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Heflin, L. Juane
This digest, based on a larger document titled, "Homeless and in Need of Special Education," by L. Juane Heflin and Kathryn Rudy, focuses on educational aspects of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act. Briefly discussed are: the effects of homelessness on children (e.g., increased health problems); the educational implications…
... Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Rural Housing Stability Assistance Program and Revisions to the Definition of ``Chronically Homeless'' Extension of Public Comment Only for Rural... proposed revisions to the definition of ``chronically homeless.'' This document announces that HUD is...
...-8145; Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second St. SW... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
... Pentagon, Washington, DC 20310, (571) 256-8145; Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
... appropriate landholding agencies at the following addresses: COAST GUARD: Commandant, United States Coast... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for possible use to assist the homeless. FOR...
... landholding agencies at the following addresses: Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
...: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second St., SW., Stop 7901, Washington... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for possible use to assist the homeless. FOR...
... Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second St. SW., Stop 7901... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
...: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second St. SW., Stop 7901, Washington, DC... Facilities to Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
... 5A128, 600 Army Pentagon, Washington, DC 20310, (571) 256-8145; Coast Guard: Commandant, United States... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
...: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second St. SW., Stop 7901, Washington, DC... Facilities to Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
... appropriate landholding agencies at the following addresses: Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for possible use to assist the homeless. FOR...
..., Arlington, VA 22202; (703) 601-2545; COAST GUARD: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for possible use to assist the homeless. FOR...
...: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second St. SW., Stop 7901, Washington, DC... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
..., 2511 Jefferson Davis Hwy, Arlington, VA 22202: (571) 256-8145; Coast Guard: Commandant, United States... Facilities to Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
...: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second St., SW., Stop 7901, Washington... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for possible use to assist the homeless. FOR...
... landholding agencies at the following addresses: Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for possible use to assist the homeless. [[Page...
... landholding agencies at the following addresses: Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for possible use to assist the homeless. FOR...
... Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second St. SW., Stop 7901... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and..., excess, and surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR...
..., 2511 Jefferson Davis Hwy, Arlington, VA 22202: (571) 256-8145; Coast Guard: Commandant, United States... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
... appropriate landholding agencies at the following addresses: Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for possible use to assist the homeless. FOR...
..., Arlington, VA 22202: (571) 256-8145; COAST GUARD: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
... following addresses: Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
..., Washington, DC 20024, (202) 401-0787; Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
... Guard: Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Attn: Jennifer Stomber, 2100 Second St. SW., Stop 7901... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER...
..., 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314; (202) 761-5542; Coast Guard: Commandant, United States Coast... Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... surplus Federal property reviewed by HUD for suitability for possible use to assist the homeless. FOR...
Law, Kate; John, William
The concepts of culture and homelessness are both complex and contested. This paper examines homelessness through the lens of transcultural nursing theory, increasing understanding of both homelessness and transcultural theory. We argue that homelessness can be usefully conceptualised as a culture and that the application of transcultural theory to caring for homeless people will add further to the utility of these theories. The application of transcultural theory can add to the repertoire of skills the nurse needs to care for not only homeless clients, but, for a diverse range of client groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... for suitability for use to assist the homeless. The properties were reviewed using information... Wash Bldg.; Thrust Vector Control Deserving Bldg.; Robot Wash Bldg. Comments: Public access denied & no...
A survey of 102 urban school districts in large cities indicates that school districts have responded to the requirements of the Stewart B. McKinney Act for the education of homeless children to varying degrees. However, 69 percent of districts described the problem of homeless students as nonexistent or small. (SLD)
National Association of State Coordinators for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.
Profiles of the 1995-96 implementation of the Stewart B. McKinney Act's Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) Programs in 37 states are presented in this document. In these 37 states, at least 173,082 homeless children and youth were served through programs funded by the McKinney Act, and at least 465 local education agencies received…
... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5375-N-47] Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and..., possible abestos/PCBs Unsuitable Properties Building Alaska 33 Bldgs. Eielson AFB Eielson AK 99702...
... intention to make the property available for use to assist the homeless, (2) its intention to declare the...; (202) 475-5609; Energy: Mr. Mark Price, Department of Energy, Office of Engineering & Construction... Massachusetts Albano House Minute Man Natl Hist Park Concord MA 01742 Landholding Agency: Interior Property...
Brown, Molly; Vaclavik, Danielle; Watson, Dennis P; Wilka, Eric
Local and national evaluations of the federal Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP) have demonstrated a high rate of placement of program participants in permanent housing. However, there is a paucity of research on the long-term outcomes of HPRP, and research on rehousing and prevention interventions for single adults experiencing homelessness is particularly limited. Using Homeless Management Information System data from 2009 to 2015, this study examined risk of return to homeless services among 370 permanently housed and 71 nonpermanently housed single adult HPRP participants in Indianapolis, Indiana. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were conducted to analyze time-to-service re-entry for the full sample, and the homelessness prevention and rapid rehousing participants separately. With an average follow-up of 4.5 years after HPRP exit, 9.5% of the permanently housed HPRP participants and 16.9% of those nonpermanently housed returned to homeless services. By assistance type, 5.4% of permanently housed and 15.8% of nonpermanently housed homelessness prevention recipients re-entered services, and 12.8% of permanently housed and 18.2% of nonpermanently housed rapid rehousing recipients re-entered during the follow-up period. Overall, veterans, individuals receiving rapid rehousing services, and those whose income did not increase during HPRP had significantly greater risk of returning to homeless services. Veterans were at significantly greater risk of re-entry when prevention and rehousing were examined separately. Findings suggest a need for future controlled studies of prevention and rehousing interventions for single adults, aiming to identify unique service needs among veterans and those currently experiencing homelessness in need of rehousing to inform program refinement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Clemens, Elysia; Hess, Robyn S.; Strear, Molly M.; Rue, Lisa; Rizzolo, Sonja; Henninger, Janessa
This Consensual Qualitative Research study explored experiences of youth, families, and homeless liaisons to better understand how educational environments can foster resilience among youth experiencing homelessness. The purpose of the study was to provide educational stakeholders with guidance on how to actualize the McKinney-Vento Homeless…
.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In accordance with 24 CFR part 581 and section 501 of the Stewart B. McKinney..., off-site use only Bldg. 00001 Property Number: 21200710051 Holy Cross Armory High Cross AK 99602... California Air Force Facility 1 Property Number: 18200830012 OTHB Radar Site Tulelake CA 91634 Status...
Friedman, Lorraine; Christiansen, Guy
The Stewart B. McKinney Act of 1987 was intended to remove barriers and ensure access to education for homeless children. But despite a 1988 consent decree, the United States Department of Education (DOE) has failed to comply with its statutory duties to implement the Act, the states have also failed to implement the Act adequately, and homeless…
Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Duffield, Barbara
While most of the press around the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) has focused on how it signals an end to No Child Left Behind, the implications of ESSA for students experiencing homelessness have been largely overlooked. Garnering organizational insights from Kingdon's (Agendas, alternatives, and public policies, Pearson, Glenviiew, 2011)…
Wittman, Friedner D; Polcin, Douglas L; Sheridan, Dave
Roughly half a million persons in the United States are homeless on any given night and over a third of those individuals have significant alcohol/other drug (AOD) problems. Many are chronically homeless and in need of assistance for a variety of problems. However, the literature on housing services for this population has paid limited attention to comparative analyses contrasting different approaches. We examined the literature on housing models for homeless persons with AOD problems and critically analyzed how service settings and operations aligned with service goals. We found two predominant housing models that reflect different service goals: Sober Living Houses (SLHs) and Housing First (HF). SLHs are communally based living arrangements that draw on the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous. They emphasize a living environment that promotes abstinence and peer support for recovery. HF is based on the premise that many homeless persons with substance abuse problems will reject abstinence as a goal. Therefore, the HF focus is providing subsidized or free housing and optional professional services for substance abuse, psychiatric disorders and other problems. If homeless service providers are to develop comprehensive systems for homeless persons with AOD problems, they need to consider important contrasts in housing models, including definitions of "recovery," roles of peer support, facility management, roles for professional service, and the architectural designs that support the mission of each type of housing. This paper is the first to consider distinct consumer choices within homeless service systems and provide recommendations to improve each based upon an integrated analysis that considers how architecture and operations align with service goals.
Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.
We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747
Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide.
An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…
...-P-01] Homeless Management Information Systems Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... for the establishment of regulations for Homeless Management Information Systems (HMIS), which are the... community development, Homeless, Information technology system, Management system, Nonprofit organizations...
Wolitski, Richard J; Kidder, Daniel P; Pals, Sherri L; Royal, Scott; Aidala, Angela; Stall, Ron; Holtgrave, David R; Harre, David; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari
Homelessness affects HIV risk and health, but little is known about the longitudinal effects of rental assistance on the housing status and health of homeless and unstably housed people living with HIV/AIDS. Homeless/unstably housed people living with HIV/AIDS (N = 630) were randomly assigned to immediate Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) rental assistance or customary care. Self-reported data, CD4, and HIV viral load were collected at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results showed that housing status improved in both groups, with greater improvement occurring in the treatment group. At 18 months, 51% of the comparison group had their own housing, limiting statistical power. Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated significant reductions in medical care utilization and improvements in self-reported physical and mental health; significant differential change benefiting the treatment group was observed for depression and perceived stress. Significant differences between homeless and stably housed participants were found in as-treated analyses for health care utilization, mental health, and physical health. HOPWA rental assistance improves housing status and, in some cases, health outcomes of homeless and unstably housed people living with HIV/AIDS.
... homeless people, as well as mainstream housing, health, social services, employment, education, and youth... individuals and families fleeing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. In... needs of individuals and families who are fleeing, or attempting to flee, domestic violence, dating...
This toolkit serves as a comprehensive resource on the issue of higher education access and success for homeless students, including information on understanding homeless students, assisting homeless students in choosing a school, helping homeless students pay for application-related expenses, assisting homeless students in finding financial aid…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has the...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R5-R-2011-N043; BAC-4311-K9-S3] Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Middlesex County, CT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and... headquarters located in Middlesex County, CT. This notice complies with our CCP policy to: (1) Advise other...
Taylor, P.D.; McKinney, F.K.
Turnerella Taylor & McKinney, 2006, p. 164, introduced for a new genus of cribrimorph Cheilostomata (Bryozoa), is preoccupied by Turnerella Cockerell, 1910, a genus of Hymenoptera, and two other introductions of the same name for new insect genera. We propose Turnerellina as a new name to replace
The report complies with Section 1091 of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Amendments Act of 1988 which requires that the HUD Secretary report to the Congress on a recommended policy for addressing radon contamination in specified housing. The housing specified in the Act is virtually all rental housing predominantly for low-income and moderate-income households. Almost all of it is multifamily housing: row houses, walk-up apartment buildings, or high-rise buildings. There is inadequate information on the extent to which excessive concentrations of radon occur above the first floor of multistory buildings and on the variation in radon concentrations in attached houses in the same row. HUD's recommended policy is in the four topic areas specified in the Act: research, education, testing, and mitigation
Mulholland, Lori; Greene, Andrea
Homeless families with children comprise the fastest growing segment of the United States homeless population. This study evaluated Year 1 of the Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project, designed to meet educational and social needs of homeless children and families, and to assist Head Start agencies in developing effective…
Homeless families with children constitute the fastest growing segment of the United States homeless population. This study evaluated Year 2 of the Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project, designed to meet educational and social needs of homeless children and families, and to assist Head Start agencies in developing effective…
Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...
The felt—as both methodology and experiential terrain—remains under-explored and under-theorised in research on homelessness. This experimental piece traces the multi-sensory engagement of ethnographic and biographic fieldwork undertaken for separate projects with homeless people in two capital cities on Australia’s east coast. The epistemological contributions and emotional dimensions of seeing, tasting, touching, smelling and listening are explored. Throu...
Full Text Available The felt—as both methodology and experiential terrain—remains under-explored and under-theorised in research on homelessness. This experimental piece traces the multi-sensory engagement of ethnographic and biographic fieldwork undertaken for separate projects with homeless people in two capital cities on Australia’s east coast. The epistemological contributions and emotional dimensions of seeing, tasting, touching, smelling and listening are explored. Through a series of short ‘felt’ reflections, consideration of the critical role of corporeality in coming to know and inscribe the experiences of others is prompted. The feeling, researching body is posited as central to new, productive and holistic intertwinings with felt-experience and the mixed trajectories of grief, humour, violence and trauma that often characterise persistent homelessness are made vivid.
Full Text Available The felt—as both methodology and experiential terrain—remains under-explored and under-theorised in research on homelessness. This experimental piece traces the multi-sensory engagement of ethnographic and biographic fieldwork undertaken for separate projects with homeless people in two capital cities on Australia’s east coast. The epistemological contributions and emotional dimensions of seeing, tasting, touching, smelling and listening are explored. Through a series of short ‘felt’ reflections, consideration of the critical role of corporeality in coming to know and inscribe the experiences of others is prompted. The feeling, researching body is posited as central to new, productive and holistic intertwinings with felt-experience and the mixed trajectories of grief, humour, violence and trauma that often characterise persistent homelessness are made vivid.
Cackley, Alicia Puente
Multiple federal programs provide homelessness assistance through programs targeted to those experiencing homelessness or through mainstream programs that broadly assist low-income populations. Programs' definitions of homelessness range from including primarily people in homeless shelters or on the street to also including those living with…
Describes the experiences of several families who are homeless in New York City, looking at what it is like for the children in these families, how the parents cope with trying to find work and a place to live, and how these families are treated by the system as they wait for various kinds of assistance. (SM)
MacKenzie, David; Chamberlain, Chris
The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended…
... Twitter Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons January 2013 Homelessness is a persistent problem—nearly 690,000 people ... will ultimately help address the tragic problem of homelessness too, as many homeless people cite drug or ...
Martijn, Claudine; Sharpe, Louise
Research documents high levels of psychopathology among homeless youth. Most research, however, has not distinguished between disorders that are present prior to homelessness and those that develop following homelessness. Hence whether psychological disorders are the cause or consequence of homelessness has not been established. The aim of this study is to investigate causal pathways to homelessness amongst currently homeless youth in Australia. The study uses a quasi-qualitative methodology to generate hypotheses for larger-scale research. High rates of psychological disorders were confirmed in the sample 35 homeless youth aged 14-25. The rates of psychological disorders at the point of homelessness were greater than in normative samples, but the rates of clinical disorder increased further once homeless. Further in-depth analyses were conducted to identify the temporal sequence for each individual with a view to establishing a set of causal pathways to homelessness and trajectories following homelessness that characterised the people in the sample. Five pathways to homelessness and five trajectories following homelessness were identified that accounted for the entire sample. Each pathway constituted a series of interactions between different factors similar to that described by Craig and Hodson (1998. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1379-1388) as "complex subsidiary pathways". The major findings were that (1) trauma is a common experience amongst homeless youth prior to homelessness and figured in the causal pathways to homelessness for over half of the sample; (2) once homeless, for the majority of youth there is an increase in the number of psychological diagnoses including drug and alcohol diagnoses; and (3) crime did not precede homelessness for all but one youth; however, following homelessness, involvement in criminal activity was common and became a distinguishing factor amongst youth. The implications of these findings for future research and service
Wilkins, Brittany Taylor; Mullins, Mary H.; Mahan, Amber; Canfield, James P.
The federal government enacted the McKinney--Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) to equip schools with services to help alleviate the many barriers students experiencing homelessness face in pursuit of educational opportunities. Educational agencies use federally mandated liaisons to uphold the provisions of the MVA. Despite the homeless liaisons'…
Ausikaitis, Ashley Etzel; Wynne, Martha Ellen; Persaud, Schevita; Pitt, Rachel; Hosek, Aaron; Reker, Kayse; Turner, Carina; Flores, Sandy; Flores, Sofia
The increasing number of homeless youth in the United States presents many social justice concerns, including issues of educational access, stigma, and self-advocacy. These problems become even more apparent when homelessness and educational attainment intersect. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 was enacted to address these…
.... The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) estimates that it has served approximately 300 returning veterans in its homeless programs and has identified over 1,000 more as being at risk of homelessness...
... People with Disabilities Share Ending Chronic Homelessness Among People with Disabilities Last updated on May 31, 2018 We can end homelessness for people with disabilities in our communities who experience recurring ...
Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn
This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.
Baumohl, Jim, Ed.
This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3)…
... of the policies, organizational structures, and services of the Department in assisting homeless..., Washington; and 1811 Housing Project, 11564 Southeast State Highway 160, Southworth, Washington. On September...
... raise awareness of the current state of child homelessness in the United States, documents the number of homeless children in every state, their well-being, their risk for child homelessness, and state level planning and policy efforts. Child ...
The objective of this study was to examine the reasons for the most recent loss of housing and for continued homelessness as perceived by homeless persons with mental illness. A total of 2,974 currently homeless participants in the 1996 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) were asked about the reasons for their most recent loss of housing and continued homelessness. The responses of participants who had mental illness, defined both broadly and narrowly, were compared with responses of those who were not mentally ill. The broad definition of mental illness was based on a set of criteria proposed by NSHAPC investigators. The narrow definition included past psychiatric hospitalization in addition to the NSHAPC criteria. A total of 1,620 participants (56 percent) met the broad definition of mental illness, and 639 (22 percent) met the narrow definition; 1,345 participants (44 percent) did not meet any of these criteria and were categorized as not having a mental illness. Few differences in reasons for the most recent loss of housing were noted between the participants with and without mental illness. Both groups attributed their continued homelessness mostly to insufficient income, unemployment, and lack of suitable housing. Homeless persons with mental illness mostly report the same reasons for loss of housing and continued homelessness as those who do not have a mental illness. This finding supports the view that structural solutions, such as wider availability of low-cost housing and income support, would reduce the risk of homelessness among persons with mental illness, as among other vulnerable social groups.
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2014
The word "homeless" typically does not bring to mind images of children and youth, but the reality is many homeless people are under the age of 18. Some of them are a part of families experiencing homelessness, while others are on their own, despite their young age. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. § 11431 et seq.)…
John M. Quigley; Steven Raphael; Eugene Smolensky
It is generally believed that the increased incidence of homelessness in the United States has arisen from broad societal factors, such as changes in the institutionalization of the mentally ill, increases in drug addiction and alcohol usage, and so forth. This paper presents a comprehensive test of the alternate hypothesis that variations in homelessness arise from changed circumstances in the housing market and in the income distribution. We assemble essentially all the systematic informati...
Mercier, C; Picard, S
The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Koch-Nielsen, Inger; Munk, Anders; Raun, Mette
This report has been produced for the Observatory on Homelessness, managed by FEANTSA: European Federation of National Organizations Working with the Homeless. The Observatory is supported financially by the Commission of the European Union. The paper is based on the guidelines set up by the Obse......This report has been produced for the Observatory on Homelessness, managed by FEANTSA: European Federation of National Organizations Working with the Homeless. The Observatory is supported financially by the Commission of the European Union. The paper is based on the guidelines set up...
Foster, Adriana; Gable, James; Buckley, John
The impact of mental illness, comorbid substance abuse, and medication nonadherence, coupled with disjointed psychiatric and social services, conspires to a disproportionately high rate of psychiatric disorders among people who are homeless in the United States. This article reviews the prevalence of homeless among the mentally ill as well as the prevalence of mental illness among the homeless and details barriers in access to care and the solutions that have been attempted. The need and solutions to introduce a new generation of physicians and allied health care workers to the unique health care needs of the homeless population are highlighted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Esen, Umo I
Women who are pregnant and homeless constitute a unique group at significant risk of adverse foetal and maternal outcomes. Despite this heightened risk profile, social housing support to this group of women is less than satisfactory. Concerted effort and more collaborative working is needed by all who provide social, and healthcare services to homeless pregnant women, to improve the lot of these women. Clear definitions and legislative provisions in respect of the homeless will go a long way in reducing ambiguity and close loopholes which currently act to deny the homeless pregnant woman social housing support at a time when it is most needed.
Reyes, Lilia M.; Waxman, Laura DeKoven
This survey assesses the status of hunger, homelessness, and poverty in cities in the United States during 1987. The findings include the following: (1) the number of the homeless and the poor had increased and was expected to continue to increase; (2) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter assistance had increased and was…
Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann; Leiminer, Michele
This paper investigates young people's accounts of governance in their everyday lives within a Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) in regional Australia. The SAAP is a joint Commonwealth and State/Territory programme for assisting people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness by providing transitional supported accommodation and…
This booklet presents information concerning homelessness and the education of homeless children nationwide and in Illinois. Estimates of the number of homeless children vary widely. Reasons for homeless children's failure to attend school include school residency requirements, delays in transfer of documents, and lack of transportation. The…
... make it worse. That's why the health of homeless people in the United States is worse than that of the general population. Common health problems include Mental health problems Substance abuse ... and skin infections Many homeless women are victims of domestic or sexual abuse. ...
France, Joseph B.
This paper summarizes reports and research on the homeless in the United States, presents findings of a survey of Red Cross chapters on services to the homeless, and describes programs for the homeless of selected Red Cross chapters. Section 1 discusses definitions of homelessness and methodologies used to count homeless people. The homeless are…
Taylor, Kathryn M; Sharpe, Louise
International studies indicate high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder within homeless populations. In Australia, studies indicate high rates of trauma among homeless adults, yet post-traumatic stress disorder has not been investigated in homeless Australian adults. The primary aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney. Further, another aim of the study was to determine whether the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the first episode of homelessness or was a consequence of homelessness. The sample consisted of 70 homeless men and women aged 18-73 years, who were randomly sampled through eight homeless services. A computer-assisted face-to-face structured clinical interview was conducted with each participant. Lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was determined via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (98%). Indeed, the mean number of traumas per person was six. The 12 month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was higher among homeless adults in Sydney in comparison to the Australian general population (41% vs 1.5%). But 79% of the sample had a lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress. In 59% of cases, the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the age of the first reported homeless episode. Homeless adults in Sydney frequently experience trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. The study found that trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder more often precede homelessness, but re-victimization is common. These findings highlight the high mental health needs among homeless people and have implications for services for homeless people.
People who are homeless belong to some of the most vulnerable, dispersed and disorganized groups in welfare societies. Yet in 2001, a national interest organization of homeless people was formed for the first time in Denmark. This article identifies the processes that facilitated the formation...... of the organization. It focuses on the importance of ideological and institutional conditions and changes, and it stresses the importance of alliances between progressive actors in the field and in the political-administrative system, in addition to the presence of dedicated activists among people who are or have...... been homeless. The analysis may thus serve as a case of inspiration for activists and professionals who want to improve homeless people's opportunities for participation in other national settings....
Børner Stax, Tobias
Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the existence of youth homelessness in Denmark. The chapter contains reflections upon the juridical measures directed towards youngsters living on the margin of the Danish society and presents two concrete project directed towards young people...... living rough. The chapter is taken form an anthology discussion youth homelessness in the different member states of the European Union....
United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.
This document comprises a report on the status of hunger and homelessness during 1989 in 27 major American cities. A survey was used to gather the following information: (1) demand for emergency food and shelter assistance and the capacity to meet the demand; (2) causes of hunger and homelessness and the demographics of the affected populations;…
Waxman, Laura DeKoven
To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1991, The U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 28 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on: (1) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and the…
Miller, Peter M.
Rates of student homelessness have increased dramatically throughout the United States in recent years, yet there has been a dearth of scholarly analysis devoted to key organizations' engagement of the issue. Given that the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act has taken on a central, but underexamined role in shaping this engagement,…
Lowe, Eugene T.
To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2002, 25 major cities completed surveys regarding demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and capacity of local agencies to meet the demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing these problems; exemplary programs or…
Lowe, Eugene T.
To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2001, data were collected from 27 cities on demands for emergency food assistance and shelter and the capacity of local agencies to meet that demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing them; exemplary responses; availability of…
Lindsay A. Phillips
Full Text Available This article presents a description of a service learning activity in which students assisted veterans who are homeless. The article outlines how the event was organized, provides resources for implementation, discusses student response using evaluations from 15 students, and discusses considerations made in organizing such an event. KEYWORDSService Learning, Qualitative Evaluation, Homeless Veterans
South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.
To study the number and status of homeless people in South Dakota, a questionnaire was mailed to approximately 701 persons who were likely to have knowledge of homeless people. Responses were received from 349 people. Estimated numbers of homeless people include those who live with others because they lack adequate resources to maintain a fixed,…
Fahnøe, Kristian Relsted
participant observation of encounters between social workers and homeless people was the primary method. Additionally, interviews were conducted on site with homeless people. During the observed encounter and the interviews the homeless people’s accounts highlighted how emotional experiences were an integral...... of avoidance and withdrawal. The analysis links these emotions to the symbolic and material aspects of the spaces. By doing this the paper aims to show how the lives of homeless are shaped by a form of socio-spatial exclusion that works through emotions rather than just direct regulation and policing of spaces....... Thus, the paper contends that these emotional dynamics need to be recognized in order to advance our understanding of the lives of homeless. And such emotional dynamics also need to be taken into account in policy making processes that aim to assist homeless people as well as social work practices...
... Continues Support of National Campaign to End Veteran Homelessness Nov. 14, 2017 This Veterans Day, Harbor Freight ... support of the national campaign to end veteran homelessness through generous contributions to the National Coalition for ...
Higher Education: Actions Needed to Improve Access to Federal Financial Assistance for Homeless and Foster Youth. Report to the Ranking Member, Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. GAO-16-343
US Government Accountability Office, 2016
Homeless youth and youth in foster care are often unprepared for the transition to adulthood. Given the economic benefits of college, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to examine the college experiences of these vulnerable youth. GAO examined: (1) college enrollment and completion for foster and homeless youth; (2) the extent to…
van Laere, Igor R.; de Wit, Matty A. S.; Klazinga, Niek S.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To improve homelessness prevention practice, we met with recently homeless adults, to explore their pathways into homelessness, problems and service use, before and after becoming homeless. METHODS: Recently homeless adults (last housing lost up to two years ago and legally
Stringfellow, Erin J; Kim, Theresa W; Gordon, Adam J; Pollio, David E; Grucza, Richard A; Austin, Erika L; Johnson, N Kay; Kertesz, Stefan G
Community survey data suggest high prevalence of substance use disorders among currently homeless individuals. There are less data regarding illicit drug and alcohol use problems of homeless-experienced persons engaged in primary care. They may have less severe use and require different care responses from primary care teams. The authors surveyed currently and formerly homeless, i.e., homeless-experienced, persons engaged in primary care at five federally funded programs in the United States, administering the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). The ASSIST definitions of lower, moderate, and high risk were used to assess a spectrum of lifetime and recent substance use, from any use to likely dependence, and to identify sociodemographic and health status characteristics associated with severity of use. Almost one half of the sample (N = 601) had recently (within the past three months) used alcohol, and one third had recently used an illicit drug. The most commonly used illicit drugs in the past three months were cannabis (19%), cocaine (16%), and opioids (7.5%). Over one half (59%) of respondents had ASSIST-defined moderate- or high-risk substance use. A significant proportion (31%) of those identified as at moderate risk had no recent substance use, but did report past problematic use. Ten percent of the lower-risk group had past problematic use of alcohol. Severity of use was associated with worse health status, but not with housing status or type of homelessness experienced. Less severe (moderate-risk) use and past problematic use, potentially indicative of remitted substance use disorders, were more common than high-risk use in this primary care, homeless-experienced sample. These findings highlight the urgency of identifying effective ways to reduce risky substance use and prevent relapse in homeless-experienced persons.
Leibler, Jessica H; Nguyen, Daniel D; León, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M; Perez, Debora
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA ( n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population. Most participants (72%) reported taking a daily shower. More than 60% reported hand washing with soap five or more times each day, and use of hand sanitizer was widespread (89% reported using sanitizer in the last week). A majority (86%) used a laundromat or laundry machine to wash clothing, while 14% reported washing clothing in the sink. Heavy drinking, injection drug use, and sleeping outdoors were identified as significant risk factors for reduced hygiene practices. People experiencing homelessness who also engage in these activities may be among the most difficult to reach for intervention, yet targeted efforts may decrease illness risk associated with reduced hygiene. Housed friends and family play a critical role in assisting homeless individuals maintain hygiene by providing showers and laundry facilities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Homelessness is a critical social issue, both a product of, and contributing to, poor mental and physical health. Over 150,000 young Canadians live on the streets. Homeless youth experience a high incidence of infectious diseases, many of which are vaccine preventable. Early departure from school and limited access to public health services makes them a particularly vulnerable high-risk group. This study explores challenges to obtaining essential vaccines experienced by homeless youth. Methods A qualitative research study to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences surrounding immunization of hard-to-reach homeless youth was designed. Participants were recruited for focus groups from Phoenix House and Shelter, a non-profit, community-based organization assisting homeless youth in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. An experienced facilitator guided the recorded discussions. Transcripts of audiotapes were analyzed using a constant comparative method until data revealed a set of exemplars and themes that best captured participants’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences surrounding immunization and infectious diseases. Results Important themes emerged from our analysis. Considerable variability in knowledge about immunization and vaccine preventable diseases was found. The homeless youth in the study had limited awareness of meningitis in contrast to a greater knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and influenza, gained during the H1N1/09 public health campaign. They recognized their poverty as a risk for contracting infectious diseases, along with their inability to always employ known strategies to prevent infectious diseases, due to circumstances. They showed considerable insight into the detrimental effects of poor hygiene, sleeping locations and risk behaviour. Interviewed homeless youth regarded themselves as good compliers of health professional advice and offered valuable suggestions to improve
Full Text Available Some young people who have been homeless during their secondary schooling manage to obtain a university place. These young people, and others who become homeless during their university courses, have the opportunity to build a sustainable exit from homelessness through education and support. Very little is known about how many young Australians are in this situation, or what can be done to assist them to complete their degrees. This article reports on research that aimed to document the experiences of 11 university students who had experienced homelessness. The research focussed on the difficulties that these young people faced, and the types of environments and service responses that can make a difference for them. The students were part of a larger study of a foyer-type service. The research found that these young people took longer than the standard duration to complete their degrees. Their study was facilitated by provision of stable, safe accommodation and support when they were acutely homeless, relief from other pressures such as family conflict, protection while maturing, time for overseas born including refugee young people to develop language, skills, and resources, support to heal from past damaging experiences and improve their health, assistance to gain entry to preferred university courses, and pathways into stable housing for the duration of their study.
