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Sample records for mcio injections resulted

  1. The LEP injection monitors: Design and first results with beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, G.; Colchester, R.; Fischer, C.; Halvarsson, B.; Hemery, J.Y.; Jung, R.; Levitt, S.; Vouillot, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The LEP injection monitors comprise of split foil monitors, luminescent screens and beam stoppers. The monitors are described with particular emphasis on their special features. These include: their low loss factors, their protection against synchrotron radiation and the screen read-out with a CCD chip. The results obtained during the positron injection tests in LEP in July 1988 are reported. 8 figs

  2. [Results of treatment for high-pressure injection hand injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyluk, A; Walaszek, I

    2000-01-01

    High-pressure injection injuries of the hand have a reputation for being dangerous for individual fingers and even for whole hand. Usually appearing innocuous at presentation because of small puncture entry wound, these injuries result in severe damage of most internal structures in finger and hand due to extensive penetration of injected substance. This paper reviews the outcome of the treatment of such injuries in 10 patients: 9 sustained injection of toxic paint, and one lead shot. All the patients were operated on: eight a few hours after injury and two with 3 days delay. The surgical technique included wide exposure from site of injection up to the farthest place in which foreign substance was seen. Thorough debridment of injected material and contaminated tissue was performed with careful preservation of neurovascular structures and tendons. Wounds were not closed, but managed by open technique. In all patients wounds healed well: in 3 by secondary intention, in 6 by delayed closure and 2 were covered by skin grafts. No amputation was performed. Final results were assessed form 1.5 to 3.5 years after initial injury (mean at 2.5 years). Two patients complained of moderate pain related to the weather, five of cold intolerance and two of impaired sensation on fingertips. Active range of motion of affected fingers was in whole group from 90% to 104% (mean 97%) of the range of motion of unaffected fingers from the other side. Range of motion of the wrist (2 patients) was 76% and 117% of range of motion of the other side. Pinch grip strength was from 81% to 116% (mean 99%), and global grip strength from 77% to 119% (mean 97%) of the other side. All patients went back to their previous jobs and periods of sick leave were from 2 weeks to 6 months (mean 3 mo). Excellent results achieved in this study--full functional recovery in 9 of 10 patients confirm the effectiveness of aggressive treatment by open wound technique of such injuries.

  3. Large scale gas injection test (Lasgit): Results from two gas injection tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuss, R. J.; Harrington, J. F.; Noy, D. J.; Wikman, A.; Sellin, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial results from a large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden)). Lasgit is a full-scale field-scale experiment based on the Swedish KBS-3V repository concept, examining the processes controlling gas and water flow in compact buffer bentonite. The first 2 years of the test focused on the artificial hydration of the bentonite buffer. This was followed by a programme of hydraulic and gas injection tests which ran from day 843 to 1110. A further period of artificial hydration occurred from day 1110 to 1385, followed by a more complex programme of gas injection testing which remains on going (day 1385+). After 2 years of hydration, hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values in the lower filter array were found to range from 9 x 10 -14 to 1.6 x 10 -13 m/s and 5.5 x 10 -5 to 4.4 x 10 -4 m -1 respectively, with the injection filter FL903 yielding values of 7.5 x 10 -14 m/s and 2.5 x 10 -5 m -1 . A second set of hydraulic measurements were performed over 1 year and a half later yielding similar values, in the range 7.8 x 10 -14 m/s and 1.3 x 10 -13 m/s. The hydraulic conductivity of FL903 had reduced slightly to 5.3 x 10 -14 m/s while specific storage had increased to 4.0 x 10 -5 m -1 . Both datasets agree with laboratory values performed on small-scale saturated samples. Two sets of gas injection tests were performed over a 3 year period. During the course of testing, gas entry pressure was found to increase from around 650 kPa to approximately 1.3 MPa, indicative of the maturation of the clay. The sequential reduction in volumetric flow rate and lack of correlation between the rate of gas inflow and the gas pressure gradient observed during constant pressure steps prior to major gas entry, is suggestive of a reduction in gas permeability of the buffer and indicates only limited quantities of gas can be injected into the clay without interacting with the continuum stress field. Major gas

  4. Multi-slice CT urography after diuretic injection: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Wildberger, J.E.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Borchers, H. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of CT urography (CTU) using a multi-slice (MS) scanner and to find out whether a low-dose diuretic injection is advantageous for the opacification of the urinary tract. Methods: MS-CTU was performed in 21 patients with urologic diseases. In 5/21 patients, 250 ml of physiologic saline solution were injected. In 16/21 patients, 10 mg of furosemide were injected 3-5 min before contrast material administration. A 4x2.5 mm collimation with a pitch of 1.25 and a tube curent of 100-150 mA were used. Scan time was 12-16 sec. 3 mm thin axial images with an overlap of 67% were reconstructed. Multiplanar maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were postprocessed to obtain urographic views. Bone structures were eliminated using the volume-of-interest method. Results: Furosemide-enhanced MS-CTU achieved either near complete or complete opacification in 30/32 (94%) ureters and in 32/32 (100%) pelvicaliceal systems up to a serum creatinine of 150 {mu}mol/l. In our series, only one CTU scan per patient was needed to obtain a diagnostic urogram after 10 min of contrast material injection. Ureteral compression was not necessary. When physiologic saline solution was used instead of furosemide, the radiopacity inside the enhanced pelvicalices was 4-5 times higher and more inhomogeneous. Diuretic-enhanced MS-CTU was more accurate in the depiction of pelvicaliceal details. In combination with furosemide, calculi were well identified inside the opacified urine and were safely differentiated from phleboliths. Postprocessing times of up to 20 minutes were problematic as were contrast-enhanced superimposing bowel loops on MIP images. Conclusion: Preliminary results demonstrate a good feasibility of furosemide-enhanced MS-CTU for obtaining detailed visualization of the entire upper urinary tract. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung zur Durchfuehrbarkeit der CT Urographie (CTU) mit einem Multidetektor(MD)-Computertomographen und ob eine

  5. Water quality considerations resulting in the impaired injectivity of water injection and disposal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennion, D.B.; Thomas, F.B.; Imer, D.; Ma, T.

    2000-01-01

    An environmentally responsible way to improve hydrocarbon recovery is to maintain pressure by water injection. This is a desirable method because unwanted produced water from oil and gas wells can be re-injected into producing or disposal formations. The success of the operation, however, depends on injecting the necessary volume of water economically, below the fracture gradient pressure of the formation. Well placement, geometry and inherent formation quality and relative permeability characteristics are some of the many other factors which influence the success of any injection project. Poor injection or poor quality of disposal water can also compromise the injectivity for even high quality sandstone or carbonate formations. This would necessitate costly workovers and recompletions. This paper presented some leading edge diagnostic techniques and evaluation methods to determine the quality of injected water. The same techniques could be used to better understand the effect of potential contaminants such as suspended solids, corrosion products, skim/carryover oil and grease, scales, precipitates, emulsions, oil wet hydrocarbon agglomerates and many other conditions which cause injectivity degradation. 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  6. Results of zinc injection test for Hamaoka Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, K.; Masuda, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Sudo, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    1998-01-01

    A zinc injection test was preformed at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 for suppressing radiation dose rate on primary coolant recirculation piping after the replacement of piping. Zinc ion was injected by using injection system where Depleted Zinc Oxide was dissolved in carbonated water. Controllability of the system was sufficient to maintain concentration of zinc in primary water. The concentration of zinc in the primary coolant was controlled from 1 ppb to 5 ppb gradually. The increasing trend of concentration of Co-60 in the coolant was suppressed at zinc concentration of 3 ppb. It is evaluated that the deposition coefficient of Co-60 onto the surface of primary coolant recirculation piping was suppressed to one-third of previous cycle in average, and one-fourth of that just before injection start at zinc concentration of 5 ppb. We concluded that zinc injection is effective for suppressing dose rate on the primary coolant piping and no adverse effect occurs by zinc injection up to 5 ppb in the primary coolant. (J.P.N.)

  7. Results of hydrogen pellet injection into ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Foster, C.A.; Thomas, C.E.

    1980-09-01

    High speed pellet fueling experiments have been performed on the ISX-B device in a new regime characterized by large global density rise in both ohmic and neutral beam heated discharges. Hydrogen pellets of 1 mm in diameter were injected in the plasma midplane at velocities exceeding 1 km/s. In low temperature ohmic discharges, pellets penetrate beyond the magnetic axis, and in such cases a sharp decrease in ablation is observed as the pellet passes the plasma center. Density increases of approx. 300% have been observed without degrading plasma stability or confinement. Energy confinement time increases in agreement with the empirical scaling tau/sub E/ approx. n/sub e/ and central ion temperature increases as a result of improved ion-electron coupling. Laser-Thomson scattering and radiometer measurements indicate that the pellet interaction with the plasma is adiabatic. Penetration to r/a approx. 0.15 is optimal, in which case large amplitude sawtooth oscillations are observed and the density remains elevated. Gross plasma stability is dependent roughly on the amount of pellet penetration and can be correlated with the expected temporal evolution of the current density profile

  8. Initial Results from Coaxial Helicity Injection Experiments in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mueller, D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Maqueda, R.; Nelson, B.A.; Sabbagh, S.; Bell, M.; Ewig, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Hosea, J.; Ji, H.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Orvis, D.; Paolette, F.; Paul, S.; Peng, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Wilgen, W.; Zweben, S.

    2001-01-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been investigated on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Initial experiments produced 130 kA of toroidal current without the use of the central solenoid. The corresponding injector current was 20 kA. Discharges with pulse lengths up to 130 ms have been produced

  9. Less promising results with sclerosing ethoxysclerol injections for midportion achilles tendinopathy: a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, Maayke N.; de Jonge, Milko C.; Sierevelt, Inger N.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local injections of the sclerosing substance polidocanol (Ethoxysclerol) have shown good clinical results in patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. After training by the inventors of the technique, sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections were applied on a group of patients

  10. CO2 Injectivity in Geological Storages: an Overview of Program and Results of the GeoCarbone-Injectivity Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.M.; Egermann, P.; Azaroual, M.; Pironon, J.; Broseta, D.; Egermann, P.; Munier, G.; Mouronval, G.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the GeoCarbone-Injectivity project was to develop a methodology to study the complex phenomena involved in the near well bore region during CO 2 injection. This paper presents an overview of the program and results of the project, and some further necessary developments. The proposed methodology is based on experiments and simulations at the core scale, in order to understand (physical modelling and definition of constitutive laws) and quantify (calibration of simulation tools) the mechanisms involved in injectivity variations: fluid/rock interactions, transport mechanisms, geomechanical effects. These mechanisms and the associated parameters have then to be integrated in the models at the well bore scale. The methodology has been applied for the study of a potential injection of CO 2 in the Dogger geological formation of the Paris Basin, in collaboration with the other ANR GeoCarbone projects. (authors)

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices at the First Injection Episode among Intravenous Drug Users in France: Results from PrimInject, an Internet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Anne; Guignard, Romain; Lert, France; Roy, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Background. New drug use patterns may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis infections. In France, new injection patterns among youths with diverse social backgrounds have emerged, which may explain the persistently high rates of hepatitis C virus infection. This study explores factors associated with injection risk behaviours at first injection among users who began injecting in the post-2000 era. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Internet from October 2010 to March 2011, through an online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression identified the independent correlates of needle sharing and equipment (cooker/cotton filter) sharing. Results. Among the 262 respondents (mean age 25 years), 65% were male. Both risk behaviours were positively associated with initiation before 18 years of age (aOR 3.7 CI 95% 1.3-10.6 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3-7.0) and being injected by another person (aOR 3.1 CI 95% 1.0-9.9 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3-7.1). Initiation at a party was an independent correlate of equipment sharing (aOR 2.6 95% CI 1.0-6.8). Results suggest a need for innovative harm reduction programmes targeting a variety of settings and populations, including youths and diverse party scenes. Education of current injectors to protect both themselves and those they might initiate into injection is critically important.

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices at the First Injection Episode among Intravenous Drug Users in France: Results from PrimInject, an Internet Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New drug use patterns may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis infections. In France, new injection patterns among youths with diverse social backgrounds have emerged, which may explain the persistently high rates of hepatitis C virus infection. This study explores factors associated with injection risk behaviours at first injection among users who began injecting in the post-2000 era. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Internet from October 2010 to March 2011, through an online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression identified the independent correlates of needle sharing and equipment (cooker/cotton filter sharing. Results. Among the 262 respondents (mean age 25 years, 65% were male. Both risk behaviours were positively associated with initiation before 18 years of age (aOR 3.7 CI 95% 1.3–10.6 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.0 and being injected by another person (aOR 3.1 CI 95% 1.0–9.9 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.1. Initiation at a party was an independent correlate of equipment sharing (aOR 2.6 95% CI 1.0–6.8. Conclusions. Results suggest a need for innovative harm reduction programmes targeting a variety of settings and populations, including youths and diverse party scenes. Education of current injectors to protect both themselves and those they might initiate into injection is critically important.

  13. Intravenous Poison Hemlock Injection Resulting in Prolonged Respiratory Failure and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brtalik, Douglas; Stopyra, Jason; Hannum, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a common plant with a significant toxicity. Data on this toxicity is sparse as there have been few case reports and never a documented poisoning after intravenous injection. We present a case of intravenous poison hemlock injection encountered in the emergency department. We describe a 30-year-old male who presented to the emergency department after a brief cardiac arrest after injecting poison hemlock. The patient had return of spontaneous circulation in the emergency department but had prolonged muscular weakness and encephalopathy later requiring tracheostomy. Intravenous injection of poison hemlock alkaloids can result in significant toxicity, including cardiopulmonary arrest, prolonged weakness, and encephalopathy.

  14. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the 1 / 5 -scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena

  15. Experimental results of the ATF in-line injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Batchelor, K.

    1995-01-01

    The initial experimental results of the Brookhaven accelerator test facility (ATF) in-line injector is presented. The ATF in-line injector employed a full copper RF gun with a pair of solenoid magnets for emittance compensation. The maximum acceleration field of the RF gun was measured to be 130 MV/m. The electron yield from the copper cathode was maximized using p- polarized laser and the Schottky effect. The quantum efficiency under optimum conditions was measured to be 0.04%. The measured electron bunch length was less than 11 ps, which agreed with the laser pulse length measurement using a streak camera. The normalized rms. emittance for 0.25 nC charge is 0.9 ± 0.1 mm-mrad, which is almost four times smaller than the emittance predicted by the space-charge effect for a non-emittance compensation photocathode RF gun. The normalized rms for 0.6 nC charge was measured range from 1 to 3 mm-mrad. This measurement was first experimental demonstration of emittance compensation in a high-gradient, S-band photocathode RF gun

  16. Policing behaviors, safe injection self-efficacy, and intervening on injection risks: Moderated mediation results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Vera, Alicia; Martinez, Gustavo; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use conditional or moderated mediation to simultaneously test how and for whom an injection risk intervention was efficacious at reducing receptive needle sharing among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSWs-IDUs) in Mexico. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. A total of 300 FSW-IDUs participated in Mujer Mas Segura in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and were randomized to an interactive injection risk intervention or a didactic injection risk intervention. We measured safe injection self-efficacy as the hypothesized mediator and policing behaviors (being arrested and syringe confiscation) as hypothesized moderators. In total, 213 women provided complete data for the current analyses. Conditional (moderated) mediation showed that the intervention affected receptive needle sharing through safe injection self-efficacy among women who experienced syringe confiscation. On average, police syringe confiscation was associated with lower safe injection self-efficacy (p = .04). Among those who experienced syringe confiscation, those who received the interactive (vs. didactic) intervention reported higher self-efficacy, which in turn predicted lower receptive needle sharing (p = .04). Whereas syringe confiscation by the police negatively affected safe injection self-efficacy and ultimately injection risk behavior, our interactive intervention helped to "buffer" this negative impact of police behavior on risky injection practices. The theory-based, active skills building elements included in the interactive condition, which were absent from the didactic condition, helped participants' self-efficacy for safer injection in the face of syringe confiscation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Treatment results of combined platelet-rich plasma and fat injection in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Fathi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Velopharyngeal insufficiency causes hypernasal vocal quality and can also result in audible nasal air emission and difficulty in producing pressure consonants. The resulting speech is often socially unacceptable and can be difficult to understand. Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous derivative of whole blood. Today, the importance of clinical use of Platelet-rich plasma in the plastic surgery is considered. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined Platelet-rich plasma and fat injection in the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Methods: In this prospective clinicaltrial study, of 15 patients including 9 males and 6 females and aged 15-20 years with mild/ moderate velopharyngeal insufficiency who were injected with 5 mL of combined Platelet-rich plasma (1 mL and fat (4 mL in the front volume in the posterior pharyngeal wall in the pre-vertebral fascia under sedation. Speech samples were recorded by nasoendoscopy before the injection, and at 6 weeks and 6 months after the injection. Assessment of pathologic speech was done by speech therapist. Results: Velar displacement showed significantly increased at 6 weeks after the injection (P=0.049. Velopharyngeal gap disappeared in 60% of patients at 6 weeks after the injection (P=0.019. Lateral pharyngeal wall movement showed significantly increased in 73.3% of the patients at 6 months after the injection (P=0.04. After the treatment, aerodynamic assessment showed significantly decreased in nasal air escape during phonation and repeat the words (P<0.05. Assessment speech therapist showed significantly improve quality of phonation in these patients (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that, combined Platelet-rich plasma and fat injection lead to improve voice resonance and reduce nasal air escape in all treated cases. It can be a promising alternative to major procedures, such as velopharyngoplasties, for the treatment of mild/ moderate velopharyngeal insufficiency.

  18. Vapour explosions (fuel-coolant interactions) resulting from the sub-surface injection of water into molten metals: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bullen, D.; Davies, D.

    1976-03-01

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the relationship between the injection mode of contact and the occurrence and magnitude of vapour explosions. Water was injected beneath the surface of molten metals, chiefly tin at 250 to 900 0 C. Vapour explosions occurred in many, but not all, cases. The results are compared with Dullforce's observations (Culham Report (CLM-P424) on the dropping mode of contact and it appears that rather different behaviour is found; in particular, the present results suggest that the Temperature Interaction Zone is different for the two modes of contact. (author)

  19. Less promising results with sclerosing ethoxysclerol injections for midportion achilles tendinopathy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sterkenburg, Maayke N; de Jonge, Milko C; Sierevelt, Inger N; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-11-01

    Local injections of the sclerosing substance polidocanol (Ethoxysclerol) have shown good clinical results in patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. After training by the inventors of the technique, sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections were applied on a group of patients in our center. Sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections will yield good results in the majority of patients. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. In 113 patients (140 tendons) with Achilles tendinopathy, we identified 62 patients (70 tendons) showing neovascularization on color Doppler ultrasound. Fifty-three Achilles tendons (48 patients) were treated with sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections, with intervals of 6 weeks and a maximum of 5 sessions. Treatment was completed when neovascularization or pain had disappeared, or when there was no positive treatment effect after 3 to 4 sessions. Forty-eight patients (20 women and 28 men) with a median age of 45 years, (range, 33-68 years) were treated. Median symptom duration was 23 months (range, 3-300 months). Fifty-three tendons were treated with a median of 3 sessions of Ethoxysclerol injections. Six weeks after the last injection, 35% of patients had no complaints, 9% had minimal symptoms, 42% were the same, and 14% had more complaints. Women were 3.8 times (95% confidence interval: 1.1-13.8) more likely to have unsatisfactory outcome than men. Pain correlated positively with neovessels on ultrasound (P < .01). At 2.7 to 5.1 year follow-up, 53% had received additional (surgical/conservative) treatment; 3 of these patients (7.5%) still had complaints of Achilles tendinopathy. In 6 patients, complaints that were still present 6 weeks after treatment had resolved spontaneously by final follow-up. Our study did not confirm the high beneficial value of sclerosing neovascularization in patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Despite the retrospective design of our study, we consider it important to stress that injection of Ethoxysclerol may

  20. Can Repeat Injection Provide Clinical Benefit in Patients with Lumbosacral Diseases When First Epidural Injection Results Only in Partial Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is known to be an effective treatment for lower back or radicular pain due to herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and spinal stenosis (SS). Although repeat ESI has generally been indicated to provide more pain relief in partial responders after a single ESI, there has been little evidence supporting the usefulness of repeat injections in cumulative clinical pain reduction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeat ESI at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection would provide greater clinical benefit in patients with partial pain reduction than that provided by intermittent injection performed only when pain was aggravated. An Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective chart review. Spine hospital. Two hundred and four patients who had underwent transforaminal ESI (TFESI) for treatment of lower back and radicular pain due to HIVD or SS and could be followed-up for one year were enrolled. We divided the patients into 2 groups. Group A (N = 108) comprised partial responders (NRS = 3 after first injection) who underwent repeat injection at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection. Group B (N = 96) comprised partial responders who did not receive a repeat injection at the prescribed interval, but received repeat injections only for aggravation of pain. Various clinical data including total number of injections during one year, duration of NRS group A, or after first injection in group B (time to reinjection), were assessed. These data were compared between groups A and B in terms of total population, HIVD, and SS. In the whole population, the mean time to reinjection was 6.09 ± 3.02 months in group A and 3.69 ± 2.07 months in group B. The NRS groups A and B, respectively. In HIVD patients, the mean time to reinjection was 5.82 ± 3.23 months in group A and 3.84 ± 2.34 months in group B, and NRS groups A and B, respectively. In SS patients, the mean time to

  1. Results of the treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab injection in branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sayýn

    2017-06-01

    Material and Method: The files of patients who had macular edema caused by branch retinal vein occlusion and who were applied intravitreal bevacizumab injection were studied retrospectively. Visual acuity (logMAR in follow-ups of the patients before and after the injection and the macular thickness values of the quadrant of the occlusion were recorded and the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on these parameters were analyzed. Results: 24 eyes of 24 patients, 17 of which are male and 7 of which are female, were included in the study. The mean age of the patients were 59.1±7.7. The mean visual acuity prior to the injection was determined to be 0.7±0.5 logMAR, and the mean macular thickness value 489.7±129.6 μm. The mean injection number applied was 1.5±0.7. The mean follow-up time after the injection was 3.5±2.7 months. The mean macular thickness was determined to be 393.1±5.7 μm and mean visual acuity was 0.5±0.1 logMAR in the 1st month. In the last follow-ups of the patients, the mean visual acuity was 0.26±0.28 logMAR and the mean macular thickness value was 317.4±71.5 μm. The increase in visual acuity and decrease in macular thickness between first and last control after the injection was found statistically significant. (p<0.001. Conclusion: The intravitreal bevacizumab injection used in macular edema secondary to BRVO increases visual acuity and decreases macular thickness. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(2.000: 143-148

  2. Low-pressure injection molding of alumina ceramics using a carnauba wax binder: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo Nogueira, R.E.F.; Bezerra, A.C.; Santos, F.C. dos [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Centro de Tecnologia-UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Sousa, M.R. de; Acchar, W. [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN-Campus Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Carnauba wax, a natural product from Northeastern Brazil, has found application in the processing of ceramics. However, the use of pure carnauba wax is not recommended due to its narrow melting range and poor mechanical properties. In the present work carnauba wax based organic vehicles with the addition of low-density polyethylene and stearic acid were developed for use in the low-pressure injection molding of alumina ceramics. Viscosimetric testing was employed for the determination of optimal composition of the organic vehicle. The optimal content of ceramic powder in the mixture was also determined. All the materials used are easily available in the Brazilian market. A simple ceramic part was injected at low pressures (0.6 MPa) using a semi-automatic injection molding machine. For this purpose a double cavity mold was designed and built. Preliminary results demonstrate the technical viability of the process using the organic vehicle developed. (orig.)

