDT, dieldrin, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 138, and PCB 105. Besides differences in toxicant concentrations reported between the muscle and blubber, we found differences in POP levels according to age class and suggest that differences in blubber storage and/or mobilization of lipids result in age class differences in POPs. To our knowledge, such ontogenetic associations are novel. Importantly, data from this study suggest that p,p Prime -DDT is becoming less prevalent temporally, resulting in an increased proportion of its metabolite p,p Prime -DDE in the tissues of this top predator. In addition, this study is among the first to identify a PBDE congener in Weddell seals near the McMurdo Station. This may provide evidence of increased PBDE transport and encroachment in Antarctic wildlife. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE measuring in Weddell seal blubber. Black

  15. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  16. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  17. Neogene sea surface temperature reconstructions from the Southern McMurdo Sound and the McMurdo Ice Shelf (ANDRILL Program, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, Francesca; Willmott, Veronica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Florindo, Fabio; Harwood, David; Naish, Tim; Powell, Ross

    2010-05-01

    During the austral summers 2006 and 2007 the ANtarctic DRILLing Program (ANDRILL) drilled two cores, each recovering more than 1000m of sediment from below the McMurdo Ice-Shelf (MIS, AND-1B), and sea-ice in Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS, AND-2A), respectively, revealing new information about Neogene Antarctic cryosphere evolution. Core AND-1B was drilled in a more distal location than core AND-2A. With the aim of obtaining important information for the understanding of the history of Antarctic climate and environment during selected interval of the Neogene, we applied novel organic geochemistry proxies such as TEX86 (Tetra Ether IndeX of lipids with 86 carbon atoms) using a new calibration equation specifically developed for polar areas and based on 116 surface sediment samples collected from polar oceans (Kim et al., subm.), and BIT (Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether), to derive absolute (sea surface) temperature values and to evaluate the relative contribution of soil organic matter versus marine organic matter, respectively. We will present the state-of-the-art of the methodology applied, discussing its advantages and limitations, and the results so far obtained from the analysis of 60 samples from core AND-2A covering the Miocene Climatic Optimum (and the Mid-late Miocene transition) and of 20 pilot samples from core AND-1B covering the late Pliocene.

  18. Bruce Medalists at the Mt. Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenn, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The institution which succeeded the Mt. Wilson Station of Yerkes Observatory in 1904 has had six names and three sites. From 1948-1980 it was united with Caltech's Palomar Observatory, and since then its main observatory has been in Chile, though still headquartered on Santa Barbara Street in Pasadena. For more than half of the twentieth century it was the leading observatory in the world. One bit of evidence for this is the amazing number of its staff members awarded the Bruce Medal. The Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific has been awarded for lifetime contributions to astronomy since 1898. It is an international award. It wasn't until 1963 that the number of medalists who had worked primarily in the United States reached half the total. Yet fourteen of the first 87 medalists spent most of their careers at Mt. Wilson, including the period when it was Mt. Wilson and Palomar, and another three were Caltech observers who used the telescopes of the jointly operated observatory. Several more medalists made substantial use of the telescopes on Mt. Wilson and Palomar Mountain. We will discuss highlights of the careers of a number of these distinguished astronomers: directors George Ellery Hale, Walter Adams, Ira Bowen, and Horace Babcock; solar observer and satellite discoverer Seth Nicholson; instrument builder Harold Babcock; galactic and cosmological observers Frederick Seares, Edwin Hubble, Walter Baade, Rudolph Minkowski, and Allan Sandage; and spectroscopists Paul Merrill, Alfred Joy, Olin Wilson, Jesse Greenstein, Maarten Schmidt, and Wallace Sargent. We will touch briefly on others who used Mt. Wilson and/or Palomar, including Harlow Shapley, Joel Stebbins, Charlotte Moore Sitterly, Donald Osterbrock, and Albert Whitford.

  19. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  1. Viable microbes in ice: Application of molecular assays to McMurdo Dry Valley lake ice communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieser, M.; Nocker, A.; Priscu, J.C.; Foreman, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The permanent ice covers of the McMurdo Dry Valley lakes, Antarctica, are colonized by a diverse microbial assemblage. We collected ice cores from Lakes Fryxell, Hoare and Bonney. Propidium monoazide (PMA) was used in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophores

  2. Viable microbes in ice: Application of molecular assays to McMurdo Dry Valley lake ice communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieser, M.; Nocker, A.; Priscu, J.C.; Foreman, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The permanent ice covers of the McMurdo Dry Valley lakes, Antarctica, are colonized by a diverse microbial assemblage. We collected ice cores from Lakes Fryxell, Hoare and Bonney. Propidium monoazide (PMA) was used in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophores

  3. Differences in Arctic and Antarctic PSC occurrence as observed by lidar in Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E and McMurdo (78° S, 167° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maturilli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent of springtime Arctic ozone loss does not reach Antarctic ``ozone hole'' dimensions because of the generally higher temperatures in the northern hemisphere vortex and consequent less polar stratospheric cloud (PSC particle surface for heterogeneous chlorine activation. Yet, with increasing greenhouse gases stratospheric temperatures are expected to further decrease. To infer if present Antarctic PSC occurrence can be applied to predict future Arctic PSC occurrence, lidar observations from McMurdo station (78° S, 167° E and NyÅlesund (79° N, 12° E have been analysed for the 9 winters between 1995 (1995/1996 and 2003 (2003/2004. Although the statistics may not completely cover the overall hemispheric PSC occurrence, the observations are considered to represent the main synoptic cloud features as both stations are mostly situated in the centre or at the inner edge of the vortex. Since the focus is set on the occurrence frequency of solid and liquid particles, the analysis has been restricted to volcanic aerosol free conditions. In McMurdo, by far the largest part of PSC observations is associated with NAT PSCs. The observed persistent background of NAT particles and their potential ability to cause denoxification and irreversible denitrification is presumably more important to Antarctic ozone chemistry than the scarcely observed ice PSCs. Meanwhile in Ny-Ålesund, ice PSCs have never been observed, while solid NAT and liquid STS clouds both occur in large fraction. Although they are also found solely, the majority of observations reveals solid and liquid particle layers in the same profile. For the Ny-Ålesund measurements, the frequent occurrence of liquid PSC particles yields major significance in terms of ozone chemistry, as their chlorine activation rates are more efficient. The relationship between temperature, PSC formation, and denitrification is nonlinear and the McMurdo and Ny-Ålesund PSC observations imply that for

  4. MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors: A Therapeutic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiabei; Clough, Shannon J; Hutchinson, Anthony J; Adamah-Biassi, Ekue B; Popovska-Gorevski, Marina; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, or 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is synthesized and released by the pineal gland and locally in the retina following a circadian rhythm, with low levels during the day and elevated levels at night. Melatonin activates two high-affinity G protein-coupled receptors, termed MT1 and MT2, to exert beneficial actions in sleep and circadian abnormality, mood disorders, learning and memory, neuroprotection, drug abuse, and cancer. Progress in understanding the role of melatonin receptors in the modulation of sleep and circadian rhythms has led to the discovery of a novel class of melatonin agonists for treating insomnia, circadian rhythms, mood disorders, and cancer. This review describes the pharmacological properties of a slow-release melatonin preparation (i.e., Circadin®) and synthetic ligands (i.e., agomelatine, ramelteon, tasimelteon), with emphasis on identifying specific therapeutic effects mediated through MT1 and MT2 receptor activation. Discovery of selective ligands targeting the MT1 or the MT2 melatonin receptors may promote the development of novel and more efficacious therapeutic agents.

  5. Local magnitude estimate at Mt. Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maiolino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the duration magnitude MD we calculated local magnitude ML values of 288 earthquakes occurring from October 2002 to April 2003 at Mt. Etna. The analysis was computed at three digital stations of the permanent seismic network of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia of Catania, using the relationship ML = logA+alog?-b, where A is maximum half-amplitude of the horizontal component of the seismic recording measured in mm and the term «+alog?-b» takes the place of the term «-logA0» of Richter relationship. In particular, a = 0.15 for ?<200 km, b=0.16 for ?<200 km. Duration magnitude MD values, moment magnitude MW values and other local magnitude values were compared. Differences between ML and MD were obtained for the strong seismic swarms occurring on October 27, during the onset of 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption, characterized by a high earthquake rate, with very strong events (seismogram results clipped in amplitude on drum recorder trace and high level of volcanic tremor, which not permit us to estimate the duration of the earthquakes correctly. ML and MD relationships were related and therefore a new relationship for MD is proposed. Cumulative strain release calculated after the eruption using ML values is about 1.75E+06 J1/2 higher than the one calculated using MD values.

  6. Observations of turbulence beneath sea ice in southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Stevens

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The first turbulence profiler observations beneath land fast sea ice which is directly adjacent to an Antarctic ice shelf are described. The stratification in the 325 m deep water column consisted of a layer of supercooled water in the upper 40 m lying above a quasi-linearly stratified water column with a sharp step in density at mid-depth. Turbulent energy dissipation rates were on average 3×10−8 m2 s−3 with peak bin-averaged values reaching 4×10−7 m2 s−3. The local dissipation rate per unit area was estimated to be 10 m Wm−2 on average with a peak of 50 m Wm−2. These values are consistent with a moderate baroclinic response to the tides. The small-scale turbulent energetics lie on the boundary between isotropy and buoyancy-affected. This will likely influence the formation and aggregation of frazil ice crystals within the supercooled layer. The data suggest that the large crystals observed in McMurdo Sound will transition from initial growth at scales smaller than the Kolmogorov lengthscale to sizes substantially (1–2 orders of magnitude greater than the Kolmogorov scale. An estimate of the experiment-averaged vertical diffusivity of mass Kρ yields a coefficient of around 2×10−4 m2s−1 although this increased by a factor of 2 near the surface. Combining this estimate of Kρ with available observations of average and maximum currents suggests the layer of supercooled water can persist for a distance of ~250 km from the front of the McMurdo Ice Shelf.

  7. Lake Vanda: A sentinel for climate change in the McMurdo Sound Region of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castendyk, Devin N.; Obryk, Maciej K.; Leidman, Sasha Z.; Gooseff, Michael; Hawes, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Lake Vanda is a perennially ice-covered, meromictic, endorheic lake located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and an exceptional sentinel of climate change within the region. Lake levels rose 15 m over the past 68 years in response to climate-driven variability in ice-cover sublimation, meltwater production, and annual discharge of the Onyx River, the main source of water to the lake. Evidence from a new bathymetric map and water balance model combined with annual growth laminations in benthic mats suggest that the most recent filling trend began abruptly 80 years ago, in the early 1930s. This change increased lake volume by > 50%, triggered the formation of a new, upper, thermohaline convection cell, and cooled the lower convection cell by at least 2 °C and the bottom-most waters by at > 4 °C. Additionally, the depth of the deep chlorophyll a maximum rose by > 2 m, and deep-growing benthic algal mats declined while shallow benthic mats colonized freshly inundated areas. We attribute changes in hydrology to regional variations in air flow related to the strength and position of the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) pressure system which have increased the frequency of down-valley, föhn winds associated with surface air temperature warming in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The ASL has also been implicated in the recent warming of the Antarctic Peninsula, and provides a common link for climate-related change on opposite sides of the continent. If this trend persists, Lake Vanda should continue to rise and cool over the next 200 years until a new equilibrium lake level is achieved. Most likely, future lake rise will lead to isothermal conditions not conducive to thermohaline convection, resulting in a drastically different physical, biogeochemical, and biological structure than observed today.

  8. Soil Geochemical Control Over Nematode Populations in Bull Pass, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poage, M. A.; Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys occupy the largest ice-free region of Antarctica and are characterized by climatic conditions among the most extreme on Earth. Despite the harsh environmental conditions, some soils of the dry valleys host simple low-diversity ecosystems dominated by microbes and several taxa of metazoans, predominantly nematodes. Distributions, abundance, and diversity of these biota appear to be related to the highly variable soil geochemistry (pH, conductivity, nitrate, sulfate, chloride) of the dry valleys. Bull Pass is a glacially carved valley within the dry valleys. An ancient lake margin near the valley floor creates a continuous gradient spanning the full range of geochemical parameters found across the entire McMurdo Dry Valleys system. This unique setting provides the opportunity to systematically investigate the soil geochemical control on local biodiversity and establish, on the spatial scale of hundreds of meters, correlations between nematode populations and individual geochemical parameters that have application at the regional scale. We measured soil geochemistry and nematode population data from a 1500-meter transect across this ancient lake margin. There were significant negative correlations between live nematode abundance and concentrations of soil nitrate, sulfate and chloride as well as total soil salinity, consistent with recent laboratory experiments showing strong salinity inhibition of nematode survival. A logistical regression analysis based on a compilation of published datasets from across the dry valleys was designed to calculate the probably of live nematode populations occurring given a particular soil chemistry, using the dataset from the Bull Pass transect as a case study to field-test the model. Small-scale chemical and biological gradients can provide insights on the distribution of soil biota at much larger regional scales.

  9. Multibeam collection for NBP0802: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2008-01-30 to 2008-02-19, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for NBP9601: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 1996-01-28 to 1996-02-18, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for NBP0306: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2004-01-04 to 2004-01-15, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for NBP1101: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2011-01-19 to 2011-02-15, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for NBP0401: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2004-01-19 to 2004-02-17, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Observations of diurnal variations of BrO and OClO at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (78S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S.; Sanders, R. W.; Carroll, M. A.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the diurnal variations of OClO and BrO during austral spring, 1987 using long-path visible and near-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy are presented and compared to simplified model calculations. It is shown that care must be taken to compare model calculations and measurements along the line of sight of the instrument. Evening twilight observations of OClO are shown to be broadly consistent with current photochemical schemes, assuming ClO and BrO levels near 50 mb of about 0.5 ppbv and 7 pptv, respectively, throughout the observing period from late Aug. to mid-Oct. Nighttime observations of OClO obtained using the moon as a light source display evidence for growth through the night in late-Aug., but not in late-Sept. Further, the observed morning twilight OClO abundances are in agreement with model calculations in late August, but generally fall below in late September and October. Observations of BrO in mid-Sept. systematically show far greater evening twilight than morning twilight abundances.

  15. Upper-Bound Radiation Dose Assessment for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, between 1962 and 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Antarctica due to the Antarctic Treaty (Foster and Jones, 1982). During DF 77, radiological surveys were completed for the remaining buildings and... Antarctic Treaty , no radioactive waste could be disposed of in Antarctica (Foster and Jones, 1982). All radioactive waste had to be transported to the...available, the doses varied based on the Navy occupational ratings of the individuals wearing the film badges ( Antarctic Support Force (ASF), 1962-1979

  16. Sediment Volume Record of Paleogene-Neogene Transantarctic Mountains Erosion and Landscape Modification, McMurdo Sound Region, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T.; Wilson, T. J.; Henrys, S.; Speece, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The interplay of tectonics and climate is recorded in the sedimentary strata within Victoria Land Basin, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Patterns of Cenozoic sedimentation are documented from interpretation of seismic reflection profiles calibrated by drillhole data in McMurdo Sound, and these patterns provide enhanced constraints on the evolution of the coupled Transantarctic Mountains-West Antarctic Rift System and on ice sheet advance/retreat through multiple climate cycles. The research focuses on shifts from warm based to cold based ice sheets through the variable climate and ice sheet conditions that characterized the early to middle Miocene. The study seeks to test the view that cold based ice sheets in arid, polar deserts minimally erode the landscape by calculating sediment volumes for critical climatic intervals. Revised seismic mapping through McMurdo Sound has been completed, utilizing the seismic stratigraphic framework first established by Fielding et al. (2006) and new reflectors marking unconformities identified from the AND-2A core (Levy et al., 2016). Reflector age constraints are derived by tying surfaces to the Cape Roberts Project, CIROS-1, and AND-2A drillholes. Seismic facies coupled with AND-2A core provenance information provides insight into depositional mechanisms and ice sheet behavior. Seismic facies transitions occur across the major unconformity surfaces in the AND-2A core. Sediment volume calculations for subareas within McMurdo Sound where reflectors are most continuous indicate substantial decreases in preserved sediment volume between the Oligocene and Early Miocene sequences, and between the early and mid-Miocene sequences. Sediment volumes, used in combination with an ice sheet model in a backstacking procedure, provide constraints on landscape modification and further understanding of how landscapes erode under warm and cold based ice sheet regimes.

  17. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three ...

  18. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius (Italy). The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice and with external geomagnetic field. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard. Reference: Mazzarella, A., Scafetta, N., 2016. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 321, 102-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.04.026

  19. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  20. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  1. The Distribution and Identity of Edaphic Fungi in the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L. Dreesens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to earlier assumptions, molecular evidence has demonstrated the presence of diverse and localized soil bacterial communities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Meanwhile, it remains unclear whether fungal signals so far detected in Dry Valley soils using both culture-based and molecular techniques represent adapted and ecologically active biomass or spores transported by wind. Through a systematic and quantitative molecular survey, we identified significant heterogeneities in soil fungal communities across the Dry Valleys that robustly correlate with heterogeneities in soil physicochemical properties. Community fingerprinting analysis and 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer region revealed different levels of heterogeneity in fungal diversity within individual Dry Valleys and a surprising abundance of Chytridiomycota species, whereas previous studies suggested that Dry Valley soils were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Critically, we identified significant differences in fungal community composition and structure of adjacent sites with no obvious barrier to aeolian transport between them. These findings suggest that edaphic fungi of the Antarctic Dry Valleys are adapted to local environments and represent an ecologically relevant (and possibly important heterotrophic component of the ecosystem.

  2. The Distribution and Identity of Edaphic Fungi in the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesens, Lisa L.; Lee, Charles K.; Cary, S. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to earlier assumptions, molecular evidence has demonstrated the presence of diverse and localized soil bacterial communities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Meanwhile, it remains unclear whether fungal signals so far detected in Dry Valley soils using both culture-based and molecular techniques represent adapted and ecologically active biomass or spores transported by wind. Through a systematic and quantitative molecular survey, we identified significant heterogeneities in soil fungal communities across the Dry Valleys that robustly correlate with heterogeneities in soil physicochemical properties. Community fingerprinting analysis and 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer region revealed different levels of heterogeneity in fungal diversity within individual Dry Valleys and a surprising abundance of Chytridiomycota species, whereas previous studies suggested that Dry Valley soils were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Critically, we identified significant differences in fungal community composition and structure of adjacent sites with no obvious barrier to aeolian transport between them. These findings suggest that edaphic fungi of the Antarctic Dry Valleys are adapted to local environments and represent an ecologically relevant (and possibly important) heterotrophic component of the ecosystem. PMID:25079129

  3. Downhole measurements in the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R.; Williams, T.; Henrys, S.; Crosby, T.; Hansaraj, D.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive set of downhole measurements was collected in the AND-1B drillhole as part of the on-ice scientific programme defined for the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project. Geophysical logs were recorded over two operation phases and consisted of calliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, induction resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma activity, acoustic televiewer, borehole deviation, and dipmeter. In addition, two standard vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and one walk-away VSP were obtained. Radioactive logs (porosity and density) were not run because of unstable borehole conditions. Although the total depth of the hole is 1285 metres below seafloor (mbsf), the depth range for in situ measurements was limited by the length of the wireline (1018 mbsf) and by the nullification of some geophysical logs due to the presence of steel casing. A depth correction was derived to account for systematic discrepancies in depth between downhole measurements and cores; consequently, log responses can be directly compared to core properties. The resulting data are amenable to studies of cyclicity and climate, heat flux and fluid flow, and stricture and stress. When integrated with physical properties and fractures measured on the core, this information should play a significant role in addressing many of the scientific objectives of the ANDRILL programme.

  4. Evaluating MT systems with BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present BEER, an open source implementation of a machine translation evaluation metric. BEER is a metric trained for high correlation with human ranking by using learning-to-rank training methods. For evaluation of lexical accuracy it uses sub-word units (character n-grams while for measuring word order it uses hierarchical representations based on PETs (permutation trees. During the last WMT metrics tasks, BEER has shown high correlation with human judgments both on the sentence and the corpus levels. In this paper we will show how BEER can be used for (i full evaluation of MT output, (ii isolated evaluation of word order and (iii tuning MT systems.

  5. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  6. Reconciling marine and terrestrial evidence for post LGM ice sheet retreat in southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jacob T. H.; Wilson, Gary S.; Fink, David; Lilly, Kat; Levy, Richard H.; Townsend, Dougal

    2017-02-01

    Retreat of the Antarctic ice sheets since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) contributed to sea-level rise, but the location, amount, and timing of ice mass loss has been controversial. This paper presents new 10Be exposure ages from glacially transported erratics which record post LGM retreat of grounded ice in the western Ross Sea. Ice elevation in southern McMurdo Sound was ≥520 m above present day sea level on the eastern side of Mount Discovery during the LGM, and the onset of major deglaciation in the region was after 14 ka. The ice surface lowered from ∼520 to 234 m above present day sea level between 14.0 ka and 10.3 ka and from 234 m to ∼30 m between 10.3 ka and 7.4 ka. This late-glacial and Holocene deglaciation chronology from southern McMurdo Sound is consistent with other records on the margins of the Ross Embayment, and implies that the western margins of the Ross Sea Ice Sheet (RSIS) experienced most mass loss during the early to middle Holocene. These 10Be exposure ages coupled with sediment provenance define a two-stage ice flow scenario for McMurdo Sound subdividing differing reconstructions into an early and late phase. Prior to Termination I, an expanded Koettlitz Glacier flowed north and northeast between Brown Peninsula and Mount Discovery and coalesced with northward flowing ice fed from the Skelton and Mulock Glaciers. Thinning and retreat of the Koettlitz Glacier and perhaps other outlet glaciers flowing through the Royal Society Range allowed ice grounded in the Ross Sea to flow westward and northward, north of Brown Peninsula. Grounding-line recession in the Ross Sea during the late-glacial and Holocene was likely driven by Southern Ocean warming and sea-level rise from the retreat of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and the outer margins of the Antarctic ice sheets.

  7. Meteoric Be-10 from Sirius Group suggests high elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys permanently frozen since 6 Ma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickinson, Warren W.; Schiller, Martin; Ditchburn, Bob G.

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing debate concerning Neogene Antarctic climate in the McMurdo Dry Valleys relies largely on evidence from landscape evolution, glacial modeling and stratigraphy. We provide new evidence from meteoric Be for the onset of frozen, hyper-arid conditions on a high elevation (1840m......) interfluve at Table Mountain. A simple decay model for the co-occurrence of meteoric Be and illuviated clay in cores of ice-cemented glacial sediments indicates that the clays were actively migrating down from the surface in a warm climate until the system froze between 6 and 9Ma. Although this age range may...

  8. Melanesian mtDNA complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Friedlaender

    Full Text Available Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2 from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups. Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at approximately 30-50,000 years before present (YBP, and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval approximately 3,500-8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved.

  9. Glaciers Change in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Beginning of the End?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A. G.; Basagic, H. J.; Nylen, T. H.; Hoffman, M.

    2011-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest expanse of ice-free landscape in Antarctica and we report here on our efforts to integrate remote sensed measurements with ground-based measurements to synthesize glacier change in the Valleys. We have been monitoring glacier mass balance in the Valleys since 1993 and tracking changes in glacier area from historic hand-held photographs dating to Scott's first expedition in 1903, and again starting in the 1970s with the New Zealand program. From the 1950s onward we have included aerial photographs in our glacier monitoring and since the 1970s satellite imagery has been included. Within the uncertainty of the measurements, we observed little to no change in glacier area over the past 100+ years. Certainly some portions of the glacier perimeter have advanced or retreated slightly, but overall the glacier area had not changed. We note that handheld photographs of a point change on the perimeter, the most accurate because of ice flow parallel to the plane of the image, to be deceptive compared to compensating changes elsewhere around the perimeter. Annual mass balance measurements over the first decade of measurements showed the glaciers to be in balance within our measurement uncertainty with no significant trend. Since the 2002-03 season, a significant trend has emerged showing a negative mass loss. Summer rather than winter losses drive this trend. The summer losses are not due to summer air temperatures, which continue to cool or have remained cool. Instead we attribute the losses to the trend of increasing solar radiation and increased eolian sediment deposition on the glaciers, which reduces the albedo. At a few unmeasured glaciers, photographic evidence suggests sediment to cause a dramatic mass loss. The lack of observed change in glacier area from satellite imagery over the past decade despite measured mass losses is consistent with the slow time-scale response of these polar glaciers.

  10. 7Be and 210Pb radioactivity and implications on sources of surface ozone at Mt. Waliguan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiangdong; WANG Guojiang; TANG Jie; ZHANG Xiaochun; YANG Wei; H. N. Lee; WANG Changsheng

    2005-01-01

    Beryllium-7 (7Be) and lead-210 (210Pb) radioac- tivity in aerosols collected, from October 2002 to January 2004 at Mt. Waliguan, by the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Station, Qinghai Province is presented. The data were analyzed together with simultaneously measured surface ozone concentrations. We found that short time variations of 7Be and 210Pb were linked to alternations of synoptic weather around the Mt. Waliguan region. 210Pb showed the lowest concentration in summer while 7Be showed no obvious sea- sonal changes. Relatively high 7Be and 210Pb radioactivity was observed at Mt. Waliguan when compared with the ob- servations at other mountain sites in other parts of the world. Surface ozone and 7Be showed a consistent seasonal variation. Surface ozone correlated fairly well with 7Be/210Pb ratio. This suggested that vertical transport from higher altitudes of the atmosphere has predominant effects on the budget of surface ozone at Mt. Waliguan.

  11. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M > 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M > 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during day-time. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction that should also stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasin...

  12. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Adriano; Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction, which stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard.

  13. Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of Soil and Hypolithic Microbial Communities in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sean T. S.; Lacap-Bugler, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Caruso, Tancredi; Rao, Subramanya; de los Rios, Asunción; Archer, Stephen K.; Chiu, Jill M. Y.; Higgins, Colleen; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Hopkins, David W.; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are an extreme polar desert. Mineral soils support subsurface microbial communities and translucent rocks support development of hypolithic communities on ventral surfaces in soil contact. Despite significant research attention, relatively little is known about taxonomic and functional diversity or their inter-relationships. Here we report a combined diversity and functional interrogation for soil and hypoliths of the Miers Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The study employed 16S rRNA fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing combined with the GeoChip functional microarray. The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic communities were less diverse and dominated by cyanobacteria. Major differences in putative functionality were that soil communities displayed greater diversity in stress tolerance and recalcitrant substrate utilization pathways, whilst hypolithic communities supported greater diversity of nutrient limitation adaptation pathways. A relatively high level of functional redundancy in both soil and hypoliths may indicate adaptation of these communities to fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:27812351

  14. Taxonomic and functional diversity of soil and hypolithic microbial communities in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are an extreme polar desert. Mineral soils support subsurface microbial communities and translucent rocks support development of hypolithic communities on ventral surfaces in soil contact. Despite significant research attention relatively little is known about taxonomic and functional diversity or their inter-relationships. Here we report a combined diversity and functional interrogation for soil and hypoliths of the Miers Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The study employed 16S rRNA fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing combined with the GeoChip functional microarray. The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic communities were less diverse and dominated by cyanobacteria. Major differences in putative functionality were that soil communities displayed greater diversity in stress tolerance and recalcitrant substrate utilization pathways, whilst hypolithic communities supported greater diversity of nutrient limitation adaptation pathways. A relatively high level of functional redundancy in both soil and hypoliths may indicate adaptation of these communities to fluctuating environmental conditions.

  15. Integrating Knowledge Bases and Statistics in MT

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Haines, M G; Hatzivassiloglou, V; Hovy, E; Iida, M; Luk, S K; Okumura, A; Whitney, R; Yamada, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar; Haines, Matthew; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Hovy, Eduard; Iida, Masayo; Luk, Steve K.; Okumura, Akitoshi; Whitney, Richard; Yamada, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    We summarize recent machine translation (MT) research at the Information Sciences Institute of USC, and we describe its application to the development of a Japanese-English newspaper MT system. Our work aims at scaling up grammar-based, knowledge-based MT techniques. This scale-up involves the use of statistical methods, both in acquiring effective knowledge resources and in making reasonable linguistic choices in the face of knowledge gaps.

  16. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S. [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Hypocentral Relocations of the 2008 Mt. Carmel, Illinois Aftershock Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, K.; Hamburger, M. W.; Pavlis, G. L.; Horton, S. P.; Withers, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    On April 18, 2008, a moderate sized earthquake (Mw 5.2, hypocentral depth of 16 km) occurred near the Indiana-Illinois state border within 3 km of the Mt. Carmel-New Harmony fault at the northern termination of the Wabash Valley Fault System. A total of 257 aftershocks were recorded over the next month by a fourteen-station temporary network deployed by Indiana University and University of Memphis/Center of Earthquake Research and Information (CERI). The number of recorded aftershocks is greater than aftershocks recorded from previous earthquakes in the WVFS of similar magnitude within the last 50 years. The number and density of local stations allowed the generation of precise hypocentral relocations with the combination of waveform cross-correlation and joint hypocentral techniques. The relocated hypocenters indicate a well-defined near-vertical fault plane striking east-west. The fault orientation is consistent with the focal mechanism of the main shock and nearly orthogonal with respect to the trace of the neighboring Mt. Carmel-New Harmony fault. The interpreted ruptured fault orientation suggests the aftershock sequence occurred on a transfer structure at the fault termination. The structure may be related to the change in deformation styles suggested by the transition from the northeast-trending WVFS to the northwest-trending La Salle anticlinorium.

  18. The Siena Graben: combined interpretation of DES and MT soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tramacere

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The Siena Graben study area is located in Tuscany, Central Italy. The local geological structures were extensively studied in the frame of the Italian National Research Council (CNR and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC geothermal projects. Axial dipole-dipole geoelectrical soundings (DES were also performed. Recently we carried out 13 broadband magnetotelluric (MT soundings, most of which were located very close to the station sites of the mentioned DES. For six of them we made a DES-MT combined interpretation in order to put in evidence resistivity frequency dispersion effects. Indeed, four sites showed DES-MT anomalous responses, in the frequency range 1 ¸ 102 Hz, which can be properly explained as due to dispersion effects in shallow layers. Three of these anomalous sounding sites are located on the neoautochthonous clayey formation, while the fourth is located on the eastern boundary of the graben over an extensive outcrop of the «Macigno» complex. The dispersion-affected soundings are all located in the northern part of the graben, while there is no evidence of such effects in the southern part. This circumstance, together with the estimate of very low time constants of the fitting Cole-Cole dispersion model, can be tentatively explained as due to local and shallow lithological effects (clay-like membrane polarization rather than to deep geothermal effects (sulphide-like electrode polarization. Moreover, the MT soundings delineated a conductive zone in the upper crust below the resistive geoelectrical basement, located in the northern part of the graben, which appears at present difficult to interpret. Furthermore, the combined analysis of the DES and MT soundings in the same sites has allowed us to resolve one of the most intriguing ambiguities concerning the determination of the depth to the graben basement. The result is a remarkable reduction of the depth to the basement top, especially in the northern part of the

  19. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  20. MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important...

  1. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Emiko [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yana, Ikuo [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Japan Development Center, Osaka 540-8645 (Japan); Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuura, Nariaki, E-mail: Matsuura@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-03-05

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  2. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillippines - Perspective View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This perspective view looking toward the east shows the western flank of the volcano where most of these pyroclastic flows were deposited.This debris consists of ash and boulders that mix with water after heavy rains to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.The topographic data were collected by NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument on November 29, 1996. Colors are from the French SPOT satellite imaging data in both visible and infrared wavelengths collected in February 1996. Areas of vegetation appear red and areas without vegetation appear light blue. River valleys radiate out from the summit of the volcano (upper center). Since the eruption, lahars have stripped these valleys of any vegetation. The Pasig-Potrero River flows to the northeast off the summit in the upper right of the image.Scientists have been using airborne radar data collected by the AIRSAR instrument in their studies of the aftereffects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. AIRSAR collected imaging radar data over the volcano during a mission to the Pacific Rim region in late 1996 and on a follow-up mission to the area in late 2000. These data sets along with

  3. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audinot, Valérie; Bonnaud, Anne; Grandcolas, Line; Rodriguez, Marianne; Nagel, Nadine; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Balik, Ales; Messager, Sophie; Hazlerigg, David G; Barrett, Perry; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A

    2008-05-15

    In order to interpret the effects of melatonin ligands in rats, we need to determine their activity at the receptor subtype level in the corresponding species. Thus, the rat melatonin rMT(1) receptor was cloned using DNA fragments for exon 1 and 2 amplified from rat genomic DNA followed by screening of a rat genomic library for the full length exon sequences. The rat rMT(2) receptor subtype was cloned in a similar manner with the exception of exon 1 which was identified by screening a rat genomic library with exon 1 of the human hMT(2) receptor. The coding region of these receptors translates proteins of 353 and 364 amino acids, respectively, for rMT(1) and rMT(2). A 55% homology was observed between both rat isoforms. The entire contiguous rat MT(1) and MT(2) receptor coding sequences were cloned, stably expressed in CHO cells and characterized in binding assay using 2-[(125)I]-Iodomelatonin. The dissociation constants (K(d)) for rMT(1) and rMT(2) were 42 and 130 pM, respectively. Chemically diverse compounds previously characterized at human MT(1) and MT(2) receptors were evaluated at rMT(1) and rMT(2) receptors, for their binding affinity and functionality in [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding assay. Some, but not all, compounds shared a similar binding affinity and functionality at both rat and human corresponding subtypes. A different pharmacological profile of the MT(1) subtype has also been observed previously between human and ovine species. These in vitro results obtained with the rat melatonin receptors are thus of importance to understand the physiological roles of each subtype in animal models.

  4. Atmospheric anomalies over Mt.Etna using GPS signal delays and tomography of radio wave velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Puglisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent topography of Mt. Etna, the use of satellite geodetic techniques may significantly suffer from atmospheric heterogeneities. This problem mainly affects the DInSAR technique. To overcome these drawbacks the present study attempts to make headway in measuring and interpreting atmospheric anomalies. We used the GAMIT software to obtain the ZTD (Zenith Total Delay values for the GPS sessions performed on 1996-97, during ERS-2 passes at Mt. Etna. GAMIT software also allows to characterize the statistical behaviour of the tropospheric effects, by using residuals for each station-satellite pair, and to locate the atmospheric anomalies, present mostly at low altitudes. The attempt at using these results to produce a tomography of radio waves velocity of the troposphere suggests that the number of GPS stations used to investigate atmosphere is a critical point in such a study. The three stations are too few to invert anomalies eventually existing in the lower atmosphere. This result is a good starting point for better direct future study to verify the applicability of this tomographic technique to a geodetic network with a higher number of stations, with the aim of characterizing the lower atmosphere of Mt. Etna for a more accurate monitoring of ground deformations.