Nishio, Akihiro; Horita, Ryo; Sado, Tadahiro; Mizutani, Seiko; Watanabe, Takahiro; Uehara, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Mayumi
Many studies have reported that the prevalence of mental illness and cognitive disability is higher among homeless individuals compared to the general population, and the rates of mental illness among the homeless population have recently increased. This study: (i) compares causes of homelessness or barriers to escaping homelessness for people with/without mental illness/cognitive disability; (ii) reveals problems with the Japanese homeless policy; and (iii) proposes an effective and necessary support system. The participants were 114 homeless individuals. A psychiatric diagnostic interview and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, version III were used to measure participants' mental health and cognitive abilities. A questionnaire was administered comprising 17 items related to the causes of their homelessness and barriers to escaping from it. Participants were divided into four groups - with/without mental illness or cognitive disability - and Fisher's exact test was used to compare the questionnaire results. Individuals with cognitive disabilities considered bad relationships with their family members to be the cause of their homelessness. Conversely, normal individuals considered their homelessness to be the result of debt more so than did individuals with mental problems. Individuals with mental illness had more difficulties escaping homelessness than did either normal individuals or individuals with cognitive disability. This tendency was observed most strongly among individuals with both mental illness and cognitive disability. Most homeless individuals considered economic problems to be the cause of their homelessness; however, difficulties with human relationships were also important factors and were more difficult for participants to acknowledge. Furthermore, these difficulties were exacerbated among those individuals with mental problems. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Duffield, Barbara; Julianelle, Patricia; Santos, Michael
This document provides answers to frequently asked questions on the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and the education rights of children and youth in homeless situations, based on the amendments made by the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, which took effect on October 1, 2016. The answers are general responses based on federal statutes,…
Erickson, Jennifer; Abbott, Kenneth; Susienka, Lucinda
Homeless patients face a variety of obstacles in pursuit of basic social services. Acknowledging this, the Social Security Administration directs employees to prioritize homeless patients and handle their disability claims with special care. However, under existing manual processes for identification of homelessness, many homeless patients never receive the special service to which they are entitled. In this paper, we explore address validation and automatic annotation of electronic health records to improve identification of homeless patients. We developed a sample of claims containing medical records at the moment of arrival in a single office. Using address validation software, we reconciled patient addresses with public directories of homeless shelters, veterans' hospitals and clinics, and correctional facilities. Other tools annotated electronic health records. We trained random forests to identify homeless patients and validated each model with 10-fold cross validation. For our finished model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.942. The random forest improved sensitivity from 0.067 to 0.879 but decreased positive predictive value to 0.382. Presumed false positive classifications bore many characteristics of homelessness. Organizations could use these methods to prompt early collection of information necessary to avoid labor-intensive attempts to reestablish contact with homeless individuals. Annually, such methods could benefit tens of thousands of patients who are homeless, destitute, and in urgent need of assistance. We were able to identify many more homeless patients through a combination of automatic address validation and natural language processing of unstructured electronic health records. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Winetrobe, H; Rice, E; Rhoades, H; Milburn, N
Homeless young adults are a vulnerable population with great healthcare needs. Under the Affordable Care Act, homeless young adults are eligible for Medicaid, in some states, including California. This study assesses homeless young adults' health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization prior to Medicaid expansion. All homeless young adults accessing services at a drop-in center in Venice, CA, were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire; 70% of eligible clients participated (n = 125). Within this majority White, heterosexual, male sample, 70% of homeless young adults did not have health insurance in the prior year, and 39% reported their last healthcare visit was at an emergency room. Past year unmet healthcare needs were reported by 31%, and financial cost was the main reported barrier to receiving care. Multivariable logistic regression found that homeless young adults with health insurance were almost 11 times more likely to report past year healthcare utilization. Health insurance coverage is the sole variable significantly associated with healthcare utilization among homeless young adults, underlining the importance of insurance coverage within this vulnerable population. Service providers can play an important role by assisting homeless young adults with insurance applications and facilitating connections with regular sources of health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Gemal, Carsten Høy
The article is based on the case of a group of homeless people who in the fall of 2013 occupied a central site in the Danish town of Aarhus. The authors argue that this specific case is an ideal object of investigation for casting light on a new situation in the field of public administration....... Public administration has recently moved from the paradigm of New Public Management to a new and still undetermined paradigm, which focuses on activating and engaging citizens, treating them as equal partners in the process of co-creating welfare services and the community itself as a brand. Using...... the case of the homeless, the authors argue that participatory citizenship should not only be viewed as “added value” to the field of public administration, but rather as emerging within a dynamic and conflict-ridden field between citizens and administration where new types of value are potentially created...
Robert L. Brawley
Full Text Available This article has located Jesus’ saying about homelessness in the context of the Roman Empire as it was experienced in Galilee. Homelessness is part of a broader picture that translates into loss of access to the resources of the land. The thesis is that in light of a theology of land resulting from the development of Abrahamic covenant traditions and the prophetic hope expressed especially in Isaiah, Ezekiel and Psalm 37, Jesus proclaimed God’s kingdom as God’s rule over heaven and earth, which implicates restoration of equitable access to the resources of the earth. The Lord’s Prayer, presumptions about the water of Jacob’s well in John 4 and the parable of the unjust steward in Luke 16 are used to demonstrate understandings of violations of equitable access according to Abrahamic covenant traditions and the hope for the restoration thereof.
Yamaguchi, Barbara J.; Strawser, Sherri; Higgins, Kyle
Reviews the definition and demographics of homeless students; the effects of homelessness on developmental, psychological, behavioral, and academic growth; the legal mandates regarding homeless students; and barriers to education. Recommendations for fostering success for homeless students are offered. (Author/DB)
Robertson, Donna Friedman
Describes a qualitative research project examining homelessness's effects on children's schooling, highlighting a South Carolina intervention program's success. Research disclosed an informal homelessness "caste system," the political unpopularity of providing homeless services, homeless kids' high rates of academic failure and problem…
Reganick, Karol A.
Notes that children and adolescents appear to suffer the most detrimental effects of homelessness. Discusses the problems faced by homeless youth and the educational systems that must respond to them, including causes and demographics of homelessness, detrimental effects of shelters, the victimization of homeless adolescents, and educational and…
Full Text Available Poor financial literacy may lead to poor life choices. These life choices can create or contribute to financial stress with adverse consequences - not the least of which may be homelessness. These issues are relatively well understood, but there is limited research on the link between financial stress, financial literacy and counselling, and homelessness. Specifically, there has been little research on how improved financial literacy and appropriate financial counselling might help to prevent homelessness. This paper synthesises existing literature on this topic and considers these issues using the ABCX family stress model of Hill (1958 using data from an Australian program aimed at alleviating family homelessness, the Home Advice Program. We provide evidence that suggests that case management and support which incorporates financial counselling and financial literacy can assist in moderating the impact of financial stress and help those at risk of homelessness. The findings have implications for public policy in the areas of financial education, consumer finance, and social services provision.
This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…
Bingham, Richard D.; And Others
This book consists of 15 chapters on understanding and helping the homeless. The first seven chapters present the "new" homeless in historical context and describe this population and its situation. The remaining eight chapters discuss policy and program options of the government and other organizations in attempting to alleviate the problems of…
Chamberlain, Chris; MacKenzie, David
The issue of youth homelessness in Australia is examined in the context of relevant social and educational policies. The exploration is based on 8 years of research into the situation of homeless youth in Australia involving several studies, including a study of school students in 9 communities and field visits to 100 schools. In 1994, researchers…
de Wit Matty A
Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve homelessness prevention practice, we met with recently homeless adults, to explore their pathways into homelessness, problems and service use, before and after becoming homeless. Methods Recently homeless adults (last housing lost up to two years ago and legally staying in the Netherlands were sampled in the streets, day centres and overnight shelters in Amsterdam. In April and May 2004, students conducted interviews and collected data on demographics, self reported pathways into homelessness, social and medical problems, and service use, before and after becoming homeless. Results among 120 recently homeless adults, (male 88%, Dutch 50%, average age 38 years, mean duration of homelessness 23 weeks, the main reported pathways into homelessness were evictions 38%, relationship problems 35%, prison 6% and other reasons 22%. Compared to the relationship group, the eviction group was slightly older (average age 39.6 versus 35.5 years; p = 0.08, belonged more often to a migrant group (p = 0.025, and reported more living single (p Conclusion the recently homeless fit the overall profile of the homeless population in Amsterdam: single (Dutch men, around 40 years, with a mix of financial debts, addiction, mental and/or physical health problems. Contacts with services were fragmented and did not prevent homelessness. For homelessness prevention, systematic and outreach social medical care before and during homelessness should be provided.
Gelberg, L; Linn, L S
Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting.
Smith, Natalie L; Smith, Thomas J; DeSantis, Diana; Suhocki, Marissa; Fenske, Danielle
Vision problems in homeless children can decrease educational achievement and quality of life. To estimate the prevalence and specific diagnoses of vision problems in children in an urban homeless shelter. A prospective series of 107 homeless children and teenagers who underwent screening with a vision questionnaire, eye chart screening (if mature enough) and if vision problem suspected, evaluation by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Glasses and other therapeutic interventions were provided if necessary. The prevalence of vision problems in this population was 25%. Common diagnoses included astigmatism, amblyopia, anisometropia, myopia, and hyperopia. Glasses were required and provided for 24 children (22%). Vision problems in homeless children are common and frequently correctable with ophthalmic intervention. Evaluation by pediatric ophthalmologist is crucial for accurate diagnoses and treatment. Our system of screening and evaluation is feasible, efficacious, and reproducible in other homeless care situations.
In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâs Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.
In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâs Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable. Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 8/27/2008.
van Laere, Igor R; de Wit, Matty A; Klazinga, Niek S
To improve homelessness prevention practice, we met with recently homeless adults, to explore their pathways into homelessness, problems and service use, before and after becoming homeless. Recently homeless adults (last housing lost up to two years ago and legally staying in the Netherlands) were sampled in the streets, day centres and overnight shelters in Amsterdam. In April and May 2004, students conducted interviews and collected data on demographics, self reported pathways into homelessness, social and medical problems, and service use, before and after becoming homeless. among 120 recently homeless adults, (male 88%, Dutch 50%, average age 38 years, mean duration of homelessness 23 weeks), the main reported pathways into homelessness were evictions 38%, relationship problems 35%, prison 6% and other reasons 22%. Compared to the relationship group, the eviction group was slightly older (average age 39.6 versus 35.5 years; p = 0.08), belonged more often to a migrant group (p = 0.025), and reported more living single (p homelessness, in the total group, contacts with any social service were 38% and with any medical service 27%. Despite these contacts they did not keep their house. During homelessness only contacts with social work and benefit agencies increased, contacts with medical services remained low. the recently homeless fit the overall profile of the homeless population in Amsterdam: single (Dutch) men, around 40 years, with a mix of financial debts, addiction, mental and/or physical health problems. Contacts with services were fragmented and did not prevent homelessness. For homelessness prevention, systematic and outreach social medical care before and during homelessness should be provided.
In this podcast, Dr. Marina Eremeeva discusses an article about Bartonella quintana in homeless populations in San Francisco. Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that is transmitted by human body lice. Findings by the articleâs authors suggest that Bartonella quintana may be transmitted by head lice. This could mean that populations other than homeless populations, such as school children, might be at increased risk for Bartonella quintana.
For people who are disenfranchised from society for other reasons, especially homelessness, a paranoid delusional system can create an additional obstacle in the therapeutic engagement and treatment of such individuals. In this article, we describe a composite case of a homeless woman with paranoid schizophrenia. Through this case example, we will explore various obstacles to treatment and discuss strategies to overcome these hurdles to treatment, initiate a therapeutic alliance, and further facilitate and maintain therapy. PMID:20526407
Mar, Marissa Y; Linden, Isabelle A; Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael
This study investigates 500 homeless adults and the associations between childhood maltreatment types and the age of first reported homelessness episode. Those first experiencing homelessness in youth (age 24 years or younger; 46%) were compared with those first experiencing homelessness at a later age (older than age 24 years). In individual models, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with first experiencing homelessness during youth (p homeless during youth (p homeless earlier in life and support the need for early interventions with at-risk families.
McChesney, Kay Young
Synthesizes research findings from 10 studies on urban homeless families; and details their demographic characteristics, including the number of children, race, ethnicity, and family composition. Focus is on mothers with children and the effects of homelessness on children. (SLD)
The purpose of this short paper is to review articles or data on homelessness to grasp what it is and its status quo in Australia, including various allied problems. In this short paper, the definitions of homelessness and the related notion of home are reviewed at first because it is important to find the meaning and difference for development in understanding of and gaining an insight into the homelessness. After that, the present situations or characteristics of homelessness and its proble...
North, Carol S.; Pollio, David E.
Background: Cocaine use is highly prevalent among homeless populations, yet little is known about how it is financed. This study examined associations of income sources with cocaine use and financing of drugs in a longitudinal evaluation of a homeless sample. Methods: A homeless sample was recruited systematically in St. Louis in 1999–2001 and longitudinally assessed annually over two years using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Homeless Supplement, with urine drug testing. Results: ...
Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Baggett, Travis P; Jenkins, Darlene M; Sripipatana, Alek; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A Seiji; Daly, Charles A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen
Objective To examine health status and health care experiences of homeless patients in health centers and to compare them with their nonhomeless counterparts. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationally representative data from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults (n = 2,683). We compared sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, access to health care, and utilization of services among homeless and nonhomeless patients. We also examined the independent effect of homelessness on health care access and utilization, as well as factors that influenced homeless patients' health care experiences. Data Collection Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with health center patients. Principal Findings Homeless patients had worse health status—lifetime burden of chronic conditions, mental health problems, and substance use problems—compared with housed respondents. In adjusted analyses, homeless patients had twice the odds as housed patients of having unmet medical care needs in the past year (OR = 1.98, 95 percent CI: 1.24–3.16) and twice the odds of having an ED visit in the past year (OR = 2.00, 95 percent CI: 1.37–2.92). Conclusions There is an ongoing need to focus on the health issues that disproportionately affect homeless populations. Among health center patients, homelessness is an independent risk factor for unmet medical needs and ED use. PMID:23134588
Ropers, Richard H.
Contemporary homelessness is the result of increasing social and economic inequality faced by those in American society who are most vulnerable to individual, family, and economic instability. This case study of the homeless population of Los Angeles (California), based on two surveys conducted in 1984, views the homeless as a segment of the…
Seider, Scott C.
From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…
Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa
165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.
Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homeless women face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater…
... shelter under a grant under the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act; (ii) Is a State or Tribal... section of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437) or under the Native American Housing... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE STATES, DISTRICT OF...
... under a grant under the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act; (ii) Is a State or Tribal office or... United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437) or under the Native American Housing Assistance and... described in section 1902(l) of the Act or a joint form for children to apply for the State Children's...
Christensen, Ivan; Koch-Nielsen, Inger
Due to an increased visibility in homelessness from the late 80s and onwards many political initiatives have been taken to reduce homelessness and to improve the situation for the homeless. The aim of this article is to try to describe the development in homelessness in Denmark since the late 80s...... in homelessness. The composition of the group has changed, as the proportion of young and elderly seems to have decreased and the proportion of the middle-aged to have increased. There is probably an increase in the proportion of ethnic minorities, whereas a change in the gender composition is difficult to verify...
Rebecca T Brown
Full Text Available Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years, young adulthood (ages 18-25, and middle adulthood (ages 26-49. We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.
Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.
Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478
Brown, Rebecca T; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B
Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.
Reviews discrepancies in the research on the learning and development of homeless children. Describes a child care program at a homeless shelter that enrolls both homeless and nonhomeless children; and presents case studies of two successfully adjusted homeless children. Discusses homeless children's resiliency and the need to assess their…
...) Homeless needs. The plan must provide a concise summary of the nature and extent of homelessness (including rural homelessness and chronically homeless persons), addressing separately the need for facilities and...) who are currently housed but threatened with homelessness. The plan also must contain a brief...
Biederman, Donna J; Forlan, Nicole
Despite recent decreases, homelessness remains a substantial problem in the United States. Homelessness is associated with poor health, and homeless women experience earlier mortality than their housed counterparts. Understanding the aspirations of homeless women may offer service providers avenues for intervention to increase well-being among this vulnerable population. This study, a secondary analysis of transcribed interviews (n = 20), provides insight into the aspirations of homeless women. Opportunities for service providers to intervene on these aspirations within the context of homelessness are offered.
In this podcast, Dr. Marina Eremeeva discusses an article about Bartonella quintana in homeless populations in San Francisco. Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that is transmitted by human body lice. Findings by the articleâs authors suggest that Bartonella quintana may be transmitted by head lice. This could mean that populations other than homeless populations, such as school children, might be at increased risk for Bartonella quintana. Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 6/30/2009.
van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James
We compared the characteristics of chronically homeless and acutely homeless elderly veterans to better understand precipitants of homelessness. We conducted interviews with 33 chronically and 26 acutely homeless veterans aged 65 years and older receiving transitional housing services in Los Angeles, California, between 2003 and 2005. We asked questions regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and other social status measures. Other precipitants of homelessness were acquired via observation and open-ended and structured questions. Both veterans groups were more similar than different, with substantial levels of physical, psychiatric, and social impairment. They differed significantly in homelessness history, with chronically homeless veterans having more homelessness episodes and more total time homeless. They were also less educated and had smaller social networks. In response to open-ended questioning, elderly homeless veterans revealed how health and substance use issues interacted with loss of social support and eviction to exacerbate homelessness. Assessment of a range of factors is needed to address risk factors and events leading to homelessness. Further research with larger samples is needed to confirm the characteristics and needs of the elderly homeless veteran population.
The rate of alcohol and drug dependency is high among homeless persons in Norway as well as in other Western societies. National homeless surveys also show a certain correlation between discharge from institutions and homelessness. However, the rate of homelessness versus the rate with fixed abode at the end of specialised alcohol and drug treatment has not been examined using quantitative methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in alcohol and drug treatment units in the national health services and private clinics. The survey investigates the housing outcome at the end of treatment compared to the situation at the start of treatment using an individual questionnaire for patients ending treatment in a specific time window. Housing outcome is measured by the odds ratio of having a fixed abode at the end of treatment in relation to main intoxicating substance, type of treatment (in- and outpatient), completing versus cutting short the treatment, housing situation at the start of treatment, socioeconomic capital, mental health problems, individual plan, medical assisted treatment, and a set of background variables. The housing versus homeless situation hardly changes during the treatment period. In both a bivariate analysis and a simple multivariate model, principal intoxicating substance is the strongest predictor of having a fixed abode both before and after treatment. However, a more sophisticated analysis indicates that socioeconomic resources and social capital play along with the preferred intoxicating substance as predictors of having permanent housing. After more than a decade of a housing-led national homeless policy, and wide embracement of Housing First approaches in the European Union, homeless persons entering specialised alcohol and drug treatment are likely to return to the streets and hostels at the end of treatment. Access to housing after treatment is very limited for those lacking resources to solve their housing problem without assistance
Pavao, Joanne; Turchik, Jessica A; Hyun, Jenny K; Karpenko, Julie; Saweikis, Meghan; McCutcheon, Susan; Kane, Vincent; Kimerling, Rachel
Military sexual trauma (MST) is the Veteran Health Administration's (VHA) term for sexual assault and/or sexual harassment that occurs during military service. The experience of MST is associated with a variety of mental health conditions. Preliminary research suggests that MST may be associated with homelessness among female Veterans, although to date MST has not been examined in a national study of both female and male homeless Veterans. To estimate the prevalence of MST, examine the association between MST and mental health conditions, and describe mental health utilization among homeless women and men. National, cross-sectional study of 126,598 homeless Veterans who used VHA outpatient care in fiscal year 2010. All variables were obtained from VHA administrative databases, including MST screening status, ICD-9-CM codes to determine mental health diagnoses, and VHA utilization. Of homeless Veterans in VHA, 39.7 % of females and 3.3 % of males experienced MST. Homeless Veterans who experienced MST demonstrated a significantly higher likelihood of almost all mental health conditions examined as compared to other homeless women and men, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, bipolar disorders, personality disorders, suicide, and, among men only, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Nearly all homeless Veterans had at least one mental health visit and Veterans who experienced MST utilized significantly more mental health visits compared to Veterans who did not experience MST. A substantial proportion of homeless Veterans using VHA services have experienced MST, and those who experienced MST had increased odds of mental health diagnoses. Homeless Veterans who had experienced MST had higher intensity of mental health care utilization and high rates of MST-related mental health care. This study highlights the importance of trauma-informed care among homeless Veterans and the success of VHA homeless
Shinichiro Iwata; Koji Karato
This paper examines the location choices of homeless people in Osaka City, and finds them concentrated because of homeless networks. The paper also shows that different types of homeless networks operate in two different homeless groups: (1) peer networks that provide a social tie inside homeless communities are observed in groups that had not had work experience in the day labor market; (2) homed networks that provide a social tie outside homeless communities affect location choice in the ex...
Kidd, Sean A.
Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed…
The bank foreclosed on your home because your parents divorced and don't have enough money to pay the mortgage. You're locked out of your house. Where will the family sleep? Most families turn to friends and relatives at times like these. That's why about 75 percent of the 1,258,182 homeless students in the United States live…
Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.
Roughly 600,000 families are homeless today in America, while over 2.7 million children are in foster care or out-of-home placements. Few policymakers have examined these issues together, or understood that they are interrelated and must be addressed jointly to break the cycle of family disintegration, violence, and poverty. A recent survey by the…
Austen, Tyrone; Pauly, Bernie
Homelessness is a serious and growing issue. Evaluations of systemic-level changes are needed to determine progress in reducing or ending homelessness. The report card methodology is one means of systems-level assessment. Rather than solely establishing an enumeration, homelessness report cards can capture pertinent information about structural…
Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.
Claire W. Herbert
Full Text Available The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports.
Full Text Available Urban poverty continues to prove itself a concern in cities’ territorial planning as it disrupts the quality of life and the development process in some cities. Homelessness emerges sometimes as extreme urban poverty even in developed European Union countries. The study assesses Bucharest urban space to differentiate characteristics that influence the homeless to locate in certain places. The analysis included a three-level urban space categorization. Functional types of space were correlated to homelessness presence according to three space characteristics: property type, physical structure and state of use. The main findings argue that homeless people localization in Bucharest depends on urban space capacity to meet homelessness housing and living needs. Analysis’ conclusions evidence homeless location patterns to urban planners and authorities that may use the information to improve policies and actions to alleviate extreme poverty in Bucharest.
Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.
In 1988 officials in 27 major cities were surveyed on the following topics: (1) ability to meet demand for emergency food assistance and shelter; (2) causes and demographics of hunger and homelessness; (3) status of low-income housing; and (4) outlook for 1989. Summary findings included the following: (1) demand for emergency food assistance…
This article analyses the risk of homelessness in the Danish adult population. The study is based on individual, administrative micro-data for about 4.15 million Danes who were 18 years or older on 1 January 2002. Homelessness is measured by shelter use from 2002 to 2011. Data also cover civil st...... that homelessness in Denmark is widely concentrated amongst individuals with complex support needs, rather than associated with wider poverty problems....
Holloway, John H.
Reviews studies on the plight and needs of homeless students. Includes reports on family mobility and school attendance, dysfunctional families, and school intervention strategies. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.
Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and definition... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53...
Fu, Yan-Nan; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Hou, Cai-Lan; Ng, Chee H; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Lihui; Zheng, Xiaocong; Jia, Fu-Jun; Xiang, Yu-Tao
There are no published data on insight in homeless patients with psychiatric disorders in China. This study examined insight in homeless and non-homeless Chinese psychiatric inpatients in relation to demographic and clinical variables. A total of 278 homeless and 222 non-homeless inpatients matched in age and gender were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected based on a review of medical charts and a clinical interview with standardized instruments. Insight was evaluated with the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. Altogether 20.5% of homeless inpatients and 43.7% of the non-homeless controls had good insight. Compared with homeless inpatients with impaired insight, homeless inpatients with good insight had higher physical quality of life, longer duration of illness and less severe positive and negative symptoms. Impaired insight appeared more common in homeless psychiatric inpatients in China. Further studies should address the need for effective therapeutic interventions that promote homeless patients' insight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Joseph; Tobin, Kerri
In this article, the authors examine homelessness across time and examine, in an introductory way, homelessness today. The authors start by examining important themes that ribbon homelessness in America over the last 300 years. Next, they provide a period analysis of homelessness from the birth of the country through the late 1970s. In the last…
Vissing, Yvonne M.
Despite stereotypes to the contrary, homelessness is as prevalent in rural as urban areas. This digest examines the implications of homelessness for rural children and youth and discusses possible actions by rural educators. An estimated half of the rural homeless are families with children. Compared to urban counterparts, rural homeless families…
Homelessness is a significant social problem in the United States, with an estimated 2.5 million homeless people in this country today. While criminal activity may become a means for the homeless to obtain resources needed for basic survival, little is known about the level of criminal activity among the homeless or about the types of crimnal…
Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia
There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…
Kinchin, Irina; Jacups, Susan; Hunter, Gary; Rogerson, Bernadette
An increase in the number of Indigenous homeless persons in Cairns, Northern Australia, prompted the Queensland Police Service (QPS) to commence a pilot 'Return to Country' (R2C) program. The program was designed to assist homeless people who were voluntarily seeking to return to their home communities. This study assesses the costs of running the program and evaluates its net economic impact. Retrospective uncontrolled cost, cost-effectiveness and cost-offset analyses were undertaken from a societal perspective. All costs were expressed in 2014 AU$. The R2C program successfully assisted 140 participants to return home, reducing the prevalence of homelessness in the regional center by 9.6%. The total program cost was estimated as AU$ 135,831 or AU$ 970 per participant. The economic analysis indicated that R2C was value for money, potentially saving AU$ 2,714,460. Limitations of the study included retrospective data collection and no established alternative comparison group. R2C is a relatively simple, minimal cost program, which can be utilized by policy makers to offer one solution to homelessness. This economic evaluation informs the QPS of the effects of the R2C program in order to guide further program initiatives. The R2C model may be applied to assist temporarily stranded Indigenous people in other locations within Australia or internationally to return home. No funding was obtained for conducting this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Darmon, N; Coupel, J; Deheeger, M; Briend, A
To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of homeless men. A night emergency shelter in Paris, France. Dietary survey (48-h) including alcohol intake and a questionnaire on age, duration of homelessness, smoking habits. Subjects were also weighed and measured. Ninety-seven men aged 18-72 years (mean 43.3), of whom 54% were homeless for more than 18 months, 82% were smokers and 53% were regular and/or excessive drinkers. The BMI distribution was shifted towards low values, the percentage of wasted persons being four times higher than in the reference population. The mean total energy intake was 2376 kcal and included a high and highly variable percentage of energy derived from alcohol (12.0% Among drinkers, the mean ethanol intake was 90 g and there was a significant negative correlation between ethanol and non-alcoholic energy intakes. The median intakes of potassium, calcium, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, and niacin were lower than European Population Reference Intakes but only the mean intake of vitamin B1 was significantly lower. Eighty percent of non-alcoholic energy was provided by charitable organisations. For most nutrients, the nutritional density of the shelter ration was not significantly different from the density of the foods purchased by the homeless. These data suggest that the content of some nutrients should be increased in existing food assistance programs for homeless people in France.
Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.
This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…
National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012
The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic,…
Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane
The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…
Nunez, Ralph da Costa
This book discusses homeless families in the United States and advocates the efforts of residential educational and employment training centers--American Family Inns--which provide comprehensive services education, job training, and parenting and life skills to address the poverty-related conditions that contribute to homelessness. Chapters of the…
First, Richard J.; And Others
This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…
Shaver, Debra M.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.
This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the extent to which homeless children in the United States receive the "free and appropriate education" to which they are entitled. Data were collected through several surveys conducted in two San Francisco Bay Area counties: (1) surveys of parents in homeless shelters with 313…
.... Funding Opportunity Description: Section 2021 of Title 38 of the United States Code (U.S.C.) reauthorizes the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) through fiscal year (FY) 2012 and indicates: ``the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program AGENCY: Veterans' Employment and...
Rafferty, Yvonne; Shinn, Marybeth
Reviews community-based research on the effects of homelessness on children. Homeless children face threats to their future well-being resulting from health problems, hunger, poor nutrition, developmental delays, anxiety, depression, behavioral problems, and educational underachievement. Contributing factors may include inadequate shelter,…
Full Text Available Reducing homelessness is an indisputable social good, and housing subsidies offer one way to do so. However, subsidies come in many different varieties and are intricately bound up with economic and social policies. This paper, written by one of North America’s leading urban economists, cuts through the tangle and argues that the simplest approach is the best. The ideal way to deter people from harmful acts is to reward them for abstaining. Thus, to combat homelessness, governments should offer housing allowances to people for every night they are not homeless. This optimal homelessness-reducing home allowance (OHRHA is open to adjustment to suit individual circumstances and the effects of homelessness on different demographics. It is meant to reduce homelessness by aligning individual and societal incentives, forcing people to bear the consequences or realize the benefits that their actions impose on others. The author explores methods for financing OHRHA, examines means for tailoring it to meet the diverse needs of the homeless and discusses the policy’s effect on urban housing markets, all while comparing and contrasting the proposal to existing homelessness-reduction measures in Alberta, Canada and the US.
This article has located Jesus' saying about homelessness in the context of the Roman Empire as it was experienced in Galilee. Homelessness is part of a broader picture that translates into loss of access to the resources of the land. The thesis is that in light of a theology of land resulting from the development of Abrahamic ...
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin
Human service students were surveyed ("N" = 207) to determine their perceptions about homeless elders and communal responsibility for their well-being. Using a backward regression analysis, a final model ("F" = 15.617, "df" = 7, "p" < 0.001) for Perceptions about Homeless Persons and Community…
Loopstra, Rachel; Reeves, Aaron; Barr, Ben; Taylor-Robinson, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David
It is unclear why rates of homelessness claims in England have risen since 2010. We used variations in rates across local authorities to test the impact of economic downturns and budget cuts. Using cross-area fixed effects models of data from 323 UK local authorities between 2004 and 2012, we evaluated associations of changes in statutory homelessness rates with economic activity (Gross Value Added per capita), unemployment, and local and central government expenditure. Each 10% fall in economic activity was associated with an increase of 0.45 homelessness claims per 1000 households (95% CI: 0.10-0.80). Increasing rates of homelessness were also strongly linked with government reductions in welfare spending. Disaggregating types of welfare expenditure, we found that strongest associations with reduced homelessness claims were spending on social care, housing services, discretionary housing payments and income support for older persons. Recession and austerity measures are associated with significant increases in rates of homelessness assistance. These findings likely understate the full burden of homelessness as they only capture those who seek aid. Future research is needed to investigate what is happening to vulnerable groups who may not obtain assistance, including those with mental health problems and rough sleepers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
... Non-Urban Homeless Female Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into Employment... addresses complex problems facing Homeless Female Veterans and/or Veterans with Families eligible to... (including job readiness, literacy training, and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless...
Koh, Katherine A.; Hoy, Jessica S.; O’Connell, James J.; Montgomery, Paul
Despite stereotypes of the homeless population as underweight, the literature lacks a rigorous analysis of weight status in homeless adults. The purpose of this study is to present the body mass index (BMI) distribution in a large adult homeless population and to compare this distribution to the non-homeless population in the United States. Demographic, BMI, and socioeconomic variables from patients seen in 2007–2008 were collected from the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP)....