  3. Zinc injection on the EDF pressurized light water reactors. Current results and operating experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piana, Olivier; Duval, Arnaud; Moleiro, Edgar; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Chaigne, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, zinc injection, as well as pH management and hydrogen control, is increasingly considered as an essential element of PWR Primary Water Chemistry worldwide. After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 since 2004 and Bugey 4 since 2006, EDF decided to extend this practice, which constitutes a modification of primary circuit chemical conditioning, to other units of its fleet. Currently, 15 among the 58 reactors of the French fleet are injecting depleted zinc acetate into the primary coolant water. Three main goals were identified at the beginning of this program. Indeed, the expected benefits of zinc injection were: Reduction of the rate of generalized corrosion and mitigation of stress corrosion cracking initiation on nickel based alloys (Material goal). Curative or preventive reduction of radiation sources to which workers are exposed (Radiation fields' goal). Mitigation of the AOA or CIPS risks by reduction of corrosion products releases and mitigation of crud deposition (Fuel protection goal). To monitor the zinc addition, EDF has defined a complete survey program concerning: chemistry and radiochemistry responses (primary coolant monitoring of corrosion and fission products and calculation of zinc injected, zinc removed and zinc incorporated in RCS surfaces) ; radiation fields (dose rates and deposited activities measurements) ; materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks) ; fuel (oxide thickness measurements and visual exams) ; effluents (corrosion products releases and isotopic distribution follow up) ; wastes (radiochemical characterization of filters). This paper will detail the present results of this monitoring program. It appears that the expected benefits of zinc injection have yet to be fully realized; further operating experience will be required in order to fully evaluate its impact. (author)

  4. Polydimethylsiloxane Injection Laryngoplasty for Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Bettini, Margherita; Botti, Cecilia; Busi, Giulia; Tassi, Sauro; Malagoli, Andrea; Molteni, Gabriele; Trebbi, Marco; Luppi, Maria Pia; Bergamini, Giuseppe; Presutti, Livio

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the long-term objective, perceptive, and subjective outcomes after endoscopic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) injection laryngoplasty in unilateral vocal fold paralysis. A retrospective study carried out between January 2008 and January 2012. Head and Neck Department, University Hospital of Modena, Modena, Italy. This was a retrospective analysis of 26 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent endoscopic injection of PDMS under general anesthesia. A voice evaluation protocol was performed for all patients, which included videolaryngostroboscopy, maximum phonation time, fundamental frequency, analysis of the harmonic structure of the vowel /a/ and the word /aiuole/, Grade of Dysphonia, Instability, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, and Voice Handicap Index. The protocol was performed before surgery, in the immediate postoperative period, and at least 3 years after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 73 months (range 39-119 months). The statistical analysis showed a significant improvement (P injection laryngoplasty with PDMS guarantees long-lasting effects over time. No complications were reported in our series. Injection laryngoplasty with PDMS can be considered to be a minimally invasive and safe technique for the treatment of unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Moreover, it allows very good and stable results to be obtained over time, avoiding repeated treatments and improving the quality of life of the patients. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Results and analysis of the 2008-2009 Insulin Injection Technique Questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coninck, Carina; Frid, Anders; Gaspar, Ruth; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Larry; Kreugel, Gillian; Liersch, Jutta; Letondeur, Corinne; Sauvanet, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Nadia; Strauss, Kenneth

    Background: The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique and, to provide patients with guidance in this area, we must understand how they currently inject. Methods: From September 2008 to June 2009, 4352 insulin-injecting Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients

  6. Clinical results of treating Graves's disease with percutaneous intrathyroidal ethanol injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Guoliang; Li Xiangguo; Qian Zhendong; Wang Cheng; Jiang Zhonglin; Zhang Dengbao; Cheng Qiang; Ye Xianci; Wu Dezhong; Chen Yingzhi; Zhu Shufang; Chen Yong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effectiveness of percutaneous intrathyroidal ethanol injection in the treatment of Graves's disease. Methods: 42 patients with Graves' disease were given percutaneous intrathyroidal ethanol injection (PEI) for treatment. The control group consists of 47 patients given per-oral antithyroid drug (PATD). clinical response, levels of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH and size of thyroid were observed and followed up for six months. Results: In PEI group, 17 cases were cured, 24 cases were improved and only one case had no response. Total effective rate was 97.6% with no significant difference from that of PATD (p > 0.05). The size of gland after treatment were significantly smaller in PEI than that of PATD (p < 0.01). No severe adverse effect occurred in the PEI group. Conclusion: PEI is a new way in treating GD which is simple economical and effective

  7. The Pawnee earthquake as a result of the interplay among injection, faults and foreshocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Nakata, Nori; Pennington, Colin; Haffener, Jackson; Chang, Jefferson C; He, Xiaohui; Zhan, Zhongwen; Ni, Sidao; Walter, Jacob I

    2017-07-10

    The Pawnee M5.8 earthquake is the largest event in Oklahoma instrument recorded history. It occurred near the edge of active seismic zones, similar to other M5+ earthquakes since 2011. It ruptured a previously unmapped fault and triggered aftershocks along a complex conjugate fault system. With a high-resolution earthquake catalog, we observe propagating foreshocks leading to the mainshock within 0.5 km distance, suggesting existence of precursory aseismic slip. At approximately 100 days before the mainshock, two M ≥ 3.5 earthquakes occurred along a mapped fault that is conjugate to the mainshock fault. At about 40 days before, two earthquakes clusters started, with one M3 earthquake occurred two days before the mainshock. The three M ≥ 3 foreshocks all produced positive Coulomb stress at the mainshock hypocenter. These foreshock activities within the conjugate fault system are near-instantaneously responding to variations in injection rates at 95% confidence. The short time delay between injection and seismicity differs from both the hypothetical expected time scale of diffusion process and the long time delay observed in this region prior to 2016, suggesting a possible role of elastic stress transfer and critical stress state of the fault. Our results suggest that the Pawnee earthquake is a result of interplay among injection, tectonic faults, and foreshocks.

  8. The result of very small quantity of ETA injection program in Tomari Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Koji

    1998-01-01

    In Tomari Nuclear Power Station, iron concentration reduction of feed water is quite important subject to maintain the integrity of Steam Generator (SG) heat transfer tubes. Water chemistry of BOP in Tomari is all volatile treatment (AVT) to adjust pH=9.3 in feed water as NH 3 and 0.3ppm N 2 H 4 . In order to reduce iron concentration, two water chemical methodologies are applied internationally in commercial plants, namely high AVT and advanced amine treatment. Tomari has some copper bearing materials in BOP heat exchangers, therefore high AVT is not able to be applied without large scale replacement of copper bearing materials. Tomari flow full condensate water for Condensate Demineralizing polisher and furthermore has an environmental regulation of COD concentration in disposable waste water, therefore advanced amine treatments are restricted in the upper limit of amines concentration unless Condensate Demineralizing System (CDS) and disposal waste water treatment system are largely improved. Consequently, very small quantity of ETA injection to present AVT was the most effective for Tomari condition, so the injection of very small quantity of ETA program in Tomari Unit-1 was tested. The test resulted in 20-30% reduction effect of iron concentration in the secondary feed water system, especially 50% reduction in steam/water two phase flow at maximum. This paper reports the outline and prospect of ETA injection program in Tomari. (J.P.N.)

  9. Laparoscopic inguinal preperitoneal injection--novel technique for inguinal hernia repair: preliminary results of experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Yury; Novogilov, Vladimir; Rasputin, Andrey; Podkamenev, Alexey; Krasnov, Pavel; Weber, Irina; Solovjev, Alexey

    2012-04-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is the most common procedure in pediatric surgery. Suture techniques for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in children are easy to perform and popular with a low recurrence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic preperitoneal injection of three-dimensional gel on closing of the inguinal hernia sac (IHS) in laboratory animals. With the animals under general anesthesia, we performed peritoneoscopy in 12 male Chinchilla rabbits weighing 1200-1400 g. The endoscope was introduced into the abdominal cavity, and bilateral deep inguinal rings were identified. A Tuohy needle with the injectable polymeric bulking agent DAM+™ (three-dimensional polyacrylamide gel with silver ions [Argiform(®) from Bioform(®)]) was introduced preperitoneally. The implant was then injected across the entire orifice of the deep inguinal rings and draped over the cord structures. After completion of bilateral repairs, the rabbits were extubated and observed in the animal laboratory. Then the second laparoscopy was performed 6 months later, and the deep inguinal rings were inspected. The postoperative course was uneventful in all the animals. At the second laparoscopy no reopening of the entire orifice of the deep inguinal rings was noted. Accurate placement of the polymeric agent and adequate coverage of the vas deferens were accomplished in all the animals. This study demonstrates that the biopolymeric implant gives good postoperative results and a stable trend of closing the IHS in long-term follow-up. In conclusion, we hope that injectable polymeric bulking agents can be used for treatment of inguinal hernias of pediatric patients after additional animal and human research.

  10. Recent results from the HIT-II and HIT-SI helicity injection current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Hamp, W.T.; Izzo, V.A.; Nelson, B.A.; O'Neill, R.G.; Raman, R.; Redd, A.J.; Sieck, P.E.; Smith, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Three important results are reported. 1) CHI startup has produced 100 kA of closed current without using poloidal field (PF) coils or any transformer action. The initial equilibrium is then driven to 240 kA with a 3 V transformer loop voltage, indicating high quality plasma. 2) For the first time CHI alone has produced toroidal currents (350 kA) that far exceed q a I inj , and with I p /I tf as high as 1.2. The key to these new results appears to be having the toroidal field small enough that relaxation will occur. 3) The steady inductive helicity injection spheromak experiment has operated at 5 kHz for 6 ms with current amplitudes up to 11 kA in each injector. The helicity injection rate is nearly constant with the ExB flow always into the plasma and not into the walls. NIMROD simulations of HIT-SI show a buildup of spheromak fields. (author)

  11. Experimental results of the SMART ECC injection performance with reduced scale of test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Il; Cho, Seok; Ko, Yung Joo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Kwon, Tae Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    SMART pressurized water reactor type is different from the existing integral NSSS commercial pressurized water reactor system which is equipped with the main features. In addition, RCS piping is removed and the feature of the SBLOCA is a major design break accident. SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility) test facility is to simulate the 2 inch SBLOCA of the SMART using with reduced scale. The Test was performed to produce experimental data for the validation of the TASS/SMR-S thermal hydraulic analysis code, and to investigate the related thermal hydraulic phenomena in the down-comer region during the 2 inch SBLOCA of the safety inject line. The particular phenomena for the observation are ECC bypass and multi-dimensional flow characteristics to verify the effectiveness and performance of the safety injection system. In this paper, the corresponding steady state test conditions, including initial and boundary conditions along with major measuring parameters, and related experimental results were described

  12. Deterioration of the fuel injection parameters as a result of Common Rail injectors deposit formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes external and internal Common Rail injectors deposits formed in dynamometer engine simulation tests. It discussed not only the key reasons and factors influencing injector deposit formation but also the resulting way of fuel preparation and engine test approaches. The effects of external coking deposit as well as internal deposits two most common form types that is carboxylic soaps and organic amides on deterioration of the fuel injection parameters were assessed. The assessments covered both deposits impacts on quantitative and qualitative changes of the injectors diagnostic parameters and as a result on deterioration of the injector performance. Finally the comparisons between characteristic of dosage of one fuel injector before test and characteristics few injectors after engine tests of simulated deposit formation were made.

  13. Recent results on the beat wave acceleration of externally injected electrons on a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.; Dyson, A.; Everett, M.; Lal, A.; Josh, C.; Williams, R.; Katsouleas, T.

    1992-01-01

    In the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) two laser beams of slightly different frequencies resonantly beat in a plasma in such a way that their frequency and wavenumber differences correspond to the plasma wave frequency and wavenumber. The amplitude-modulated electromagnetic wave envelope of the laser pulse exerts a periodic nonlinear force on the plasma electrons, causing them to bunch. The resulting space-charge wave can have a phase velocity nearly equal to the speed of light. If an electron bunch is injected with a velocity close to this it can be trapped and accelerated. The UCLA program investigating PBWA has found that tunnel or multi-photon ionized plasmas a re homogeneous enough for coherent macroscopic acceleration. The laser pulse should be short, and the peak laser intensity should be such that Iλ 2 ∼ 2 x 10 16 W/cm 2 μm 2 in order to get substantial beat wave amplitudes. tab., 3 refs

  14. Cold leg injection reflood test results in the SCTF Core-I under constant system pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Hiromichi; Iwamura, Takamichi; Sobajima, Makoto; Osakabe, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Murao, Yoshio.

    1990-08-01

    The Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) was constructed to investigate two-dimensional thermal-hydrodynamics in the core and the interaction in fluid behavior between the core and the upper plenum during the last part of blowdown, refill and reflood phases of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The present report describes the analytical results on the system behavior observed in the SCTF Core-I cold leg injection tests, S1-14 (Run 520), S1-15 (521), S1-16 (522), S1-17 (523), S1-20 (530), S1-21 (531), S1-23 (536) and S1-24 (537), performed under constant system pressure condition during transient. Major discussion items are: (1) steam binding, (2) U-tube oscillations, (3) bypass of ECC water (4) core cooling behavior, (5) effect of vent valve and (6) other parameter effects. These results give us very useful information and suggestion on reflood behavior. (author)

  15. Long-term Results of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yon Mi; Choi, Don Gil; Lim, Hyo K.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term follow-up results of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Korea. Sixty-eight nodular HCCs initially detected in 64 patients, were subjected to US-guided PEI as a first-line treatment. Long-term survival rates, local tumor progression rates, and complications were evaluated, as were the influences of tumor size and Child-Pugh class on these variables. No major complications occurred. The overall survival rates of the 64 patients at three and five years were 71% and 39%, and their cancer-free survival rates were 22% and 15%, respectively. The overall survival rate of patients with a small HCC (≤ 2 cm) was significantly higher (p = 0.014) than that of patients with a medium-sized HCC (≤ 2 cm). The overall survival rate of patients with Child- Pugh class A was significantly higher (p = 0.049) than that of patients with Child- Pugh class B. Of 59 cases with no residual tumor, local tumor progression was observed in ablation zones in 18, and this was not found to be significantly influenced by tumor size or Child-Pugh class. The results of our investigation of the long-term survival rates of PEI in HCC patients in Korea (a hepatitis B virus-endemic area) were consistent with those reported previously in hepatitis C endemic areas. Patients with a smaller tumor or a better liver function exhibited superior survival rates

  16. Wastewater injection and slip triggering: Results from a 3D coupled reservoir/rate-and-state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, M.; Olson, J. E.; Schultz, R.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity induced by fluid injection is controlled by parameters related to injection conditions, reservoir properties, and fault frictional behavior. We present results from a combined model that brings together injection physics, reservoir dynamics, and fault physics to better explain the primary controls on induced seismicity. We created a 3D fluid flow simulator using the embedded discrete fracture technique and then coupled it with a 3D displacement discontinuity model that uses rate and state friction to model slip events. The model is composed of three layers, including the top-seal, the injection reservoir, and the basement. Permeability is anisotropic (vertical vs horizontal) and along with porosity varies by layer. Injection control can be either rate or pressure. Fault properties include size, 2D permeability, and frictional properties. Several suites of simulations were run to evaluate the relative importance of each of the factors from all three parameter groups. We find that the injection parameters interact with the reservoir parameters in the context of the fault physics and these relations change for different reservoir and fault characteristics, leading to the need to examine the injection parameters only within the context of a particular faulted reservoir. For a reservoir with no flow boundaries, low permeability (5 md), and a fault with high fault-parallel permeability and critical stress, injection rate exerts the strongest control on magnitude and frequency of earthquakes. However, for a higher permeability reservoir (80 md), injection volume becomes the more important factor. Fault permeability structure is a key factor in inducing earthquakes in basement rocks below the injection reservoir. The initial failure state of the fault, which is challenging to assess, can have a big effect on the size and timing of events. For a fault 2 MPa below critical state, we were able to induce a slip event, but it occurred late in the injection history

  17. Test results of pongamia pinnata methyl esters with direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, MG.; Chattha, J.A.; Khan, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Pongamia Pinnata oil is considered as a potential source of biodiesel production in Pakistan. When selecting source for commercial production of biodiesel several criteria are used. One of them is that biodiesel or biodiesel/diesel fuel blends must provide satisfactory performance and emissions of the diesel engine without or with a little engine modification. In this research performance and emissions characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine running on Pongamia Pinnata methyl esters were discussed. Discussion was supported by an analysis of combustion characteristics derived from in-cylinder pressure data. Engine running on a neat biodiesel showed higher brake specific fuel consumption and lower brake fuel conversion efficiency at all loads, whereas emissions were improved except of carbon monoxide emission at high loads. Decrease in brake efficiency and reduction of nitrogen oxides emissions were attributed solely to the change in the rate of heat release. Deposits on fuel infector nozzle were observed when engine was running on the neat biodiesel. Based on test results conclusion was made that Pongamia biodiesel/diesel fuel blends can effectively be used as a diesel oil substitute. (author)

  18. Results and analysis of the TMX electron-beam injection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Grubb, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    Electron beams (e-beams) were injected into the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) plasma in order to investigate the effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations of the plasma. The power level of the e-beams was comparable to that of the injected neutral beams. It was found that injection of the e-beams produced no significant effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations, the measured plasma parameters, or the particle and power flow of the plasma. The increase in bulk electron temperature and the production of mirror-confined electrons found in previous experiments in which e-beams were injected into a mirror-confined plasma were not observed in this experiment. Analysis of the regions and frequencies of wave creation and absorption within the plasma shows that the plasma density and magnetic field profiles through the plasma strongly affect the resonances encountered by the waves. The steep axial density profiles produced by neutral-beam injection in the TMX experiment are not conducive to efficient coupling of the e-beam energy to the plasma

  19. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillman, Eric D., E-mail: eric.gillman.ctr@nrl.navy.mil [National Research Council Postdoctoral Associate at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Amatucci, W. E. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  20. INTRAARTICULAR INJECTION OF HYALURONIC ACID AFTER ARTHROSCOPIC LAVAGE OF THE KNEE: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Vladimirovna Luchikhina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of arthroscopic lavage in combination with subsequent injection of hyaluronic acid into the joint cavity at shortand long-term follow-ups. Subjects and methods. Eighty-two patients with knee osteoarthrosis (OA were examined in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Group 1 consisted of 40 patients only after arthroscopic lavage; Group 2 comprised 42 patients who were administered hyaluronic acid after arthroscopic lavage. Clinical evaluation encompassed pain while walking, resting, and moving (by a visual analogue scale, limited ability in covering 100 m (by a 5-point scale, general clinical evaluation (by a 5-point ordinal scale, the presence or absence of pain after 100-m walking, as well as resting pain (its presence or absence. Results. The treatment effect evaluated using different indicators was comparably positive in both groups within 3 months. Following 3 months of therapy, its effect remained stable and even better in Group 2. The latter showed a particularly noticeable superiority a year later. Thus, there were excellent and good results in 88 and 47.5% in Groups 2 and 1, respectively. The clinical symptoms of the disease were absent in 58% in Group 2 and in only 15% in Group 1. Moreover, Group 1 showed worsening and 20% of the patients had no effect. This trend was also seen while evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness in different periods. Thus, after therapy, no substantial difference was found in both groups, but 3 months later this difference was as many as 0.8 scores and a year later Group 2 had many points in its favor (1.2 scores. Conclusion. Arthroscopic lavage followed by the administration of hyaluronic acid makes it possible to prevent the negative effect of a washing liquid on the metabolism and structure of the articular cartilage and to achieve a long-term effect against the major clinical symptoms (joint pain and function affecting the quality of life. The

  1. Clinical Results of the injection of solcoseryl against disorders of skin and mucosa due to radioactive irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshio; Yasuhiro, Tsuneaki; Urahashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Ryutaro

    1974-01-01

    Solcoceryl was injected intravenously in order to protect patients with various types of cancer from suffering the side effects of radiotherapy including dermatitis and mucositis, and in order to treat the side effects. As a result, the efficiency of Solcoseryl was 75% when the drug was given during radiotherapy, and it was 100% when the drug was given after the completion of radiotherapy. Solcoseryl was most effective when it was injected every day or every other day from the early stages of radiotherapy when the side effects were slight, in a total dosage of 20 syringes. These results demonstrated that injections of Solcoseryl are effective in decreasing and treating dermatitis and mucositis due to radiotherapy. (N. Kanao)

  2. About the constructive and functional particularities of spark ignition engines with gasoline direct injection: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculae, M.; Ivan, F.; Neacsu, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyze and compare the environmental performances between a gasoline direct engine and a multi-point injection engine. There are analyzed the stages of emission formation during the New European Driving Cycle. The paper points out the dynamic, economic and environmental performances of spark ignition engines equipped with a GDI systems. Reason why, we believe the widespread implementation of this technology is today an immediate need.

  3. Gravity gradiometry difference measurement as a tool for monitoring pumping and injection; forward modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, R.; Edwards, A.

    1997-01-01

    Gravity gradiometry forward models have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL) that can characterize gravity gradient changes with the development of a cone of depression or injection mound in water table aquifers. Difference measurements at long time intervals reduce delayed drainage effects and eliminate the need for determining an initial density structure. Qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the gradient signal to determine changes in groundwater distribution with injection or pumping may be possible, particularly if the time varying nature of the signal is of interest. Gravity gradiometer instruments (such as the Gravity Gradient Survey System) have progressed to the point where the complete second order gravity gradient tensor can be measured with an instrument noise level of less than 1 Eotvos (0.1 microgals/meter). Modeling indicates direct gravity measurements for the injection mound perched aquifier case could produce similar signal to noise ratios. However gravity gradients provide 5 independent measurements and due to the common mode nature of the instruments are less susceptible to other effects (tide, latitude, elevation, etc.). The gradients also provide a sharper image of the edge of the anomaly. The systematic identification and removal of specific retention, rainfall and subsidence or uplift effects may be required to make gradiometry difference imaging practical for field use

  4. Preoperative subpterygeal injection vs intraoperative mitomycin C for pterygium removal: comparison of results and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakshoor, Hamid; Razavi, Mohammad Etezad; Daneshvar, Ramin; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Ghate, Majid Farrokh; Ghooshkhanehi, Haleh

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the recurrence rates and complications between 2 therapeutic methods for primary pterygium: subconjunctival injection of mitomycin C (MMC) 1 month before bare scleral excision and conjunctival rotational flap with intraoperative MMC use. Prospective, interventional, randomized clinical trial. setting: Institutional clinical trial in a tertiary, specialty eye hospital. study population and intervention: We included 82 eyes diagnosed with primary pterygium and randomly allocated them into 2 groups. Group A consisted of 36 eyes treated with subconjunctival injection of 0.02% MMC 1 month before bare scleral excision, and group B comprised 46 eyes that underwent conjunctival rotational flap with intraoperative 0.02% MMC for 2 minutes. Follow-up periods were at least 12 months (range, 12 to 18 months). main outcome measure: Recurrence and complication rate in each arm of study. During the 1-year follow-up, 2 cases of clinical recurrence in third and sixth month of follow-up occurred in group B (recurrence rate, 4.3%). In group A, there was no clinically significant recurrence, but 2 cases of hypovascularity and whitening of sclera at the site of pterygium excision was observed. There was no other serious complication. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for recurrence rate, mean age, sex, or pterygium area. Subconjunctival injection of MMC 0.02% (0.1 ml of 0.02% solution) 1 month before bare scleral excision is a quick, easy, and safe surgical procedure and is at least as effective as conjunctival rotational flap with intraoperative MMC for 2 minutes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Results of full scale dry injection tests at MSW-incinerators using a new active absorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsvang, K.S.; Helvind, O.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been utilized to reduce the volume of waste to be disposed of. Increasing environmental concerns over the potential air pollution impacts have led to emission limits for pollutants such as HCl, SO 2 , particulate, and more recently also for mercury and dioxins. For a certain size of incinerators, dry sorbent injection is the preferred technology for air pollution control. This paper describes the development of a new active sorbent, Scansorb, which is particularly suited for use in dry injection processes. The new sorbent is a lime based product with adjustable properties. Scansorb can be produced with a specific surface area of 30 to 100 m 2 /g. Pilot plant development work has shown that a considerable reduction in the absorbent quantity can be achieved when Scansorb is used instead of commercial hydrated lime. Full scale tests performed at four different MSW incinerators have confirmed the viability of the new active absorbent. The full scale tests have demonstrated that more than 50% SO 2 removal can be achieved with Scansorb at quantities much less than with commercial hydrated lime

  6. Can repeat injection provide clinical benefit in patients with cervical disc herniation and stenosis when the first epidural injection results only in partial response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is known to be an effective treatment for neck or radicular pain due to herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and spinal stenosis (SS). Although repeat ESI has generally been indicated to provide more pain relief in partial responders after single ESI, there has been little evidence supporting the usefulness of this procedure. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether repeat ESI at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection would provide greater clinical benefit in patients with partial pain reduction than intermittent ESI performed only when pain was aggravated. One hundred eighty-four patients who underwent transforaminal ESI (TFESI) for treatment of axial neck and radicular arm pain due to HIVD or SS and could be followed up for 1 year were enrolled. We divided the patients into 2 groups. Group A (N = 108) comprised partial responders (numeric rating scale (NRS) ≥ 3 after the first injection) who underwent repeat injection at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection. Group B (N = 76) comprised partial responders who did not receive repeat injection at the prescribed interval, but received intermittent injections only for aggravation of pain. Various clinical data were assessed, including total number of injections during 1 year, NRS duration of Group A, or after first injection in Group B (time to reinjection). Groups A and B were compared in terms of total population, HIVD, and SS. In the whole population, HIVD subgroup, and SS subgroup, patients in Group A required significantly fewer injections to obtain satisfactory pain relief during the 1-year follow-up period. Group A showed a significantly longer time to reinjection and longer NRS Group B did. Repeat TFESI conducted at 2- to 3-week intervals after the first injection in partial responders contributed to greater clinical benefit compared with intermittent TFESI performed only upon pain

  7. Results of ionospheric parameters measurements during injections of exhaust streams of TSC "Progress" OMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakhinov, Vitaly; Alsatkin, Sergey; Medvedev, Andrey; Kushnarev, Dmitriy; Lebedev, Valentin; Potekhin, Alexander; Ratovsky, Konstantin; Shpynev, Boris

    Since 2006 we have carried out active space experiments using the transport spacecraft (TSC) "Progress" and the ground-base Radio-Optic Complex of ISTP SB RAS including Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar (IISR). Engine burns of TSC orbital maneuvering subsystem (OMS) were used as a source of ionospheric disturbances and changing radar signature characteristics of TSC. The flight altitudes were about 340 km. The amount of engine exhaust products was varied from 2 to 11 kg. The flow directions relative to IISR and amount of injected exhaust products were changed from flight to flight. The flows directed to IISR were almost parallel to the geomagnetic field line. For these cases the most pronounced effects were observed, the electron density depletion reached 20-40

  8. Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection for Macular Edema Resulting from Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: One-Year Results of the Phase 3 GALILEO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobelnik, Jean-François; Holz, Frank G; Roider, Johann; Ogura, Yuichiro; Simader, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Lorenz, Katrin; Honda, Miki; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Hiemeyer, Florian; Stemper, Brigitte; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept injections for treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A randomized, multicenter, double-masked phase 3 study. A total of 177 treatment-naive patients with macular edema secondary to CRVO were randomized in a 3:2 ratio. Patients received either 2-mg intravitreal aflibercept or sham injections every 4 weeks for 20 weeks. From week 24 to 48, the aflibercept group received aflibercept as needed (pro re nata [PRN]), and the sham group continued receiving sham injections. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients who gained 15 letters or more in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at week 24. This study reports week 52 results including the proportion of patients who gained 15 letters or more in BCVA and the mean change from baseline BCVA and central retinal thickness. Efficacy end points at week 52 were all exploratory. At week 52, the mean percentage of patients gaining 15 letters or more was 60.2% in the aflibercept group and 32.4% in the sham group (P = 0.0004). Aflibercept patients, compared with sham patients, had a significantly higher mean improvement in BCVA (+16.9 letters vs. +3.8 letters, respectively) and reduction in central retinal thickness (-423.5 μm vs. -219.3 μm, respectively) at week 52 (P < 0.0001 for both). Aflibercept patients received a mean of 2.5 injections (standard deviation, 1.7 injections) during PRN dosing. The most common ocular adverse events in the aflibercept group were related to the injection procedure or the underlying disease, and included macular edema (33.7%), increased intraocular pressure (17.3%), and eye pain (14.4%). Treatment with intravitreal aflibercept provided significant functional and anatomic benefits after 52 weeks as compared with sham. The improvements achieved after 6 monthly doses at week 24 largely were maintained until week 52 with as-needed dosing. Intravitreal aflibercept

  9. Reductions in HIV/STI Incidence and Sharing of Injection Equipment among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Staines, Hugo; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico during 2008–2010, when harm reduction coverage was expanding rapidly in Tijuana, but less so in Juarez. Methods FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month participated in a randomized factorial trial comparing four brief, single-session conditions combining either an interactive or didactic version of a sexual risk intervention to promote safer sex in the context of drug use, and an injection risk intervention to reduce sharing of needles/injection paraphernalia. Women underwent quarterly interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas, blinding interviewers and assessors to assignment. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation and repeated measures ordinal logistic regression examined effects on combined HIV/STI incidence and receptive needle sharing frequency. Findings Of 584 initially HIV-negative FSW-IDUs, retention was ≥90%. After 12 months, HIV/STI incidence decreased >50% in the interactive vs. didactic sex intervention (Tijuana:AdjRR:0.38,95% CI:0.16–0.89; Juarez: AdjRR:0.44,95% CI:0.19–0.99). In Juarez, women receiving interactive vs. didactic injection risk interventions decreased receptive needle-sharing by 85% vs. 71%, respectively (p = 0.04); in Tijuana, receptive needle sharing declined by 95%, but was similar in active versus didactic groups. Tijuana women reported significant increases in access to syringes and condoms, but Juarez women did not. Interpretation After 12 months in both cities, the interactive sexual risk intervention significantly reduced HIV/STI incidence. Expanding free access to sterile syringes coupled with brief, didactic education on safer injection was necessary and sufficient for achieving robust, sustained

  10. Heat performance resulting from combined effects of radiation and mixed convection in a rectangular cavity ventilated by injection or suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzaraa, K.; Bahlaoui, A.; Arroub, I.; Raji, A.; Hasnaoui, M.; Naïmi, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we investigated numerically heat transfer by mixed convection coupled to thermal radiation in a vented rectangular enclosure uniformly heated from below with a constant heat flux. The fresh fluid is admitted into the cavity by injection or suction, by means of two openings located on the lower part of both right and left vertical sides. Another opening is placed on the middle of the top wall to ensure the ventilation. Air, a radiatively transparent medium, is considered to be the cooling fluid. The inner surfaces, in contact with the fluid, are assumed to be gray, diffuse emitters and reflectors of radiation with identical emissivities. The effects of some pertinent parameters such as the Reynolds number, 300 ≤ Re ≤ 5000, and the emissivity of the walls, 0 ≤ ɛ ≤ 0.85, on flow and temperature patterns as well as on the heat transfer rate within the enclosure are presented for the two ventilation modes (injection and suction). The results indicate that the flow and thermal structures are affected by the thermal radiation for the two modes of imposed flow. However, the suction mode is found to be more favorable to the heat transfer in comparison with the injection one.