  5. Decadal Trends in Abundance, Size and Condition of Antarctic Toothfish in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; Nur, Nadav; Eastman, Joseph T.; Ballard. Grant; Parkinson, Claire L; Evans, Clive W.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    We report analyses of a dataset spanning 38 years of near-annual fishing for Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni, using a vertical setline through the fast ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2010. This constitutes one of the longest biological time series in the Southern Ocean, and certainly the longest for any fish. Fish total length, condition and catch per unit effort (CPUE) were derived from the more than 5500 fish caught. Contrary to expectation, length-frequency was dominated by fish in the upper half of the industrial catch. The discrepancy may be due to biases in the sampling capabilities of vertical (this study) versus benthic (horizontal) fishing gear (industry long lines), related to the fact that only large Antarctic toothfish (more than 100 cm TL) are neutrally buoyant and occur in the water column. Fish length and condition increased from the early 1970s to the early 1990s and then decreased, related to sea ice cover, with lags of 8 months to 5 years, and may ultimately be related to the fishery (which targets large fish) and changes in the Southern Annular Mode through effects on toothfish main prey, Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum. CPUE was constant through 2001 and then decreased dramatically, likely related to the industrial fishery, which began in 1996 and which concentrates effort over the Ross Sea slope, where tagged McMurdo fish have been found. Due to limited prey choices and, therefore, close coupling among mesopredators of the Ross Sea, Antarctic toothfish included, the fishery may be altering the trophic structure of the Ross Sea.

  6. Crevasse Extent and Lateral Shearing of the McMurdo Shear Zone, Antarctica: Implications of Ice Shelf Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzienski, L. M.; Hamilton, G. S.; Koons, P. O.; Enderlin, E. M.; Arcone, S. A.; Borstad, C.; Walker, B.

    2016-12-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the flow of inland ice towards the ocean. Understanding the controls on ice-shelf stability is critical for predicting the future evolution of the ice sheet. For the western sector of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), a potentially important region of lateral resistance is the McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ) just downstream of Minna Bluff. Here the fast-moving Ross Ice Shelf ( 450 m/yr) shears past the slower-moving McMurdo Ice Shelf ( 200 m/yr) creating a zone of intense crevassing. An analysis of several satellite image datasets including a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) extracted from stereo Worldview imagery suggests that many of these flow features originate as the RIS flows past Minna Bluff. Here we present a sensitivity analysis of RIS ice flow using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) (Larour et al. 2012) and the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). In this analysis we assess the sensitivity of model flow of RIS tributary glaciers to boundary condition perturbations within the Minna Bluff/MSZ region. Perturbations include ice shelf thickness variations as well as a scalar damage variable that quantifies the loss of load-bearing surface area due to ice shelf fracture. Field observations of surface flow and strain (GPS) and crevasse distribution and geometry (GPR)in the MSZ help constrain the model simulations. Initial results point to the importance of sub-ice shelf topography and its interaction with features such as Minna Bluff in determining stress distribution on the western RIS. Larour, E.; Seroussi, H.; Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E. 2012. Continental scale, high order, high spatial resolution, ice sheet modeling using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), Journal of Geophysical Research

  7. Seismic studies at the Mt. Hood Volcano, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Susan Molly; Weaver, Craig S.; Iyer, Hariharaiyer Mahadeva

    1979-01-01

    A sixteen station telemetered seismic network was established in the Mt. Hood, Oregon area to monitor local seismicity and to study crustal and upper mantle structure. The network was in operation 13 months, and recorded 10 local earthquakes, 25 regional events, and 300 teleseisms. A series of construction blasts were recorded and used to define an average upper crustal velocity of 5.4 km/s in the region. All local earthquakes occurred beneath Mt. Hood at shallow depths and roughly define a zone striking north-northwest beneath the mountain. The largest earthquake was a magnitude 3.4 event which had a strike-slip focal mechanism. The other events had magnitudes (ML) less than 2.0. P-wave travel time residuals from teleseismic events show a 0.5 second decrease in travel time from east to west across the Cascade Range. No travel time anomalies are associated directly with Mt. Hood.

  8. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  9. Seasonal controls on snow distribution and aerial ablation at the snow-patch and landscape scales, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Eveland, J. W.; M. N. Gooseff; Lampkin, D. J.; Barrett, J E; Takacs-Vesbach, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulated snow in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, while limited, has great ecological significance to subnivian soil environments. Though sublimation dominates the ablation process in this region, measurable increases in soil moisture and insulation from temperature extremes provide more favorable conditions with respect to subnivian soil communities. While precipitation is not substantial, significant amounts of snow can accumulate, via wind transport, in topographic lees along the valley bottoms...

  10. Full-wave Ambient Noise Tomography of Mt Rainier volcano, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Ashton; Shen, Yang

    2015-04-01

    Mount Rainier towers over the landscape of western Washington (USA), ranking with Fuji-yama in Japan, Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Mt Vesuvius in Italy, as one of the great stratovolcanoes of the world. Notwithstanding its picturesque stature, Mt Rainier is potentially the most devastating stratovolcano in North America, with more than 3.5 million people living beneath is shadow in the Seattle-Tacoma area. The primary hazard posed by the volcano is in the form of highly destructive debris flows (lahars). These lahars form when water and/or melted ice erode away and entrain preexisting volcanic sediment. At Mt Rainier these flows are often initiated by sector collapse of the volcano's hydrothermally rotten flanks and compounded by Mt Rainier's extensive snow and glacial ice coverage. It is therefore imperative to ascertain the extent of the volcano's summit hydrothermal alteration, and determine areas prone to collapse. Despite being one of the sixteen volcanoes globally designated by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior as warranting detailed and focused study, Mt Rainier remains enigmatic both in terms of the shallow internal structure and the degree of summit hydrothermal alteration. We image this shallow internal structure and areas of possible summit alteration using ambient noise tomography. Our full waveform forward modeling includes high-resolution topography allowing us to accuratly account for the effects of topography on the propagation of short-period Rayleigh waves. Empirical Green's functions were extracted from 80 stations within 200 km of Mt Rainier, and compared with synthetic greens functions over multiple frequency bands from 2-28 seconds.

  11. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to... Billings, MT Billings Logan International Airport, MT (Lat. 45 48'28'' N., long. 108 32'34'' W.) That... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY...

  12. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  13. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof Volcanoes, Alaska, Following the November 3, 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. J.; McNutt, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    On November 3, 2002 a Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured segments of the Denali Fault and adjacent faults in interior Alaska providing a unique opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors 24 volcanoes with seismograph networks. We examined one station per volcano, generally the closest to the vent (typically within 5 km) unless noise, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Data for the period four weeks before to four weeks after the Mw 7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Mt. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of ten earthquakes per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity by a factor of two after the earthquake; this lasted for 15 days. Wrangell, the closest volcano to the epicenter, had a background rate of about 16 earthquakes per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 3 days after the Mw 7.9 earthquake because the large number and size of aftershocks impeded identification of local earthquakes. For the following 30 days, however, its seismicity rate dropped by a factor of two. Seismicity then remained low for an additional 4 months at Wrangell, whereas that at Veniaminof returned to normal within weeks. The seismicity at both Mt. Veniaminof and Mt. Wrangell is dominated by low-frequency volcanic events. The detection thresholds for both seismograph networks are low and stations VNNF and WANC operated normally during the time of our study, thus we infer that the changes in seismicity may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms 7.1 St.Elias earthquake of 1979. The other volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity that can be attributable to

  14. Abiotic versus biotic drivers of ocean pH variation under fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Matson

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is expected to have a major effect on the marine carbonate system over the next century, particularly in high latitude seas. Less appreciated is natural environmental variation within these systems, particularly in terms of pH, and how this natural variation may inform laboratory experiments. In this study, we deployed sensor-equipped moorings at 20 m depths at three locations in McMurdo Sound, comprising deep (bottom depth>200 m: Hut Point Peninsula and shallow environments (bottom depth ∼25 m: Cape Evans and New Harbor. Our sensors recorded high-frequency variation in pH (Hut Point and Cape Evans only, tide (Cape Evans and New Harbor, and water mass properties (temperature and salinity during spring and early summer 2011. These collective observations showed that (1 pH differed spatially both in terms of mean pH (Cape Evans: 8.009±0.015; Hut Point: 8.020±0.007 and range of pH (Cape Evans: 0.090; Hut Point: 0.036, and (2 pH was not related to the mixing of two water masses, suggesting that the observed pH variation is likely not driven by this abiotic process. Given the large daily fluctuation in pH at Cape Evans, we developed a simple mechanistic model to explore the potential for biotic processes--in this case algal photosynthesis--to increase pH by fixing carbon from the water column. For this model, we incorporated published photosynthetic parameters for the three dominant algal functional groups found at Cape Evans (benthic fleshy red macroalgae, crustose coralline algae, and sea ice algal communities to estimate oxygen produced/carbon fixed from the water column underneath fast sea ice and the resulting pH change. These results suggest that biotic processes may be a primary driver of pH variation observed under fast sea ice at Cape Evans and potentially at other shallow sites in McMurdo Sound.

  15. Abiotic versus biotic drivers of ocean pH variation under fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Paul G; Washburn, Libe; Martz, Todd R; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to have a major effect on the marine carbonate system over the next century, particularly in high latitude seas. Less appreciated is natural environmental variation within these systems, particularly in terms of pH, and how this natural variation may inform laboratory experiments. In this study, we deployed sensor-equipped moorings at 20 m depths at three locations in McMurdo Sound, comprising deep (bottom depth>200 m: Hut Point Peninsula) and shallow environments (bottom depth ∼25 m: Cape Evans and New Harbor). Our sensors recorded high-frequency variation in pH (Hut Point and Cape Evans only), tide (Cape Evans and New Harbor), and water mass properties (temperature and salinity) during spring and early summer 2011. These collective observations showed that (1) pH differed spatially both in terms of mean pH (Cape Evans: 8.009±0.015; Hut Point: 8.020±0.007) and range of pH (Cape Evans: 0.090; Hut Point: 0.036), and (2) pH was not related to the mixing of two water masses, suggesting that the observed pH variation is likely not driven by this abiotic process. Given the large daily fluctuation in pH at Cape Evans, we developed a simple mechanistic model to explore the potential for biotic processes--in this case algal photosynthesis--to increase pH by fixing carbon from the water column. For this model, we incorporated published photosynthetic parameters for the three dominant algal functional groups found at Cape Evans (benthic fleshy red macroalgae, crustose coralline algae, and sea ice algal communities) to estimate oxygen produced/carbon fixed from the water column underneath fast sea ice and the resulting pH change. These results suggest that biotic processes may be a primary driver of pH variation observed under fast sea ice at Cape Evans and potentially at other shallow sites in McMurdo Sound.

  16. Human gastroenteropancreatic expression of melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Söderquist

    Full Text Available The largest source of melatonin, according to animal studies, is the gastrointestinal (GI tract but this is not yet thoroughly characterized in humans. This study aims to map the expression of melatonin and its two receptors in human GI tract and pancreas using microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry.Gene expression data from normal intestine and pancreas and inflamed colon tissue due to ulcerative colitis were analyzed for expression of enzymes relevant for serotonin and melatonin production and their receptors. Sections from paraffin-embedded normal tissue from 42 individuals, representing the different parts of the GI tract (n=39 and pancreas (n=3 were studied with immunohistochemistry using antibodies with specificity for melatonin, MT1 and MT2 receptors and serotonin.Enzymes needed for production of melatonin are expressed in both GI tract and pancreas tissue. Strong melatonin immunoreactivity (IR was seen in enterochromaffin (EC cells partially co-localized with serotonin IR. Melatonin IR was also seen in pancreas islets. MT1 and MT2 IR were both found in the intestinal epithelium, in the submucosal and myenteric plexus, and in vessels in the GI tract as well as in pancreatic islets. MT1 and MT2 IR was strongest in the epithelium of the large intestine. In the other cell types, both MT2 gene expression and IR were generally elevated compared to MT1. Strong MT2, IR was noted in EC cells but not MT1 IR. Changes in gene expression that may result in reduced levels of melatonin were seen in relation to inflammation.Widespread gastroenteropancreatic expression of melatonin and its receptors in the GI tract and pancreas is in agreement with the multiple roles ascribed to melatonin, which include regulation of gastrointestinal motility, epithelial permeability as well as enteropancreatic cross-talk with plausible impact on metabolic control.

  17. 1971年以来珠穆朗玛峰地区气候变化%Climate change in Mt. Qomolangma region since 1971

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨续超; 张镱锂; 张玮

    2006-01-01

    Using monthly average, maximum, minimum air temperature and monthly precipitation data from 5 weather stations in Mt. Qomolangma region in China from 1971 to 2004, climatic linear trend, moving average, low-pass filter and accumulated variance analysis methods, the spatial and temporal patterns of the climatic change in this region were analyzed. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1) There is obvious ascending tendency for the interannual change of air temperature in Mt. Qomolangma region and the ascending tendency of Tingri, the highest station, is the most significant. The rate of increasing air temperature is 0.234 ℃/decade in Mt. Qomolangma region, 0.302 ℃/decade in Tingri. The air temperature increases more strongly in non-growing season. (2) Compared with China and the global average, the warming of Mt.Qomolangma region occurred early. The linear rates of temperature increase in Mt. Qomolangma region exceed those for China and the global average in the same period. This is attributed to the sensitivity of mountainous regions to climate change. (3) The southern and northern parts of Mt. Qomolangma region are quite different in precipitation changes. Stations in the northern part show increasing trends but are not statistically significant. Nyalam in the southern part shows a decreasing trend and the sudden decreasing of precipitation occurred in the early 1990s. (4) Compared with the previous studies, we find that the warming of Mt. Qomolangma high-elevation region is most significant in China in the same period. The highest automatic meteorological comprehensive observation station in the world set up at the base camp of Mt. Qomolangma with a height of 5032 m a.s.l will play an important role in monitoring the global climate change.

  18. Meteoric Be-10 from Sirius Group suggests high elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys permanently frozen since 6 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Warren W.; Schiller, Martin; Ditchburn, Bob G.; Graham, Ian J.; Zondervan, Albert

    2012-11-01

    A long-standing debate concerning Neogene Antarctic climate in the McMurdo Dry Valleys relies largely on evidence from landscape evolution, glacial modeling and stratigraphy. We provide new evidence from meteoric 10Be for the onset of frozen, hyper-arid conditions on a high elevation (1840 m) interfluve at Table Mountain. A simple decay model for the co-occurrence of meteoric 10Be and illuviated clay in cores of ice-cemented glacial sediments indicates that the clays were actively migrating down from the surface in a warm climate until the system froze between 6 and 9 Ma. Although this age range may be sensitive to possible interference by in situ produced 10Be, the implied minimum age of 6 Ma for the Sirius Group indicates that the Dry Valleys were permanently frozen down to this elevation at this time. The model also suggests denudation rates of 1-6 cm Myr-1 since freezing. These data provide an independent test of glacial-stratigraphic evidence used to determine Antarctic paleoclimate.

  19. Temporal variations in physical and chemical features of cryoconite holes on Canada Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew G.; Nylen, Thomas H.; Tranter, Martyn; Bagshaw, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    Cryoconite holes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys are ice-lidded, thus isolating the pools of water from the atmosphere and from potential surface melt. Hourly measurements of ice and water temperature and water electrical conductivity (EC) were recorded to broadly characterize the physical and chemical changes on daily to seasonal timescales. Overall, subsurface ice/water temperatures were typically several degrees warmer than air temperatures, underscoring the importance of subsurface solar heating. At no time was surface melt observed and the holes melted from within. Detailed differences in the timing and magnitude of both temperature and EC variations during melt-out and freezeup existed between holes despite short separation distances (<1 m). We attribute these differences to small-scale changes in the optical characteristics of the ice and perhaps different efficiencies in hydrologic connections between holes. The holes melt-deepened quickly in the first half of the summer before slowing to a rate equal to the rate of surface ablation that kept hole depth constant for the remainder of the season. The relatively constant EC of the hole waters during midsummer indicates that these holes were connected to a subsurface water system that flushed the holes with fresher meltwater. The early and late season ECs are dominated by freeze-thaw effects that concentrate/dilute the solutes. We speculate that high solute concentrations imply high nutrient concentrations in early summer that may help alleviate potential stresses caused by the production of new biomass after the winter freeze.

  20. Hydraulic conductivity of active layer soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Geological legacy controls modern hillslope connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Logan M.; Levy, Joseph S.

    2017-04-01

    Spatial variability in the hydraulic and physical properties of active layer soils influences shallow groundwater flow through cold-desert hydrological systems. This study measures the saturated hydraulic conductivity and grain-size distribution of 90 soil samples from the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica-primarily from Taylor Valley-to determine what processes affect the spatial distribution of saturated hydraulic conductivity in a simple, mineral-soil-dominated natural hillslope laboratory. We find that the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the grain-size distribution of soils are organized longitudinally within Taylor Valley. Soils sampled down-valley near the coast have a higher percentage of fine-sized sediments (fine sand, silt, clay) and lower saturated hydraulic conductivities than soils collected up-valley near Taylor Glacier (1.3 × 10- 2 vs. 1.2 × 10- 1 cm/s). Soils collected mid-valley have intermediate amounts of fines and saturated hydraulic conductivity values consistent with a hydrogeologic gradient spanning the valley from high inland to low near the coast. These results suggest the organization of modern soil properties within Taylor Valley is a relict signature from past glaciations that have deposited soils of decreasing age toward the mouth of the valley, modified by fluvial activity acting along temporal and microclimate gradients.

  1. Climatic implications of reconstructed early - Mid Pliocene equilibrium-line altitudes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusic, A.G.; Prentice, M.L.; Licciardi, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Early-mid Pliocene moraines in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are more extensive than the present alpine glaciers in this region, indicating substantial climatic differences between the early-mid Pliocene and the present. To quantify this difference in the glacier-climate regime, we estimated the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) change since the early-mid Pliocene by calculating the modern ELA and reconstructing the ELAs of four alpine glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys at their early-mid Pliocene maxima. The area-altitude balance ratio method was used on modern and reconstructed early-mid Pliocene hypsometry. In Wright and Victoria Valleys, mass-balance data identify present-day ELAs of 800-1600 m a.s.l. and an average balance ratio of 1.1. The estimated ELAs of the much larger early-mid Pliocene glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys range from 600 to 950 ?? 170 m a.s.l., and thus are 250-600 ??170 m lower than modern ELAs in these valleys. The depressed ELAs during the early-mid-Pliocene most likely indicate a wetter and therefore warmer climate in the Dry Valleys during this period than previous studies have recognized.

  2. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  3. Ancient mtDNA genetic variants modulate mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Suissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplotypes, haplogroups have been demonstrated by both disease association studies and cell culture experiments, it is not clear which of the mutations within the haplogroup carry functional implications and which are "evolutionary silent hitchhikers". We set forth to study the functionality of haplogroup-defining mutations within the mtDNA transcription/replication regulatory region by in vitro transcription, hypothesizing that haplogroup-defining mutations occurring within regulatory motifs of mtDNA could affect these processes. We thus screened >2500 complete human mtDNAs representing all major populations worldwide for natural variation in experimentally established protein binding sites and regulatory regions comprising a total of 241 bp in each mtDNA. Our screen revealed 77/241 sites showing point mutations that could be divided into non-fixed (57/77, 74% and haplogroup/sub-haplogroup-defining changes (i.e., population fixed changes, 20/77, 26%. The variant defining Caucasian haplogroup J (C295T increased the binding of TFAM (Electro Mobility Shift Assay and the capacity of in vitro L-strand transcription, especially of a shorter transcript that maps immediately upstream of conserved sequence block 1 (CSB1, a region associated with RNA priming of mtDNA replication. Consistent with this finding, cybrids (i.e., cells sharing the same nuclear genetic background but differing in their mtDNA backgrounds harboring haplogroup J mtDNA had a >2 fold increase in mtDNA copy number, as compared to cybrids containing haplogroup H, with no apparent differences in steady state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts. Hence, a haplogroup J regulatory region mutation affects mtDNA replication or stability, which may partially account for the phenotypic impact of this haplogroup. Our analysis thus demonstrates, for the first time, the functional impact of particular mt

  4. 76 FR 47637 - Montana Disaster #MT-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  5. 77 FR 47907 - Montana Disaster #MT-00067

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MONTANA dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Ash Creek Fire. Incident Period: 06/25/2012 through 07/22/2012. Effective Date:...

  6. 77 FR 48198 - Montana Disaster #MT-00068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Montana dated 08/06/2012. Incident: Dahl Fire. Incident Period: 06/26/2012 through 07/06/2012. Effective Date:...

  7. The distribution of deep source rocks in the GS Sag: joint MT-gravity modeling and constrained inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ling; Hu, Zu-Zhi; Huang, Wen-Hui; Wei, Qiang; Zhang, Sheng; Meng, Cui-Xian; Ji, Lian-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The coal-bearing strata of the deep Upper Paleozoic in the GS Sag have high hydrocarbon potential. Because of the absence of seismic data, we use electromagnetic (MT) and gravity data jointly to delineate the distribution of deep targets based on well logging and geological data. First, a preliminary geological model is established by using three-dimensional (3D) MT inversion results. Second, using the formation density and gravity anomalies, the preliminary geological model is modified by interactive inversion of the gravity data. Then, we conduct MT-constrained inversion based on the modified model to obtain an optimal geological model until the deviations at all stations are minimized. Finally, the geological model and a seismic profile in the middle of the sag is analysed. We determine that the deep reflections of the seismic profile correspond to the Upper Paleozoic that reaches thickness up to 800 m. The processing of field data suggests that the joint MT-gravity modeling and constrained inversion can reduce the multiple solutions for single geophysical data and thus improve the recognition of deep formations. The MT-constrained inversion is consistent with the geological features in the seismic section. This suggests that the joint MT and gravity modeling and constrained inversion can be used to delineate deep targets in similar basins.

  8. Dosimetry of cosmic radiation in the troposphere based on the measurements at the summit of Mt. Fuji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Yajima, K.; Yoshida, S. [National Insitute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Center for Radiation Protection

    2011-07-01

    Dose rate of cosmic-ray origin neutrons (abbreviated to ''cosmic neutrons'') at aviation altitude was estimated based on the measurements at Mt. Fuji. Cosmic neutrons were measured in a facility of the Mt. Fuji Weather Station located at the summit of Mt. Fuji, the highest mountain in Japan (3776m in altitude), in the summer of 2008 and 2009. The average of 1 cm ambient dose equivalent H*(10) for two measurements was verified by numerical model simulation and then used to empirically estimate the solar force field potential (FFP). The H*(10) rates at aviation altitude estimated from the measurements at Mt. Fuji were compared to those obtained in in-flight measurements onboard a civilian aircraft flying near Mt. Fuji at the time between the two measurements at the mountain. According to the results obtained, we expect that the empirical estimation based on the measurements at Mt. Fuji will work effectively for dosimetry of cosmic radiation in troposphere. (orig.)

  9. Melatonin MT1 and MT2 Receptors in the Ram Reproductive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Arto, Marta; Aguilar, David; Gaspar-Torrubia, Elena; Gallego, Margarita; Carvajal-Serna, Melissa; Herrera-Marcos, Luis V.; Serrano-Blesa, Edith; Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A.; Casao, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Some melatonin functions in mammals are exerted through MT1 and MT2 receptors. However, there are no reports of their presence in the reproductive tract of the ram, a seasonal species. Thus, we have investigated their existence in the ram testis, epididymis, accessory glands and ductus deferens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed higher levels of m-RNA for both receptors in the testis, ampulla, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens, than in the other organs of the reproductive tract (p < 0.05). Western blot analyses showed protein bands compatible with the MT1 in the testis and cauda epididymis, and for the MT2 in the cauda epididymis and deferent duct. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed the presence of MT1 receptors in spermatogonias, spermatocytes, and spermatids, and MT2 receptors in the newly-formed spermatozoa in the testis, whereas both receptors were located in the epithelial cells of the ampulla, seminal vesicles, and ductus deferens. Indirect immunofluorescence showed significant differences in the immunolocation of both receptors in spermatozoa during their transit in the epididymis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that melatonin receptors are present in the ram reproductive tract. These results open the way for new studies on the molecular mechanism of melatonin and the biological significance of its receptors. PMID:28335493

  10. Component Testing for Modular Pier Replacement at McMurdo Station, Antarctica: Inflatable Pontoons, Gelbo Flex and Full-Scale Cold Storage/Fold Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    40 4 0 10,000 No leaks Welded -4 Vulcanized −40 4 0 10,000 No leaks ERDC/CRREL TR-14-14 8 The LMCS pontoon fabric (samples Pontoon-1 to 3...cracking or leaks in the fabric or fabric joint welds . Upon receiving the pontoon, we inflated it and determined that there were 5 leaks caused from prior...durability and strength of the pontoon fabric when tested at Antarctic temperatures by using a cold-modified Gelbo flex (ASTM F392) test. The

  11. Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads: Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 5- 1 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets...Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) ERDC/CRREL TR-15-1 January 2015 Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads Over-Sea-Ice... capacity for a single axle load of 66,000 lb; and the main beams have a minimum yield stress of 36 ksi.* The rounded ends of each girder reduce

  12. The Mt Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fisher, David; Osterberg, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August......Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August...

  13. Evaluation of Antarctic polar stratospheric clouds data obtained by ground based lidars (at Dome C, McMurdo and Dumont D'Urville) and the satellite based CALIOP lidar system versus a subset of CCMVAL-2 chemistry-climate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snels, Marcel; Fierli, Federico; de Muro, Mauro; Cagnazzo, Chiara; Cairo, Francesco; Di Liberto, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds play an important role in the ozone depletion process in polar regions and are thus strongly linked to climate changes. Long term observations are needed to monitor the presence of PSCs and to compare to climate models. The last decades PSCs in Antarctica have been observed by using the CALIOP lidar system on the CALIPSO satellite and by ground based lidars at Dumont D'Urville, McMurdo, Casey, and since 2014 at Dome C. We evaluate the Antarctic PSC observational databases of CALIPSO and the ground-based lidars of NDACC (Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) located in McMurdo and Dumont D'Urville and Dome C stations and provide a process-oriented evaluation of PSC in a subset of CCMVAL-2 chemistry-climate models. Lidar observatories have a decadal coverage, albeit with discontinuities, spanning from 1992 to today hence offering a unique database. A clear issue is the representativeness of ground-based long-term data series of the Antarctic stratosphere conditions that may limit their value in climatological studies and model evaluation. The comparison with the CALIPSO observations with a global coverage is, hence, a key issue. In turn, models can have a biased representation of the stratospheric conditions and of the PSC microphysics leading to large discrepancies in PSC occurrence and composition. Point-to-point comparison is difficult due to sparseness of the database and to intrinsic differences in spatial distribution between models and observations. However, a statistical analysis of PSC observations shows a satisfactory agreement between ground-based and satellite borne-lidar. The differences may be attributed to averaging processes for data with a bad signal to noise ratio, which tends to smear out the values of the optical parameters. Data from some Chemistry Climate models (CCMs) having provided PSC surface areas on daily basis have been evaluated using the same diagnostic type that may be derived CALIPSO (i

  14. Heat Flow and Hydrologic Characteristics at the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; Williams, Trevor; Henry, Stuart; ,; Hansaraj, Dhiresh

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) successfully drilled and cored a borehole, AND-1B, beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf and into a flexural moat basin that surrounds Ross Island. Total drilling depth reached 1285 m below seafloor (mbsf) with 98 percent core recovery for the detailed study of glacier dynamics. With the goal of obtaining complementary information regarding heat flow and permeability, which is vital to understanding the nature of marine hydrogeologic systems, a succession of three temperature logs was recorded over a five-day span to monitor the gradual thermal recovery toward equilibrium conditions. These data were extrapolated to true, undisturbed temperatures, and they define a linear geothermal gradient of 76.7 K/km from the seafloor to 647 mbsf. Bulk thermal conductivities of the sedimentary rocks were derived from empirical mixing models and density measurements performed on core, and an average value of 1.5 W/mK ± 10 percent was determined. The corresponding estimate of heat flow at this site is 115 mW/m2. This value is relatively high but is consistent with other elevated heat-flow data associated with the Erebus Volcanic Province. Information regarding the origin and frequency of pathways for subsurface fluid flow is gleaned from drillers' records, complementary geophysical logs, and core descriptions. Only two prominent permeable zones are identified and these correspond to two markedly different features within the rift basin; one is a distinct lithostratigraphic subunit consisting of a thin lava flow and the other is a heavily fractured interval within a single thick subunit.

  15. Lichen myco- and photobiont diversity and their relationships at the edge of life (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Ortiz-Álvarez, Rüdiger; Allan Green, T G; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2012-11-01

    Lichen-forming fungi are among the most diverse group of organisms in Antarctica. Being poikilohydric, lichens are able to cope with harsh environmental conditions that exclude other organisms like vascular plants. The McMurdo Dry Valleys (Victoria Land, Continental Antarctica) are a hyperarid cold desert where macroscopic life is reduced to a few lichens and bryophyte species. We investigated the diversity of lichen-forming fungi and their associated photobionts in three valleys (Garwood, Marshall, and Miers). Correct identification of lichen-forming fungi from extreme ecosystems is complicated by the presence of numerous sterile and extremely modified thalli. To overcome this problem, we used a combined approach for the identification of the species present in the area, the first involving identification by means of standard characters and the second, two DNA-based (ITS region) species delimitation methods (General Mixed Yule-Coalescent model and genetic distances). In addition, we also used ITS sequences for the identification of the photobionts associated with the mycobionts. We studied the relationships between both bionts and assessed the degree of selectivity and specificity found in those associations. We also looked for landscape level spatial patterns in these associations. The two DNA-based methods performed quite differently, but 27 species of lichen-forming fungi and five putative species of photobionts were found in the studied area. Although there was a general trend for low selectivity in the relationships, high specificity was found in some associations and differential selectivity was observed in some lichen-forming fungi. No spatial structure was detected in the distribution of photobionts in the studied area.

  16. Domain Tuning of Bilingual Lexicons for MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    vocabulary—a set of words or terms from a document that indicate the topic or primary content of the text—is nec- essary for many NLP tasks. In monolingual ...specificity impacts the accuracy of text classification (Saku- rai, 1999). In multilingual processing, appropriate translation choices cannot be made...System A statistical MT system has 3 basic components, a language model, a translation model, and a decoder. The language model is a monolingual

  17. A meteorite crater on Mt. Ararat?

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, V G

    2010-01-01

    We briefly report on a crater on the western slope of Mt.Ararat . It is located in an area closed to foreigners at an altitude around 2100m with geographic coordinates 39\\deg 47' 30"N, 44\\deg 14' 40"E. The diameter of the crater is around 60-70m, the depth is up to 15m. The origin of the crater, either of meteorite impact or volcanic, including the evaluation of its age, will need detailed studies.

  18. Novel Scalable 3-D MT Inverse Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvshinov, A. V.; Kruglyakov, M.; Geraskin, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new, robust and fast, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. As a forward modelling engine a highly-scalable solver extrEMe [1] is used. The (regularized) inversion is based on an iterative gradient-type optimization (quasi-Newton method) and exploits adjoint sources approach for fast calculation of the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT (single-site and/or inter-site) responses, and supports massive parallelization. Different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow for optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem set up. To parameterize an inverse domain a mask approach is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to high-performance clusters demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes. 1. Kruglyakov, M., A. Geraskin, A. Kuvshinov, 2016. Novel accurate and scalable 3-D MT forward solver based on a contracting integral equation method, Computers and Geosciences, in press.

  19. Modeling the Geologic History of Mt. Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, A.; Allen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gale is an approximately 155 km diameter crater located on the martian dichotomy boundary (5 deg S 138 deg E). Gale is estimated to have formed 3.8 - 3.5 Gya, in the late Noachian or early Hesperian. Mt. Sharp, at the center of Gale Crater, is a crescent shaped sedimentary mound that rises 5.2 km above the crater floor. Gale is one of the few craters that has a peak reaching higher than the rim of the crater wall. The Curiosity rover is currently fighting to find its way across a dune field at the northwest base of the mound searching for evidence of habitability. This study used orbital images and topographic data to refine models for the geologic history of Mt. Sharp by analyzing its morphological features. In addition, it assessed the possibility of a peak ring in Gale. The presence of a peak ring can offer important information to how Mt. Sharp was formed and eroded early in Gale's history.

  20. Application of remote sensing analysis and MT method for identification geothermal prospect zone in Mt. Endut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, A. M.; Permadi, A. N.; Wildan, D.; Sobirin, R.; Supriyanto

    2017-07-01

    Mount Endut is located at Banten Province, 40 km southward Rangkasbitung City, with geographic UTM position between 9261000-9274000 N and 639000-652000 E. Preliminary survey at Mt. Endut was geological and geochemical survey in 2006, resistivity survey and MT survey in 2007 with 27 measurement point. All survey conducted by Pusat Sumber Daya Geologi (PSDG). According to result of premilinary survey, Mt. Endut is dominated by quartenary volcanic rock produced by Mt. Endut, which breakthrough tertiary sediment layer. NE to SW normal fault produced surface manifestation, namely Cikawah (CKW) hot spring and Handeleum (HDL) hot spring. According to SiO2 and NaK geothermometer, subsurface temperature of Mt Endut is ranging from 162 to 180 °C. Apparent resistivity maps show that thermal manifestation areas coincide with pronounced high anomaly due to resistive intrusion bodies contrast to conductive sedimentary basements. In order to delineate permeability zone, fracture fault density (FFD) analysis from remote sensing image is carry out. FFD analysis from lansdat 7 image shows the area on westward flank of Mt. Endut have high fracture fault density (162-276 m/km2), higher than it's surrounding area and can be assume that area is weak zone and have high permeability. That's structure density anomaly coincide with low resistivity from Magnetotelluric data. Resistivity structure from Magnetotelluric data shows western flank have low permeability layer (14-27 Ohmm) with average thickness 250 m. Below this layer there is layer with higher resistivity (37-100 Ohmm) with ±1000 m depth and interpreted as shallow reservoir. Massive resistif intrusive bodies act controlled the surface manifestation, and act as boundary and bounded the geothermal system in western part of Mt. Endut.

  1. Lidar Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer After the Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser.