Ayano, Getinet; Assefa, Dawit; Haile, Kibrom; Chaka, Asrat; Solomon, Haddish; Hagos, Petros; Yohannis, Zegeye; Haile, Kelemua; Bekana, Lulu; Agidew, Melkamu; Demise, Seife; Tsegaye, Belachew; Solomon, Melat
About 25-60% of the homeless population is reported to have some form of mental disorder. To our knowledge, there are no studies aimed at the screening, diagnosis, treatment, care, rehabilitation, and support of homeless people with mental, neurologic, and substance use (MNS) disorders in general in Ethiopia. This is the first study of its kind in Africa which was aimed at screening, diagnosis, care, treatment, rehabilitation, and support of homeless individuals with possible MNS disorder. Community-based survey was conducted from January to March 2015. Homeless people who had overt and observable psychopathology and positive for screening instruments (SRQ20, ASSIST, and PSQ) were involved in the survey and further assessed for possible diagnosis by structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnoses and international diagnostic criteria for seizure disorders for possible involvement in care, treatment, rehabilitation services, support, and training. The Statistical Program for Social Science (SPSS version 20) was used for data entry, clearance, and analyses. A total of 456 homeless people were involved in the survey. Majority of the participants were male ( n = 402; 88.16%). Most of the homeless participants had migrated into Addis Ababa from elsewhere in Ethiopia and Eritrea (62.50%). Mental, neurologic, and substance use disorders resulted to be common problems in the study participants (92.11%; n = 420). Most of the participants with mental, neurologic, and substance use disorders (85.29%; n = 354) had psychotic disorders. Most of those with psychosis had schizophrenia (77.40%; n = 274). Almost all of the participants had a history of substance use (93.20%; n = 425) and about one in ten individuals had substance use disorders (10.54%; n = 48). Most of the participants with substance use disorder had comorbid other mental and neurologic disorders (83.33%; n = 40). Mental, neurologic, and substance use disorders are common (92
Moore, Gaye; Hepworth, Graham; Weiland, Tracey; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie Frances; Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David
To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model to identify homeless people at risk of representation to an emergency department. A prospective cohort analysis utilised one month of data from a Principal Referral Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. All visits involving people classified as homeless were included, excluding those who died. Homelessness was defined as living on the streets, in crisis accommodation, in boarding houses or residing in unstable housing. Rates of re-presentation, defined as the total number of visits to the same emergency department within 28 days of discharge from hospital, were measured. Performance of the risk screening tool was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. Over the study period (April 1, 2009 to April 30, 2009), 3298 presentations from 2888 individuals were recorded. The homeless population accounted for 10% (n=327) of all visits and 7% (n=211) of all patients. A total of 90 (43%) homeless people re-presented to the emergency department. The predictive model included nine variables and achieved 98% (CI, 0.92-0.99) sensitivity and 66% (CI, 0.57-0.74) specificity. The positive predictive value was 68% and the negative predictive value was 98%. The positive likelihood ratio 2.9 (CI, 2.2-3.7) and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.03 (CI, 0.01-0.13). The high emergency department re-presentation rate for people who were homeless identifies unresolved psychosocial health needs. The emergency department remains a vital access point for homeless people, particularly after hours. The risk screening tool is key to identify medical and social aspects of a homeless patient's presentation to assist early identification and referral. Copyright Â© 2012 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Okamura, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Kae; Morikawa, Suimei; Awata, Shuichi
The purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency and correlates of suicidal behavior among homeless people in Japan. A face-to-face survey was conducted in two districts of Tokyo, Japan, with 423 subjects who resided on streets and riversides and in urban parks and stations (street homeless) or who were residents of shelters, cheap hotels, or welfare homes for homeless people (sheltered homeless). When questioned about suicidal ideation in the previous 2 weeks, 51 subjects (12.2% of valid responses) had a recurring wish to die, 29 (6.9%) had frequent thoughts of suicide, and 22 (5.3%) had made suicide plans. In addition, 11 (2.9%) subjects had attempted suicide in the previous 2 weeks and 74 (17.7%) reported that they had ever attempted suicide. In univariate logistic regression analyses, street homelessness, lack of perceived emotional social support, poor subjective health perception, visual impairment, pain, insomnia, poor mental well-being, and current depression were significantly associated with recurrent thoughts of suicide in the previous 2 weeks. Among these, current depression had the greatest significance. In multivariate logistic regression analyses after controlling for depression, street homelessness and lack of perceived emotional social support were significantly associated with recurrent thoughts of suicide in the previous 2 weeks. Comprehensive interventions including housing and social support as well as mental health services might be crucial as effective strategies for suicide prevention among homeless people.
Ensign, Josephine; Ammerman, Seth
This paper is a report of a study to document researcher, healthcare provider and programme administrators' experiences with ethical issues in research with homeless youths in North America. While there are legal and ethical guidelines for research with adolescents and with vulnerable populations in general, there are no specific guidelines for the ethical conduct of research with homeless youths. Using a web-based questionnaire, healthcare and social service providers, programme administrators and researchers working with homeless young people throughout the United States of America and Canada were surveyed in 2005. The survey group consisted of 120 individuals; a total of 72 individuals completed the survey. Survey questions included experiences with using incentives in research with homeless youths, consent and experiences with ethics review boards. Numerical data were analysed using frequencies and cross-tabulations. Text data were analysed qualitatively. Researchers doing mental health and/or substance use research tended to use money as a research incentive, whereas healthcare providers and programme administrators tended to use non-monetary incentives. The majority of respondents reported using written consent for research from homeless youths, including minors. Respondents reporting difficulties with ethics review boards were mainly involved with intervention research. Consensus is needed from a variety of stakeholders, including homeless youths and service providers, on use of various types of research incentives for different types of research, as well as use of consent for homeless youths who are minors.
McQuistion, Hunter L; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Hsu, Eustace; Caton, Carol L M
Alcohol and drug use are commonly associated with the experience of homelessness. In order to better understand this, we explored the prevalence of drug and alcohol use as it related to successful re-housing within a sample of first-time single homeless adults at municipal shelters. From within this sample, we compared the features of recurrent homelessness with those of chronic homelessness and of being stably housed. We interviewed 344 subjects upon shelter entry and followed each one every six months for 18 months using standardized social and mental health measures. We analyzed baseline assessments relative to housing experiences during follow-up using Chi square and multinomial logistic regression. Eighty-one percent (N = 278) obtained housing over 18 months, of which 23.7 % (N = 66) experienced homelessness again. Recurrent homelessness was more common among those with a high school education and if initially re-housed with family. Bivariate analysis resulted in the observation of the highest rate of alcohol and other drug use among this recurrent group and multinomial logistic regression supported this only with the coupling of arrest history and diagnosed antisocial personality disorder. With relatively high rates of recurrent homelessness, there were differences between subjects who experienced recurrent homelessness compared to those who were stably housed and with chronic homelessness. That alcohol and other substance use disorders were associated with recurrent homelessness only if they were linked to other risk factors highlights the complexity of causes for homelessness and a resultant need to organize them into constellations of causal risk factors. Consistent with this, there should be initiatives that span bureaucratic boundaries so as to flexibly meet multiple complex service needs, thus improving outcomes concerning episodes of recurrent homelessness.
Nash, Woods; Mixer, Sandra J; McArthur, Polly M; Mendola, Annette
reported having encountered those obstacles. So, while participants required moral courage to assist homeless persons with advance directives, they required greater moral courage as they anticipated their meetings than during those meetings. Our study breaks new ground at the intersection of nursing, moral courage, and advance directives. It might also have important implications for how to improve the training that US nursing students receive before they provide this service. Our results cannot be generalized, but portions of our approach are likely to be transferable to similar social contexts. For example, because homeless persons are misunderstood and marginalized throughout the United States, our design for training nursing students to provide this service is also likely to be useful across the United States. Internationally, however, it is not yet known whether our participants' fears and the challenge they faced are also experienced by those who assist homeless persons or members of other vulnerable populations in documenting healthcare wishes. © The Author(s) 2015.
A group of homeless people living in the streets is described with the purpose of gaining the knowledge necessary to prevent development of homelessness and establishing programmes for the homeless. Out-reach work in the streets and cooperation with private and religious organisations was conducted during a two-year period and 59 homeless persons were interviewed. Fifteen were women and 44 were men. Upbringing, social conditions, daily living, physical and mental health and contact with health services, social security and private organisations were highlighted in a structured and semistructured interview. Compared with the background population the homeless had much more frequently childhood experience of parents' divorce or death of one of the parents. The women were significantly older than the men and the majority of the women were suffering from schizophrenia and had very little contact with network and public services. The majority of the men were abusing alcohol or drugs, many had had a troublesome childhood with stays in institutions. Many had had many contacts with different social institutions and a criminal record. Among the homeless in the streets of Copenhagen, the prevalence of mental illness, especially schizophrenia, is high. It is recommended that homelessness among the mentally ill is prevented by a special effort directed towards the patient group at risk of becoming homeless and through establishing different housing facilities with varying degrees of professional support. Out-reach work towards the homeless mentally ill should be carried out with the purpose of establishing contact with psychiatric services and securing the possibility of compulsory admission.
Chen, Jinliang; Chen, Jindong; Li, Shuchun; Liu, Jun; Ouyang, Guohua; Luo, Wenxuan; Guo, Xiaofeng; Li, Ting; Li, Kaijie; Li, Zhenkuo; Wang, Gan
Homelessness is an increasingly important problem for individuals with serious mental illness in China. Identify the characteristics of families that are associated with homelessness among individuals with schizophrenia. Participants were 1856 homeless individuals with schizophrenia (defined as those who had no place of residence or involved caregivers for 7 consecutive days) and 1728 non-homeless individuals with schizophrenia from Xiangtan, Hunan. The self-completion Family Environment Scale-Chinese Version (FES-CV) was administered to these participants after their acute psychotic symptoms resolved. Compared to individuals in the non-homeless group, those in the homeless group were older and more likely to be non-locals (i.e., from outside of Xiangtan), be residents of rural (versus urban) communities, have temporary (versus permanent) jobs, be married, and have a low level of education. After controlling for demographic differences using multivariate logistic regression models, homelessness was independently associated higher scores in the FES-CV intellectual-cultural orientation, organization, achievement orientation, and control subscales and with lower scores in the FES-CV cohesion, moralreligious emphasis, independence, and active-recreational orientation subscales. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, certain aspects of the family environment areassociated with being homeless among patients with schizophrenia in China. Further work is needed to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of homelessness in high-risk individuals.
D. Keith McInnes
Full Text Available Background. Homeless veterans have complex healthcare needs, but experience many barriers to treatment engagement. While information technologies (IT, especially mobile phones, are used to engage patients in care, little is known about homeless veterans’ IT use. This study examines homeless veterans’ access to and use of IT, attitudes toward health-related IT use, and barriers to IT in the context of homelessness.Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 homeless veterans in different housing programs in Boston, MA, ranging from emergency shelters to supportive transitional housing that allow stays of up to 2 years. Interviews were conducted in person, audio recorded and then transcribed. Three researchers coded transcripts. Inductive thematic analysis was used.Results. Most participants (90% had a mobile phone and were receptive to IT use for health-related communications. A common difficulty communicating with providers was the lack of a stable mailing address. Some participants were using mobile phones to stay in touch with providers. Participants felt mobile-phone calls or text messages could be used to remind patients of appointments, prescription refills, medication taking, and returning for laboratory results. Mobile phone text messaging was seen as convenient, and helped participants stay organized because necessary information was saved in text messages. Some reported concerns about the costs associated with mobile phone use (calls and texting, the potential to be annoyed by too many text messages, and not knowing how to use text messaging.Conclusion. Homeless veterans use IT and welcome its use for health-related purposes. Technology-assisted outreach among this population may lead to improved engagement in care.
Full Text Available Purpose: Homeless adults have a higher prevalence of smoking compared to the general population. Most tobacco cessation efforts have focused on the general population, with limited attention paid to this vulnerable population. In this study, homeless adults as well as shelter staff were interviewed to understand their attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smoking cessation, and receptiveness to smoking cessation interventions. Methods: Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were audio recorded and transcribed for 13 homeless adult smokers and 9 staff recruited from a homeless shelter in Charleston, South Carolina. Transcripts were analyzed in a systematic manner by independent investigators trained in grounded theory. The constant comparison method was used to code, categorize and synthesize the qualitative data. Results: The majority of smokers interviewed expressed the desire to stop smoking, but felt that stress from being homeless was a barrier to quitting. When asked about different tobacco cessation methods, there was no preferred method and there was skepticism regarding actual effectiveness of different methods, since many had previously been unsuccessful when tried by these smokers. Shelter staff acknowledged that tobacco cessation was important, but did not see it as a priority for shelter residents. Even though cessation medications are available in the shelter clinic, very few of the smokers or shelter staff interviewed were aware of the availability of these medications. Conclusions: This study suggests that adult smokers in a homeless shelter are interested in quitting smoking and receptive toward assistance, but that lack of awareness and perceived importance of cessation among staff is a significant barrier. Providing training to staff and encouraging them to take a proactive approach to tobacco cessation may be an area to focus future cessation interventions.
McInnes, D Keith; Fix, Gemmae M; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Sawh, Leon; Smelson, David A
Background. Homeless veterans have complex healthcare needs, but experience many barriers to treatment engagement. While information technologies (IT), especially mobile phones, are used to engage patients in care, little is known about homeless veterans' IT use. This study examines homeless veterans' access to and use of IT, attitudes toward health-related IT use, and barriers to IT in the context of homelessness. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 homeless veterans in different housing programs in Boston, MA, ranging from emergency shelters to supportive transitional housing that allow stays of up to 2 years. Interviews were conducted in person, audio recorded and then transcribed. Three researchers coded transcripts. Inductive thematic analysis was used. Results. Most participants (90%) had a mobile phone and were receptive to IT use for health-related communications. A common difficulty communicating with providers was the lack of a stable mailing address. Some participants were using mobile phones to stay in touch with providers. Participants felt mobile-phone calls or text messages could be used to remind patients of appointments, prescription refills, medication taking, and returning for laboratory results. Mobile phone text messaging was seen as convenient, and helped participants stay organized because necessary information was saved in text messages. Some reported concerns about the costs associated with mobile phone use (calls and texting), the potential to be annoyed by too many text messages, and not knowing how to use text messaging. Conclusion. Homeless veterans use IT and welcome its use for health-related purposes. Technology-assisted outreach among this population may lead to improved engagement in care.
Forchuk, C; MacClure, S K; Van Beers, M; Smith, C; Csiernik, R; Hoch, J; Jensen, E
Shelter data in a recent study revealed discharges from psychiatric facilities to shelters or the street occurred at least 194 times in 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. This problem must be addressed to reduce the disastrous effects of such discharge, including re-hospitalization and prolonged homelessness. An intervention was developed and tested to prevent homelessness associated with discharge directly to no fixed address. A total of 14 participants at-risk of being discharged without housing were enrolled, with half randomized into the intervention group. The intervention group was provided with immediate assistance in accessing housing and assistance in paying their first and last month's rent. The control group received usual care. Data was collected from participants prior to discharge, at 31 and 6-months post-discharge. All the individuals in the intervention group maintained housing after 3 and 6 months. All but one individual in the control group remained homeless after 3 and 6 months. The exception joined the sex trade to avoid homelessness. The results of this pilot were so dramatic that randomizing to the control group was discontinued. Discussions are underway to routinely implement the intervention. Systemic improvements can prevent homelessness for individuals being discharged from psychiatric wards.
Feodor Nilsson, Sandra; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between homelessness and psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders, on one hand, and cause-specific and all-cause mortality on the other in a high-income country. Methods: A historical nationwide register-based cohort...... study of the Danish population from 15 years of age between 2000 and 2011 was conducted. The association between homelessness, psychiatric disorders, and mortality was analysed by Poisson Regression adjusting for important confounders. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for people...... with a history of homelessness compared with the general population using direct age-standardisation. Results: During 51,892,324 person-years of observation, 656,448 died. People with at least one homeless shelter contact accounted for 173,592 person-years with 4345 deaths. The excess mortality in the population...
Herbert, CW; Morenoff, JD; Harding, DJ
The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on M...
Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, M.; McGinty, S.
This paper reports findings of a study that utilised an occupational perspective to explore how wellbeing was achieved and sustained by the occupations of people experiencing homelessness in Australia. Thirty three in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with homeless individuals in a regional city in Australia. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed to understand the relationship between wellbeing, as defined by the individual, and the occupations engaged in by people exp...
Full Text Available Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony. The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.
Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.
Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin’s life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childh...
Urban poverty continues to prove itself a concern in cities’ territorial planning as it disrupts the quality of life and the development process in some cities. Homelessness emerges sometimes as extreme urban poverty even in developed European Union countries. The study assesses Bucharest urban space to differentiate characteristics that influence the homeless to locate in certain places. The analysis included a three-level urban space categorization. Functional types of space were correlated...
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2013
Given the number of young children experiencing homelessness and its devastating impacts on development, preschool programs play a critical role in meeting these children's need for quality early care and education; yet, most young homeless children do not receive early childhood services. Many barriers limit access to early childhood programs for…
Ferguson, Kristin M
Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach.
Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Zúñiga, Claudia
The study analyzes the differences in causal attributions of homelessness and attributions of responsibility among the members of 3 groups: homeless group, consisting of a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid, Spain (n = 188); domiciled service-users group, consisting of people at risk of homelessness (n = 164); and domiciled nonservice-users group, consisting of people at no imminent risk of homelessness (n = 180). The domiciled service-users group and domiciled nonservice-users group were matched to the homeless group or sex, age, and nationality. The article also analyzes homeless people's causal attributions as regards their own situation. The results show that compared with the domiciled nonservice-users group, a higher percentage of members of the homeless group and domiciled service-users group attributed homelessness to individualistic causes and they blamed homeless people for their situation to a greater extent. The results also show that there was no "actor-observer bias" in causal attributions for homelessness in Madrid. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — These raw data sets contain Point-in-Time (PIT) estimates and national PIT estimates of homelessness as well as national estimates of homelessness by state and...
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts health and what public health professionals can do about it.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts policy and what public health professionals can do about it.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts policy and what public health professionals can do about it.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts health and what public health professionals can do about it.
Mitchell, Jessica N; Clark, Colleen; Guenther, Christina C
The relationship between criminal justice involvement and housing among homeless persons with co-occurring disorders was examined. Program participants assisted in moving to stable housing were interviewed at baseline, six months, and discharge. Those who remained homeless at follow-up and discharge had significantly more time in jail in the past month than those who were housed. However, criminal justice involvement was not significantly related to housing status at the six month follow-up or discharge. Findings suggest that housing people with complex behavioral health issues reduces the likelihood of further criminal justice involvement.
Zazworsky, Donna; Johnson, Nancy
Population health management calls for hospitals and health care entities to better align their strategies in order to deliver quality care more efficiently. Although these efforts tend to be addressed with insured populations, the homeless demand a very intentional focus. The issue of homelessness has adverse effects on the health care system, resulting in the inefficient use of resources. Community-wide efforts must be mobilized to address this inefficiency and need for preventative care and self-management education for this population. Carondelet Health Network, in partnership with El Rio Community Health Center, a federally qualified health center, along with other health care and social service providers, has established the Southern Arizona Health Village for the Homeless, providing a health care delivery system to ensure the best functional and clinical outcomes. This system includes a van (the Van of Hope), licensed as a health center, and staffed with an El Rio Community Health Center nurse practitioner and a medical assistant partnering with a Carondelet Health Network behavioral health specialist and a community outreach worker. Clinical patient information is managed via an electronic health record inclusive of clinical data, number of visits, referrals, self-management education, hospitalizations, and follow-up care. A post-hospital program with shelters and an Emergency Room Navigation Program are additional components of the village that provide a comprehensive pre-acute and post-acute effort to support the homeless. Financial impact is measured by reductions in hospitalizations and average length of stay.
Anikka D. Ataiza
Full Text Available This study uncovered the Experiences of Homeless Street People in Sorsogon City , Philippines . The research participants were four homeless street people in Sorsogon City of different ages and genders. This study utilized the qualitative - narrative method of research and used coding in analysing the data. The data revealed that the homeless st reet people in Sorsogon City vary in age, gender, educational attainment and manner of livelihood. Each of them has different reasons why they are homeless but it was found out that they are street people because of their livelihood. They also experience challenges and risks in their security, health and livelihood. Moreover, they have their own reasons of accepting or refusing the opportunities offered to most of them. Most of them receive assistance from non - government and private organizations, and pri vate individuals more than from the local government. These findings have led to the proposal of a Creative Non - fiction which served as the output of this study.
Leibler, Jessica H.; Nguyen, Daniel D.; Le?n, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M.; Perez, Debora
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston,...
This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in t...
Isabela Aparecida de Oliveira Lussi
Full Text Available Introduction: We are facing alarming levels of structural unemployment that become exponentially larger when we analyze the layers excluded from the right to work, as the people living in the street. Objective: To identify the conceptions about the work of people living in the street. Method: The participants were ten men sheltered in a religious institution that welcomes homeless people, located in the interior of the state of São Paulo. This is a qualitative study that used the semi-structured interview for data collection and the thematic analysis technique to analyze them. Results: The participants link the work to financial issues, since the money was recognized by them as a means to satisfy material desires and support family. They also link it to the use of psychoactive substances, indicated as the main reason for the loss of jobs. However, we observed that the work was also indicated as a possibility of (reconstruction of future life projects, being an important component of daily life. Participants associated the work with the viability of their social networks, which in many cases were fragile or non-existent and conceived as an emancipatory strategy, whether personal, family or financial. Conclusion: Research into social assistance equipment for the homeless people is important, since it broadens the knowledge about the equipment itself, the users and their demands, favoring the creation and implementation of social policies, as well as supporting Occupational Therapy practices along with this population, which are still scarce.
Wagner, Julia; Diehl, Katharina; Mutsch, Livia; Löffler, Walter; Burkert, Nathalie; Freidl, Wolfgang
This case-control study describes the health situation, internal and external resources, and utilisation of healthcare facilities by a marginalised population consisting of homeless people in Vienna, Austria, compared with a non-homeless control population. Among the homeless group, participants lived in halfway houses (70%) or permanent housing (30%) in Vienna. Personal interviews were conducted in July 2010 with 66 homeless individuals, and their data were compared with data from non-homeless subjects from the Austrian Health Interview Survey using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the control group, homeless persons suffered more often from chronic diseases (P resources of homeless people, even though homeless people seek medical care at a higher rate than controls. Continuing health promotion projects for this high-risk group and the strengthening of social resources are recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Powers-Costello, Beth; Swick, Kevin J.
The focus of this article is on articulating the importance of teacher development of constructs about homeless children and families and examining factors that influence teachers' perceptions of children and families who are homeless or at high-risk of becoming homeless. The article also explores some strategies to support teachers in…
Chow, Kirby A.; Mistry, Rashmita S.; Melchor, Vanessa L.
This study examined elementary school teachers' experiences working with homeless students. Specifically, we focused on the psychosocial impacts of homelessness on students and their teachers. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 teachers who worked at designated public schools for family homeless shelters. A prominent…
Cumming, John M.; Gloeckner, Gene W.
After interviewing homeless high school students, the research team in a Colorado school district discovered that many students had not revealed their true living conditions (homelessness) to anyone in the school district. This research team developed an anonymous survey written around the homeless categories identified in the McKinney-Vento…
Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel
Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…
Bires, Carie; Garcia, Carmen; Zhu, Julia
Homelessness has a devastating impact on children. Research has shown that homelessness puts children at increased risk of health problems, developmental delays, academic underachievement and mental health problems. Homelessness also has a disproportionate impact on the youngest children, who account for more than half of all children in…
Axelson, Leland J.; Dail, Paula W.
Describes new form of homeless persons, a growing population of homeless individuals and families who are not mentally ill, not wanderers, and may be employed. Examines changing character of homelessness and makes recommendations for a public policy response to the problem. (Author/NB)
Homelessness is a growing problem in every part of the United States. Federal legislation requires state plans for educating homeless children, but will provide less than $23 per child. Summarizes some of the state plans and suggests steps school boards can take to provide homeless children with public education. (MLF)
The 1980s brought an unprecedented rise in the number of homeless families with children. That there may be as many as three million homeless persons in the United States, with families representing one-third of this population, indicates that homelessness is a social problem of catastrophic proportions. This paper finds that while Federal…
Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda
This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…
McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan C
Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Our data refer to 1325 individuals who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. We investigate dynamics in homelessness and substance use over the survey period. We find that the two are closely related: homeless individuals are more likely to be substance users and substance users are more likely to be homeless. These relationships, however, are predominantly driven by observed and unobserved individual characteristics which cause individuals to be both more likely to be homeless and to be substance users. Once we take these personal characteristics into account it seems that homelessness does not affect substance use, although we cannot rule out that alcohol use increases the probability that an individual becomes homeless. These overall relationships also hide some interesting heterogeneity by 'type' of homelessness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan
Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the
McKinney, Jennifer; Snedker, Karen A.
In response to increasing homelessness in our city, Seattle Pacific University invited a homeless encampment (Tent City) to reside on our university campus for three months. This provided an opportunity to engage students on issues of poverty and inequality. Building from a service-learning model, we devised course work around homelessness and…
We present simple mathematical models for modelling a homeless population and housing allocation. We look at a situation whereby the local authority makes temporary accommodation available for some of the homeless for a while and we examine how this affects the number of families homeless at any given time.
Koch-Nielsen, Inger; Børner Stax, Tobias
Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the concept of homelessness and related terms in a Danish context. We then presents different types of accommodations for the homeless that is currently used. The chapter is taken from an anthology which deals with understandings and measures...... directed towards the homeless people in different European countries....
Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel
Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.
Brown, Rebecca T.; Thomas, M. Lori; Cutler, Deborah F.; Hinderlie, Mark
The homeless population is aging faster than the general population in the United States. As this vulnerable population continues to age, addressing complex care and housing needs will become increasingly important. This article reviews the often-overlooked issue of homelessness among older adults, including their poor health status and unique care needs, the factors that contribute to homelessness in this population, and the costs of homelessness to the U.S. health care system. Permanent sup...
Hamilton, Alison B; Poza, Ines; Washington, Donna L
Veterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans' pathways into homelessness. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. Five predominant "roots" (precipitating experiences) initiated pathways toward homelessness: 1) childhood adversity, 2) trauma and/or substance abuse during military service, 3) post-military abuse, adversity, and/or relationship termination, 4) post-military mental health, substance abuse, and/or medical problems, and 5) unemployment. Contextual factors, which promoted development of homelessness in the setting of primary roots, included women veterans' "survivor instinct," lack of social support and resources, sense of isolation, pronounced sense of independence, and barriers to care. These contextual factors also reinforced persistence of the roots of post-military adversity and mental health and substance abuse problems, serving to maintain cycles of chronic homelessness. Collectively, these multiple, interacting roots and contextual factors form a "web of vulnerability" that is a target for action. Multiple points along the pathways to homelessness represent critical junctures for VA and community-based organizations to engage in prevention or intervention efforts on behalf of women veterans. Considering the multiple, interconnected challenges that these women veterans described, solutions to homelessness should address multiple risk factors, include trauma-informed care that acknowledges women veterans' traumatic experiences, and incorporate holistic responses that can contribute to healing and recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Carol S. North
Full Text Available Background: Cocaine use is highly prevalent among homeless populations, yet little is known about how it is financed. This study examined associations of income sources with cocaine use and financing of drugs in a longitudinal evaluation of a homeless sample. Methods: A homeless sample was recruited systematically in St. Louis in 1999–2001 and longitudinally assessed annually over two years using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Homeless Supplement, with urine drug testing. Results: More than half (55% of participants with complete follow-up data (N = 255/400 had current year cocaine use. Current users spent nearly $400 (half their income in the last month on drugs at baseline. Benefits, welfare, and disability were negatively associated and employment and income from family/friends, panhandling, and other illegal activities were positively associated with cocaine use and monetary expenditures for cocaine. Conclusions: Findings suggest that illegal and informal income-generating activities are primary sources for immediate gratification with cocaine use and public entitlements do not appear to be primary funding sources used by homeless populations. Policy linking drug testing to benefits is likely to have little utility, and public expenditures on measures to unlink drug use and income might be more effectively used to fund employment and treatment programs.
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Jun, Jung Sim; Kim, Yi Jin; Roh, Soonhee; Moon, Sung Seek; Bukonda, Ngoyi; Hines, Lisa
This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters.
... [FNS-2008-0001] RIN 0584-AD60 Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway... concerning the certification of certain children who are homeless, runaway, or migratory. This rule affects... children who are homeless, runaway, or migratory, as determined by the homeless coordinator for homeless or...
Bearsley-Smith, Cate A; Bond, Lyndal M; Littlefield, Lyn; Thomas, Lyndal R
To contrast the psychosocial profile of adolescents with risk factors for homelessness, identified using Chamberlain and MacKenzie's self-report scale, compared to the profiles of homeless adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted contrasting profiles for (a) 137 homeless adolescents, (b) 766 secondary students reporting risk factors for homelessness, and (c) 4,844 students not reporting risks for homelessness. Fourteen percent of a representative population of at-school adolescents, from Victoria, Australia, showed elevated risk of homelessness. These adolescents showed depressive symptoms at least equivalent to homeless adolescents (RR 6.0, 95% CI: 4.9, 7.3, and RR 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1, 5.8, respectively). In multivariate analyses, homeless and at risk adolescents reported equivalent levels of family conflict, early problem behaviour and low opportunities and rewards for family involvement. Compared to adolescents not at risk, at risk adolescents were more likely to be female and to show poorer social skills/assertiveness and depressive symptoms. Compared to at risk adolescents, homeless adolescents showed additional family, school, peer and individual risks, but lower depressive symptomatology. The findings highlight the potential we have to quickly and simply detect adolescents showing significant risk of homelessness. This sizable minority of adolescents report risks often equivalent to homeless adolescents. It is hoped that stakeholders working with young people will utilise this screening potential to identify and intervene effectively with this significant subpopulation of youth, and their families, while they are still at home and school.
Full Text Available This article describes a blog written by four men who were homeless in a western Canadian city in 2010. The blog was an attempt to promote communication between homeless people and the domiciled public, to assert the agency of homeless people, and to promote social integration through their participation in public discourse about homelessness. The bloggers explicitly set out to engage in civic action. In doing this they positioned themselves as advocates and therefore citizens—people with the right and responsibility to describe the “realities” of homelessness, critique existing social structures, take part in public dialogue about homelessness, advocate for change, and stand up for homeless people. This was a subject position that was not previously available to them. The blog project is an example of “lived citizenship,” citizenship as active participatory practice, and a way to achieve what Nancy Fraser calls a politics of recognition.