  11. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) : prognostic factors affecting short-term follow-up results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ah Young; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Yun, Eun Joo; Lee, Ki Yeol; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of various parameters used in PEIT on the short-term results of this procedure for the treatment of small HCC. Among 76 lesions in 63 patients with HCCs, 66 were diagnosed by tissue biopsy (n=30) or according to clinical features, tumor marker, and the results of angiography and other diagnostic imagings (n=36). These patients underwent PEIT between November 1993 and October 1996; the indications for PEIT were nodular lesions less than 3 cm in size, less than three in number, and unsuitable for surgical resection or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization therapy. The effect of PEIT was evaluated by two phase spiral CT one month later (64 lesions) or by serial ultrasound for 6 months. We analyzed and graded the short-term effect of PEIT on HCCs as complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR) or no change/aggravation (NC/AG). We also evaluated the correlation between the short-term results of PEIT and variable parameters such as size of the lesion, frequency of PEI per session, child classification of the patient, the ratio of amount of injected ethanol per volume of the lesion, and {alpha}-fetoprotein level before the procedure. The therapeutic effect of PEIT was CR in 45 lesions (59.2%), PR in 18 (23.7%) and NC/AG in 13 (17.1%). The size of the tumor, child-pugh class, number of injections per session and ratio of injected volume of ethanol to tumor volume were factors affecting the therapeutic result (p < 0.05). Sufficient knowledge of prognostic factors affecting the short-term results of PEIT might help improve the effects of therapy in patients its small HCCs. (author). 19 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Treatment results of combined platelet-rich plasma and fat injection in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Fathi; Farid Fereyduni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Velopharyngeal insufficiency causes hypernasal vocal quality and can also result in audible nasal air emission and difficulty in producing pressure consonants. The resulting speech is often socially unacceptable and can be difficult to understand. Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous derivative of whole blood. Today, the importance of clinical use of Platelet-rich plasma in the plastic surgery is considered. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined Platel...

  13. Arthroscopic double row cuff repair with suture-bridging and autologous conditioned plasma injection: Functional and structural results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthel, Jean-David; Pelissier, Alexandre; Massin, Philippe; Boyer, Patrick; Valenti, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    The double row cuff repair with suture bridging is commonly used for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR). Despite its biomechanical qualities, the rate of iterative tears with this technique is important. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) on functional results and on the rate of iterative tears after RCR by suture bridging. A consecutive series of 65 patients who underwent arthroscopic double-row suture bridge (Speed-Bridge, Arthrex) primary cuff repair of symptomatic full-thickness supraspinatus tear (retraction 4 were considered as iterative tears. Mean follow-up was 19 months (+/-42) in the 2 groups. The mean quantity of ACP injected was 6ml. (+/-1.5) and no specific complication of the injection was found. Mean preoperative Constant-Murley scores were 41,2 (±7,7) and 38 (±11)in group B. Mean normalized Constant-Murley score increased from 41 points (±7) pre-operatively to 70 points (±8) post-operatively in group A and from 38 points (±11) to 73 points (±11) in group B. There were no significative differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). In group A, 31 repairs were Sugaya 1-3 (94%), vs. 30 in group B (93%), and 1 was type 4 in group A (5%) vs. 2 in group B (8%). In both groups, RCR with suture bridging gave successful functional outcomes, with a low rate of iterative tear. In this preliminary study, the adjuvant effect of ACP injections could not be showed on both functional and structural results. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate potential differences.

  14. Arnol'd tongues for a resonant injection-locked frequency divider: analytical and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartuccelli, Michele; Deane, Jonathan H.B.; Gentile, Guido

    2010-01-01

    ’d tongues in the frequency–amplitude plane. In particular, we provide exact analytical formulae for the widths of the tongues, which correspond to the plateaux of the devil’s staircase picture. The results account for numerical and experimental findings presented in the literature for special driving terms...

  15. Experimental results on pellet injection and MHD from the RTP tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomens, A.A.M.; Kloe, J. de; Salzedas, F.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    The ablation of hydrogen pellets has been studied in the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project RTP with a diagnostic with high spatial and temporal resolution. It has been observed that (part of the) ablation cloud drifts away from the pellet in opposite direction. These drifts occur in semi-periodical bursts. A summary of a detailed analysis of this drift of the cloud and its implications for the fueling profile is presented. Stabilization of m/n=2/1 tearing modes preceding density limit disruptions, has been studied with modulated and continuous ECRH. The results indicate that EC heating of the islands under these conditions is very inefficient. The time dependence of the growth rate of the precursor mode is first algebraic, but becomes exponential in a later phase. (author)

  16. Characterization of unifocal liver lesions with pulse inversion harmonic imaging after Levovist injection: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotto, M.; Dalla Palma, L.; Quaia, E.; Locatelli, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate capabilities of pulse inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) in characterization of unifocal liver lesions. We evaluated with PIHI (HDI5000, ATL, Bothell, Wash.) and spiral CT 46 consecutive patients with a single liver lesion identified by fundamental US [7 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 2 cholangiocarcinomas, 7 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH), 17 hemangiomas and 13 metastases]. The PIHI was performed before and 30 s, 2 and 4 min after bolus administration of Levovist (2.5 g, 300 mg/ml). Scans were digitally stored and reviewed using a dedicated software. Hepatocellular carcinoma was hyperechoic on 30-s scan, and hypoechoic (n = 5) or isoechoic (n = 2) on 2-min scan. Cholangiocarcinoma had inhomogeneous persistent enhancement. Focal nodular hyperplasia was hyperechoic (n = 5) or isoechoic (n = 2) on 30-s scan, hyperechoic (n = 4), isoechoic (n = 2) or slightly hypoechoic (n = 1) on 2-min scan. Large hemangioma revealed peripheral enhancement on 30-s scan which extended centripetally on 2-min scan. Small hemangioma appeared isoechoic on 2-min scan in all but two cases in which they were hypoechoic on 2-min scans and hyperechoic on 4-min scan. Metastasis was hypoechoic on all scans, 70 % with rim enhancement. Similar changes in enhancement pattern have been observed at spiral CT. The 30-s and the 2-min scans revealed a conclusive importance in characterization of HCC, cholangiocarcinoma, and large hemangioma. The 2-min scan often furnished enough information for characterization of small hemangioma and metastasis. The 4-min scan allowed characterization of two hemangiomas which appeared hypoechoic on 2-min scans. In the other cases it did not provide further information. Diagnosis of FNH is usually reached with Colour Doppler US; PIHI should be used when colour Doppler is biased by artefacts or when colour Doppler findings are not characteristic. Our results seem to show that PIHI could be a valuable alternative diagnostic

  17. Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylott, Benjamin; Baker, John G; Camp, Jordan; Centrella, Joan; Boggs, William D; Buonanno, Alessandra; Boyle, Michael; Buchman, Luisa T; Chu, Tony; Brady, Patrick R; Brown, Duncan A; Bruegmann, Bernd; Cadonati, Laura; Campanelli, Manuela; Faber, Joshua; Chatterji, Shourov; Christensen, Nelson; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Nils; Etienne, Zachariah B

    2009-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA analysis which focused on gravitational waveforms from binary black hole coalescence. Ten numerical relativity groups contributed numerical data which were used to generate a set of gravitational-wave signals. These signals were injected into a simulated data set, designed to mimic the response of the initial LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Nine groups analysed this data using search and parameter-estimation pipelines. Matched filter algorithms, un-modelled-burst searches and Bayesian parameter estimation and model-selection algorithms were applied to the data. We report the efficiency of these search methods in detecting the numerical waveforms and measuring their parameters. We describe preliminary comparisons between the different search methods and suggest improvements for future NINJA analyses.

  18. Kinetic rate of iron release during artificial CO{sub 2} injection in a shallow aquifer: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rillard, J. [Earth Sciences Department UMR CNRS 5276 University of Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); INERIS French National Institut of Environmental and Industrial Risk Survey, Underground Risk Division,, Verneuil en Hallate (France); Gombert, P.; Toulhoat, P. [INERIS French National Institut of Environmental and Industrial Risk Survey, Underground Risk Division,, Verneuil en Hallate (France); Zuddas, P. [Earth Sciences Department UMR CNRS 5276 University of Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); University Pierre and Marie Curie Paris-Sorbonne, ISTEP, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    We performed an injection of CO{sub 2}-saturated water in a shallow aquifer following a 'push-pull' test protocol. A specific protocol was designed to measure in situ fluid pH and redox potential with careful sampling. We found increases of dissolved calcium, magnesium, alkalinity, iron and manganese, and other trace elements. Concentrations of Fe resulting from reactivity were estimated using measured concentrations of Fe corrected by a calculated fluid dynamics coefficient. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations suggested that ferri-hydrite Fe(OH){sub 3} dissolution is the main source of iron release. The kinetic rate of Fe(OH){sub 3} dissolution estimated by a surface protonation model indicates that the reaction order is two. Since laboratory experimental results show a reaction order of zero, we propose that the mechanism of ferri-hydrite dissolution proceeds by a more complex mechanism under natural conditions. (authors)

  19. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  20. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT

  1. Long-term Results of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Injections in Wet AMD: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerding, H

    2016-04-01

    Although intravitreal anti-VEGF medications are widely used in age-related macular degeneration, no systematic data analysis is available on the long-term prognosis of this relatively new therapeutic approach. A meta-analysis was performed on available Medline literature. 13 relevant clinical studies (14 case series) could be identified, covering 10 247 treated eyes. The majority of available reports originate from single centre retrospective real-life environments. The mean improvement in average visual gain was 0.9 ± 0.5 (mean ± 1 standard deviation, median; 0.8 lines) at year 1, 1.2 ± 1.1 (median: 1.1) letters at year 2, 0.7 ± 1.0 (median: 0.7) letters at year 3, and 0.2 ± 0.8 (median: 0.5), 0.4 ± 0.4 (median: 0.5) at years 4 and 5. The drop-out rates in these studies was relatively high. At the end of year 3, the average percentage of observed eyes was 44.3 ± 18.4 % (mean ± 1 standard deviation), at the end of year 4 23.5 ± 23.9 % and after years 6 and 7 below 10 % (8.2 and 7.9 %). The mean treatment frequency of injections in all available studies was highest in year 1 (6.4 ± 1.2, 6.1 - mean ± SD; median), followed by relatively consistent mean values of 4.1 and 5.1 (year (Y)2: 4.4, Y3: 4.3, Y4: 4.7, Y5: 4.1, Y6: 5.1, Y7: 4.7) injections per year. The results of this meta-analysis clearly indicate that intravitreal anti-VEGF injection therapy is capable of maintaining visual acuity on a long-term basis of at least 4-5 years. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury’s Cranfield, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Meckel, Timothy A.; Trevino, Ramon H.; Lu, Jiemin; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Choi, Jong-Won; Freeman, David; Cook, Paul; Daley, Thomas M.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Freifeild, Barry M.; Doughty, Christine; Carrigan, Charles R.; La Brecque, Doug; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Yang, Changbing; Romanak, Katherine D.; Zhang, Tongwei; Holt, Robert M.; Lindler, Jeffery S.; Butsch, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood. Injection was started in July 2008 and has now achieved injection rates greater than 1.2 million tons/year though 23 wells, with cumulative mass injected as of August, 2010 of 2.2 million metric tons. Injection is into coarse grained fluvial deposits of the Cretaceous lower Tuscaloosa Formation in a gentle anticline at depths of 3300 m. A team of researchers from 10 institutions has collected data from five study areas, each with a different goal and different spatial and temporal scale.

  3. A fatal case of systemic fat embolism resulting from gluteal injections of vitamin e for cosmetic enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Morales, R C; Camberos-Nava, E V; Luna-Rosas, A; Garcés-Ramírez, L; De la Cruz, F; García-Dolores, F

    2016-02-01

    Recently in Mexico the number of cosmetic surgeries has increased. These procedures are often carried out by unqualified people using obsolete and contraindicated products such as injectable oil, which cause uncorrectable disfigurement or more serious complications, even death, after reaching the systemic circulation. We report the case of a fat embolism syndrome (FES) caused by injections of vitamin E (tocopherol) in order to increase the volume of the buttocks. This case of a FES caused by injections of vitamin E was confirmed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Injected Hyaluronidase Reduces the Volume of Exogenous Hyaluronate Fillers in Mice and Results in Clinical Improvement in a Patient with Pretibial Myxedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Menzinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyaluronidases are essential for the breakdown of hyaluronate (HA in tissues and may be used to prevent the adverse effects of HA fillers. Objectives: We explored the effect of hyaluronidase on exogenous and endogenous HA in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: HA fillers were incubated with different concentrations of hyaluronidase and visualized by electrophoresis. HA fillers were injected in the skin of hairless mice, and 4 h later hyaluronidase was injected in the papules of exogenous HA. Hyaluronidase was injected in the nodule of pretibial myxedema of a male patient with Graves' disease. Skin sections of mice and of the patient were performed, and a skin ultrasound system was used to monitor the evolution of skin lesions. Results: Hyaluronidase showed a degrading effect on HA with increasing concentrations. Hyaluronidase injection significantly decreased the content of exogenous HA within 3 days. Intralesional injection of hyaluronidase resulted in dissolution of the nodule of pretibial myxedema with no recurrence during 3 months. Conclusion. These results show that the injection of hyaluronidase is capable of degrading exogenous HA in mouse skin and endogenous HA in human skin in vivo and may be a therapeutic option for skin diseases characterized by abnormal accumulation of HA.

  5. Long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: a European experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lencioni, R.; Pinto, F.; Armillotta, N.; Bassi, A.M.; Moretti, M.; Di Giulio, M.; Marchi, S.; Uliana, M.; Della Capanna, S.; Lencioni, M.; Bartolozzi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of our work was to evaluate the long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 184 cirrhotic patients with HCC underwent PEI as the only anticancer treatment over an 8-year period. Patients were followed after therapy by means of clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and US and CT studies performed at regular time intervals. Survival rates were determined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The overall survival was 67% at 3 years, 41% at 5 years, and 19% at 7 years. The 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates of patients with single HCC≤3 cm (78, 54, and 28%, respectively) were significantly higher (p<0.01) than those of patients with single HCC of 3.1-5 cm (61, 32, and 16, respectively) or multiple HCCs (51, 21, and 0%, respectively). Survival of Child-Pugh A patients (79% at 3 years, 53% at 5 years, and 32% at 7 years) was significantly longer (p<0.01) than that of Child-Pugh B patients (50% at 3 years, 28% at 5 years, and 8% at 7 years). A selected group of 70 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and single HCC≤3 cm had a 7-year survival of 42%. Long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with HCC treated with PEI is comparable to that reported in published series of matched patients submitted to surgical resection. (orig.)

  6. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Radiology Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  7. Successful continuous injection of coal into gasification and PFBC system operating pressures exceeding 500 psi - DOE funded program results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, T.; Aldred, D.; Rutkowski, M. [Stamet Inc., North Holywood, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The current US energy program is focussed towards commercialisation of coal-based power and IGCC technologies that offer significant improvements in efficiency and reductions in emissions. For gasification and pressurised fluidized bed combustors to be widely accepted, certain operational components need to be significantly improved. One of the most pressing is provision of reliable, controlled and cost-effective solid fuel feeding into the pressure environment. The US Department of Energy has funded research to develop the unique Stamet 'Posimetric{reg_sign} Solids Pump' to be capable of feeding coal into current gasification and PFBC operating pressures. The research objective is a mechanical rotary device able to continuously feed and meter coal into pressured environments of at least 34 bar (500 psi). The research program comprised an initial design and testing phase to feed coal into 20 bar (300 psi) and a second phase for feeding into 34 bar (500 psi). The first phase target was achieved in December 2003. Following modification and optimization, in January 2005, the Stamet Pump achieved a world-record pressure level for continuous injection of coal of 38 bar (560 psi). Research is now targeting 69 bar (1000 psi). The paper reviews the successful pump design, optimisations and results of the testing. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Results on powder injection molding of Ni[sub 3]Al and application to other intermetallic compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Net forming processes are under development to allow affordable production of intermetallic components. Powder injection molding (PIM) mav be employed for the production of complex-shaped intermetallic geometries. Proper choice of powder parameters and processing conditions can lead to the formation of fullv dense structures through pressure-less sintering. In this study, Ni[sub 3]Al with 0.04 wt.-% boron has been successfully injection molded and sintered to full density. A yield strength of 340 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 591 MPa, and 8% elongation were attained for injection molded and sintered tensile bars. Powder characteristics and sintering behavior are given for the nickel aluminide employed in this study to highlight the powder attributes needed for injection molding. Molding parameters, debinding and sintering schedules, along, with mechanical properties are presented to indicate the viability of PIM for intermetallics. This approach based on the understanding of key powder characteristics and use of the reactive synthesis powder process mav be extended to the successful injection molding of other intermetallic systems.

  9. Results on powder injection molding of Ni{sub 3}Al and application to other intermetallic compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.M.

    1992-12-31

    Net forming processes are under development to allow affordable production of intermetallic components. Powder injection molding (PIM) mav be employed for the production of complex-shaped intermetallic geometries. Proper choice of powder parameters and processing conditions can lead to the formation of fullv dense structures through pressure-less sintering. In this study, Ni{sub 3}Al with 0.04 wt.-% boron has been successfully injection molded and sintered to full density. A yield strength of 340 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 591 MPa, and 8% elongation were attained for injection molded and sintered tensile bars. Powder characteristics and sintering behavior are given for the nickel aluminide employed in this study to highlight the powder attributes needed for injection molding. Molding parameters, debinding and sintering schedules, along, with mechanical properties are presented to indicate the viability of PIM for intermetallics. This approach based on the understanding of key powder characteristics and use of the reactive synthesis powder process mav be extended to the successful injection molding of other intermetallic systems.

  10. Usability of devices for self-injection: results of a formative study on a new disposable pen injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jakob Lange,1 Philipp Richard,1 Nick Bradley21Ypsomed AG, Burgdorf, Switzerland; 2Bergo, Glasgow, United KingdomAbstract: This article presents a late-stage formative usability study of a pen-injector platform device. Such devices are used for the subcutaneous delivery of biopharmaceuticals, primarily for self-administration by the patient. The study was conducted with a broad user population, defined to represent user characteristics across a range of indications. The goals of the study were to confirm that the pen could be used without recurring patterns of use errors leading to hazardous situations, to evaluate the comprehension of the instructions for use (IFU, and to determine if training is necessary. In the study, a total of 36 participants in six groups (health care providers, caregivers, adolescents, diabetics with retinopathy, diabetics with neuropathy, and patients with arthritis each read the IFU, prepared the device, and performed two simulated injections into an injection pad. Any use errors, near misses, or deviations from the IFU procedure were recorded. The overall success rate (injection completed by the participant without need for assistance was 94% for the first and 100% for the second injection. Ninety-two percent of the participants reported that they felt confident using the device, 100% found the IFU helpful, and 75% found the device positively comfortable to use. Overall, a total average of 3.35 deviations and errors per user and injection were recorded (there were no near misses. Subtracting the errors without any potential for negative consequences for the injection or the user (trivial deviations, as well as those related to attaching and removing the pen needle (independent of the design of the pen itself, led to an average of 1.31 potentially relevant deviations per user and injection. It was concluded that the pen injector together with the IFU could be safely and efficiently used by all user groups without any

  11. Prevalence and correlates of recent injecting drug use among gay and bisexual men in Australia: Results from the FLUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, H; Zablotska-Manos, I; Hammoud, M; Jin, F; Lea, T; Bourne, A; Iversen, J; Bath, N; Grierson, J; Degenhardt, L; Prestage, G; Maher, L

    2018-05-01

    While illicit drug use is prevalent among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia, little is known about the factors associated with injecting drug use among GBM. The Following Lives Undergoing Change (FLUX) study is a national, online prospective observational cohort investigating drug use among Australian GBM. Eligible participants were men living in Australia who were aged 16.5 years or older, identified as gay or bisexual or had sex with at least one man in the last year. We examined baseline data for associations between socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics and recent (last six months) injecting using log-binomial regression. Of 1995 eligible respondents, 206 (10.3%) reported ever injecting drugs and 93 (4.7%) had injected recently, most commonly crystal (91.4%) and speed (9.7%). Among recent injectors, only 16 (17.2%) reported injecting at least weekly; eight (8.6%) reported recent receptive syringe sharing. Self-reported HIV and HCV prevalence was higher among recent injectors than among other participants (HIV: 46.2% vs 5.0%, p drug classes (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 1.31, 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.21-1.41), longer time since initiating party drug use (APR = 1.02, 95%CI 1.01-1.04), greater numbers of sex partners (2-10 sex partners: APR = 3.44, 95%CI 1.45-8.20; >10 sex partners: APR = 3.21, 95%CI 1.30-7.92), group sex (APR = 1.42, 95%CI 1.05-1.91) and condomless anal intercourse with casual partners (APR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.34-2.43) in the last six months. Observed associations between injecting and sexual risk reflect a strong relationship between these practices among GBM. The intersectionality between injecting drug use and sex partying indicates a need to integrate harm reduction interventions for GBM who inject drugs into sexual health services and targeted sexual health interventions into Needle and Syringe Programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thoracic empyema and pectoral abscess resulting from attempting suicide by injection of benzene in the pleural cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjaak Pouwels

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene may cause injury to several organ systems. It occurs accidentally or intentionally by ingestion, inhalation, cutaneous exposure and either subcutaneous injection or intravenous injection. We report a patient who injected benzene into the left hemithorax and secondly attempted to commit suicide with paracetamol. Case presentation: A 52-year old man was admitted in the hospital because of an attempted suicide with an injection of benzene in the left hemithorax and ingestion of 50 tablets of 500 mg paracetamol. He developed a hydro-tensionpneumothorax due to inflammatory pleural effusion as a reaction to intrathoracic benzene. Therefore a chest-tube was inserted. A few days later he developed an empyema in the left lung and secondly a pectoral abscess, which required surgical debridement. After surgery, recovered fully and after 23 days of hospitalisation he was discharged to a psychiatric care facility. Conclusion: Hydrocarbon poisoning is either accidentally or intentionally and leads to thoracic pathology in rare cases. The most affected organ system is the respiratory system, and the cytotoxic effects of hydrocarbons can manifest as respiratory failure, pneumonitis and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Keywords: Benzene intoxication, Thoracic empyema, Hydrocarbon poisoning

  13. Are joint and soft tissue injections painful? Results of a national French cross-sectional study of procedural pain in rheumatological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poncet Coralie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint, spinal and soft tissue injections are commonly performed by rheumatologists in their daily practice. Contrary to other procedures, e.g. performed in pediatric care, little is known about the frequency, the intensity and the management of procedural pain observed in osteo-articular injections in daily practice. Methods This observational, prospective, national study was carried out among a French national representative database of primary rheumatologists to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of pain caused by intra-and peri-articular injections, synovial fluid aspirations, soft tissue injections, and spinal injections. For each physician, data were collected over 1 month, for up to 40 consecutive patients (>18-years-old for whom a synovial fluid aspiration, an intra or peri-articular injection or a spinal injection were carried out during consultations. Statistical analysis was carried out in order to compare patients who had suffered from pain whilst undergoing the procedure to those who had not. Explanatory analyses were conducted by stepwise logistic regression with the characteristics of the patients to explain the existence of pain. Results Data were analysed for 8446 patients (64% female, mean age 62 ± 14 years recruited by 240 physicians. The predominant sites injected were the knee (45.5% and spine (19.1%. Over 80% of patients experienced procedural pain which was most common in the small joints (42% and spine (32% Pain was severe in 5.3% of patients, moderate in 26.6%, mild in 49.8%, and absent in 18.3%. Pain was significantly more intense in patients with severe pain linked to their underlying pathology and for procedures performed in small joints. Preventative or post-procedure analgesia was rarely given, only to 5.7% and 36.3% of patients, respectively. Preventative analgesia was more frequently prescribed in patients with more severe procedural pain. Conclusion Most patients undergoing intra-or peri

  14. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  15. Comparative results of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy and computerized tomography after contrast injection in cerebral pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laporte, A.; Mazeaux, J.M.; Henry, P.; Renou, A.M.; Constant, P.; Caille, J.M.; Ducassou, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fifty-six patients presenting acute cerebral ischemia were investigated by means of 160 CT and 90 RN scans. CT was positive before contrast injection in 90% of cases. A total of 120 CTs were done before and after contrast injection. Only 31% of the ischemic areas were enhanced. Out of 90 RN scans, 50 showed localized uptake. The peak of scintigraphic detection was found on the 15th day of evolution, while enhancement at CT was more frequent between the 15th and 21st days. For the hematomas (13 cases) detection by RN scan depends on the size of the lesion. Among the 47 patients presenting cerebral tumor, the RN uptake depends above all on the intensity of the BBB lesion. RN uptake and CT enhancement both show the same blood-brain barrier disturbance. (orig.) [de

  16. A Site Characterization Protocol for Evaluating the Potential for Triggered or Induced Seismicity Resulting from Wastewater Injection and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Zoback, M. D.; Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Beroza, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory and governmental agencies, individual companies and industry groups and others have recently proposed, or are developing, guidelines aimed at reducing the risk associated with earthquakes triggered by waste water injection or hydraulic fracturing. While there are a number of elements common to the guidelines proposed, not surprisingly, there are also some significant differences among them and, in a number of cases, important considerations that are not addressed. The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive protocol for site characterization based on a rigorous scientific understanding of the responsible processes. Topics addressed will include the geologic setting (emphasizing faults that might be affected), historical seismicity, hydraulic characterization of injection and adjacent intervals, geomechanical characterization to identify potentially active faults, plans for seismic monitoring and reporting, plans for monitoring and reporting injection (pressure, volumes, and rates), other factors contributing to risk (potentially affected population centers, structures, and facilities), and implementing a modified Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The guidelines will be risk based and adaptable, rather than prescriptive, for a proposed activity and region of interest. They will be goal oriented and will rely, to the degree possible, on established best practice procedures, referring to existing procedures and recommendations. By developing a risk-based site characterization protocol, we hope to contribute to the development of rational and effective measures for reducing the risk posed by activities that potentially trigger earthquakes.