  2. The McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems responding to climatic events that enhance hydrologic transport across the landscape (John Dalton Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane

    2015-04-01

    While continuous monitoring of stream flow and stream temperature has been a widely used resource for some time, currently there is great potential to expand continuous monitoring to include important water quality parameters such as nutrients and dissolved organic material. In many systems distinguishing between watershed and stream ecosystem controls can be challenging, and the usefulness of such monitoring can be enhanced by application of quantitative models to interpret observed patterns. The glacial meltwater streams of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are surrounded by large expanses of patterned ground devoid of plants. In contrast, many streams have thriving cyanobacterial mats that are freeze-dried through the winter and begin photosynthesis with the onset of flow. Thus, the daily signal in terms of biogeochemical processes controlling water quality is generated within the stream. As part of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long Term Ecological Research project, we have conducted field experiments and developed coupled biogeochemical transport models for the role of hyporheic exchange in controlling weathering of major ions, microbial cycling of nitrogen species, and streams temperature regulation. We have also adapted modelling approaches from sediment transport to understand mobilization of stream biomass with increasing flows. These models are relevant to understanding the role of in-stream processes in diverse stream systems where watershed processes also contribute to observed patterns. In the future, monitored data may be directly incorporated into such process models to better understand rapid hydrologic change and their impact on water quality and aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Metallothionein (MT -I and MT-II expression are induced and cause zinc sequestration in the liver after brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Pankhurst

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Experiments with transgenic over-expressing, and null mutant mice have determined that metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I/II are protective after brain injury. MT-I/II is primarily a zinc-binding protein and it is not known how it provides neuroprotection to the injured brain or where MT-I/II acts to have its effects. MT-I/II is often expressed in the liver under stressful conditions but to date, measurement of MT-I/II expression after brain injury has focused primarily on the injured brain itself. In the present study we measured MT-I/II expression in the liver of mice after cryolesion brain injury by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with the UC1MT antibody. Displacement curves constructed using MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II(-/- mouse tissues were used to validate the ELISA. Hepatic MT-I and MT-II mRNA levels were significantly increased within 24 hours of brain injury but hepatic MT-I/II protein levels were not significantly increased until 3 days post injury (DPI and were maximal at the end of the experimental period, 7 DPI. Hepatic zinc content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and was found to decrease at 1 and 3 DPI but returned to normal by 7DPI. Zinc in the livers of MT-I/II(-/- mice did not show a return to normal at 7 DPI which suggests that after brain injury, MT-I/II is responsible for sequestering elevated levels of zinc to the liver. CONCLUSION: MT-I/II is up-regulated in the liver after brain injury and modulates the amount of zinc that is sequestered to the liver.

  4. Investigation of geothermal structures by magnetotellurics (MT): an example from the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpi, G. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy); Manzella, A. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); Fiordelisi, A. [ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    During 1999 a magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out on the southern margin of the Mt. Amiata geothermal region (Tuscany, Italy), with the aim of defining the shallow and deep electric structures related to the local geothermal reservoirs and system heat recharge. Local and remote data were collected along a SW-NE profile and processed with two different robust algorithms. After a detailed study of the EM strike, the data were inverted and two-dimensional (2D) models of electrical resistivity and impedance phase were computed. The interpretation revealed a good correlation between the features of the geothermal field and resistivity distribution at depth. In particular, a shallow conductor (0.5-4 km) detected by the MT survey shows a good correlation with the areal extension of the geothermal reservoirs. (Author)

  5. GEOBOTANICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO JAPANESE VOLCANOES: MT. FUJI AND MT. ASAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. POLI MARCHESE

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Fuji and Mt. Asama are two of the highest Japanese volcanoes. reaching 3776 and 2542 m a.s.l. respectively. The former is dormant but the latter is an active volcano. This study is based on our own unpublished data, which inc1udes a total of 152 phytosociological relevés. and on previous studies of the vegetation of both volcanoes. On the basis of the data collected al different times a geobotanical comparison between the two vo1canoes as regards their high moutain regions was made. In this region the following belts may be distinguished on both volcanoes: - a subalpinc belt, characterized on its upper zone by shrub communities with some Ericaceae, larch (Larix leptolepis, Salix reinii and other dwarf woody species; - an alpine belt, where there is scattered herbaceous vegetation, mostly dominated by Polygonum weyrichii v. alpinum. In this belt on Mt. Fuji, the following communities may be distinguished: the Arabis serrata-Polygonum alpinum community on the lowest altitudes; the Stellaria nipponica-Polygonum alpinum community and at higher altitudes a very sparse poor community characterized by Cassiope lycopodioides. In the highest region up to the summit there are moss and lichen communities only. On the southeastern side on the 1707 ash and scoria there is pioneer vegetation dominated by Cirsium purpuratum and Campanula hondoensis. On Mt. Asama the high-mountain vegetation is dominated by the Polygonum alpinum community. It occupies a narrower belt. Here the volcanic activity doesn't allow the vegetation to reach the top. In the highest region of the volcano there is a bare sterile zone. The differences found in the altitudinal distribution of vegetation on the two volcanoes can partIy be attributed to the fact that one (Mt. Fuji is dormant, while the other (Mt. Asama is active. On active volcanoes the ecological factors related to the volcanic activity have a strong influence on the vegetation and its distribution.

  6. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  7. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  8. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  9. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  10. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  11. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  12. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  13. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  14. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  15. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  16. My Pilgrimage To Mt.Khawah Gepoh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    澤仁平措

    2004-01-01

    Why ethnic Tibetans are never daunted by the hardships they suffer while making pilgrimages to sacred mountains and lakes by walking round them? I put this question to a man who had walked round the sacred Mt. Khawah Gepoh in eastern Tibet 28 times. Here is his answer: "To endure those hardships during the pilgrimages, I mean to punish myself for the sins I have committed, in order to gain freedom from anxiety and increase the virtues in my soul, my inner world." With help from some lamas, I learned by heart the words of prayer pilgrims keep uttering while walking round the sacred mountain:

  17. Carbonate rocks of Mt. Peca, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Bole

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbonate massif of Mt. Peca consists of Ladinian-Carnian Wetterstein limestone and dolomite of backreef and reef development. The backreef limestone is bedded and with intrabiomicrite, intrabiopelmicrite and loferite textures. It was deposited in shallow and quiet sedimentation environment with short periodic emergences. The reef facies is characterized by corals, algae, spongians and other reefbuilding organisms. Te larger part of the Peca limestone is slightly dolomitized, and its reef part is in addition strongly recrystallized.With respect to fossil assemblage the reef limestone is attributed to Carnian, mainly to Cordevol.

  18. The Importance of Temperature and Nitrogen Speciation on Bacterial Diversity in Stream Sediments in the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Ward, B. B.

    2006-12-01

    Once called the Valleys of the Dead, the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica have been shown to harbor life that can withstand some of the coldest, windiest, driest and extreme conditions on Earth. The Dry Valleys are often referred to as `ecosystems waiting for water' because of the rapid response of biological activity when liquid water appears. Although our understanding of life in the Valleys is progressing, there are numerous unanswered questions about how the organisms survive there. Most of the attention in this delicate ecosystem has been focused on nematodes and lake and stream algal mat communities. Microbe abundances in stream sediments not associated with mats are only an order of a magnitude lower than those found in temporal streams. Yet very little is known about the metabolic capabilities, energy demands, nutrient requirements and genomes of these organisms. In December of 2004, sediment and water quality samples were collected from 19 streams in Taylor Valley. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the sediments and 16S rRNA amplified using 8f and 926r bacterial primers. Terminal Restriction Length Polymorphism (tRFLP) analysis was used to obtain community diversity fingerprints for all stream sites. The Bonney Basin had the most diverse bacterial assemblages on the basis of such fingerprints. There was no correlation between bacterial diversity and algal mat presence or absence, indicating that bacterial diversity does not depend on mats. Statistical analysis comparing water chemistry data and diversity indicates that temperature and nitrogen speciation and concentration are important factors contributing to diversity in these oligotrophic streams. Five clone libraries were sequenced and used to determine the major bacteria present in the streams. Approximately 15% of the sequences had less than a 97% similarity to any known bacterial sequence present in GenBank, suggesting a high incidence of bacterial species unique to the Dry Valleys. This research is

  19. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    OCDS) ................................................... 077 BIRJAND 408090 8612 (OCDS) ............................................. ( 381 BUSHEHR...ALL HOURS # 2 1 0 1 0 # 0 # 1 # 1 1 CACECR-IB 080 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMM ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID...082. L@ OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SIJ44ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID: OIMB LOCATION: 32054’N, 59016’E ELEVATION (FEET): 4823 LST

  20. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel, MT; TA-W-73,381C, Livingston, MT; TA-W-73,381D, Helena, MT; Amended... applicable to TA-W-73,381 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Montana Rail Link, Inc.,...

  1. New Radioligands for Describing the Molecular Pharmacology of MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Nosjean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues.

  2. New Radioligands for Describing the Molecular Pharmacology of MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Céline; Matthey, Ulrich; Grelak, Teresa; Pedragona-Moreau, Sandrine; Hassler, Werner; Yous, Saïd; Thomas, Emmanuel; Suzenet, Franck; Folleas, Benoît; Lefoulon, François; Berthelot, Pascal; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Guillaumet, Gérald; Delagrange, Philippe; Brayer, Jean-Louis; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPγS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues. PMID:23698757

  3. On crustal movement in Mt. Qomolangma area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊勇; 王泽民; 庞尚益; 张骥; 张全德

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Qomolangma lies in the collision zone between the fringe of Eurasia plate and Indian plate. The crustal movement there is still very active so far. In the past three decades China carried out five geodetic campaigns in Mt. Qomolangma and its north vicinal area, independently or cooperatively with other countries, including triangulation, leveling, GPS positioning, atmospheric, astronomical and gravity measurements. On the basis of the observation results achieved in the campaigns the crustal movements in the area were studied and explored. A non-stationary phenomenon both in time and space of the crustal vertical movement in the area is found. There seems to be some relevance between the phenomenon of non-stationary in time and seismic episode in China. The phenomenon of non-stationary in space is possibly relevant to the no-homo- geneity of crustal medium and non-uniform absorption of terrestrial stress. The horizontal crustal movement in the area is in the direction of NEE at a speed of 6—7 cm per year, and the trend of strike slip movement is manifested evidently in the collision fringe of Indian plate and Qinghai-Xizang block.

  4. Barley metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 are localized in the grain aleurone layer and show differential zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations.

  5. Keeping mtDNA in shape between generations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Stewart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing.

  6. Keeping mtDNA in Shape between Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James B.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing. PMID:25299061

  7. The Relationship Between Snow Accumulation at Mt. Logan, Yukon, and Climate Variability in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, S.; Steig, E. J.; Roe, G.

    2004-05-01

    An ice core from Mt. Logan, Yukon, presents an opportunity to evaluate the degree to which ice core accumulation records can be interpreted as meaningful measures of interannual climate variability. Statistical analyses and comparisons with synoptic station data are used to identify the physical relationships between Mt. Logan ice core accumulation data and large scale atmospheric circulation. These analyses demonstrate that only the winters of high accumulation years have a robust connection with atmospheric circulation. There are no consistent relationships during anomalously low and average accumulation years. The wintertime of high accumulation years is associated with an enhanced trough-ridge structure at 500 hPa and in sea level pressure over the Northeast Pacific and Western Canada, consistent with increased southerly flow bringing in warmer, moister air to the region. While both storm (i.e. 2-6 days) and blocking (i.e. 15-20 days) events project onto the same climate pattern, only the big storm events give rise to the dynamical moisture convergence necessary for anomalous accumulation. Taken together these results suggest that while the Mt. Logan accumulation record is not a simple record of Pacific climate variability, anomalously high accumulation years are a reliable indicator of wintertime circulation and, in particular, of Northeast Pacific storms.

  8. Premature Infants: Perspectives on NICU-MT Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne M Standley

    2014-01-01

    Music research began in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) over 25 years ago. Initially, medical staff resisted the idea that music therapy could impact premature infant medical outcomes. Today NICU-MT is well known in the U.S. with over 300 specially trained Board Certified Music Therapists (MT-BCs), and it is evolving in international settings. Over 50 research studies in refereed journals provide evidence-based methodology for NICU-MT and document important and unique infant benefit...

  9. The wet refractivity tomography for improving the InSAR deformation measurements on Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetti, Claudia; Aranzulla, Massimo; Guglielmino, Francesco; Cannavo', Flavio; Romaniello, Vito; Briole, Pierre; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project, we carried out a study to improve the accuracy of the ground deformation monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano (Italy) by modelling of the tropospheric delays. We use GPS and multispectral satellite data to reduce the atmospheric artefacts in the SAR interferometry. Among various effects affecting interferograms, atmospheric artefacts are among the most significant and the most difficult to model. Due to the orography of Mt. Etna and the space-time variability weather conditions, it has been shown that the atmospheric heterogeneities can affect GPS and InSAR measurements at a vey high level, with extreme values of anomalies with respect to a standard model that can reach 100 mm (or 4 C-band fringes) in some cases. For these reasons the estimation of Mt. Etna atmospheric anomalies is crucial to calibrate the InSAR measurements. Nowadays the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo (INGV-OE) monitors the ground deformations at Mt. Etna with a network of 42 GPS permanent stations spread over and around the entire volcano edifice. Data collected by the GPS monitoring network have been processed by the GAMIT software, by adopting the Vienna Mapping Functions (VMF1) to improve the modelling of the tropospheric delays. A specific software has been developed in order to derive the tomographic imagery of the troposphere over Etna volcano starting from the tropospheric delays calculated by GPS in all the stations of the network. The algorithm developed has been validated by using synthetic tests. They consist in assuming different structures of atmospheric anomalies in the input data and verifying that the algorithm is able to reproduce them. The test results confirmed the capability of the software to return the simulated anomalies faithfully. With the aim of applying the tomography algorithm to a real case, we introduce the water vapour content estimated by the MODIS instrument on board of the satellites Terra

  10. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  11. Mountain Residence at Mt.Fuchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Yuan Dynasty paintings laid stress on landscape with literary interest. Poems, calligraphy and painting were consciously arranged in perfect harmony so as to form the style of mountains-and-water painting with the "scholars’ painting" as its main theme. Huang Gongwang (1269-1354) was learned. Proficient in tonality and good at calligraphy, he began to paint mountains and streams when he was in his 50s. With his magnificent,refined and elegant style, Huang Gongwang’s paintings gained important position among artists of the time. The scroll Mountain Residence at Mt. Fuchun is his most popular piece. As a paper wash painting scroll, it is divided into two sections with the previous section 31.8 cm tall and 51.4 cm long,owned by the Zhejiang Provincial Museum, and the latter section 33 cm tall and 636.9 cm long, owned by the Palace Museum in Taiwan.

  12. WPA Omnibus Award MT Wind Power Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Spangler, Manager Energy Planning and Renewables

    2012-01-30

    The objective of this grant was to further the development of Montana's vast wind resources for small, medium, and large scale benefits to Montana and the nation. This was accomplished through collaborative work with wind industry representatives, state and local governments, the agricultural community, and interested citizens. Through these efforts MT Dept Environmental Quality (DEQ) was able to identify development barriers, educate and inform citizens, as well as to participate in regional and national dialogue that will spur the development of wind resources. The scope of DEQ's wind outreach effort evolved over the course of this agreement from the development of the Montana Wind Working Group and traditional outreach efforts, to the current focus on working with the state's university system to deliver a workforce trained to enter the wind industry.

  13. Cold adaptive traits revealed by comparative genomic analysis of the eurypsychrophile Rhodococcus sp. JG3 isolated from high elevation McMurdo Dry Valley permafrost, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Raymond-Bouchard, Isabelle; Zolotarov, Yevgen; de Bethencourt, Luis; Ronholm, Jennifer; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Stromvik, Martina; Greer, Charles W; Bakermans, Corien; Whyte, Lyle

    2016-02-01

    The permafrost soils of the high elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys are the most cold, desiccating and oligotrophic on Earth. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is one of very few bacterial isolates from Antarctic Dry Valley permafrost, and displays subzero growth down to -5°C. To understand how Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is able to survive extreme permafrost conditions and be metabolically active at subzero temperatures, we sequenced its genome and compared it to the genomes of 14 mesophilic rhodococci. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possessed a higher copy number of genes for general stress response, UV protection and protection from cold shock, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. We characterized genome wide molecular adaptations to cold, and identified genes that had amino acid compositions favourable for increased flexibility and functionality at low temperatures. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possesses multiple complimentary strategies which may enable its survival in some of the harshest permafrost on Earth.

  14. Climate change on the southern slope of Mt.Qomolangma (Everest) Region in Nepal since 1971

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; ZHANG Yili; GAO Jungang; YANG Xuchao; LIU Linshan; Narendra R.KHANAL

    2013-01-01

    Based on monthly mean,maximum,and minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 10 meteorological stations on the southern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region in Nepal between 1971 and 2009,the spatial and temporal characteristics of climatic change in this region were analyzed using climatic linear trend,Sen's Slope Estimates and Mann-Kendall Test analysis methods.This paper focuses only on the southern slope and attempts to compare the results with those from the northern slope to clarify the characteristics and trends of climatic change in the Mt.Qomolangma region.The results showed that:(1) between 1971 and 2009,the annual mean temperature in the study area was 20.0℃,the rising rate of annual mean temperature was 0.25℃/10a,and the temperature increases were highly influenced by the maximum temperature in this region.On the other hand,the temperature increases on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma region were highly influenced by the minimum temperature.In 1974 and 1992,the temperature rose noticeably in February and September in the southern region when the increment passed 0.9℃.(2) Precipitation had an asymmetric distribution; between 1971 and 2009,the annual precipitation was 1729.01 mm.In this region,precipitation showed an increasing trend of 4.27mm/a,but this was not statistically significant.In addition,the increase in rainfall was mainly concentrated in the period from April to October,including the entire monsoon period (from June to September) when precipitation accounts for about 78.9% of the annual total.(3) The influence of altitude on climate warming was not clear in the southern region,whereas the trend of climate warming was obvious on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma.The annual mean precipitation in the southern region was much higher than that of the northern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region.This shows the barrier effect of the Himalayas as a whole and Mt.Qomolangma in particular.

  15. Meteorological Features at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) between 1 May and 22 July 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Aihong; REN Jiawen; QIN Xiang; JIANG Youyan

    2006-01-01

    Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), the highest mountain peak in the world, has little been studied extensively from a meteorological perspective, mostly because of the remoteness of the region and the resultant lack of meteorological data. An automatic weather station (AWS), the highest in the world, was set up on 27 April 2005 at the Ruopula Pass (6523 m asl) on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma by the team of integrated scientific expedition to Mt. Qomolangma. Here its meteorological characteristics were analyzed according to the 10-minute-averaged and 24-hour records of air temperature, relative humidity,air pressure and wind from 1 May to 22 July 2005. It is shown that at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma, these meteorological elements display very obvious diurnal variations, and the character of averaged diurnal variation is one-peak-and-one-vale for air temperature, one-vale for relative humidity, two-peak-and-two-vale for air pressure, and one-peak with day-night asymmetry for wind speed. In the 83 days,all the air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure increased with some different fluctuations,while wind speed decreased gradually and wind direction turned from north to south. The variations of relative humidity had great fluctuations and obvious local differences. Then the paper discusses the reason for the characters of diurnal and daily variations.Compared with the corresponding records in May 1960, 5-day-averaged maximums, minimums and diurnal variations of air temperature in May 2005 were apparently lower.

  16. Thermo Hot Springs: MT and Gravity observations of a producing geothermal field in Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, C.; Chapman, D. S.; Gettings, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thermo Hot Springs, an existing 10 MW geothermal resource in southern Utah, is poorly understood with little constraint on subsurface extent and capacity. In an effort to expand geothermal production, the subsurface extent of the system is being explored by gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. Since summer of 2010 we have added 108 gravity stations and 90 MT stations in the study area. Complete Bouguer anomaly shows a prominent north-south regional trend of 10 to 15 mGal amplitude which is interpreted as a large Basin-and-Range normal fault. Northeast of the hot springs there is an east-west trending gravity low of 4 mGal amplitude which is interpreted as a fault with down throw to the north. These two trends intersect adjacent to the hot spring, and are interpreted to be the structural control of the fluid flow. Preliminary results from 2-dimensional inversion models of gravity and MT profiles provide depth-to-basement values as shallow as 200 m near the hot spring and as deep as 2 km in the southwest of the study area. We believe that the low resistivities observed in the southwest indicate the existence of hot fluids and/or clay rich sediments at a thickness of more than 1.5 km overlying hot, saturated basement rock. A deep, stratigraphically hosted geothermal system could be present in the southwest and may be connected to the hot springs through a north trending, deeply penetrating fracture zone. With the addition of regional borehole data, thermal gradient wells and water chemistry we aim to constrain the extent of the geothermal system, identify its source and quantify its total production potential.

  17. Crevasse Extent and Lateral Shearing of the McMurdo Shear Zone, Antarctica, Using GPR and GPS Observations, and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzienski, L. M.; Hamilton, G. S.; Koons, P. O.; Arcone, S. A.; Ray, L.; Lever, J.; Fastook, J.; Walker, B.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-ice-shelf circulation plays a fundamental role in ice shelf mass budget. The shape of the underside of an ice shelf is important, such that the presence of basal crevasses can significantly modulate the transfer of heat at the ice-ocean interface. In situ observations of basal crevasses are challenging to obtain, but surface-based ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys can be used to determine crevasse location and orientation. Here, we use GPR methods to map the internal structures in the McMurdo Shear Zone (SZ) which marks the boundary between the Ross Ice Shelf and the slower-moving McMurdo Ice Shelf. Radar surveys with 200 MHz and 400 MHz antennas reveal the presence of crevasses both in the upper firn and within a zone of accreted marine ice at a depth of approximately 170 meters. A spatial correspondence between near-surface and basal crevasses suggests that both are formed locally by lateral shearing. A combination of three dimensional higher order and Shallow Shelf Approximation ice flow equations within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) are used to test this hypothesis. This model estimates the detailed velocity field of the SZ and is constrained by GPS-derived observations of surface motion. The distribution and orientations of surface crevasses is consistent with the gradients in velocity field predicted by the model. Though a wider range of orientation angles exists for crevasses within the basal regime, the average strike angle is consistent with firn crevassing and we conclude that the marine ice coevally fractured with the firn layer.

  18. Space station, 1959 to . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  19. Planning the improvement of a seismic network for monitoring active volcanic areas: the experience on Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A.; Scarfì, L.; Scaltrito, A.; Di Prima, S.; Rapisarda, S.

    2013-10-01

    Seismology and geodesy are generally seen as the most reliable diagnostic tools for monitoring highly active or erupting volcanoes, like Mt. Etna. From the early 1980's, seismic activity was monitored at Mt. Etna by a permanent seismic network, progressively improved in the following years. This network has been considerably enhanced since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band (40 s) sensors. Today, thanks to a configuration of 33 broad-band and 12 short-period stations, we have a good coverage of the volcanic area as well as a high quality of the collected data. In the framework of the VULCAMED project a workgroup of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia has taken on the task of developing the seismic monitoring system, through the installation of other seismic stations. The choice of optimal sites must be clearly made through a careful analysis of the geometry of the existing seismic network. In this paper, we applied the Seismic Network Evaluation through Simulation in order to evaluate the performance of the Etna Seismic Network before and after the addition of the stations in the candidate sites. The main advantage of the adopted method is that we can evaluate the improvement of the network before the actual installation of the stations. Our analysis has permitted to identify some critical issues of the current permanent seismic network related to the lack of stations in the southern sector of the volcano, which is nevertheless affected by a number of seismogenic structures. We have showed that the addition of stations at the candidate sites would greatly extend the coverage of the network to the south by significantly reducing the errors in the hypocenter parameters estimation.

  20. The mutation rate of the human mtDNA deletion mtDNA4977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Navidi, W; Tavaré, S; Dang, M H; Chomyn, A; Attardi, G; Cortopassi, G; Arnheim, N

    1996-10-01

    The human mitochondrial mutation mtDNA4977 is a 4,977-bp deletion that originates between two 13-bp direct repeats. We grew 220 colonies of cells, each from a single human cell. For each colony, we counted the number of cells and amplified the DNA by PCR to test for the presence of a deletion. To estimate the mutation fate, we used a model that describes the relationship between the mutation rate and the probability that a colony of a given size will contain no mutants, taking into account such factors as possible mitochondrial turnover and mistyping due to PCR error. We estimate that the mutation rate for mtDNA4977 in cultured human cells is 5.95 x 10(-8) per mitochondrial genome replication. This method can be applied to specific chromosomal, as well as mitochondrial, mutations.

  1. The mutation rate of the human mtDNA deletion mtDNA{sup 4977}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenkar, R. [Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, CO (United States); Navidi, W. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Tavare, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The human mitochondrial mutation mtDNA{sup 4977} is a 4,977-bp deletion that originates between two 13-bp direct repeats. We grew 220 colonies of cells, each from a single human cell. For each colony, we counted the number of cells and amplified the DNA by PCR to test for the presence of a deletion. To estimate the mutation rate, we used a model that describes the relationship between the mutation rate and the probability that a colony of a given size will contain no mutants, taking into account such factors as possible mitochondrial turnover and mistyping due to PCR error. We estimate that the mutation rate for mtDNA{sup 4977} in cultured human cells is 5.95 x 10{sup {minus}8} per mitochondrial genome replication. This method can be applied to specific chromosomal, as well as mitochondrial, mutations. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  3. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  4. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y.; Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Construct Validity of the MMPI-2 College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlow, Deanna L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L

    2004-01-01

    The construct validity of the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale was examined using 376 student clients at a university psychological clinic. A principal components analysis and correlations of Mt scale scores with clients' and therapists' ratings of symptoms and functioning showed that the Mt…

  6. SignMT: An Alternative Language Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditcharoen, Nadh; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Learning a second language is very difficult, especially, for the disabled; the disability may be a barrier to learn and to utilize information written in text form. We present the SignMT, Thai sign to Thai machine translation system, which is able to translate from Thai sign language into Thai text. In the translation process, SignMT takes into…

  7. Premature Infants: Perspectives on NICU-MT Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M Standley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Music research began in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU over 25 years ago. Initially, medical staff resisted the idea that music therapy could impact premature infant medical outcomes. Today NICU-MT is well known in the U.S. with over 300 specially trained Board Certified Music Therapists (MT-BCs, and it is evolving in international settings. Over 50 research studies in refereed journals provide evidence-based methodology for NICU-MT and document important and unique infant benefits from music Quality of medical services is evaluated by benchmarks of benefit that are also economical and efficient. NICU-MT is underutilized and improves both medical and developmental outcomes for infants while reducing medical costs. For these reasons, it is an important new benchmark of quality NICU care. It behooves the profession to describe and promulgate specialized NICU-MT treatment techniques. Because of the extreme fragility and unique needs of premature infants still undergoing fetal development, it is also timely that the music therapy profession begins to develop specialized training for clinical treatment in this area. This article offers a perspective on NICU-MT by integrating music research with developmental theory, medical treatment, and MT clinical practice. It also provides suggestions for development of the specialization of NICU-MT.

  8. Interface Symbiotic Membrane Formation in Root Nodules of Medicago truncatula: the Role of Synaptotagmins MtSyt1, MtSyt2 and MtSyt3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Aleksandr; Kulikova, Olga; Bisseling, Ton; Fedorova, Elena E.

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) are maintained and conditioned to fix atmospheric nitrogen in infected cells of legume root nodules. Rhizobia are confined to the asymmetrical protrusions of plasma membrane (PM): infection threads (IT), cell wall-free unwalled droplets and symbiosomes. These compartments rapidly increase in surface and volume due to the microsymbiont expansion, and remarkably, the membrane resources of the host cells are targeted to interface membrane quite precisely. We hypothesized that the change in the membrane tension around the expanding microsymbionts creates a vector for membrane traffic toward the symbiotic interface. To test this hypothesis, we selected calcium sensors from the group of synaptotagmins: MtSyt1, Medicago truncatula homolog of AtSYT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana known to be involved in membrane repair, and two other homologs expressed in root nodules: MtSyt2 and MtSyt3. Here we show that MtSyt1, MtSyt2, and MtSyt3 are expressed in the expanding cells of the meristem, zone of infection and proximal cell layers of zone of nitrogen fixation (MtSyt1, MtSyt3). All three GFP-tagged proteins delineate the interface membrane of IT and unwalled droplets and create a subcompartments of PM surrounding these structures. The localization of MtSyt1 by EM immunogold labeling has shown the signal on symbiosome membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To specify the role of synaptotagmins in interface membrane formation, we compared the localization of MtSyt1, MtSyt3 and exocyst subunit EXO70i, involved in the tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles and operational in tip growth. The localization of EXO70i in root nodules and arbusculated roots was strictly associated with the tips of IT and the tips of arbuscular fine branches, but the distribution of synaptotagmins on membrane subcompartments was broader and includes lateral parts of IT, the membrane of unwalled droplets as well as the symbiosomes. The double silencing of synaptotagmins

  9. Reindeer, muskoxen and mt. sheep investigations: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report discusses the station's highlights in 1932. During the year, the main construction program of the station was completed. At the College station,...

  10. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  11. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  12. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to se

  13. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  14. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  15. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  16. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  17. The Roman stational liturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mieczkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The papal stational liturgy in Rome was a particular kind of worship service from the Christian Antiquity to the XIV century. Its essential elements are four. Its always took place under the leadership of the pope or his representative. This form of liturgy was mobile: it was celebrated in different basilicas or churches of Rome. Third, the choice of church depended on the feast, liturgical seasons or commemoration being celebrated. Fourth, the stational liturgy was the urban liturgical celebration of the day. The highpoint of this system was Lent. Throughout the entire system Church of Rome manifested its own unity. The station was usually the Pope’s solemn mass in the stational church for the whole city. But on certain days in the year the Pope went in another church (collecta, from which a solemn procession was made to the stational church.

  18. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  19. Thirty years of precise gravity measurements at Mt. Vesuvius: an approach to detect underground mass movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Berrino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1982, high precision gravity measurements have been routinely carried out on Mt. Vesuvius. The gravity network consists of selected sites most of them coinciding with, or very close to, leveling benchmarks to remove the effect of the elevation changes from gravity variations. The reference station is located in Napoli, outside the volcanic area. Since 1986, absolute gravity measurements have been periodically made on a station on Mt. Vesuvius, close to a permanent gravity station established in 1987, and at the reference in Napoli. The results of the gravity measurements since 1982 are presented and discussed. Moderate gravity changes on short-time were generally observed. On long-term significant gravity changes occurred and the overall fields displayed well defined patterns. Several periods of evolution may be recognized. Gravity changes revealed by the relative surveys have been confirmed by repeated absolute measurements, which also confirmed the long-term stability of the reference site. The gravity changes over the recognized periods appear correlated with the seismic crises and with changes of the tidal parameters obtained by continuous measurements. The absence of significant ground deformation implies masses redistribution, essentially density changes without significant volume changes, such as fluids migration at the depth of the seismic foci, i.e. at a few kilometers. The fluid migration may occur through pre-existing geological structures, as also suggested by hydrological studies, and/or through new fractures generated by seismic activity. This interpretation is supported by the analyses of the spatial gravity changes overlapping the most significant and recent seismic crises.

  20. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  1. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  2. Stoichiometric expression of mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 modulates mitochondrial morphology and cristae structure via Opa1L cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungchun; Ahn, Younghee; Kang, Sung-Myung; Park, Youngjin; Jeon, You-Jin; Rho, Jong M; Kim, Sung-Woo

    2015-06-15

    Deregulation of mitochondrial heat-shock protein 40 (mtHsp40) and dysfunction of mtHsp70 are associated with mitochondrial fragmentation, suggesting that mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 may play roles in modulating mitochondrial morphology. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial fragmentation induced by mtHsp40 deregulation and mtHsp70 dysfunction remains unclear. In addition, the functional link between mitochondrial morphology change upon deregulated mtHsp40/mtHsp70 and mitochondrial function has been unexplored. Our coimmunoprecipitation and protein aggregation analysis showed that both overexpression and depletion of mtHsp40 accumulated aggregated proteins in fragmented mitochondria. Moreover, mtHsp70 loss and expression of a mtHsp70 mutant lacking the client-binding domain caused mitochondrial fragmentation. Together the data suggest that the molecular ratio of mtHsp40 to mtHsp70 is important for their chaperone function and mitochondrial morphology. Whereas mitochondrial translocation of Drp1 was not altered, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) short isoform accumulated in fragmented mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondrial fragmentation in this study results from aberration of mitochondrial inner membrane fusion. Finally, we found that fragmented mitochondria were defective in cristae development, OXPHOS, and ATP production. Taken together, our data suggest that impaired stoichiometry between mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 promotes Opa1L cleavage, leading to cristae opening, decreased OXPHOS, and triggering of mitochondrial fragmentation after reduction in their chaperone function.

  3. Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Future climate characteristics of the Mt. Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, will be governed by two superior processes: (i) global climate change and (ii) local land cover transformation. Whilst precipitation amounts remained stable throughout the last climate normals, recent studies revealed distinctly increasing air temperatures in the study region between 1973 and 2013, resulting in a gradual reduction of available moisture. In addition, climate predictions show rising temperatures over East Africa throughout the 21st century. Modifications of the local hydrological cycle resulting from land cover transformation will either favor or counteract the thus induced, increasing dryness. Considering that the local-scale climate is a key parameter for ecosystem processes and biodiversity, quantifying the driving components on the credit (precipitation, through-fall, fog) and debit side of the local-scale water balance is of outstanding (biogeo-)scientific importance. In this context, a multidisciplinary German research unit investigates the interrelationship between climate, land use and biodiversity along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. A total of 65 climate stations have been installed to record rainfall and estimate potential evaporation across different land cover types ranging from savanna (880 m a.s.l.) to the upper mountain Helichrysum sites (4,550 m a.s.l.). The associated data is used for both the area-wide interpolation of meteorological parameters and as input for satellite-based retrievals of rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an extensive field campaign employing a surface-layer scintillometer in order to gain insights into ET dynamics over different land cover types following elevational and disturbance gradients. Scintillometer measurements are available for study sites below (savanna, maize, grassland, coffee plantations) and above the forest belt (natural and disturbed ericaceous forest, Helichrysum), covering a period of 4-7 days

  4. New Discoveries Resulted from Lidar Investigation of Middle and Upper Atmosphere Temperature, Composition, Chemistry and Dynamics at McMurdo, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.; Yu, Z.; Fong, W.; Chen, C.; Huang, W.; Lu, X.; Gardner, C. S.; McDonald, A.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Vadas, S.