Stephanus F. de Beer
Full Text Available This article is reading ubuntu in the light of homelessness in the cities and towns of South Africa. It suggests that ubuntu itself is homeless and displaced as a way of being human together. Instead of the mediation of dignity and justice through an ubuntu-solidarity, street homeless people and others living vulnerably and in precarious circumstances are violated and excluded through a displacement of ubuntu-values. It also suggests a growing disconnect between the philosophy of ubuntu and its actual embodiment in the local urban political economy, local faith communities and local universities. Acknowledging the aspirational edge of ubuntu, the article then concludes to envision going beyond mere abstractions in the said spheres � the political economy, faith communities and local universities � in order to seek for concrete expressions of ubuntu-solidarity, asserting and mediating respect, dignity and justice.
Weinrich, Sally; Hardin, Sally; Glaser, Dale; Barger, Mary; Bormann, Jill; Lizarraga, Cabiria; Terry, Micheal; Criscenzo, Jeeni; Allard, Carolyn B
Almost 1 out of every 3 homeless women (32%) in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia has experienced childhood sexual trauma. We assessed lifetime sexual trauma histories among 29 homeless women from three Southern California community sites: one residential safe house and two safe parking areas. More than half of the women (54%) reported a history of sexual trauma. That rate was higher (86%) among women living at the safe home than among women staying at the safe parking sites (only 42%). All four of the women who had served in the military reported having experienced military sexual trauma. The high percentages of sexual trauma found in homeless women highlight the need for effective interventions for sexual trauma.
Haddad, Maryam B.; Wilson, Todd W.; Ijaz, Kashef; Marks, Suzanne M.; Moore, Marisa
Context Tuberculosis (TB) rates among US homeless persons cannot be calculated because they are not included in the US Census. However, homelessness is often associated with TB. Objectives To describe homeless persons with TB and to compare risk factors and disease characteristics between homeless and nonhomeless persons with TB. Design and Setting Cross-sectional analysis of all verified TB cases reported into the National TB Surveillance System from the 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1994 through 2003. Main Outcome Measures Number and proportion of TB cases associated with homelessness, demographic characteristics, risk factors, disease characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Results Of 185 870 cases of TB disease reported between 1994 and 2003, 11 369 were among persons classified as homeless during the 12 months before diagnosis. The annual proportion of cases associated with homelessness was stable (6.1%–6.7%). Regional differences occurred with a higher proportion of TB cases associated with homelessness in western and some southern states. Most homeless persons with TB were male (87%) and aged 30 to 59 years. Black individuals represented the highest proportion of TB cases among the homeless and nonhomeless. The proportion of homeless persons with TB who were born outside the United States (18%) was lower than that for non-homeless persons with TB (44%). At the time of TB diagnosis, 9% of homeless persons were incarcerated, usually in a local jail; 3% of nonhomeless persons with TB were incarcerated. Compared with nonhomeless persons, homeless persons with TB had a higher prevalence of substance use (54% alcohol abuse, 29.5% noninjected drug use, and 14% injected drug use), and 34% of those tested had coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus. Compared with nonhomeless persons, TB disease in homeless persons was more likely to be infectious but not more likely to be drug resistant. Health departments managed 81% of TB cases in homeless
Full Text Available There exists little scientific production on autolytic behaviour in homeless people, despite the fact that it is one of the groups that is more at risk. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of previous attempted suicide and suicide risk and its connection with the main risk factors. In order to do so, central tendency and dispersion measures, correlations, contingence tables, and average comparison tables according to type of variable and normality were used. The Plutchik suicide-risk test was used in order to determine the risk of suicide, and specific tests for the main risk factors analysed. The main results show a 24.7% suicide rate and 45.2% (n = 66 displayed suicide risk. The main predictive factor of the risk of suicide was the daily consumption of alcohol (OR = 1.011, p less than .001, followed by being a woman (OR = 1.381, p = .021. It is necessary to design and apply suicide prevention strategies for this population.
Johnson, Erin E.; Aiello, Riccardo; Kane, Vincent; Pape, Lisa
Introduction Although the clinical consequences of homelessness are well described, less is known about the role for health care systems in improving clinical and social outcomes for the homeless. We described the national implementation of a “homeless medical home” initiative in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and correlated patient health outcomes with characteristics of high-performing sites. Methods We conducted an observational study of 33 VHA facilities with homeless medical homes and patient- aligned care teams that served more than 14,000 patients. We correlated site-specific health care performance data for the 3,543 homeless veterans enrolled in the program from October 2013 through March 2014, including those receiving ambulatory or acute health care services during the 6 months prior to enrollment in our study and 6 months post-enrollment with corresponding survey data on the Homeless Patient Aligned Care Team (H-PACT) program implementation. We defined high performance as high rates of ambulatory care and reduced use of acute care services. Results More than 96% of VHA patients enrolled in these programs were concurrently receiving VHA homeless services. Of the 33 sites studied, 82% provided hygiene care (on-site showers, hygiene kits, and laundry), 76% provided transportation, and 55% had an on-site clothes pantry; 42% had a food pantry and provided on-site meals or other food assistance. Six-month patterns of acute-care use pre-enrollment and post-enrollment for 3,543 consecutively enrolled patients showed a 19.0% reduction in emergency department use and a 34.7% reduction in hospitalizations. Three features were significantly associated with high performance: 1) higher staffing ratios than other sites, 1) integration of social supports and social services into clinical care, and 3) outreach to and integration with community agencies. Conclusion Integrating social determinants of health into clinical care can be effective for high
Ferreira, Cíntia Priscila da Silva; Rozendo, Célia Alves; Melo, Givânya Bezerra de
The objective of this study was to evaluate the Street Clinic strategy in Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil, from the perspective of its users. This was a qualitative study in coverage areas of the Street Clinic in Maceió. Research subjects were 18 homeless individuals assisted by the clinic (10 men and 8 women), ranging from 20 to 40 years of age. Data were collected from September 2014 to February 2015 using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was applied to the data and identified two categories: the first, the Street Clinic as such, revealed the strategy's critical points, challenges, and potentialities; the second showed the Street Clinic as social support, affect, and hope for change for the homeless. The strategy was rated positively by users, providing social support on health problems and other daily issues.
Haddad, Maryam B; Wilson, Todd W; Ijaz, Kashef; Marks, Suzanne M; Moore, Marisa
Tuberculosis (TB) rates among US homeless persons cannot be calculated because they are not included in the US Census. However, homelessness is often associated with TB. To describe homeless persons with TB and to compare risk factors and disease characteristics between homeless and nonhomeless persons with TB. Cross-sectional analysis of all verified TB cases reported into the National TB Surveillance System from the 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1994 through 2003. Number and proportion of TB cases associated with homelessness, demographic characteristics, risk factors, disease characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Of 185,870 cases of TB disease reported between 1994 and 2003, 11,369 were among persons classified as homeless during the 12 months before diagnosis. The annual proportion of cases associated with homelessness was stable (6.1%-6.7%). Regional differences occurred with a higher proportion of TB cases associated with homelessness in western and some southern states. Most homeless persons with TB were male (87%) and aged 30 to 59 years. Black individuals represented the highest proportion of TB cases among the homeless and nonhomeless. The proportion of homeless persons with TB who were born outside the United States (18%) was lower than that for nonhomeless persons with TB (44%). At the time of TB diagnosis, 9% of homeless persons were incarcerated, usually in a local jail; 3% of nonhomeless persons with TB were incarcerated. Compared with nonhomeless persons, homeless persons with TB had a higher prevalence of substance use (54% alcohol abuse, 29.5% noninjected drug use, and 14% injected drug use), and 34% of those tested had coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus. Compared with nonhomeless persons, TB disease in homeless persons was more likely to be infectious but not more likely to be drug resistant. Health departments managed 81% of TB cases in homeless persons. Directly observed therapy, used for 86% of homeless patients
Bamrah, S.; Yelk Woodruff, R. S.; Powell, K.; Ghosh, S.; Kammerer, J. S.; Haddad, M. B.
SUMMARY OBJECTIVES 1) To describe homeless persons diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) during the period 1994–2010, and 2) to estimate a TB incidence rate among homeless persons in the United States. METHODS TB cases reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System were analyzed by origin of birth. Incidence rates were calculated using the US Department of Housing and Urban Development homeless population estimates. Analysis of genotyping results identified clustering as a marker for transmission among homeless TB patients. RESULTS Of 270 948 reported TB cases, 16 527 (6%) were homeless. The TB incidence rate among homeless persons ranged from 36 to 47 cases per 100 000 population in 2006–2010. Homeless TB patients had over twice the odds of not completing treatment and of belonging to a genotype cluster. US- and foreign-born homeless TB patients had respectively 8 and 12 times the odds of substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS Compared to the general population, homeless persons had an approximately 10-fold increase in TB incidence, were less likely to complete treatment and more likely to abuse substances. Public health outreach should target homeless populations to reduce the excess burden of TB in this population. PMID:24125444
Bamrah, S; Yelk Woodruff, R S; Powell, K; Ghosh, S; Kammerer, J S; Haddad, M B
1) To describe homeless persons diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) during the period 1994-2010, and 2) to estimate a TB incidence rate among homeless persons in the United States. TB cases reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System were analyzed by origin of birth. Incidence rates were calculated using the US Department of Housing and Urban Development homeless population estimates. Analysis of genotyping results identified clustering as a marker for transmission among homeless TB patients. Of 270,948 reported TB cases, 16,527 (6%) were homeless. The TB incidence rate among homeless persons ranged from 36 to 47 cases per 100,000 population in 2006-2010. Homeless TB patients had over twice the odds of not completing treatment and of belonging to a genotype cluster. US- and foreign-born homeless TB patients had respectively 8 and 12 times the odds of substance abuse. Compared to the general population, homeless persons had an approximately 10-fold increase in TB incidence, were less likely to complete treatment and more likely to abuse substances. Public health outreach should target homeless populations to reduce the excess burden of TB in this population.
Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
We estimated the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum year, which is often an unexpected event, on subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness in a national sample of urban, mostly low-income mothers. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and both homelessness and risk of homelessness 2 to 3 years later, controlling for maternal and family history of depression, prenatal housing problems, and other covariates. Risk factors for homelessness included experiencing evictions or frequent moves and moving in with family or friends and not paying rent. We found robust associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness, even among mothers who had no history of mental illness, whose own mothers did not have a history of depressive symptoms, and who had no previous housing problems. This study provides robust evidence that maternal mental illness places families with young children at risk for homelessness, contributes to the scant literature elucidating directional and causal links between mental illness and homelessness, and contributes to a stagnant but important literature on family homelessness.
Tornero Patricio, Sebastián; Fernández Ajuria, Alberto; Charris Castro, Liliana
The aim was to determine the characteristics of hospital admissions of homeless persons in Seville, Spain. Observational study of 103,802 hospital admissions of 71,756 patients admitted in the Hospitals "Virgen del Rocío" and "Virgen Macarena" (Seville), in 2013 and 2014. Bivariate analysis were performed using χ2 and t-Student tests and multivariate analysis using binomial logistic regression model. 0.16% (n=163) of admissions were homeless persons and 99.84% (n=103,639) were not. The mean age at admission in homeless patients was 48 years and 76.5% of them were men. Hospital deaths of homeless patients occurred being 23 years younger. 92% of hospital admissions came from emergency departments and 10.0% of their discharges were against medical advice. The average length of stay was 4.8 days longer in homeless persons and the most frequent diagnoses on admission were mental (27.0%), infectious (19.6%) and respiratory diseases (18.4%). Mental disorders were present on 83.7% of homeless patients as secondary diagnose and 77.6% referred drugs consumption. Hospital admissions characteristics of homeless persons were particularly different. Homeless patients were hospitalized and died at a younger age than non-homeless patients. The morbidity and mortality of homeless persons reflect their vulnerable health condition.
Amanda Stafford; Lisa Wood
Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Viewed through the lens of social determinants, homelessness is a key driver of poor health, but homelessness itself results from accumulated adverse social and economic conditions. Indeed, in people who are homeless, the social determinants of homelessness and health inequities are often intertwined, and long term homeless...
King, David A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program
This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site
King, David A.
This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2012
Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…
However much the recession might be receding, the effects remain deep and cruel to families living in poverty. Many have fallen through their communities' social safety nets. Today, families with young children comprise 41% of the nation's homeless population. According to the Institute of Children and Poverty, more than 1.35 million kids in the…
Cleverley, Kristin; Kidd, Sean A.
Homeless and street-involved youth are considered an extremely high risk group, with many studies highlighting trajectories characterized by abusive, neglectful, and unstable family histories, victimization and criminal involvement while on the streets, high rates of physical and mental illness, and extremely high rates of mortality. While there…
Polzer, Christopher M.
Recreation leaders recommend reaching out to homeless individuals and providing programs that may help improve their health, bring them some fun and happiness, and boost their quality of life. The paper describes how one North Carolina county addressed the issue through recreation programs and other activities. (SM)
Watson, J; Crawley, J; Kane, D
Homelessness and poverty are extreme forms of social exclusion which extend beyond the lack of physical or material needs. The purpose of this study was to explore and expand the concept of social exclusion within the social determinants of health perspective - to understand how the social environment, health behaviours and health status are associated with material and social deprivation. Fundamental qualitative description with tones of focused ethnography. Participants who identified as hidden homeless described their everyday living conditions and how these everyday conditions were impacted and influenced by their social environments, coping/health behaviours and current health status. Research Ethics Board approval was granted and informed consents were obtained from 21 participants prior to the completion of individual interviews. Qualitative content analysis examined the descriptions of men and women experiencing hidden homelessness. Participants described the 'lack of quality social interactions and supports' and their 'daily struggles of street life'. They also shared the 'pain of addiction' and how coping strategies influenced health. Participants were hopeful that their insights would 'better the health of homeless people' by helping shape public policy and funding of community resources that would reduce barriers and improve overall health. Health professionals who understand health behaviours as coping mechanisms for poor quality social environments can provide more comprehensive and holistic care. The findings of this study can be used to support the importance of housing as a key factor in the health and well-being of people experiencing poverty, homelessness and social exclusion; and consequently, reinforces the need for a national housing strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gültekin, Laura; Brush, Barbara L; Baiardi, Janet M; Kirk, Keri; VanMaldeghem, Kelley
Homelessness threatens the health and well-being of thousands of families in the United States, yet little is known about their specific needs and how current services address them. To fill this knowledge gap, we explored the experiences of homelessness families in Detroit, Michigan. We targeted homeless mothers and their caseworkers for study to see if the perceptions of needs and services were in alignment. Using focus groups and content analysis, we identified four overarching themes that illustrate homeless mothers' experience with homelessness. We then analyzed data from caseworkers to look specifically for similarities and differences in their perceptions. Key findings included reports of family histories of violence, poverty, social isolation, and a lack of informal support as contributing to homelessness. The differing perspectives of mothers and their caseworkers regarding how best to move forward highlight how current programs and services may not be meeting the needs of this growing and vulnerable cohort. © The Author(s) 2014.
Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Los, Férenc J.
Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340
Parker, R David; Dykema, Shana
Homeless persons are perceived as a highly mobile population, and have high rates of co-morbid conditions, including mental health and substance use issues. This study sought to determine the characteristics of the mobility and reported health conditions of homeless persons. The sample for this cross sectional study (n = 674) accounted for 88 % of the homeless population in a medium sized southern city in the United States. Participants were recruited from a homeless shelter operating during the winter season. Homeless persons were less mobile than the general state population (46.11 % were born in-state vs. 40.7 % of the general population) and less transient than the general state population (78 % reported an in-state zip code for the last permanent residence). 31.9 % reported a disabling condition of a serious and long term nature. These findings challenge the concept that homeless persons are primarily a mobile population. Furthermore, homeless persons in this sample were more likely to remain in the state where they lived after becoming homeless. Thus, provider perceptions that homeless persons would not benefit from referral to a regular source of outpatient care may be misinformed. As homeless persons often seek care in emergency departments for conditions that could be addressed through outpatient care, if a medical care system implemented standard practices specifically for homeless patients, this could decrease recidivism. Such interventions represent significant opportunities to reduce costs, conserve resources, and improve care through policy modification that ensures a focus on a successful, active linkage to outpatient care and programs specific to the homeless population.
Quigley, John M.; Raphael, Steven
It is generally believed that the increased incidence of homelessness in the US has arisen from broad societal factors â€“ changes in the institutionalization of the mentally ill, increases in drug addiction and alcohol usage, etc. This paper reports on a comprehensive test of the alternate hypothesis that variations in homelessness arise from changed circumstances in the housing market and in the income distribution. We utilize essentially all the systematic information available on homeless...
Malinauskas, Gedas; Blažytė, Vilma
Using the data of a pilot study, this article deals with unsuccessful cases of Lithuanian immigration, i.e., lifestyle peculiarities of Lithuanians who became homeless in the capital of Great Britain. While analyzing the phenomenon in a descriptive manner, the authors sought an answer the question of why Lithuanian emigrants who had family and work in their homeland became homeless after they had come to search for a better life. The issues of homeless Lithuanians‘ daily life and life princip...
Jones, Marian Moser
POLICY POINTS: A retrospective analysis of federally funded homeless research in the 1980s serves as a case study of how politics can influence social and behavioral science research agendas today in the United States. These studies of homeless populations, the first funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, demonstrated that only about a third of the homeless population was mentally ill and that a diverse group of people experienced homelessness. This groundbreaking research program set the mold for a generation of research and policy characterizing homelessness as primarily an individual-level problem rather than a problem with the social safety net. A decade after the nation's Skid Rows were razed, homelessness reemerged in the early 1980s as a health policy issue in the United States. While activists advocated for government-funded programs to address homelessness, officials of the Reagan administration questioned the need for a federal response to the problem. In this climate, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) launched a seminal program to investigate mental illness and substance abuse among homeless individuals. This program serves as a key case study of the social and behavioral sciences' role in the policy response to homelessness and how politics has shaped the federal research agenda. Drawing on interviews with former government officials, researchers, social activists, and others, along with archival material, news reports, scientific literature, and government publications, this article examines the emergence and impact of social and behavioral science research on homelessness. Research sponsored by the NIMH and other federal research bodies during the 1980s produced a rough picture of mental illness and substance abuse prevalence among the US homeless population, and private foundations supported projects that looked at this group's health care needs. The Reagan administration's opposition to funding "social research," together
Bower, Marlee; Conroy, Elizabeth; Perz, Janette
Both loneliness and a lack of social integration are associated with serious physical and psychological health issues. One population highly susceptible to social isolation and loneliness are individuals who are homeless, who also experience high rates of mental disorder and relationship breakdown. Despite this, little research has explored how social networks, isolation and loneliness are experienced for those with a history of homelessness. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to get a nuanced understanding of how social networks and isolation are experienced and understood by individuals experiencing homelessness. Sixteen participants who were either homeless (n = 11) or previously homeless (n = 5) in Sydney, Australia, completed one-off interviews that were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants constructed their social networks as being both constrained and enabled by marginalisation. They experienced rejection from the non-homeless: the loss of critical network members, including rejection from family and a lack of companionship, and low quality and precarious relationships within the homeless community. These accounts were best conceptualised through loneliness theory. Participant's accounts signal that the homeless will likely continue feeling isolated if mainstream attitudes towards homelessness remain stigmatising and discriminatory. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rota-Bartelink, Alice; Lipmann, Bryan
A comparative study of the causes of new episodes of homelessness among people aged 50 years and over has been undertaken in Australia, the United States and England. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information on the circumstances and problems that contributed to homelessness. This paper presents the findings from Australia, where information was obtained from 125 older homeless people (aged 50+ years) and their key workers in Melbourne. All three participating nations followed identical research methodologies. The factors most frequently reported by respondents as contributing to their homelessness were problems with people with whom they lived, followed by physical and mental ill-health and problems associated with the housing itself. The most frequently reported factors by case workers were problems with alcohol, followed by physical and mental health factors. This study demonstrates a significant under-utilisation of housing and support services among recently homeless older people and provides evidence that people who had previously been homeless appear to be more resigned to their homelessness than do those who had not experienced homelessness before. Significant issues relating to depression and gambling were also noted. The findings support the need for more targeted, specialised services to be developed or improved such that older homeless people can readily gain access to them and for improved collaboration or information exchange among housing providers and welfare agencies.
Full Text Available This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in the scope of the discussed phenomenon.
Shane Matthew Warren
Full Text Available The mining boom in Australia of the first decade of the Twenty-First Century yielded prosperity for many Australians living in rural, regional and urban locations. This sense of prosperity was grounded in the widely reported experiences of people usually employed directly through the mining industry, or related industry, on high incomes, able to afford regular overseas holidays, ownership of multiple properties, material possessions and other hallmarks of an affluent lifestyle. However, less attention was given to vulnerable and homeless Australians in mining communities who did not benefit at all during the mining boom. In fact what evidence does exist indicates their disadvantage was further compounded through the high cost of housing. It is now widely accepted that the mining industry has been in a state of downturn over the last three years and this has served to highlight the social issues facing mining communities now and into the future. What is to be learnt from the decade long mining boom? Specifically this paper critiques the evidence, research literature and theories about urban-centric homelessness and assesses their relevance to homelessness in mining communities. This paper argues that the dynamics of homelessness in mining communities challenge existing homelessness theory and knowledge and argues that further evidence is needed to properly understand structural causes of homelessness in mining communities and to guide policy responses that may help prevent homelessness or otherwise assist homeless people access housing and support services. Identifying the mining boom and mining downturn cycle will be explored. Finally this paper outlines the case for further research to improve policy and planning responses to address homelessness in these communities taking into account planning requirements to address the mining boom and down turn cycle.
Orla M Smith
Full Text Available Little is known about homeless patients in intensive care units (ICUs.To compare clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of homeless to non-homeless patients admitted to four ICUs in a large inner-city academic hospital.63 randomly-selected homeless compared to 63 age-, sex-, and admitting-ICU-matched non-homeless patients.Compared to matched non-homeless, homeless patients (average age 48±12 years, 90% male, 87% admitted by ambulance, 56% mechanically ventilated, average APACHE II 17 had similar comorbidities and illness severity except for increased alcohol (70% vs 17%,p<0.001 and illicit drug(46% vs 8%,p<0.001 use and less documented hypertension (16% vs 40%,p = 0.005 or prescription medications (48% vs 67%,p<0.05. Intensity of ICU interventions was similar except for higher thiamine (71% vs 21%,p<0.0001 and nicotine (38% vs 14%,p = 0.004 prescriptions. Homeless patients exhibited significantly lower Glasgow Coma Scores and significantly more bacterial respiratory cultures. Longer durations of antibiotics, vasopressors/inotropes, ventilation, ICU and hospital lengths of stay were not statistically different, but homeless patients had higher hospital mortality (29% vs 8%,p = 0.005. Review of all deaths disclosed that withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy occurred in similar clinical circumstances and proportions in both groups, regardless of family involvement. Using multivariable logistic regression, homelessness did not appear to be an independent predictor of hospital mortality.Homeless patients, admitted to ICU matched to non-homeless patients by age and sex (characteristics most commonly used by clinicians, have higher hospital mortality despite similar comorbidities and illness severity. Trends to longer durations of life supports may have contributed to the higher mortality. Additional research is required to validate this higher mortality and develop strategies to improve outcomes in this vulnerable population.
Johnson, Guy; Pleace, Nicholas
The Homelessness Outcomes Star (HOS) is probably the most widespread form of outcome measurement employed by homelessness service providers. Developed in the UK, the HOS is now being used by homelessness services in other European countries and Australia, while being promoted internationally as a validated set of key performance indicators. This paper examines the ideological framework that underpins the HOS, as well as the theoretical and methodological approaches that inform its operation. ...
McInnes, D Keith; Sawh, Leon; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Rao, Sowmya; Shimada, Stephanie L; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Gifford, Allen L; Anaya, Henry D; Smelson, David A
Addressing the health needs of homeless veterans is a priority in the United States, and, although information technologies can potentially improve access to and engagement in care, little is known about this population's use of information technologies or their willingness to use technologies to communicate with healthcare providers and systems. This study fills this gap through a survey of homeless veterans' use of information technologies and their attitudes about using these technologies to assist with accessing needed healthcare services. Among the 106 homeless veterans surveyed, 89% had a mobile phone (one-third were smartphones), and 76% used the Internet. Among those with a mobile phone, 71% used text messaging. Nearly all respondents (93%) were interested in receiving mobile phone reminders (text message or phone call) about upcoming medical appointments, and a similar proportion (88%) wanted mobile phone outreach asking if they would like to schedule an appointment if they had not been seen by a health provider in over a year. In addition, respondents already used these technologies for information and communication related to health, housing, and jobs. These findings suggest new avenues for communication and health interventions for hard-to-reach homeless veterans.
Terui, Sachiko; Hsieh, Elaine
The meanings of homelessness are fluid and socially constructed, providing resources and limitations for individuals to negotiate their identities and relationships in everyday life. In this study, we examine the strategies and corresponding resources utilized by people who are homeless to cope with the labeling of a homeless identity and to redefine their identities. We used constant comparative analysis to examine in-depth interviews with 16 participants (male = 11, female = 5) who access a local homeless shelter in the southwest United States for resources. We identified three strategies that homeless people adopt to cope with the labeling of homeless identity: (a) differentiating oneself from others who are homeless, (b) prioritizing certain aspects of life, and (c) embracing the status of homelessness. Although these strategies have been identified in previous literature, the authors extend this line of research by identifying the common resources people who are homeless utilize when adopting these strategies, which entail important implications for theory development and practical implications.
Neale, Joanne; Stevenson, Caral
Homeless people who use drugs and alcohol have been described as one of the most marginalised groups in society. In this paper, we explore the relationships of homeless drug and alcohol users who live in hostels in order to ascertain the nature and extent of their social and recovery capital. Data were collected during 2013 and 2014 from three hostels. Each hostel was in a different English city and varied in size and organisational structure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 residents (21 men; 9 women) who self-reported current drink and/or drug problems. Follow-up interviews were completed after 4-6 weeks with 22 residents (16 men; 6 women). Audio recordings of all interviews were transcribed verbatim, systematically coded and analysed using Framework. Participants' main relationships involved family members, professionals, other hostel residents, friends outside of hostels, current and former partners, and enemies. Social networks were relatively small, but based on diverse forms of, often reciprocal, practical and emotional support, encompassing protection, companionship, and love. The extent to which participants' contacts provided a stable source of social capital over time was, nonetheless, uncertain. Hostel residents who used drugs and alcohol welcomed and valued interaction with, and assistance from, hostel staff; women appeared to have larger social networks than men; and hostels varied in the level of enmity between residents and antipathy towards staff. Homeless hostel residents who use drugs and alcohol have various opportunities for building social capital that can in turn foster recovery capital. Therapies that focus on promoting positive social networks amongst people experiencing addiction seem to offer a valuable way of working with homeless hostel residents who use drugs and alcohol. Gains are, however, likely to be maximised where hostel management and staff are supportive of, and actively engage with, therapy delivery
Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels
AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006. Somatic diseases were measured from 2007 to 2011 through diagnosis data from hospital discharges. The risk...... of somatic diseases amongst shelter users was analysed through a multivariate model that decomposed the total effect into a direct effect and indirect effects mediated by other risk factors. RESULTS: The excess morbidity associated with shelter use is substantially lower than in studies that did not include...
Around ten homeless people were invited to take part in a programme of physical activities to improve their health status. Only motricity and walking pathways were followed assiduously for eight weeks. The assessment of the physical condition and quality of life showed an improvement in these areas, in particular for one of the participants. However, the lack of motivation and assiduity remains an obstacle to regular activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Warke, Amy L.
Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This…
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…
Hart, Linda M.
Homelessness is an increasing epidemic afflicting the United States. Of the millions of homeless in the United States, over two million are children (National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2009; Slesnick, Dashora, Letcher, Erden, & Serocivh, 2009). It is reported that over 1.2 million of homeless students are enrolled in public schools…
Swick, Kevin J.
Family homelessness has emerged as a serious global problem (Stronge, 2000). Over the past 25 years in the United States, the makeup of the homeless population has changed significantly. As De Angelis (1994) reports: The landscape of homelessness has changed since the early 1980s, when nearly all homeless people were men. Today,…
Miller, Peter; Schreiber, James
This mixed methods investigation of homeless education in a major urban region identified a number of significant developments and dilemmas amid the larger homeless crisis in the United States. We found that the wider community demographics of homelessness have shifted in recent years, resulting in a higher number of homeless families--many of…
Heflin, L. Juane; Rudy, Kathryn
This booklet examines the plight of homeless families who have children who need special educational services. It explores the magnitude of homelessness among families, provides empirical descriptions of homeless populations, and identifies factors contributing to the rising incidence of homelessness in the United States. Specific effects of…
Miller, Peter M.
Background/Context: This study contributes to the literature on the schooling of homeless and highly mobile students. Although previous work has detailed the demographics of homelessness, the effects of homelessness on academic progress, and particular legal issues in homeless education, this research focused on how individual and institutional…
Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D
Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin's life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childhood, contributed to men's depression above and beyond current (or proximal) stressors, such as substance abuse and health problems, and social resources. The sample consisted of 309 homeless men who had entered a federally funded emergency shelter. Using the Burns Depression Checklist, the authors found that one out of three men met the threshold for moderate to severe depression during the past week. The logistic regression showed that past exposure to parent problems was related to depression after accounting for current stressors and social resources (number of close adult relationships and whether their emotional support needs were met). Past victimization was not related to depression. To address men's depression, workers should concurrently provide services that meet men's basic needs (for example, housing) and address their relationship needs, including their need for emotional support.
This paper explores the democratic potential for participatory filmmaking with homeless youth, as well as the constraints and dilemmas associated with this visual method. Theorizing democracy through the work of Hannah Arendt and Pierre Bourdieu, the paper approaches democracy not as an end, but rather as a process that seeks to lessen social injustice. Bourdieu's work helps us appreciate, however, that this process is constrained by structures of inequality that shape access to the political dispositions that enable such engagement. Consistent with other research on low-income and marginalized young people, this study found that homeless youth engage with democracy through forms of community participation and mutual support, and are disinclined to orient toward liberal democratic structures such as voting and political parties, which they see as harmful or problematic. With a focus on one particular dilemma faced by the research team-namely, the question of how to make sense of and represent the issue of legalizing marijuana, which had been signaled by the youth participants as of primary political importance to them-the paper uses Arendt and Bourdieu to discuss how participatory filmmaking can help to expand the space of appearances available to homeless youth in Canadian society, and create a space at a shared table of understanding with middle class power brokers. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.