  17. Preliminary systems-interaction results from the Digraph Matrix Analysis of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant safety-injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Champney, J.M.; Alesso, H.P.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides preliminary results generated by a Digraph Matrix Analysis (DMA) for a Systems Interaction analysis performed on the Safety Injection System of the Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. An overview of DMA is provided along with a brief description of the computer codes used in DMA

  18. Absorbed dose estimation of gonads resulting from fault work of staff during injection of radiopharmaceuticals to the patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleki, M.; Karimian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and generally delivered to the patient via intravenous injection. 201 Tl and 99m Tc are the two most used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. The maximum activity injected to the patient in nuclear medicine for 201 Tl and 99m Tc is 5 and 20-25 mCi respectively. In this research by using Monte Carlo method and MCNPX code the absorbed dose to Gonads due to drop of radiopharmaceutical on foot thigh during injection to the patient has been calculated. The activity of 201 Tl and 99m Tc has been considered 1 and 5mCi respectively. The amount of absorbed dose in gonads for 99m Tc for male and female during 8 hours of work has been measured 0.37 and 0.055 μSv respectively. Also the amount of absorbed dose for 201 Tl during working hours at first day, second day and third day after work fault for male has been measured 0.387, 0.308 and 0.246 μSv and for female 0.06, 0.048 and 0.038 μSv respectively. The total dose in these three working days for male and female has been 0.941 and 0.146 μSv respectively. Since absorbed dose of gonads was far enough from the limits of ICRP, so it can be concluded that if a fault work occurs and even staff does not be aware there is no need to treat him. (authors)

  19. Groundwater Chemistry Changes as a Result of CO2 Injection at the ZERT Field Site in Bozeman, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Spycher, N.; Zheng, L.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Beers, S; Gullickson, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.; Ambats, G.

    2009-11-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels produces CO{sub 2}, a common greenhouse gas linked to global climate change. Separation of CO{sub 2}from emissions produced by large industrial point sources like power plants, cement kilns and refineries, and injection deep nderground into geologic formations is one method of preventing CO{sub 2} releases into the atmosphere. This process is referred to as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS is one of several solutions being considered to mitigate global climate change. Other solutions nclude increased energy efficiency, renewables, nuclear power, advanced coal, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  20. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  1. Experiments on the behaviour of thermite melt injected into sodium: Final report on the THINA test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, F.; Kaiser, A.; Peppler, W.

    1994-01-01

    During hypothetical accidents of fast breeder reactors the core melts and part of the core material inventory is ejected into the upper coolant plenum. As a consequence, a fuel to coolant thermal interaction occurs between the melt and the sodium. A series of simulating experiments was carried out in KfK/IRS to improve the knowledge about the phenomenology of molten fuel/coolant interactions and to support theoretical work on the safety of fast breeder reactors. In the tests, a thermite melt of up to 3270 K is injected from below into a sodium pool the temperature of which is between 770 and 820 K. The masses of the melt and the sodium are about five and 150 kg, respectively. Thermal interactions have been observed to occur as a sequence of small local pressure events mainly during the melt injection. Large-scale vapour explosions have not been observed. Generally, the conversion ratios of thermal to mechanical energy have been low. (author)

  2. CT-guided injection of botulinic toxin for percutaneous therapy of piriformis muscle syndrome with preliminary MRI results about denervative process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanucci, E.; Masala, S.; Sodani, G.; Varrucciu, V.; Romagnoli, A.; Squillaci, E.; Simonetti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is a cause of sciatica, leg or buttock pain and disability. The pain is usually increased by muscular contraction, palpation or prolonged sitting. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the feasibility of CT-guided percutaneous botulinic toxin (BTX) injection for the purpose of PMS treatment. Thirty patients suffering from PMS, suspected with clinical and electrophysiological criteria, after imaging examinations excluding other causes of sciatic pain, resulted positive at the lidocaine test and were treated by intramuscular injection of BTX type A under CT guidance. The follow-up (12 months) was performed with clinical examination in all cases and with MR 3 months after the procedure in 9 patients to evaluate the denervative process entity of the treated muscle. In 26 cases relief of symptoms was obtained after 5-7 days. In 4 patients an insufficient relief of pain justified a second percutaneous treatment which was clinically successful. No complications or side effects were recorded after BTX injection. The MR examination showed a signal intensity change of the treated muscle in 7 patients due to the denervative process of PM, whereas in the remaining 2 cases only an atrophy of the treated muscle was detected. Larger series are necessary to confirm these MRI preliminary results. The CT-guided BTX injection in the PMS is an emergent and feasible technique that obtains an excellent local therapeutic effect without risk of imprecise inoculation. (orig.)

  3. Factors affecting results of fluoroscopy-guided facet joint injection: Probable differences in the outcome of treatment between pure facet joint hypertrophy and concomitant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Albayrak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Purpose: Facet joints are considered a common source of chronic low-back pain. To determine whether pathogens related to the facet joint arthritis have any effect on treatment failure. Materials and Methods: Facet joint injection was applied to 94 patients treated at our hospital between 2011 and 2012 (mean age 59.5 years; 80 women and 14 men. For the purpose of analysis, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients who only had facet hypertrophy were placed in group A (47 patients, 41 women and 6 men, mean age 55.3 years and patients who had any additional major pathology to facet hypertrophy were placed in group B (47 patients, 39 women and 8 men, mean age 58.9 years. Injections were applied around the facet joint under surgical conditions utilizing fluoroscopy device guidance. A mixture of methylprednisolone and lidocaine was used as the injection ingredient. Results: In terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and visual analog scale (VAS scores, no significant difference was found between preinjection and immediate postinjection values in both groups, and the scores of group A patients were significantly lower (P < 0.005 compared with that of group B patients at the end of the third, sixth, and twelfth month. Conclusion: For low-back pain caused by facet hypertrophy, steroid injection around the facet joint is an effective treatment, but if there is an existing major pathology, it is not as effective.

  4. Porcine Zygote Injection with Cas9/sgRNA Results in DMD-Modified Pig with Muscle Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hao Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dystrophinopathy, including Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD and Becker muscle dystrophy (BMD is an incurable X-linked hereditary muscle dystrophy caused by a mutation in the DMD gene in coding dystrophin. Advances in further understanding DMD/BMD for therapy are expected. Studies on mdx mice and dogs with muscle dystrophy provide limited insight into DMD disease mechanisms and therapeutic testing because of the different pathological manifestations. Miniature pigs share similar physiology and anatomy with humans and are thus an excellent animal model of human disease. Here, we successfully achieved precise DMD targeting in Chinese Diannan miniature pigs by co-injecting zygotes with Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA targeting DMD. Two piglets were obtained after embryo transfer, one of piglets was identified as DMD-modified individual via traditional cloning, sequencing and T7EN1 cleavage assay. An examination of targeting rates in the DMD-modified piglet revealed that sgRNA:Cas9-mediated on-target mosaic mutations were 70% and 60% of dystrophin alleles in skeletal and smooth muscle, respectively. Meanwhile, no detectable off-target mutations were found, highlighting the high specificity of genetic modification using CRISPR/Cas9. The DMD-modified piglet exhibited degenerative and disordered phenotypes in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and declining thickness of smooth muscle in the stomach and intestine. In conclusion, we successfully generated myopathy animal model by modifying the DMD via CRISPR/Cas9 system in a miniature pig.

  5. Two-year follow-up results of fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or discogenic neck pain: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. To assess the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of axial or discogenic pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Cervical discogenic pain without disc herniation is a common cause of suffering and disability in the adult population. Once conservative management has failed and facet joint pain has been excluded, cervical epidural injections may be considered as a management tool. Despite a paucity of evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the most commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic axial or disc-related neck pain. One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain as determined by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of the 2 treatment groups. Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL), whereas Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL or 6 mg of nonparticulate betamethasone. The primary outcome measure was ≥ 50% improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included numeric rating scale (NRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Significant pain relief and functional improvement (≥ 50%) was present at the end of 2 years in 73% of patients receiving local anesthetic only and 70% receiving local anesthetic with steroids. In the successful group of patients, however, defined as consistent relief with 2 initial injections of at least 3 weeks, significant improvement was illustrated in 78% in the local anesthetic group and 75% in the local anesthetic with steroid group at the end of 2 years. The results reported at the one-year follow-up were sustained at the 2-year follow-up. Cervical interlaminar epidural

  6. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  7. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  9. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  10. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  11. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  13. Predictive Factors of Patients' and Their Partners' Sexual Function Improvement After Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection for Peyronie's Disease: Results From a Multi-Center Single-Arm Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocci, Andrea; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Salonia, Andrea; Cito, Gianmartin; Regis, Federica; Polloni, Gaia; Giubilei, Gianluca; Cacciamani, Giovanni; Capece, Marco; Falcone, Marco; Greco, Isabella; Timpano, Massimiliano; Minervini, Andrea; Gacci, Mauro; Cai, Tommaso; Garaffa, Giulio; Giammusso, Bruno; Arcaniolo, Davide; Mirone, Vincenzo; Mondaini, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    FSFI score. Furthermore, median change of PC was significantly associated with median change of FSFI (r = 0.25; 95% CI 0.02-0.11; P = .004). Global satisfaction after treatment was 89.6% (121/135). This modified CCH treatment protocol could improve both patients' and partner's sexual function. This was an open-label, single-arm clinical study, without placebo. where only heterosexual couples in stable relationships were included. Furthermore, no real assessment of female sexual distress was carried out and long-term sexual function in both patients and female partners were not taken into account. The modified treatment schedule with CCH injections for stable PD has a positive impact on both patients' and partners' sexual function in heterosexual couples with a stable sexual relationship. Cocci A, Russo GI, Salonia A, et al. Predictive Factors of Patients' and Their Partners' Sexual Function Improvement After Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection for Peyronie's Disease: Results From a Multi-Center Single-Arm Study. J Sex Med 2018;15:716-721. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients with schizophrenia receiving olanzapine long-acting injection: results from a large observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Kristin J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Landry, John L; Chhabra-Khanna, Rashna; Falk, Deborah M; Seetharama Rao, Balasubramanya; Jones, Meghan E

    2017-07-01

    Postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported uncommonly during treatment with olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI), a sustained-release formulation of olanzapine. The primary aim of the study was to estimate the incidence per injection and per patient of PDSS events in adult patients with schizophrenia who were receiving olanzapine LAI in real-world clinical practice. Secondary aims were to further characterise the clinical presentation of PDSS events, to identify potential risk factors associated with PDSS events and to characterise hospitalisations at baseline and post-baseline. A prospective observational study of adult patients with schizophrenia receiving olanzapine LAI from 24 countries. Data were collected on patient characteristics, olanzapine LAI treatment and any adverse events (AEs). All AEs were reviewed and adjudicated for PDSS using predetermined criteria. There were 46 confirmed PDSS events (0.044% of the 103 505 injections) in 45 patients (1.17% of the 3858 patients). Based on 45 confirmed events with time-to-onset information, 91.1% ( n =41) occurred within 1 h of injection. Time-to-recovery from the event was within 72 h for 95.6% of patients (range 6 h to 11 days). Risk factors for PDSS (per-injection) included high dose (odds ratio (OR) high/low =3.95; P =0.006) and male gender (OR female/male =0.42; P =0.017). Results of this study confirm previously reported PDSS rates, time to onset and recovery, and the severity of PDSS events, and suggest that higher doses and male gender are potential risk factors associated with PDSS. All authors are full-time employees and hold stock/stock options in Eli Lilly, which funded this study. This post-authorisation safety study (PASS) was proposed by Eli Lilly when submitting the original marketing authorisation application for olanzapine LAI in 2007. The protocol and final study report for this European Union regulatory commitment are publicly accessible via the European Network of

  15. Dietary intake of Deepwater Horizon oil-injected live food fish by double-crested cormorants resulted in oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, Karen L; Perez, Cristina R; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Dean, Karen M; Cacela, Dave; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Cunningham, Fred; Bursian, Steven J; Link, Jane E; Shriner, Susan; Horak, Katherine; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history and exposing fish, birds, and marine mammals throughout the Gulf of Mexico to its toxicity. Fish eating waterbirds such as the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) were exposed to the oil both by direct contact with the oil and orally through preening and the ingestion of contaminated fish. This study investigated the effects of orally ingestedMC252 oil-contaminated live fish food by double-crested cormorants on oxidative stress. Total, reduced, and oxidized glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were assessed in the liver tissues of control and treated cormorants. The results suggest that ingestion of the oil-contaminated fish resulted in significant increase in oxidative stress in the liver tissues of these birds. The oil-induced increase in oxidative stress could have detrimental impacts on the bird's life-history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    , and PO4 solutions show greater Sr and Sr-90 incorporation during initial precipitation and less initial mobilization with solutions with low Ca2+ concentration. While all solutions showed nearly the same Sr uptake into apatite (14 to 17% by 2 weeks, 21% to 30% by 5 weeks), the incorporation efficiency (i.e., mM Sr incorporated per mM PO4 injected) was higher for solutions containing citrate. The Sr incorporation rate into apatite during initial precipitation (by 1 month) averaged 4.64 ± 1.9 x 10-4 h-1 (half-life 1500 ± 430 h, 8.85 x 10-7 mg Sr/day/mg apatite). The injection solution used in field injections #3 to #18 (10 mM PO4, 1 mM Ca, 2.5 mM citrate), which is deficient in Ca (a total of 16.7 mM needed to form apatite with 10 mM of PO4), resulted in the initial Sr and Ca peak (24 h) at 4.7x groundwater. By 30 days, the aqueous Sr concentration was 0.28x groundwater and Ca 0.43x groundwater, as both Sr and Ca are used to form initial apatite precipitates. Reactive transport simulation of the complex ion exchange, biodegradation, and precipitation processes showed that the initial Sr groundwater increase mobilized only 1.5% of the Sr mass in sediments. Citrate biodegradation, a necessary step in Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions forming apatite, had an average half-life of 50 h (at aquifer sediment/water ratio and temperature), and decreased an order of magnitude with sediment depth as the microbial biomass decreased five orders of magnitude. The rate of citrate biodegradation was relatively invariant with biomass and water saturation (50% to 100%, for vadose zone infiltration) possibly due to significant microbial injection using river water and subsurface microbial mobilization.

  17. Results of the flowmeter-injection test in the Long Valley Exploratory Well (Phase II), Long Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Bayboro Harbor and the Port of St. Petersburg, Florida, form a manmade basin adjacent to Tampa Bay that may supply turbid water to the bay and subsequently affect light penetration in water in the bay. To address concerns about the nature and extent of this potential problem, resuspension of bottom sediments, sedimentation, and tributary storm discharge in the basin were studied. Study results indicated that tidal currents, wind waves, and seiche motions do not resuspend bottom sediments. The maneuvering of a cruise ship in the port resuspended bottom sediments, but these sediments settled within 2 hours. Tidal currents and wave action were not large enough o prevent the resuspended sediments from settling in the basin. Analysis of bathymetric surveys of the port made in 1981, 1986, 1987, and 1989 indicates that the cruise ship has deepened the port along its route and that the displaced sediment has been deposited elsewhere within the port. The storm discharge from two tributaries and the effect of tributary storm runoff on the water quality of the harbor were studied during a storm on November 9, 1989. Booker Creek, which drains an urban watershed, was stratified with a thin layer of turbid freshwater flowing into the harbor over a layer of less turbid saltwater. Salt Creek, which primarily drains Lake Maggiore, was only partially stratified and was less turbid. The turbid water from the creeks increased the turbidity only slightly in the harbor, probably because of mixing with less turbid water and particle settling. Thus, the basin provides mixing and settling, which diminish and eliminate the potentially adverse effect on Tampa Bay from tributary storm runoff and large vessel traffic in the basin.

  18. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  19. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  20. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  1. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  2. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  3. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  4. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  5. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  6. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  7. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  8. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  10. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  11. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  12. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  13. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  14. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  15. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  16. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  17. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  19. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  20. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  1. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  3. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  5. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  6. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  7. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  8. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  9. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  10. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  11. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  12. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  13. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  14. Reduction of unwanted submental fat with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an adipocytolytic injectable treatment: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzany, B; Griffiths, T; Walker, P; Lippert, S; McDiarmid, J; Havlickova, B

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is aesthetically unappealing, but methods of reduction are either invasive or lack evidence for their use. An injectable approach with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is under investigation. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the reduction of unwanted SMF. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, 363 patients with moderate/severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 (1 or 2 mg cm−2) or placebo injections into their SMF at up to four treatment sessions ∽28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders [patients with ≥ 1-point improvement in SMF on the 5-point Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS)] and patients satisfied with their face and chin appearance on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). Secondary endpoints included skin laxity, calliper measurements and patient-reported outcomes. Adverse events were monitored. Results Significantly more ATX-101 recipients met the primary endpoint criteria vs. placebo: on the clinician scale, 59·2% and 65·3% of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg cm−2, respectively, were treatment responders vs. 23·0% for placebo (CR-SMFRS;P < 0·001); on the patient scale, 53·3% and 66·1%, respectively, vs. 28·7%, were satisfied with their face/chin appearance (SSRS;P < 0·001). Calliper measurements showed a significant reduction in SMF (P < 0·001), skin laxity was not worsened and patients reported improvements in the severity and psychological impact of SMF with ATX-101 vs. placebo. Most adverse events were transient and associated with the treatment area. Conclusions ATX-101 was effective and well tolerated for nonsurgical SMF reduction. What's already known about this topic? Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is considered aesthetically unappealing. Liposuction and face-lift are effective treatments for SMF reduction but are

  15. Intracellular Targeting of CEA Results in Th1-Type Antibody Responses Following Intradermal Genetic Vaccination by a Needle-Free Jet Injection Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Johansson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The route and method of immunization, as well as the cellular localization of the antigen, can influence the generation of an immune response. In general, intramuscular immunization results in Th1 responses, whereas intradermal delivery of DNA by gene gun immunization often results in more Th2 responses. Here we investigate how altering the cellular localization of the tumor antigen CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen affects the quality and amplitude of DNA vaccine-induced antibody responses in mice following intradermal delivery of DNA by a needle-free jet injection device (Biojector. CEA was expressed either in a membrane-bound form (wild-type CEA or in two truncated forms (CEA6 and CEA66 with cytoplasmic localization, where CEA66 was fused to a promiscuous T-helper epitope from tetanus toxin. Repeated intradermal immunization of BALB/c mice with DNA encoding wild-type CEA produced high antibody titers of a mixed IgG1/IgG2a ratio. In contrast, utilizing the DNA construct that resulted in intracellular targeting of CEA led to a reduced capacity to induce CEA-specific antibodies, but instead induced a Th1-biased immune response.

  16. Intradiscal injection of simvastatin results in radiologic, histologic, and genetic evidence of disc regeneration in a rat model of degenerative disc disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Khoi D.; Rahman, Shayan U.; Wang, Lin; Khan, Adam; Kyere, Kwaku A.; Than, Tracey T.; Miyata, Yoshinari; Park, Yoon-Shin; La Marca, Frank; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Zhang, Huina; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT A large percentage of back pain can be attributed to degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is known to play an important role in chondrogenesis of the IVD. Simvastatin is known to up-regulate expression of BMP-2. Thus, we hypothesized that intradiscal injection of simvastatin in a rat model of degenerative disc disease (DDD) would result in retardation of DDD. PURPOSE To develop a novel conservative treatment for DDD and related discogenic back pain. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING Laboratory investigation. METHODS Disc injury was induced in 272 rats via 21-gauge needle puncture. After 6 weeks, injured discs were treated with simvastatin in a saline or hydrogel carrier. Rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points. Outcome measures assessed were radiologic, histologic, and genetic. Radiologically, the MRI index (number of pixels multiplied by corresponding image densities) was determined. Histologically, disc spaces were read by 3 blinded scorers employing a previously described histological grading scale. Genetically, nuclei pulposi were harvested and polymerase chain reaction was run to determine relative levels of aggrecan, collagen type II, and BMP-2 gene expression. This project was supported by Grant No. R01 AR056649 from NIAMS/NIH. There are no other financial conflicts of interest to report. RESULTS Radiologically, discs treated with 5 mg/mL simvastatin in hydrogel or saline demonstrated MRI indices that were normal through 8 weeks post-treatment, although this was more sustained when delivered in hydrogel. Histologically, discs treated with 5 mg/mL simvastatin in hydrogel demonstrated improved grades in comparison to discs treated at higher doses. Genetically, discs treated with 5 mg/mL of simvastatin in hydrogel demonstrated higher gene expression of aggrecan and collagen type II than control. CONCLUSIONS Degenerate discs treated with 5 mg/mL simvastatin in a hydrogel carrier demonstrated

  17. Practice of ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection, including training and implementation, in Europe: results of a survey of experts and scientific societies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mandl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To document the practice and training opportunities of US-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection (UGAJ) among rheumatologists in the member countries of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR).

  18. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  19. Risperidone long-acting injection in the treatment of schizophrenia: 24-month results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Richard Williams,1 Ranjith Chandrasena,2 Linda Beauclair,3 Doanh Luong,4 Annette Lam4 On behalf of the e-STAR study group 1Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Chatham-Kent Health Alliance, Chatham, ON, Canada; 3Allan Memorial Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: To assess outcomes over 24 months in Canadian patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI and participating in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR. Materials and methods: Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled from 24 sites after an independent decision to initiate RLAI. Subsequent patient management was based on usual clinical practice at each site and was not protocol-driven. Relevant data were collected retrospectively by chart review for 12 months prior to RLAI and prospectively for 24 months following RLAI initiation. Results: Patients (n=188 had a mean age of 39.2 years, were 66.3% male, and 27.7% were inpatients at baseline. Twenty-four months after initiating therapy (initial dose =28.7 mg, 34.1% (95% confidence interval 27.2%–42.2% of patients had discontinued RLAI with a mean time to discontinuation of 273.4±196 days. Over the treatment period, there were significant (P<0.001 changes from baseline in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S; 3.48 versus [vs] 4.31 at baseline, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF; 56.1 vs 48.1, and Personal and Social Performance (PSP; 59.1 vs 46.9 scale scores. In addition, after 12 months, there were significant (P<0.001 decreases in the percentage of patients hospitalized (23.9% vs 58.5% pre-RLAI, mean length of stay (11.4 vs 30.4 days, and number of hospitalizations (0.32 vs 0.87 compared to the 12-month pre-RLAI period. Reductions in hospitalization continued into the second 12 months of therapy, when only 9% of patients were hospitalized and mean length of stay was 2.0 days

  20. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  1. Cholinergic Degeneration and Alterations in the TrkA and p75NTR Balance as a Result of Pro-NGF Injection into Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Fortress

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning and memory impairments occurring with Alzheimer's disease (AD are associated with degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs. BFCNs extend their axons to the hippocampus where they bind nerve growth factor (NGF which is retrogradely transported to the cell body. While NGF is necessary for BFCN survival and function via binding to the high-affinity receptor TrkA, its uncleaved precursor, pro-NGF has been proposed to induce neurodegeneration via binding to the p75NTR and its coreceptor sortilin. Basal forebrain TrkA and NGF are downregulated with aging while pro-NGF is increased. Given these data, the focus of this paper was to determine a mechanism for how pro-NGF accumulation may induce BFCN degeneration. Twenty-four hours after a single injection of pro-NGF into hippocampus, we found increased hippocampal p75NTR levels, decreased hippocampal TrkA levels, and cholinergic degeneration. The data suggest that the increase in p75NTR with AD may be mediated by elevated pro-NGF levels as a result of decreased cleavage, and that pro-NGF may be partially responsible for age-related degenerative changes observed in the basal forebrain. This paper is the first in vivo evidence that pro-NGF can affect BFCNs and may do so by regulating expression of p75NTR neurotrophin receptors.