    2013-12-01

    The scientific motivation to explore the neutral properties of the polar middle and upper atmosphere is compelling. Human-induced changes in the Earth's climate system are one of the most challenging social and scientific issues in this century. Besides monitoring climate change, to fully explore neutral-ion coupling in the critical region between 100 and 200 km is an objective of highest priority for the upper atmosphere science community. Meteorological sources of wave energy from the lower atmosphere are responsible for producing significant variability in the upper atmosphere. Energetic particles and fields originating from the magnetosphere regularly alter the state of the ionosphere. These influences converge through the tight coupling between the ionosphere plasma and neutral thermosphere gas in the space-atmosphere interaction region (SAIR). Unfortunately measurements of the neutral thermosphere are woefully incomplete and in critical need to advance our understanding of and ability to predict the SAIR. Lidar measurements of neutral thermospheric winds, temperatures and species can enable these explorations. To help address these issues, in December 2010 we deployed an Fe Boltzmann temperature lidar to McMurdo (77.8S, 166.7E), Antarctica via collaboration between the United States Antarctic Program and Antarctica New Zealand. Since then an extensive dataset (~3000 h) has been collected by this lidar during its first 32 months of operation, leading to several important new discoveries. The McMurdo lidar campaign will continue for another five years to acquiring long-term datasets for polar geospace research. In this paper we provide a comprehensive overview of the lidar campaign and scientific results, emphasizing several new discoveries in the polar middle and upper atmosphere research. In particular, the lidar has detected neutral Fe layers reaching 170 km in altitude, and derived neutral temperature from 30 to 170 km for the first time in the world. Such

  5. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  6. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  7. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  8. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  9. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  10. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  11. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  12. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  13. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  14. Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  15. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  16. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  17. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  18. Space Station Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  19. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  20. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  1. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  2. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  3. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  4. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  5. Two-dimensional inversion of MT (magnetotelluric) data; MT ho no nijigen inversion kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Okuno, M.; Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    A program has been developed to conduct inversion analysis of two-dimensional model using MT data, accurately. For the developed program, finite element method (FEM) was applied to the section of sequential analysis. A method in which Jacobian matrix is calculated only one first time and is inversely analyzed by fixing this during the repetition, and a method in which Jacobian matrix is corrected at each repetition of inversion analysis, were compared mutually. As a result of the numerical simulation, it was revealed that the Jacobian correction method provided more stable convergence for the simple 2D model, and that the calculation time is almost same as that of the Jacobian fixation method. To confirm the applicability of this program to actually measured data, results obtained from this program were compared with those from the Schlumberger method analysis by using MT data obtained in the Hatchobara geothermal area. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the both are well coincided mutually. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Porous aerosol in degassing plumes of Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Valery; Jourdan, Olivier; Voigt, Christiane; Gayet, Jean-Francois; Chauvigne, Aurélien; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Minikin, Andreas; Klingebiel, Marcus; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Gourbeyre, Christophe; Febvre, Guy; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Frey, Wiebke; Molleker, Sergej; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-09-01

    Aerosols of the volcanic degassing plumes from Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli were probed with in situ instruments on board the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon during the contrail, volcano, and cirrus experiment CONCERT in September 2011. Aerosol properties were analyzed using angular-scattering intensities and particle size distributions measured simultaneously with the Polar Nephelometer and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer probes (FSSP series 100 and 300), respectively. Aerosols of degassing plumes are characterized by low values of the asymmetry parameter (between 0.6 and 0.75); the effective diameter was within the range of 1.5-2.8 µm and the maximal diameter was lower than 20 µm. A principal component analysis applied to the Polar Nephelometer data indicates that scattering features of volcanic aerosols of different crater origins are clearly distinctive from angular-scattering intensities of cirrus and contrails. Retrievals of aerosol properties revealed that the particles were "optically spherical" and the estimated values of the real part of the refractive index are within the interval from 1.35 to 1.38. The interpretation of these results leads to the conclusion that the degassing plume aerosols were porous with air voids. Our estimates suggest that aerosol particles contained about 18 to 35 % of air voids in terms of the total volume.

  7. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  8. LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-11-01

    LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore.

  9. Altered MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors expression in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar; de Lima, Eliangela; Amaral, Fernanda; Peres, Rafael; Cipolla-Neto, José; Amado, Débora

    2017-06-01

    Clinical and experimental findings show that melatonin may be used as an adjuvant to the treatment of epilepsy-related complications by alleviates sleep disturbances, circadian alterations and attenuates seizures alone or in combination with AEDs. In addition, it has been observed that there is a circadian component on seizures, which cause changes in circadian system and in melatonin production. Nevertheless, the dynamic changes of the melatoninergic system, especially with regard to its membrane receptors (MT1 and MT2) in the natural course of TLE remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-hour profile of MT1 and MT2 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus of rats submitted to the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model analyzing the influence of the circadian rhythm in the expression pattern during the acute, silent, and chronic phases. Melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 mRNA expression levels were increased in the hippocampus of rats few hours after SE, with MT1 returning to normal levels and MT2 reducing during the silent phase. During the chronic phase, mRNA expression levels of both receptors return to levels close to control, however, presenting a different daily profile, showing that there is a circadian change during the chronic phase. Also, during the acute and silent phase it was possible to verify MT1 label only in CA2 hippocampal region with an increased expression only in the dark period of the acute phase. The MT2 receptor was present in all hippocampal regions, however, it was reduced in the acute phase and it was found in astrocytes. In chronic animals, there is a reduction in the presence of both receptors especially in regions where there is a typical damage derived from epilepsy. Therefore, we conclude that SE induced by pilocarpine is able to change melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 protein and mRNA expression levels in the hippocampus of rats few hours after SE as well as in silent and chronic phases. Copyright © 2017

  10. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  11. Schizophrenia: maternal inheritance and heteroplasmy of mtDNA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tomoe; Arai, Makoto; Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Mayumi; Obata, Nanako; Nohara, Izumi; Oshima, Kenichi; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Okazaki, Yuji; Doi, Nagafumi; Itokawa, Masanari

    2012-01-01

    Role of mitochondrial pathology in schizophrenia has not been fully clarified. We searched for distinctive variants in mtDNA extracted from the gray matter of postmortem brains and from peripheral blood samples. We screened mtDNA region containing 5 genes encoding subunits of cytochrome c oxidase and ATPases. Polymorphisms not already reported in databases are recorded as unregistered rare variants. Four unregistered, non-synonymous rare variants were detected in 4 schizophrenic samples. Seven registered non-synonymous variants were not previously detected in non-psychotic Japanese samples registered in the mtSNP database. These variants may contribute to disease pathophysiology. In one family, compound mutations showed co-segregation with schizophrenia. MtDNA mutations could confer a risk for schizophrenia in the Japanese population, although further analyses are needed.

  12. MT Lajpatrai blow-out studies at Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    The area around the tanker MT Lajpatrai was monitored for oil pollution studies. Measurements were carried out on the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediment samples along with visual observations on oil slicks...

  13. 76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  14. Geochemical features and sources of hydrocarbons and fatty acids in soils from the McMurdo Dry Valleys in the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Genki I.; Honda, Eisuke; Sonoda, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Takemura, Tetsuo

    2010-08-01

    We studied the geochemical features and compound-specific (CS)-δ 13C of hydrocarbons and fatty acids in soil samples from the McMurdo Dry Valleys in the Antarctic to elucidate their source organisms and characteristics of their environments. Total organic carbon contents in soil samples were extremely low reflecting extremely harsh environments for organisms. Normal-alkanes ranging in carbon chain length from n-C 14 to n-C 38 with the predominance of odd-carbon numbers were found, together with n-alkenes ( n-C 23:1 to n-C 27:1). Normal-alkanoic acids ranging in carbon chain length from n-C 10 to n-C 30 with the predominance of even-carbon numbers were detected in the samples, along with small amounts of branched ( iso and anteiso) and n-alkenoic acids. CS-δ 13C values of long-chain n-alkanes ( n-C 20 to n-C 29) ranged from -30.4 to -26.6‰. CS-δ 13C values of n-alkanoic acids with short-chain carbon numbers ( n-C 14 to n-C 19) ranging from -27.7 to -21.7‰ were much higher than those of long-chain carbon numbers ( n-C 20 to n-C 30, -32.5 to -25.3‰). The geochemical features and CS-δ 13C values of long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids revealed that they are originated from lichen and/or vascular plant debris from the pre- and inter-glacial periods in this region, whereas short-chain n-alkanoic acids are come from microalgae and cyanobacterial debris. CS-δ 13C values suggest that they are derived from gymnosperms and/or C 4 plants in the cold and dry environments of the pre- and inter-glacial periods of the McMurdo Dry Valleys region.

  15. Real-Time Ionospheric Plasma Density Estimates in the Polar Cap using Simultaneous Dual Frequency Doppler Measurements at the SuperDARN McMurdo Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaleta, J.; Bristow, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    control software now allow simultaneous dual frequency measurements at the McMurdo radar. This simultaneous dual frequency capability makes it possible, for the first time, to calculate real-time spatially resolved index of refraction and velocity correction factors across the radar field of view. Selected findings from the first several months of simultaneous dual frequency operation at the McMurdo SuperDARN radar will be presented.

  16. Integrated provenance-detrital thermochronology studies in ANDRILL AND-2A drill core: first evidence of an Oligocene exhumation episode (McMurdo Sound, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zattin, M.; Talarico, F. M.; Sandroni, S.

    2009-12-01

    with AFT ages as both the methodologies give a clear indication for sources located in the southern McMurdo Sound. The compositional shifts of TAM-derived clasts suggest a dynamic behavior (waxing and waning) of the Antarctic Ice Sheets. In particular, expansions of the ice-flow lines of Skelton and Mulock glaciers into the McMurdo Sound are similar to the glaciological reconstructions for the Last Glacial Maximum and, consistently with provenance and glaciological models based on the AND-1B record, they can be interpreted as the result of West Antarctic Ice Sheet influence on provenance and dispersal of sediments in the Ross Embayment.

  17. Overview of the 2006 eruption of Mt. Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, Antonius; Beauducel, Francois; Subandriyo, Joko; Agung Nandaka, I. G. Made; Newhall, Christopher G.; Suharna; Sayudi, Dewi Sri; Suparwaka, Heru; Sunarta

    2013-07-01

    In the last part of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, Mt. Merapi in Central-Java Indonesia erupted about every 2-5 years. Most of the eruptions were low in explosivity, with VEI-3 or less. Eruptions usually involve the formation of a lava dome, either in the beginning or in the end of the eruptive episode. For the 2006 eruption, the precursory signal was first observed in the middle of the year 2005 with a decrease in EDM slope distances to points on the rim, an increase of seismicity and a possible increase of SO2 emissions. Those early events marked the beginning of a more continuous period of inflation, which led to the eruption. In total, the pre-eruption displacement of the southern rim reached at least 2.4 m toward the measuring station in Kaliurang (KAL). From late April until June 2006, a lava dome grew on the summit with a volume that gradually increased until it reached about 4.1 million m3 in 38 days. The total of erupted magma was about 5.3 million m3 dense-rock-equivalent (DRE). The dome subsequently collapsed in three steps from June 4 to June 14, leaving an open scar on its southeast side. In this paper we detail the changes of dome morphology that were monitored by taking successive photographs from similar positions. The eruption in 2006 marked a significant change in summit morphology, from west-southwestward opening during the 20th century to the currently southeast orientation. Also, an Mw 6.4 earthquake occurred on 26 May, midway through the eruption, which adds interesting questions about the relationship of the eruption and the earthquake. EDM data from 2006 and previous eruptions show that the summit remains inflated after each eruption, i.e., no significant deflation occurs following eruptions. The lack of post-eruption deflation suggests that magma remains in the shallow parts of the edifice after the eruption. As a result, the complex of summit lava domes and their intrusive roots grow with time and Merapi's rim and

  18. Pitfalls in the analysis of ancient human mtDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The retrieval of DNA from ancient human specimens is not always successful owing to DNA deterioration and contamination although it is vital to provide new insights into the genetic structure of ancient people and to reconstruct the past history. Normally, only short DNA fragments can be retrieved from the ancient specimens. How to identify the authenticity of DNA obtained and to uncover the information it contained are difficult. We employed the ancient mtDNAs reported from Central Asia (including Xinjiang, China) as an example to discern potentially extraneous DNA contamination based on the updated mtDNA phylogeny derived from mtDNA control region, coding region, as well as complete sequence information. Our results demonstrated that many mtDNAs reported are more or less problematic. Starting from a reliable mtDNA phylogeney and combining the available modern data into analysis, one can ascertain the authenticity of the ancient DNA, distinguish the potential errors in a data set, and efficiently decipher the meager information it harbored. The reappraisal of the mtDNAs with the age of more than 2000 years from Central Asia gave support to the suggestion of extensively (pre)historical gene admixture in this region.

  19. Detecting hidden volcanic explosions from Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Alaska with infrasound and ground-couples airwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Slivio; Fee, David; Haney, Matthew; Schneider, David

    2012-01-01

    In Alaska, where many active volcanoes exist without ground-based instrumentation, the use of techniques suitable for distant monitoring is pivotal. In this study we report regional-scale seismic and infrasound observations of volcanic activity at Mt. Cleveland between December 2011 and August 2012. During this period, twenty explosions were detected by infrasound sensors as far away as 1827 km from the active vent, and ground-coupled acoustic waves were recorded at seismic stations across the Aleutian Arc. Several events resulting from the explosive disruption of small lava domes within the summit crater were confirmed by analysis of satellite remote sensing data. However, many explosions eluded initial, automated, analyses of satellite data due to poor weather conditions. Infrasound and seismic monitoring provided effective means for detecting these hidden events. We present results from the implementation of automatic infrasound and seismo-acoustic eruption detection algorithms, and review the challenges of real-time volcano monitoring operations in remote regions. We also model acoustic propagation in the Northern Pacific, showing how tropospheric ducting effects allow infrasound to travel long distances across the Aleutian Arc. The successful results of our investigation provide motivation for expanded efforts in infrasound monitoring across the Aleutians and contributes to our knowledge of the number and style of vulcanian eruptions at Mt. Cleveland.

  20. The first Long Period earthquake detected in the background seismicity at Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cusano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The typical earthquakes occurring at Mt. Vesuvius are Volcano-Tectonic. On July 20, 2003, an unusual earthquake with low and narrow frequency content was detected. The seismograms presented an emergent onset and a nearly monochromatic spectrum at all stations of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia seismic network. The event was located at about 4 km b.s.l. close to the crater axis and an equivalent duration magnitude of 0.6 was estimated. The nature of this event was investigated by comparing its features with those of two typical Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes occurred inside the same source volume. We compared the spectral content calculating the spectrograms and the coda patterns using the Hilbert Transform. A Seismic Moment Tensor inversion was performed on the low frequency earthquake. The focal mechanisms for the two Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes were estimated with a classical technique and resulted compatible with the stress field acting on the volcano. Taking into account the clear differences with the typical Volcano-Tectonic events as well as the peculiarities retrieved from our analyses (monochromatic, low frequency spectral content, and sustained coda and also some geochemical observations, we classify the unusual low frequency seismic event detected at Mt. Vesuvius as Long Period earthquake and propose that its origin could be linked to a pressure drop in the deep hydrothermal system.

  1. Detection of Volcanic Plumes by GPS: the 23 November 2013 Episode on Mt. Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Aranzulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection of volcanic plumes produced during explosive eruptions is important to improve our understanding on dispersal processes and reduce risks to aviation operations. The ability of Global Position-ing System (GPS to retrieve volcanic plumes is one of the new challenges of the last years in volcanic plume detection. In this work, we analyze the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR data from 21 permanent stations of the GPS network of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, that are located on the Mt. Etna (Italy flanks. Being one of the most explosive events since 2011, the eruption of November 23, 2013 was chosen as a test-case. Results show some variations in the SNR data that can be correlated with the presence of an ash-laden plume in the atmosphere. Benefits and limitations of the method are highlighted. 

  2. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  3. The Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, R.; Hieatt, J.

    1984-11-01

    The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term experiments, as a base for planetary missions asembly, launch, and retrieval, and for loading and launching multiple satellites on an orbital transfer vehicle. Materials processing research will be carried out in the Station, as will various scientific and commercial remote sensing activities. The first operational version (1990) will require four Shuttle launches to reach an assembled mass of 70,000 kg drawing 30 kWe from solar panels and housing a crew of five. By the year 2000 the station will support 10-12 crew members in five habitat modules, will be 31 m long, will have cost $18-20 billion, and will be returning $2 billion per year. The station will be periodically reboosted to higher orbits that decay suficiently for orbiter rendezvous for supplies and assignments.

  4. Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramidis Eleftherios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the development contributions of the last two years to our Python opensource Quality Estimation tool, a tool that can function in both experiment-mode and online web-service mode. The latest version provides a new MT interface, which communicates with SMT and rule-based translation engines and supports on-the-fly sentence selection. Additionally, we present an improved Machine Learning interface allowing more efficient communication with several state-of-the-art toolkits. Additions also include a more informative training process, a Python re-implementation of QuEst baseline features, a new LM toolkit integration, an additional PCFG parser and alignments of syntactic nodes.

  5. Kinetic evidence for different mechanisms of interaction of black mamba toxins MT alpha and MT beta with muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolkkonen, M; Oras, A; Toomela, T; Karlsson, E; Järv, J; Akerman, K E

    2001-01-01

    By studying the influence of two toxins from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis on the kinetics of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from rat cerebral cortex, it was revealed that these toxins, MT alpha and MT beta, interact with the receptors via kinetically distinct mechanisms. MT beta bound to receptors in a one-step, readily reversible process with the dissociation constant K(d)=5.3 microM. The binding mechanism of MTalpha was more complex, involving at least two consecutive steps. A fast receptor-toxin complex formation (K(T)=3.8 microM) was followed by a slow process of isomerisation of this complex (k(i)=1.8 x 10(-2) s(-1), half-time 39 s). A similar two-step interaction mechanism has been established for a related toxin, MT2 from the green mamba D. angusticeps (K(T)=1.4 microM, k(i)=8.3 x 10(-4) s(-1), half-time 840 s). The slow isomerisation process delays the effect of MT alpha and MT2, but increases their apparent potency compared to toxins unable to induce the isomerisation process.

  6. Microbial Community Responses to Increased Water and Organic Matter in the Arid Soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Buelow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are an extreme polar desert, inhabited exclusively by microscopic taxa. This region is on the threshold of anticipated climate change, with glacial melt, permafrost thaw, and the melting of massive buried ice increasing liquid water availability and mobilizing soil nutrients. Experimental water and organic matter (OM amendments were applied to investigate how these climate change effects may impact the soil communities. To identify active taxa and their functions, total community RNA transcripts were sequenced and annotated, and amended soils were compared with unamended control soils using differential abundance and expression analyses. Overall, taxonomic diversity declined with amendments of water and organic matter. The domain Bacteria increased with both amendments while Eukaryota declined from 38% of all taxa in control soils to 8% and 11% in water and OM amended soils, respectively. Among bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria (59% dominated water-amended soils and Firmicutes (45% dominated OM amended soils. Three bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes were primarily responsible for the observed positive functional responses, while eukaryotic taxa experienced the majority (27 of 34 of significant transcript losses. These results indicated that as climate changes in this region, a replacement of endemic taxa adapted to dry, oligotrophic conditions by generalist, copiotrophic taxa is likely.

  7. A Sr-Nd-Hf isotope characterization of dust source areas in Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakowski, Molly A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Delmonte, Barbara; Baroni, Carlo; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Sims, Kenneth W. W.

    2016-06-01

    Determining the geographical provenance of dust provides crucial insight into the global dust cycle. For the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), the importance of Southern hemisphere potential dust sources has been thoroughly investigated using radiogenic isotopes, whereas proximal dust source areas located on the periphery of the ice sheet remain poorly documented from a geochemical standpoint. In this work, we expand the existing isotopic (Srsbnd Nd) catalogue of dust and sand-sized sediments from Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector, and incorporate Hf isotopic data to place additional constraints on dust source identification. The isotopic field for materials considered in this study is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.703 to 0.783, εNd between -12.01 and 6.36, and εHf from -16.77 to 6.89. As reported in previous works, the data reveal close relationships between Antarctic sediments and distinct parent lithologies; in addition, our findings emphasize the background presence of very fine dusts originating from dominant global sources and regional volcanic activity as barriers to direct source-to-sink comparison of isotopic signatures. Thus, geochemical characterizations of dust sources to the Antarctic ice sheet involving multiple size fractions, including coarser-grained particles more susceptible to short-range transport, can help us to rule out global sources of dust when examining local sediment cores and ice cores.

  8. Ground surface temperature and humidity, ground temperature cycles and the ice table depths in University Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David A.; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne; Davila, Alfonso; McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-11-01

    In the upper McMurdo Dry Valleys, 90% of the measured ice table depths range from 0 to 80 cm; however, numerical models predict that the ice table is not in equilibrium with current climate conditions and should be deeper than measured. This study explored the effects of boundary conditions (air versus ground surface temperature and humidity), ground temperature cycles, and their diminishing amplitude with depth and advective flows (Darcy flow and wind pumping) on water vapor fluxes in soils and ice table depths using the REGO vapor diffusion model. We conducted a series of numerical experiments that illustrated different hypothetical scenarios and estimated the water vapor flux and ice table depth using the conditions in University Valley, a small high elevation valley. In situ measurements showed that while the mean annual ground surface temperature approximates that in the air, the mean annual ground surface relative humidity (>85%ice) was significantly higher than in the atmosphere ( 50%ice). When ground surface temperature and humidity were used as boundary conditions, along with damping diurnal and annual temperature cycles within the sandy soil, REGO predicted that measured ice table depths in the valley were in equilibrium with contemporary conditions. Based on model results, a dry soil column can become saturated with ice within centuries. Overall, the results from the new soil data and modeling have implications regarding the factors and boundary conditions that affect the stability of ground ice in cold and hyperarid regions where liquid water is rare.

  9. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  10. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  11. The Formation and Erosion History of Mt. Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Dapremont, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity rover is exploring 155 km diameter Gale crater and Mt. Sharp, Gale's 5 km high central mound (Fig. 1). This study addresses the formation and erosion history of Mt. Sharp. Gale lies on the topographic dichotomy between the southern highlands and the northern plains - a drop of over 2 km [1,2]. Altitude differences between the north and south rim reflect this regional slope, as do altitude differences between the deep annulus north of Mt. Sharp and the southern crater floor. Orbiter and rover images demonstrate that most exposed areas on Mt. Sharp consist of thin, sub-parallel units interpreted as sedimentary layers [3]. Gale is typical of the 50 large martian craters that have been totally or partially filled with such layers [4,5]. In many craters these sediments have been deeply eroded. Central Peak and Peak Ring: The highest point on Mt. Sharp, near the crater's center, is interpreted as a central peak [6]. The peak has a massive lower portion and a thin, smooth capping deposit (Fig. 2). Gale's size is transitional between martian craters with single central peaks and craters with peak rings approximately half the crater's diameter [2,6]. The boundaries of Mt. Sharp, as well as an arc of hills to the southeast of the mountain, closely match a circle approximately 80 km in diameter (Fig. 3). This morphology suggests that the Gale impact may have formed both a central peak and a partial peak ring, which is covered by the sediments of Mt. Sharp in the north and possibly exposed in the arc of eroded hills in the southeast quadrant (Figs. 3,4).

  12. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  13. 77 FR 20747 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT, to... feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 Billings, MT Billings Logan... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY...

  14. MtDNA mutagenesis impairs elimination of mitochondria during erythroid maturation leading to enhanced erythrocyte destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlqvist, K.J.; Leoncini, S.; Pecorelli, A.; Wortmann, S.B.; Ahola, S.; Forsstrom, S.; Guerranti, R.; Felice, C. De; Smeitink, J.; Ciccoli, L.; Hamalainen, R.H.; Suomalainen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Haematopoietic progenitor cells show special sensitivity to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis, which suggests that increased mtDNA mutagenesis could underlie anemias. Here we show that elevated mtDNA mutagenesis in mice with a proof-reading deficient mtDNA polymerase (PolG) leads to incomplete m

  15. Volcano Monitoring and Early Warning on MT Etna, Italy, Using Volcanic Tremor - Methods and Technical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Marcello; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Langer, Horst; Messina, Alfio; Reitano, Danilo; Spampinato, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Recent activity on Mt Etna was characterized by 25 lava fountains occurred on Mt Etna in 2011 and the first semester of 2012. In summer 2012 volcanic activity in a milder form was noticed within the Bocca Nuova crater, before it came to an essential halt in August 2012. Together with previous unrests (e. g., in 2007-08) these events offer rich material for testing automatic data processing and alert issue in the context of volcano monitoring. Our presentation focuses on the seismic background radiation - volcanic tremor - which has a key role in the surveillance of Mt Etna. From 2006 on a multi-station alert system exploiting STA/LTA ratios, has been established in the INGV operative centre of Catania. Besides, also the frequency content has been found to change correspondingly to the type of volcanic activity, and can thus be exploited for warning purposes. We apply Self Organizing Maps and Fuzzy Clustering which offer an efficient way to visualize signal characteristics and its development with time. These techniques allow to identify early stages of eruptive events and automatically flag a critical status before this becomes evident in conventional monitoring techniques. Changes of tremor characteristics are related to the position of the source of the signal. Given the dense seismic network we can base the location of the sources on distribution of the amplitudes across the network. The locations proved to be extremely useful for warning throughout both a flank eruption in 2008 as well as the 2011 lava fountains. During all these episodes a clear migration of tremor sources towards the eruptive centres was revealed in advance. The location of the sources completes the picture of an imminent volcanic unrest and corroborates early warnings flagged by the changes of signal characteristics. Automatic real time data processing poses high demands on computational efficiency, robustness of the methods and stability of data acquisition. The amplitude based multi-station

  16. A MT 2D modelling of the Apenninic margin and Bradanic trough after identification of an artificial e.m. wide-band source on the natural MT data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Santarato

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of Italian research project «CROP», a magnetotelluric (MT survey was carried out in Southern Italy, above the Apulian platform, with the aim to investigate its transition beneath the Apennine chain. The MT stations were divided into two areas, the first around Lavello town, the second south of Mount Vulture inactive volcano. The standard processing of MT raw data, collected with the single-site scheme, gave fairly non-plane wave response as concerns data of Lavello area, while the volcano's area data were compatible with a natural plane-wave e.m. field response. The Lavello area results were shown to be heavily affected by a near field effect of a strong wide-band electromagnetic source located several kilometers NE of Lavello. After the identification of this effect and an attempt to interpret these data, a 2D interpretation of the whole survey was then possible and the main result can be summarized as follows: a the «electrical» boundary of the Bradanic trough should be displaced about 4 km toward SW; b in the area south of Melfi town, the carbonatic platform should lie at a depth of about 8 km.

  17. MtDNA haplogroups and elite Korean athlete status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K C; Cho, H I; Kim, W

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has recently been suggested to have an association with athletic performance or physical endurance. Since mtDNA is haploid and lacks recombination, specific mutations in the mtDNA genome associated with human exercise tolerance or intolerance arise and remain in particular genetic backgrounds referred to as haplogroups. To assess the possible contribution of mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants to differences in elite athletic performance, we performed a population-based study of 152 Korean elite athletes [77 sprint/power athletes (SPA) and 75 endurance/middle-power athletes (EMA)] and 265 non-athletic controls (CON). The overall haplogroup distribution of EMA differed significantly from CON (p<0.01), but that of SPA did not. The EMA have an excess of haplogroups M* (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.63-11.79, p=0.003) and N9 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.92-5.81, p=0.042), but a dearth of haplogroup B (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.75, p=0.003) compared with the CON. Thus, our data imply that specific mtDNA lineages may provide a significant effect on elite Korean endurance status, although functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.

  18. Coevolution of Drosophila melanogaster mtDNA and Wolbachia genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Ilinsky

    Full Text Available Maternally inherited microorganisms can influence the mtDNA pattern of variation in hosts. This influence is driven by selection among symbionts and can cause the frequency of mitochondrial variants in the population to eventually increase or decrease. Wolbachia infection is common and widespread in Drosophila melanogaster populations. We compared genetic variability of D. melanogaster mitotypes with Wolbachia genotypes among isofemale lines associated with different geographic locations and time intervals to study coevolution of the mtDNA and Wolbachia. Phylogenetic analysis of D. melanogaster mtDNA revealed two clades diverged in Africa, each associated with one of the two Wolbachia genotype groups. No evidence of horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between maternal lineages has been found. All the mtDNA variants that occur in infected isofemale lines are found in uninfected isofemale lines and vice versa, which is indicative of a recent loss of infection from some maternal fly lineages and confirms a significant role of Wolbachia in the D. melanogaster mtDNA pattern of variation. Finally, we present a comparative analysis of biogeographic distribution of D. melanogaster mitotypes all over the world.

  19. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...

  20. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  1. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  3. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  4. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  5. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. mtDNA Mutagenesis Disrupts Pluripotent Stem Cell Function by Altering Redox Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Riikka H.; Ahlqvist, Kati J.; Ellonen, Pekka; Lepistö, Maija; Logan, Angela; Otonkoski, Timo; Murphy, Michael P.; Suomalainen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Summary mtDNA mutagenesis in somatic stem cells leads to their dysfunction and to progeria in mouse. The mechanism was proposed to involve modification of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/redox signaling. We studied the effect of mtDNA mutagenesis on reprogramming and stemness of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and show that PSCs select against specific mtDNA mutations, mimicking germline and promoting mtDNA integrity despite their glycolytic metabolism. Furthermore, mtDNA mutagenesis is associate...

  7. The Relationship between Snow Accumulation at Mt. Logan, Yukon, Canada, and Climate Variability in the North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, Summer; Steig, Eric J.; Roe, Gerard

    2004-12-01

    An ice core from Mt. Logan, Yukon, Canada, presents an opportunity to evaluate the degree to which ice core accumulation records can be interpreted as meaningful measures of interannual climate variability. Statistical analyses and comparisons with synoptic station data are used to identify the physical relationships between Mt. Logan ice core accumulation data and large-scale atmospheric circulation. These analyses demonstrate that only the winters of high accumulation years have a robust connection with atmospheric circulation. There are no consistent relationships during anomalously low and average accumulation years. The wintertime of high accumulation years is associated with an enhanced trough ridge structure at 500 hPa and in sea level pressure over the northeast Pacific and western Canada, consistent with increased southerly flow bringing in warmer, moister air to the region. While both storm (i.e., 2 6 days) and blocking (i.e., 15 20 days) events project onto the same climate pattern, only the big storm events give rise to the dynamical moisture convergence necessary for anomalous accumulation. Taken together, these results suggest that while the Mt. Logan accumulation record is not a simple record of Pacific climate variability, anomalously high accumulation years are a reliable indicator of wintertime circulation and, in particular, of northeast Pacific storms.

  8. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank Geothermal Field Imaged by 3-D Full-tensor MT Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern Ole; Davatzes, Nicholas; Newman, Gregory A.

    2016-11-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2 - 5 Ohm-m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT dataset as well as the degree of modeling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60o) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modeling to test the best fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally-controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  9. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank geothermal field imaged by 3-D full-tensor MT inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern Ole; Davatzes, Nicholas; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-02-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2-5 Ohm m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT data set as well as the degree of modelling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60†) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modelling to test the best-fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  10. Nuclear collapse observed during the eruption of Mt. Usu

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T A

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Usu which was located about 70 km southwest from Sapporo in Hokkaido (the north island of Japan) began to erupt on March 31 in 2000. A nuclear emulsion was placed on a foot of Mt. Usu to catch small atomic clusters which were expected to be emitted during the eruption. Curious atomic clusters and their reaction products were successfully observed on surfaces of the nuclear emulsion. By comparing them with similar products which were obtained in previous experiments of discharge and electrolysis, it was concluded that micro Ball Lightning was really emitted during the eruption of Mt. Usu and that explosive reactions by nuclear collapse could have been involved to contribute to energy of the eruption. (author)

  11. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-06-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  12. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  13. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  14. MT-ADRES: Multithreading on Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan;

    2007-01-01

    -ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl’s law, this paper proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (Multi-Threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned in multiple...... smaller arrays that can execute threads in parallel. Because the partition can be changed dynamically, this extension provides more flexibility than a multi-core approach. This article presents details of the enhanced architecture and results obtained from an MPEG-2 decoder implementation that exploits...... a mix of thread-level parallelism and instruction-level parallelism....

  15. Pattern Recognition of mtDNA with Associative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we applied an associative memory for the pattern recognition of mtDNA that can be useful to identify bodies and human remains. In particular, we used both morphological hetroassociative memories: max and min. We process the problem of pattern recognition as a classification task. Our proposal showed a correct recall, we obtained the 100% of recalling of all the learned patterns. We simulated a corrupted sample of mtDNA by adding noise of two types: additive and subtractive. The memory showed a correct recall when we applied less or equal than 55% of both types of noise.

  16. MT6575:Android智能手机平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    联发科技股份有限公司推出专为主流智能手机市场而设计的第三代智能手机解决方案MT6575。联发科技MT6575高度整合主频1GHz的ARM Codex-A9处理器和联发科技优越的3G/HSPA Modem,并支持Android4.0新Ice Cream Sandwich操作平台。

  17. Depletion of mtDNA: syndromes and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberio, Simona; Mineri, Rossana; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) requires the concerted activity of several nuclear-encoded factors that participate in its replication, being part of the mitochondrial replisome or ensuring the balanced supply of dNTPs to mitochondria. In the past decade, a growing number of syndromes associated with dysfunction due to tissue-specific depletion of mtDNA (MDS) have been reported. This article reviews the current knowledge of the genes responsible for these disorders, the impact of different mutations in the epidemiology of MDS and their role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the different clinical presentations.

  18. Passive monitoring of Mt. Etna and Mt. Yasur to probe the upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assink, J. D.; Le Pichon, A.; Blanc, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present two case studies in which the influence of atmospheric dynamics on infrasound propagation is studied. We make use of a volcanic infrasound data set that has been recorded at infrasound arrays in the vicinity of Mount Etna, Italy (37 N). In addition, we revisit the Mt. Yasur (22 S) dataset. Respectively, over 6 and 10 years of infrasound observables are compared to theoretical estimates obtained from propagation modeling using existing European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric databases. Long-term detail comparisons such as presented in this study have been unprecedented and are useful for atmospheric modeling and infrasound propagation studies. While a first-order agreement is found, we report on significant discrepancies around the equinox period and during intervals during which anomalous detections occur during the winter, such as during Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs). We present an inversion study in which we make use of measured trace velocity estimates to predict effective sound speed model updates in a Bayesian framework. Such estimates will be compared to independent wind and temperature measurements that are available through the Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE) network.

  19. Characteristics of volcanic tremor accompanying the September 24th, 1986 explosive eruption of Mt. Etna (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cristofolini

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the volcanic tremor recorded before, during and after the eruptive event which occurred at Mt. Etna on September 24th 1986, are described. The whole eruption was particularly short in time (about eight hours and characterized by an extremely violent explosive activity with lava fountains a few hundred meters high. As the complete record of the seismic signals generated during the whole eruptive episode was available, a detailed spectral analysis of the volcanic tremor recorded at four stations, located at increasing distance from the summit of the volcano, was carried out. Fourier analysis, that was performed using temporal windows of about 11 min in duration, pointed to some large fluctuations of the overall spectral amplitude, as well as some frequency variations of the dominant spectral peaks. The ratio of the overall spectral amplitude recorded at the highest station and at the peripheral ones, was calculated in the two spectral bands 1.0-2.5 and 2.6-6.0 Hz, respectively. The significant contribution of energy at low frequency values supports the hypothesis of a subvertical planar source, which was active during the paroxysmal stage of the eruption. Such results are also supported by the analysis of the attenuation function of the spectral amplitude.