-two per cent of them had been foster children. Within the past year, 59 per cent had slept rough, 31 per cent had spent time in detox, 23 per cent had served jail time and 31 per cent had been in hospital. Eighty-two per cent regularly used alcohol, with 32 per cent using it daily and 70 per cent using drugs other than alcohol. Yet, the help that is available for the chronically homeless population is at best scattershot. More than 50 per cent of those surveyed who had received help for mental health and addiction issues said they didn’t get enough assistance. A quarter of those who didn’t receive treatment said they’d asked for help and hadn’t received it, while a third said long waitlists prevented them from accessing help. Many were in and out of a patchwork of programs with little to show for it. Solutions are not out of reach. Funding should target housing and case management programs designed to address the psychiatric issues resulting from childhood trauma. And Calgary’s network of community-based health care, housing and support programs should be expanded to help people suffering from multiple disorders. Currently, homeless shelters are serving as ad hoc institutions of mental health care for far too many people. With adequate funding and supports, long-term shelter users can be prioritized for psychiatric care, and shelters can return to their original mandate of being places where people who are temporarily homeless and in transition can get the help they need.
Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana
Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…
Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin
This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…
Objective: The unprecedented incidence of armed robberies and the involvement of young people in these crimes necessitated — as part of a comprehensive study on homelessness and criminal behaviour in Nigeria — an assessmet and comparison of homeless youths incarcerated in prisons with a control group of ...
Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…
National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2011
This fact sheet was developed to help you understand the scope, causes, and impact of homelessness on children and families. You are encouraged to use it as well as the publications cited in its footnotes as tools more about homelessness. (Contains 78 endnotes.)
Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.
Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…
Miller, Peter M.
Since the onset of the economic recession, rates of student homelessness have increased rapidly in urban, suburban, and rural school districts throughout the United States. Despite the widespread urgency of the issue, there is a lack of general coherence in the research about how diverse conditions of homelessness affect students and how schools…
Guzewicz, Tony D.; Takooshian, Harold
Compares attitudes toward the homeless in Japan and the United States through a survey of 268 Japanese and 254 U.S. adults and adolescents interviewed in public places. In Japan, homelessness is seldom discussed, and poverty, which may be as widespread as in the United States, is often not recognized. (SLD)
Niedergang, Mark; McCoy, Martha, Ed.
This program guide provides a forum for discussing the different beliefs that influence public policy about homelessness as well as policy goals. The central question is addressed in two parts: (1) what society ought to do for homeless people; and (2) laying out a range of possible answers for part 1. Four possible answers are discussed: help only…
Miller, Peter M.
Purpose: This study sought deeper understanding of how sheltered families accessed and mobilized educationally related relationships and resources during periods of homelessness. Such work is posited to be especially relevant considering that there is a growing crisis of family homelessness in the United States and school- and community-based…
National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.
A 1989 national survey of the dimensions of homelessness found that at least three million Americans are homeless and that the shortage of affordable housing was cited as the chief cause. Information was gathered from a telephone survey of emergency shelter providers, housing advocacy organizations, and local governments in 26 communities, ranging…
Gregg, Melanie J.; Bedard, Andrea
Purpose: A pilot study was conducted to describe the physical activity experiences and perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity participation for patrons of a homeless shelter. The resulting pilot data may be used to inform the creation of and support for physical activity and sport programs for those experiencing homelessness.…
Yamaguchi, Barbara J.; Strawser, Sherri; Higgins, Kyle
Families with children are the fastest growing group of persons who are homeless. To address their needs for education, this article discusses legal mandates, barriers to education presented by school requirements, effects of homelessness on children and youth, and the role of the educational diagnostician in providing services. Offers 14…
Molnar, Janice M.; And Others
Summarizes the small body of research to date that focuses on the effects of homelessness on children. In matters related to health, development, and education, homeless children are at a grave disadvantage, many from birth. Policy implications are outlined, concluding that children need permanent housing if they are to thrive. (DM)
Strawser, Sherri; Markos, Patricia A.; Yamaguchi, Barbara J.; Higgins, Kyle
Reviews the legislative provisions and mandates governing the education of children and youth who are homeless and the barriers to education presented by school requirements. Highlights the effects of homelessness on children and youth and the role the school counselor should play in the provision of services for them. (Contains 55 references.)…
Juchniewicz, Melissa M.
Despite calls for increased awareness of and sensitivity to diverse students and their in- and out-of-school literacies, the "invisible homeless"--those who often decline to self-identify--receive inadequate scholarly attention. They are often individuals who fear the stigma associated with homelessness as they navigate workplace, academic, and…
Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Keys, Deborah
Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homeless young people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…
Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson
Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…
Johnson, K.D.; Whitbeck, L.B.; Hoyt, D.R.
Recent research on the social support networks of homeless and runaway youth suggest the social networks of runaway youth are made up largely of transient deviant peer relationships. This paper examined social network characteristics of 428 homeless and runaway adolescents from small-to moderate-sized cities in four Midwestern states. We…
Tierney, William G.
In this commentary, the author reflects on a special issue that explores how educational institutions serve homeless and highly mobile students as well as their families. The number of homeless youth continues to rise, leading the author to question why structural constraints have not been removed. In addition to reflecting on the articles, he…
Morris, Rita I.; Strong, Linda
Qualitative research using the symbolic interactionism framework and grounded theory methodology was employed to discover the perceived health problems and dangers that homeless families with children endure. Data were collected using semistructured interviews from 34 homeless volunteer participants with 87 children. An in-depth analysis of the…
M.S. Richter (Solina); K. Kovacs Burns (Kathy); Y. Mao (Yuping); J. Chaw-Kant (Jean); M. Calder (Moira); S. Mogale (Shirley); L. Goin (Lyla); K. Schnell (Kerry)
textabstractThis article describes how the Canadian printed news media depicted the homeless and their situations between 1987 and 2007. Our study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design and a content analysis was conducted on selected newspaper articles on homelessness issues. The main themes
Horowitz, Sandra V.; And Others
Presents findings concerning conflict management and coping behavior of homeless adolescents. Interviews with 176 families (mother-adolescent dyads) indicate peer conflict was the worst problem of the previous month. Homeless adolescents demonstrated conflict management and coping patterns differing in certain aspects from that described in the…
city homeless and marginally housed individuals in South Africa. Methods. We recruited 136 adults from a Johannesburg inner-city homeless clinic; mean age was 32.4 years, 129 (95%) were male, and 90 (66%) were of South African ...
The number of mothers with young children experiencing homelessness and seeking shelter has increased in the USA over the past decade. Shelters are often characterized as environments offering few opportunities for appropriate play experiences. This article delineates the important role of play for young children experiencing homelessness and…
Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Goff, Peter; Miller, Peter M.
Background/Context: Students experiencing homelessness are also often living in poverty and may share many of the same characteristics and experiences with children in low-income housing. Scholars aim to understand the impacts of homelessness above and beyond the effects of poverty, but studies are mixed. Contextual factors--such as the localized…
Dufeu, P; Podschus, J; Schmidt, L G
Against the background of the complex relationship of alcoholism and homelessness, we investigated the question of whether homeless alcoholics and those with homes differed regarding biographical and clinical variables. Therefore, 49 of 72 (68.1%) homeless male visitors to a city kitchen in the center of Berlin, who had fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for the alcohol-dependence syndrome, were compared with 141 outpatients of the addiction research unit of the Department of Psychiatry of the Free University of Berlin. It was found that homeless alcoholics had more psychosocial disadvantages than other alcoholics. They had been raised more frequently in families with an alcoholic father or mother and a higher number of children. The level of education and job qualification was lower in the homeless alcoholics. Early homelessness was predicted by a lack of sexual behavior (no partnership experienced) and a family history of alcoholism. In the interview, homeless alcoholics reported fewer symptoms of alcohol-dependence syndrome than other alcoholics; however, the first symptoms had been experienced earlier. Alcohol-related somatic and psychological consequences were reported more frequently in alcoholics with homes, whereas social problems were more common in the homeless subjects. The results are discussed in the light of methodological limitations and other reports on the topic.
Homelessness is a complex policy issue that all local governments face. But, at the same time, local authorities often have very little influence on the causes of homelessness, such as de-institutionalization, drug addiction, and release from detention or evictions. Seen in a European context,
Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.
This report describes family homelessness in New York City, which has risen sharply since 1980. Currently, the City's family shelter system is at capacity. Homeless children are typically raised by single mothers who receive no child support, are 27 years old, are unemployed and receiving welfare, and have had at least one public assistance…
Braun, Lisa Nelson
Describes experiences in using art with the homeless in an open studio approach. Discusses how offering open studio time with a range of materials showed that the homeless, each with a unique style and personal interests, were eager to create art objects and present them to the public. (RJM)
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L
Homeless men are frequently unsheltered and isolated, disconnected from supportive organizations and individuals. However, little research has investigated these men's social networks. We investigate the structure and composition of homeless men's social networks, vis-a-vis short- and long-term homelessness with a sample of men drawn randomly from meal lines on Skid Row in Los Angeles. Men continuously homeless for the past six months display networks composed of riskier members when compared to men intermittently homeless during that time. Men who report chronic, long-term homelessness display greater social network fragmentation when compared to non-chronically homeless men. While intermittent homelessness affects network composition in ways that may be addressable with existing interventions, chronic homelessness fragments networks, which may be more difficult to address with those interventions. These findings have implications for access to social support from network members which, in turn, impacts the resources homeless men require from other sources such as the government or NGOs.
Paradis, E K
This paper presents a feminist and community psychology analysis of ethical concerns that can arise throughout the process of doing research with women who are homeless. The unique contexts of the lives of women who are homeless demand that researchers redefine traditional ethical constructs such as consent, privacy, harm, and bias. Research that fails to do this may perpetuate the stereotyping, marginalization, stigmatization, and victimization homeless women face. Feminist and community research ethics must go beyond the avoidance of harm to an active investment in the well-being of marginalized individuals and communities. Using feminist and community psychology ethics, this paper addresses some common problems in research with women who are homeless, and argues for the transformation of research from a tool for the advancement of science into a strategy for the empowerment of homeless women and their communities.
Rice, Alexander; Kim, Ji Youn Cindy; Nguyen, Christopher; Liu, William Ming; Fall, Kevin; Galligan, Patrick
This study explored the perceptions of fatherhood held by 11 men living in a homeless shelter. Using consensual qualitative research methodology (CQR; Hill, 2012), we investigated perceptions of masculinity and fatherhood among fathers experiencing homelessness. Participants described (a) their perceptions of masculinity and fatherhood and changes resulting from homelessness, (b) physical and psychological challenges of being a father experiencing homelessness, and (c) expectations of homeless fathers. The fathers generally expressed feelings of low self-esteem related to their perceived difficulty fulfilling the role of providers for their family; however, they also adapted their view of fatherhood to include roles suited to their situation, such as that of guide, teacher, and role model. Suggestions are made for clinicians in helping fathers navigate and develop these roles, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Martens, W H
To review the physical and mental status in homeless people. A MEDLINE database search covering 5 decades was supplemented by tracing back through references from existing review work. Over 200 articles were extracted, and 106 were selected for review. Homeless persons suffer frequently from physical health problems like tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, HIV infection, and as a consequence, they run an increased risk for premature mortality. The prevalence of mental disorders among homeless individuals varies from 80-95% in the USA, Australia, Canada, Norway, and Germany to 25-33% in Ireland and Spain. The most prominent mental disorders among the homeless, which vary from country to country, are depression, affective disorders, substance abuse, psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. Homelessness is a major public health problem that should have our special interest.
Roy, Laurence; Vallée, Catherine; Kirsh, Bonnie H; Marshall, Carrie Anne; Marval, Rebecca; Low, Alissa
Persons experiencing or at risk of homelessness have occupational needs that are seldom addressed in the Canadian system of care. The lack of documented evidence on occupational therapy practices in this field hinders the development of the profession. This article identifies current and potential practices that aim to enable or support the occupations of persons experiencing or at risk of homelessness. A scoping review was conducted, including evidence from both occupational therapy and non-occupational therapy sources. One hundred and seventy-eight papers were selected in the areas of occupational performance skills training, enrichment of occupational repertoire, employment/education, physical rehabilitation services, child/family services, community building, occupational transition from homeless to housed, literacy, and disaster relief. Occupational therapists can build environments and create opportunities that facilitate occupational engagement of individuals experiencing homelessness. Gaps in knowledge include the evaluation of occupational therapy practices, the Canadian context of family homelessness, and the cultural safety of occupational therapy interventions.
Feodor Nilsson, Sandra; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Erlangsen, Annette
BACKGROUND: Homeless people have elevated mortality, especially due to external causes. We aimed to examine suicide and unintentional injury mortality levels and identify predictors in the homeless population. METHODS: A nationwide, register-based cohort study of homeless people aged 16 years...... and older was carried out using the Danish Homeless Register, 1999-2008. RESULTS: In all, 32 010 homeless people (70.5% men) were observed. For men, the mortality rate was 174.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 150.6-198.1] per 100 000 person-years for suicide and 463.3 (95% CI = 424.......6-502.0) for unintentional injury. For women, the corresponding rates were 111.4 (95% CI = 81.7-141.1) for suicide and 241.4 (95% CI = 197.6-285.1) for unintentional injury. Schizophrenia spectrum, affective, personality and substance use disorders were strongly associated with increased risk of suicide; the highest risk...
ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE
David A. King
This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI
Trudy Laura Norman
Full Text Available Participation of people with experiences of homelessness is critical to the development of meaningful strategies to end homelessness. The purpose of this study was to gain insights from people who have been homeless in a mid-sized Canadian city, as to strategies that facilitate meaningful participation in solutions to end homelessness. Within an overarching framework of collaborative research, we collected data through seven focus groups and employed interpretive description as our approach to data analysis. In our analysis, we identified both exclusionary and inclusionary forces that impact participation. Exclusionary forces included being ‘caught in the homelessness industry’, ‘homelessness is a full time job’ and facing stigma/discrimination that make participation a ‘leap of faith’. Inclusionary forces included earning respect and building trust to address unequal power relations, and restoring often ‘taken for granted’ social relations. Specific strategies to enhance participation include listening, valuing skills and stories, and supporting advocacy efforts. The study findings illuminate ways in which power imbalances are lived out in the daily lives of people who experience homelessness, as well as mitigating forces that provide direction as to strategies for addressing power inequities that seek to make participation and social inclusion meaningful. Keywords: homelessness, social policy, social exclusion, social inclusion, advocacy
Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth
A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Montreal is Canada's second-largest city, where mean annual tuberculosis (TB) incidence from 1996 to 2007 was 8.9/100,000. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of TB among homeless persons in Montreal and assess patterns of transmission and sharing of key locations. Methods We reviewed demographic, clinical, and microbiologic data for all active TB cases reported in Montreal from 1996 to 2007 and identified persons who were homeless in the year prior to TB diagnosis. We genotyped all available Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) and spoligotyping, and used a geographic information system to identify potential locations for transmission between persons with matching isolates. Results There were 20 cases of TB in homeless persons, out of 1823 total reported from 1996-2007. 17/20 were Canadian-born, including 5 Aboriginals. Homeless persons were more likely than non-homeless persons to have pulmonary TB (20/20), smear-positive disease (17/20, odds ratio (OR) = 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-20), HIV co-infection (12/20, OR = 14, 95%CI: 4.8-40), and a history of substance use. The median duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was 61 days for homeless persons vs. 28 days for non-homeless persons (P = 0.022). Eleven homeless persons with TB belonged to genotype-defined clusters (OR = 5.4, 95%CI: 2.2-13), and ten potential locations for transmission were identified, including health care facilities, homeless shelters/drop-in centres, and an Aboriginal community centre. Conclusions TB cases among homeless persons in Montreal raise concerns about delayed diagnosis and ongoing local transmission. PMID:22034944
Agans Robert P.
Full Text Available To receive federal homeless funds, communities are required to produce statistically reliable, unduplicated counts or estimates of homeless persons in sheltered and unsheltered locations during a one-night period (within the last ten days of January called a point-in-time (PIT count. In Los Angeles, a general population telephone survey was implemented to estimate the number of unsheltered homeless adults who are hidden from view during the PIT count. Two estimation approaches were investigated: i the number of homeless persons identified as living on private property, which employed a conventional household weight for the estimated total (Horvitz-Thompson approach; and ii the number of homeless persons identified as living on a neighbor’s property, which employed an additional adjustment derived from the size of the neighborhood network to estimate the total (multiplicity-based approach. This article compares the results of these two methods and discusses the implications therein.
Loh, Jane; Kennedy, Mary Clare; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Marshall, Brandon; Parashar, Surita; Montaner, Julio; Milloy, M-J
Homelessness is common among people who use drugs (PWUD) and, for those living with HIV/AIDS, an important contributor to sub-optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) non-detectability among a cohort of HIV-positive PWUD. We used data from the ACCESS study, a long-running prospective cohort study of HIV-positive PWUD linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records including systematic plasma HIV-1 RNA VL monitoring. We estimated the longitudinal relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of exhibiting a non-detectable VL (i.e., effects modelling. Between May 1996 and June 2014, 922 highly active antiretroviral therapy-exposed participants were recruited and contributed 8188 observations. Of these, 4800 (59%) were characterized by non-detectable VL. Participants reported they were homeless in 910 (11%) interviews (median: six months, interquartile range: 6-12 months). A longer duration of homelessness was associated with lower odds of VL non-detectability (adjusted odds ratio = 0.71 per six-month period of homelessness, 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.83) after adjustment for age, ancestry, drug use patterns, engagement in addiction treatment, and other potential confounders. Longer durations of episodes of homelessness in this cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users were associated with a lower likelihood of plasma VL non-detectability. Our findings suggest that interventions that seek to promptly house homeless individuals, such as Housing First approaches, might assist in maximizing the clinical and public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS.
Aubry, Tim; Goering, Paula; Veldhuizen, Scott; Adair, Carol E; Bourque, Jimmy; Distasio, Jino; Latimer, Eric; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Somers, Julian; Streiner, David L; Tsemberis, Sam
Housing First with assertive community treatment (ACT) is a promising approach to assist people with serious mental illness to exit homelessness. The article presents two-year findings from a multisite trial on the effectiveness of Housing First with ACT. The study design was a randomized controlled trial conducted in five Canadian cities. A sample of 950 participants with serious mental illness who were absolutely homeless or precariously housed were randomly assigned to receive either Housing First with ACT (N=469) or treatment as usual (N=481). Housing First participants spent more time in stable housing than participants in treatment as usual (71% versus 29%, adjusted absolute difference [AAD]=42%, pHousing First participants who entered housing did so more quickly (73 versus 220 days, AAD=146.4, phousing tenures at the study end-point (281 versus 115 days, AAD=161.8, phousing more positively (adjusted standardized mean difference [ASMD]=.17, pHousing First participants reported higher quality of life (ASMD=.15, pHousing First participants showed significantly greater gains in community functioning and quality of life in the first year; however, differences between the two groups were attenuated by the end of the second year. Housing First with ACT is an effective approach in various contexts for assisting individuals with serious mental illness to rapidly exit homelessness.
Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Kuś, Jan; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Siemion-Szcześniak, Izabela
The fall in rates of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries has been accompanied by the concentration of cases in the social risk groups including homeless persons. Comparison of TB features in homeless persons and in non-homeless patients. TB cases reported to National TB Register in Poland in whom information about the social status was available (the data about the social status were collected obligatorily in the years 2004-2013 only) were analysed. The results of DSTs were obtained from laboratory records and were available for the cases reported since 2010. Treatment outcome after 12 months was analysed for the cases registered between 2004-2012. The significance (Si) of the differences in proportions was assessed with chi-square test. Phomeless persons (HP) and 72,989 other patients (OP) with TB were included. In the group of HP, there was a greater proportion of males in comparison with OP (90.5% vs. 66.3%) (Si). The mean age of HP was 49.8 years (SD±10.9); of OP-52.9 years (SD±17.5) (Si). 16.6% of HP and 10.4% of OP were previously treated for TB (Si). The previous treatment was adequate in 62.2% of HP and in 85.8% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was in 98.0%, extrapulmonary TB in 2.0% of HP and, respectively, in 92.5% and 7.5% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was confirmed by culture in 76.3% of HP and in 64.5% of OP (Si). Sputum smears were positive in 70.7% of HP and in 62.5% of OP (Si). Caseous pneumonia occurred in 2.7% of homeless subjects and in 1.1% of OP (Si); infiltrative TB in 95.5% of HP and in 97.5% of OP (Si). Resistance to isoniazid was observed in 2.9% of HP and in 3.1% of OP; to rifampicin in 0.0% of HP and in 0.2% of OP; to isoniazid and rifampicin in 0.4% of HP and in 0.8% of OP. These differences were not Si. Treatment success rate among HP was 44.1%; default rate 24.8%; 4.0% of HP died from tuberculosis; 3.2% died from other causes; 5.2% were transferred and their outcomes were unknown; 0.4% were still on treatment; 0.4% had treatment failure; in 17
Annelissa Andrade Virgínio de Oliveira
difficulty to identify the appropriated place to search for assistance and not always this place had the opened doors to this social group. Another important finding treats about the low adhesion to the TB treatment, because treating about the search for health care, the homeless people are less inclined to search the health services, seen that living on the street implies in a daily fight for survival. To those people, the sickness treatment has a lower priority than the meal obtaining, the searching for shelter, or the search for a job. Discussion: It was observed that by the fact to be exposed to many risk factors, such as: alcoholism, chemical dependence, environmental exposition, inadequate sleeping accommodations, crowed shelters, stress, psycho disturbs, poverty, HIV infection, weak nutrition, affected immunity through the pre-existent conditions, lack of access to health services, cognitive affection and the adverse effects to the health by the lack of home, the homeless people have high risk to get sick and the high TB mortality rate if compared to the general population. Thus it is evident the serious problem that this disease represents to this specific group, justifying urgently the necessity of specific actions to the TB control in this population. The most important element during the TB elimination will be a significant decreasing of the agglomerations, on the poverty and the barriers to the health care. To increase the access to the health care is essential on the homeless population TB control. It is necessary to highlight that when health services that attends their necessity are provided, the homeless individuals will access to the health care at the same rhythm as the general population. Conclusion: It is necessary that the health actions break the strictly technical caring barriers and include the psychosocial and educative perspective in all the health care process to homeless people with different conformations due to the individuals’ singularities
Several jurisdictions in the United States (e.g., Florida and Washington) have recently incorporated the status of "homeless" under the protection of hate crime legislation. This was largely promoted by new data and reports by the National Coalition for the Homeless urging added protection for the homeless. The issue of whether the homeless belong under hate crime provisions raises the following question: What criteria must a group meet to be eligible for its inclusion? What similarities do the homeless have with other protected groups? Finally, what implications does the recognition of economic status have on other economic groups, particularity the top wealthy 1%? In this article, I explore some of the issues raised by including the homeless as a protected group. I survey several rationales offered for the selection of protected characteristics. I argue that the rationales currently offered suffer from descriptive inadequacy by either being under- or over-inclusive. I turn instead to the political conception of "disadvantage" for an identity marker that better explains the link between the various protected groups and identities under hate crime legislation. Moreover, the use of disadvantage allows for the inclusion of the homeless without the need for incorporating other socio-economic identities. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gasior, Sara; Forchuk, Cheryl; Regan, Sandra
Background Homeless youth are the fastest growing sub-group within the homeless population. They face impaired access to health services and are often left unsupported. They lack social and family support or relationships with service providers. Unsupported homeless youth often become homeless adults. Purpose To test a model based on Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations, examining the influence of a network of service providers, perceptions of social supports, and family relations on a homeless youth's perceptions of recovery. Methods This study is a secondary analysis and used a sample (n = 187) of data collected as part of the original Youth Matters in London study. A cross-sectional design was used to analyze the relationship between variables. Participants were interviewed at 6-month intervals over a 2.5-year period. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used. Results Network of service providers, perceived social supports, and perceived family relations explained 21.8% of the variance in homeless youth perceptions of recovery. Perceived social support and family relations were significantly, positively correlated to perceptions of recovery. Network of service providers was not significantly correlated to perceptions of recovery. Conclusions The findings suggest that stronger social supports and family relations may contribute to increased perceptions of recovery among homeless youth.
Ennis, Naomi; Roy, Sylvain; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane
Cognitive impairment may interfere with an individual's ability to function independently in the community and may increase the risk of becoming and remaining homeless. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on memory deficits among people who are homeless in order to gain a better understanding of its nature, causes and prevalence. Studies that measured memory functioning as an outcome among a sample of homeless persons were included. Data on sampling, outcome measures, facet of memory explored and prevalence of memory impairment were extracted from all selected research studies. Included studies were evaluated using a critical appraisal process targetted for reviewing prevalence studies. Eleven studies were included in the review. Verbal memory was the most commonly studied facet of memory. Potential contributing factors to memory deficits among persons who are homeless were explored in seven studies. Memory deficits were common among the samples of homeless persons studied. However, there was a great deal of variation in the methodology and quality of the included studies. Conceptualisations of "homelessness" also differed across studies. There is a need for more controlled research using validated neuropsychological tools to evaluate memory impairment among people who are homeless.
professionals including a psychiatrist, a nurse, an addiction councilor, and social workers with administrative authority from the social office and the job center. In the international research literature ACT has been shown in randomized controlled trials to be a very effective method in bringing individuals...... out of homelessness and into a stable housing situation. The study is based on quantitative outcome measurement on about 80 citizens who have been assigned to the programme and who have received both a housing solution and support from the ACT-team. The study is not a randomized controlled trial...
Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta
Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.
Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta
Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556
Montgomery, Ann E; Dichter, Melissa E; Thomasson, Arwin M; Roberts, Christopher B
The Veterans Health Administration seeks to reduce homelessness among Veterans by identifying, and providing prevention and supportive services to, patients with housing concerns. The objectives of this study were to assess the proportion of Veterans Health Administration patients who received homeless or social work services within 6 months of a positive screen for homelessness or risk in the Veterans Health Administration and the demographic and clinical characteristics that predicted services utilization. Data were from a cohort of 27,403 Veteran outpatients who screened positive for homelessness or risk between November 1, 2012 and January 31, 2013. During 2013, AORs were calculated using a mixed-effects logistic regression to estimate the likelihood of patients' receipt of VHA homeless or social work services based on demographic and clinical characteristics. The majority of patients received services within 6 months post-screening; predictors of services utilization varied by gender. Among women, diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis predicted receipt of services, being unmarried increased the odds of using services among those screening positive for homelessness, and a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder increased the odds of receiving services for at-risk women. Among men, being younger, unmarried, not service-connected/Medicaid-eligible, and having a medical or behavioral health condition predicted receipt of services. Receipt of housing support services among Veterans post-homelessness screening differs by patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Future research should investigate the role that primary and secondary prevention interventions play in Veterans' resolution of risk for homelessness and experience of homelessness. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Castellow, Jennifer; Kloos, Bret; Townley, Greg
This paper argues that the experience of homelessness is inherently traumatic and thus has the potential to affect the manifestation of mental illness. The experiences related to being homeless might act as specific and unique sources of vulnerability. This study included 424 people diagnosed with serious mental illnesses living in supported housing programs in South Carolina. Three hierarchical regression analyses measuring the impact of homelessness on three types of outcomes revealed the following: (1) ever experiencing homelessness as well as the amount of time spent homeless were related to higher levels of psychiatric distress, (2) ever experiencing homelessness was related to higher levels of reported alcohol use, and (3) total amount of time spent homeless was related to lower perceived recovery from mental illness. These findings suggest that experiencing homelessness might contribute to psychosocial vulnerability to negative mental health outcomes. Future investigations examining this concept of risk and vulnerability as a result of homelessness are in order.
Rahman, Mai Abdul; Turner, J. Fidel; Elbedour, Salman
Background: The drastic surge in the number of homeless families in the United States (U.S.) has resulted in an increase in the number of homeless students attending U.S. public schools. Meanwhile, the U.S. public school system is struggling to meet the educational needs of their homeless students. Objective: This study examined the historical…
Boyce, Daniel E C; Tice, Alan D; Ona, Fernando V; Akinaka, Kenneth T; Lusk, Heather
It is estimated that as many as 21,000 people in the state of Hawai'i may be infected with HCV Most of those infected with viral hepatitis are unaware they are infected. Complications from viral hepatitis include liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hawai'i has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. In 2003 there were over 6000 homeless and over 155,000 people at-risk of becoming homeless living in the state of Hawai'i. Risk factors for hepatitis, such as drug use, tattoos, sexual contact, and sharing of personal hygiene equipment are more prevalent in the homeless population. To determine the incidence of hepatitis B and C among a population of homeless individuals, a health fair was held at a Honolulu area homeless shelter with approximately 200 residents. The incidence of hepatitis B and C was determined by anti-HCV and HBsAg blood tests. A survey was also conducted regarding risk factors and basic demographics. Fifty-nine homeless adults volunteered for testing and took the survey. Thirty-one (52%) volunteers were born in Micronesia, twenty-four (41%) were born in the United States, two (3%) were born in Samoa, one (2%) was born in the Philippines, and one (2%) was born in the Marshall Islands. Forty adults were tested for Hepatitis C antibody, three of which tested positive. The primary risk factor among this group was jail time (100%), followed by illegal drug injection (67%), tattoos (67%), ear/body piercing (67%), snorting drugs (33%), blood transfusions (33%), and a sex partner with hepatitis (33%). Forty adults were also tested for HBsAg, One of which tested positive. This was a recent immigrant from Micronesia. Homeless people in Hawai'i are more likely to have hepatitis B or C because risk factors are common among this population. Additionally a large proportion of Hawai'i's homeless people come from the Pacific Islands, where the prevalence of hepatitis B is one of the highest in the world. In addition there
PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.
TERRY, Marisa J; BEDI, Gurpreet; PATEL, Neil
Approximately 1.6 - 2.8 million youth at any given time in the United States are considered homeless and at high risk for poor social and health outcomes. It is estimated that in the United States homelessness overall is expected to rise 10 -20 percent in the next year. While governmental and private programs exist to address the tribulations faced by homeless persons, youth continue to be underserved. The 2009, $787 billion economic stimulus package includes $1.5 billion to address issues...
Linton, Sabriya L; Cooper, Hannah Lf; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny C; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E; Friedman, Samuel R; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; Sionean, Catlainn; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
Housing instability has been associated with poor health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study investigates the associations of local-level housing and economic conditions with homelessness among a large sample of PWID, which is an underexplored topic to date. PWID in this cross-sectional study were recruited from 19 large cities in the USA as part of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. PWID provided self-reported information on demographics, behaviours and life events. Homelessness was defined as residing on the street, in a shelter, in a single room occupancy hotel, or in a car or temporarily residing with friends or relatives any time in the past year. Data on county-level rental housing unaffordability and demand for assisted housing units, and ZIP code-level gentrification (eg, index of percent increases in non-Hispanic white residents, household income, gross rent from 1990 to 2009) and economic deprivation were collected from the US Census Bureau and Department of Housing and Urban Development. Multilevel models evaluated the associations of local economic and housing characteristics with homelessness. Sixty percent (5394/8992) of the participants reported homelessness in the past year. The multivariable model demonstrated that PWID living in ZIP codes with higher levels of gentrification had higher odds of homelessness in the past year (gentrification: adjusted OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.17). Additional research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which gentrification increases homelessness among PWID to develop appropriate community-level interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of and amount of persons who are homeless as part of HUD's Point-in-Time (PIT) Count. This...