  2. A Peer-Educator Network HIV Prevention Intervention Among Injection Drug Users: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A.; Kukhareva, Polina V.; Malov, Sergey V.; Batluk, Julia V.; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Sokolov, Nicolay V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Kozlov, Andrei P.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a peer-educator network intervention as a strategy to reduce HIV acquisition among injection drug users (IDUs) and their drug and/or sexual networks. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia among IDU index participants and their risk network participants. Network units were randomized to the control or experimental intervention. Only the experimental index participants received training sessions to communicate risk reduction techniques to their network members. Analysis includes 76 index and 84 network participants who were HIV uninfected. The main outcome measure was HIV sero-conversion. The incidence rates in the control and experimental groups were 19.57 (95 % CI 10.74–35.65) and 7.76 (95 % CI 3.51–17.19) cases per 100 p/y, respectively. The IRR was 0.41 (95 % CI 0.15–1.08) without a statistically significant difference between the two groups (log rank test statistic X2 = 2.73, permutation p value = 0.16). Retention rate was 67 % with a third of the loss due to incarceration or death. The results show a promising trend that this strategy would be successful in reducing the acquisition of HIV among IDUs. PMID:23881187

  3. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  4. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  5. Exploration of the role of permeability and effective stress transfer effects on Earthquakes Migration in a Fault Zone induced by a Fluid Injection in the nearby host rock: Experimental and Numerical Result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopela, A.; Guglielmi, Y.; Donze, F. V.; De Barros, L.; Henry, P.; Castilla, R.; Gout, C.

    2016-12-01

    Although it has long been known that anthropogenic fluid injections can induce earthquakes, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood and our ability to assess the seismic hazard associated to the production of geothermal energy or unconventional hydrocarbon remains limited. Here we present a field injection experiment conducted in the host rock 4m away from a fault affecting Toarcian shales (Tournemire massif, France). A dense network of sensors recorded fluid pressure, flow-rate, deformation and seismic activity. Injections followed an extended leak-off test protocol. Failure in the host rock was observed for a pressure of 4.4 MPa associated to a strike-slip-to-reverse reactivation of a pre-existing fracture. Magnitude -4.2 to -3.8 seismic events were located in the fault zone 3.5-to->10m away from the injection showing focal mechanisms in reasonable agreement with a strike-slip reactivation of the fault structures. We first used fully coupled hydro-mechanical numerical modeling to quantify the injection source parameters (state of stress, size of the rupture patch and size of the pressurized patch). We applied an injection loading protocol characterized by an imposed flow rate-vs-time history according to the volume of fluid injected in-situ, to match calculated and measured pressure and displacement variations at the injection source. We then used a larger model including the fault zone to discuss how predominant the effects of stress transfer mechanisms causing a purely mechanical fault activation can be compared to the effects of effective stress variations associated to fluid propagation in the fault structures. Preliminary results are that calculated slipping patches are much higher than the one estimated from seismicity, respectively 0.3m and <10-6m, and that the dimensions of the pressurized zone hardly matches with the distance of the earthquakes.

  6. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, A.G.; Geddis, A.M.; Henrich, M.J.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.; Neuman, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes air permeability estimates obtained from single hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Covered Borehole Site (CBS) within the larger apache Leap Research Site (ALRS). Only permeability estimates obtained from a steady state interpretation of relatively stable pressure and flow rate data are included. Tests were conducted in five boreholes inclined at 45 degree to the horizontal, and one vertical borehole. Over 180 borehole segments were tested by setting the packers 1 m apart. Additional tests were conducted in segments of lengths 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m in one borehole, and 2.0 m in another borehole, bringing the total number of tests to over 270. Tests were conducted by maintaining a constant injection rate until air pressure became relatively stable and remained so for some time. The injection rate was then incremented by a constant value and the procedure repeated. The air injection rate, pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded. For each relatively stable period of injection rate and pressure, air permeability was estimated by treating the rock around each test interval as a uniform, isotropic porous medium within which air flows as a single phase under steady state, in a pressure field exhibiting prolate spheroidal symmetry. For each permeability estimate the authors list the corresponding injection rate, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. They also present selected graphs which show how the latter quantities vary with time; logarithmic plots of pressure versus time which demonstrate the importance of borehole storage effects during the early transient portion of each incremental test period; and semilogarithmic plots of pressure versus recovery time at the end of each test sequence

  7. Development of 18F-FDG ([F-18]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) injection for imaging of tumor reflecting glucose metabolism. Results of preclinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Sento; Shimada, Takayuki; Kanagawa, Masaru; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kondo, Susumu; Shirakami, Yoshifumi; Ito, Osamu; Kato-Azuma, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) injection was prepared by a modification of a method originally developed by Hamacher et al. The dosage form is the injectable solution (2 ml) containing 185 MBq of 18 F-FDG at a calibration time. Preclinical studies of the agent were performed. Its radiochemical purity is more than 95% and expiration time is 4 hours after the calibration time at ambient temperature. No toxicity was observed with up to 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of non-radioactive FDG intravenously injected to rats and dogs in single dose toxicity tests, respectively. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the radioactivity was mainly distributed into brain (3.0 to 3.3% I.D./Organ at 30 minutes) and heart (4.2 to 5.8% I.D./Organ at 1 to 3 hours) after intravenous injection of the agent to normal rats. In a tumor transplanted mouse model (colon 26), tumor uptake was 10.9±3.5% I.D./g at 1 hr after intravenous injection of the agent, the radioactivity was retained until 3 hours. The radiation absorbed dose was estimated according to the MIRD Pamphlet based on the biodistribution data both in humans reported by Mejia et al. and rats described in this report. The radiation absorbed dose was not higher than those of commercially available radiopharmaceuticals. In conclusion, the 18 F-FDG injection is expected to be useful for further clinical application. (author)

  8. Endoscopic Injection of Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid as First-Line Treatment in 851 Consecutive Children with High-Grade Vesicoureteral Reflux: Efficacy and Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmacher, Florian; Colhoun, Eric; Puri, Prem

    2018-03-15

    Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic is widely acknowledged as first-line treatment of lower grade vesicoureteral reflux. Our objective was to demonstrate its long-term efficacy and safety in eradicating high-grade reflux. Eight-hundred-fifty-one children (518 girls, 333 boys), median age 2.3 years (2 months-13.7 years), underwent endoscopic correction of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid. Reflux was unilateral in 415 cases and bilateral in 436, comprising 1,287 refluxing units: grade IV in 1,153 (89.6%) and grade V in 134 (10.4%). 99m technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid imaging identified renal scarring in 317 (37.3%) patients. Follow-up ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months post intervention and renal ultrasound annually thereafter. Median follow-up was 8.5 years (6 months-16 years). Overall resolution rate after the first endoscopic injection was 895/1,287 (69.5%): 70.4% in grade IV and 61.9% in grade V, respectively. Reflux resolved after a second injection in 259 (20.1%) and after a third in 133 (10.4%). Persistent reflux after initial treatment was significantly more common in infants reflux resolution, 43 (5.1%) children developed febrile urinary tract infections: 24 (55.8%) in the first, 15 (34.9%) in the second and 4 (9.3%) after ≥3 years. Of these, 6 had reflux recurrence and 8 demonstrated neocontralateral grade III reflux, which was successfully treated with single endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid. Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is an efficient and safe long-term treatment for grade IV and V vesicoureteral reflux, which can be easily repeated in cases of failure with a high subsequent resolution rate. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Practice of ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection, including training and implementation, in Europe: results of a survey of experts and scientific societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, Peter; Naredo, Esperanza; Conaghan, Philip G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To document the practice and training opportunities of US-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection (UGAJ) among rheumatologists in the member countries of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). Methods. An English-language questionnaire, containing questions on demographics......, clinical and practical aspects of UGAJ, training options in UGAJ for rheumatologists, UGAJ education in the rheumatology training curriculum and other structured education programmes in UGAJ was sent to three different groups: (i) all national rheumatology societies of EULAR; (ii) all national societies...... countries responded to the questionnaire (61.3% of national rheumatology societies, 25% of the national US societies and 100% of expert ultrasonographers). In the majority of countries (85%) 80%) rate of rheumatologists performing conventional joint injection in most of the surveyed countries. The reported...

  10. The availability of hydrogeologic data associated with areas identified by the US Geological Survey as experiencing potentially induced seismicity resulting from subsurface injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caitlin; Halihan, Todd

    2018-05-01

    A critical need exists for site-specific hydrogeologic data in order to determine potential hazards of induced seismicity and to manage risk. By 2015, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) had identified 17 locations in the USA that are experiencing an increase in seismicity, which may be potentially induced through industrial subsurface injection. These locations span across seven states, which vary in geological setting, industrial exposure and seismic history. Comparing the research across the 17 locations revealed patterns for addressing induced seismicity concerns, despite the differences between geographical locations. Most induced seismicity studies evaluate geologic structure and seismic data from areas experiencing changes in seismic activity levels, but the inherent triggering mechanism is the transmission of hydraulic pressure pulses. This research conducted a systematic review of whether data are available in these locations to generate accurate hydrogeologic predictions, which could aid in managing seismicity. After analyzing peer-reviewed research within the 17 locations, this research confirms a lack of site-specific hydrogeologic data availability for at-risk areas. Commonly, formation geology data are available for these sites, but hydraulic parameters for the seismically active injection and basement zones are not available to researchers conducting peer-reviewed research. Obtaining hydrogeologic data would lead to better risk management for injection areas and provide additional scientific evidential support for determining a potentially induced seismic area.

  11. Characteristics, Treatment Patterns, and Economic Outcomes of Patients Initiating Injectable Medications for Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Japan: Results from a Retrospective Claims Database Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Desai, Urvi; Strizek, Alena; Ivanova, Jasmina; Garcia-Horton, Viviana; Cai, Zhihong; Schmerold, Luke; Liu, Xinyue; Perez-Nieves, Magaly

    2018-04-16

    This study's objective was to describe characteristics, treatment patterns, and economic outcomes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients initiating injectable antidiabetic medications in Japan. Adults (≥ 18 years) with T2DM, ≥ 2 claims for injectable antidiabetics between 1 August 2011 and 31 July 2015 (first claim = index date), no evidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus, ≤ 1 claim for insulin, no claims for GLP-1RA before index, and continuous enrollment for 6 months before (baseline) and 12 months after index (follow-up) were selected from the Japan Medical Center Database. Patient characteristics and outcomes during the baseline and follow-up periods were described overall and by provider, using the proxy setting of index medication [hospital (including outpatient departments) for specialists; clinic for general practitioner (GP)]. Of the 2683 patients included (mean age: 50 years, 67% male), 1879 (70%) initiated injectable antidiabetics with specialists and 804 (30%) with GPs. The specialist cohort had a significantly greater comorbidity burden, but lower HbA1c levels during baseline, and was more likely to receive intensified treatment at index than the GP cohort. Almost 40% of patients (almost 30% of GP cohort) did not use antidiabetics during baseline; the remaining patients received oral medications, primarily from GPs. During follow-up, patients used the index medication for approximately 7 months. Independent of specialist vs. GP setting, patients received antidiabetics and medications for T2DM-related comorbidities and complications during the baseline and follow-up periods from the same provider, primarily GPs. The overall average healthcare costs were ¥350,404 during baseline and ¥1,856,727 during follow-up. In Japan, most T2DM patients initiated injectable antidiabetics with specialists vs. GPs. There were considerable differences in characteristics of patients treated by specialists vs. GPs. After initiation, injectable

  12. Comparative efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid and corticoid injections in osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint: results of a 6-month single-masked randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, Jordi; Rotés-Sala, Delfin; Segalés, Nuria; Montañes, Francisco-Jose; Orellana, Cristobal; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Mojal, Sergi; Padró, Isabel; Benito, Pere

    2015-03-01

    The study aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid and betamethasone in the management of patients with osteoarthritis of the thumb. Eighty-eight evaluable patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the thumb (Kellgren-Lawrence grade II-III) received ultrasound-guided intra-articular treatment with hyaluronic acid (48) or betamethasone (40). In total, 3 local injections were scheduled at 7-day intervals. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days. In both study groups, the pain Visual Analogue Scale and Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis scores decreased significantly during follow-up compared to baseline. There were no significant differences between the groups. However, at 90 days, the functional score showed a trend towards greater clinical improvement in the hyaluronic acid group (P 0.071). A subanalysis of patients with Functional Index score≥5 and Visual Analogue Scale score≥3 at baseline showed a significantly higher median functionality score in the hyaluronic acid group (P 0.005 at 90 days and P 0.020 at 180 days). Further limiting analysis to a baseline pain score≥5 showed significantly greater improvement in functionality score (P 0.004 at 180 days), which was already apparent after the second intra-articular injection at 14 days (P 0.028). In this patient subset, the mean pain score also improved significantly at 180 days (P 0.02). Both hyaluronic acid and betamethasone were effective and well-tolerated for the management of rhizarthrosis. Hyaluronic acid was more effective over time and more efficiently improved functionality and pain in patients with more severe symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Pellet injection in WVIIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.; Wuersohing, E.; Weller, A.; Jaeckel, H.; Hartfuss, H.; Hacker, H.; Ringler, H.; Buechl, K.

    1986-01-01

    The results of pellet injection experiments in the Wendelstein VII A stellarator are presented. The injector was a single shot pneumatic gun using deuterium pellets. Experiments were carried out in both ECRH and NI plasmas. Data is shown for plasma density, energy confinement, penetration depth and pellet ablation. Results are compared to a neutral gas shielding model

  14. Non-double-couple mechanisms of microearthquakes induced during the 2000 injection experiment at the KTB site, Germany: A result of tensile faulting or anisotropy of a rock?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav; Bohnhoff, M.; Jechumtálová, Zuzana; Kolář, Petr; Šílený, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 456, č. 1-2 (2008), s. 74-93 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300120504; GA AV ČR IAA3012309; GA AV ČR IAA300120502 Grant - others:EC(XE) MTKI-CT-2004-517242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : anisotropy * fluid injection * focal mechanism * tensile faulting Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2008

  15. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  16. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  17. Complete Resolution of a Giant Pigment Epithelial Detachment Secondary to Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration after a Single Intravitreal Ranibizumab (Lucentis Injection: Results Documented by Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Loukianou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim:To describe a patient with a giant pigment epithelial detachment (PED secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD successfully treated with a single intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis injection (0.5 mg/0.05 ml.Methods:An 89-year-old woman presented with a six-day history of reduced vision and distortion in the left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity in that eye was 6/15. Fundoscopy revealed a giant PED and exudates temporally to the fovea. Optical coherence tomography showed a PED associated with subretinal and intraretinal fluid. Fluorescein angiography confirmed the diagnosis of an occult choroidal neovascularization. Treatment with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (Lucentis was recommended, although the increased risk of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE rip was mentioned. Results:Four weeks after the first intravitreal Lucentis injection, the visual acuity in the left eye improved to 6/7.5, with a significant improvement of the distortion and a complete anatomical resolution of the PED confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Conclusion:Giant PED secondary to exudative ARMD can be successfully treated with intravitreal ranibizumab, despite the increased risk of RPE rip. To our knowledge, this is the first case presenting with complete resolution of PED after a single ranibizumab injection.

  18. Design and preliminary results for a fast bipolar resonant discharge pulser using SCR switches for driving the injection bump magnets at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.; Reginato, L.

    1993-05-01

    A fast (4.0 us half period) resonant discharge pulser using SCRs has been designed and constructed to drive the injection bump magnet system at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The pulser employs a series-parallel arrangement of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRS) that creates a bipolar high voltage (±10 KV), high peak current (6600 amps.) and a high di/dt (6000 amp/us) switch network that discharges a capacitor bank into the magnet load. Fast recovery diodes in series with the SCRs significantly reduces the SCR turn-off time during the negative current cycle of the magnet. The SCR switch provides a very reliable and stable alternative to the gas filled Thyratron. A very low impedance transmission system allows the pulser system to reside completely outside the storage ring shielding wall

  19. In Vitro Fertilization Using Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Injections Resulted in Healthy Triplets without Increased Attack Rates in a Hereditary Angioedema Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tunakan Dalgıç

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder. The management of pregnant patients with C1-INH-HAE is a challenge for the physician. Intravenous plasma-derived nanofiltered C1-INH (pdC1INH is the only recommended option throughout pregnancy, postpartum, and breastfeeding period. In order to increase pregnancy rates, physicians use fertilization therapies increasing endogen levels of estrogens. Therefore, these techniques can provoke an increase in the number and severity of edema attacks in C1-INH-HAE. Our patient is a 32-year-old female, diagnosed with C1-INH-HAE type 1 since 2004. She had been taking danazol 50–200 mg/day for 9 years. Due to her pregnancy plans in 2013, danazol was discontinued. PdC1INH was prescribed regularly for prophylactic purpose. Triplet pregnancy occurred by in vitro fertilization using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH injections. In our patient, LHRH injections were done four times without causing any severe attack during in vitro fertilization. Angioedema did not worsen during pregnancy and delivery due to the prophylactic use of intravenous pdC1INH in our patient. According to the attack frequency and severity, there was no difference between the three pregnancy trimesters. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of C1-INH-HAE receiving in vitro fertilization therapies without any angioedema attacks during pregnancy and delivery and eventually having healthy triplets with the prophylactic use of intravenous pdC1INH.

  20. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  1. Reduction of unwanted submental fat with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an adipocytolytic injectable treatment: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzany, B; Griffiths, T; Walker, P; Lippert, S; McDiarmid, J; Havlickova, B

    2014-02-01

    Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is aesthetically unappealing, but methods of reduction are either invasive or lack evidence for their use. An injectable approach with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is under investigation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the reduction of unwanted SMF. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, 363 patients with moderate/severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 (1 or 2 mg cm(-2) ) or placebo injections into their SMF at up to four treatment sessions ~28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders [patients with ≥ 1-point improvement in SMF on the 5-point Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS)] and patients satisfied with their face and chin appearance on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). Secondary endpoints included skin laxity, calliper measurements and patient-reported outcomes. Adverse events were monitored. Significantly more ATX-101 recipients met the primary endpoint criteria vs. placebo: on the clinician scale, 59·2% and 65·3% of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg cm(-2) , respectively, were treatment responders vs. 23·0% for placebo (CR-SMFRS; P < 0·001); on the patient scale, 53·3% and 66·1%, respectively, vs. 28·7%, were satisfied with their face/chin appearance (SSRS; P < 0·001). Calliper measurements showed a significant reduction in SMF (P < 0·001), skin laxity was not worsened and patients reported improvements in the severity and psychological impact of SMF with ATX-101 vs. placebo. Most adverse events were transient and associated with the treatment area. ATX-101 was effective and well tolerated for nonsurgical SMF reduction. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. High variability of HIV and HCV seroprevalence and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs: results from a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in eight German cities (2011–14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wenz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who inject drugs (PWID are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV due to sharing injection paraphernalia and unprotected sex. To generate seroprevalence data on HIV and HCV among PWID and related data on risk behaviour, a multicentre sero- and behavioural survey using respondent driven sampling (RDS was conducted in eight German cities between 2011 and 2014. We also evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of RDS for recruiting PWID in the study cities. Methods Eligible for participation were people who had injected drugs within the last 12 months, were 16 years or older, and who consumed in one of the study cities. Participants were recruited, using low-threshold drop-in facilities as study sites. Initial seeds were selected to represent various sub-groups of people who inject drugs (PWID. Participants completed a face-to-face interview with a structured questionnaire about socio-demographics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours, as well as the utilisation of health services. Capillary blood samples were collected as dried blood spots and were anonymously tested for serological and molecular markers of HIV and HCV. The results are shown as range of proportions (min. and max. values (% in the respective study cities. For evaluation of the sampling method we applied criteria from the STROBE guidelines. Results Overall, 2,077 PWID were recruited. The range of age medians was 29–41 years, 18.5–35.3 % of participants were female, and 9.2–30.6 % were foreign born. Median time span since first injection were 10–18 years. Injecting during the last 30 days was reported by 76.0–88.4 % of participants. Sharing needle/syringes (last 30 days ranged between 4.7 and 22.3 %, while sharing unsterile paraphernalia (spoon, filter, water, last 30 days was reported by 33.0–43.8 %. A majority of participants (72.8–85.8 % reported incarceration at least once, and 17.8–39.8

  3. High-throughput flow injection analysis mass spectroscopy with networked delivery of color-rendered results. 2. Three-dimensional spectral mapping of 96-well combinatorial chemistry racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, E; Richmond, R; Lewis, I

    1998-08-01

    For the last two years, the mass spectroscopy section of the Novartis Pharma Research Core Technology group has analyzed tens of thousands of multiple parallel synthesis samples from the Novartis Pharma Combinatorial Chemistry program, using an in-house developed automated high-throughput flow injection analysis electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy system. The electrospray spectra of these samples reflect the many structures present after the cleavage step from the solid support. The overall success of the sequential synthesis is mirrored in the purity of the expected end product, but the partial success of individual synthesis steps is evident in the impurities in the mass spectrum. However this latter reaction information, which is of considerable utility to the combinatorial chemist, is effectively hidden from view by the very large number of analyzed samples. This information is now revealed at the workbench of the combinatorial chemist by a novel three-dimensional display of each rack's complete mass spectral ion current using the in-house RackViewer Visual Basic application. Colorization of "forbidden loss" and "forbidden gas-adduct" zones, normalization to expected monoisotopic molecular weight, colorization of ionization intensity, and sorting by row or column were used in combination to highlight systematic patterns in the mass spectroscopy data.

  4. High variability of HIV and HCV seroprevalence and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs: results from a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in eight German cities (2011-14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Benjamin; Nielsen, Stine; Gassowski, Martyna; Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Cai, Wei; Ross, R Stefan; Bock, Claus-Thomas; Ratsch, Boris-Alexander; Kücherer, Claudia; Bannert, Norbert; Bremer, Viviane; Hamouda, Osamah; Marcus, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Ruth

    2016-09-05

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) due to sharing injection paraphernalia and unprotected sex. To generate seroprevalence data on HIV and HCV among PWID and related data on risk behaviour, a multicentre sero- and behavioural survey using respondent driven sampling (RDS) was conducted in eight German cities between 2011 and 2014. We also evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of RDS for recruiting PWID in the study cities. Eligible for participation were people who had injected drugs within the last 12 months, were 16 years or older, and who consumed in one of the study cities. Participants were recruited, using low-threshold drop-in facilities as study sites. Initial seeds were selected to represent various sub-groups of people who inject drugs (PWID). Participants completed a face-to-face interview with a structured questionnaire about socio-demographics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours, as well as the utilisation of health services. Capillary blood samples were collected as dried blood spots and were anonymously tested for serological and molecular markers of HIV and HCV. The results are shown as range of proportions (min. and max. values (%)) in the respective study cities. For evaluation of the sampling method we applied criteria from the STROBE guidelines. Overall, 2,077 PWID were recruited. The range of age medians was 29-41 years, 18.5-35.3 % of participants were female, and 9.2-30.6 % were foreign born. Median time span since first injection were 10-18 years. Injecting during the last 30 days was reported by 76.0-88.4 % of participants. Sharing needle/syringes (last 30 days) ranged between 4.7 and 22.3 %, while sharing unsterile paraphernalia (spoon, filter, water, last 30 days) was reported by 33.0-43.8 %. A majority of participants (72.8-85.8 %) reported incarceration at least once, and 17.8-39.8 % had injected while incarcerated. Between 30.8 and 66.2 % were

  5. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  6. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  7. HCV treatment rates and sustained viral response among people who inject drugs in seven UK sites: real world results and modelling of treatment impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N K; Foster, G R; Vilar, J; Ryder, S; Cramp, M E; Gordon, F; Dillon, J F; Craine, N; Busse, H; Clements, A; Hutchinson, S J; Ustianowski, A; Ramsay, M; Goldberg, D J; Irving, W; Hope, V; De Angelis, D; Lyons, M; Vickerman, P; Hickman, M

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antiviral treatment for people who inject drugs (PWID) could prevent onwards transmission and reduce chronic prevalence. We assessed current PWID treatment rates in seven UK settings and projected the potential impact of current and scaled-up treatment on HCV chronic prevalence. Data on number of PWID treated and sustained viral response rates (SVR) were collected from seven UK settings: Bristol (37-48% HCV chronic prevalence among PWID), East London (37-48%), Manchester (48-56%), Nottingham (37-44%), Plymouth (30-37%), Dundee (20-27%) and North Wales (27-33%). A model of HCV transmission among PWID projected the 10-year impact of (i) current treatment rates and SVR (ii) scale-up with interferon-free direct acting antivirals (IFN-free DAAs) with 90% SVR. Treatment rates varied from <5 to over 25 per 1000 PWID. Pooled intention-to-treat SVR for PWID were 45% genotypes 1/4 [95%CI 33-57%] and 61% genotypes 2/3 [95%CI 47-76%]. Projections of chronic HCV prevalence among PWID after 10 years of current levels of treatment overlapped substantially with current HCV prevalence estimates. Scaling-up treatment to 26/1000 PWID annually (achieved already in two sites) with IFN-free DAAs could achieve an observable absolute reduction in HCV chronic prevalence of at least 15% among PWID in all sites and greater than a halving in chronic HCV in Plymouth, Dundee and North Wales within a decade. Current treatment rates among PWID are unlikely to achieve observable reductions in HCV chronic prevalence over the next 10 years. Achievable scale-up, however, could lead to substantial reductions in HCV chronic prevalence. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Sarah L; Good, Craig A; Zernicke, Ronald F; Boyd, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB) would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36) were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass) into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis) were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX.

  9. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Manske

    Full Text Available High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX. Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36 were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX.

  10. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  11. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  12. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  13. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  14. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed

  15. Ceramic injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1988-01-01

    Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author) [es

  16. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  17. Summary of CCTF test results - assessment of current safety evaluation analysis on reflood behaviour during a LOCA in a PWR with cold-leg-injection-type ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Murao, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Jun; Akimoto, Hajime; Okubo, Tsutomu; Hojo, Tsuneyuki

    1988-01-01

    The conservatism of the current safety analysis was assessed by comparing the predicted results with cylindrical core test facility (CCTF) test results performed at JAERI. The WREM code was selected for the assessment. The overall conservatism of the WREM code on the peak clad temperature prediction was confirmed against CCTF EM test which simulated the typical initial and boundary conditions in the safety evaluation analysis. The WREM code predicted the reasonable core boundary conditions and the conservatism of the code came mainly from the core calculation. The conservatism of the WREM code against CCTF data could be attributed to the following three points: (i) no horizontal mixing assumption between subchannels at each elevation, (ii) no modeling on heat transfer enhancement caused by the radial core power profile, (iii) usage of conservative heat transfer correlations in the code. (orig./HP)

  18. Aggressive combination therapy with intraarticular glucocorticoid injections and conventional DMARDs in early rheumatoid arthritis Two Year Clinical and Radiographic Results From The CIMESTRA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Junker, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of the 2nd year of the randomized, controlled double-blind CIMESTRA study. METHODS: 160 patients with early RA (any swollen joint in combination with step-up treatment with either methotrexate and placebo...... years, and the radiographic erosive progression was minimal. Addition of cyclosporine during the first 76 weeks resulted in significantly better ACR20 and ACR50 responses, but did not have any additional effect on remission rate and radiographic outcome.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether clinical and radiographic disease control can be achieved and maintained in patients with early, active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the 2nd year of aggressive treatment with conventional DMARD and intraarticular corticosteroid. This paper presents the results...