  20. An extended climate archive from the Eastern Alpine ice coring site of Mt Ortles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreossi, Giuliano; Carturan, Luca; De Blasi, Fabrizio; Paolo, Gabrielli; Spolaor, Andrea; Jacopo, Gabrieli; Barbante, Carlo; Seppi, Roberto; Dinale, Roberto; Zanoner, Thomas; Stenni, Barbara; Fontana Giancarlo, Dalla; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope content of ice cores has been extensively used for temperature reconstruction. The most elevated glaciers of the Alpine area have been utilized for ice coring for more than four decades, but the scarcity of drilling projects in the Eastern Alps and of isotopic records covering a long time period for the entire Alpine region suggest that the paleoclimatic potential of this mountain area is still largely unexploited. In autumn 2011 four deep cores were drilled on Mt Ortles, South Tyrol, Italy, at 3859 m a.s.l. An extensive reconstructed temperature record for the Ortles summit, based on the surrounding meteorological station data, is available for the last 150 years, while an automatic weather station had been operating from 2011 to 2015 in proximity of the drilling site. A preliminary age scale has been utilized for dating the two cores for which the isotopic record is available (core #1 and #2), creating an Ortles stacked record and comparing the Ortles data to temperatures and to other Alpine isotope records. The comparison among different ice core locations shows some similarities in the observed fluctuations, despite the considerable distance between the sites and the substantial geographical variability of temperature, precipitation and moisture source patterns characterizing the Alps.

  1. Noise Elimination Study for a Single Station Magnetotelluric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül, Ebru; Uǧur Ulugergerli, Emin; Göktaş, Hilal

    2010-05-01

    Five components of the natural electromagnetic field relating to underground conductivity distribution on Earth are measured as a time series in the Magnetotelluric (MT) method. E (Ex, Ey) and H (Hx, Hy, Hz) components of the electromagnetic field suffers from noise contamination. The noise, in general, can be classified as random and systematic noise. Random noise disrupts the pattern of data such as sudden signal peaks and/or step structures called impulsive effect. This type of noise usually is dominant in some parts of the time series. The sources of random noise vary; some of the sources are instrumental problems and atmospheric events. On the other hand, systematic noise occurs at certain frequencies and is added to the data. Industrial activities cause such type of the noise and can corrupt all the data set. The estimation of the impedance tensor from single-station MT data is subject to this study. The proposed method uses statistical approaches focused on the noise elimination techniques. Noise elimination from MT time series is very important particularly to achieve repeatable impedance values using single station MT data. The conventional impedance estimation technique requires solution of a linear equation system (E = ZH) based on Gaussian statistical model which requires the noise of electric channels should obey Gaussian distribution and magnetic channels should be noise free. In fact, measured data never provides this ideal condition. Therefore, noise elimination techniques are very important step in data processing works in MT method. Random noise such as spikes makes deviations in impedance values, resistivity and phase curves. Random noise should be eliminated to correct of these deviations in the data. For this purpose firstly, all data are divided into time windows. Each window consists of 512 values. After that, spikes are removed and missing data are regenerated by using interpolation technique for each window in time domain. Then, data are

  2. Mt. Etna: rationale and implementation of a Supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Mt. Etna is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth and, in the past few decades, has erupted virtually every year. The volcanism of Mt. Etna results from the interaction between magma ascent in the rather complex plumbing feeding system and the local tectonic regime controlled by the volcano edifice's eastern flank instability, whose driving conditions (e.g., structural setting, tectonic forces) and cause-effect relationships are not yet completely understood. At the surface, the combination of the two factors produces eruptions that might consist of either strongly explosive (e.g., 2002; 2011) and produce volcanic ash plumes likely to disrupt air traffic for hours to weeks (e.g., 5 January 2012), including powerful summit paroxysms in the 2012-2013 time span or lava flows capable of invading the populated sectors, that can threat human property and vital infrastructures. Mt. Etna presents many characteristics that make it prone to be a Geohazard Supersite. The volcano consists of an open-vent system characterised by continuous degassing from the volcano summit craters and frequent eruptive summit and flank eruptions. Eruptions can be of different kinds passing from violent short-lasting explosive events to long-lasting lava output, thus producing different kinds of impacts on the surrounding environment, and especially on the large number of people living around the volcano foot. Over time, the frequency and variety of Mt. Etna's eruptive activity have made the volcano one of the most well-studied and monitored worldwide. At Mt. Etna volcanic activity produces a wide spectrum of signals, spanning from seismic and geodetic to geochemical and radiometric signals, which are tracked in continuous and in real-and quasi-real time by the automatic multi-disciplinary monitoring systems deployed by INGV. The huge amount of ground-based collected data sets enforces the vision of Mt. Etna supersite as a Geohazard Supersite where applying the overarching criteria of the

  3. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  4. Micrometeorological conditions and surface mass and energy fluxes on Lewis Glacier, Mt Kenya, in relation to other tropical glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Nicholson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lewis Glacier on Mt Kenya is one of the best-studied tropical glaciers, but full understanding of the interaction of the glacier mass balance and its climatic drivers has been hampered by a lack of long-term meteorological data. Here we present 2.5 yr of meteorological data collected from the glacier surface from October 2009 to February 2012. The location of measurements is in the upper portion of Lewis Glacier, but this location experiences negative annual mass balance, and the conditions are comparable to those experienced in the lower ablation zones of South American glaciers in the inner tropics. In the context of other glaciated mountains of equatorial East Africa, the summit zone of Mt Kenya shows strong diurnal cycles of convective cloud development as opposed to the Rwenzoris, where cloud cover persists throughout the diurnal cycle, and Kilimanjaro, where clear skies prevail. Surface energy fluxes were calculated for the meteorological station site using a physical mass- and energy-balance model driven by measured meteorological data and additional input parameters that were determined by Monte Carlo optimization. Sublimation rate was lower than those reported on other tropical glaciers, and melt rate was high throughout the year, with the glacier surface reaching the melting point on an almost daily basis. Surface mass balance is influenced by both solid precipitation and air temperature, with radiation providing the greatest net source of energy to the surface. Cloud cover typically reduces the net radiation balance compared to clear-sky conditions, and thus the frequent formation of convective clouds over the summit of Mt Kenya and the associated higher rate of snow accumulation are important in limiting the rate of mass loss from the glacier surface. The analyses shown here form the basis for future glacier-wide mass and energy balance modeling to determine the climate proxy offered by the glaciers of Mt Kenya.

  5. Mapping the Geothermal System Using AMT and MT in the Mapamyum (QP Field, Lake Manasarovar, Southwestern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Southwestern Tibet plays a crucial role in the protection of the ecological environment and biodiversity of Southern Asia but lacks energy in terms of both power and fuel. The widely distributed geothermal resources in this region could be considered as potential alternative sources of power and heat. However, most of the known geothermal fields in Southwestern Tibet are poorly prospected and currently almost no geothermal energy is exploited. Here we present a case study mapping the Mapamyum (QP geothermal field of Southwestern Tibet using audio magnetotellurics (AMT and magnetotellurics (MT methods. AMT in the frequency range 11.5–11,500 Hz was used to map the upper part of this geothermal reservoir to a depth of 1000 m, and MT in the frequency range 0.001–320 Hz was used to map the heat source, thermal fluid path, and lower part of the geothermal reservoir to a depth greater than 1000 m. Data from 1300 MT and 680 AMT stations were acquired around the geothermal field. Bostick conversion with electromagnetic array profiling (EMAP filtering and nonlinear conjugate gradient inversion (NLCGI was used for data inversion. The AMT and MT results presented here elucidate the geoelectric structure of the QP geothermal field, and provide a background for understanding the reservoir, the thermal fluid path, and the heat source of the geothermal system. We identified a low resistivity anomaly characterized by resistivity in the range of 1–8 Ω∙m at a depth greater than 7 km. This feature was interpreted as a potential reflection of the partially melted magma in the upper crust, which might correlate to mantle upwelling along the Karakorum fault. It is likely that the magma is the heat source of the QP geothermal system, and potentially provides new geophysical evidence to understand the occurrence of the partially melted magmas in the upper crust in Southwestern Tibet.

  6. Crevasses, Fractures and Folds within Firn and Marine Ice of the McMurdo Shear Zone, Antarctica interpreted from GPR Profiles acquired with an Unmanned Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcone, S. A.; Lever, J.; Ray, L.

    2015-12-01

    The firn of the McMurdo shear zone within the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is intensively crevassed, and may also contain crevasses within its meteoric and marine ice. However, the surface crevassing prevents ordinary vehicle access to investigate its structure geophysically. We used a lightweight robotic vehicle to tow 200 and 400 MHz ground-penetrating radar antennas simultaneously along 100 evenly spaced transects over a 28 km2 grid spanning the shear zone width. Transects were mainly orthogonal to ice flow. Total firn and meteoric ice thickness was about 160 m. Firn crevasses profiled at 400 MHz were up to 16 m wide, under snow bridges up to 10 m thick, and with strikes near 50-55° to general flow direction. From top down, 200-MHz profiles reveal firn diffractions originating to about 40 m depth, no discernible structure within the meteoric ice, a discontinuous transitional horizon, and at least 20 m of disturbed and stratified marine ice. Freeboard ranging from 28-31 m shows more marine ice exists. We interpret the transitional horizon to be a thin saline layer, and marine ice hyperbolic diffractions and reflections to be responses to localized fractures and to crevasses of various widths, filled with unstratified marine ice, and at strikes mainly between 41-63°. We interpret off-nadir, marine ice horizons to be responses to linear and folded faults, the structure and orientation of which are similar to some in firn. The coinciding and synchronously folded areas of fractured firn and marine ice suggest the visibly unstructured meteoric ice is also fractured, but either never crevassed, or crevassed and sutured without sea water penetration, and that any bottom crevasses that occurred near grounding lines have been thermally eroded. Consequently any fractures in the meteoric ice beneath our grid are likely to have formed far from any grounding area, but it is unclear why there is no evidence of sea water penetration given the fractured and crevassed marine ice.

  7. Seasonal controls on snow distribution and aerial ablation at the snow-patch and landscape scales, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Eveland

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated snow in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, while limited, has great ecological significance to subnivian soil environments. Though sublimation dominates the ablation process in this region, measurable increases in soil moisture and insulation from temperature extremes provide more favorable conditions with respect to subnivian soil communities. While precipitation is not substantial, significant amounts of snow can accumulate, via wind transport, in topographic lees along the valley bottoms, forming thousands of discontinuous snow patches. These patches have the potential to act as significant sources of local meltwater, controlling biogeochemical cycling and the landscape distribution of microbial communities. Therefore, determining the spatial and temporal dynamics of snow at multiple scales is imperative to understanding the broader ecological role of snow in this region. High-resolution satellite imagery acquired during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 austral summers was used to quantify the distribution of snow across Taylor and Wright valleys. Extracted snow-covered area from the imagery was used as the basis for assessing inter-annual variability and seasonal controls on accumulation and ablation of snow at multiple scales. In addition to landscape analyses, fifteen 1 km2 plots (3 in each of 5 study regions were selected to assess the prevalence of snow cover at finer spatial scales, referred to herein as the snow-patch scale. Results confirm that snow patches tend to form in the same locations each year with some minor deviations observed. At the snow-patch scale, neighboring patches often exhibit considerable differences in aerial ablation rates, and particular snow patches do not reflect trends for snow-covered area observed at the landscape scale. These differences are presumably related to microtopographic influences acting on individual snow patches, such as wind sheltering and differences in snow depth due to the underlying

  8. Seasonal controls on snow distribution and aerial ablation at the snow-patch and landscape scales, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Eveland

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated snow in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, while limited, has great ecological significance to subnivian soil environments. Though sublimation dominates the ablation process in this region, measurable increases in soil moisture and insulation from temperature extremes provide more favorable conditions with respect to subnivian soil communities. While precipitation is not substantial, significant amounts of snow can accumulate, via aeolian redistribution, in topographic lees along the valley bottoms, forming thousands of discontinuous snow patches. These patches have the potential to act as significant sources of local melt water, controlling biogeochemical cycling and the landscape distribution of microbial communities. Therefore, determining the spatial and temporal dynamics of snow at multiple scales is imperative to understanding the broader ecological role of snow in this region.

    High-resolution satellite imagery acquired during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 austral summers was used to quantify the distribution of snow across Taylor and Wright Valleys. Extracted snow-covered area from the imagery was used as the basis for assessing seasonal variability and seasonal controls on accumulation and ablation of snow at multiple scales. In addition, fifteen 1 km2 plots (3 in each of 5 study regions were selected to assess the prevalence of snow cover at finer spatial scales. Results confirm that snow patches tend to form in the same locations each year with some minor deviations observed. At the snow-patch scale, neighboring patches often exhibit considerable differences in aerial ablation rates, and particular snow patches do not reflect trends for snow-covered area observed at the landscape scale. These differences are presumably related to microtopographic influences over snow depth and exposure. This highlights the importance of both the landscape and snow-patch scales in assessing the effects of snow cover on

  9. Early Miocene basement clasts in ANDRILL AND-2A core and their implications for paleoenvironmental changes in the McMurdo Sound region (western Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Franco M.; Sandroni, Sonia

    2011-07-01

    A detailed provenance study of gravel-size clasts in the lowermost 438 m of the ANDRILL AND-2A core reveals a pattern of dynamic provenance variations which can be discussed for its implications for Early Miocene paleogeographical reconstructions and glaciological models in the McMurdo Sound region (Ross Sea). Clast distribution patterns and distribution of diagnostic basement clast assemblages indicative of three different provenance areas (Mulock-Skelton glacier, Carlyon-Darwin glacier and Koettlitz-Blue glacier regions) can be interpreted in terms of two distinctive ice dynamic scenarios: i) local fluctuations of outlet Transantarctic Mountains glaciers with dominant flows from W to E to the coast (documented in the lowermost core section, at ca. 20.2-20.1 Ma), and ii) larger volume of ice grounded at the regional scale in the Ross Embayment with flow lines running N-S close to the TAM front (in two periods, at ca. 19.7-19.7 Ma and at ca. 17.8-17.4 Ma). Moreover, in core sections including facies typical of open-marine to iceberg-influenced depositional environments, ice-rafted debris compositions reveal that during periods of glacial-minima setting sites of active calving processes dominantly occurred in areas including the present-day Blue-Koettlitz glacier coast, and subordinately in glacier tongues located further south in the Skelton-Mulock glacier area. Consistently with results of numerical modelling the reconstructed glaciological scenarios provide further constraints to paleogeographical reconstructions and glaciological models at the south-western tip of the Ross Sea during significant steps in Antarctic ice sheet evolution through the Early Miocene climatic events.

  10. Dilution-to-extinction culturing of psychrotolerant planktonic bacteria from permanently ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, U; Cho, J-C; Foo, W; Vergin, K L; Lanoil, B; Giovannoni, S J

    2008-04-01

    Lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are characterized by a permanent ice cover and little or no anthropogenic influence. Although bacterial cultures have been obtained from these habitats, recent culture-independent studies indicate that the most abundant microbes in these systems are not yet cultivated. By using dilution-to-extinction cultivation methods with sterilized and nutrient-amended lake water as media, we isolated 148 chemotrophic psychrotolerant bacterial cultures from fresh surface water of Lake Fryxell and the east lobe of Lake Bonney and the hypersaline, suboxic bottom water from the west lobes of Lake Bonney. Screening of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes of the cultures by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) yielded 57 putatively pure psychrotolerant, slow growing cultures grouped into 18 clusters. The sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of randomly selected representatives of each RFLP cluster revealed that the corresponding isolates belong to the Alphaproteobacteria (six RFLP patterns), Betaproteobacteria (six RFLP patterns), Bacteroidetes (four RFLP patterns), and Actinobacteria (two RFLP patterns). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed that the vast majority of the isolates were not closely related to previously described species. Thirteen of 18 RFLP patterns shared a 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid sequence similarity of 97% or less with the closest described species, and four isolates had a sequence similarity of 93% or less with the nearest described species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these sequences were representatives of deeply branching organisms in the respective phylum. A comparison of the isolates with 16S rRNA clone libraries prepared from the same environments showed substantial overlap, indicating that dilution-to-extinction culturing in natural lake water media can help isolate some of the most abundant organisms in these perennially ice-covered lakes.

  11. Melatonin influences somatostatin secretion from human pancreatic δ-cells via MT1 and MT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibolka, Juliane; Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Peschke, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Melatonin is an effector of the diurnal clock on pancreatic islets. The membrane receptor-transmitted inhibitory influence of melatonin on insulin secretion is well established and contrasts with the reported stimulation of glucagon release from α-cells. Virtually, nothing is known concerning the melatonin-mediated effects on islet δ-cells. Analysis of a human pancreatic δ-cell model, the cell line QGP-1, and the use of a somatostatin-specific radioimmunoassay showed that melatonin primarily has an inhibitory effect on somatostatin secretion in the physiological concentration range. In the pharmacological range, melatonin elicited slightly increased somatostatin release from δ-cells. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is the major second messenger dose-dependently stimulating somatostatin secretion, in experiments employing the membrane-permeable 8-Br-cAMP. 8-Br-cyclic guanosine monophosphate proved to be of only minor relevance to somatostatin release. As the inhibitory effect of 1 nm melatonin was reversed after incubation of QGP-1 cells with the nonselective melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole, but not with the MT2-selective antagonist 4-P-PDOT (4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline), an involvement of the MT1 receptor can be assumed. Somatostatin release from the δ-cells at low glucose concentrations was significantly inhibited during co-incubation with 1 nm melatonin, an effect which was less pronounced at higher glucose levels. Transient expression experiments, overexpressing MT1, MT2, or a deletion variant as a control, indicated that the MT1 and not the MT2 receptor was the major transmitter of the inhibitory melatonin effect. These data point to a significant influence of melatonin on pancreatic δ-cells and on somatostatin release.

  12. Expression of the MT1 Melatonin Receptor in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jablonska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OC is the leading cause of death among women with genital tract disorders. Melatonin exhibits oncostatic properties which it may effect through binding to its membrane receptor, MT1. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MT1 in OC cells and to correlate this with clinical and pathological data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 84 cases of OC. Normal ovarian epithelial (IOSE 364 and OC (SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 cell lines were used to examine the MT1 expression at protein level using the western blot and immunofluorescence technique. The expression of MT1 was observed as cytoplasmic-membrane (MT1CM and membrane (MT1M reactions. A positive correlation between MT1CM and MT1M was found in all the studied cases. There were no significant differences between the expression of MT1CM, MT1M, and histological type, staging, grading, presence of residual disease, or overall survival time. Immunofluorescence showed both MT1M and MT1CM expression in all the tested cell lines. Western blot illustrated the highest protein level of MT1 in IOSE 364 and the lowest in the OVCAR-3. The results indicate the limited prognostic significance of MT1 in OC cells.

  13. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  14. Mesocarnivore Photo Stations [ds26

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This database was established to record furbearer and raptor presence through photographs taken at camera stations. The general study area where camera stations were...

  15. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  16. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  17. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  18. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    265 MEXICO - Acapulco 768056 8403 ................................ 267 Campeche 766950 8403................271 Chetumal 767500...0 0 1 # # I I # or I OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 1CAO ID: NILC LOCATION: 18030’N, 88*18’W...0 0 0 0 0 0 # ALL HOURS I # # 1 # # # # # # 1 1 ]% OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY SUPPLEMENT STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 ICAO ID

  19. MtDNA T4216C variation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    MtDNA T4216C variation has frequently been investigated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients; nonetheless, controversy has existed about the evidence of association of this variation with susceptibility to MS. The present systematic review and meta-analysis converge the results of the preceding...

  20. Measurement of cosmic ray chemical composition at Mt. Chacaltaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogio, S.; Kakimoto, F.; Harada, D.; Tokunou, H.; Burgoa, O.; Tsunesada, Y. [Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, Tokuo (Japan); Shirasaki, Y. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Gotoh, E.; Nakatani, H.; Shimoda, S.; Nishi, K.; Tajima, N.; Yamada, Y. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Okayama University, Dept. of Physics, Oakayama (Japan); Matsubara, Y. [Nagoya University, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Miranda, P.; Velarde, A. [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Institute de Investigaciones Fisicas, La Paz (Bolivia); Mizumoto, T. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshii, H.; Morizawa, A. [Ehime University, Dept. of Physics, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Murakami, K. [Nagoya University of Foreign Studies, Nissin, Aichi (Japan); Toyoda, Y. [Fukui University of Technology, Faculty of General Education, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    BASJE group has measured the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around the knee with several methods. These measurements show that the averaged mass number of cosmic ray particles increases with energy up to the knee. In order to measure the chemical composition in much wider energy range, it was started a new experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya in 2000.

  1. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For...

  2. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  3. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  4. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  5. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  6. Moisture Sources for Snowfall to Mt. Logan, Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, S. R.; Steig, E. J.

    2002-05-01

    Accumulation and isotopic data from an ice core obtained at Mt. Logan, Yukon Territory (Holdsworth et al, 1992) are used to determine possible sources of precipitation at the site, an important prerequisite to the use of Mt. Logan data as quantitative measures of past North Pacific climate variability. Annual accumulation at Logan is poorly correlated with Gulf of Alaska sea level pressure (SLP), but well correlated with Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The latter correlation forms a horseshoe pattern of warmer than average SSTs in the eastern North Pacific around colder than average SSTs in the central Pacific similar to the dominant EOF of SSTs (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation). Back-trajectory calculations show that most air reaching Mt. Logan follows a high-altitude pathway along the upper limb of the horseshoe pattern from the western Pacific. However, further analyses suggest that the moisture source changes according to the strength of the Aleutian Low. Mean SSTs are highest along the west coast of North America and lowest in the central North Pacific and Japan during years when the Aleutian Low is strong. During weak Aleutian Low years, accumulation is most highly correlated with SSTs around Japan and the Philippines (r ~ 0.5), while when the Aleutian Low is strong, it is most highly correlated with SSTs along the west coast of North America and the northern most part of the Pacific (r ~ 0.7). Finally, \\delta18O ratios at Mt. Logan are negatively correlated with sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies in the Gulf of Alaska (r ~ -0.4). Together, these results suggest that during years in which the Aleutian Low is weak, the west and central Pacific are the moisture sources for Mt. Logan while advection of local moisture dominates precipitation when the Aleutian Low is strong.

  7. An integrated magnetotelluric study of the Mt. Etna volcanic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available he results of a magnetotelluric (MT survey performed at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy are presented and discussed. The MT interpretation is preceded by the description of the data managing strategy used for the estimate of the impedance tensor and the computation of a rotationally invariant parameter. The 1D Bostick inversion of MT soundings located in the Etnean central area highlights the existence of a wide conductive zone in the depth range 15-30 km. Resistivities of a fewW×m are estimated in the southern part of this zone, while resistivities one order of magnitude higher are estimated in the northern part. In the central sector, the MT soundings are characterized by much higher resistivity values suggesting the presence of an E-W directed resistive barrier separating the two conductive deep zones. A two-feeding system is thus hypothesized as an extension of a previous 3D model deduced from regional earthquakes and teleseisms in the depth range 15-25 km. Moreover, the comparison with previous shallow seismic tomographies from local earthquakes within the first 11 km of depth allows us to distinguish inside the upper portion of the resistive barrier a central high velocity zone. This zone can likely be ascribed to a slowly cooled dike tending to become highly fractured at its western and eastern edges. Finally, the impedivity analysis based on the comparison with previous geoelectric dipole soundings allows us to exclude the existence of a permanent magma chamber within the first 5 km of depth and to argue the existence of a shallowplumbing system consisting of a medium-to-low temperature hydrothermally altered environment.

  8. Shrinkage of Mt. Bogda Glaciers of Eastern Tian Shan in Central Asia during 1962-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiming Li; Zhongqin Li; Cuiyun Wang; Baojuan Huai

    2016-01-01

    Many small mountain glaciers have been reported undergoing strong shrinkage, and it is therefore important to understand how they respond to climate change. The availability of topographic maps from 1962, Landsat TM imagery from 1990 and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Radiometer) imagery from 2006 and field investigation of some glaciers allow a comprehensive analysis of glacier change based on glacier size and topography on Mt. Bogda. Results include:(1) an overall loss of a glacierized area by 31.18±0.31 km2 or 21.6%from 1962 to 2006, (2) a marked dependence of glacier area shrinkage on initial size, with smaller glaciers experiencing higher shrinkage levels, (3) the disappearance of 12 small glaciers, (4) a striking difference in area loss between the southern and northern slopes of 25%and 17%, respectively. A subset of the investigated glaciers shows that the area 57.45±0.73 km2 in 1962 reduced to 54.79±0.561 km2 in 1990 and 48.88±0.49 km2 in 2006, with a relative area reduction of 4.6% during 1962–1990, and 10.8%during 1990–2006. The corresponding volume waste increased from 6.9%to 10.2%. Three reference glaciers were investigated in 1981 and revisited in 2009. Their terminus experienced a marked recession. Meteorological data from stations around Mt. Bogda reveals that glacier shrinkage is correlated with winter warming and an extension of the ablation period. Precipitation on the northwest side of the range shows a marked increase, with a slight increase on the southeast side.

  9. 19 years of tilt data on Mt. Vesuvius: state of the art and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Ricco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius, located along the SW border of the Campania Plane graben, is one of the most studied volcanoes worldwide, from both the volcanological and the geophysical, geochemical and geodetic point of view. In order to better understand its dynamics, the deformation of the volcano has been already studied since the early ’70s by setting up levelling lines and, since a few years later, through trilateration networks, whereas ground tilt monitoring started in 1993. Tilt variations were recorded by an automatic surface station set up at the Osservatorio Vesuviano (O.V. bunker (OVO and data recorded were transmitted to the O.V. Surveillance Centre in Naples. Afterwards, in 1996 two more identical stations were set up close to Torre del Greco (CMD, and close to Trecase (TRC. In 2002 the data acquisition system was replaced, while at the end of 2011 a Lily borehole sensor was set up at 26 m depth, replacing the old TRC tilt station. The paper describes in details the tilt network of Mt. Vesuvius, its development over time and the data processing procedure; moreover, the ground deformation pattern is discussed, as inferred from the study of 19 years of data and its change during the seismic crises of 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. From the information obtained from the tiltmetric monitoring, a complex deformation pattern can be deduced, strongly dependent on the position of the sites in which the sensors were set up with respect to the morphology of the volcanic edifice and its structural outlines. If we consider the signals as they were recorded, although previously corrected for the influences of the thermo-elastic strain on the sensors, the tilting occurs mainly in the SW direction with rates of about 11 µradians/year on both the western and eastern flanks and of about 13 µradians/year on the southern one. Because tilt vectors point in the long term outward from the summit and towards the subsiding area, this supports the hypothesis of a southern

  10. Compressor station layout considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; Ohanian, Sebouh; Lubomirsky, Matt [Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses issues that influence the decision on the arrangement of compressors and the type of equipment in gas pipeline compressor stations. Different concepts such as multiple small units versus single large units are considered, both regarding their impact on the individual station and the overall pipeline. The necessity of standby units is discussed. Various concepts for drivers (gas turbine, gas motor and electric motor) and compressors (centrifugal and reciprocating) are analyzed. The importance of considering all possible operating conditions is stressed. With the wide range of possible operating conditions for the pipeline in mind, the discussion is brought into the general context of operational flexibility, availability, reliability, installation issues, remote control, and operability of gas turbine driven centrifugal compressors compared to other solutions such as electric motor driven compressors or gas engine driven reciprocating compressors. The impact of different concepts on emissions and fuel cost is discussed. Among the assumptions in this paper are the performance characteristics of the compressor. This paper outlines how these performance characteristics influence the conclusions. (author)

  11. Magnetotelluric Investigations of Convergent Margins and of Incipient Rifting: Preliminary Results from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array and MT FlexArray Deployments in Cascadia and in the North American Mid-Continent Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bedrosian, P.; Key, K.; Livelybrooks, D.; Egbert, G. D.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Wannamaker, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on preliminary analyses of data from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array, and from two high-resolution EarthScope MT studies in Cascadia. The first of these, iMUSH, is acquiring wideband MT data at 150 sites, as well as active and passive seismic data in SW Washington (including Mounts Saint Helens, Adams and Rainier). iMUSH seeks to determine details of crustal magma transport and storage, and to resolve major tectonic controls on volcanism along the arc. iMUSH may help to settle a debate over the origin of the SW Washington Crustal Conductor (SWCC), which covers ~5000 km2and that has alternately been attributed to accreted Eocene metasediments or to an extensive region of partial melt in the lower crust beneath the three volcanoes. The iMUSH array is continguous with an amphibious ~150 station MT experiment (MOCHA) onshore and offshore of the Washington and Oregon forearc. MOCHA iwill image the crust and upper mantle of the subduction system in 3D, constraining the fluid input to the system from offshore and the distribution of fluids released from the down-going slab, including along the transitional zone where Episodic Tremor and Slip occurs. Our goal is to refine our understanding of the segmentation, structure and fluid distribution along the convergent margin segments, and their relationship to the spatial pattern of ETS. In contrast to the active Cascadia margin, the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) is the trace of a massive igneous event that nearly split North America 1.1 billion years ago. Initial results from 3D inversion of MT Transportable Array data show less fine-scale heterogeneity in the upper mantle (250 km depth) than is evident in western, tectonic North America, but a division at the base of thick lithosphere, with higher conductivities beneath and immediately south of the Great Lakes, than to the south. From the base of the lithosphere to the Moho, this high conductivity feature narrows, ultimately disappearing in the mid-crust. In the

  12. An improved method with a wider applicability to isolate plant mitochondria for mtDNA extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform a principal role in eukaryotic cells. Mutations in mtDNA can cause mitochondrial dysfunction and are frequently associated with various abnormalities during plant development. Extraction of plant mitochondria and mtDNA is the basic requirement for the characterization of mtDNA mutations and other molecular studies. However, currently available methods for mitochondria isolation are either tissue specific or species specific. Extracted mtDNA may contain substant...

  13. Stable isotope analyses of NO2-, NO3-, and N2O in the hypersaline ponds and soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brian; Casciotti, Karen L.; Samarkin, Vladimir A.; Madigan, Michael T.; Schutte, Charles A.; Joye, Samantha B.

    2014-06-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced in significant quantities in the soils and lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Unraveling the mechanisms of N2O production in these soils and ponds is of great interest due to the extreme arid and cold conditions, which are hostile to life. Recent studies have shown production of N2O having unique stable isotopic signatures in certain Dry Valley soils through abiotic reduction of nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) on active surfaces of Fe(II)-containing minerals, a process known as ‘chemodenitrification’. In this study, δ15N and δ18O of N2O, NO2-, and NO3-, as well as the N2O site preference (SP), were measured at three sites to evaluate the role of chemodenitrification in N2O production. The δ15N and δ18O values in NO3- indicated an atmospheric source, while δ15N values in NO2- (-150‰) were indicative of abiotic reactions. Instead of finding unique SP values for N2O at Dry Valley sites, SP values mostly fell within the range associated with microbial N2O production mechansims. The δ15N and δ18O of N2O were also within a range of values expected for various biological N2O production mechanisms. However, efforts to detect biological activity in Don Juan Pond (DJP), a hypersaline pond in the Wright Valley, have been largely unsuccessful. We consider two possible scenarios for N2O production at DJP: (1) abiotic production in the pond, or (2) biological production in nearby freshwater and transport to the pond. Although little is known about the isotopic systematics of abiotic N2O production, these results indicate that if the observed N2O was produced by an abiotic mechanism, its isotopic signature is indistinguishable from that expected from a mixture of several microbial processes and thus, the formation pathway cannot be determined from isotopic composition alone.

  14. Two Decades of Variability in Nutrient Budgets for Ice-Covered, Closed Basin Lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, A. M.; Gooseff, M. N.; McKnight, D. M.; Priscu, J. C.; Doran, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MCM) of Antarctica represent one of the world's driest deserts. A collection of permanently ice-covered lakes in the MCM provide an important refuge for microorganisms. Thus, it is of interest to understand the nutrient dynamics of these lakes and how these dynamics have changed over time. One to two decade-long records of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics in the East Lobe of Lake Bonney (ELB), Lake Fryxell (FRX), and Lake Hoare (HOR) allowed for development of annual nutrient budgets and analysis of possible causes of variability. Annual nutrient budgets were built by accounting for total seasonal streamflow and average seasonal nutrient concentration in streamflow, as well as nutrient diffusion across the chemocline, which roughly coincides with the bottom of the photic zone. Unaccounted-for changes in nutrient content were assumed to be caused by processes internal to the lake. Changes to the proportion of lake volume in the photic zone, seasonal streamflow, and biological activity, represented by chlorophyll-a (CHL) concentration, were considered as potential explanations. For all three lakes, nutrient diffusion either into or out of the photic zone was minimal compared to nutrient inputs from streamflow. The sole exception to this was NH4 inputs to FRX; for eight of the nine years considered, diffusive inputs of NH4 to the photic zone were greater than streamflow inputs. In most cases, internal processes appeared to dominate over streamflow inputs; this is likely because seasonal streamflow represented less than 8% of the photic zone volume in all three lakes. Three exceptions to this trend were the phosphorus budget in ELB, and the NH4 and NO3 budgets in HOR; in these cases, streamflow inputs represented a notable portion of the annual nutrient budgets. The MCM lakes decreased in volume from the early 1990s to the early 2000s; they have since been increasing in volume. The volume of the photic zone was positively

  15. Multilingual lexicon design tool and database management system for MT

    CERN Document Server

    Barisevičius, G

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the design and development of English-Lithuanian-English dictionarylexicon tool and lexicon database management system for MT. The system is oriented to support two main requirements: to be open to the user and to describe much more attributes of speech parts as a regular dictionary that are required for the MT. Programming language Java and database management system MySql is used to implement the designing tool and lexicon database respectively. This solution allows easily deploying this system in the Internet. The system is able to run on various OS such as: Windows, Linux, Mac and other OS where Java Virtual Machine is supported. Since the modern lexicon database managing system is used, it is not a problem accessing the same database for several users.

  16. Random Genetic Drift Determines the Level of Mutant mtDNA in Human Primary Oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, D T; Samuels, D C; Michael, E. M.; Turnbull, D.M.; Chinnery, P F

    2000-01-01

    We measured the proportion of mutant mtDNA (mutation load) in 82 primary oocytes from a woman who harbored the A3243G mtDNA mutation. The frequency distribution of mutation load indicates that random drift is the principal mechanism that determines the level of mutant mtDNA within individual oocytes.

  17. 77 FR 67829 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    .... Montana State University- 1500 University Drive, 406-657-2011 Billings. Billings, MT 59101. Montana State... Refuge, MT; Availability of Record of Decision for the Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Final... of the message. U.S. mail: Charles M. Russell NWR, P.O. Box 110, Lewistown, MT 59457....