Full Text Available Research utilizing the individual case study method examined the complex issues related to pathways into and out of home-lessness for an Aboriginal man from a First Nation community on the western James Bay in Canada. This instrumental case study focused on an individual's story, rather than on a site or a group of individuals, an incident or a series of incidents, or a program  . First, as a research tool, it provides insight into the issue of homelessness and some of its causes from the perspective of an Aboriginal person. Second, the in-depth data gathered allowed us to understand some of the factors that work and those that do not work in facilitating transitions out of homelessness. Third, as an educational tool, it allows people from the outside to have a better understanding of how systemic disadvantages contribute to individuals falling into homelessness.
Attempts to demonstrate the value of conjunctural interpretive analysis (which is multilevel, multimodal, and explicitly theoretical and political) through an interpretation of the culture of homelessness in the United States. Addresses differences between positivist epistemologies. (SR)
... and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless Veterans into the labor force.'' HVRP... of Labor/VETS. Applications submitted through http://www.grants.gov or hard copy will be accepted. If...
JHON J. SANABRIA
Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.
... visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0087] Supplemental Security Income and Homeless Individuals AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice; Request for Comments. SUMMARY...
Nath, Veena; Hallett, Ronald E.
Stereotypical notions of who experiences homelessness frame how educational institutions approach policy and program development. This life history of a teacher challenges assumptions by providing an in-depth look at a mother's struggle to find stability.
Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Retno Woro Kaeksi
The factors that cause them to he homeless are the economic factor 77.78%, lack of family attention (13.33% and the willingness to he independent (80.89%. Based on the result this research, we know that the poverty has made the children become homeless. The strategis to survive are: they are thrif (40%, add their time to work (13.13%, move to other place (11.11% and save their money (15.56%.
Homeless treatment programs have focused on physical solutions rather than attending to all aspects of well-being. Support services that address overall well-being have demonstrated effectiveness. Previous research suggests that overall well-being is defined as satisfaction within all life spheres. Objective life indices have been the primary evidence of success among various programs, which include food, housing, income, leisure, health, access to psychiatric and medical services, and maintenance of positive support networks. This does not account for other important subjective components, such as psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. This study was designed to assess quality of life and psychiatric symptoms among the people who were chronically and formerly chronically homeless. The people who were formerly chronically homeless are defined as individuals who were chronically homeless in the past but have successfully remained in housing for 6 months or more and have access to intensive case management services. People who are chronically homeless are homeless individuals who have lacked a residence for a year or more or have had four or more episodes in three years, are single, and have a persistent disability. Participants completed the Oxford Happiness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and a brief questionnaire. All participants were disabled in accordance with the definition of chronic homelessness adopted by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. This researcher hypothesized that high quality-of-life scores, low frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and greater access to basic life indices indicate happiness overall. Additionally, it was hypothesized that people who are chronically homeless have a higher foster care rate than the general population.
Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.
In the early part of 1999, the Institute for Children and Poverty surveyed almost 2,000 families with more than 4,000 children in 24 locations to assess the state of homeless children across the United States. This report tells their story. Families account for almost 40% of U.S. homeless people, and in some cities that percentage is even higher.…
Tweed, Roger G.; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Lehman, Darrin R.
This study examined self-perceived strengths among 116 people who were homeless. Those who had experienced a longer period of current homelessness tended to report fewer personal strengths (r = −0.23). Nonetheless, in spite of their marginalized position in society, the vast majority of participants (114 out of 116) perceived personal strengths. A prior diagnosis with mental illness was not associated with the number of strengths reported, but self-perception of strengths was associated with ...
Morton, Matthew H.; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Curry, Susanna R.; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F.
Purpose Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Methods Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13–17 and young adults aged 18–25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18–25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Results Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9.7%, respectively. Incidence rates were about half as high as prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were similar across rural and nonrural counties. Higher risk of homelessness was observed among young parents; black, Hispanic, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth; and those who did not complete high school. Conclusions The prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness reveal a significant need for prevention and youth-centric systems and services, as well as strategies to address disproportionate risks of certain subpopulations. PMID:29153445
Morton, Matthew H; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Curry, Susanna R; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F
Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13-17 and young adults aged 18-25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18-25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9.7%, respectively. Incidence rates were about half as high as prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were similar across rural and nonrural counties. Higher risk of homelessness was observed among young parents; black, Hispanic, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth; and those who did not complete high school. The prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness reveal a significant need for prevention and youth-centric systems and services, as well as strategies to address disproportionate risks of certain subpopulations. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts health and what public health professionals can do about it. Created: 11/19/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) and National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 11/19/2010.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts policy and what public health professionals can do about it. Created: 11/19/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) and National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 11/19/2010.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts policy and what public health professionals can do about it. Created: 11/19/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) and National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 11/19/2010.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts health and what public health professionals can do about it. Created: 11/19/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) and National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 11/19/2010.
Morrison, David S
Homelessness is associated with increased risks of mortality but it has not previously been possible to distinguish whether this is typical of other socio-economically deprived populations, the result of a higher prevalence of morbidity or an independent risk of homelessness itself. The aim of this study was to describe mortality among a cohort of homeless adults and adjust for the effects of morbidity and socio-economic deprivation. Retrospective 5-year study of two fixed cohorts, homeless adults and an age- and sex-matched random sample of the local non-homeless population in Greater Glasgow National Health Service Board area for comparison. Over 5 years of observation, 1.7% (209/12 451) of the general population and 7.2% (457/6323) of the homeless cohort died. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality in homeless compared with non-homeless cohorts was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.8-5.2). After adjustment for age, sex and previous hospitalization, homelessness was associated with an all-cause mortality hazard ratio of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9). Homelessness had differential effects on cause-specific mortality. Among patients who had been hospitalized for drug-related conditions, the homeless cohort experienced a 7-fold increase in risk of death from drugs compared with the general population. Homelessness is an independent risk factor for deaths from specific causes. Preventive programmes might be most effectively targeted at the homeless with these conditions.
Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea
There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kermode, M; Crofts, N; Speed, B; Miller, P; Streeton, J
To describe tuberculosis infection among persons experiencing homelessness in inner Melbourne, Australia. Homeless people were surveyed during late 1995 and early 1996. In stage one of the study 284 homeless people from crisis and long-term accommodation sites were recruited by means of stratified, systematic, random sampling. In stage two a convenience sample of 100 homeless people from squats and the streets were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire and Mantoux testing was performed. A past history of tuberculosis was reported by 3%. Thirty-seven per cent had a Mantoux > or =10 mm; 21% > or =15 mm; and 11% > or =20 mm. A Mantoux > or =15 mm was independently associated with being aged > or =40 years, coming from the accommodated sample, overseas birth, and a past history of tuberculosis. Using logistic regression modelling, a Mantoux > or =15 mm was predicted by being aged > or =40 years, overseas birth, and past history of tuberculosis. Mantoux test results suggest that this group of homeless people had a high prevalence of infection with the tubercle bacillus. Many aspects of the physical and social circumstances of homeless people predispose to reactivation and have the potential to enhance rapid spread should latent infection become active disease.
Miao, Yinghui; Mitchell, Susan L.; Bharel, Monica; Patel, Mitkumar; Ard, Kevin L.; Grande, Laura J.; Blazey-Martin, Deborah; Floru, Daniella; Steinman, Michael A.
Objectives. We determined the impact of obtaining housing on geriatric conditions and acute care utilization among older homeless adults. Methods. We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study of 250 older homeless adults recruited from shelters in Boston, Massachusetts, between January and June 2010. We determined housing status at follow-up, determined number of emergency department visits and hospitalizations over 12 months, and examined 4 measures of geriatric conditions at baseline and 12 months. Using multivariable regression models, we evaluated the association between obtaining housing and our outcomes of interest. Results. At 12-month follow-up, 41% of participants had obtained housing. Compared with participants who remained homeless, those with housing had fewer depressive symptoms. Other measures of health status did not differ by housing status. Participants who obtained housing had a lower rate of acute care use, with an adjusted annualized rate of acute care visits of 2.5 per year among participants who obtained housing and 5.3 per year among participants who remained homeless. Conclusions. Older homeless adults who obtained housing experienced improved depressive symptoms and reduced acute care utilization compared with those who remained homeless. PMID:25973822
Full Text Available Carlos Salavera,1 José M Tricás,2 Orosia Lucha21Faculty of Education, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Physiotherapy Research Unit, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: The homeless drop out of treatment relatively frequently. Also, prevalence rates of personality disorders are much higher in the homeless group than in the general population. We hypothesize that when both variables coexist – homelessness and personality disorders – the possibility of treatment drop out grows. The aim of this study was to analyze the hypotheses, that is, to study how the existence of personality disorders affects the evolution of and permanence in treatment. One sample of homeless people in a therapeutic community (N = 89 was studied. The structured clinical interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR was administered and participants were asked to complete the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic avoided permanence in the treatment process while cluster C disorders, as dependent, favored adhesion to the treatment and improved the prognosis. Knowledge of these personality characteristics should be used to advocate for better services to support homeless people and prevent their dropping out before completing treatment.Keywords: MCMI-II, abandonment, personality disorder, homeless
Curry, Susanna R; Morton, Matthew; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Dworsky, Amy; Samuels, Gina M; Schlueter, David
Youth homelessness is a problem characterized by high levels of vulnerability. The extent to which couch surfing - moving from one temporary housing arrangement to another - is part of youth homelessness is not well understood. Chapin Hall's Voices of Youth Count, a national research initiative, involves a multicomponent approach to studying youth homelessness. This study reports emerging findings regarding couch surfing and homelessness primarily from a national survey of 13,113 adults with youth ages 13-25 in their households or who are themselves ages 18-25. Findings suggest that couch surfing is relatively common, particularly among the older age group. Among households with 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds, 4.0% and 20.5%, respectively, reported that any of them had couch surfed in the last 12 months. There are notable social, economic, and educational differences, on average, between youth reporting homelessness and those reporting only couch surfing. However, most youth who report experiencing homelessness also report couch surfing, and these youth who experience both circumstances present high levels of socioeconomic vulnerability. Couch surfing encompasses a range of experiences, some of which likely include need for services. Interviews currently in the field, and expanded analysis of data, will contribute more nuanced policy insights. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Full Text Available The demographics of the homeless population in many countries are currently shifting, and this cannot be explained by the different welfare systems to be found in these countries. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the homelessness policies of some countries are converging, and we observe a combination of decentralisation, housing first, and a taylor-made, individualised approach. However, what is interesting is the question as to what extent these policies are based on a punitive dimension or on a justice dimension. This aspect is little discussed in the Netherlands where policies to combat homelessness are intended to put an end to public nuisance and to get the homeless off the street. Research into evicted families demonstrates that combining elements of (mild coercion with efforts to solve homelessness leads to problems in at least three domains: the motivation of homeless families to accept help and support, the quality of life in the individualised approach, and the matter of registration. These problems need investigating, also from an international perspective.
Full Text Available Case management programs for chronically ill, homeless people improve health and resource utilization by linking patients with case managers focused on improving management of medical and psychosocial problems. Little is known about participants' perspectives on case management interventions.This qualitative study used in-depth, one-on-one interviews to understand the impact of a case management program from the perspective of participants. A standardized interview guide with open-ended questions explored experiences with the case management program and feelings about readiness to leave the program.FOUR RECURRENT THEMES EMERGED: (1 Participants described profound social isolation prior to case management program enrollment; (2 Participants perceived that caring personal relationships with case managers were key to the program; (3 Participants valued assistance with navigating medical and social systems; and (4 Participants perceived that their health improved through both the interpersonal and the practical aspects of case management.Chronically ill, homeless people enrolled in a case management program perceived that social support from case managers resulted in improved health. Programs for this population should consider explicitly including comprehensive social support interventions. Further research on case management should explore the impact of different types of social support on outcomes for homeless chronically ill patients.
White, Brandi M; Jones, Walter J; Moran, William P; Simpson, Kit N
Primary care access (PCA) for the homeless can prove challenging, especially during periods of economic distress. In the United States, the most recent recession may have presented additional barriers to accessing care. Limited safety-net resources traditionally used by the homeless may have also been used by the non-homeless, resulting in delays in seeking treatment for the homeless. Using hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitivity (ACS) conditions as a proxy measure for PCA, this study investigated the recession's impact on PCA for the homeless and non-homeless in four states. The State Inpatient Databases were used to identify ACS admissions. Findings from this study indicate the recession was a barrier to PCA for homeless people who were uninsured. Ensuring that economically-disadvantaged populations have the ability to obtain insurance coverage is crucial to facilitating PCA. With targeted outreach efforts, the Affordable Care Act provides an opportunity for expanding coverage to the homeless.
...-0001] RIN 0584-AD60 Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children... interim rule entitled Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for...
Abbas Ostad Taghi Zadeh
Conclusions: This study supports the idea that injection drug use is contributing to the increased spread of HIV among Iranian homeless. Harm reduction programs should be expanded, particularly among homeless injection drug users.
Swick, Kevin J.
Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.
Song, John; Ratner, Edward R; Wall, Melanie M; Bartels, Dianne M; Ulvestad, Nancy; Petroskas, Dawn; West, Melissa; Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Grengs, Leah; Gelberg, Lillian
Few interventions have focused on improving end-of-life care for underserved populations, such as homeless persons. To determine whether homeless persons will complete a counseling session on advance care planning and fill out a legal advance directive designed to assess care preferences and preserve the dignity of marginalized persons. Prospective, single-blind, randomized trial comparing self-guided completion of an advance directive with professionally assisted advance care planning. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00546884) 8 sites serving homeless persons in Minneapolis, Minnesota. 262 homeless persons recruited between November 2007 and August 2008. Minimal, self-guided intervention consisting of advance directive forms and written educational information versus a one-on-one advance planning intervention consisting of counseling and completing an advance directive with a social worker. Rate of advance directive completion, assessed by inspection of completed documents. The overall completion rate for advance directives was 26.7% (95% CI, 21.5% to 32.5%), with a higher rate in the counselor-guided group (37.9%) than in the self-guided group (12.8%) (CI of adjusted difference, 15.3 to 34.3 percentage points). This difference persisted across all sites and most subgroups. The advance directive's 4 clinical scenarios found a preference for surrogate decision making in 29% to 34% of written responses. Sampling was limited to a more stable subset of the homeless population in Minneapolis and may have been subject to selection bias. Modest compensation to complete the preintervention survey could have influenced participants to complete advance directives. Both a simple and complex intervention successfully engaged a diverse sample of homeless persons in advance care planning. One-on-one assistance significantly increased the completion rate. Homeless persons can respond to an intervention to plan for end-of-life care and can express specific preferences
Wolitski, Richard J; Pals, Sherri L; Kidder, Daniel P; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Holtgrave, David R
HIV-related stigma negatively affects the lives of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Homeless/unstably housed PLWHA experience myriad challenges and may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of HIV-related stigma. Homeless/unstably housed PLWHA from 3 U.S. cities (N = 637) completed computer-assisted interviews that measured demographics, self-assessed physical and mental health, medical utilization, adherence, HIV disclosure, and risk behaviors. Internal and perceived external HIV stigma were assessed and combined for a total stigma score. Higher levels of stigma were experienced by women, homeless participants, those with a high school education or less, and those more recently diagnosed with HIV. Stigma was strongly associated with poorer self-assessed physical and mental health, and perceived external stigma was associated with recent non-adherence to HIV treatment. Perceived external stigma was associated with decreased HIV disclosure to social network members, and internal stigma was associated with drug use and non-disclosure to sex partners. Interventions are needed to reduce HIV-related stigma and its effects on the health of homeless/unstably housed PLWHA.
Moya, Eva M; Chavez-Baray, Silvia Maria; Martinez, Omar; Mattera, Brian; Adcox, Courtney
Research and scholarship efforts continue to promote the integration of micro and macro practice in social work practice and education. Despite this, scholarship has documented persistent challenges in the fluid integration between the domains of micro-level service provision and macro-level social change efforts in practice and academic programs. This paper outlines a successful bridge between the micro-macro divide in the form of community-engaged practice to address homelessness and social work education in the U.S.-Mexico border region. MSW students enrolled in a macro-level course at the University of Texas at El Paso's College of Health Sciences successfully partnered with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a grassroots community-based organization serving individuals experiencing homelessness. The narrative describes how students were effectively able to apply both micro- and macro-level skills learned in the classroom to an experiential learning environment while providing much-needed assistance to an underfunded community-based organization. A set of challenges and recommendations are also discussed. Research initiatives are needed to evaluate and test clinical and community work initiatives, including the use of photovoice methodology to address homelessness, while being responsive to community needs and challenges.
Joyce, David P; Limbos, Marjolaine
To describe the occurrence of mental health problems and cognitive impairment in a group of elderly homeless men and to demonstrate how clinical examination and screening tests used in a shelter setting might be helpful in identifying mental illness and cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional study including face-to-face interviews and review of medical records. A community-based homeless shelter in an urban metropolitan centre (Toronto, Ont). A total of 49 male participants 55 years of age or older. The average duration of homelessness was 8.8 (SD 10.2) years. Participants were admitted to a community-based shelter that offered access to regular meals, personal support and housing workers, nursing, and a primary care physician. Medical chart review was undertaken to identify mental illness or cognitive impairment diagnosed either before or after admission to the facility. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered. Previous or new diagnosis of mental illness or cognitive impairment. Thirty-six of the participants (73.5%) had previous or new diagnoses. The most prevalent diagnosis was schizophrenia or psychotic disorders (n = 17), followed by depression (n = 11), anxiety disorders (n = 3), cognitive impairment (n = 8), and bipolar affective disorder (n = 1). A total of 37% of participants were given new mental health diagnoses during the study. The GDS-15 identified 9 people with depression and the MMSE uncovered 11 individuals with cognitive impairment who had not been previously diagnosed. This study suggests that providing access to primary care physicians and other services in a community-based shelter program can assist in identification of mental illness and cognitive impairment in elderly homeless men. Use of brief screening tools for depression and cognitive impairment (like the GDS-15 and the MMSE) could be helpful in this highrisk group.
Abstract This article gives voice to refugee young people experiencing homelessness. It is based on a project that conducted interviews with refugee young people and consultations with service providers. The research reveals that the profoundly under-recognised phenomenon of homelessness experienced by young people of refugee background is often hidden and does not match commonly held beliefs about homeless young people. The article examines the nexus between migration and homelessness in...
Bowen, Elizabeth A; Irish, Andrew
We aimed to examine the food-seeking experiences of homeless emerging adults (age 18-24 years) in a US urban context. The study used a qualitative descriptive design, combining semi-structured interviews with a standardized quantitative measure of food insecurity. Interview data were coded using constant comparative methods to identify patterns across and within interviews. Emerging themes were confirmed and refined through member checking. Buffalo, a mid-sized city in the Northeastern USA. A sample of thirty participants was recruited through community-based methods. Eligibility criteria specified that participants were aged 18-24 years and did not have a stable place to live. The sample was demographically diverse and included participants who were couch-surfing, staying on the streets and/or using shelters. Participants' food access strategies varied across their living circumstances. Common strategies included purchasing food with cash or benefits (reported by 77 %), using free meal programmes (70 %) and eating at friends' or relatives' homes (47 %). Although 70 % of participants received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, several reported access barriers, including initial denials of eligibility due to being listed on a parent's application even when the participant no longer resided in the household. Participants described a stigma associated with using food pantries and free meal programmes and expressed preference for less institutionalized programmes such as Food Not Bombs. Given endemic levels of food insecurity among homeless youth and young adults, policy modifications and service interventions are needed to improve food access for this population.
Siebel, Nancy L.; Bassuk, Ellen; Medeiros, Debra
This article was originally published (November 2011) as a brief created on behalf of the Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Coordinating Center, which is a partnership of The National Center on Family Homelessness, National Alliance to End Family Homelessness, and ZERO TO THREE. The article offers a definition of…
Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer
The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…
Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda
Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…
Schindler, Holly S.; Coley, Rebekah L.
The present qualitative research focuses on homeless fathers living with their children in family shelters. Data were collected through semistructured, face-to-face interviews with homeless fathers (n = 9) and shelter directors (n = 3). Findings suggest that how fathers made meaning of their experiences in a homeless shelter was related to…
Although the topic of homelessness receives a great deal of attention in journalism and throughout popular culture, the discourse of homelessness remains largely unexamined and unquestioned. This discourse creates stereotypes and perpetuates homelessness by portraying it as an inevitability rather than a contingency. Rhetoric and composition…
Edidin, Jennifer P.; Ganim, Zoe; Hunter, Scott J.; Karnik, Niranjan S.
Youth homelessness is a growing concern in the United States. Despite difficulties studying this population due to inconsistent definitions of what it means to be a youth and homeless, the current body of research indicates that abuse, family breakdown, and disruptive family relationships are common contributing factors to youth homelessness.…
Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.
In 1997, the Institute for Children and Poverty of Homes for the Homeless joined with more than 58 organizations from 10 cities across the country to develop a national snapshot of family homelessness in the United States. Nearly 800 families were surveyed. This report presents the results of this research. The typical homeless family in the…
de Bradley, Ann Aviles
Many homeless children and youth have difficulty in school due to their loss of stable housing, and lack of consistent contact with family and friends. When a child becomes homeless, schools are federally mandated to identify these students and provide the same access to a free and appropriate education as their non-homeless counterparts. Within a…
Gargiulo, Richard M.
Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…
McDaniel, Grace Ann
The number of homeless children in the United States is increasing. The National Center on Family Homelessness (2010) reports that on average one in 50 children in the United States have experienced homelessness, defined as unstable housing. The needs of this student demographic are varied and complex. For the purpose of this study, the homeless…
Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.
This survey assesses the status of homelessness among families in cities. The data were collected from city officials during April 1987. The findings include the following: (1) the number of homeless families increased by 31 percent during the last two years; (2) families represented one-third of the homeless and a single parent headed two-thirds…
Seider, Scott C.
This past winter, the third student-run homeless shelter in the United States came into being. Two recent Harvard graduates, Sam Greenberg and Sarah Rosenkrantz, who had volunteered at the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter as college students, saw a need within the Boston and Cambridge communities for a homeless shelter serving young adults. Drawing…
... United States post office. In no event will a claim or payment of benefits be denied because the claimant... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Homeless claimants...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Homeless Claimants § 1.710 Homeless claimants...
van Laere, Igor; de Wit, Matty; Klazinga, Niek
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate support for homeless populations includes shelter and care to recuperate from illness and/or injury. This is a descriptive analysis of diagnoses and use of shelter-based convalescence in a cohort of homeless adults in Amsterdam. METHODS: Demographics of ill homeless
Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge
Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…
Rubin, David H.; And Others
Studied the effect of homelessness on cognitive and academic functioning of children 6 to 11 years old in comparison to a control group of housed children in the same classroom. Found no differences in cognitive functioning between homeless and housed children, but did find that homeless children performed significantly more poorly than housed…
Foyer Foundation, London (England).
Homelessness in the United Kingdom has very wide ramifications. Young homeless people face a difficult transition into adult life as poverty, low self-esteem, lack of family support, and lack of qualifications reinforce each others' effects. Homeless young people start behind their peers in educational achievement. Government policies put up…
"No Place to Call Home: Child and Youth Homelessness in the United States," prepared by intern Neil Damron and released in May 2015, presents the statistics on child and youth homelessness and recent trends in Wisconsin and the United States. It explores the major challenges faced by homeless minors, and, drawing from recent research by…
Macdonald, Stephen J.; Deacon, Lesley; Merchant, Jacqueline
This study investigated the relationship between dyslexia, homelessness, and drug use and dependency based on data from the Multiple Exclusion Homelessness Across the United Kingdom Survey, a national survey of 443 respondents who had experienced some form of homelessness in the U.K. Of particular interest was a comparison of the various…
Tierney, William G.; Ward, James Dean
Each year, it is estimated between 320,000 and 400,000 LGBT youth encounter homelessness. They are at increased risk of victimization and abuse and face stigmatization for being both homeless and a sexual or gender minority. These youth are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to become homeless after being forced out of their homes.…
Sullivan-Walker, Melissa E.; Rock, Marcia L.; Popp, Patricia A.
Homelessness is a complex and multifaceted condition that affects 2.5 million, or one in every 30, children annually. Based on these numbers, it is likely that at least one student has experienced or is experiencing homelessness in most public school classrooms. Sixteen percent of students experiencing homelessness also received services under…
... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Homelessness Prevention Study AGENCY: Office of Policy Development... Homelessness Prevention Study. The proposed information collection was approved under emergency review (OMB...) has submitted to OMB a request to extend approval for information collection for the Homelessness...
... Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site Visits AGENCY: Office of the Chief.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Homelessness Prevention Study Site... of the Paperwork Reduction Act requirements associated with HUD's Homelessness Prevention Study Site...
To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin
Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and
To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin
Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk
This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010
Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless...
... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to...
Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J
This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baggett, Travis P; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Rigotti, Nancy A
We determined whether or not homelessness is associated with cigarette smoking independent of other socio-economic measures and behavioral health factors, and whether homeless smokers differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit. We analyzed data from 2678 adult respondents to the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of homeless and non-homeless individuals using US federally funded community health centers. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between homelessness and (i) current cigarette smoking among all adults, and (ii) past-year desire to quit among current smokers, adjusting for demographic, socio-economic and behavioral health characteristics. Adults with any history of homelessness were more likely than never homeless respondents to be current smokers (57 versus 27%, P homelessness was associated independently with current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-2.93], even after adjusting for age, sex, race, veteran status, insurance, education, employment, income, mental illness and alcohol and drug abuse. Housing status was not associated significantly with past-year desire to stop smoking in unadjusted (P = 0.26) or adjusted (P = 0.60) analyses; 84% of currently homeless, 89% of formerly homeless and 82% of never homeless smokers reported wanting to quit. Among patients of US health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker independent of other socio-economic factors and behavioral health conditions. However, homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit and should be offered effective interventions. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Full Text Available Introduction: Homeless and beggar are social problem in our society. The reason of people who becomes homeless and beggar can be influenced by internal factors such as lazy to work, mental and physical illness. Meanwhile, it also can be influenced by external factors, such as economy, geography, social, education, pshycology, culture and religion. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of peer group support to perception about the homeless and beggar. Method: A quasy experimental two group pre-post test purposive sampling design was used in this study. The subjects were homeless and beggar which stay at Lingkungan Pondok Sosial (Liponsos Keputih-Surabaya for at least three day. There were 16 respondent who met to the inclusion criteria which divided into two group (controlled and treatment. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that controlled group has significance level p=0.109 and treatment group has significance level p=0.017, statistically by using Mann Whitney U Test showed p=0.021. Discussion: It can be concluded that peer group support can change the perception about the homeless and beggar who stayed at Liponsos Surabaya. Peer group support can used continuously as social activity at Liponsos.
Moore, Gaye; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie Frances
Homeless people face many challenges in accessing and utilising health services to obtain psychosocial supports offered in hospital and community settings. The complex nature of health issues is compounded by lack of accessibility to services and lack of appropriate and safe housing. To examine the perceptions and experiences of homeless people in relation to their health service needs as well as those of service providers involved with their care. A purposive sampling approach was undertaken with a thematic framework analysis of semi-structured interviews. Participants. Interviews were undertaken with 20 homeless people who accessed the emergency department in an acute hospital in Melbourne, Australia and 27 service providers involved in hospital and community care. Six key themes were identified from interviews: complexity of care needs, respect for homeless people and co-workers, engagement as a key strategy in continued care, lack of after-hour services, lack of appropriate accommodation and complexity of services. Findings revealed the complex and diverse nature of health concerns in homeless people. The demand on hospital services continues to increase and unless government policies take into consideration the psychosocial demands of the communities most vulnerable people efforts to divert hospital demand will continue to fail.
Full Text Available Background: Earlier, the scholars of family studies have primarily focused on the problems and weaknesses of the families. However, during these days, there is a shift from problems to strength-based perspective. Methodology: Search of literature was carried out through internet-based Google Scholar search engine. Of the 112 titles obtained 21 titles fit the criteria of the study objectives, of which 9 full-text articles were finally selected for the purpose of this review. Results: In this review, nine full-text articles were reviewed. Nine of these researches investigated different facets of strengths perspective among the homeless adolescents. Chronologically, nine of these reviewed studies delineated the following thematic facets of strengths perspective among the homeless adolescents. These include personal strength and informal resources, personal strength in high-risk environment, strengths perspective during the transition of adolescence to adulthood, personal and social strengths that refrained the homeless adolescents form intravenous drug use, resilience and self-esteem, religion as an important strength, “hope” as a way of living among the homeless adolescents, coping strategies of street-involved youth, and usage of internet and social media as an important strength among homeless adolescents. Conclusion: Strengths perspective helps the youth to become a master of their own lives and helps to deal with all the adversities in life.
Carla J. Thompson
Full Text Available The need for counseling and career/educational services for homeless veterans has captured political and economic venues for more than 25 years. Veterans are three times more likely to become homeless than the general population if veterans live in poverty or are minority veterans. This mixed methods study emphasized a life-span perspective approach for exploring factors influencing normative aging and life-quality of 39 homeless veterans in Alabama and Florida. Seven descriptive quantitative and qualitative research questions framed the investigation. Study participants completed a quantitative survey reflecting their preferences and needs with a subset of the sample (N=12 also participating in individual qualitative interview sessions. Thirty-two service providers and stakeholders completed quantitative surveys. Empirical and qualitative data with appropriate triangulation procedures provided interpretive information relative to a life-span development perspective. Study findings provide evidence of the need for future research efforts to address strategies that focus on the health and economic challenges of veterans before they are threatened with the possibility of homelessness. Implications of the study findings provide important information associated with the premise that human development occurs throughout life with specific characteristics influencing the individual’s passage. Implications for aging/homelessness research are grounded in late-life transitioning and human development intervention considerations.
Full Text Available Psychocentrism is a governing neoliberal rationality that pathologizes human problems and frames individuals as responsible for socially structured inequalities. The homeless community provides an important case study to examine the ways psychocentrism manifests among an excluded population. This paper explores the paradox whereby homeless individuals are simultaneously pathologized and responsibilized through psychocentric discourses in which their status as economically poor becomes individualized as a symptom of mental illness and/or addiction. Although medicalized understandings of mental and emotional distress pervade the homeless industry, the obligations of freedom in the neoliberal era mean that individuals alone are held responsible for their failures. The paper examines the ways individuals experiencing homelessness are compelled to embark on an entrepreneurial project of the self that requires them to accept blame for their social precariousness. Further, it deconstructs the narratives that regard social explanations as an excuse and a failure of individual accountability. I argue that the “shamed poor” adopt empowerment discourses touted by the homeless industry, which paradoxically encourage individuals to find strength in their personal failures and to work toward self-governance, devoid of historical, social, and cultural context.