  19. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  20. Perturbative studies of toroidal momentum transport using neutral beam injection modulation in the Joint European Torus: Experimental results, analysis methodology, and first principles modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantica, P.; Tala, T.; Ferreira, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Perturbative experiments have been carried out in the Joint European Torus [Fusion Sci. Technol. 53(4) (2008)] in order to identify the diffusive and convective components of toroidal momentum transport. The torque source was modulated either by modulating tangential neutral beam power...... or by modulating in antiphase tangential and normal beams to produce a torque perturbation in the absence of a power perturbation. The resulting periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity was modeled using time-dependent transport simulations in order to extract empirical profiles of momentum...

  1. Impact of sex work on risk behaviours and their association with HIV positivity among people who inject drugs in Eastern Central Canada: cross-sectional results from an open cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeau, Laurence; Blouin, Karine; Leclerc, Pascale; Alary, Michel; Morissette, Carole; Blanchette, Caty; Serhir, Bouchra; Roy, Elise

    2018-01-31

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the correlates of HIV positivity among participants who injected drugs and engaged in sex work (PWID-SWs) in the SurvUDI network between 2004 and 2016, after stratification by sex, and (2) to compare these correlates with those of sexually active participants who did not engage in sex work (PWID non-SWs). This biobehavioural survey is an open cohort of services where participants who had injected in the past 6 months were recruited mainly through harm reduction programmes in Eastern Central Canada. Data from 5476 participants (9223 visits in total; 785 not included in multivariate analyses due to missing values) were included. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided saliva samples for anti-HIV antibody testing. Generalised estimating equations taking into account multiple participations were used. Baseline HIV prevalence was higher among SWs compared with non-SWs (women: 13.0% vs 7.7%; Psex work for HIV infection varies according to gender, as suggested by a large proportion of injection risk behaviours associated with HIV among women and, conversely, a stronger association between sexual behaviours and HIV positivity observed among men. These results suggest that sex work has an impact on the risk of HIV acquisition and that risk behaviours vary according to gender. Public health practitioners should take those specificities into account when designing HIV prevention interventions aimed at PWIDs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Brine migration resulting from CO2 injection into saline aquifers – An approach to risk estimation including various levels of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Binning, Philip John; Oladyshkin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    resulting from displaced brine. Quantifying risk on the basis of numerical simulations requires consideration of different kinds of uncertainties and this study considers both, scenario uncertainty and statistical uncertainty. Addressing scenario uncertainty involves expert opinion on relevant geological......Comprehensive risk assessment is a major task for large-scale projects such as geological storage of CO2. Basic hazards are damage to the integrity of caprocks, leakage of CO2, or reduction of groundwater quality due to intrusion of fluids. This study focuses on salinization of freshwater aquifers...... for large-scale 3D models including complex physics. Therefore, we apply a model reduction based on arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion combined with probabilistic collocation method. It is shown that, dependent on data availability, both types of uncertainty can be equally significant. The presented study...

  3. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  4. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Evaluation of intralesional injection of hyaluronic acid compared with verapamil in Peyronie's disease: preliminary results from a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favilla, V; Russo, G I; Zucchi, A; Siracusa, G; Privitera, S; Cimino, S; Madonia, M; Cai, T; Cavallini, G; Liguori, G; D'Achille, G; Silvani, M; Franco, G; Verze, P; Palmieri, A; Torrisi, B; Mirone, V; Morgia, G

    2017-07-01

    Several intralesional therapeutic protocols have been proposed for the treatment of Peyronie's disease. Among all, hyaluronic acid (HA) and verapamil have been differently tested. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional verapamil (ILVI) compared with intralesional HA in patients with early onset of Peyronie's disease (PD). This is a multi-centre prospective double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. intralesional HA after 12-weeks. Sexually active men, older than 18 years and affected by the acute phase of PD were eligible for this study. Patients have been double-blinded randomly divided into two groups (1 : 1 ratio): Group A received intralesional treatment with Verapamil (10 mg in 5 mL of normal saline water) weekly for 12 weeks, while group B received intralesional treatment with HA (0.8% highly purified sodium salt HA 16 mg/2 mL) weekly for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was the change from the baseline to the endpoint (12 weeks after therapy) for the penile curvature (degree). The secondary outcome was the change in the plaque size and in the International Index of erectile Function (IIEF-5) score. The difference between post- and pre-treatment plaque size was -1.36 mm (SD ± 1.27) for Group A and -1.80 mm (SD ± 2.47) for Group B (p-value = NS). IIEF-5 increased of 1.46 points (SD ± 2.18) in Group A and 1.78 (SD ± 2.48) in Group B (p-value ± NS). No difference in penile curvature was observed in Group A, while in Group B the penile curvature decreased of 4.60° (SD ± 5.63) from the baseline (p < 0.001) and vs. Group A. According to PGI-I results, we found significant difference as concerning patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) (4.0 vs. 2.0; p < 0.05). This prospective, double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. HA as intralesional therapy showed greater efficacy of HA in terms of penile curvature and PGI-I. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and

  6. Promoting Safe Injection Practices : The Challenge Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Srivastava

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Injections are one of the most common health care procedures in the world. Global estimates range between 12 billion-16 billion injections each year’. Most of the injections (90 to 95% are given for therapeutic purposes and only 5 to 10% are given for immunization. It is estimated that worldwide every year a billion injections are given to women and children for immunization. Up to half of these injections are currently thought to be unsafe. Due to the sheer burden of injections and the coresponding magnitude of unsafe injections, the proportion of blood borne pathogen transmission is much larger than is due to unsafe blood transfusion. Unsafe injections are responsible for million cases of Hepatitis B and C and an estimated one-quarter of a million cases of HIV annually. Worldwide 8 to 16 million hepatitis B, 2.3 - 4.7 million hepatitis C and 80,000 - 1,60,000 HIV infections are estimated to occur yearly form reuse of syringes and needles without adequate sterilization2. In the less developed countries, the unsafe injection practices account for an estimated $ 535 million in health care costs and result in nearly 1.3 million deaths a year. In a developing country like India where unnecessary injections are common, the total bur­den of injections is estimated to be 3.7 billion injections per year3. Certain studies that have been carried out in India,along with anecdotal evidence point towards a large numbe- of unnecessary, inappropriate, unsafe injections and inadequate sharps waste management4 5. A high proportion of injections given in India for immunization are unsafe due to reuse of needles/ syringes. The popularity of curative injections remains high due to various factors influencing the behaviour of prescribers / injection givers as well as clients.

  7. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  8. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  9. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  11. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  13. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  14. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Geoengineering by stratospheric SO2 injection: results from the Met Office HadGEM2 climate model and comparison with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kravitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the response of the Met Office Hadley Centre's HadGEM2-AO climate model to simulated geoengineering by continuous injection of SO2 into the lower stratosphere, and compare the results with those from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. Despite the differences between the models, we find a broadly similar geographic distribution of the response to geoengineering in both models in terms of near-surface air temperature and mean June–August precipitation. The simulations also suggest that significant changes in regional climate would be experienced even if geoengineering was successful in maintaining global-mean temperature near current values, and both models indicate rapid warming if geoengineering is not sustained.

  16. Results from an international multicenter trial evaluating the ease-of-use of and preference for a newly developed disposable injection pen for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency in treatment-naïve children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Andreas M; Darendeliler, Feyza; Dörr, Helmuth G; Hutchinson, Katherine; Wollmann, Hartmut A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has reported that ease of use of and preference for a delivery device are associated with greater patient compliance – an important factor in achieving optimal therapeutic results. The objective of this study was to assess the ease-of-use of a new disposable pen (GoQuick®, Pfizer, Inc.) versus the current reusable pen (GENOTROPIN Pen®, Pfizer, Inc.) to inject a daily dose of recombinant DNA origin human growth hormone, Genotropin® (somatropin) in standard practice. In this randomized, crossover, multicenter, multinational, open-label study, ease-of-use of and preference for the two pens were assessed in three treatment-naïve populations: 1) parents of very young children; 2) parent–child dyads; and 3) adults via use of a validated self-report Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ) after 2 months of at-home-use experience. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who reported the new disposable pen to be no different from or easier to use than the current reusable pen. Safety was also assessed and reported according to local legal requirements. Of the 120 screened patients, 119 were included in the ease-of-use analysis and all were included in the safety analyses. In all, 67.2% found the new somatropin disposable pen to be no different from or easier to use than the reusable pen (95% confidence interval: 58.8–75.7). Most adverse events were mild or moderate. No deaths or device- or treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results suggest that improvements made to the reusable somatropin pen are tangible and recognizable to treatment-naïve patients and their caregivers, child–caregiver dyads, and adults, and may positively impact continued compliance with therapy. Registry information ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01112865. PMID:24748824

  17. Injection of Fluids into Supercritical Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oschwald, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes and compares the results of systematic research programs at two independent laboratories regarding the injection of cryogenic liquids at subcritical and supercritical pressures...

  18. Method of cutting steeply falling coal beds. [Bacteria, which only grow on methane, are injected into the coal bed and form low viscosity polysaccharides: as a result the coal collapses into the haulage gallery and is hauled away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretsinger, B Ye; Chernyshenko, D V; Levin, A D; Malashenko, Yu R; Shinkovskiy, V A; Shurova, Z P; Volkov, V I

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce outlays for collapse and output of coal by creating artificial cavities of sliding along the coal bed in the surrounding rocks. This goal is achieved because in the well drilled in the bed for the entire height of the level, a suspension of cells of methane-oxidizing microorganisms is injected. The methane-oxidizing microorganisms used are, for example, the thermophilic culture Methylococcus thermophilus of strains ShP which grow at 45-65/sup 0/ C, or the mesophilic culture Methanomonas rubna of strains 15 Sh growing at 20-37/sup 0/ C. As a result of the vital activity of these cultures, polysaccharides are formed with viscosity of 5-7 and 3-4 St respectively. The mine pressure disrupts the blocks between the wells, and the outline section of the steeply dropping coal bed, being destroyed, slides on the products of vital activity of the microorganisms to the haulage gallery. Then the coal drops on cross cuts to the field gallery through which it is transported. Studies established that the only coal substrate which is suitable for growth of these microorganism cultures is methane. The synthesis of one g of absolutely dry substance of these microorganism requires 1.78 g of methane and 4.7 g of oxygen. The cultures are resistant to hydrostatic pressure from 20 to 150 atm and short-term pressure of gradient drops which occur during injection of the cellular suspension into the coal bed. They are filtered through the coal with preservation of the oxidizing and reproductive properties and are cultivated on the methane contained in the bed and form considerable number of exopolysaccarides. The polysaccarides weaken the bond between the bed and the surrounding rocks and serve as a unique lubricant promoting the sliding towards the haulage gallery of the coal blocks destroyed by mine pressure.

  19. Prevalence of injections and knowledge of safe injections among rural residents in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y W; Yan, J; Zhang, G P; Gao, Z L; Jian, H X

    2007-08-01

    Abuse of the injection services, namely unnecessary injections and unsafe injections, exists extensively in developing countries. Unsafe injection practices contribute to the transmission of blood-borne pathogens. The aims of this study were to survey the prevalence of injections and knowledge of injection safety among the rural residents in Jingzhou district, Hubei, China and to provide scientific data for developing a health educational programme. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 villages, which were selected from the Jingzhou district by the random sampling method. 50 rural residents were interviewed per village using a questionnaire. Among the 595 residents studied, 192 had received at least one injection in the past three months, with an injection prevalence of 32.3 percent and an average of 0.93 injections. 90.3 percent of the rural residents knew that unsafe injections could transmit the following blood-borne pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus (74.4 percent), hepatitis B virus (55.8 percent) and hepatitis C virus (22.9 percent). Logistic regression analysis showed that the residents' age, educational level and residential area were important factors in influencing their knowledge about injection safety. The results indicated that the injection prevalence was high among rural residents in the study area, and their knowledge regarding injection safety should be further improved.

  20. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  1. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  2. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  3. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  4. Characterization of an intravenously injected bolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Raikar, U.R.; Atmaram, S.H.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of some parameters affecting the time activity histogram of an intravenous bolus injection of radioactivity was performed. A scoring system for bolus compactness was attempted. A score of 2 and above was considered to be a satisfactory bolus. Volumes less than 1 ml tended to result in a satisfactory bolus. The nature of radiopharmaceutical injected, different injecters and age of the patient did not affect the score. Thyrotoxic patients gave the best bolus score. (orig.) [de

  5. ENDOSCOPIC MACROPLASTIQUETM INJECTION FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucosally 1 cm distal to the bladder neck at 3, 6 and 9 o' clock positions. In 26 cases the 12 o' clock position was chosen to ensure a good occlusion of the bladder neck. The mean volume of Macroplastique injected was 3 ml. Results At a mean ...

  6. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  7. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...

  8. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Schemmer, P.; Duex, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  9. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Noaparast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with right lower limb pain, edema, and livedoid discoloration that occurred immediately after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. The patient was diagnosed with Nicolau syndrome, a rare complication of intramuscular injection presumed to be related to the inadvertent intravascular injection. It was first reported following intramuscular injection of bismuth salt, but it can occur as a complication of various other drugs. Fasciotomy was carried out due to the resultant compartment syndrome and medical therapy with heparin, corticosteroid, and pentoxifyllin was initiated.

  10. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  11. The natural and artificial hydration of a bentonite engineered barrier system in a full-scale KBS-3V mock-up; results from the first 7 years of the large scale gas injection test (LASGIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuss, R.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J.; Bennett, D.P.; Sellin, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Large scale gas injection test is a full-scale in situ canister test designed to answer specific questions regarding the movement of gas through bentonite in a mock KBS-3v deposition hole. The test is located at 420 m depth within SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden. The objective of Lasgit is to provide quantitative data to improve process understanding and test/validate modelling approaches which might be used in performance assessment. The deposition hole has a depth of 8.5 m and a diameter of around 1.75 m. A full scale KBS-3 canister has been modified for the Lasgit experiment with thirteen circular filters of varying dimensions located on its surface to provide point sources for gas injection, mimicking potential canister defects. These filters can also be used to inject water during the hydration stage, with hydration also conducted through 4 filter mats within the buffer. The deposition hole, buffer and canister are equipped with instrumentation to measure the total stress, pore water pressure and relative humidity in 32, 26 and 7 positions respectively. Additional instrumentation continually monitors variations in temperature, relative displacement of the lid and the restraining forces on the rock anchors. Groundwater inflow through a number of highly-conductive discrete fractures quickly resulted in elevated pore water pressures in sections of the borehole. This lead to the formation of conductive channels, the extrusion of bentonite from the deposition hole, and the discharge of groundwater to the gallery floor. Artificial hydration began after 106 days of testing. Up until the first gas injection test (day 843), the pressures in all of the canister filters and hydration mats were used to hydrate the clay. Initial attempts to raise pore water pressure in the artificial hydration arrays occasionally resulted in the formation of preferential pathways resulting in localized increases in

  12. Risk behaviors, prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infection and population size of current injection drug users in a China-Myanmar border city: results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Duo, Lin; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use has been the major cause of HIV/AIDS in China in the past two decades. We measured the prevalences of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and their associated risk factors among current injection drug users (IDUs) in Ruili city, a border region connecting China with Myanmar that has been undergoing serious drug use and HIV spread problems. An estimate of the number of current IDUs is also presented. In 2012, Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique. Participants underwent interviews and serological testing for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Logistic regression indentified factors associated with HIV and HCV infections. Multiplier method was used to obtain an estimate of the size of the current IDU population via combining available service data and findings from our survey. Among 370 IDUs recruited, the prevalence of HIV and HCV was 18.3% and 41.5%, respectively. 27.1% of participants had shared a needle/syringe in their lifetime. Consistent condom use rates were low among both regular (6.8%) and non-regular (30.4%) partners. Factors independently associated with being HIV positive included HCV infection, having a longer history of injection drug use and experience of needle/syringe sharing. Participants with HCV infection were more likely to be HIV positive, have injected more types of drugs, have shared other injection equipments and have unprotected sex with regular sex partners. The estimated number of current IDUs in Ruili city was 2,714 (95% CI: 1,617-5,846). IDUs may continue to be a critical subpopulation for transmission of HIV and other infections in this region because of the increasing population and persistent high risk of injection and sexual behaviours. Developing innovative strategies that can improve accessibility of current harm reduction services and incorporate more comprehensive contents is urgently needed.

  13. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  14. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  15. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  16. Hydrogen injection device in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the increasing ratio of main steam system dose rate due to N-16 activity due to excess hydrogen injection in the hydrogen injection operation of BWR type reactors. Constitution: There are provided a hydrogen injection mechanism for injecting hydrogen into primary coolants of a BWR type reactor, and a chemical injection device for injecting chemicals such as methanol, which makes nitrogen radioisotopes resulted in the reactor water upon hydrogen injection non-volatile, into the pressure vessel separately from hydrogen. Injected hydrogen and the chemicals are not reacted in the feedwater system, but the reaction proceeds due to the presence of radioactive rays after the injection into the pressure vessel. Then, hydrogen causes re-combination in the downcomer portion to reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration. Meanwhile, about 70 % of the chemicals is supplied by means of a jet pump directly to the reactor core, thereby converting the chemical form of N-16 in the reactor core more oxidative (non-volatile). (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Development of {sup 18}F-FDG ([F-18]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) injection for imaging of tumor reflecting glucose metabolism. Results of preclinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Sento; Shimada, Takayuki; Kanagawa, Masaru; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kondo, Susumu; Shirakami, Yoshifumi; Ito, Osamu; Kato-Azuma, Makoto [Nihon Medi-Physics Co., Ltd., Sodegaura, Chiba (Japan). Research Center

    1999-07-01

    Fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) injection was prepared by a modification of a method originally developed by Hamacher et al. The dosage form is the injectable solution (2 ml) containing 185 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG at a calibration time. Preclinical studies of the agent were performed. Its radiochemical purity is more than 95% and expiration time is 4 hours after the calibration time at ambient temperature. No toxicity was observed with up to 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of non-radioactive FDG intravenously injected to rats and dogs in single dose toxicity tests, respectively. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the radioactivity was mainly distributed into brain (3.0 to 3.3% I.D./Organ at 30 minutes) and heart (4.2 to 5.8% I.D./Organ at 1 to 3 hours) after intravenous injection of the agent to normal rats. In a tumor transplanted mouse model (colon 26), tumor uptake was 10.9{+-}3.5% I.D./g at 1 hr after intravenous injection of the agent, the radioactivity was retained until 3 hours. The radiation absorbed dose was estimated according to the MIRD Pamphlet based on the biodistribution data both in humans reported by Mejia et al. and rats described in this report. The radiation absorbed dose was not higher than those of commercially available radiopharmaceuticals. In conclusion, the {sup 18}F-FDG injection is expected to be useful for further clinical application. (author)

  18. Safety and efficacy of intra-articular injections of a combination of hyaluronic acid and mannitol (HAnOX-M) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: Results of a double-blind, controlled, multicenter, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrozier, Thierry; Eymard, Florent; Afif, Naji; Balblanc, Jean-Charles; Legré-Boyer, Virginie; Chevalier, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    To compare both safety and efficacy of a novel intra-articular viscosupplement made of intermediate molecular weight (MW) hyaluronic acid (HA) mixed with high concentration of mannitol with a marketed high MW HA, in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients with symptomatic knee OA, with radiological OARSI grades 1 to 3, were enrolled in a controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial. They were randomized to receive three intra-articular injections, at weekly intervals, of either HAnOX-M made of a combination of HA (MW one to 1.5MDa, 31mg/2ml) and mannitol (70mg/2ml) or Bio-HA (MW 2.3 to 3.6MDa, 20mg/2ml). The primary outcome was six-month change in the WOMAC pain subscale (0 to 20). Sample size was calculated according to a non-inferiority margin of 1.35. Secondary endpoints included six-month change in function and walking pain, analgesic consumption and safety. The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) populations consisted of 205 and 171 patients. HAnOX-M and Bio-Ha groups did not differ statistically at baseline. The primary analysis was conducted in the PP population, then in the ITT population. The average WOMAC pain score at baseline was 9.5 in both groups. Mean (SD) variations in WOMAC pain score were -4.4 (3.8) and -4.5 (4.3) mm, for HAnOX and Bio-HA respectively, satisfying the claim for non-inferiority. Similar results were obtained for all other secondary endpoints. Treatment with of HAnOX-M is effective to alleviate knee OA symptoms and to improve joint function over six months, with similar safety than conventional HA viscosupplement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Intermittent injections of osteocalcin reverse autophagic dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress resulting from diet-induced obesity in the vascular tissue via the NFκB-p65-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Li, Huixia; Liu, Jiali; Xu, Lin; Zang, Weijin; Wu, Shufang; Sun, Hongzhi

    2013-06-15

    The osteoblast-specific secreted molecule osteocalcin behaves as a hormone-regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, but the role of osteocalcin in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of osteocalcin on autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress secondary to diet-induced obesity in the vascular tissue of mice and in vascular cell models and clarified the intracellular events responsible for osteocalcin-mediated effects. The evidences showed that intermittent injections of osteocalcin in mice fed the high-fat diet were associated with a reduced body weight gain, decreased blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity compared with mice fed the high-fat diet receiving vehicle. Simultaneously, the administration of osteocalcin not only attenuated autophagy and ER stress but also rescued impaired insulin signaling in vascular tissues of mice fed a high-fat diet. Consistent with these results in vivo, the addition of osteocalcin reversed autophagy and ER stress and restored defective insulin sensitivity in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the presence of tunicamycin or in knockout XBP-1 (a transcription factor which mediates ER stress response) cells or in Atg7(-/-) cells. The protective effects of osteocalcin were nullified by suppression of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) or nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), suggesting that osteocalcin inhibits autophagy, ER stress and improves insulin signaling in the vascular tissue and cells under insulin resistance in a NFκB-dependent manner, which may be a promising therapeutic strategies of cardiovascular dysfunction secondary to obesity.

  20. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  1. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  2. Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imipenem and cilastatin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria, including ... area), gynecological, blood, skin, bone, and joint infections. Imipenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  3. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are in a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox - larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - guided botulinum toxin treatment; ...

  5. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  6. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.; Harding, J.; Kingsly, A.; Bradley, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  7. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  8. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  9. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    regression model. Analysis of variance was used to determine whether the absolute log proportional error differed by the intended injection volume. Interindividual and intraindividual deviation from the intended injection volume was also characterized. As the intended injection volumes decreased, the absolute log proportional injection volume error increased (analysis of variance, P standard deviations of the log proportional errors for injection volumes between physicians and pediatric PACU nurses; however, the difference in absolute bias was significantly higher for nurses with a 2-sided significance of P = .03. Clinically significant dose variation occurs when injecting volumes ≤0.5 mL. Administering small volumes of medications may result in unintended medication administration errors.

  10. Efficacy, patient-reported outcomes and safety profile of ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an injectable drug for the reduction of unwanted submental fat: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, B; Hoffmann, K; Walker, P; Lippert, S; Wollina, U; Havlickova, B

    2014-12-01

    Unwanted submental fat (SMF) may result in an unattractive chin profile and dissatisfaction with appearance. An approved and rigorously tested non-surgical method for SMF reduction is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the pharmacological reduction of unwanted SMF in a phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients (n = 360) with moderate or severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 1 or 2 mg/cm(2) or placebo injected into their SMF for up to four treatments ~28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. Coprimary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders, defined as a ≥1-point reduction in SMF on the Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS), and those satisfied with their appearance in association with their face and chin after treatment on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS score ≥4). Secondary efficacy endpoints included a ≥1-point improvement in SMF on the Patient-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (PR-SMFRS) and changes in the Patient-Reported Submental Fat Impact Scale (PR-SMFIS). Additional patient-reported outcomes and changes in the Skin Laxity Rating Scale were recorded. Adverse events (AEs) and laboratory test results were monitored. Compared with placebo, a greater proportion of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg/cm(2) showed a ≥1-point improvement in CR-SMFRS (58.3% and 62.3%, respectively, vs. 34.5% with placebo; P < 0.001) and patient satisfaction (SSRS score ≥4) with the appearance of their face and chin (68.3% and 64.8%, respectively, vs. 29.3%; P < 0.001). Patient-reported secondary efficacy endpoints showed significant improvements in SMF severity (PR-SMFRS; P = 0.009 for ATX-101 1 mg/cm(2) , P < 0.001 for ATX-101 2 mg/cm(2) vs. placebo) and emotions and perceived self-image (PR-SMFIS; P < 0.001). No overall worsening of skin laxity was observed. AEs were mostly transient, mild to moderate in intensity and localized to the treatment area. ATX

  11. Pellet injection into ASDEX upgrade plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.T.; Zohm, H.; Buechl, K.; Fuchs, J.C.; Gehre, O.; Gruber, O.; Lang, R.S.; Mertens, V.; Neuhauser, J.; Salzmann, H.

    1996-04-01

    This work comprises results obtained using the new centrifuge injection system for the two first years of pellet injection experiments at Asdex Upgrade until the end of the 1995 experimental campaign. The main aim of the pellet injection investigation is to develop scenarios allowing for a more flexible plasma density control means of injection of cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. Efforts have been made to develop scenarios allowing more flexible plasma density control by injecting cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. While the injection of pellets during ohmic discharges was found to be most efficient and also improves the plasma performance, increasing the auxiliary heating power causes a detoriation of the pellet fuelling efficiency. A further strong reduction of the pellet fuelling efficiency by an additional process was observed for the more reactor-relevant conditions of shallow particle deposition during H-mode phases. With injection during type I ELMy H-mode phases, each pellet was found to trigger the release of an ELM and therefore cause particle losses mainly from the edge region. In the type I ELMy H-mode, only sufficient pellet penetration allowed noticeable, persistent particle deposition in the plasma by the pellets. Applying adequate pellet injection conditions and favourable scenarios using combined pellet/gas puff refuelling, significant density ramp-up to densities exceeding the empirical Greenwald limit by up to a factor of two was achieved even for strongly heated H-mode plasmas. (orig.)