  18. Plant Hormone Resistance and Agronomic Characteristics of the MT10 Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The MT10 mutant plants had resistances to auxin. Under light and dark culture,the roots of MT10 seedlings had shown less lateral roots and short lateral roots. In soil ,MT10 seedlings had shown not only no changed agronomic characteristics but also no significant difference with WT.

  19. Numerical modeling of 3-D terrain effect on MT field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世浙; 阮百尧; 周辉; 陈乐寿; 徐师文

    1997-01-01

    Using the boundary element method, the numerical modeling problem of three-dimensional terrain effect on magnetotelluric (MT) field is solved. This modeling technique can be run on PC in the case of adopting special net division. The result of modeling test for 2-D terrain by this modeling technique is basically coincident with that by 2-D modeling technique, but there is a great difference between the results of 3-D and 2-D modeling for 3-D terrain.

  20. Gas analyses of fumaroles from Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, N.L.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Johnston, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The eruptive activity of Mt. St. Helens beginning in March 1980, coupled with earthquake activity on Mt. Hood in early July, has generated increased interest in the fumaroles near the summit of Mt. Hood. These fumaroles are associated with Crater Rock, a hornblende dacite plug, extruded 200 to 300 years ago (Crandell, 1980). A major eruption in about 1700 and lesser eruptions in 1805, 1859, and 1865 (Harris, 1976) were centered near Crater Rock. It is likely that future eruptions will occur in this area. Changes in the surficial characteristics of the fumaroles or changes in the composition of the gas emitted by the fumaroles could precede an eruption by a sufficient length of time to help predict the eruption. In 1935, K.N. Phillips and G.R. Collins collected and analyzed the first samples of gases from the fumaroles (Phillips, 1936). F.D. Ayres and A.E. Creswell (1951) collected and analyzed gas samples from orifices they considered to be equivalent to those sampled by Phillips and Collins, and these (or orifices in the same area) were re-sampled in 1977 and 1978. The results of the 1978 sampling are presented.

  1. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M. (eds.)

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  2. Properties of MT2 in the massless limit

    CERN Document Server

    Lally, Colin H

    2012-01-01

    Although numerical methods are required to evaluate the stransverse mass, MT2, for general input momenta, non-numerical methods have been proposed for some special clases of input momenta. One special case, considered in this note, is the so-called `massless limit' in which all four daughter objects (comprising one invisible particle and one visible system from each `side' of the event) have zero mass. This note establishes that it is possible to construct a stable and accurate implementation for evaluating MT2 based on an analytic expression valid in that massless limit. Although this implementation is found to have no significant speed improvements over existing evaluation strategies, it leads to an unexpected by-product: namely a secondary variable, that is found to be very similar to MT2 for much of its input-space and yet is much faster to calculate. This is potentially of interest for hardware applications that require very fast estimation of a mass scale (or QCD background discriminant) based on a hypo...

  3. Chemical compositions of snow from Mt. Yulong, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hewen Niu; Yuanqing He; Shichang Kang; Xixi Lu; Xiaoyi Shi; Shijin Wang

    2016-03-01

    The snow and ice in Mt. Yulong offer a unique opportunity to investigate changes in climate and large scale atmospheric circulations over Asia. During February and April 2012, surface snow samples were collected from the Baishui Glacier No. 1 at different altitudes along the eastern slope of Mt. Yulong.Two snowpits were also excavated from Mt. Yulong at altitudes of 4780 and 4730 m a.s.l. in February 2012. The concentrations of inorganic ions were higher at an elevation of 4506 m a.s.l. in the glacier with significant contribution of anthropogenic (mainly NH$^{+}_{4}$ , SO$^{2−}_4$ , NO$^{−}_3$) and crustal (mainly Ca$^{2+}$)constituents. Concentration of HCOO$^{−}$ in surface snow exhibited large variability, ranging from 0.04 to 6.8 eq L$^{−1}$, attributed to dominant contribution from biomass burning emissions. Ion balance (C) and Na$^{+}$/Cl$^{−}$ calculations indicated an excess of cations (particularly higher Ca$^{2+}$ concentrations) and Cl$^{−}$ in snow, considering the sea-salt ratio, respectively. Monsoon season (June–September) ion concentrations in snowpit samples were generally two-fold lower than in other seasons. Principal component analysis was used to identify different sources of ions. Three main factors, accounting for more than 80% of the total variance, were related to different sources, including agricultural activities, biomass burning, and crustal aerosols.

  4. The making of the African mtDNA landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Richards, Martin; De la Fe, Tomás; Lareu, María-Victoria; Sobrino, Beatriz; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Macaulay, Vincent; Carracedo, Angel

    2002-11-01

    Africa presents the most complex genetic picture of any continent, with a time depth for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages >100,000 years. The most recent widespread demographic shift within the continent was most probably the Bantu dispersals, which archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest originated in West Africa 3,000-4,000 years ago, spreading both east and south. Here, we have carried out a thorough phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA variation in a total of 2,847 samples from throughout the continent, including 307 new sequences from southeast African Bantu speakers. The results suggest that the southeast Bantu speakers have a composite origin on the maternal line of descent, with approximately 44% of lineages deriving from West Africa, approximately 21% from either West or Central Africa, approximately 30% from East Africa, and approximately 5% from southern African Khoisan-speaking groups. The ages of the major founder types of both West and East African origin are consistent with the likely timing of Bantu dispersals, with those from the west somewhat predating those from the east. Despite this composite picture, the southeastern African Bantu groups are indistinguishable from each other with respect to their mtDNA, suggesting that they either had a common origin at the point of entry into southeastern Africa or have undergone very extensive gene flow since.

  5. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Ledesma, Marta; Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn.

  6. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn. PMID:27736919

  7. Three Alkali-Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Newly Discovered in the Mt. Kunlun-Mt. Altun Region, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 毕华; 王中刚

    2002-01-01

    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt. Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive rock belt,the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt. The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period, and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period, which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China. The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  8. Three Alkali—Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Bewly Discovered in the Mt.Kunlkun—Mt.Altun Region,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 等

    2002-01-01

    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt.Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive fock belt, the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beeilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt.The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period,and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period,which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China.The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  9. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  10. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  11. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  12. Application for the Tape Station

    CERN Document Server

    Solero, A

    2003-01-01

    The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

  13. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, JA; Kinote, A; Ignacio-Souza, LM; de Araujo, TM; Razolli, DS; Doneda, DL; Paschoal, LB; Lellis-Santos, C; Bertolini, GL; Velloso, LA; Bordin, S.; Anhe, GF

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT)...

  14. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas

    2017-04-19

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared with their animal counterparts, and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gainand loss-of-function mutants provided evidence for a role of SWIB5 in influencing mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination at specific intermediate-sized repeats both under normal and genotoxic conditions. SWIB5 interacts with other mitochondrial SWIB proteins. Gene expression and mutant phenotypic analysis of SWIB5 and SWIB family members suggests a link between organellar genome maintenance and cell proliferation. Taken together, our work presents a protein family that influences mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination in plants and suggests a link between organelle functioning and plant development.

  15. Narrow-band multi-filter radiometer for total ozone content measurements: Mario Zucchelli Station (Antarctica) campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Salvatore; Zola, Danilo; Menchini, Francesca; Sarcina, Ilaria Di

    2017-02-01

    The importance of ground-based measurements of ultraviolet radiation has increased since the discovery of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion. Spectroradiometers are the most widely used class of instruments, although the requirement to work in attended stations is sometimes limiting. In this work we present a filter radiometer, named F-RAD, with good optical stability, very short sampling time (1 min), and proven reliability. The instrument is based on a stand-alone functioning, making it suitable for operation in hostile environments. The total ozone column (TOC) was estimated by the irradiance ratio at wavelengths where the ozone absorbs the solar radiation and where the radiation is not absorbed. Direct correlation between the TOC values estimated by F-RAD and by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was found, and the standard deviations of the ratios between such values were calculated. Three wavelength ratios were identified to take into account the dependence of the measurements from the Solar Zenith Angle, AF-RAD (306.0 nm/325.3 nm) for SZAF-RAD (309.9 nm/325.3 nm) and CF-RAD (317.5 nm/325.3 nm) for SZA>50°. Considering the OMI ozone data as the reference values, the accuracy of the filter radiometer is estimated to be ±4%. The data collected during the calibration campaign in Lampedusa (June-July 2009, Italy) and during the first Antarctica winter of the 2009-2013 measurement campaign at Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS) are reported. The TOC measured by the F-RAD instrument, by the OMI on board of EOS-Aura satellite (NASA), and by the NOAA UV Monitoring Station in McMurdo (USA) are compared to assess the appropriateness of F-RAD for a long-term measurement campaign.

  16. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  17. Simplified qPCR method for detecting excessive mtDNA damage induced by exogenous factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureev, Artem P; Shaforostova, Ekaterina A; Starkov, Anatoly A; Popov, Vasily N

    2017-05-01

    Damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a meaningful biomarker for evaluating genotoxicity of drugs and environmental toxins. Existing PCR methods utilize long mtDNA fragments (∼8-10kb), which complicates detecting exact sites of mtDNA damage. To identify the mtDNA regions most susceptible to damage, we have developed and validated a set of primers to amplify ∼2kb long fragments, while covering over 95% of mouse mtDNA. We have modified the detection method by greatly increasing the enrichment of mtDNA, which allows us solving the problem of non-specific primer annealing to nuclear DNA. To validate our approach, we have determined the most damage-susceptible mtDNA regions in mice treated in vivo and in vitro with rotenone and H2O2. The GTGR-sequence-enriched mtDNA segments located in the D-loop region were found to be especially susceptible to damage. Further, we demonstrate that H2O2-induced mtDNA damage facilitates the relaxation of mtDNA supercoiled conformation, making the sequences with minimal damage more accessible to DNA polymerase, which, in turn, results in a decrease in threshold cycle value. Overall, our modified PCR method is simpler and more selective to the specific sites of damage in mtDNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement and Check on the mtDNA extract techniques for termites%白蚁 mtDNA 提取方法改良及检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽红; 邹湘武; 宁涤非; 席在星

    2013-01-01

      利用mtDNA多态性进行种类鉴定是一种分子生物学常用方法,从DNA水平对白蚁进行物种鉴别并探讨物种的进化,其必要前提是提取到一定数量和质量的mtDNA.在分离得到线粒体后,分别采用CTAB、SDS 2种方法提取mtDNA.紫外分光光度计检测DNA纯度及浓度,用mtDNA 特异性引物进行PCR 扩增检测.试验证明2种方法均能成功提取白蚁的mtDNA, SDS法提取效果较好.%Species identification with mtDNA polymorphisms is an usual method in molecular biology. To identify the species and to explore the evolution of the termites from the DNA level, it is necessary to extract the mtDNA with enough quantity and good quality. In this study, mitochondria of termites is firstly isolated, then CTAB and SDS methods were employed for the extraction of mtDNA, respectively. Purity and concentration of mtDNA were determined by UV spectrophotometer. PCR amplification of mtDNA was executed by specific primers. Results shows that both CTAB the SDS methods can successfully extracted termite mtDNA, but SDS method shows better performance than CTAB method.

  19. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... new facility would include a fueling station and storm water management system. A water supply line... alternatives. This alternative will offer no changes to the parking within the permit area. It will be fully...

  20. Monitoring and Inhibiting MT1-MMP during Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pahwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP is a zinc-dependent type-I transmembrane metalloproteinase involved in pericellular proteolysis, migration and invasion. Numerous substrates and binding partners have been identified for MT1-MMP, and its role in collagenolysis appears crucial for tumor invasion. However, development of MT1-MMP inhibitors must consider the substantial functions of MT1-MMP in normal physiology and disease prevention. The present review examines the plethora of MT1-MMP activities, how these activities relate to cancer initiation and progression, and how they can be monitored in real time. Examination of MT1-MMP activities and cell surface behaviors can set the stage for the development of unique, selective MT1-MMP inhibitors.

  1. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of human MT+ reduces apparent motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Hirose, Nobuyuki; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-12-18

    We investigated the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the human cerebral cortex on apparent motion perception. Previous studies have shown that human extrastriate visual area MT+ (V5) processes not only real but also apparent motion. However, the functional relevance of MT+ on long-range apparent motion perception remains unclear. Here, we show direct evidence for the involvement of MT+ in apparent motion perception using rTMS, which is known to temporarily inhibit a localized region in the cerebral cortex. The results showed that apparent motion perception decreased after applying rTMS over MT+, but not after applying rTMS over the control region (inferior temporal gyrus). The decrease in performance caused by applying rTMS to MT+ suggests that MT+ is a causally responsible region for apparent motion perception, and thus, further supports the idea that MT+ plays a major role in the perception of motion.

  2. Volcanic tremor at Mt Vesuvius associated with low frequency shear failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Mario; Galluzzo, Danilo

    2016-05-01

    Mt Vesuvius has been dormant since the eruption occurred in 1944, after which the conduit closed and the volcano entered a quiescent state. Only a minor seismic activity, characterized by low magnitude volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, testifies that the magmatic system is still active. In this paper we report the fist quantitative analysis of volcanic tremor discovered at Vesuvius through the analysis of array data. A seismic array installed in 2012 improved the monitoring performance of the local network, permitting the identification of low amplitude coherent signals. Many of such coherent signals recorded during the last few years have been classified as volcanic tremor. We selected 22 tremor events based on their amplitude and on the number of available stations, and performed detailed analysis aimed at location and characterization of the source. They are characterized by low frequency, duration of a few minutes, and the strongest episodes are recorded at distance up to 90 km from the volcano. In many cases we could identify P-S wave pairs in the seismograms that allowed a precise location of the source depth, which is in the range between 5 km and 6.5 km below the crater. Waveform features, spectral analysis, and comparison with VT earthquakes located at the same depth indicate that the source mechanism of the Vesuvius non-eruptive tremor is a sequence of low frequency shear failures.

  3. Eruptive history, seismic activity and ground deformations at Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonasia, V. (Dipt. di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Universita di Napoli (Italy)); Del Pezzo, E.; Pingue, F.; Scandone, R.; Scarpa, R. (Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy))

    Mt. Vesuvius is an active volcano characterized by a quiescent state of activity since April 1944. The high density of population in this region, combined with the past volcanic history, makes it potentially one of the most dangerous in the world. This paper reports all the results on the seismic and ground deformation monitoring performed during the last 13 years. The present seismic activity is characterized by a moderate level of microearthquakes, about 1 event/day, which is presently monitored at OVO station, magnitude threshold 1.7. These microearthquakes exhibit a clustering tendency, following a generalized Poisson process, with the grouped events distributed according to Riemann statistics. Horizontal and vertical distance measurements around this volvanic region have not shown any significant deformation, during the last 7 years, in agreement with the present low seismic activity. The eruptive history and structural framework indicate a possible triggering mechanism for eruptions in the seismic episodes of the neighbouring mountain chain, but further complexities in the feeding system make any simple correlation between eruptions and regional strain release processes difficult.

  4. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  5. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  6. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  7. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

    2010-05-03

    The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to

  8. Multibeam collection for NBP0501: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2005-01-28 to 2005-02-13, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for NBP0209: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2002-12-11 to 2002-12-29, departing from Lyttelton, New Zealand and returning to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Probability density functions characterizing PSC particle size distribution parameters for NAT and STS derived from in situ measurements between 1989 and 2010 above McMurdo Station, Antarctica, and between 1991-2004 above Kiruna, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Balloon-borne optical particle counters were used to make in situ size resolved particle concentration measurements within polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) over 20 years in the Antarctic and over 10 years in the Arctic. The measurements were made primarily during the late winter in the Antarctic and in the early and mid-winter in the Arctic. Measurements in early and mid-winter were also made during 5 years in the Antarctic. For the analysis bimodal lognormal size distributions are fit to 250 meter averages of the particle concentration data. The characteristics of these fits, along with temperature, water and nitric acid vapor mixing ratios, are used to classify the PSC observations as either NAT, STS, ice, or some mixture of these. The vapor mixing ratios are obtained from satellite when possible, otherwise assumptions are made. This classification of the data is used to construct probability density functions for NAT, STS, and ice number concentration, median radius and distribution width for mid and late winter clouds in the Antarctic and for early and mid-winter clouds in the Arctic. Additional analysis is focused on characterizing the temperature histories associated with the particle classes and the different time periods. The results from theses analyses will be presented, and should be useful to set bounds for retrievals of PSC properties from remote measurements, and to constrain model representations of PSCs.

  11. Multibeam collection for NBP0702: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2007-02-03 to 2007-03-23, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for NBP1302: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2013-02-12 to 2013-04-05, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for NBP0602: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2006-02-02 to 2006-02-21, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for NBP9602: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 1996-02-22 to 1996-04-07, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for NBP0305A: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2003-12-20 to 2003-12-30, departing from Lyttelton, New Zealand and returning to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Multibeam collection for NBP0701: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2006-12-22 to 2007-01-28, departing from Lyttelton, New Zealand and returning to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. Multibeam collection for NBP9902: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 1999-02-12 to 1999-03-25, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Multibeam collection for NBP0402: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2004-02-23 to 2004-04-06, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. Multibeam collection for NBP1005: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2010-11-26 to 2011-01-16, departing from Punta Arenas, Chile and returning to McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Multibeam collection for NBP1202: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2012-02-11 to 2012-02-27, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. Multibeam collection for NBP0803: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2008-02-22 to 2008-03-13, departing from McMurdo Station, Antarctica and returning to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Transcriptional response of two metallothionein genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) and histological changes in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) exposed to three trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Yu, Zhitao; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jianzhen; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the transcriptional responses of two metallothionein (MT) genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) in various tissues (brain, optic lobe, Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, foregut, gastric caeca, midgut and hindgut) of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) after exposed to the trace metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) for 48h. The study revealed that the exposure of O. chinensis to each of the three metals at the median lethal concentration (LC50) or lower concentration(s) up-regulated the transcriptions of both OcMT1 and OCMT2 in the eight tissues except for OcMT1 and OcMT2 with Cd in brain and gastric caeca, respectively, and OcMT2 with Cu in gastric caeca. These results suggested that the exposure of O. chinensis to the metals may enhance MT biosynthesis that protects tissues by binding these metals in various tissues. To examine possible histopathological effect of the metals, we examined the histological changes in the fat bodies after O. chinensis was exposed to each of these metals at LC50. The exposure of Cd significantly reduced the size and number of adipocytes as compared with the control. However, such an effect was not observed in O. chinensis exposed to either Cu or Zn. These results suggested that fat bodies might be either significantly affected by Cd or play a crucial role in detoxification of excessive trace metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Similar patterns of clonally expanded somatic mtDNA mutations in the colon of heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice and ageing humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Holly L.; Stewart, James B.; Stamp, Craig; Zupanic, Anze; Kirkwood, Thomas B.L.; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Greaves, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Clonally expanded mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations resulting in focal respiratory chain deficiency in individual cells are proposed to contribute to the ageing of human tissues that depend on adult stem cells for self-renewal; however, the consequences of these mutations remain unclear. A good animal model is required to investigate this further; but it is unknown whether mechanisms for clonal expansion of mtDNA mutations, and the mutational spectra, are similar between species. Here we show that mice, heterozygous for a mutation disrupting the proof-reading activity of mtDNA polymerase (PolgA+/mut) resulting in an increased mtDNA mutation rate, accumulate clonally expanded mtDNA point mutations in their colonic crypts with age. This results in focal respiratory chain deficiency, and by 81 weeks of age these animals exhibit a similar level and pattern of respiratory chain deficiency to 70-year-old human subjects. Furthermore, like in humans, the mtDNA mutation spectrum appears random and there is an absence of selective constraints. Computer simulations show that a random genetic drift model of mtDNA clonal expansion can accurately model the data from the colonic crypts of wild-type, PolgA+/mut animals, and humans, providing evidence for a similar mechanism for clonal expansion of mtDNA point mutations between these mice and humans. PMID:24915468

  4. The Magmatic Structure of Mt. Vesuvius: Isotopic and Thermal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, L.; D'Antonio, M.; de Lorenzo, S.; Gasparini, P.

    2002-12-01

    Mt. Vesuvius is an active volcano famous for the AD 79 eruption that destroyed Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae. Because of the intense urbanization around and on the volcano, the risk today is very high. Therefore, the knowledge of the structure and behavior of the magmatic system is fundamental both for the interpretation of any change in the dynamics of the volcano and for prediction of eruptions. A review of available and new isotopic data on rocks from Mt. Vesuvius, together with mineralogical and geochemical data and recent geophysical results, allow us to constrain a thermal modeling that describes history and present state of Mt. Vesuvius magmatic system. This system is formed by a "deep", complex magmatic reservoir where mantle-derived magmas arrive, stagnate and differentiate. The reservoir extends discontinuously between 10 and 20 km of depth, is hosted in densely fractured crustal rocks, where magmas and crust can interact, and has been fed more than once since 400 ka. The hypothesis of crustal contamination is favored by the high temperatures reached by crustal rocks as a consequence of repetitive intrusions of magma. From the "deep" reservoir magmas of K-basaltic to K-tephritic to K-phonotephritic composition rise to shallow depths where they stagnate at 3-5 km of depth before plinian eruptions, and through crystallization and mixing processes with the residual portion of the feeding systems, generate isotopically and geochemically layered reservoirs. Alternatively, during "open conduit" conditions deep, volatile-rich magma batches rise from the "deep" reservoir to less than 1 km of depth and mix with the crystal-rich, volatile-poor resident magma, triggering eruptions.

  5. Modeling sulfur dioxide concentrations in Mt. Rainier area during prevent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Reuven; Flocchini, Robert G.; Cahill, Thomas A.

    The MATHEW/ADPIC models (a diagnostic wind model and a particle model) which were developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, were used to compute SO 2 concentrations in the Mt Rainier area during PREVENT (Pacific Northwest Regional Visibility Experiment Using Natural Tracers, June to September 1990). The modeled concentrations were compared to measured concentrations at two sampling locations (Tahoma Woods and Paradise near Mt Rainier) which are located in a valley. The SO 2 sources considered are located along the Puget Sound (Everett, Seattle and Tacoma area) and south of it. New formulations were included in the models for the oxidation of SO 2 and the interpolation of the wind field. Because of the paucity of the meteorological data near the sampling points, an estimation was made of the wind values in the valley, based on the phenomena of wind channeling, mountain and valley winds, and historical wind observations near Mt Rainier. The models were run for several non-rainy days during the PREVENT period when large SO 2 concentrations were observed, and for other special cases. Out of 14 days for which the emissions of the previous night were taken into account, for 12 days the ratio of the modeled to the measured SO 2 concentrations at Tahoma Woods during the daytime, was in the interval 0.45-2.00, considered a good agreement. However, the agreement at Tahoma Woods during the night, and at Paradise during the day and the night, were not as good. It seems that the wind flow near Tahoma Woods under the stable conditions at night, and near the steep terrain of Paradise, were not modeled correctly, with the limited input of available meteorological observations.

  6. A miniature VGA SWIR camera using MT6415CA ROIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Yilmaz, S. Gokhan; Kocak, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new miniature VGA SWIR camera called NanoCAM-6415, which is developed to demonstrate the key features of the MT6415CA ROIC such as high integration level, low-noise, and low-power in a small volume. The NanoCAM-6415 uses an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) with a format of 640 × 512 and pixel pitch of 15 μm built using MT6415CA ROIC. MT6415CA is a low-noise CTIA ROIC, which has a system-on-chip architecture, allows generation of all the required timing and biases on-chip in the ROIC without requiring any external components or inputs, thus enabling the development of compact and low-noise SWIR cameras, with reduced size, weight, and power (SWaP). NanoCAM-6415 camera supports snapshot operation using Integrate-Then-Read (ITR) and Integrate-While-Read (IWR) modes. The camera has three gain settings enabled by the ROIC through programmable Full-Well-Capacity (FWC) values of 10.000 e-, 20.000 e-, and 350.000 e- in the very high gain (VHG), high-gain (HG), and low-gain (LG) modes, respectively. The camera has an input referred noise level of 10 e- rms in the VHG mode at 1 ms integration time, suitable for low-noise SWIR imaging applications. In order to reduce the size and power of the camera, only 2 outputs out of 8 of the ROIC are connected to the external Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in the camera electronics, providing a maximum frame rate of 50 fps through a 26-pin SDR type Camera Link connector. NanoCAM-6415 SWIR camera without the optics measures 32 mm × 32 mm × 35 mm, weighs 45gr, and dissipates less than 1.8 W using a 5 V supply. These results show that MT6415CA ROIC can successfully be used to develop cameras for SWIR imaging applications where SWaP is a concern. Mikro-Tasarim has also developed new imaging software to demonstrate the functionality of this miniature VGA camera. Mikro-Tasarim provides tested ROIC wafers and also offers compact and easy-to-use test electronics, demo cameras, and hardware

  7. Climbing Mt. Sharp: Maximizing Curiosity's Science Over Traversable Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bellutta, P.; Sletten, R. S.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    As Curiosity transitions from the plains of Gale Crater to the flanks of Mt. Sharp, the rover will begin to encounter material and terrains that could present greater mobility challenges. These challenges include the presence of significantly steeper slopes and large dunes that have the potential to embed the vehicle. Strategic path planning during this phase of the mission will therefore require carefully selecting a traversable route that is both time-efficient and that will provide access to the most scientifically rewarding targets. We consider possible solutions to this optimization problem by examining multiple orbital data sets in order to locate likely mobility hazards and to select potential science waypoints for future in situ investigation. High resolution HiRISE monochromatic images and digital elevation models show filled craters, rock fields, areas with slopes too steep for the rover to traverse, and other possible mobility obstacles on the northwest flank of Mt. Sharp. Using this context, we review accessibility to scientific targets on Mt. Sharp that have been previously discussed in landing site workshop presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Additionally, we identify new targets using detailed geologic maps combined with oversampled CRISM observations that provide mineralogical information at unprecedented high spatial resolutions (up to 6 m/pixel). For example, the spatially sharpened CRISM spectral data show a localized hematite deposit that is associated with the upper-most stratum of a ridge which is located ~3km from the rover's entry point to Mt. Sharp. This deposit may represent a previously habitable environment and is therefore a high priority target for in situ investigation. In order to study the hematite and also to eventually access the phyllosilicate-bearing trough that is located directly behind the ridge, Curiosity will have to cross this ridge, but the ridge edges are often defined by regions with slopes that are too steep

  8. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  9. Revisiting Combinatorial Ambiguities at Hadron Colliders with MT2

    CERN Document Server

    Baringer, Philip; McCaskey, Mathew; Noonan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to resolve combinatorial issues in multi-particle final states at hadron colliders. The use of kinematic variables such as MT2 and invariant mass significantly reduces combinatorial ambiguities in the signal, but at a cost of losing statistics. We illustrate this idea with gluino pair production leading to 4 jets $+\\met$ in the final state as well as $t\\bar{t}$ production in the dilepton channel. Compared to results in recent studies, our method provides greater efficiency with similar purity

  10. Functional conservation of yeast mtTFB despite extensive sequence divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrodeguas, J A; Yun, S; Shadel, G S; Clayton, D A; Bogenhagen, D F

    1996-01-01

    Transcription of mtDNA in the yeast S. cerevisiae depends on recognition of a consensus nonanucleotide promoter sequence by mtRNA polymerase acting with a 40-kDa dissociable factor known as mtTFB or Mtflp. mtTFB has been cloned and characterized in S. cerevisiae, but has not been studied in similar detail in any other organism. Although it is known that mitochondrial transcription in the dairy yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, initiates within the same consensus promoter sequence used in S. cerevisiae, no previous studies have focused on the proteins involved in transcription initiation in K. lactis. In this article, we report the cloning of mtTFB from K. lactis and from a yeast more closely related to S. cerevisiae, S. kluyveri. Both novel mtTFB genes were able to substitute for the MTF1 gene in S. cerevisiae. Both proteins purified following expression in E. coli were able to support specific transcription initiation in vitro with the S. cerevisiae mtRNA polymerase. The S. kluyveri and K. lactis mtTFB proteins share only 56% and 40% identity with S. cerevisiae mtTFB, respectively. Alignments of the three mtTFB sequences did not reveal any regions larger than 30 amino acids with greater than 60% amino acid identity. In particular, regions proposed to show sequence similarity to bacterial sigma factors were not more highly conserved than other regions of the mtTFB proteins. All three yeast mtTFB genes lack conventional amino-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequences, suggesting that all three proteins may be imported into mitochondria by the same unusual mechanism reported for S. cerevisiae mtTFB.

  11. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  12. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  13. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  14. The novel high-performance 3-D MT inverse solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Geraskin, Alexey; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present novel, robust, scalable, and fast 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. The solver is written in multi-language paradigm to make it as efficient, readable and maintainable as possible. Separation of concerns and single responsibility concepts go through implementation of the solver. As a forward modelling engine a modern scalable solver extrEMe, based on contracting integral equation approach, is used. Iterative gradient-type (quasi-Newton) optimization scheme is invoked to search for (regularized) inverse problem solution, and adjoint source approach is used to calculate efficiently the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT responses, and supports massive parallelization. Moreover, different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem statement. To parameterize an inverse domain the so-called mask parameterization is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to HPC Piz Daint (6th supercomputer in the world) demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes.

  15. MT-compatible red VCSEL module for parallel optical interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hove, An; Van de Putte, Koen; Naessens, Kris; Dhoedt, Bart; Baets, Roel G.; Van Daele, Peter

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we present the design, fabrication and characterization of a module which directly connectorizes a 1 by 8 red VCSEL array to a small diameter polymer optical fiber array, using a standard MT ferrule. The facets of the POF are prepared by a hot knife cutting, followed by a short polishing step. First coupling results show total losses in the range of 1.1 dB/channel for a 30 cm POF link. Optical crosstalk between adjacent channels is below -45 dB. Plastic micromachined parts surrounding the VCSEL chip ensure the correct alignment of the connector, using the connector, using the connector guiding points. The parts themselves are aligned to the chip with a n index-alignment technique, using an excimer laser ablated mastertool. In a deconnectorizable version of the module, a thin, flat glue layer on the chip acts as a window between the VCSEL chip and the MT terminated POF array. Integrated in a standard ceramic package, clear eye diagrams have been measured at 150 MHz for a 10m POF link, coupled to the VCSEL array. Further efforts on higher speed measurements using dedicated drivers, will also be presented.

  16. CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF DENGUE IN JUSCIMEIRA - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Marcos Moreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: dengue presents itself as a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Increased morbidity and mortality care managers, civil society and health professionals. To characterize the clinical and epidemiology of dengue in the city of Juscimeira - MT between the years 2009 to 2013. Methods: Retrospective quantitative-descriptive study was conducted from the secondary analysis of the Information System of Notifiable Diseases. Results: 391 cases were registered, with a predominance of males (51.4%, the largest number of cases in 2010 (28.14%, the classic dengue was the most prevalent type. The most affected age group was between 20-34 years. Regarding socioeconomic and geographic variables, the most affected were those living in urban areas and high school. The prevalent diagnostic method was the laboratory. The serotype of DENV-I was the most common in the city and 100% of the sample were autochthonous. Conclusion: Dengue is endemic in Juscimeira - MT. The data come from the epidemiological meeting of the current literature, reflecting the upward condition of this disease not only in the state of Mato Grosso and Brazil. It is recommended that further studies be carried forward to this subject, so that they can contribute to the process of monitoring of this disease in the city, working with the technical teams, health professionals and local managers in planning activities to be undertaken in the medium and long term to reduce the prevalence of this disease. KEYWORDS: Public Health. Epidemiological surveillance. Primary prevention.

  17. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  18. Use of gravity potential field methods for defining a shallow magmatic intrusion: the Mt. Amiata case history (Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Chiara; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano; Pauselli, Cristina; Heyde, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the Bouguer gravity anomaly signal beneath the Mt. Amiata area in order to reconstruct the subsurface setting. The study area is characterized by a pronounced gravity minimum, possibly correlated with the observed anomalous heat flow and hydrothermal activity. Using different approaches, previous authors defined a low density body (generally interpreted as a magmatic intrusion) beneath this area, which could explain the observed gravity anomaly minimum. However the proposed geologic models show different geometries and densities for the batholith. The gravity data used in this study (kindly provided by eni) were acquired from different institutions (eni, OGS, USDMA and Servizio Geologico d'Italia) and collected in a unique dataset, consisting of about 50000 stations, randomly distributed, which cover Central Italy, with a spacing of less than 1 km. For each station the elevation and the Bouguer gravity anomaly data are given. From this dataset, we created two maps of the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the topography, using the Minimum Curvature gridding method considering a grid cell size of 500m x 500m. The Bouguer gravity anomaly has been computed using a density of 2.67 g/cm3. From these maps we extracted a window of about 240 km2 (12x20 km) for the study area, which includes the Mt. Amiata region and the adjacent Radicofani sedimentary basin. The first part of this study was focused on calculating the first order vertical derivative and the power spectra analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly to enhance the effect of shallow bodies and estimating the source depth respectively. The second part of this study was focused on constructing a 3D geological density model of the subsurface setting of the studied area, implementing a forward modelling approach. The stratigraphy of the study area's upper crust schematically consists of six litho-mechanical units, whose density was derived from velocity data collected by active seismic surveys. A preliminary

  19. The use of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography to image deep volcanic structures: a methodological study applied to Mt. Vesuvius (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Somma, Renato; Brandi, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Geophysics is considered a powerful tool both for modeling the structure and controlling the dynamics of active volcanoes. In particular, the application of the electrical and electromagnetic (EM) methods is a topic of great interest, given the strong dependence of the electrical resistivity on the shallow and deep physical characteristics of a volcanic apparatus. Among the EM methods, the magnetotellurics (MT), reaching investigation depth ranging from a few hundred meters to tens of km, is the optimal tool to characterize the volcanic environments leading often to remarkable imaging of the buried structures. However, its dependence from a natural source make its application often difficult due to the presence of high noise levels. Moreover, MT curves are subjected to the so-called static shift effect, an anomalous displacement of the curves that cannot be modeled without some external constrain. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), on other hands, using an artificial source, ends in a more controlled imaging that is, however, often limited to the very shallow parts of the structures. The realization of a deeper ERT imaging is complicated by both physical and logistic reasons. The resolved depths depend from the intensity of the source, an electrical current injected into the ground, whereas the displacement of the measurements array often implies hard problems due to the nature of the volcanic environments. The actual progresses of the technologies offer some way to bypass the main limitation of the ERT technique. The use of new kind of measurement stations permits the realization of a sort of wireless electrodic arrays. The easiness of use of the actual power generators represents a further notable element. In conclusion, the ERT imaging could now represents an optimal tool also in the imaging of structures buried at intermediate depths (up to a few km). In such a way, also its interaction with the MT methods could results notably enhanced, due to the

  20. Validation of SCIAMACHY NO2 Vertical Column Densities with Mt.Cimone and Stara Zagora Ground-Based Zenith Sky DOAS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, I.; Petritoli, A.; Werner, R.; Valev, D.; Atanasov, At.; Bortoli, D.; Markova, T.; Ravegnani, F.; Palazzi, E.; Giovanelli, G.