Bauer, Leah K; Baggett, Travis P; Stern, Theodore A; O'Connell, Jim J; Shtasel, Derri
The care of homeless persons with serious mental illness remains a common and challenging problem in general hospital settings. This article aims to review data on homelessness and its psychiatric comorbidities, and to expand the skills of providers who encounter homeless individuals in general hospital settings. Literature review reveals patient, provider, and systems factors that contribute to suboptimal health outcomes in homeless individuals. Diagnostic rigor, integrated medical and psychiatric care, trauma-informed interventions, special considerations in capacity evaluations, and health care reform initiatives can improve the treatment of homeless persons with serious mental illness. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ronald D. Kneebone
Full Text Available Recent research has confirmed that only a minority of people who use emergency shelter beds are long-term users. Most shelter clients stay for short periods and do so relatively infrequently. These people use shelters as a temporary solution to problems that stem from poverty as opposed to problems arising from addiction or mental health problems. The implication is that addressing poverty may be an effective way of shrinking the need for emergency shelter beds. Our study uses information describing demographic characteristics and a measure of housing affordability in 51 Canadian cities to identify to what extent efforts at poverty reduction may enable the closing of emergency shelter beds. Across Canada in 2011, 15,493 permanent beds were available in 408 emergency shelters. The provision of emergency shelter beds varies widely across cities. Calgary, for example, provides more than twice as many beds per 100,000 people than does Vancouver or Toronto and more than four times the number provided in Montreal. The number of emergency beds provided is an indication not only of the number of homeless people but it is also a measure of the local response to the issue. We show that an effective strategy for shrinking the need for shelter beds is to provide improved income support to the very poor. Accounting for differences in climate, housing affordability, and demographics that may be associated with discrimination in housing markets, we show how a relatively modest increase in the incomes of those with very low incomes can shrink the need for emergency beds by nearly 20%. We also show that a modest increase in rent subsidies would have a similar impact. Still other policies that can prove effective are those that reduce the cost of building housing that can be profitably rented at prices those with low incomes can afford. These may involve tax incentives to builders and may call into question efforts at urban densification which makes low
Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Viewed through the lens of social determinants, homelessness is a key driver of poor health, but homelessness itself results from accumulated adverse social and economic conditions. Indeed, in people who are homeless, the social determinants of homelessness and health inequities are often intertwined, and long term homelessness further exacerbates poor health. Aggregated health service data can mask this, and case histories thus provide important insights. Methods: This paper presents three case histories of homeless patients seen at an inner city public hospital in Perth, Western Australia. The case histories draw on several data sources: hospital data, information collected from rough sleepers and clinical observations. Estimates of the cost to the health system of the observed hospital usage by the three patients are included. Findings: The case histories illustrate the interplay of social determinants of health in homelessness that help explain the high level of hospital usage by rough sleepers. The cumulative healthcare costs for the three individuals over a 33 months period were substantial. Hospital attendance plummeted even in the short term when housing needs were addressed. Conclusions: Treating homelessness as a combined health and social issue is critical to improving the abysmal health outcomes of people experiencing homelessness. In addition, the enormous economic costs of hospital care for people who are homeless can be reduced when housing and other social determinants are taken into account. PMID:29292758
Full Text Available Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Viewed through the lens of social determinants, homelessness is a key driver of poor health, but homelessness itself results from accumulated adverse social and economic conditions. Indeed, in people who are homeless, the social determinants of homelessness and health inequities are often intertwined, and long term homelessness further exacerbates poor health. Aggregated health service data can mask this, and case histories thus provide important insights. Methods: This paper presents three case histories of homeless patients seen at an inner city public hospital in Perth, Western Australia. The case histories draw on several data sources: hospital data, information collected from rough sleepers and clinical observations. Estimates of the cost to the health system of the observed hospital usage by the three patients are included. Findings: The case histories illustrate the interplay of social determinants of health in homelessness that help explain the high level of hospital usage by rough sleepers. The cumulative healthcare costs for the three individuals over a 33 months period were substantial. Hospital attendance plummeted even in the short term when housing needs were addressed. Conclusions: Treating homelessness as a combined health and social issue is critical to improving the abysmal health outcomes of people experiencing homelessness. In addition, the enormous economic costs of hospital care for people who are homeless can be reduced when housing and other social determinants are taken into account.
Ecker, John; Aubry, Tim; Sylvestre, John
Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) adults who experience homelessness. The current review critically analyzes the scant literature on LGBTQ adults who experience homelessness, with a particular focus on: (1) pathways into homelessness; (2) support needs; (3) targeted programming; and (4) exits out of homelessness. A total of 143 articles were identified, and 16 articles met the criteria of appropriate age range, article quality, and relevance of topic. Results from this review demonstrate that homeless LGBTQ adults have unique physical and mental health challenges, largely concerning HIV and substance use. Transgender and gender non-conforming adults who experience homelessness encounter several challenges in the homelessness system, particularly in regard to safety and gender-affirming supports. Recommendations focus on practical implications for support and suggestions for future research.
Rhoades, Harmony; Rusow, Joshua A; Bond, David; Lanteigne, Amy; Fulginiti, Anthony; Goldbach, Jeremy T
LGBTQ youth experience increased risks of homelessness, mental health disorder symptoms, and suicidality. Utilizing data from LGBTQ youth contacting a suicide crisis services organization, this study examined: (a) rates of homelessness among crisis services users, (b) the relationship between disclosure of LGBTQ identity to parents and parental rejection and homelessness, and (c) the relationship between homelessness and mental health disorder outcomes and suicidality. A nationwide sample of LGBTQ youth was recruited for a confidential online survey from an LGBTQ-focused crisis services hotline. Overall, nearly one-third of youth contacting the crisis services hotline had experienced lifetime homelessness, and those who had disclosed their LGBTQ identity to parents or experienced parental rejection because of LGBTQ status experienced higher rates of homelessness. Youth with homelessness experiences reported more symptoms of several mental health disorders and higher rates of suicidality. Suggestions for service providers are discussed.
Grant, Roy; Gracy, Delaney; Goldsmith, Grifin; Shapiro, Alan; Redlener, Irwin E
Family homelessness emerged as a major social and public health problem in the United States during the 1980s. We reviewed the literature, including journal articles, news stories, and government reports, that described conditions associated with family homelessness, the scope of the problem, and the health and mental health of homeless children and families. Much of this literature was published during the 1980s and 1990s. This raises questions about its continued applicability for the public health community. We concluded that descriptions of the economic conditions and public policies associated with family homelessness are still relevant; however, the homeless family population has changed over time. Family homelessness has become more prevalent and pervasive among poor and low-income families. We provide public health recommendations for these homeless families.
Grenier, Amanda; Sussman, Tamara; Barken, Rachel; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valerie; Rothwell, David
Homelessness among older people in Canada is both a growing concern, and an emerging field of study. This article reports thematic results of qualitative interviews with 40 people aged 46 to 75, carried out as part of a mixed-methods study of older people who are homeless in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Our participants included people with histories of homelessness (n = 14) and persons new to homelessness in later life (n = 26). Interviews focused on experiences at the intersections of aging and homelessness including social relationships, the challenges of living on the streets and in shelters in later life, and the future. This article outlines the 5 main themes that capture the experience of homelessness for our participants: age exacerbates worries; exclusion and isolation; managing significant challenges; shifting needs and realities; and resilience, strength, and hope. Together, these findings underscore the need for specific programs geared to the unique needs of older people who are homeless.
Allan, Julaine; Kemp, Michael
This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of homelessness episodes in Australian substance misuse treatment. A dataset containing all closed substance treatment episodes in NSW, Australia from July 2006 to June 2011 was used. Statistical analysis was used to determine any relationships between demographic and treatment variables and homelessness. Of the 213, 129 treatment episodes in the dataset 12.8% have some form of homelessness. Non-government and residential services have the highest prevalence of homelessness. Sex, age, and drug type have weak relationships with homelessness. Leaving against the advice of the treatment provider is more common in episodes where homelessness is a factor. Homelessness is a problem experienced by a significant proportion of the substance treatment population and treatment providers have an opportunity and an obligation to address it in their treatment delivery.
Tsai, Jack; O'Toole, Thomas; Kearney, Lisa K
Homelessness is a major public health problem that has received considerable attention from clinicians, researchers, administrators, and policymakers in recent years. In 2016, 550,000 individuals were homeless in the United States (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2016) with 4.2% of individuals in the United States experiencing homelessness for over 1 month sometime in their lives and 1.5% experiencing homelessness in the last year (Tsai, 2017). Homelessness remains a recalcitrant problem and a ripe area for study, particularly in addressing needs of individuals at high risk for homelessness and those from understudied populations. New and innovative measurement approaches, interventions, and study methodologies are presented in this special issue to shed light on how psychology can help benefit and improve homeless services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This paper describes findings of a research inquiry into the lived experience of homelessness in Peel, a suburban region located in the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. It is based on the data from a collaborative project undertaken by members of the Faculties of Health and Education of York University with two local community organizations. The dominant theme of the narratives was that suburban homelessness is similar to being engulfed in a grotto of poverty, isolated from the rest of the community and invisible to it. Once entrapped in the grotto, it is almost impossible to escape from it. There were four sub-themes: (a falling into the grotto, (b living/struggling in the grotto, (c envisioning escape routes from the grotto, and (d beauty, community and hope in the grotto. Following a discussion of the findings, researchers describe strategies to address homelessness through promotion of social justice for all.
Bhunu, C. P.
Homelessness and drug-misuse are known to exist like siamese twins. We present a model to capture the dynamics in the growth in the number of homeless (street kids and street adults) and drug misusers. The reproduction numbers of the model are determined and analyzed. Results from this study suggests that adult peer pressure plays a more significant role in the growth of drug-misuse and the number of street kids. This result suggests that in resource constrained settings intervention strategies should be tailor made to target adults whose behaviour influence others to misuse drugs and abuse children. Furthermore, numerical simulations show that homelessness and drug-misuse positively enhances, the growth of each other. Thus, to effectively control these two social problems require strategies targeting both of them.
Hauff, Alicia J; Secor-Turner, Molly
The effects of homelessness on health are well documented, although less is known about the challenges of health care delivery from the perspective of service providers. Using data from a larger health needs assessment, the purpose of this study was to describe homeless health care needs and barriers to access utilizing qualitative data collected from shelter staff (n = 10) and health service staff (n = 14). Shelter staff members described many unmet health needs and barriers to health care access, and discussed needs for other supportive services in the area. Health service providers also described multiple health and service needs, and the need for a recuperative care setting for this population. Although a variety of resources are currently available for homeless health service delivery, barriers to access and gaps in care still exist. Recommendations for program planning are discussed and examined in the context of contributing factors and health care reform.
Tweed, Roger G; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Lehman, Darrin R
This study examined self-perceived strengths among 116 people who were homeless. Those who had experienced a longer period of current homelessness tended to report fewer personal strengths (r = -0.23). Nonetheless, in spite of their marginalized position in society, the vast majority of participants (114 out of 116) perceived personal strengths. A prior diagnosis with mental illness was not associated with the number of strengths reported, but self-perception of strengths was associated with altruistic orientation. The Values in Action (VIA) taxonomy of character strengths captured many of the responses generated by this population. The most frequently mentioned character categories included social intelligence, kindness, persistence, authenticity and humour. The most frequently mentioned other strengths included personal skills (e.g. music, sports), job skills, intelligence and education. The results have relevance for efforts to build self-perceptions that facilitate escape from homelessness.
Milburn, Norweeta G; Batterham, Philip; Ayala, George; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa; Desmond, Kate; Lord, Lynwood; Iribarren, Javier; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
We examined the associations among perceived discrimination, racial/ethnic identification, and emotional distress in newly homeless adolescents. We assessed a sample of newly homeless adolescents (n=254) in Los Angeles, California, with measures of perceived discrimination and racial/ethnic identification. We assessed emotional distress using the Brief Symptom Inventory and used multivariate linear regression modeling to gauge the impact of discrimination and racial identity on emotional distress. Controlling for race and immigration status, gender, and age, young people with a greater sense of ethnic identification experienced less emotional distress. Young people with a history of racial/ethnic discrimination experienced more emotional distress. Intervention programs that contextualize discrimination and enhance racial/ethnic identification and pride among homeless young people are needed.
Patterson, Michelle L; Currie, Lauren; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Somers, Julian M
This study examines key themes from narrative interviews conducted with 43 homeless adults with mental disorders 18 months after random assignment to Housing First with intensive supports or to treatment as usual (no housing or supports through the study). Coding and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews was based on 2 research questions from participants' perspectives: (a) What changes were perceived over time? (b) What factors facilitated or hindered change? The majority of participants assigned to Housing First reported positive change across multiple domains as a result of stable housing; whereas the majority of treatment as usual participants reported negative or neutral change. Key themes included feelings of security and pride; adjusting to living alone; housing as a learning process; and developing meaningful activity. The sense of security associated with stable housing was the most influential factor that supported change. Factors that helped or hindered change clustered into 4 key themes: the type and quality of services; the cumulative effects of trauma; social ties; and concurrent substance use. Our findings provide important context to the emerging body of quantitative research on Housing First and recovery from homelessness. Participants' experiences of recovery, particularly as it relates to housing and supports, shifts in identity, and meaningful activity must be acknowledged and incorporated into the design and evaluation of public services, and policy and service reforms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R
Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sundareswaran, Madura; Ghazzawi, Andrea; O'Sullivan, Tracey L
The unique context of day-to-day living for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity puts them at high risk during community disasters. The impacts of extreme events, such as flooding, storms, riots, and other sources of community disruption, underscore the importance of preparedness efforts and fostering community resilience. This study is part of larger initiative focused on enhancing resilience and preparedness among high risk populations. The purpose of this study was to explore critical issues and strategies to promote resilience and disaster preparedness among people who are homeless in Canada. A sample of interviews (n=21) from key informants across Canada was analyzed to explore existing programs and supports for homeless populations. The data was selected from a larger sample of (n=43) interviews focused on programs and supports for people who are at heightened risk for negative impacts during disasters. Qualitative content analysis was used to extract emergent themes and develop a model of multi-level collaboration to support disaster resilience among people who are homeless. The results indicate there is a need for more upstream continuity planning, collaboration and communication between the emergency management sector and community service organizations that support people who are homeless. Prioritization and investment in the social determinants of health and community supports is necessary to promote resilience among this high-risk population. The findings from this study highlight the importance of acknowledging community support organizations as assets in disaster preparedness. Day-to-day resilience is an ongoing theme for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity. Upstream investment to build adaptive capacity and collaborate with community organizations is an important strategy to enhance community resilience.
Tobey, Matthew; Manasson, Julia; Decarlo, Kristen; Ciraldo-Maryniuk, Katrina; Gaeta, Jessie M; Wilson, Erica
Over a million individuals in the United States experience homelessness annually and homeless individuals die at a higher rate than domiciled peers. Homeless individuals often have unique experiences at the end of life (EOL). This study examined the symptoms experienced by homeless individuals nearing the EOL and explored social background, attitudes, and experiences. Investigators conducted surveys of homeless individuals approaching the EOL at a medical respite home. Eligibility required a serious medical condition and for the patient's medical provider to answer "no" to the question "Would you be surprised if this patient were not alive in one year?" Interviews explored symptoms using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Survey. Symptoms were compared with those of relevant comparator groups in other studies. Participants (n = 20) were young to face the EOL (median age = 58) and suffered high rates of substance use disorders (n = 18; 90%) and psychiatric diagnoses (n = 16; 80%). Symptom frequency was high, especially as regarded pain and psychological symptoms. Previous experience with death among family and peers was universal (n = 20; 100%). Mistrust of others' decisions about the EOL was common, as was concern about receiving too little (n = 11; 55%) or too much (n = 8; 40%) care at the EOL. The frequency of symptoms was higher than in three comparator studies and those studies' subgroups (P Homeless individuals may experience a high frequency of pain and other symptoms as they approach the EOL. Care for such individuals may require a tailored approach. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric
Research shows runaway and homeless youth are reluctant to seek help from traditional health providers. The Internet can be useful in engaging this population and meeting their needs for sexual health information, including information about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using a sample of homeless youth living in Los Angeles, California in June 2009, this study assesses the frequency with which runaway and homeless youth seek sexual health information via the Internet, and assesses which youth are more likely to engage in seeking health information from online sources. Drawing from Andersen's (1968) health behavior model and Pescosolido's (1992) network episode model, we develop and refine a model for seeking online sexual health information among homeless youth. Rather than testing the predicative strength of a given model, our aim is to identify and explore conceptually driven correlates that may shed light on the characteristics associated with these help seeking behaviors among homeless youth. Analyses using multivariate logistic regression models reveal that among the sample of youth, females and gay males most frequently seek sexual health information online. We demonstrate the structure of social network ties (e.g., connection with parents) and the content of interactions (e.g., e-mail forwards of health information) across ties are critical correlates of online sexual health information seeking. Results show a continued connection with parents via the Internet is significantly associated with youth seeking HIV or STI information. Similarly for content of interactions, more youth who were sent health information online also reported seeking HIV information and HIV-testing information. We discuss implications for intervention and practice, focusing on how the Internet may be used for dissemination of sexual health information and as a resource for social workers to link transient, runaway, and homeless youth to care.
Podymow, Tiina; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Coyle, Doug
The homeless have high rates of mortality, but live in environments not conducive to terminal care. Traditional palliative care hospitals may be reluctant to accept such patients, due to behavior or lifestyle concerns. The Ottawa Inner City Health Project (OICHP) is a pilot study to improve health care delivery to homeless adults. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of terminally ill homeless individuals and the effectiveness of shelter-based palliative care. As proof of principle, a cost comparison was performed. 28 consecutive homeless terminally ill patients were admitted and died at a shelter-based palliative care hospice. Demographics, diagnoses at admission and course were recorded. Burden of illness was assessed by medical and psychiatric diagnoses, addictions, Karnofsky scale and symptom management. An expert panel was convened to identify alternate care locations. Using standard costing scales, direct versus alternate care costs were compared. 28 patients had a mean age 49 years; average length of stay 120 days. DIAGNOSES: liver disease 43%, HIV/AIDS 25%, malignancy 25% and other 8%. Addiction to drugs or alcohol and mental illness in 82% of patients. Karnofsky performance score mean 40 +/- 16.8. Pain management with continuous opiates in 71%. The majority reunited with family. Compared to alternate care locations, the hospice projected 1.39 million dollars savings for the patients described. The homeless terminally ill have a heavy burden of disease including physical illness, psychiatric conditions and addictions. Shelter-based palliative care can provide effective end-of-life care to terminally ill homeless individuals at potentially substantial cost savings.
Parker, R David; Albrecht, Helmut A
In 2010, more than 600,000 people in the United States experienced homelessness. Efficient and cost-effective housing methods that reduce homelessness need to be implemented. Housing Ready programs are the standard method that often has set requirements including earned income and sobriety, among others. These programs enable a subset of the homeless to become housed. However, chronically homeless persons, who use the most resources, are often not successful at enrollment or maintaining enrollment. Housing First (H1) is a method focusing on chronically homeless persons. Housing First places a client in housing and provides services after stabilization. This article assessed differences between chronically homeless persons in a H1 program and chronically homeless persons who are not in H1. A case-control study imbedded within a homeless service program collected sociodemographic and service variables, including access and barriers to care. Although the sample was 100% native English speaking, 22% of homeless persons reported that their providers do not speak their same language. All (100%) of participants had a disabling condition under HUD guidelines, but only 17.78% of homeless controls reported having a disabling condition. There were no differences on housing status based on income, gender, race, or age. The lack of differences between these groups indicates that a H1 program can be a clear derivation from the more common Housing Ready programs that have specific requirements for participation. Provider communication may negatively impact an individual's ability to transition from homelessness. Furthermore, chronically homeless persons not in intensive case management are less likely to understand the eligibility requirements for housing and, therefore, self-disqualify because of this lack of knowledge. Intentional communication and education for chronically homeless persons are 2 examples where case managers could improve the ability of the chronically homeless
Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot
Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after
Baggett, Travis P.; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Rigotti, Nancy A.
Aims We determined whether homelessness is associated with cigarette smoking independent of other socioeconomic measures and behavioral health factors, and whether homeless smokers differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed data from 2,678 adult respondents to the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of homeless and non-homeless individuals using U.S. federally-funded community health centers. Measurements We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between homelessness and (1) current cigarette smoking among all adults, and (2) past-year desire to quit among current smokers, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral health characteristics. Findings Adults with any history of homelessness were more likely than never homeless respondents to be current smokers (57% vs. 27%, phomelessness was independently associated with current smoking (AOR 2.09; 95% CI 1.49-2.93), even after adjusting for age, sex, race, veteran status, insurance, education, employment, income, mental illness, and alcohol and drug abuse. Housing status was not significantly associated with past-year desire to stop smoking in unadjusted (p=0.26) or adjusted (p=0.60) analyses; 84% of currently homeless, 89% of formerly homeless, and 82% of never homeless smokers reported wanting to quit. Conclusions Among patients of U.S. health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker independent of other socioeconomic factors and behavioral health conditions. However, homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit and should be offered effective interventions. PMID:23834157
..., weekdays at the above address. Due to security measures at the HUD Headquarters building, an advance... Internal Revenue Code (IRC) of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 501(c)), that is exempt from taxation under subtitle A of...
persons emerges in these years. The second part of the paper provides a more detailed description of the organisation, its aims, strategies and organisational structure. Some of the dilemmas and difficulties of the user organisation are finally mentioned at the end of the paper.......This paper provides an overview of the history of the user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark. The first part of the paper seeks to identify some of the processes and actors who facilitated the formation of the organisation, and it seeks to discuss why a user organisation of homeless...
Full Text Available Introduction. A nurse in her profession meets different kind of people from all society levels. Not once she stands in front of a homeless patient and the dillemma about the sense of helping, which indeed is often “wasted”. Nonetheless the mission of this profession demands the need of seeing a human being in every patient who needs help. Homelessness is marked with a number of stereotypes and marginalisation which is very hard to overcome by oneself and provide the services on the highest level.
Full Text Available The homeless constitute a subpopulation particularly exposed to atmospheric conditions, which, in the temperate climate zone, can result in both cold and heat stress leading to the increased mortality hazard. Environmental conditions have become a significant independent risk factor for mortality from specific causes, including circulatory or respiratory diseases. It is known that this group is particularly prone to some addictions, has a shorter life span, its members often die of different causes than those of the general population and may be especially vulnerable to the influence of weather conditions.The retrospective analysis is based on data concerning 615 homeless people, out of which 176 died in the analyzed period (2010-2016. Data for the study was collected in the city of Olsztyn, located in north-east Poland, temperate climatic zone of transitional type. To characterize weather conditions, meteorological data including daily minimum and maximum temperatures and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI were used.The average life span of a homeless person was shorter by about 17.5 years than that recorded for the general population. The average age at death of a homeless male was 56.27 years old (SD 10.38, and 52.00 years old (SD 9.85 of a homeless female. The most frequent causes of death were circulatory system diseases (33.80%. A large number of deaths were attributable to smoking (47.18%, whereas a small number was caused by infectious diseases, while a relatively large proportion of deaths were due to tuberculosis (2.15%. Most deaths occurred in the conditions of cold stress (of different intensity. Deaths caused by hypothermia were thirteen-fold more frequently recorded among the homeless than for the general population. A relative risk of death for a homeless person even in moderate cold stress conditions is higher (RR = 1.84 than in thermoneutral conditions.Our results indicate excessive mortality among the homeless as well as
Fleisch, Sheryl B; Nash, Robertson
Homeless persons die significantly younger than their housed counterparts. In many cases, relatively straightforward primary care issues escalate into life-threatening, expensive emergencies. Poor health outcomes driven by negative interactions between comorbid symptoms meet the definition of a health syndemic in this population. Successful primary care of patients struggling with homelessness may result in long-term lifesaving measures along with decreased expenditure to hospital systems. This primary prevention requires patience, creativity, and acknowledgment that the source of many confounders may lay outside the control of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Joyce H; Rosenheck, Robert A; Greenberg, Greg A; Seibyl, Catherine
Public support payments may facilitate exit from homelessness for persons with mental illness. We examined data from 10,641 homeless veterans contacted from October 1, 1995 to September 30, 2002 in a collaborative outreach program designed to facilitate access to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Those who were awarded benefits (22% of contacted veterans) were more likely to report disability, poor to fair self-rated health, and were more likely to have used VA services in the past. Thus, this program achieved only modest success and was most successful with veterans who were already receiving VA services and who might have received benefits even without the outreach effort.
Full Text Available Homelessness in Canada is a large and growing problem affecting more than 235,000 men, women, youth, and families per year, in urban, suburban, rural and Northern communities. Though it is produced by economic and policy drivers including colonization, income insecurity, and state withdrawal from housing provision, policies on homelessness tend to focus on service provision rather than addressing root causes. This article reviews activist, advocacy, service and policy responses to homelessness in Canada, and in particular, homeless sector conferences. Taking as its starting-point a demonstration at a 2014 national conference on homelessness, it examines these conferences as important sites of governance in which service organizations collaborate in the development and delivery of policy. Conferences’ normative culture, and their discursive construction of homelessness as a technical problem, tend to leave unchallenged the prevailing economic, social, political and institutional arrangements that produce homelessness. Recent interventions by people facing homelessness and their allies, though, have claimed discursive space at national homelessness conferences for outsider perspectives and demands. These interventions open possibilities for new alliances, analyses, and tactics that are necessary for ending homelessness.
Fargo, Jamison D.; Munley, Ellen A.; Byrne, Thomas H.; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P.
Objectives. We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. Methods. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Results. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Conclusions. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations. PMID:24148057
Fargo, Jamison D; Munley, Ellen A; Byrne, Thomas H; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P
We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations.
Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Dichter, Melissa E; Thomasson, Arwin M; Fu, Xiaoying; Roberts, Christopher B
This study explored demographic influences on veterans' reports of homelessness or imminent risk of homelessness with a particular focus on gender. We analyzed data for a cohort of veterans who responded to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Veterans Health Administration (VHA) universal screener for homelessness and risk during a 3-month period. Multinomial mixed effects models-stratified by gender-predicted veterans' reports of homelessness or risk based on age, race, marital status, and receipt of VA compensation. The proportion of positive screens-homelessness or risk-was 2.7% for females and 1.7% for males. Women more likely to report being at risk of homelessness were aged 35 to 54 years, Black, and unmarried; those more likely to experience homelessness were Black and unmarried. Among male veterans, the greatest predictors of both homelessness and risk were Black race and unmarried status. Among both genders, receiving VA disability compensation was associated with lesser odds of being homeless or at risk. The findings describe the current population of veterans using VHA health care services who may benefit from homelessness prevention or intervention services, identify racial differences in housing stability, and distinguish subpopulations who may be in particular need of intervention. Interventions to address these needs are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cusack, Lynette; van Loon, Antonia; Kralik, Debbie; Arbon, Paul; Gilbert, Sandy
To identify the extreme weather-related health needs of homeless people and the response by homeless service providers in Adelaide, South Australia, a five-phased qualitative interpretive study was undertaken. (1) Literature review, followed by semi-structured interviews with 25 homeless people to ascertain health needs during extreme weather events. (2) Identification of homeless services. (3) Semi-structured interviews with 16 homeless service providers regarding their response to the health needs of homeless people at times of extreme weather. (4) Gap analysis. (5) Suggestions for policy and planning. People experiencing homelessness describe adverse health impacts more from extreme cold, than extreme hot weather. They considered their health suffered more, because of wet bedding, clothes and shoes. They felt more depressed and less able to keep themselves well during cold, wet winters. However, homeless service providers were more focussed on planning for extra service responses during times of extreme heat rather than extreme cold. Even though a city may be considered to have a temperate climate with a history of very hot summers, primary homeless populations have health needs during winter months. The experiences and needs of homeless people should be considered in extreme weather policy and when planning responses.
Full Text Available There is increasing concern about family homelessness. Homeless mothers and their children are one of society’s most disadvantaged and at-risk populations. However, very little Australian research exploring mothers’ views on their homelessness experiences exists. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 mothers and four agency staff, this study explored homeless Australian mothers’ pathways into and out of homelessness, their specific needs and the services and supports that were (or would have been most helpful. In this sample of single mothers and their children, early experiences of homelessness and domestic violence contributed most commonly to homelessness episodes. Almost immediate engagement with welfare agencies seemed to be protective against re-experiencing homelessness, however Australian restrictions on length of program involvement and limited housing options for mothers exiting homelessness programs, may place such mothers and their children at high risk of re-entering homelessness. Younger mothers had greater needs and benefited most from personalised one-on-one support that addressed key parenting and life skills. The implications of these findings are considered in relation to service delivery to this vulnerable group and avenues for future research are noted.
Paul, Sayani; Corneau, Simon; Boozary, Tanya; Stergiopoulos, Vicky
The multiple challenges that ethnoracial homeless individuals experiencing mental illness face are well documented. However, little is known about how this homeless subpopulation copes with the compounding stressors of racial discrimination, homelessness and mental illness. This study is an in-depth investigation of the personal perceived strengths, attitudes and coping behaviors of homeless adults of diverse ethnoracial backgrounds experiencing homelessness and mental illness in Toronto, Canada. Using qualitative methods, 36 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to capture the perspectives of ethnoracial homeless participants with mental illness on coping and resilience. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Similar to prior findings in the general homeless population, study participants recognized personal strengths and attitudes as great sources of coping and resilience, describing hope and optimism, self-esteem and confidence, insight into their challenges and spirituality as instrumental to overcoming current challenges. In addition, participants described several coping strategies, including seeking support from family, friends and professionals; socializing with peers; engaging in meaningful activities; distancing from overwhelming challenges; and finding an anchor. Findings suggest that homeless adults with mental illness from ethnoracial groups use similar coping strategies and sources of resilience with the general homeless population and highlight the need for existing services to foster hope, recognize and support individual coping strategies and sources of resilience of homeless individuals experiencing complex challenges.