  12. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Fasciitis after Intramuscular Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Abbate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing soft tissue fasciitis (NSTIs or necrotizing fasciitis is an infrequent and serious infection. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a female patient who received a diagnosis of NSTIs after gluteus intramuscular injection. We also report the results of our review of published papers from 1997 to 2017. Since now, 19 cases of NSTIs following intramuscular injections have been described. We focus on the correlation between intramuscular injection and NSTIs onset, especially in immunosuppressed patients treated with corticosteroids, suffering from chronic diseases or drug addicted. Intramuscular injections can provoke severe tissue trauma, representing local portal of infection, even if correctly administrated. Otherwise, it is important not to inject drug in subcutaneous, which is a less vascularized area and therefore more susceptible to infections. Likewise, a proper injecting technique and aspiration prior to injection seem to be valid measure to prevent intra-arterial or para-arterial drug injection with the consequent massive inflammatory reaction. Necrosis at the infection site appears to be independent of the drug, and it is a strong additional risk factor for NSTIs.

  13. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  14. Effect of the Ethanol Injection Moment During Compression Stroke on the Combustion of Ethanol - Diesel Dual Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhou, Liying; Huang, Haomin; Xu, Mingfei; Guo, Mei; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    A set of GDI system is installed on a F188 single-cylinder, air-cooled and direct injection diesel engine, which is used for ethanol injection, with the injection time controlled by the crank angle signal collected by AVL angle encoder. The injection of ethanol amounts to half of the thermal equivalent of an original diesel fuel. A 3D combustion model is established for the ethanol - diesel dual direct injection engine. Diesel was injected from the original fuel injection system, with a fuel supply advance angle of 20°CA. The ethanol was injected into the cylinder during compression process. Diesel injection began after the completion of ethanol injection. Ethanol injection starting point of 240°CA, 260°CA, 280°CA, 300°CA and 319.4°CA were simulated and analyzed. Due to the different timing of ethanol injection, the ignition of the ethanol mixture when diesel fires, results in non-uniform ignition distribution and flame propagation rate, since the distribution and concentration gradients of the ethanol mixture in the cylinder are different, thus affecting the combustion process. The results show that, when ethanol is injected at 319.4°CA, the combustion heat release rate and the pressure rise rate during the initial stage are the highest. Also, the maximum combustion pressure, with a relatively advance phase, is the highest. In case of later initial ethanol injection, the average temperature in the cylinder during the initial combustion period will have a faster rise. In case of initial injection at 319.4°CA, the average temperature in the cylinder is the highest, followed by 240°CA ethanol injection. In the post-combustion stage, the earlier ethanol injection will result in higher average temperature in the cylinder and more complete fuel combustion. The injection of ethanol at 319.4°CA produces earlier and highest NOX emissions.

  15. IAEA technical committee meeting on pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Pellet Injection, May 10-12, 1993, at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki-ken, Japan, was held to review the latest results on pellet injection and its effects on plasma confinement. In particular, topics included in the meeting include (i) pellet ablation and particle fueling results, (ii) pellet injection effects on confinement, including improved confinement modes, edge effects, magnetohydrodynamic activity and impurity transport, and (iii) injector technology and diagnostics using pellets. About 30 experts attended and 23 papers were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  17. LHC injection optics measurements at commissioning (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Garcia-Bonilla, Alba-Carolina; Langner, Andy Sven; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Malina, Lukas; Mcateer, Meghan Jill; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the measurement and correction process followed during the 2015 LHC injection optics commissioning which extended into Machine Developments (MDs). Results have been analyzed and compared to the 2012 measurements.

  18. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  19. Assessment of complications due to intratympanic injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuan Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study is to report and to analyze the complications following intratympanic injections (ITI of steroids. The occurrence rate of complications at different ITI sites, four quadrants of eardrum, was also compared. Methods: A retrospective clinical review in a medical center. Each patient received ITI twice in a week for 2–3 consecutive weeks as a salvage therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Post-injection complications, especially transient dizziness and vertigo, were recorded. Patients with acute or chronic vertigo episodes in 1 month were excluded. Results: A total of 59 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss and a total of 278 times of ITI were performed in 1 year. The post-injection complications included pain, tongue numbness, transient dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, and a small persistent perforation. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of these complications between the injections sites on the 4 quadrants of the tympanic membrane. However, there was statistical significance in the post-injection vertiginous episode after IT injections to posterior-inferior quadrant (Q3 and posterior-superior quadrant (Q4 compared to anterior-superior quadrant (Q1 and anterior-inferior quadrant (Q2 (P = 0.0113. Conclusion: IT injection is recommended to be applied to the Q2 since the Q1 and Q4 injections are more likely to induce the adverse effect of tongue numbness, while the Q3 and Q4 areas are more likely to induce post-injection vertigo. Keywords: Intratympanic injection, Sudden deafness, Complications, Vertigo

  20. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  1. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  2. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  3. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  4. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... botulinum neurotoxin as much art as it is science. It is in your best interest to locate the most well-trained and experienced doctor you can find. Before making an appointment to receive botulinum neuro toxin injections, ask the office personnel which doctor ...

  5. Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called penicillin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection. Tazobactam is ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying piperacillin.Antibiotics ... injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  6. Meropenem and Vaborbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Vaborbactam is in a class ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying meropenem.Antibiotics such as meropenem and vaborbactam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  7. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  9. RHIC injection kicker impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Zhang, W.

    1995-01-01

    The longitudinal impedance of the RHIC injection kicker is measured using the wire method up to a frequency of 3 GHz. The mismatch between the 50 ohm cable and the wire and pipe system is calibrated using the TRL calibration algorithm. Various methods of reducing the impedance, such as coated ceramic pipe and copper strips are investigated

  10. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  11. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg

    2011-01-01

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  12. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A CNG DIRECT INJECTION SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rashid A. Aziz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out on a dedicated compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI engine with a compression ratio (CR of 14 and a central injection system. Several injection timing parameters from early injection timing (300 BTDC to partial direct injection (180 BTDC to full direct injection (120 BTDC were investigated. The 300 BTDC injection timing experiment was carried out to simulate the performance of a port injection engine and the result is used as a benchmark for engine performance. The full DI resulted in a 20% higher performance than the early injection timing for low engine speeds up to 2750 rpm. 180 BTDC injection timing shows the highest performance over an extensive range of engine speed because it has a similar volumetric efficiency to full DI. However, the earlier injection timing allowed for a better air–fuel mixing and gives superior performance for engine speeds above 4500 rpm. The engine performance could be explained by analysis of the heat release rate that shows that at low and intermediate engine speeds of 2000 and 3000, the full DI and partial DI resulted in the fastest heat release rate whereas at a high engine speed of 5000 rpm, the simulated port injection operation resulted in the fastest heat release rate.

  13. [Rational motivation of drug injection and prostitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    Homeless drug users and prostitutes constitute a population at risk for contracting and propagating AIDS. This study aims at understanding the paradox related to drug injection and prostitution among 21 homeless from Montreal. These behaviors are studied following the picoeconomic paradox of an apprehended desire. The results show that these homeless see drug injection as a self-reward motivated by imaginary emotional object, in spite of the known and dreaded consequences. Prostitution is described as a self-investment accessory to drug injection. This study concludes with reflections on AIDS prevention programs in relation with the needs of the homeless.

  14. J-regular rings with injectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  15. Radiotracer injections through microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Maschek, G.; Pichler, R.; Giesen, I.; Hatzl-Griesenhofer, M.; Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers ( 99m Tc-HAMS, 99m Tc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 μm micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 μm. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

  16. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  17. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. 160 MeV $H^-$ Injection into the CERN PSB

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Gerigk, F; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Martini, M; Sermeus, L

    2007-01-01

    The H- beam from the proposed LINAC4 will be injected into the four existing rings of the PS Booster at 160 MeV. A substantial upgrade of the injection region is required, including the modification of the beam distribution system and the construction of a new H- injection system. This paper discusses beam dynamics and hardware requirements and presents the results of optimisation studies of the injection process for different beam characteristics and scenarios. The resulting conceptual design of the injection region is presented, together with the main hardware modifications and performance specifications.

  19. Innovative measurement for injection systems; Innovative Messtechnik fuer Einspritzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetzky, Bjoern; Majer, Clemens; Doell, Reinahrd [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The treatise introduces a new measuring method to determine the injection quantity and injection rate. In this method the change in pressure within a hydraulic chamber is measured during injection. Also the momentary pressure-dependent speed of sound of the medium inside the chamber is measured. With this information the desired injection quantity can be derived with high precision. A measuring technique (HDA) based on this method is described. Measurement with HDA are performed based on actual requirements from the Diesel-Injection-System, results from these measurements are presented in example. Results are compared with those achieved by using a known measuring technique (EMI). (orig.)

  20. Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A.; Vacchi, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs

  1. Survey of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Anticoagulated Patients: Korean Physiatrists' Preference in Controlling Anticoagulation Profile Prior to Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongjun; Park, Geun-Young; Park, Jihye; Choi, Asayeon; Kim, Soo Yeon; Boulias, Chris; Phadke, Chetan P; Ismail, Farooq; Im, Sun

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate Korean physiatrists' practice of performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and to assess their preference in controlling the bleeding risk before injection. As part of an international collaboration survey study, a questionnaire survey was administered to 100 Korean physiatrists. Physiatrists were asked about their level of experience with botulinum toxin injection, the safe international normalized ratio range in anticoagulated patients undergoing injection, their tendency for injecting into deep muscles, and their experience of bleeding complications. International normalized ratio injection by 41% of the respondents. Thirty-six respondents replied that the international normalized ratio should be lowered to sub-therapeutic levels before injection, and 18% of the respondents reported that anticoagulants should be intentionally withheld and discontinued prior to injection. In addition, 20%-30% of the respondents answered that they were uncertain whether they should perform the injection regardless of the international normalized ratio values. About 69% of the respondents replied that they did have any standardized protocols for performing botulinum toxin injection in patients using anticoagulants. Only 1 physiatrist replied that he had encountered a case of compartment syndrome. In accordance with the lack of consensus in performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients, our survey shows a wide range of practices among many Korean physiatrists; they tend to avoid botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and are uncertain about how to approach these patients. The results of this study emphasize the need for formulating a proper international consensus on botulinum toxin injection management in anticoagulated patients.

  2. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  3. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Impact of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-rail direct injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudy, Frederic; Seers, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of biodiesel fuel properties on the injection mass flow rate of a diesel common-rail injection system. Simulations are first performed with ISO 4113 diesel fuel on a four-cylinder common-rail system to evaluate a single and triple injection strategies. For each injection strategy, the impact of modifying a single fuel property at a time is evaluated so as to quantify its influence on the injection process. The results show that fuel density is the main property that affects the injection process, such as total mass injected and pressure wave in the common-rail system. The fuel's viscosity and bulk modulus also influence, but to a lessen degree, the mass flow rate of the injector notably during multiple injection strategies as individual properties change the fuel's dampening property and friction coefficient.

  5. Gallium arsenide injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

  6. Hydrogen pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    In a hydrogen pellet injection device, a nozzle block having a hydrogen gas supply channel is disposed at the inner side of a main cryogenic housing, and an electric resistor is attached to the block. Further, a nozzle block and a hydrogen gas introduction pipe are attached by way of a thermal insulating spacer. Electric current is supplied to the resistor to positively heat the nozzle block and melt remaining solid hydrogen in the hydrogen gas supply channel. Further, the effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor is prevented from reaching the side of the hydrogen gas introduction pipe by the thermal insulation spacer. That is, the temperature of the nozzle block is directly and positively elevated, to melt the solid hydrogen rapidly. Preparation operation from the injection of the hydrogen pellet to the next injection can be completed in a shorter period of time compared with a conventional case thereby enabling to make the test more efficient. Further, only the temperature of the nozzle block is elevated with no effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor to other components by the thermal insulation flange. (N.H.)

  7. Temperature stabilization of injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, A.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus which stabilizes the temperature, and thereby the output wavelength, of an injection laser. Means monitor the laser terminal voltage across a laser and derive a voltage therefrom which is proportional to the junction voltage of the laser. Means compares the voltage to a reference value from source and a temperature controller adjusts the laser temperature in response to the results of the comparison. Further embodiments of the present invention vary the output wavelength of the laser by varying the reference value from source against which the laser junction voltage is compared. (author)

  8. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G injection is used to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ...

  9. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  10. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

  11. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  12. The biological effects of radium-224 injected into dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    A life-span study was conducted in 128 beagle dogs to determine the biological effects of intravenously injected 224 Ra chloride. The 224 Ra chloride was prepared by the same method used for intravenous injections in humans who were treated for ankylosing spondylitis and tuberculosis. Thus the results obtained from dogs can be compared directly to the population of treated humans, both for the elucidation of the effect of exposure rate and for comparison with other radionuclides for which data for humans are unavailable. Using equal numbers of males and females, the dogs were injected with one of four levels of 224 Ra resulting in initial body burdens of approximately 13, 40, 120 or 350 kBq of 224 Ra kg -1 body mass. A control group of dogs was injected with diluent only. All dogs were divided further into three groups for which the amount of injected 224 Ra (half-life of 3.62 days) or diluent was given in a single injection or divided equally into 10 or 50 weekly injections. As a result of these three injection schedules, the accumulation of dose from the injected 224 Ra was distributed over approximately 1, 3 or 12 months. Each injection schedule included four different injection levels resulting in average absorbed α-particle doses to bone of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Gy, respectively. The primary early effect observed was a hematological dyscrasia in the dogs receiving either of the two highest injection levels. The effect was most severe in the dogs receiving a single injection of 224 Ra and resulted in the death of three dogs injected at the highest level. The late-occurring biological effects were tumors. Bone tumors were the most common followed by tumors in the nasal mucosa. 52 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  13. Transverse beam emittance optimization for the injection into BESSY II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Felix [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institut Beschleunigerphysik (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For top up injection into the storage ring BESSY II an average injection efficiency of at least 90% is required. In low alpha mode the injection efficiency does not meet the requirements. Future BESSY II features will include shorter bunches in the storage ring (VSR) and user transparent injection with a non linear kicker. These will raise the demands on the quality of the injected beam even further. This work investigates the development of transverse emittance over the acceleration cycle in the synchrotron and the possibility of transverse emittance exchange by a sequence of skew quadrupoles in the transfer line. Results of emittance measurements and emittance exchange simulations will be given.

  14. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  15. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  16. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  17. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  18. Rapid colorimetric assay for gentamicin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbutton, P

    1987-01-01

    A rapid colorimetric method for determining gentamicin concentration in commercial preparations of gentamicin sulfate injection was developed. Methods currently available for measuring gentamicin concentration via its colored complex with cupric ions in alkaline solution were modified to reduce the time required for a single analysis. The alkaline copper tartrate (ACT) reagent solution was prepared such that each milliliter contained 100 mumol cupric sulfate, 210 mumol potassium sodium tartrate, and 1.25 mmol sodium hydroxide. The assay involves mixing 0.3 mL gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL (of gentamicin), 1.0 mL ACT reagent, and 0.7 mL water; the absorbance of the resulting solution at 560 nm was used to calculate the gentamicin concentration in the sample. For injections containing 10 mg/mL of gentamicin, the amount of the injection was increased to 0.5 mL and water decreased to 0.5 mL. The concentration of gentamicin in samples representing 11 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL and 8 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 10 mg/mL was determined. The specificity, reproducibility, and accuracy of the assay were assessed. The colored complex was stable for at least two hours. Gentamicin concentration ranged from 93.7 to 108% and from 95 to 109% of the stated label value of the 40 mg/mL and the 10 mg/mL injections, respectively. No components of the preservative system present in the injections interfered with the assay. Since other aminoglycosides produced a colored complex, the assay is not specific for gentamicin. The assay was accurate and reproducible over the range of 4-20 mg of gentamicin. This rapid and accurate assay can be easily applied in the hospital pharmacy setting.

  19. Magnetic detection of ferrofluid injection zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, S.; Moridis, G.; Becker, A.

    1998-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles that can be stabilized in various carrier liquids. In this study the authors investigate the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. An ability to track and monitor the movement and position of injected liquids is essential in assessing the effectiveness of the delivery system and the success of the process. Ferrofluids can also provide a significant detection and verification tool in containment technologies, where they can be injected with the barrier liquids to provide a strong signature allowing determination of the barrier geometry, extent, continuity and integrity. Finally, ferrofluids may have unique properties as tracers for detecting preferential flow features (such as fractures) in the subsurface, and thus allow the design of more effective remediation systems. In this report the authors review the results of the investigation of the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They demonstrate the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of injected ferrofluids used to trace liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. The geometrical shapes considered were a sphere, a thin disk, a rectangular horizontal slab, and a cylinder. Simple calculations based on the principles of magnetometry are made to determine the detection depths of FTs. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs show a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.

  20. High power neutral beam injection in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Nagaoka, K.

    2005-01-01

    The results of high power injection with a neutral beam injection (NBI) system for the large helical device (LHD) are reported. The system consists of three beam-lines, and two hydrogen negative ion (H - ion) sources are installed in each beam-line. In order to improve the injection power, the new beam accelerator with multi-slot grounded grid (MSGG) has been developed and applied to one of the beam-lines. Using the accelerator, the maximum powers of 5.7 MW were achieved in 2003 and 2004, and the energy of 189 keV reached at maximum. The power and energy exceeded the design values of the individual beam-line for LHD. The other beam-lines also increased their injection power up to about 4 MW, and the total injection power of 13.1 MW was achieved with three beam-lines in 2003. Although the accelerator had an advantage in high power beam injection, it involved a demerit in the beam focal condition. The disadvantage was resolved by modifying the aperture shapes of the steering grid. (author)

  1. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system. This article, which was originally published online on 14 September 2017, contained an error in the acknowledgment section. The corrected acknowledgment appears in the Corrigendum attached to the pdf.

  2. Long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone long-acting injection or oral antipsychotics in Spain: results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, J M; Rodriguez-Morales, A; Diels, J; Povey, M; Jacobs, A; Zhao, Z; Lam, A; Villalobos Vega, J C; Cuéllar, J Alonso; de Castro, F J Alberca; Quintero, C Morillo-Velarde; Martíin, J F Román; Domínguez, P Tabares; Ojeda, J L Prados; Cortés, S Sanz; Cala, F I Mata; Marín, C Gutiérrez; Castro, L Moyano; Duaso, M A Haza; Albarracín, J Requena; Vergara, G Narbona; Benítez, A Fernández; Cleries, F Mayoral; Pérez-Brian, J M García-Herrera; Aragón, A Bordallo; Navarro, J C Rodríguez; Biedma, J A Algarra; de Pedro, R Bravo; González, J F Delgado; López, M E Jaén; Moreno, H Díaz; López, J A Soto; Rodríguez, E Ojeda; de Hoyos, C Martínez; Sacristán, M Pardilla; Martín, M D Molina; Ballesteros, E Martín; Rodríguez, P A Sopelana; Menéndez, L Fernández; Rivas, R Santos; del Pino Cuadrado, P; Lauffer, J Correas; Solano, J J Rodríguez; Martínez, J M Fernández; Solano, F García; Rodríguez, P García-Lamberde; Rodríguez, J A Romero; Cano, T Rodríguez; Fortacin, M Ducaju; Lobeiras, J M Blanco; Sampedro, J M Piñeiro; Bravo, A Pérez; Pellicer, A Fernández; López, M D Alonso; Liste, J Fraga; Fernández, M Riobo; Losada, A Casas; Mendez, R Vazquez-Noguerol; Romero, S Agra; Blanco, J J Blanco; Bonaselt, I Tortajada; Mahia, M C García; del Valle, E Ferrer Gómez; Yañez, P Quiroga; Camarasa, M Gelabert; Alonso, J A Barbado; Mendez, G Florez; Feliz, F Doce; Lamela, M A López; Piñero, M Vega; Alvarado, P Fuentes; Gómez, I López; Martín, P Fadon; Gómez, J L Santos; López, A García; Jiménez, A Rodríguez; Nafs, A Escudero; Barquero, N Casas; Ortiz, R Fernández-Villamor; Noguera, J L Velez; Carrasco, P Ruiz; Muñoz, J Martín; Palma, M Masegoza; Hortelano, C Marín; Bonome, L Sánchez; Sevilla, J Sánchez; Juan, J M Mongil San; Ramos, J M García; Muñoz, J L Vallejo; Guisasola, J Elorza; Vazquez, L Santamaria; Guerras, F Campo; Nebot, F J Arrufat; Fernández, F J Baron; Nicolau, A L Palomo; Subirats, R Catala; Kidias, M Messays; Navarro, V Fabregat; García, B Frades; del Rosal, F Mejias; de Vicente Muñoz, T; Ballester, J Año; Lieb, P Malabia; Martel, A Delgado; Bea, E Roca; Joaquim, I Grau; Enjuanes, F Boatas; Piñol, M Bañuelos; Carbonell, E Fontova I; Muñoz, R Martín; Giribets, C Argila; Sans, L Albages; Blanco, A Serrano; Felipe, M Arcega; Muñoz, P González; Villanueva, A Pons; Arroyo, M Bernardo; Borri, R Coronas; Fallada, S Miret; Merola, M Celma; Rodon, E Parellada; Palmes, J R Pigem; Martínez, E Pérez; Catala, J Matarredona; Coca, A Sandoval; Ferrandiz, F Pascual; Paya, E Ferrandiz; Caballero, G Iturri; Bonet, A Franco; Figueras, J Fluvia; Pagador, P Moreno; Garibo, M Medina; Camo, V Pérez; Carrillo, C Sanz; Valero, C Pelegrin; Rebollo, F J Caro; García Campayo, J; Sala Ayma, J M Sala; Roig, M Martínez; de Uña Mateos, M A; Bertolin, R García; García, A Martín; Mazo, F Jiménez; Velasco, J L Galvez; Pérez, L Santa Maria; Casado, C Jiménez; Barba, J J Mancheño; Diaz, M Conde; Rubio, J P Alcon; Mandoli, A Soler; Herrero, A Uson; Martínez, A Rodríguez; Serrano, P Salgado; Rodríguez, E Nieto; Montesinos, J Segui; Macia, J Ferragud; Mateos Marcos, A Mateos; Soto, J V Pérez-Fuster; Dumont, M Verdaguer; Pagan, J Parra; Martínez, V Balanza; Santiuste de Pablos, M; Delgado, C Espinosa; Quiles, M D Martínez; López, F J Manzanera; Navarro, P Pozo; Torres, A Micol; Ingles, F J Martínez; Arias-Camison, J M Salmeron; Manzano, J C López; Peña, R Villanueva; Guitarte, G Petersen; Fontecilla, H Blasco; Romero, J Barjau; Gil, R Sanz; Lozano, J Marín; Adanez, L Donaire; Zarranz Herrera-Oria, I; Jiménez, J Pérez; Vaz, F Carrato; García, O Sanz; Anton, C Contreras; Casula, R Reixach; Hernandez, M C Natividad; Escabias, F Teba; Torresano, J Rodríguez; Pérez-Villamil, A Huidobro; Estevez, L; Figuero, M Aragües; Muñoz de Morales, A; Calvin, J L Rodríguez; Criado, M Delgado; Rodríguez, V Molina; Ambrosolio, E Balbo; Madera, P M Holgado; Alfaro, G Ponce; Vidal, M M Rojas; Valtuille, A García; Ruiz, O; Cabornero, G Lucas; Echevarria Martínez de Bujo, M; Mallen, M J Maicas; Puigros, J Santandreu; Martorell, A Liñana; Forteza, A Clar; Arrebola, E Rodríguez; Rodríguez de la Torre, M; Saiz, C G Anton; Bardolet I Casas, C; Linde, E Rodríguez; De Arce Cordon, R; Molina, E M Padial; Carazo, F J Ruiz; Romero, J J Muro; Cano, D Vico; Dorado, M Soria; Velazquez, S Campos; Sánchez, A J Rodríguez; Leon, S Ocio; Sánchez, K Pachas; Benitez, M Henry; Zugarramurai, A Intxausti; Contreras, M A; De la Varga González, M; Marín, P Barreiro; Robina, F Gómez; García, M Sánchez; Pérez, F J Otero; Bros, P Cubero; Gómez, A Carrillo; de Dios Molina Martín, J; Perera, J L Carrasco; Averbach, M C; Perera, J L Carrasco; Palancares, E Goenaga; Gallego de Dios, M T; Rojo, C Fernández; Iglesias, S Sánchez; Merino, M I Rubio; Mestre, N Prieto; Urdaniz, A Pérez; Sánchez, J M Martínez; Seco, R Gordo; Muñoz, J Franco; Agut, M Mateos; Lozano, M L Blanco; Herguedas, F Martín; Pena, A Torcal; García, J Vicente; Martínez, A Varona; Sanz Granado, O Sanz; Fernández, M A Medina; Canseco, J M Moran; López, P A Megia; Martín, M A Franco; Barrio, J A Espina; Ubago, J Giner; Bennassar, M Roca; Díez, J M Olivares; Fleta, J L Hernandez; Fortes, F Porras; López, C Arango; Medina, O; Alvarez, D Figuera; Roca, J M Peña; Valladolid, G Rubio; Tavera, J A Furquet; García-Castrillon Sales, J A; Llordes, I Batalla; Melgarejo, C Anchuistegui; Cañas de la Paz, F; Callol, V Vallés; García, M Bousoño; García, J Bobes; Leal, F J Vaz; Corrales, E Cáceres; Iglesias, E Sánchez; Gómez, M A Carreiras; Serrano, G García; Chillarón, E G Román; Aguado, F J Samino; Castillo, J J Molina; González, A González; Vázquez, J Gallardo; Peralvarez, M Bolivar; Diaz, M Rios; Mesa, M Ybarzabal; Artiles, F J Acosta; Chao, M Ajoy; Mesa, M Ybarzabal; del Rosario Santana, P; Escudero, M A García; Berenguer, M Molla; Llacer, J M Bonete; Berna, J A Juan; Ortiz, J Barragán; Pardell, L Tost; Hernández-Alvarez de Sotomayor, C; Méndez, M R Cejas; Garate, R Cabrera; Múgica, B Díaz; González, M Caballero; Domingo, J Pujol; Navarro, C Sáez; Vera, G Selva; Cuquerella, M A; Monzo, J Lonjedo; Boada, P Cervera; Pérez, M F Martín; Parrado, E Carrasco; Sánchez, J J Yañez; Fernández, J Calvo

    2009-06-01

    The electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) is a prospective, observational study of patients with schizophrenia designed to evaluate long-term treatment outcomes in routine clinical practice. Parameters were assessed at baseline and at 3 month intervals for 2 years in patients initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) (n=1345) or a new oral antipsychotic (AP) (n=277; 35.7% and 36.5% on risperidone and olanzapine, respectively) in Spain. Hospitalization prior to therapy was assessed by a retrospective chart review. At 24 months, treatment retention (81.8% for RLAI versus 63.4% for oral APs, p<0.0001) and reduction in Clinical Global Impression Severity scores (-1.14 for RLAI versus -0.94 for APs, p=0.0165) were significantly higher with RLAI. Compared to the pre-switch period, RLAI patients had greater reductions in the number (reduction of 0.37 stays per patient versus 0.2, p<0.05) and days (18.74 versus 13.02, p<0.01) of hospitalizations at 24 months than oral AP patients. This 2 year, prospective, observational study showed that, compared to oral antipsychotics, RLAI was associated with better treatment retention, greater improvement in clinical symptoms and functioning, and greater reduction in hospital stays and days in hospital in patients with schizophrenia. Improved treatment adherence, increased efficacy and reduced hospitalization with RLAI offer the opportunity of substantial therapeutic improvement in schizophrenia.