    2004-08-01

    Ground-based zenith sky Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements performed by means of GASCOD instruments at Mt. Cimone (44N 11E), Italy and Stara Zagora (42N, 25E), Bulgaria are used for validation of SCIAMACHY NO2 vertical column density (vcd) of ESA SCI_NL product retrieved with 5.01 processor version. The results presented in this work regard satellite data for the JulyDecember 2002 period. On this base it is concluded that during summer-autumn period the overall NO2 vcd above both stations is fairly well reproduced by the SCIAMACHY data, while towards the winter period they deviate from the seasonal behaviour of NO2 vcd derived at both stations

  1. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  2. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  3. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  4. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  5. Exercise Intolerance and Myoglobinuria Associated with a Novel Maternally Inherited MT-ND1 Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Jabin; Duno, Morten; Østergaard, Elsebet

    2016-01-01

    The most common clinical phenotype caused by a mtDNA mutation in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. We report a family with a novel maternally inherited homoplasmic mtDNA m.4087A>G mutation in the ND1 gene (MT-ND1) associated with isolated...... myopathy, recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria, and rhabdomyolysis. DNA from blood in seven family members and muscle from four family members were PCR amplified and sequenced directly and assessed for the m.4087A>G variation in MT-ND1. Mitochondrial enzyme activity in all muscle biopsies was measured. PCR...... myoglobinuria is a rare phenotype of mitochondrial myopathies. We report this phenotype in a family affected by a novel homoplasmic mutation in MT-ND1. It is the first time such a phenotype has been associated with complex I gene mutations and a homoplasmic mutation of mtDNA....

  6. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pitceathly, Robert D S

    2012-09-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN).

  7. ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with mitochondrial division in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Samantha C; Uchiyama, Lauren F; Nunnari, Jodi

    2016-07-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis--events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria.

  8. Single-cell analysis of intercellular heteroplasmy of mtDNA in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Sharpe, H.; Brown, N.

    1994-07-01

    The authors have investigated the distribution of mutant mtDNA molecules in single cells from a patient with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). LHON is a maternally inherited disease that is characterized by a sudden-onset bilateral loss of central vision, which typically occurs in early adulthood. More than 50% of all LHON patients carry an mtDNA mutation at nucleotide position 11778. This nucleotide change converts a highly conserved arginine residue to histidine at codon 340 in the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4) gene of mtDNA. In the present study, the authors used PCR amplification of mtDNA from lymphocytes to investigate mtDNA heteroplasmy at the single-cell level in a LHON patient. They found that most cells were either homoplasmic normal or homoplasmic mutant at nucleotide position 11778. Some (16%) cells contained both mutant and normal mtDNA.

  9. mtDNA/nDNA ratio in 14484 LHON mitochondrial mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Tomoki; Soemantri, Augustinus; Ishida, Takafumi

    2004-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. In this study, the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio was evaluated in 11 LHON patients with the 14484 mutation, 13 asymptomatic carriers and 18 non-carrier relatives as controls, to reveal possible relationships between the disease and mtDNA content. DNAs from peripheral blood lymphocytes were subjected to quantitative PCR. Gender differences and age-dependent changes in the mtDNA content were not observed. Significant increase in the mtDNA content was observed only in the asymptomatic carriers (PLHON development, whereas those whose levels had not, had developed LHON. Since the asymptomatic carriers are the stock of the future LHON patients, monitoring the mtDNA content in patients and their relatives may help to predict the prognosis of the disease.

  10. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula.

  11. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  12. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  13. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  14. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kurz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  15. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  16. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  17. Characterization of pancreatic lesions from MT-tgf alpha, Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc single and double transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dezhong Joshua; Wang, Yong; Wu, Jiusheng; Adsay, Nazmi Volkan; Grignon, David; Khanani, Fayyaz; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2006-07-05

    In order to identify good animal models for investigating therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer, we analyzed pancreatic lesions from several transgenic models and made a series of novel findings. Female MT-tgf alpha mice of the MT100 line developed pancreatic proliferation, acinar-ductal metaplasia, multilocular cystic neoplasms, ductal adenocarcinomas and prominent fibrosis, while the lesions in males were less severe. MT-tgf alpha-ES transgenic lines of both sexes developed slowly progressing lesions that were similar to what was seen in MT100 males. In both MT100 and MT-tgf alpha-ES lines, TGF alpha transgene was expressed mainly in proliferating ductal cells. Ela-myc transgenic mice with a mixed C57BL/6, SJL and FVB genetic background developed pancreatic tumors at 2-7 months of age, and half of the tumors were ductal adenocarcinomas, similar to what was reported originally by Sandgren et al 1. However, in 20% of the mice, the tumors metastasized to the liver. MT100/Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha-ES/Ela-myc double transgenic mice developed not only acinar carcinomas and mixed carcinomas as previously reported but also various ductal-originated lesions, including multilocular cystic neoplasms and ductal adenocarcinomas. The double transgenic tumors were more malignant and metastasized to the liver at a higher frequency (33%) compared with the Ela-myc tumors. Sequencing of the coding region of p16ink4, k-ras and Rb cDNA in small numbers of pancreatic tumors did not identify mutations. The short latency for tumor development, the variety of tumor morphology and the liver metastases seen in Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc mice make these animals good models for investigating new therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer.

  18. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  19. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Metabolic rescue in pluripotent cells from patients with mtDNA disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Folmes, Clifford D L; Wu, Jun; Morey, Robert; Mora-Castilla, Sergio; Ocampo, Alejandro; Ma, Li; Poulton, Joanna; Wang, Xinjian; Ahmed, Riffat; Kang, Eunju; Lee, Yeonmi; Hayama, Tomonari; Li, Ying; Van Dyken, Crystal; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Koski, Amy; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Huang, Taosheng; Terzic, Andre; Laurent, Louise C; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-08-13

    Mitochondria have a major role in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, which is dependent on the expression of critical genes encoded by mitochondrial (mt)DNA. Mutations in mtDNA can cause fatal or severely debilitating disorders with limited treatment options. Clinical manifestations vary based on mutation type and heteroplasmy (that is, the relative levels of mutant and wild-type mtDNA within each cell). Here we generated genetically corrected pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) from patients with mtDNA disease. Multiple induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines were derived from patients with common heteroplasmic mutations including 3243A>G, causing mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and 8993T>G and 13513G>A, implicated in Leigh syndrome. Isogenic MELAS and Leigh syndrome iPS cell lines were generated containing exclusively wild-type or mutant mtDNA through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in proliferating fibroblasts. Furthermore, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enabled replacement of mutant mtDNA from homoplasmic 8993T>G fibroblasts to generate corrected Leigh-NT1 PSCs. Although Leigh-NT1 PSCs contained donor oocyte wild-type mtDNA (human haplotype D4a) that differed from Leigh syndrome patient haplotype (F1a) at a total of 47 nucleotide sites, Leigh-NT1 cells displayed transcriptomic profiles similar to those in embryo-derived PSCs carrying wild-type mtDNA, indicative of normal nuclear-to-mitochondrial interactions. Moreover, genetically rescued patient PSCs displayed normal metabolic function compared to impaired oxygen consumption and ATP production observed in mutant cells. We conclude that both reprogramming approaches offer complementary strategies for derivation of PSCs containing exclusively wild-type mtDNA, through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in individual iPS cell lines or mitochondrial replacement by SCNT in homoplasmic mtDNA-based disease.

  1. Investigation of yeast genes possibly involved in mtDNA stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phelim Isichei

    function and structure on mtDNA stability in yeast, our results did not support those ... most studied model organism for acquisition of basic ... RNA interference of genes involved in mtDNA replication ... polymerase, results in reduced mtDNA copy number but .... found that RNAi of 4 genes (M01E5.2, T27F6.5, T26A5.6.

  2. Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RMG Nuclear...-like Seq in mt Genome Data detail Data name Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome Description of data co...t This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  3. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-utility stations. 80.107 Section 80.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  4. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  5. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic magmas at Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Luigi; Raffaello, Cioni; Chiara, Boschi; Claudia, D'oriano

    2010-05-01

    Pumice and scoria from different eruptive layers of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic products contain mafic minerals consisting of High-Fo olivine and Diopsidic Pyroxene. These phases were crystallized in unerupted trachibasaltic to tephritic magmas, and were brought to surface by large phonolitic/tephri-phonolitic (e.g. Avellino and Pompei) and/or of tephritic and phono-tephritic (Pollena) eruptions. A large set of these mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material and measured for their chemical compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS) and 18O/16O ratios (conventional laser fluorination) to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas at Mt. Vesuvius. Uncontaminated mantle δ18O values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary melts during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). At Mt. Vesuvius, measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas. Trace element composition constrains the near primary nature of the phases. Published data on volatile content of melt inclusions hosted in these crystals reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting that crystal growth occurred in a reservoir at about 8-10 km depth. Recently, experimental data have suggested massive carbonate assimilation (up to about 20%) to derive potassic alkali magmas from trachybasaltic melts. Accordingly, the δ18O variability and the trace element content of the studied minerals suggest possible contamination of primary melts by an O-isotope enriched, REE-poor contaminant like the limestone of Vesuvius basement. Low, nearly primitive δ18O values are observed for olivine from Pompeii eruption, although still

  6. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  7. No recombination of mtDNA after heteroplasmy for 50 generations in the mouse maternal germline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Erik; Freyer, Christoph; Battersby, Brendan J.; Stewart, James B.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Variants of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are commonly used as markers to track human evolution because of the high sequence divergence and exclusive maternal inheritance. It is assumed that the inheritance is clonal, i.e. that mtDNA is transmitted between generations without germline recombination. In contrast to this assumption, a number of studies have reported the presence of recombinant mtDNA molecules in cell lines and animal tissues, including humans. If germline recombination of mtDNA is frequent, it would strongly impact phylogenetic and population studies by altering estimates of coalescent time and branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Unfortunately, this whole area is controversial and the experimental approaches have been widely criticized as they often depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of mtDNA and/or involve studies of transformed cell lines. In this study, we used an in vivo mouse model that has had germline heteroplasmy for a defined set of mtDNA mutations for more than 50 generations. To assess recombination, we adapted and validated a method based on cloning of single mtDNA molecules in the λ phage, without prior PCR amplification, followed by subsequent mutation analysis. We screened 2922 mtDNA molecules and found no germline recombination after transmission of mtDNA under genetically and evolutionary relevant conditions in mammals. PMID:24163253

  8. Tomato EF-Ts(mt), a functional mitochondrial translation elongation factor from higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, Mohamed; Li, Zhengguo; Tournier, Barthélémy; Chaves, Ana; Zegzouti, Hicham; Jauneau, Alain; Delalande, Corinne; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Spremulli, Linda L; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene-induced ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) resulted in the accumulation of a transcript designated LeEF-Ts(mt) that encodes a protein with significant homology to bacterial Ts translational elongation factor (EF-Ts). Transient expression in tobacco and sunflower protoplasts of full-length and truncated LeEF-Ts(mt)-GFP fusion constructs and confocal microscopy observations clearly demonstrated the targeting of LeEF-Ts(mt) to mitochondria and not to chloroplasts and the requirement for a signal peptide for the proper sorting of the protein. Escherichia coli recombinant LeEF-Ts(mt) co-eluted from Ni-NTA resins with a protein corresponding to the molecular weight of the elongation factor EF-Tu of E. coli, indicating an interaction with bacterial EF-Tu. Increasing the GDP concentration in the extraction buffer reduced the amount of EF-Tu in the purified LeEF-Ts(mt) fraction. The purified LeEF-Ts(mt) stimulated the poly(U)-directed polymerization of phenylalanine 10-fold in the presence of EF-Tu. Furthermore, LeEF-Ts(mt) was capable of catalysing the nucleotide exchange reaction with E. coli EF-Tu. Altogether, these data demonstrate that LeEF-Ts(mt) encodes a functional mitochondrial EF-Ts. LeEF-Ts(mt) represents the first mitochondrial elongation factor to be isolated and functionally characterized in higher plants.

  9. REM sleep deprivation promotes a dopaminergic influence in the striatal MT2 anxiolytic-like effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseda, Ana Carolina D.; Targa, Adriano D.S.; Rodrigues, Lais S.; Aurich, Mariana F.; Lima, Marcelo M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic-like effects of striatal MT2 activation, and its counteraction induced by the selective blockade of this receptor. Furthermore, we analyzed this condition under the paradigm of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) and the animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by rotenone. Male Wistar rats were infused with intranigral rotenone (12 μg/μL), and 7 days later were subjected to 24 h of REMSD. Afterwards the rats underwent striatal micro-infusions of selective melatonin MT2 receptor agonist, 8-M-PDOT (10 μg/μL) or selective melatonin MT2 receptor antagonist, 4-P-PDOT (5 μg/μL) or vehicle. Subsequently, the animals were tested in the open-field (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Results indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors produced anxiolytic-like effects. In opposite, the MT2 blockade did not show an anxiogenic-like effect. Besides, REMSD induced anxiolytic-like effects similar to 8-M-PDOT. MT2 activation generated a prevalent locomotor increase compared to MT2 blockade in the context of REMSD. Together, these results suggest a striatal MT2 modulation associated to the REMSD-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity causing a possible dopaminergic influence in the MT2 anxiolytic-like effects in the intranigral rotenone model of PD. PMID:27226821

  10. Impact of land use changes on hydrology of Mt. Kilimanjaro. The case of Lake Jipe catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Keziah; Ogindo, Harun; Ertsen, Maurits

    2015-04-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro is an important water tower in Kenya and Tanzania. Land degradation and land use changes have contributed to dwindling surface water resources around Mt. Kilimanjaro. This study focuses on Lake Jipe catchment of about 451Km2 (Ndetei 2011) which is mainly drained by River Lumi, a tributary of river Pangani. River Lumi starts from Mt. Kilimanjaro and flows North east wards to cross the border from Tanzania to Kenya eventually flowing into Lake Jipe which is a trans-boundary lake. The main purpose of this study was to investigate historical land use changes and relate this to reduction in surface water resources. The study will propose measures that could restore the catchment thereby enhancing surface water resources feeding Lake Jipe. A survey was conducted to document community perspectives of historical land use changes. This information was corroborated using Landsat remote sensed images spanning the period 1985-2013 to determine changes in the land cover due to human activities on Lake Jipe Catchment. River Lumi flow data was obtained from Water Resources Management Authority and analyzed for flow trends. The dwindling extent of the Lake was obtained from the community's perspective survey and by Landsat images. Community survey and remote sensing indicated clearing of the forest on the mountain and conversion of the same to crop production fields; damming of river Lumi in Tanzania, conversion of bush land to crop production fields further downstream of river Lumi and irrigation. There is heavy infestation of the invasive species Prosopis juliflora which had aggressively colonized grazing land and blocked irrigation canals. Other land use changes include land fragmentation due to subdivision. Insecure land tenure was blamed for failure by farmers to develop soil and water conservation infrastructure. Available River gauging data showed a general decline in river flow. Heavy flooding occurred during rainy seasons. Towards Lake Jipe after the river

  11. Source geometry from exceptionally high resolution long period event observations at Mt Etna during the 2008 eruption

    CERN Document Server

    De Barros, Louis; Lokmer, Ivan; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Zucarello, Luciano; O'Brien, Gareth; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe; Patanè, Domenico; 10.1029/2009GL041273

    2010-01-01

    During the second half of June, 2008, 50 broadband seismic stations were deployed on Mt Etna volcano in close proximity to the summit, allowing us to observe seismic activity with exceptionally high resolution. 129 long period events (LP) with dominant frequencies ranging between 0.3 and 1.2 Hz, were extracted from this dataset. These events form two families of similar waveforms with different temporal distributions. Event locations are performed by cross-correlating signals for all pairs of stations in a two-step scheme. In the first step, the absolute location of the centre of the clusters was found. In the second step, all events are located using this position. The hypocentres are found at shallow depths (20 to 700 m deep) below the summit craters. The very high location resolution allows us to detect the temporal migration of the events along a dike-like structure and 2 pipe shaped bodies, yielding an unprecedented view of some elements of the shallow plumbing system at Mount Etna. These events do not s...

  12. Decoding of visual attention from LFP signals of macaque MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esghaei, Moein; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The local field potential (LFP) has recently been widely used in brain computer interfaces (BCI). Here we used power of LFP recorded from area MT of a macaque monkey to decode where the animal covertly attended. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to learn the pattern of power at different frequencies for attention to two possible positions. We found that LFP power at both low (<9 Hz) and high (31-120 Hz) frequencies contains sufficient information to decode the focus of attention. Highest decoding performance was found for gamma frequencies (31-120 Hz) and reached 82%. In contrast low frequencies (<9 Hz) could help the classifier reach a higher decoding performance with a smaller amount of training data. Consequently, we suggest that low frequency LFP can provide fast but coarse information regarding the focus of attention, while higher frequencies of the LFP deliver more accurate but less timely information about the focus of attention.

  13. Decoding of visual attention from LFP signals of macaque MT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Esghaei

    Full Text Available The local field potential (LFP has recently been widely used in brain computer interfaces (BCI. Here we used power of LFP recorded from area MT of a macaque monkey to decode where the animal covertly attended. Support vector machines (SVM were used to learn the pattern of power at different frequencies for attention to two possible positions. We found that LFP power at both low (<9 Hz and high (31-120 Hz frequencies contains sufficient information to decode the focus of attention. Highest decoding performance was found for gamma frequencies (31-120 Hz and reached 82%. In contrast low frequencies (<9 Hz could help the classifier reach a higher decoding performance with a smaller amount of training data. Consequently, we suggest that low frequency LFP can provide fast but coarse information regarding the focus of attention, while higher frequencies of the LFP deliver more accurate but less timely information about the focus of attention.

  14. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use is of extremely high importance in many societies, and prevalent in African communities. This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle. The influence of modern tourism cannot be neglected in this context. This paper examines the plant use of the Samburu of the Mt. Nyiru area in Northern Kenya. The Samburu pastoralists of Kenya are still amongst the most traditional communities of the country and have retained most of their knowledge about the use of a large part of the plants in their environment for a wide variety of purposes. The results indicate that the local population has a very high knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and attributes a purpose to a large percentage of the plants found. 448 plant species were collected, identified and their Samburu names and traditional uses recorded. 199 species were reported as of "no use". The high proportion of 249 plant species however had some traditional use: The highest number (180 species was used as fodder, followed by 80 species that had medicinal use. Firewood (59 species, construction (42 species, tools (31 species, food (29 species and ceremonial use (19 species ranked far behind. Traditionally the Samburu attribute most illnesses to the effect of pollutants that block or inhibit digestion. This can include "polluted" food, contagion through sick people as well as witchcraft. In most cases the treatment of illness involves herbal purgatives to cleanse the patient. There are however frequent indications of plant use for common problems like wounds, parasites, body aches and burns. The change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle, often observed in other areas of the country, has affected the Samburu of remote Mt. Nyiru to a much lesser extent and did so far not lead to a major loss of traditional plant knowledge. However, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a

  15. QUALITY CONTROL OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE TABLETS MARKETED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Órfão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thiazide diuretics are of the classes of drugs most frequently used for the treatment of hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is the representative of this class and is found in tablet form in doses of 25 and 50 mg. It is marketed in three different categories of drugs: reference, similar and generic. According to the regulator in Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, before pharmaceuticals are released for use, the pharmaceutical industry must meet product quality specifications, but the consumption of counterfeit drugs, contraband or without registration with government laws It is growing in Brazil, which affect the entire drug production chain affecting the health of those who use these medicines. In view of the reported problems about the quality of marketed drugs and being the state of Mato Grosso considered a fake gateway drug, due to its proximity to Bolivia, this study aimed to assess the quality of tablets containing hydrochlorothiazide is already one of the most widely used drugs in the treatment of hypertension in Sinop-MT municipality according local search. Samples from five laboratories that produce hydrochlorothiazide tablets at a dose of 25 mg, and the most market in the municipality of Sinop / MT were analyzed as stablished in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. It was found that four of the five samples of drugs in Mato Grosso, performed all the requirements for approval in quality testing, with the exception of a product that has lower hardness values than recommended, which can lead to problems drug presentation as well as directly affect the absorption, bioavailability and action of the therapeutic drug. It was concluded that medicinal products containing hydrochlorothiazide showed adequate quality, ensuring their effectiveness.

  16. Remote Observing with Robotic Telescopes on Mt. Hopkins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, G. W.

    1994-12-01

    Tennessee State University conducts remote, automatic observing with four robotic telescopes located at the Fairborn Observatory site on Mt. Hopkins, 30 miles south of Tucson. These telescopes run completely unattended; a site control computer monitors the time of day and weather conditions, opens the roof at the beginning of the night, informs each telescope's control computer when observations can begin, and shuts down the site when morning twilight or bad weather intervenes. The Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS) allows us to program the telescopes and to retrieve data via ASCII file transfers over the Internet. ATIS also includes a set of target selection rules that allow the telescopes to operate autonomously for many weeks or months without our intervention. Over the past several years, Tennessee State University has collaborated with Fairborn to develop precision photometers, software, observing techniques and quality control procedures that have culminated in the automatic acquisition and reduction of high volumes of data with millimagnitude precision. The telescopes are being used for a variety long-term monitoring programs that would be difficult or impossible (and prohibitively expensive) to conduct by traditional manual methods. A 10-inch telescope is dedicated to observations of semi-regular variable stars to uncover their multiple periods. A 16-inch telescope is dedicated to long-term observations of chromospherically active (single and binary) stars to search for activity cycles. Solar-type stars are being monitored by 30-inch and 32-inch telescopes to measure the subtle luminosity variations of these stars associated with their long-term magnetic variations as measured by the HK Project at Mt. Wilson Observatory. An additional project in collaboration with the NASA Ames Research Center seeks to apply artificial intelligence techniques to improve the scheduling of the observations on these telescopes and to develop a software package to

  17. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  18. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  19. Washout of particle-bound radionuclides for characterised rain and snow events on Mt. Zugspitze, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerkamp, K.; Bernauer, F.; Tschiersch, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Washout of radionuclides by precipitation is regarded to be an efficient deposition process depending on various parameters. Precipitation in the form of snow is suspected to be most efficient in scavenging of aerosol particles. Accidental releases of radionuclides, as seen in the recent nuclear accident of Fukushima-Daiichi in March 2011, have had serious impacts on the terrestrial environment, especially in the mountainous regions where major precipitation has fallen as snow. Supposing that wet deposition depends strongly on the type and characteristics of the precipitation event we present field experiments on the quantification of wet deposition of radionuclides by snow and rain events. The experiments took place in the free atmosphere at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus on Mt. Zugspitze, Germany (2,650 m a.s.l.). Snowfall event characterisation by meteorological and snow micro-physical parameters was carried out using a 2D video disdrometer combined with a precipitation gauge. Washout of aerosol particles in the size range from 10{sup -2} μm to 10 μm was quantified operating an electrical low pressure cascade impactor ELPI+. Trace analysis was performed by ultra-low level gamma spectrometry (HPGe detectors) of cosmogenic {sup 7}Be, of terrigenic {sup 210}Pb (radon decay product) and of {sup 137}Cs from resuspended fallout of the Chernobyl accident in precipitation and bulk aerosol samples. Dependencies of washout efficiencies of the radionuclides on precipitation rates and snow parameters will be presented. The results shall help to improve radionuclide transport models used in modern decision support systems for emergency management (e.g. ARTM, RODOS), which do not include snow parameters so far. Proposal is made how to incorporate such parameters in future. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  20. Folate deficiency increases mtDNA and D-1 mtDNA deletion in aged brain of mice lacking uracil-DNA glycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Gertz, Karen; Overall, Rupert W; Harms, Christoph; Klein, Jeanette; Page, Melissa M; Stuart, Jeffrey A; Endres, Matthias

    2011-04-01

    Strong epidemiological and experimental evidence links folate deficiency and resultant hyperhomocysteinemia with cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that uracil misincorporation contributes to mitochondrial pathology in aged brain following folate deprivation. In a 2 × 2 design, 14-month-old mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung-/-) versus wild-type controls were subjected to a folate-deficient versus a regular diet for six weeks. Folate-deficient feeding significantly enhanced mtDNA content and overall abundance of the D-1 mtDNA deletion in brain of Ung-/-, but not of wild-type mice. Independent of folate status, the frequency of the D-1 mtDNA deletion in mtDNA was significantly increased in Ung-/- mice. The rate of mitochondrial biogenesis as assessed at six weeks of the experimental diet by mRNA expression levels of transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) was not affected by either Ung-/- genotype or short-term folate deficiency. Similarly, citrate synthase (CS) activity in the brain did not differ across experimental groups. By contrast, independent of genotype, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was significantly reduced in folate-deficient animals. Our results suggest that impaired uracil excision repair causes an increase in mitochondrial mutagenesis in aged brain along with a compensatory increase in mtDNA content in response to low folate status. Folate deficiency may contribute to neurodegeneration via mtDNA damage.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis: visualization and duel incorporation of BrdU and EdU into newly synthesized mtDNA in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Stephen I; Edwards, James L; Backus, Carey; McLean, Lisa L; Haines, Kristine M; Feldman, Eva L

    2010-02-01

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and are the focus of a large number of studies examining the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in healthy and diseased conditions. One approach to monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to visualize newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells to study mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. The technique combines the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and/or 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into mtDNA, together with a tyramide signal amplification protocol. Employing this technique, we visualized and measured mtDNA biogenesis in individual cells. The labeling procedure for EdU allows for more comprehensive results by allowing the comparison of its incorporation with other intracellular markers, because it does not require the harsh acid or enzyme digests necessary to recover the BrdU epitope. In addition, the utilization of both BrdU and EdU permits sequential pulse-chase experiments to follow the intracellular localization of mtDNA replication. The ability to quantify mitochondrial biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating the alterations in mitochondrial dynamics involved in the pathogenesis of multiple cellular disorders, including neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  3. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  4. 47 CFR 78.69 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice was given. (v) Date and time notice was given to the Flight Service Station (Federal Aviation... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.69 Station records. Each licensee of a CARS station shall... time of the beginning and end of each period of transmission of each channel; (b) For all stations,...

  5. Pathogenic mitochondrial mt-tRNA(Ala) variants are uniquely associated with isolated myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Diana; Schubert, Kathrin; Joshi, Pushpa R; Hardy, Steven A; Tuppen, Helen A L; Baty, Karen; Blakely, Emma L; Bamberg, Christian; Zierz, Stephan; Deschauer, Marcus; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations are associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes, often involving multiple organ systems. We report two patients with isolated myopathy owing to novel mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive histopathological findings including cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres. Pyrosequencing confirmed mtDNA heteroplasmy for both mutations (m.5631G>A and m.5610G>A) whilst single-muscle fibre segregation studies (revealing statistically significant higher mutation loads in COX-deficient fibres than in COX-positive fibres), hierarchical mutation segregation within patient tissues and decreased steady-state mt-tRNA(Ala) levels all provide compelling evidence of pathogenicity. Interestingly, both patients showed very high-mutation levels in all tissues, inferring that the threshold for impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, as evidenced by COX deficiency, appears to be extremely high for these mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Previously described mt-tRNA(Ala) mutations are also associated with a pure myopathic phenotype and demonstrate very high mtDNA heteroplasmy thresholds, inferring at least some genotype:phenotype correlation for mutations within this particular mt-tRNA gene.

  6. Fungi of Mt. Babia Gora. 2: Indicative value of macromycetes in forest associations. A: Initial considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujakiewicz, A.

    1984-01-01

    The role and value of fungi in forest associations of Mt. Babia Gora massif were determined. The general physiographic characteristics of the research terrain, the distribution of the fungi sites, a list of the 618 taxons noted in the subalpine forests of Mt. Babia Gora, and the initial characteristics of the forest mycoflora of this massif are presented.

  7. Palmitoylation at Cys574 is essential for MT1-MMP to promote cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anilkumar, Narayanapanicker; Uekita, Takamasa; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    of the palmitoylated cysteine relative to LLY573, a motif that interacts with mu2 subunit of adaptor protein 2, is critical for the cell motility-promoting activity of MT1-MMP and its clathrin-mediated internalization. Taken together, palmitoylation of MT1-MMP is one of the key posttranslational modifications...

  8. To study the relationship between cadmium, zinc and mtDNA copy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Abhishek

    2016-11-18

    Nov 18, 2016 ... Variation of metals and mtDNA in Prostate cancer. 127 distribution of ... hypothesize that Cd and Zn influence distribution pattern of mtDNA ..... of dioxins and heavy metals in cancer and neurological diseases using ROS-mediated ... biomolecules, modulation of DNA repair and genotoxic consequences.

  9. MT BB: Tomato cultivar for practical classes of plant genetics and breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Angelo Piotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MT BB cultivar originated from a backcross program which aimed at adding two recessive mutations that alter leaf architecture(potato leaf – c and flower color (white flower – wf to Micro-Tom cultivar, which is a tomato miniature. MT BB was developedfor use in practical classes of genetics and breeding in both undergraduate and graduate courses.

  10. 76 FR 3569 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to... procedures at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance...

  11. 75 FR 30295 - Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT... Class E airspace at West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at West Yellowstone...

  12. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT AGENCY... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach procedures at Yellowstone Airport. This...

  13. Biomarker Validation for Aging: Lessons from mtDNA Heteroplasmy Analyses in Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Barker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated biological and clinical utility of biomarkers has attracted significant interest recently. Aging and early cancer detection represent areas active in the search for predictive and prognostic biomarkers. While applications differ, overlapping biological features, analytical technologies and specific biomarker analytes bear comparison. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA as a biomarker in both biological models has been evaluated. However, it remains unclear whether mtDNA changes in aging and cancer represent biological relationships that are causal, incidental, or a combination of both. This article focuses on evaluation of mtDNA-based biomarkers, emerging strategies for quantitating mtDNA admixtures, and how current understanding of mtDNA in aging and cancer evolves with introduction of new technologies. Whether for cancer or aging, lessons from mtDNA based biomarker evaluations are several. Biological systems are inherently dynamic and heterogeneous. Detection limits for mtDNA sequencing technologies differ among methods for low-level DNA sequence admixtures in healthy and diseased states. Performance metrics of analytical mtDNA technology should be validated prior to application in heterogeneous biologically-based systems. Critical in evaluating biomarker performance is the ability to distinguish measurement system variance from inherent biological variance, because it is within the latter that background healthy variability as well as high-value, disease-specific information reside.

  14. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  15. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation (Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation (Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  16. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  17. Organic aerosol evolution and transport observed at Mt. Cimone (2165 m a.s.l., Italy, during the PEGASOS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rinaldi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements have been performed, for the first time, at the Mt. Cimone Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW station between June and July 2012, within the EU project PEGASOS and the ARPA–Emilia Romagna project SUPERSITO. Sub-micron aerosol was dominated by organics (63% with sulphate, ammonium and nitrate contributing for the remaining 20, 9 and 7%, respectively. Organic aerosol (OA was in general highly oxygenated, consistent with the remote character of the site; our observations suggest that oxidation and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation processes occurred during aerosol transport to high altitudes. All of the aerosol component concentrations as well as the OA elemental ratios showed a clear daily trend, driven by the evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL and by the mountain wind regime. Higher loadings and lower OA oxidation levels were observed during the day, when the site was within the PBL, and therefore affected by relatively fresh aerosol transported from lower altitudes. Conversely, lower loadings and higher OA oxidation levels were observed at night, when the top of Mt. Cimone resided in the free troposphere although affected by the transport of residual layers on several days of the campaign. Analysis of the elemental ratios in a Van Krevelen space shows that OA oxidation follows a slope comprised between −0.5 and −1, consistent with addition of carboxylic groups, with or without fragmentation of the parent molecules. The increase of carboxylic groups during OA ageing is confirmed by the increased contribution of organic fragments containing more than one oxygen atom in the free troposphere night-time mass spectra. Finally, positive matrix factorization was able to deconvolve the contributions of relatively fresh OA (OOAa originating from the PBL, more aged OA (OOAb present at high altitudes during periods of atmospheric stagnation, and very aged aerosols (OOAc transported

  18. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  19. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  20. 77 FR 16175 - Station Blackout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency ac power system). Station blackout does not... plant achieves safe shutdown by relying on components that are not ac powered, such as turbine- or..., or seismic activity and that preexisting licensing requirements specified sufficient...

  1. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  2. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  3. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  4. Barrow Meteoroloigcal Station (BMET) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2004-11-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data.

  5. OMV Deployed From Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), at right, prepares to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope after being deployed from an early Space Station configuration (left). As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  6. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  7. The MT-ND1 and MT-ND5 genes are mutational hotspots for Chinese families with clinical features of LHON but lacking the three primary mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, A-Mei; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangming; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Qingjiong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2010-08-20

    LHON is one of the most common and primary causes of acute blindness in young male adults. Over 95% of LHON cases are caused by one of the three primary mutations (m.11778G>A, m.14484T>C, and m.3460G>A). In contrast to these genetically diagnosed LHON patients, there are many patients with clinical features of LHON but without the three primary mutations, and these patients have been insufficiently analyzed. We reported 10 suspected Chinese LHON families without the three primary mutations. The overall penetrance (53.4%) in these families is significantly higher than in those families with m.11778G>A (33.3%) or m.3460G>A (25.6%). Complete mtDNA genome sequencing of the 10 families showed that they belonged to different haplogroups and all identified variants (excluding m.12332A>G in mt-tRNA(Leu)) were previously reported. Eight of 12 private non-synonymous variants in the probands are located in the MT-ND1 and MT-ND5 genes, which is substantially higher than that of individuals from general Chinese populations. Comparison of the private variants in the 10 families and in 10 randomly selected mtDNAs from general Chinese populations using resampling simulation strategy further confirmed this pattern. Our results suggest that the MT-ND1 and MT-ND5 genes are mutational hotspots for Chinese families with suspected LHON lacking the common primary mutations. Variants m.3736G>A (p.V144I) in family Le1235 and m.10680G>A (p.A71T) in Le1107 can be the pathogenic mutations for LHON.