Gabrielian, Sonya; Chen, Jennifer C; Minhaj, Beena P; Manchanda, Rishi; Altman, Lisa; Koosis, Ella; Gelberg, Lillian
Homeless adults have low primary care engagement and high emergency department (ED) utilization. Homeless-tailored, patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) decrease this population's acute care use. We studied the feasibility (focused on patient recruitment) and acceptability (conceptualized as clinicians' attitudes/beliefs) of a pilot initiative to colocate a homeless-tailored PCMH with an ED. After ED triage, low-acuity patients appropriate for outpatient care were screened for homelessness; homeless patients chose between a colocated PCMH or ED visit. To study feasibility, we captured (from May to September 2012) the number of patients screened for homelessness, positive screens, unique patients seen, and primary care visits. We focused on acceptability to ED clinicians (physicians, nurses, social workers); we sent a 32-item survey to ED clinicians (n = 57) who worked during clinic hours. Questions derived from an instrument measuring clinician attitudes toward homeless persons; acceptability of homelessness screening and the clinic itself were also explored. Over the 5 months of interest, 281 patients were screened; 172 (61.2%) screened positive for homelessness; 112 (65.1%) of these positive screens were seen over 215 visits. Acceptability data were obtained from 56% (n = 32) of surveyed clinicians. Attitudes toward homeless patients were similar to prior studies of primary care physicians. Most (54.6%) clinicians agreed with the homelessness screening procedures. Nearly all (90.3%) clinicians supported expansion of the homeless-tailored clinic; a minority (42.0%) agreed that ED colocation worked well. Our data suggest the feasibility of recruiting patients to a homeless-tailored primary care clinic colocated with the ED; however, the clinic's acceptability was mixed. Future quality improvement work should focus on tailoring the clinic to increase its acceptability among ED clinicians, while assessing its impact on health, housing, and costs.
Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige
Recently, the number of homeless persons in Japan has steadily decreased. However, it is not certain whether unexpected death of the homeless have actually decreased in proportion to decrease in total number of cases. The documentation of medicolegal deaths among homeless persons handled in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office during 1999-2010 were reviewed, and we compared the number and manner/cause of death between cases occurring before 2004 and those occurring after 2004. In addition, we compared manner/cause of death between homeless and non-homeless persons. The number of medicolegal deaths of homeless persons remained almost the same during the study period in spite of a marked decrease in the total number of homeless persons after 2004. Age distribution shifted to older after 2004, and a higher proportion of the deceased had longer postmortem periods after 2004. Comparison between the manners/causes of death of the cases occurring before 2004 and those occurring after 2004 showed little difference. Disease constituted about 70% of all cases, and causes of death from disease were more various than those of non-homeless persons. Certain specific patterns included a higher proportion of death from circulatory disease in elderly homeless persons and a higher proportion of death from alcohol-related digestive disease and tuberculosis among younger homeless persons. Regarding accidental death, hypothermia was a leading cause of death irrespective of age group. Aging and isolation among homeless persons might contribute to an unchanged number of medicolegal death of them. In addition to measures to address frequent causes of death in each age group, better intervention for isolated homeless persons might be a key factor to prevent unexpected deaths of homeless persons in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sinatra, Richard; Lanctot, Melissa Kim
A university partnered with the New York City Department of Homeless Services (NYC DHS) to provide cohorts of adults a 60-credit Associate Degree Program in Business Administration over a 2-year period. Results of two cohorts of 30 Advantage Academy Program graduates revealed significant improvement in College Board AccuPlacer (ACPL) Arithmetic…
Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F.; Pollio, David
Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults. PMID:18703266
Beck, Susan Kessler; Trutko, John W.; Isbell, Kellie; Rothstein, Frances; Barnow, Burt S.
This document is a how-to guide to help employment and training agencies tailor their delivery systems to be more effective in training, placing, and retaining homeless individuals in gainful employment. The guide is written from the perspective of an employment and training agency and based largely on the experiences of 63 organizations from…
MacGillivray, Laurie; Ardell, Amy Lassiter; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda
There are approximately 1.5 million children in the United States who go to sleep each night without a home of their own (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009). In this article, we provide insights into how educators can create greater classroom support, particularly in literacy learning and development, for this population. Drawing from…
National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010
Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…
Reviews the history and causes of homeless children in the United States from early 19th century to the present. Explores four characteristics necessary for positive developmental pathways that are compromised for children who live on the street: sense of industry and competency, feeling connected to others and society, sense of control of one's…
Miller, Peter M.; Pavlakis, Alexandra; Samartino, Lea; Bourgeois, Alexis
This qualitative study in a Midwestern US city examines how school and community-based organizations support homeless students' connections to education-related resources and relationships. Drawing from organizational brokerage theory, which delineates how individuals' chances to thrive are shaped by the organizations in which they participate,…
Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.
Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…
D'Andrea, Michael; And Others
While most people would readily agree that all family members and especially children are likely to experience adverse effects to their personal development as a result of being homeless, it is both surprising and distressing to note how little attention this topic has received in the professional literature to date. Counselors are well-advised to…
West Contra Costa Unified School District, CA.
The documents in this collection relate to the Homeless Education Project conducted in the elementary and secondary schools of the West Contra Costa Unified School District (California). The first document is a chart describing the project and its main goals: (1) an accelerated curriculum in reading and mathematics; (2) effective procedures for…
Thakarar, Kinna; Morgan, Jake R; Gaeta, Jessie M; Hohl, Carole; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn
Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER) visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use. A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH). This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits. In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, phomeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population.
Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F; Pollio, David
Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults.
Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.
Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…
Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Myers, Paul; Milburn, Norweeta; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
In a study exploring the relationship between typology and risk, we investigated the daily routines of a heterogeneous sample of young men and women from two sites who had been homeless for varying periods (N=1289). Cluster analysis yielded four groups--"Partnered", "Socially engaged", "Service connected-harm avoidant", and "Transgressive"--based…
Ethical consideration and trustworthiness were ensured. Data revealed that the nature of problems experienced by the homeless street-dwellers are primarily related to the wider structural, social-economic and political contexts of violence in South Africa. Inability to obtain social security benefits, lack of affordable housing, ...
Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.
Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…
David, B; Snijders, TAB
In this study we try to estimate the size of the homeless population in Budapest by using two - non-standard - sampling methods: snowball sampling and capture-recapture method. Using two methods and three different data sets we are able to compare the methods as well as the results, and we also
Rice, Eric; Petering, Robin; Rhoades, Harmony; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Winetrobe, Hailey; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy
Background: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) high school students experience higher rates of homelessness than their heterosexual peers. Moreover, LGBQ high school students are more likely to stay in riskier locations (eg, with a stranger) and less likely to stay in a shelter. This study tested whether these trends also apply to…
Miller, Peter; Pavlakis, Alexandra; Bourgeois, Alexis
This case was developed for use in a variety of leadership courses from contemporary issues to policy analysis or school-community relations. A narrative is presented about a superintendent, Kenny, who is faced with two new cases of student homelessness in his affluent suburban community. Students must consider the federal policy context (the…
Elbogen, Eric B; Sullivan, Connor P; Wolfe, James; Wagner, Henry Ryan; Beckham, Jean C
We examined the empirical link between money mismanagement and subsequent homelessness among veterans. We used a random sample of Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans from the National Post-Deployment Adjustment Survey in 2009-2011. Veterans were randomly selected from a roster of all US military service members in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom who were separated from active duty or in the Reserves/National Guard. Veterans (n = 1090) from 50 states and all military branches completed 2 waves of data collection 1 year apart (79% retention rate). Thirty percent reported money mismanagement (e.g., bouncing or forging a check, going over one's credit limit, falling victim to a money scam in the past year). Multivariate analysis revealed money mismanagement (odds ratio [OR] = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.87, 8.94) was associated with homelessness in the next year, as were arrest history (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.29), mental health diagnosis (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.26, 5.33), and income (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.71). Money mismanagement, reported by a substantial number of veterans, was related to a higher rate of subsequent homelessness. The findings have implications for policymakers and clinicians, suggesting that financial education programs offered by the US Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs may be targeted to effectively address veteran homelessness.
Educational and developmental researchers suggest that children who have experienced homelessness suffer both in self-esteem and in literacy development, although early research is not complete. The Reading Connection (TRC), a community-based nonprofit organization in northern Virginia, focuses on the social aspect of reading, rather than…
Asmoredjo, Jolanda; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D.; Wolf, Judith R. L. M.
Purpose: To gain insight into client experiences with shelter or community care services for homeless people, homeless youth, and abused women and identify priority improvement areas. Methods: Seven hundred and forty-four clients rated their experiences and 116 clients rated the services' importance. Results: Clients had most positive experiences…
Diane Santa Maria
Full Text Available While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis (n = 460 on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants (n = 610 recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s, and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.
Martin, Ruth Elwood; Hanson, Debra; Hemingway, Christine; Ramsden, Vivian; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Condello, Lara-Lisa; Macaulay, Ann; Janssen, Patti; Hislop, T Gregory
The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, by incarcerated women who were members of a prison participatory health research team, of a survey tool regarding homelessness and housing, the survey findings and recommendations for policy. A survey was developed by incarcerated women in a minimum/medium security women's prison in Canada. Associations were examined between socio-demographic factors and reports of difficulty finding housing upon release, homelessness contributing to a return to crime, and a desire for relocation to another city upon release. Open-ended questions were examined to look for recurrent themes and to illuminate the survey findings. In total, 83 women completed the survey, a 72 per cent response rate. Of the 71 who were previously incarcerated, 56 per cent stated that homelessness contributed to their return to crime. Finding housing upon release was a problem for 63 per cent and 34 per cent desired relocation to another city upon release. Women indicated that a successful housing plan should incorporate flexible progressive staged housing. The present study focuses only on incarcerated women but could be expanded in future to include men. Incarcerated women used the findings to create a housing proposal for prison leavers and created a resource database of the limited housing resources for women prison leavers. Lack of suitable housing is a major factor leading to recidivism. This study highlights the reality of the cycle of homelessness, poverty, crime for survival, street-life leading to drug use and barriers to health, education and employment that incarcerated women face. Housing is a recognized basic determinant of health. No previous studies have used participatory research to address homelessness in a prison population.
Full Text Available Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use.A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH. This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits.In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, p<0.01. HIV seropositivity was not predictive of frequent ER visits. In patients with history of illicit drug use, mental health (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.07-5.95 and hepatitis C (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.37-5.93 were predictors of frequent ER use. HIV seropositivity did not predict ER use (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 - 0.97.In a HCH population, hepatitis C predicted frequent ER visits in homeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population.
Larina Chi-Lap Yim
Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists.The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18% of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study.The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals.
Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man
Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889
Vogel, Marc; Frank, Anastasia; Choi, Fiona; Strehlau, Verena; Nikoo, Nooshin; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Hwang, Stephen W; Somers, Julian; Krausz, Michael R; Schütz, Christian G
Chronic pain is an important public health issue. However, characteristics and needs of marginalized populations have received limited attention. Studies on prevalence and correlates of chronic pain among homeless persons are lacking. We assessed chronic pain among homeless persons with mental illness in the At Home/Chez Soi study. Cross-sectional data from a randomized controlled trial on homelessness and mental health. Data collected between 2009 and 2013 in three Canadian cities. One thousand two hundred eighty-seven homeless persons with mental illness. Data on chronic pain and utilization of prescribed and nonprescribed interventions was assessed using a chronic pain screening instrument. Mental illness was diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Forty-three percent reported moderate to severe chronic pain, interfering with general daily activities (80%), sleep (78%), and social interactions (61%). Multivariate analysis indicated that increasing age and diagnoses of major depressive disorder, mood disorder with psychotic features, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were independent predictors of chronic pain. Chronic pain was further associated with increased suicidality. Among participants reporting chronic pain, 64% had sought medical treatment and 56% treated pain with prescribed drugs, while 38% used illicit drugs for pain relief. Chronic pain is very common among homeless persons with mental illness and affects activities of daily living. Clinicians treating this population should be aware of the common connections between chronic pain, depression, panic disorder, PTSD, and substance use. While the data indicate the contribution of chronic pain to complex treatment needs, they also indicate a clear treatment gap. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Marian Moser
Since the 1980s, black persons have been overrepresented in the United States homeless population. Given that morbidity and mortality is elevated among both the black population and the homeless population in comparison to the general U.S. population, this overrepresentation has important implications for health policy. However, the racial demographics of homelessness have received little attention from policymakers. This article reviews published social and behavioral science literature that addresses the relationship between race and contemporary homelessness in the United States. This literature points to substantial differences between racial subgroups of the U.S. homeless population in vulnerabilities, health risks, behaviors, and service outcomes. Such observed differences suggest that policies and programs to prevent and end homelessness must explicitly consider race as a factor in order to be of maximum effectiveness. The limited scope of these findings also suggests that more research is needed to better understand these differences and their implications. PMID:29576910
LePage, J P; Bradshaw, L D; Cipher, D J; Crawford, A M; Hoosyhar, D
This study evaluates the prevalence of Multiple Comorbid Chronic Disease (MCCD) within homeless and non-homeless Veterans and the association between MCCD and inpatient medical care. All individuals seen in the VA North Texas Health Care System between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2010 (n = 102,034) were evaluated. Homelessness during the year and the number of common chronic diseases were evaluated for an association with likelihood of medical and psychiatric hospitalizations, bed days of care, inpatient substance treatment, rehabilitation admissions, and emergency department visits. Homeless Veterans had higher all-cause mortality rates and rates of use of almost all resources after controlling for chronic disease burden using the Charlson Comorbidity Index, psychiatric illnesses, substance use disorders, and demographic variables. Homelessness Veterans are vulnerable to a high use of resources and mortality, independent of medical and psychiatric conditions. This finding should focus additional attention on reducing homelessness. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Crane, Maureen; Byrne, Kathleen; Fu, Ruby; Lipmann, Bryan; Mirabelli, Frances; Rota-Bartelink, Alice; Ryan, Maureen; Shea, Robert; Watt, Hope; Warnes, Anthony M
This article presents findings from a study of the causes of homelessness among newly homeless older people in selected urban areas of the United States, England, and Australia. Interviews were conducted in each country with > or =122 older people who had become homeless during the last 2 years. Information was also collected from the subjects' key workers about the circumstances and problems that contributed to homelessness. Two-thirds of the subjects had never been homeless before. Antecedent causes were the accommodation was sold or needed repair, rent arrears, death of a close relative, relationship breakdown, and disputes with other tenants and neighbors. Contributory factors were physical and mental health problems, alcohol abuse, and gambling problems. Most subjects became homeless through a combination of personal problems and incapacities, welfare policy gaps, and service delivery deficiencies. Whereas there are nation-specific variations, across the three countries, the principal causes and their interactions are similar.
Babidge, N C; Buhrich, N; Butler, T
The aims were first, to describe deaths in a cohort of homeless people compared to the general population and secondly, to compare deaths among the individuals with schizophrenia to those without schizophrenia. Mortality was assessed in a cohort of 708 homeless subjects, 506 with schizophrenia who were referred 10 years previously to psychiatric outreach clinics. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Eighty-three people (12%) had died, 19 from suicide. The SMR was 3.76 for homeless men and 3.14 for homeless women. There was a non-significant trend for higher excess mortality among men without schizophrenia compared to men with schizophrenia. SMRs for suicide were significantly elevated among homeless men. Homeless people in inner Sydney have death rates three to four times higher than people in the general population of New South Wales. Excess mortality was greatest for younger age groups.
Marder, Dova; Begier, Elizabeth; Gutkovich, Alexander; Mos, Robert; Griffin, Angela; Zimmerman, Regina; Madsen, Ann
A homeless mortality surveillance system identifies emerging trends in the health of the homeless population and provides this information to key stakeholders in a timely and ongoing manner to effect evidence-based, programmatic change. We describe the first 5 years of the New York City homeless mortality surveillance system and, for the first time in peer-reviewed literature, illustrate the impact of key elements of sustained surveillance (i.e., timely dissemination of aggregate mortality data and real-time sharing of information on individual homeless decedents) on the programs of New York City’s Department of Homeless Services. These key elements had a positive impact on the department’s programs that target sleep-related infant deaths and hypothermia, drug overdose, and alcohol-related deaths among homeless persons. PMID:24148068
Jacups, S; Rogerson, B; Kinchin, I
Homelessness is not only about lack of secure housing, it is sometimes caused by simple reasons such as lack of money to travel home. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the participant co-funded assistance program ('Return to Country' [R2C]), when offered to low socio-economic individuals experiencing homelessness, represented an effective use of scarce resources. In northern Australia, a remote and sparsely populated area, Indigenous persons who travel to regional centres cannot always afford airfares home; they therefore become stranded away from their 'country' leading to rapidly deteriorating health, isolation and separation from family and kin. The R2C program was designed to facilitate travel for persons who were temporarily stranded and were voluntarily seeking to return home. The program provided operational support and funding (participants co-funded AU$99) to participants to return home. Using a descriptive, case series research design, university researchers independently evaluated the R2C program using semi-structured interviews with 37 participants. An investment of AU$970 per participant in the program with partial co-payment was associated with high participant acceptability and satisfaction in-line with harms reduction around substance and criminal abuse, which is suggestive of long-term success for the model. Findings from this study can contribute to the development of best practice guidelines and policies that specifically address the needs of this unique population of stranded persons, who are seeking to return home. The acceptance of the co-payment model can be adopted by policy makers involved in homelessness prevention in other locations in Australia or internationally as an add-on service provision to mainstream housing support. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilma J Nusselder
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on mortality among homeless people are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to describe mortality patterns within a cohort of homeless adults in Rotterdam (the Netherlands and to assess excess mortality as compared to the general population in that city. METHODS: Based on 10-year follow-up of homeless adults aged ≥ 20 years who visited services for homeless people in Rotterdam in 2001, and on vital statistics, we assessed the association of mortality with age, sex and type of service used (e.g. only day care, convalescence care, other within the homeless cohort, and also compared mortality between the homeless and general population using Poisson regression. Life tables and decomposition methods were used to examine differences in life expectancy. RESULTS: During follow-up, of the 2096 adult homeless 265 died. Among the homeless, at age 30 years no significant sex differences were found in overall mortality rates and life expectancy. Compared with the general Rotterdam population, mortality rates were 3.5 times higher in the homeless cohort. Excess mortality was larger in women (rate ratio [RR] RR 5.56, 95% CI 3.95-7.82 as compared to men (RR 3.31, 95% CI 2.91-3.77, and decreased with age (RR 7.67, 95% CI 6.87-8.56 for the age group 20-44 and RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.41-1.88 for the age group 60+ years. Life expectancy at age 30 years was 11.0 (95% CI 9.1-12.9 and 15.9 (95% CI 10.3-21.5 years lower for homeless men and women compared to men and women in the general population respectively. CONCLUSION: Homeless adults face excessive losses in life expectancy, with greatest disadvantages among homeless women and the younger age groups.
Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Toro, Paul A.
Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were homeless at thebaseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age rang...
Hayes, Treasa; O'Neill, Deirdre; Weir, Annette
The problem of homelessness still persists in many advanced capitalist Societies today, despite marked improvements in their overall economic prosperity. The broad objective of this research is ro undertake a comparative study of approaches to addressing the problem of homelessness in two such ocieties - the Republic of Ireland and the State of Victoria in Australia - and to develop an outline model, which addresses the problem of homelessness in a more holistic manner. The two locations of I...
Teesson, Maree; Hodder, Tracey; Buhrich, Neil
This paper describes alcohol and drug-use disorders among 210 homeless people in Australia, and compares the Australian findings with the international literature. While the prevalence of alcohol-use disorders among people who are homeless in Australia is comparable with other international studies, drug-use disorders appear to be more prevalent among Australian homeless than comparable international studies. Reasons for this difference are explored.
Koblinsky, S A; Morgan, K M; Anderson, E A
The child-rearing practices of homeless and low-income housed mothers of preschool children in Head Start were compared. Overall, homeless mothers provided less learning and academic stimulation, less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and a less positive physical environment for their children than did housed mothers. Mothers in both living arrangements provided more language stimulation to daughters than to sons. Implications of the findings for working with homeless families are discussed.
Nielssen, Olav B; Stone, William; Jones, Naidene M; Challis, Sarah; Nielssen, Amelia; Elliott, Gordon; Burns, Nicholas; Rogoz, Astrid; Cooper, Lucy E; Large, Matthew M
To describe the characteristics of people attending mental health clinics at shelters for the homeless in inner city Sydney. Retrospective review of medical records of homeless hostel clinic attenders. Mental health clinics located in three inner city homeless hostels. Consecutive series of clinic attenders, 21 July 2008 - 31 December 2016. Demographic characteristics; social, medical and mental health histories of homeless people. 2388 individual patients were seen at the clinics during the 8.5-year study period. Their mean age was 42 years (standard deviation, 13 years), 93% were men, and 56% were receiving disability support pensions. 59% of attenders had been homeless for more than a year, and 34% of all attenders reported sleeping in the open. The most common diagnoses were substance use disorder (66%), psychotic illness (51%), acquired brain injury (14%), and intellectual disability (5%). Most patients had more than one diagnosis. Early life and recent trauma was reported by 42% of patients. Pathways to homelessness included release from prison (28% of the homeless), discharge from a psychiatric hospital (21%), loss of public housing tenancy (21%), and inability to pay rent because of problem gambling. The high rates of substance use and mental disorder among homeless people in inner Sydney confirms the need for increased access to treatment for these conditions in this setting. Homelessness among those with mental illness might be reduced by developing alternative housing models, and supporting people with multiple problems to retain tenancy.
Brown, Lisa M; Barnett, Scott; Hickling, Edward; Frahm, Kathryn; Campbell, Robert R; Olney, Ronald; Schinka, John A; Casey, Roger
Little is known about the impact of hurricanes on people who are homeless at the time a disaster occurs. Although researchers have extensively studied the psychosocial consequences of disaster produced homelessness on the general population, efforts focused on understanding how homeless people fare have been limited to a few media reports and the gray literature. In the event of a hurricane, homeless veterans may be at increased risk for negative outcomes because of their cumulative vulnerabilities. Health care statistics consistently document that homeless veterans experience higher rates of medical, emotional, substance abuse, legal, and financial problems compared with the general population. This study used the 2004 to 2006 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Outpatient Medical Dataset to examine the effects of hurricanes on use of outpatient mental health services by homeless veterans. Homeless veterans residing in hurricane-affected counties were significantly more likely to participate in group psychotherapy (32.4% vs. 13.4%, p < .002), but less likely to participate in individual 30-40-min sessions with medical evaluations (3.5% vs. 17.3%, p < .001). The study findings have implications for homeless programs and the provision of VHA mental health services to homeless veterans postdisaster. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Fryling, Lauren R; Mazanec, Peter; Rodriguez, Robert M
Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is intended to provide a framework for increasing health care access for vulnerable populations, including the 1.2 million who experience homelessness each year in the United States. We sought to characterize homeless persons' knowledge of the ACA, identify barriers to their ACA enrollment, and determine access to various forms of communication that could be used to facilitate enrollment. At an urban county Level I trauma center, we interviewed all noncritically ill adults who presented to the emergency department (ED) during daytime hours and were able to provide consent. We assessed access to communication, awareness of the ACA, insurance status, and barriers preventing subjects from enrolling in health insurance and compared homeless persons' responses with concomitantly enrolled housed individuals. Of the 650 enrolled subjects, 134 (20.2%) were homeless. Homeless subjects were more likely to have never heard of the ACA (26% vs. 10%). "Not being aware if they qualify for Medicaid" was the most common (70%) and most significant (30%) barrier to enrollment reported by uninsured homeless persons. Of homeless subjects who were unsure if they qualified for Medicaid, 91% reported an income homeless subjects reported access. Homeless persons report having less knowledge of the ACA than their housed counterparts, poor understanding of ACA qualification criteria, and limited access to phone and internet. ED-based outreach and education regarding ACA eligibility may increase their enrollment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E
To describe the tobacco industry's relationships with and influence on homeless and mentally ill smokers and organisations providing services to them. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and journal articles. The tobacco industry has marketed cigarettes to the homeless and seriously mentally ill, part of its "downscale" market, and has developed relationships with homeless shelters and advocacy groups, gaining positive media coverage and political support. Tobacco control advocates and public health organisations should consider how to target programmes to homeless and seriously mentally ill individuals. Education of service providers about tobacco industry efforts to cultivate this market may help in reducing smoking in these populations.
Tompsett, Carolyn J; Domoff, Sarah E; Toro, Paul A
Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were housed at the baseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age range from 13 to 25. Many participants experienced a recurrence of homelessness during follow-up, with 64.6 % of the baseline homeless group and 22.6 % of the baseline housed group reporting an additional episode of homelessness. Both alcohol abuse and other drug abuse symptoms showed an increase in adolescence followed by slowing in early adulthood. Recent homelessness and friend alcohol use predicted alcohol abuse symptoms, and the strength of the influence of friend use decreased over time. Recent homelessness and friend drug use predicted other drug abuse symptoms. Duration of the initial episode of adolescent homelessness showed no influence on substance abuse over time, or the effects of other predictors, highlighting the importance of conceptualizing the experience of homelessness as a recent stressor rather than an enduring personal characteristic.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Cambodia has committed to supporting family care for vulnerable children, including homeless populations. Collecting baseline data on the numbers and characteristics of homeless adolescents was prioritized to illuminate the scope of the issue, mobilize resources and direct the response. Methods Administrative zones across seven cities were purposively selected to cover the main urban areas known to have homeless populations in Cambodia. A complete enumeration of homeless individuals between the ages of 13 and 17 was attempted in the selected areas. In addition, a second independent count was conducted to enable a statistical estimation of completeness based on overlap across counts. This technique is known as capture-recapture. Adolescents were also interviewed about their schooling, health and other circumstances. Results After adjustment by the capture-recapture corrective multipliers (range: 3.53 -27.08, the study yielded an estimate of 2,697 13–17 year old homeless adolescents across all seven cities. The total number of homeless boys counted was significantly greater than homeless girls, especially in older ages. Conclusions To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time capture-recapture methods have been applied to a homeless estimation of this scale in a resource-limited setting. Findings suggest the number of homeless adolescents in Cambodia is much greater than one would expect if relying on single count data alone and that this population faces many hardships.
Llerena, Katiah; Gabrielian, Sonya; Green, Michael F
Homeless persons with psychosis are particularly susceptible to unsheltered homelessness, which includes living on the streets, in cars, and other places not meant for human habitation. Homeless persons with psychosis have distinct barriers to accessing care and comprise a high-need and hard-to-serve homeless subpopulation. Therefore, this study sought to understand unsheltered homelessness in persons with psychosis and its relationship to cognitive impairment, clinical symptoms, and community functioning, examined both categorically and dimensionally. This study included 76 homeless participants with a history of a psychotic diagnosis who were enrolled in a supported housing program but had not yet received housing. This study used two different housing stability thresholds (literally homeless at any point vs. literally homeless >20% of days) for comparing homeless Veterans with psychosis living in sheltered versus unsheltered situations on cognition, clinical symptoms, and community integration. Dimensional analyses also examined the relationship between percentage of days spent in unsheltered locations and cognition, clinical symptoms, and community integration. Sheltered and unsheltered Veterans with psychosis did not differ on clinical symptoms or community integration, but there was an inconsistent group difference on cognition depending on the threshold used for determining housing stability. In the unsheltered group, cognitive deficits in overall cognition, visual learning, and social cognition were related to more days spent in unsheltered locations. Rehabilitation efforts targeting specific cognitive deficits may be useful to facilitate greater access to care and successful interventions in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khan, Kamran; Rea, Elizabeth; McDermaid, Cameron; Stuart, Rebecca; Chambers, Catharine; Wang, Jun; Chan, Angie; Gardam, Michael; Jamieson, Frances; Yang, Jae; Hwang, Stephen W
While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998-2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998-2002 to 39% in 2003-2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating.
Full Text Available This paper compares continuity and change in homelessness policy in Ireland, Scotland and Norway with a particular focus on the period of post-crisis austerity measures (2008–2016. The analytical approach draws on institutional theory and the notion of path dependency, which has rarely been applied to comparative homelessness research. The paper compares welfare and housing systems in the three countries prior to presenting a detailed analysis of the conceptualisation and measurement of homelessness; the institutions which address homelessness; and the evidence of change in the post-2008 period. The analysis demonstrates that challenges remain in comparing the nature of homelessness and policy responses across nation states, even where they have a number of similar characteristics, and despite some EU influence towards homelessness policy convergence. Similarly, national-level homelessness policy change could not be interpreted as entirely a result of the external shock of the 2008 general financial crisis, as existing national policy goals and programmes were also influential. Overall, embedded national frameworks and institutions were resilient, but sufficiently flexible to deliver longer term policy shifts in response to the changing nature of the homelessness problem and national policy goals. Institutionalism and path dependency were found to be useful in developing the comparative analysis of homelessness policy change and could be fruitfully applied in future longitudinal, empirical research across a wider range of countries.
Tutty, Leslie M; Ogden, Cindy; Giurgiu, Bianca; Weaver-Dunlop, Gillian
Violence from intimate partners is a serious reality for a number of women. For some abused women, leaving becomes a path to homelessness. In fact, when abused women and their children leave their homes because of partner abuse, they become homeless even if they subsequently seek residence in a shelter for woman abuse. This project interviewed 62 women from across Canada who had been abused by partners and were homeless at some point. The women were asked about their experiences with both partner abuse and homelessness and the effects on themselves and their children, which suggest important policy shifts.
Sinyor, Mark; Kozloff, Nicole; Reis, Catherine; Schaffer, Ayal
Homelessness has been identified as an important risk factor for suicide death, but there is limited research characterising homeless people who die by suicide. The goal of this study is to identify personal, clinical, and suicide method-related factors that distinguish homeless and precariously housed people who die from suicide from those who are not homeless at the time of suicide. Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in Toronto from 1998 to 2012. Data abstracted included housing status as well as other demographics, clinical variables such as the presence of mental illness, and suicide method. Of 3319 suicide deaths, 60 (1.8%) were homeless and 230 (6.9%) were precariously housed. Homeless and precariously housed people were each younger than nonhomeless people ( P suicide note. Homeless people and precariously housed were more likely to have died by fall/jump than nonhomeless people (62%, 57%, and 29%, respectively). Homeless and precariously housed people are overrepresented among suicide deaths in a large urban center and differ demographically, clinically, and in their suicide method from nonhomeless people who die by suicide. Targeted suicide prevention strategies should aim to address factors specific to homeless people.
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J
Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on their social networks. We conducted a study to: (a) develop a typology of sheltered homeless women's social networks; (b) determine whether childhood abuse was associated with the social networks of sheltered homeless women; and (c) determine whether those associations remained after accounting for past-year substance abuse and recent intimate partner abuse. A probability sample of 428 homeless women from temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County completed a personal network survey that provided respondent information as well as information about their network members' demographics and level of interaction with each other. Cluster analyses identified groups of women who shared specific social network characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed variables associated with group membership. We identified three groups of women with differing social network characteristics: low-risk networks, densely connected risky networks (dense, risky), and sparsely connected risky networks (sparse, risky). Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that membership in the sparse, risky network group, when compared to the low-risk group, was associated with history of childhood physical abuse (but not sexual or emotional abuse). Recent drug abuse was associated with membership in both risky network groups; however, the association of childhood physical abuse with sparse, risky network group membership remained. Although these findings support theories proposing that the experience of childhood abuse can shape women's social networks, they suggest that it may be childhood physical abuse that has the most impact among homeless women