  8. Three Medicago MtFUL genes have distinct and overlapping expression patterns during vegetative and reproductive development and 35S:MtFULb accelerates flowering and causes a terminal flower phenotype in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren eJaudal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The timing of the transition to flowering is carefully controlled by plants in order to optimise sexual reproduction and the ensuing production of seeds, grains and fruits. The genetic networks that regulate floral induction are best characterised in the temperate eudicot Arabidopsis in which the florigen gene FT plays a major role in promoting the transition to flowering. Legumes are an important plant group, but less is known about the regulation of their flowering time. In the model legume Medicago truncatula (Medicago, a temperate annual plant like Arabidopsis, flowering is induced by prolonged cold (vernalisation followed by long day lengths (LD. Recent molecular-genetic experiments have revealed that a FT-like gene, MtFTa1, is a central regulator of flowering time in Medicago. Here, we characterize the three Medicago FRUITFULL (FUL MADS transcription factors, MtFULa, MtFULb and MtFULc using phylogenetic analyses, gene expression profiling through developmental time courses, and functional analyses in transgenic plants. MtFULa and MtFULb have similarity in sequence and expression profiles under inductive environmental conditions during both vegetative and reproductive development while MtFULc is only up regulated in the apex after flowering in LD conditions. Sustained up regulation of MtFULs requires functional MtFTa1 but their transcript levels are not affected during cold treatment. Overexpression of MtFULa and MtFULb promotes flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis plants with an additional terminal flower phenotype on some 35S:MtFULb plants. An increase in transcript levels of the MtFULs was also observed in Medicago plants overexpressing MtFTa1. Our results suggest that the MtFULs are targets of MtFTa1. Overall, this work highlights the conserved functions of FUL-like genes in promoting flowering and other roles in plant development and thus contributes to our understanding of the genetic control of the flowering process in Medicago.

  9. Multiple essential MT1-MMP functions in tooth root formation, dentinogenesis, and tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H; Snider, T N; Wimer, H F; Yamada, S S; Yang, T; Holmbeck, K; Foster, B L

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a transmembrane zinc-endopeptidase that breaks down extracellular matrix components, including several collagens, during tissue development and physiological remodeling. MT1-MMP-deficient mice (MT1-MMP(-/-)) feature severe defects in connective tissues, such as impaired growth, osteopenia, fibrosis, and conspicuous loss of molar tooth eruption and root formation. In order to define the functions of MT1-MMP during root formation and tooth eruption, we analyzed the development of teeth and surrounding tissues in the absence of MT1-MMP. In situ hybridization showed that MT1-MMP was widely expressed in cells associated with teeth and surrounding connective tissues during development. Multiple defects in dentoalveolar tissues were associated with loss of MT1-MMP. Root formation was inhibited by defective structure and function of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). However, no defect was found in creation of the eruption pathway, suggesting that tooth eruption was hampered by lack of alveolar bone modeling/remodeling coincident with reduced periodontal ligament (PDL) formation and integration with the alveolar bone. Additionally, we identified a significant defect in dentin formation and mineralization associated with the loss of MT1-MMP. To segregate these multiple defects and trace their cellular origin, conditional ablation of MT1-MMP was performed in epithelia and mesenchyme. Mice featuring selective loss of MT1-MMP activity in the epithelium were indistinguishable from wild type mice, and importantly, featured a normal HERS structure and molar eruption. In contrast, selective knock-out of MT1-MMP in Osterix-expressing mesenchymal cells, including osteoblasts and odontoblasts, recapitulated major defects from the global knock-out including altered HERS structure, short roots, defective dentin formation and mineralization, and reduced alveolar bone formation, although molars were able to erupt. These data

  10. OR/MS Applications in Mt. Merapi Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hanum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Much of researches on the management of disaster deal with their social aspects such as sociological and psychological effects on communities. Recently there had been a growing credit of the demand for application of the operational research and management science matters in disaster management. This approach commonly utilizes decision theory, dynamical system and optimization technique to minimize the cost and recovery time. Approach: In this study we provide a comprehensive resource allocation model for disaster management, which consists of logistics distribution and humanitarian aid workforce’s assignment problems. The former was formulated in the form of integer linear programming whose objective was to minimize the logistic demand shortage. While the later was framed into goal programming basis to minimize penalty cost. Results: We implement our models in Mt. Merapi disaster operation activities. We first carry out the problem of logistic distribution between affected areas and distribution centers in the city basis. We then organize the assignment of humanitarian workforces in disaster response and recovery actions. Workers from several volunteer communities were assigned regarding their preferences on task and time. Conclusion: Approaches by Operations Research and Management Science (OR/MS not only efficiently and optimally solve the problem of logistic distribution and humanitarian assignment in accelerating disaster responses and recovery processes, but also offer flexibilities in dealing with the problem. In application, the scale of the problem can easily be extended.

  11. Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

  12. Night-sky brightness and extinction at Mt. Shatdzhatmaz

    CERN Document Server

    Kornilov, V; Voziakova, O; Shatsky, N; Safonov, B; Gorbunov, I; Potanin, S; Cheryasov, D; Senik, V

    2016-01-01

    The photometric sky quality of Mt. Shatdzhatmaz, the site of Sternberg Astronomical Institute Caucasian Observatory 2.5 m telescope, is characterized here by the statistics of the night-time sky brightness and extinction. The data were obtained as a by-product of atmospheric optical turbulence measurements with the MASS (Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor) device conducted in 2007--2013. The factors biasing night-sky brightness measurements are considered and a technique to reduce their impact on the statistics is proposed. The single-band photometric estimations provided by MASS are easy to transform to the standard photometric bands. The median moonless night-sky brightness is 22.1, 21.1, 20.3, and 19.0 mag per square arcsec for the $B$, $V$, $R$, and $I$ spectral bands, respectively. The median extinction coefficients for the same photometric bands are 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, and 0.09 mag. The best atmospheric transparency is observed in winter.

  13. Night-sky brightness and extinction at Mt Shatdzhatmaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, V.; Kornilov, M.; Voziakova, O.; Shatsky, N.; Safonov, B.; Gorbunov, I.; Potanin, S.; Cheryasov, D.; Senik, V.

    2016-11-01

    The photometric sky quality of Mt Shatdzhatmaz, the site of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute Caucasian Observatory 2.5-m telescope, is characterized here by the statistics of the night-time sky brightness and extinction. The data were obtained as a by-product of atmospheric optical turbulence measurements with the MASS (Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor) device conducted in 2007-2013. The factors biasing night-sky brightness measurements are considered and a technique to reduce their impact on the statistics is proposed. The single-band photometric estimations provided by MASS are easy to transform to the standard photometric bands. The median moonless night-sky brightness is 22.1, 21.1, 20.3 and 19.0 mag arcsec-2 for the B, V, R and I spectral bands, respectively. The median extinction coefficients for the same photometric bands are 0.28, 0.17, 0.13 and 0.09 mag. The best atmospheric transparency is observed in winter.

  14. Present experiment of BASJE group at Mt. Chacaltaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, H.; Morizawa, A. [Ehime University, Dept. of Physics, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Kakimoto, F.; Ogio, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tokunou, H.; Harada, D.; Burgoa, O. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Tajima, N.; Yamada, Y.; Shimoda, S.; Nishi, K.; Nakatani, H.; Gotoh, E. [The Institute of Physics and Chemistry Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Shirasaki, Y. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Miranda, P.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Informatica, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz (Bolivia); Kaneko, T. [Oayama University, Dept. of Physics, Okayama (Japan); Murakami, K. [Nagoya University of Foreign Studies, Nissin, Aichi (Japan); Toyoda, Y. [Fukui University of Technology, Faculty of General Education, Fukui (Japan); Matsubara, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Mizumoto, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    A compact air shower array to observe primary cosmic rays above a few TeV has been installed at Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia since 1996. This array is available to observe the air showers above 6 TeV and the longitudinal development curves above 50 TeV. The purpose of the observations is to study the chemical composition and the energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the energy region including the knee of the energy spectrum. First, the consistency between direct measurements (balloon-borne experiments) and air shower observations in the energy region from 50 TeV to 80 TeV is examined and confirmed. Next, the chemical composition and the energy spectrum are derived from the air shower observations. In the study, the longitudinal developments of shower particles are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations, assuming different chemical compositions above 80 TeV. The characteristics of the present air shower array and the comparison of the preliminary observed results with that of the simulations are presented.

  15. Urania in the Marketplace: The Selling of Mt. Palomar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The 200-inch Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar is one of the most iconic scientific facilities ever constructed. The world's largest optical telescope for over a quarter-century, it served as a symbol of hope for America during the Great Depression and in the post-war years. In 2016 we celebrate the eightieth anniversaries of the completion of the mirror blank, the start of construction of the dome and mounting, and the beginning of astronomical research at Palomar Observatory by Fritz Zwicky (with the 18-inch Schmidt camera).During its construction, and for many years after "first light" in 1949, the Hale telescope was prominently featured in numerous magazine advertisements. Most of these represented companies directly involved in its construction, notably Corning Glass Works, which was justly proud of its magnificent accomplishment. But companies only vaguely linked to the project, or not at all, also co-opted the mystique of "the World's Largest Eye" to promote their goods or services. Surprisingly, in light of the fact that it bore responsibility for fabricating the complex and innovative mounting, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company appears to have run only a single advertisement (in The National Geographic Magazine) touting its contribution to the project.Examples of magazine advertisements spanning the period 1936 to 1959 are presented.This work was supported by a faculty scholarship grant from Valdosta State University.

  16. Accuracy assessment of land surface temperature retrievals from Landsat 7 ETM + in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using iButton temperature loggers and weather station data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabyn, Lars; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Stichbury, Glen; Cary, Craig; Storey, Bryan; Laughlin, Daniel C; Katurji, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are the largest snow/ice-free regions on this vast continent, comprising 1% of the land mass. Due to harsh environmental conditions, the valleys are bereft of any vegetation. Land surface temperature is a key determinate of microclimate and a driver for sensible and latent heat fluxes of the surface. The Dry Valleys have been the focus of ecological studies as they arguably provide the simplest trophic structure suitable for modelling. In this paper, we employ a validation method for land surface temperatures obtained from Landsat 7 ETM + imagery and compared with in situ land surface temperature data collected from four transects totalling 45 iButtons. A single meteorological station was used to obtain a better understanding of daily and seasonal cycles in land surface temperatures. Results show a good agreement between the iButton and the Landsat 7 ETM + product for clear sky cases. We conclude that Landsat 7 ETM + derived land surface temperatures can be used at broad spatial scales for ecological and meteorological research.

  17. 拟南芥MtN3/saliva基因家族分析%Genome-wide analysis of MtN3/saliva protein family in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何佳; 黄学勇; 关跃峰; 孙铭希; 朱骏; 杨仲南

    2010-01-01

    MtN3/saliva基因家族是含有2个MtN3/saliva跨膜结构域的膜整合蛋白,其成员广泛存在于真核生物中.目前对该家族功能研究较少,对其跨膜结构域的分子功能还不清楚.在拟南芥中该家族有18个成员,除了最近克隆的RPGl以外其他MtN3/saliva基因的功能均不清楚.对拟南芥MtN3/saliva基因家族进行了较为全面的分析,包括基因结构、染色体分布、蛋白结构域、系统进化关系、基因表达谱等.对其中预测在花药中高表达的4个基因进行了实时定量PCR分析,证实有3个基因在花中高效表达.这些结果促进了对MtN3/saliva基因家族的深入了解.

  18. Performance of Sub-Array of ARIANNA Detector Stations during First Year of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Joulien Erdintch

    observed when wind speeds exceed ˜ 6 mph. The frequency components of the excess noise are compatible with noise emitted by the wind generator. There are several periods of impulsive noise with durations of minutes to hours in January and narrowband, suggesting an origin from external transmitters. On one occasion, the noise was contemporaneous with rescue operations at McMurdo Station. Heartbeat events were collected in special runs in 4 separate time periods. They indicate that LPDA coupling to ice medium increased over the first few weeks as the pits with the receiver antennas filled in with snow, and then increased slowly as the snow overburden increased on the transmitting antenna, initially placed flat on the snow surface. We conducted a search for neutrino events in the data from Station 3 between December 6, 2012 and March 13, 2013 by cross-correlating observed waveforms in parallel receiver channels with the expected neutrino template in the time domain. The cross-correlation analysis rejects all thermal triggers and retains more than 90% of the simulated neutrino events. It is clear that none of the collected events contain waveforms that match the shape expected for neutrino signals in two parallel channels, but cross-correlation of waveforms with excess power during windy periods are systematically larger than thermal noise events. Thermal triggers with the largest cross-correlation values are clustered in time and, as described in the text, possess unusual characteristics that clearly indicate they are background processes. This analysis indicates that the ARIANNA site is RF quiet, and meets requirements of the ARIANNA project. Using the effective volume per station and measured live-time, a preliminary flux limit was obtained to be E2φ ≤ 10-5 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr -1, assuming a E-2 differential energy spectrum. Based on initial experience with station operation and control, data transmission, and event analysis, we conclude that main scientific and

  19. Fission track evidence for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic uplift of Mt. Bogda, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Chuanbo; MEI Lianfu; PENG Lei; ZHANG Shiwan; LIU Lin; TANG Jiguang

    2006-01-01

    Fission-track dating evidence from 5apatite samples and 4 zircon samples, and modeled time-temperature thermal history indicate that since Late Jurassic-Cretaceous (150 -106 Ma), the uplift process of Mt. Bogda can be divided into four stages of thermal evolution: 150 - 106, 75 -65, 44 -24and 13 -9 Ma. Before 44- 24 Ma, the cooling rate and uplifting rate of the southern and northern segments of Mt. Bogda are almost the same, showing that the uplifting of Mt. Bogda is an overall process.Since 44 - 24 Ma, the uplifting of the southern and northern segments of Mt. Bogda has shown differences. During 42 - 11 Ma, the northern segment of Mt. Bogda was at a steady stage, with the cooling rate being 0.03℃/Ma and the uplifting rate being 0. 001 mm/a. From 11 Ma to the present, the northern segment of Mt. Bogda was at a rapid cooling and uplifting stage, with the cooling rate being 5.72℃/Ma and the uplifting rate being 0.19 mm/a. However, the southern segment of Mt. Bogda has been at a rapid cooling and uplifting stage since 26 Ma, with the cooling rate being 1.24℃/Ma and the uplifting rate being 0.041 mm/a during 26 -9 Ma; 4.88℃/Ma and 0. 163 mm/a from 9 Ma till now.

  20. High level of MT-MMP expression is associated with invasiveness of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, C; Polette, M; Piette, J; Munaut, C; Thompson, E W; Birembaut, P; Foidart, J M

    1996-01-17

    MMP-2 (gelatinase A) has been associated with the invasive potential of many cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. It is now becoming clear that the activation of this enzyme might be a key step in tumor invasion. This activation process has been shown to be a membrane-associated pathway inducible by various agents such as collagen type I, concanavalin A or TGF-beta, but its physiological regulation is still largely unresolved. MT-MMP was recently discovered and described as a potential gelatinase-A activator. In the present study, we investigated the expression of MT-MMP (membrane-type metalloproteinase) in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Comparing several in vitro-transformed cervical cell lines, previously shown to display different invasive potentials, our results showed that the ability of cells to overexpress MT-MMP mRNA following ConA induction correlated with their ability to activate gelatinase A and with a highly invasive behavior. Moreover, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we found a higher level of MT-MMP expression in invasive cervical carcinoma and lymph node metastases compared to its expression in non-invasive CIN III lesions. Our in vivo observations also clearly demonstrated a cooperation between stromal and tumor cells for the production of MT-MMP. Taken together, our results clearly correlated high level MT-MMP expression with invasiveness, and thus suggested that MT-MMP might play a crucial role in cervical tumor invasion.

  1. Fine mapping and cloning of MT1,a novel allele of D10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhou; Jinyan Zhu; Zhengyi Li; Fei Gu; Honggen Zhang; Shuzhu Tang; Minghong Gu; Guohua Liang

    2009-01-01

    Rice tillering is an important determinant for grain production.To investigate the mechanism of tillering,we characterized a multiple tillering mutant (mt1) identified from the japonica variety,Zhonghua 11,treated with EMS.This mutant exhibits advanced tillering development and dwarfed compared with wild-type plants.Genetic analysis and fine gene mapping indicated that the mt1 mutant was controlled by a recessive gene,residing on a 29-kb window on AP003376 of chromosome 1.One putative gene in this region,encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 (CCD8),was allelic to D10.The mt1 mutant phenotype was complemented by introduction of wild-type MT1,and knockdown of MT1 in wild-type rice mimicked the mutant phenotype.Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the MT1 gene is expressed highly in stems and at a low level in axillary buds,panicles,leaves,and roots.In addition,MT1 expression is clearly under feedback regulation.

  2. Study on the Penetrability of PEP-1-P27mt for Cell Membranes in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shirong; ZHU Minglei; QIU Fangcheng; WANG Lilin; QU Shen

    2007-01-01

    Double-stranded oligomeric nucleotide encoding PEP-1 peptides was synthesized, prokaryotic expression pET15b-pep-1-p27mt recombinant constructed, E. coli BL21 (DE3)pLysS transformed and induced with IPTG to highly express fusion protein PEP-1-P27mt. Fusion protein with an N-terminal His-tag could be purified by Ni2+-resin affinity chromatography and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Cultured EC9706 cells treated with PEP-1-P27mt revealed that PEP-1-P27mt was transduced into cells after 15 min and reached maximal intracellular concentrations in 2 h. PEP-1-P27mt of 1 μmol/L final concentration could most strongly suppress the growth. It was suggested that PEP-1 can carry P27mt across membrane, which provides a new biological protocol for using cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27mt in suppressing the growth of tumor cells.

  3. Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroni, Antonio; Rengo, Chiara; Guida, Valentina; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Calderon, Fernando Luna; Simionati, Barbara; Valle, Giorgio; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2a–L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups. PMID:11595973

  4. Intracellular evolution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the tragedy of the cytoplasmic commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, David

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria exist in large numbers per cell. Therefore, the strength of natural selection on individual mtDNAs for their contribution to cellular fitness is weak whereas the strength of selection in favor of mtDNAs that increase their own replication without regard for cellular functions is strong. This problem has been solved for most mitochondrial genes by their transfer to the nucleus but a few critical genes remain encoded by mtDNA. Organisms manage the evolution of mtDNA to prevent mutational decay of essential services mitochondria provide to their hosts. Bottlenecks of mitochondrial numbers in female germlines increase the homogeneity of mtDNAs within cells and allow intraorganismal selection to eliminate cells with low quality mitochondria. Mechanisms of intracellular "quality control" allow direct selection on the competence of individual mtDNAs. These processes maintain the integrity of mtDNAs within the germline but are inadequate to indefinitely maintain mitochondrial function in somatic cells. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. Draft genome of Kocuria polaris CMS 76or(T) isolated from cyanobacterial mats, McMurdo Dry Valley, Antarctica: an insight into CspA family of proteins from Kocuria polaris CMS 76or(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlapally, Sathyanarayana Reddy; Ara, Srinivas; Sisinthy, Shivaji

    2015-10-01

    Kocuria polaris strain CMS 76or(T) is a gram-positive, orange-pigmented bacterium isolated from a cyanobacterial mat sample from a pond located in McMurdo Dry Valley, Antarctica. It is psychrotolerant, orange pigmented, hydrolyses starch and Tween 80 and reduces nitrate. We report the 3.78-Mb genome of K. polaris strain CMS 76or(T), containing 3416 coding sequences, including one each for 5S rRNA, 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA and 47 tRNA genes, and the G+C content of DNA is 72.8%. An investigation of Csp family of proteins from K. polaris strain CMS 76or(T) indicated that it contains three different proteins of CspA (peg.319, peg.2255 and 2832) and the length varied from 67 to 69 amino acids. The three different proteins contain all the signature amino acids and two RNA binding regions that are characteristic of CspA proteins. Further, the CspA from K. polaris strain CMS 76or(T) was different from CspA of four other species of the genus Kocuria, Cryobacterium roopkundense and E. coli indirectly suggesting the role of CspA of K. polaris strain CMS 76or(T) in psychrotolerant growth of the bacterium.

  7. Visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: location, visuotopic organization, and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, M; Gattass, R; Rosa, M G; Sousa, A P

    1989-09-01

    The representation of the visual field in the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus (ST) was studied by multiunit recordings in eight Cebus apella, anesthetized with N2O and immobilized with pancuronium bromide, in repeated recording sessions. On the basis of visuotopic organization, myeloarchitecture, and receptive field size, area MT was distinguished from its neighboring areas. MT is an oval area of about 70 mm2 located mainly in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus. It contains a visuotopically organized representation of at least the binocular visual field. The representation of the vertical meridian forms the dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral borders of MT and that of the horizontal meridian runs across the posterior bank of ST. The fovea is represented at the lateralmost portion of MT, while the retinal periphery is represented medially. The representation of the central visual field is magnified relative to that of the periphery in MT. The cortical magnification factor in MT decreases with increasing eccentricity following a negative power function. Receptive field size increases with increasing eccentricity. A method to evaluate the scatter of receptive field position in multiunit recordings based on the inverse of the magnification factor is described. In MT, multiunit receptive field scatter increases with increasing eccentricity. As shown by the Heidenhain-Woelcke method, MT is coextensive with two myeloarchitectonically distinct zones: one heavily myelinated, located in the posterior bank of ST, and another, less myelinated, located at the junction of the posterior bank with the anterior bank of ST. At least three additional visual zones surround MT: DZ, MST, and FST. The areas of the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus in the diurnal New World monkey Cebus are comparable to those described for the diurnal Old World monkey, Macaca. This observation suggests that these areas are ancestral characters of the simian

  8. Reservoir uncertainty, Precambrian topography, and carbon sequestration in the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetaru, H.E.; McBride, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration sites are evaluated by studying the local geological structure and confirming the presence of both a reservoir facies and an impermeable seal not breached by significant faulting. The Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone is a blanket sandstone that underlies large parts of Midwest United States and is this region's most significant carbon sequestration reservoir. An assessment of the geological structure of any Mt. Simon sequestration site must also include knowledge of the paleotopography prior to deposition. Understanding Precambrian paleotopography is critical in estimating reservoir thickness and quality. Regional outcrop and borehole mapping of the Mt. Simon in conjunction with mapping seismic reflection data can facilitate the prediction of basement highs. Any potential site must, at the minimum, have seismic reflection data, calibrated with drill-hole information, to evaluate the presence of Precambrian topography and alleviate some of the uncertainty surrounding the thickness or possible absence of the Mt. Simon at a particular sequestration site. The Mt. Simon is thought to commonly overlie Precambrian basement granitic or rhyolitic rocks. In places, at least about 549 m (1800 ft) of topographic relief on the top of the basement surface prior to Mt. Simon deposition was observed. The Mt. Simon reservoir sandstone is thin or not present where basement is topographically high, whereas the low areas can have thick Mt. Simon. The paleotopography on the basement and its correlation to Mt. Simon thickness have been observed at both outcrops and in the subsurface from the states of Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Missouri. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 11511 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Forest Service Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR...-03004-PA, to conditionally authorize expansion of the Mt. Ashland Ski Area. SUMMARY: In September 2004, the Forest Service issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Mt. Ashland Ski Area (MASA)...

  10. Functional characterization of cadmium-responsive garlic gene AsMT2b: A new member of metallothionein family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new gene of metallothionein (MT) family was cloned from garlic (Allium sativum) seedlings using RACE method and designated AsMT2b. The full length of AsMT2b cDNA was 520 bp encoding 80 amino acids. The deduced amino acids of AsMT2b showed that AsMT2b contained the characteristic structure of type 2 MT proteins, but the number and arrangement of the cysteine residues in the N- and C-terminal domains was different from other type 2 MT proteins. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that transcript levels of AsMT2b were enhanced only in response to higher concentrations or longer incubation time of Cd. Such an expression pattern of AsMT2b greatly differed from that of other type 2 MT genes. Yeast cells transformed with this gene had improved resistance to Cd. AsMT2b overexpressing Arabidopsis showed stronger Cd tolerance and higher Cd accumulation compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that AsMT2b should be useful in phytoremediation of Cd-polluted soil in the future.

  11. Cytonuclear conflict in interpopulation hybrids: the role of RNA polymerase in mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, C K; Burton, R S

    2010-03-01

    Organismal fitness requires functional integration of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Structural and regulatory elements coevolve within lineages and several studies have found that interpopulation hybridization disrupts mitonuclear interactions. Because mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRPOL) plays key roles in both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription, the interaction between mtRPOL and coevolved regulatory sites in the mtDNA may be central to mitonuclear integration. Here, we generate interpopulation hybrids between divergent populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus to obtain lines having different combinations of mtRPOL and mtDNA. Lines were scored for mtDNA copy number and ATP6 (mtDNA) gene expression. We find that there is a genotype-dependent negative association between mitochondrial transcriptional response and mtDNA copy number. We argue that an observed increase in mtDNA copy number and reduced mtDNA transcription in hybrids reflects the regulatory role of mtRPOL; depending on the mitonuclear genotype, hybridization may disrupt the normal balance between transcription and replication of the mitochondrial genome.

  12. 75 FR 70691 - World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, Currently Known as Quad/Graphics, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, Currently..., applicable to workers of World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, including on-site leased.... New information shows that on July 2, 2010, World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC was purchased by...

  13. Monoclonal Anti—CD4 Antibody MT310 Binds HIV-1 gp120 Binding Site on CD4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tests show the monoclonal anti—CD4 antibody (mAb) MT310 recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4 as part of its mechanism for strongly inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CD4+ T cells. In competition tests, mAb MT310 and mAb Leu3a (an anti-CD4 mAb recognizing the gp120-binding site) all inhibited gp120-binding to CD4+ T lymphocytes, while mAb MT405 did not. This result suggests that MT310, like Leu3a, recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4. To further confirm whether MT310 recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4, we prepared rabbit anti-idiotypic antisera (Ab2) against MT310 (Ab1). The anti-idiotypic antisera against MT310 inhibited binding of MT310 and Leu3a to human CD4+ T lymphocytes, but did not block binding of MT151 with the second domain of CD4, while rabbit anti-idiotypic antisera to MT151 could block binding of itself to these cells, but could not inhibit the binding of MT310 and Leu3a, further indicating that MT310 recognized the gp120-binding site on CD4.

  14. The 1981 eruptive fissure on Mt. Etna: considerations on its exploration and genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Leotta

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is targeted to an analysis of features common to various fissure caves on Mt. Etna, Sicily. The Authors report the preliminary results of the exploration carried out in the 1981 eruptive fissure, the technical problems met during the exploration, the flow trends and the different courses of the molten material inside the fissure, the particular morphologies. A genetic model is proposed, different from those characterising the lava tube cave genesis, and links are suggested between the various fissures and the main tectonic stress systems operating on Mt. Etna, as well as the morpho-structural conditions of the volcanic edifice of Mt. Etna.

  15. A Linguistic Evaluation of Rule-Based, Phrase-Based, and Neural MT Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchardt Aljoscha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of several Machine Translation (MT engines implementing the three most widely used paradigms. The analysis is based on a manually built test suite that comprises a large range of linguistic phenomena. Two main observations are on the one hand the striking improvement of an commercial online system when turning from a phrase-based to a neural engine and on the other hand that the successful translations of neural MT systems sometimes bear resemblance with the translations of a rule-based MT system.

  16. A faster, high precision algorithm for calculating symmetric and asymmetric $M_{T2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Lally, Colin H

    2015-01-01

    A new algorithm for calculating the stransverse mass, $M_{T2}$, in either symmetric or asymmetric situations has been developed which exhibits good stability, high precision and quadratic convergence for the majority of the $M_{T2}$ parameter space, leading to up to a factor of ten increase in speed compared to other $M_{T2}$ calculators of comparable precision. This document describes and validates the methodology used by the algorithm, and provides comparisons both in terms of accuracy and speed with other existing implementations.

  17. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  18. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    Art (Publication due in 2012)). But it seems to differ noticeable from the ideologically driven concept(s) of the 20th century avant-garde. The paper will suggest that we in experiments with openness and structure, with an ambivalent engagement in popular culture and everyday life, and complex double......This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... carries the same meaning and function in a contemporary culture. Utopia Station unfolded over a long period of time, starting with different gatherings in 2002, continuing with diverse ‘stations’ at the Venice Biennial (2003), Haus der Kunst in Munich (2004), and the World Social Forum in Porte Alegre...

  19. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  20. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  1. Episodic growth of Mt. Shasta, CA, documented by argon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, A. T.; Christiansen, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Mt. Shasta is the largest stratovolcano along the high Cascade arc, surpassed in volume only by the rear-arc Medicine Lake and Newberry volcanoes. Currently >4300 m high and >350 km3 in volume, it grew episodically from overlapping vents and was partially destroyed by a major debris avalanche >300 ka. The area has been a long-lived eruptive focus; prior to 700 ka a similar-sized andesite stratocone sat 15-25 km E along the arc axis, but is now deeply eroded. Approximately 700 ka, the center moved ~20 km to its current location west of the arc axis. Good preservation and minor northward migration (3-5 km) of Mount Shasta's eruptive focus enables access to the older portions of the edifice. Lavas throughout Shasta's history have been dominantly intermediate in composition, typically having 60-64%wt. SiO2, though more mafic (basaltic andesite, 53-54%wt. SiO2) and more silicic (dacite, 64-69% wt. SiO2) lavas are also present. Most units erupted from central vents, but a N-S trend of domes and lava vents bisects the summit. No flank vents lie east of that N-S line, but they are numerous to the west. The oldest (~700-600 ka) Mt. Shasta eruptive focus is partly preserved on the SW flank up to 2,000 m elevation (Sand Flat) and as blocks in the massive (~45 km3) debris avalanche deposit in Shasta Valley. The avalanche is bracketed as younger than a 696 ± 3 ka included block and older than an overlapping 318 ± 29 ka lava. Several domes erupted 475-350 ka, but don't provide age constraints on the debris avalanche. Between 300 ka and 100 ka voluminous lavas issued from an eruptive focus (Sargents Ridge cone) ~2 km south of the present summit in at least six episodes spaced 10-30 kyr apart. The core of this eruptive focus has been removed by stream and glacial erosion in and above Mud Creek. High-Mg basaltic andesites erupted high on the S flank at 131 ka and low on the NW flank at 84 ka. No lavas have been identified as erupting from the summit area between 100-50 ka. The

  2. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillipines - Comparison of November, 1996 and September, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This debris consists of unconsolidated ash and boulders, and following heavy rains, it mixes with the rain run-off to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley, the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.These images from the NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument show two snapshots in the evolution of the lahars in the lower Pasig-Potrero River, just north of the town of Bacalor, east of the summit of the volcano. These images were collected on November 29, 1996 and September 25, 2000. The radar is particularly good at picking out spatial variations in the average particle size of the lahar deposits, which show up as a variety of different colored units at lower right. The active river channel is dark in both images, and is particularly well-defined in the September 2000 image. In the November 1996 image, the area of the flooded channel is much wider, so that the radar images are quite effective at showing where the drier surface materials are located.Also visible as a series of linear features in both images is a series of concrete dikes that have been constructed to protect the adjacent agricultural land from the lahar deposits. Some of this land has recently been

  3. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  4. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    1 ARUBA Reina Beatrix 789820 Dec 86 (OCDS) --....................................... 5 ARGENTINA Buenos Alres/Ezeiza 875760 Apr 89 (CB...74 Oruro/Mendoza 852420 Feb 87 (OCDS) ...................................... 78 Potosi/ Rojas 852930 Feb 87 (OCDS...F 0 0 0 f 21-23 LST 0 0 0 0 # 0 F 1 0 0 0 F ALL HOURS # f F 0 0 # 0 F F 0 0 0 F 004 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: REINA BEATRIX INTL

  5. Space station particulate contamination environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.; Clifton, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of particulate contamination on the Space Station will mostly be from pre-launch operations. The adherence and subsequent release of these particles during space flight are discussed. Particle size, release velocity, and release direction are important in determining particle behavior in the vicinity of the vehicle. The particulate environment at the principal science instrument locations is compared to the space shuttle bay environment. Recommendations for possibly decreasing the particulate contamination are presented.

  6. Afro-alpine forest cover change on Mt. Guna (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Adugnaw; Frankl, Amaury; Jacob, Miro; Lanckriet, Sil; Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    afro-alpine vegetation on the other parts of Mt. Guna.

  7. Using MT2 to distinguish dark matter stabilization symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Walker, Devin G. E.; Zhu, Lijun

    2011-09-01

    We examine the potential of using colliders to distinguish models with parity (Z2) stabilized dark matter (DM) from models in which the DM is stabilized by other symmetries, taking the latter to be a Z3 symmetry for illustration. The key observation is that a heavier mother particle charged under a Z3 stabilization symmetry can decay into one or two DM particles along with standard model particles. This can be contrasted with the decay of a mother particle charged under a parity symmetry; typically, only one DM particle appears in the decay chain. The arXiv:1003.0899 studied the distributions of visible invariant mass from the decay of a single such mother particle in order to highlight the resulting distinctive signatures of Z3 symmetry versus parity symmetry stabilized dark matter candidates. We now describe a complementary study which focuses on decay chains of the two mother particles which are necessarily present in these events. We also include in our analysis the missing energy/momentum in the event. For the Z3 symmetry stabilized mothers, the resulting inclusive final state can have two, three or four DM particles. In contrast, models with Z2 symmetry can have only two. We show that the shapes and edges of the distribution of MT2-type variables, along with ratio of the visible momentum/energy on the two sides of the event, are powerful in distinguishing these different scenarios. Finally we conclude by outlining future work which focuses on reducing combinatoric ambiguities from reconstructing multijet events. Increasing the reconstruction efficiency can allow better reconstruction of events with two or three dark matter candidates in the final state.

  8. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  9. Metallothionein (MT)-III: generation of polyclonal antibodies, comparison with MT-I+II in the freeze lesioned rat brain and in a bioassay with astrocytes, and analysis of Alzheimer's disease brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A;

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... that MT-III immunoreactivity was also present in microglia, monocytes and/or macrophages in the leptomeninges and lying adjacent to major vessels. In freeze lesioned rats, both MT-I+II and MT-III immunoreactivities increased in the ipsilateral cortex. The pattern of MT-III immunoreactivity significantly...

  10. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  11. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  12. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made at a code speed not in excess of 20 words per minute; or (2) By arranging for the primary station... visual presentation or a clearly understandable aural presentation of the translator station's...

  13. Application of CODEC MT8965 in ALU%语音编解码芯片MT8965在ALU中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高思行; 汪小燕; 高萍

    2002-01-01

    MT8965是一种功能较强的语音编解码芯片,它采用 A律编码,可通过控制总线接收从处理器发出的控制信号来写控制寄存器,从而控制驱动输出信号 . 文章介绍了 MT8965的性能特点及其在 ALU中的应用 .

  14. Automatic Control of Water Pumping Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhannad Alrheeh; JIANG Zhengfeng

    2006-01-01

    Automatic Control of pumps is an interesting proposal to operate water pumping stations among many kinds of water pumping stations according to their functions.In this paper, our pumping station is being used for water supply system. This paper is to introduce the idea of pump controller and the important factors that must be considering when we want to design automatic control system of water pumping stations. Then the automatic control circuit with the function of all components will be introduced.

  15. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  16. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  17. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  18. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  19. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for transmission by: (1) Stations in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service; (2) General aviation ground... continuity of any public communication in progress, provided that station identification is transmitted at... carrier; (2) For general aviation airborne mobile stations in the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service,...

  20. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A...