  3. Fibre-optical measurement of the time curve of layer temperatures in a well as a result of heat injection and heat extraction; Untersuchung der zeitlichen Entwicklung von Schichttemperaturen in einer Bohrung bei Waermeaus- und Waermeeinspeisung mit Hilfe faseroptischer Temperaturmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtig, E; Groswig, S; Kasch, M [GESO GmbH, Jena (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The relations between the thermal processes around a 200 m deep geothermal well and the petrographic composition were studied using the fibre optic temperature sensing method. The heat injection and heat extraction properties depend on the petrographic properties (porosity, permeability) of the individual layers. Coarse sandy, water saturated layers have good properties, silts and clays have poor properties for het storage and heat extraction. Heat transport occurs in well defined layers with good hydraulic properties and can be explained by a convective heat transport model. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit faseroptischen Temperaturmessungen in einer Erdwaermesonde (EWS)-Bohrung wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen den thermischen Prozessen unmittelbar um die EWS und dem petrographischen Aufbau untersucht. Das Waermeein- bzw. -ausspeisevermoegen haengt von der petrographischen Ausbildung der einzelnen Schichten ab (Porositaet, Kf-Wert). Grobsandige bis kiesige, wassergesaettigte Schichten haben guenstige, schluffig-tonige unguenstige Eigenschaften fuer die Waermeaus- bzw. -einspeisung. Der wesentliche Waermetransport erfolgt in definierten geringmaechtigen Schichten mit guten hydraulischen Eigenschaften. Der Waermetransport in poroesen, wassergefuellten Schichten kann mit einem konvektiven Waermetransportmodell erklaert werden. (orig.)

  4. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Injecting Complications and the Role of the Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries participated in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The first results of this survey are published elsewhere in this issue. Herein we report that the most common complication of injecting insulin is lipohypertrophy (LH), which was self-reported by 29.0% of patients and found by physical examination in 30.8% by health care professionals (HCPs). Patients with LH consumed a mean of 10.1 IU more insulin daily than patients without LH. Glycated hemoglobin levels averaged 0.55% higher in patients with vs without LH. Lipohypertrophy was associated with higher rates of unexplained hypoglycemia and glycemic variability as well as more frequent diabetic ketoacidosis, incorrect rotation of injection sites, use of smaller injection zones, longer duration of insulin use, and reuse of pen needles (each P<.05). Routine inspection of injection sites by the HCP was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin levels, less LH, and more correct injection site rotation. Patients were also more likely to rotate correctly if they received injection instructions from their HCP in the past 6 months. Fewer than 40% of patients claimed to have gotten such instructions in the past 6 months, and 10% said that they have never received training on how to inject correctly despite injecting for a mean of nearly 9 years. Use of these data should stimulate renewed commitment to optimizing insulin injection practices. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of fuel injection pressures on Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanthagopal, K.; Ashok, B.; Karuppa Raj, R. Thundil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection pressure of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel is investigated. • Engine characteristics of 100% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been performed. • Calophyllum inophyllum is a non-edible source for biodiesel production. • Increase in injection pressure of biodiesel, improves the fuel economy. • Incylinder pressure characteristics of biodiesel follows similar trend as of diesel. - Abstract: The trend of using biodiesels in compression ignition engines have been the focus in recent decades due to the promising environmental factors and depletion of fossil fuel reserves. This work presents the effect of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics at different injection pressures. Experimental investigations with varying injection pressures of 200 bar, 220 bar and 240 bar have been carried out to analyse the parameters like brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, heat release rate and engine emissions of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 100% biodiesel and compared with neat diesel. The experimental results revealed that brake specific fuel consumption of C. inophyllum methyl ester fuelled engine has been reduced to a great extent with higher injection pressure. Significant reduction in emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity have been observed during fuel injection of biodiesel at 220 bar compared to other fuel injection pressures. However oxides of nitrogen increased with increase in injection pressures of C. inophyllum methyl ester and are always higher than that of neat diesel. In addition the combustion characteristics of biodiesel at all injection pressures followed a similar trend to that of conventional diesel.

  6. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  7. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  8. Injection characteristics of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glensvig, M.

    1996-09-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has proved to be a new ultra-clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Engine tests have shown considerably lower NO{sub x} emissions, no particle emissions and lower noise compared to that obtained from normal diesel engine operation. DME also has demonstrated favorable response to Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME. Fundamental spray behaviour was characterized by fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and droplet size and evaporation. The influence of fuel characteristics, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure on the DME and diesel spray behavior was investigated. Fuel was injected into an unheated injection chamber with a ambient pressure of 15 bar and 25 bar, respectively, giving a simplified simulation of the environment in an operating engine. Two nozzles were studied: a single hole nozzle and a pintle nozzle. A conventional fuel injection system was used for both nozzles. Injection parameters of RPM, throttle position, fuel line length and chamber environment were held constant for both nozzles. The sprays were visualized using schlieren and high speed photography. Results show that the general appearance of the DME spray is similar to that of diesel spray. The core of the DME spray seems less dense and the spray tip less sharp compared to diesel spray, indicating smaller droplets with a lower momentum in the core of the DME spray. Schlieren film shows that with both DME and diesel fuel, the spray tip only consists of liquid and that evaporation occurs after a brief time interval. Penetration of DME is about one third that of diesel using the pintle nozzle. Also, the spray angle is considerably larger for the DME spray compared to the diesel spray. A comparatively smaller difference in penetration is observed using the hole nozzle. Differences in penetration for the hole nozzle are within the limit of the penetration

  9. Cost-Utility of a Single-Injection Combined Corticosteroid-Hyaluronic Acid Formulation vs a 2-Injection Regimen of Sequential Corticosteroid and Hyaluronic Acid Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Etienne L; Deakon, Robert T; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Bhandari, Mohit; Lamontagne, Martin; McCormack, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown early and sustained relief with a combination therapy of a corticosteroid (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This can be administered via a single injection containing both products or as separate injections. The former may be more expensive when considering only product cost, but the latter incurs the additional costs and time of a second procedure. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the single injection with the 2-injection regimen. The results of this analysis revealed that the single-injection formulation of a CS and HA may be cost-effective, assuming a willingness-to-pay of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained, for symptomatic relief of OA symptoms. This treatment may also be more desirable to patients who find injections to be inconvenient or unpleasant.

  10. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  11. Sub-stratum injection of fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteren van, W.; Cornelisse, J.; Costello, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experiment conducted to evaluate the sub-stratum injection of oil sands fine tailings. The hydraulic fracturing method was developed as a sub-surface dredging process for mining sand without removing the overburden. Pressure was used to transport the sand-water mixture, and the high pressures used in the process resulted in water losses through the clay-sand interface. The experiment was conducted with soft clay, compacted sand, and an injection feed. Results of the study showed that the injection method may be successful. However, further research is required to characterize the fracture energy of oil sands and the rheology of fine tailings. Horizontal hydraulic fracturing equations were presented. Tensile failures in clay and oil sands were discussed. Fractures were identified by deformation and discharge rates. Crack propagation methods were also studied. tabs., figs.

  12. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khatkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions for achieving the desirable result during botulinum toxin therapy for muscular dystonia, spasticity, and other diseases accompanied by spasm, pain, and autonomic dysfunction (dystonias, spasticity, etc. is the proper administration of the agent into the muscles directly involved in the pathological process. The exact entry of botulinum toxin into the target muscles is essential for successful and safe treatment because its injection into a normal muscle may cause side effects. The most common errors are the incorrect depth and incorrect direction of a needle on insertion. Therefore, the exact injection of the agent particularly into the shallow and deep muscles is a difficult task even for an experienced specialist and requires the use of controlling methods.The European Consensus on Botulinum Toxin Therapy points out that various injection techniques are needed for the better identification of necessary muscles. However, there are currently no reports on the clear advantage of any technique. In our country, injections using palpation and anatomical landmarks have been widely used in routine practice so far; electromyographic monitoring and electrostimulation have been less frequently applied. In recent years, the new method ultrasound-guided injection has continued to grow more popular. This effective, accessible, and easy-to-use method makes it possible to manage a real-time injection process and to ensure the exact entry of the agent into the muscle. This paper is dedicated to a comparative analysis of different injection methods and to a description of the ultrasound-guided technique and its advantages over others. 

  13. Reduced injection pressures using a compressed air injection technique (CAIT): an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Knezevich, Mark P; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2008-01-01

    High injection pressures have been associated with intraneural injection and persistent neurological injury in animals. Our objective was to test whether a reported simple compressed air injection technique (CAIT) would limit the generation of injection pressures to below a suggested 1,034 mm Hg limit in an in vitro model. After ethics board approval, 30 consenting anesthesiologists injected saline into a semiclosed system. Injection pressures using 30 mL syringes connected to a 22 gauge needle and containing 20 mL of saline were measured for 60 seconds using: (1) a typical "syringe feel" method, and (2) CAIT, thereby drawing 10 mL of air above the saline and compressing this to 5 mL prior to and during injections. All anesthesiologists performed the syringe feel method before introduction and demonstration of CAIT. Using CAIT, no anesthesiologist generated pressures above 1,034 mm Hg, while 29 of 30 produced pressures above this limit at some time using the syringe feel method. The mean pressure using CAIT was lower (636 +/- 71 vs. 1378 +/- 194 mm Hg, P = .025), and the syringe feel method resulted in higher peak pressures (1,875 +/- 206 vs. 715 +/- 104 mm Hg, P = .000). This study demonstrated that CAIT can effectively keep injection pressures under 1,034 mm Hg in this in vitro model. Animal and clinical studies will be needed to determine whether CAIT will allow objective, real-time pressure monitoring. If high pressure injections are proven to contribute to nerve injury in humans, this technique may have the potential to improve the safety of peripheral nerve blocks.

  14. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  15. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  16. Interface state generation after hole injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C. Z.; Zhang, J. F.; Groeseneken, G.; Degraeve, R.; Ellis, J. N.; Beech, C. D.

    2001-01-01

    After terminating electrical stresses, the generation of interface states can continue. Our previous work in this area indicates that the interface state generation following hole injection originates from a defect. These defects are inactive in a fresh device, but can be excited by hole injection and then converted into interface states under a positive gate bias after hole injection. There is little information available on these defects. This article investigates how they are formed and attempts to explain why they are sensitive to processing conditions. Roles played by hydrogen and trapped holes will be clarified. A detailed comparison between the interface state generation after hole injection in air and that in forming gas is carried out. Our results show that there are two independent processes for the generation: one is caused by H 2 cracking and the other is not. The rate limiting process for the interface state generation after hole injection is discussed and the relation between the defects responsible for this generation and hole traps is explored. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  17. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under V g = 0 V and V d = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under V g = −1.8 V and V d = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Theory of neutral injection heating of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordey, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The present state of injection theory is reviewed with particular emphasis on the consequences of high power injection. The subject is divided into the following six sections: fast ion deposition; the slowing down and scattering of the fast ions; energy and momentum transfer rates; heating of the thermal ions; other perturbations; microinstabilities. The theory is compared with the experimental results. The questions that remain to be answered to establish neutral injection as a useful heating technique in reactors, are listed (26 references)

  19. Axial injection in Orsay superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depauw, J.; Kugler, M.F.; Legoff, A.; Potier, J.C.; Richomme, A.; Skowron, R.; Mandrillon, P.; Schapira, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The compact superconducting cyclotron currently planned at IPN at Orsay is designed for light ion acceleration together with heavy ion acceleration. From the beginning, for this reason, a central geometry able to receive an inflector (to 90deg C) allowing the axial injection of low energy ion beams given by an outer source. The present study is aimed at showing the technical feasibility of theoretical results obtained on axial injection. First experimental study has been made of spatial repartition in three dimensions of electric potential developed by a central geometry of 3 electrodes. Then, the electric study of an electrostatic mirror has been made [fr

  20. Demoulding force in micro-injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports an experimental study that investigates part demoulding behavior in micro injection moulding (MIM) with a focus on the effects of pressure (P) and temperature (T) on the demoulding forces. Demoulding of a microfluidics part is conducted and the four processing parameters of melt...... temperature (Tb), mould temperature (Tm), holding pressure (Ph) and injection speed (Vi) are analysed. The result using different combinations of process parameters were used to identify the best processing conditions in regards to demoulding forces when moulding micro parts....

  1. Ocular manifestations of injection drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rubin W; Juzych, Mark S; Eliott, Dean

    2002-09-01

    Injection drug use can result in a variety of severe ocular conditions. Hematogenous dissemination of various fungi and bacteria may produce endophthalmitis with resultant severe visual loss. Retinal arterial occlusive disease may result from talc and other particulate emboli. Most commonly, life-threatening systemic diseases such as endocarditis and HIV infection secondarily affect the eye. Because many of these conditions may result in blindness if untreated, accurate diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential.

  2. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  3. Ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nayera Saber

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in plantar fascia .... Several previous studies evaluate the effects of either local ... The choice of ultrasound guided technique of steroid injection was related to the accuracy of application and supe- ..... chronic proximal plantar fasciitis: a meta analysis.

  4. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  5. Injection and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, C.; Barnes, M.J.; Bartmann, W.; Cornelis, K.; Drosdal, L.N.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

  6. Injection and lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

  7. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  8. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Chunhai; Duan, Yaozong; Tian, Zhisong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  9. Skin Necrosis from Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Whan B; Alhusayen, Raed O

    2015-01-01

    Tissue necrosis is a rare yet potentially serious complication of intra-articular (IA) hyaluronic acid (HA) injections for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. To report a case of a patient with cutaneous necrosis after IA HA injection for treatment of knee osteoarthritis, presenting as a livedoid violaceous patch on the right knee. We report a case of cutaneous necrosis as a rare complication of IA HA injection for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A literature review was undertaken of similar cases. Use of HA IA injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis can result in similar skin necrosis at uncommon anatomic locations corresponding to the site of HA injection. Although tissue necrosis is a rare complication, physicians need to be aware of this possibility as a complication of HA IA injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis and should be mindful of potential treatment options to manage this adverse event. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.

  10. Aggressive combination therapy with intra-articular glucocorticoid injections and conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in early rheumatoid arthritis: second-year clinical and radiographic results from the CIMESTRA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, M.L.; Stengaard-Pedersen, K.; Junker, P.

    2008-01-01

    -articular corticosteroid. This paper presents the results of the second year of the randomised, controlled double-blind CIMESTRA (Ciclosporine, Methotrexate, Steroid in RA) study. METHODS: 160 patients with early RA (duration

  11. Quasi-stable injection channels in a wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Wiltshire-Turkay, Mara; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Particle-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration is a promising alternative to conventional electron acceleration techniques, potentially allowing electron acceleration to energies orders of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved. In this work we investigate the dependence of the energy gain on the position at which electrons are injected into the wake. Test particle simulations show previously unobserved complex structure in the parameter space, with quasi-stable injection channels forming for particles injected in narrow regions away from the centre of the wake. The result is relevant to the planning and tuning of experiments making use of external injection.

  12. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  13. Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Value of Danshen Injection and Huangqi Injection in Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changtai Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the clinical value of Danshen injection and Huangqi injection for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. Methods. The Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-Text Database (VIP, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, PubMed, and EMBASE database were searched to collect the literatures about the randomized controlled trials involving the treatment of liver cirrhosis with Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection, and the data analyses were performed using RevMan 4.2 software. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 1086 patients (trials group: 554 cases, control group: 532 cases were included in this study. Compared with those in control group, the meta-analysis showed-that the total effectiveness rate and the level of serum albumin increased, while serum total bilirubin, alanine transmninase, type III procollagen, hyaluronic acid, laminin, and type-IV collagen decreased in trials group. The Jadad score ranged from 1 to 2 and the funnel plot analysis suggests that publication bias may occur. Conclusions. Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection may promote the curative efficacy of liver cirrhosis, which is a promising novel treatment approach. The exact outcome needs to perform rigorously designed, multicenter, and large randomized controlled trials.

  14. Injection and Non-Injection Drug Use and Infectious Disease in Baltimore City: Differences by Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Larry; Khan, Maria; Clifford, Lisa; Harrell, Paul T.; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines differences in the prevalence of biologically-confirmed hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, and coinfection between Black and White adult cocaine/heroin users across three drug use subgroups identified in previous research (Harrell et al, 2012): non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users, heroin injectors, and polydrug injectors. Results 59% of the 482 participants in the study were male. Significant race differences emerged between drug use subgroup memberships. Non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users were predominantly Black (75%), while heroin injectors and polydrug injectors were predominantly White (69% and 72%, respectively). Polydrug injectors accounted for nearly three quarters of the HCV positive diagnoses in Whites. Though HIV disease status, stratified by race, did not differ significantly between drug use subgroups, the non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin subgroup contained over half of the HIV positive diagnoses in the sample and was predominantly Black. Despite much lower rates of injection, Blacks (8%) had a higher prevalence of coinfection than Whites (3%; X2 (2) = 6.18, p = .015). Conclusions The current findings are consistent with trends in recent HIV transmission statistics where sexual activity has overtaken injection drug use as a HIV risk factor. The current findings also provide further support to the notion of injection drug use as an exceedingly high-risk behavior for HCV and coinfection, specifically those who are polysubstance injectors. PMID:24837755

  15. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  17. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  18. Stability of fault submitted to fluid injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; Passelegue, F. X.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). However, this theory is valid only when the entire fault is affected by fluid pressure, which is not the case in nature, and during human induced-seismicity. In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Wave velocity surveys across the fault highlighted that decreasing the injection-rate leads to an increase of size of the fluid pressure perturbation. Our result demonstrate that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure requires to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by local high fluid overpressures. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes

  19. Comparison of the degree of pulpal anesthesia achieved with the intraosseous injection and infiltration injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusstein, John; Wood, Mark; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2005-01-01

    This prospective, randomized study compared the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained from an intraosseous injection to an infiltration injection that used 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The success rate for the intraosseous injection was 98%; for the infiltration injection, the success rate was 85%. There was no significant difference between the two techniques. The mean time for the onset of pulpal anesthesia was significantly faster with the intraosseous injection and the infiltration injection resulted in a significantly longer duration of pulpal anesthesia.

  20. Large scale injection test (LASGIT) modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedo, D.; Olivella, S.; Alonso, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    . In addition the horizontal interfaces between the bentonite blocks and the vertical interfaces corresponding to the host rock and the canister walls contacts are considered different materials but the properties are similar to the ones in the bentonite. Actually, this is done because interfaces are believed to be a potential preferential path for gas migration through the buffer. The host rock and the canister are not included in the model due to its high stiffness with respect to bentonite. A constitutive model that considers non-linear elasticity and visco-plasticity based on BBM model is adopted for the bentonite and the interfaces. An embedded fracture permeability model in which permeability and retention curve depend on strains through a fracture aperture is considered in the hydraulic problem. The following stages of the experiment are simulated: - Construction of the isolation barrier inside the deposition hole, - Hydration stage 1 in which the liquid pressure is increased at the Filter Mats and de canister Injection Filters up to 1.5 MPa in an initial stage and up to 2.35 MPa in a second stage in order to saturate the buffer, - Hydraulic test 1, - Gas injection test 1. The simulation results will be compared to the experimental record of different variables: total stresses and liquid pressure at the rock wall, at the canister wall, and at some points within the bentonite buffer. It will be interesting to try to explain if preferential paths develop and where. This is controlled by the swelling capacity of the buffer and its ability to seal the interfaces initially not closed between the clay and the wall and between the blocks. (authors)

  1. Experimental optimization of a direct injection homogeneous charge compression ignition gasoline engine using split injections with fully automated microgenetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli Univ., Izmit (Turkey); Reitz, R.D. [Wisconsin Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is receiving attention as a new low-emission engine concept. Little is known about the optimal operating conditions for this engine operation mode. Combustion under homogeneous, low equivalence ratio conditions results in modest temperature combustion products, containing very low concentrations of NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) as well as providing high thermal efficiency. However, this combustion mode can produce higher HC and CO emissions than those of conventional engines. An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE), originally designed for heavy-duty diesel applications, was converted to an HCCI direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. The engine features an electronically controlled low-pressure direct injection gasoline (DI-G) injector with a 60 deg spray angle that is capable of multiple injections. The use of double injection was explored for emission control and the engine was optimized using fully automated experiments and a microgenetic algorithm optimization code. The variables changed during the optimization include the intake air temperature, start of injection timing and the split injection parameters (per cent mass of fuel in each injection, dwell between the pulses). The engine performance and emissions were determined at 700 r/min with a constant fuel flowrate at 10 MPa fuel injection pressure. The results show that significant emissions reductions are possible with the use of optimal injection strategies. (Author)

  2. Gas injection pilot in the Hochleiten field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potsch, K.; Ramberger, R.; Glantschnig, J.; Baumgarthuber, S.; Goessnitzer, F. [OMV AG, Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    The Hochleiten field, located in the north of Vienna, is small in extension and highly compartmentalized. The main reservoir horizons are at a depth of approximately 1000 m. The oil quality shows high density and viscosity. Waterflood was initiated, but worked only in a part of the reservoir. Compartmentalization and lateral facies changes result in poor comunication and big pressure differences across the field. Some of the oil in place is not reached by primary or secondary recovery processes, and a solution was sought for accessing the bypassed oil. The screening process suggested gas injection as the most promising method. This contribution presents the first results of a field pilot project. Information will be given on the geology, additional lab work, and the realization in the field. The injection and production profiles of this pilot are presented. CO{sub 2} improved the inflow capacity of the injector, but the oil rates of the effected wells increased only slightly. In order to match the actual response of the reservoir, we had to adjust our reservoir model. Meanwhile N{sub 2} was injected as a tracer in one of the wells, to find out the preferred communication paths, before we proceeded with further gas injection. (orig.)

  3. Injectable biomaterials for adipose tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D A; Christman, K L

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect and thus classifies them as temporary fillers. As a result, a significant need for injectable materials that not only act as fillers but also promote in vivo adipogenesis is beginning to be realized. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of commercially available soft tissue fillers. It will then summarize the current state of research using injectable synthetic materials, biopolymers and extracellular matrix-derived materials for adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, the successful attributes observed across each of these materials will be outlined along with a discussion of the current difficulties and future directions for adipose tissue engineering. (paper)

  4. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with intramuscular quinine injections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sct?ior ikfeclical O[ficcr. Department of Orthopaeclics, Mulago Hospital, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Key Words: Sciatic nerve palsy, intramuscular injections, children, quinine dil~ydrochloride. The purpose of this paper is to show that, in children, gluteal injection of quinine dihydrochloride (QDH) may result in ...

  5. Optimization of injection moulding process parameters in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimal injection moulding conditions for minimum shrinkage during moulding of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) were obtained by Taguchi method. The result showed that melting temperature of 190OC, injection pressure of 55 MPa, refilling pressure of 85 MPa and cooling time of 11 seconds gave ...

  6. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  7. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  8. Effects of pilot injection parameters on low temperature combustion diesel engines equipped with solenoid injectors featuring conventional and rate-shaped main injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of the principal pilot injection parameters is discussed for low-temperature combustion systems. • Swirl-sweep and dwell-time sweep results are combined to analyze soot emissions. • The pilot injection effects are investigated in injection profiles featuring rate-shaped main injections. - Abstract: The potential of pilot injection has been assessed on a low-temperature combustion diesel engine for automotive applications, which was characterized by a reduced compression-ratio, high EGR rates and postponed main injection timings. Dwell time sweeps have been carried out for pilot injections with distinct energizing times under different representative steady-state working conditions of the medium load and speed area of the New European Driving Cycle. The results of in-cylinder analyses of the pressure, heat-release rate, temperature and emissions are presented. Combustion noise has been shown to decrease significantly when the pilot injected mass increases, while it is scarcely affected by the dwell time between the pilot and main injections. The HC, CO and fuel consumption trends, with respect to both the pilot injection dwell time and mass, are in line with those of conventional combustion systems, and in particular decreasing trends occur as the pilot injection energizing time is increased. Furthermore, a reduced sensitivity of NO_x emissions to both dwell time and pilot injected mass has been found, compared to conventional combustion systems. Finally, it has been observed that soot emissions diminish as the energizing time is shortened, and their dependence on dwell time is influenced to a great extent by the presence of local zones with reduced air-to-fuel ratios within the cylinder. A combined analysis of the results of swirl sweeps and dwell time sweeps is here proposed as a methodology for the detection of any possible interference between pilot combustion burned gases and the main injected fuel. The effect of pilot

  9. Electron injection in diodes with field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denavit, J.; Strobel, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents self-consistent steady-state solutions of the space charge, transmitted current, and return currents in diodes with electron injection from the cathode and unlimited field emission of electrons and ions from both electrodes. Time-dependent particle simulations of the diode operation confirm the analytical results and show how these steady states are reached. The results are applicable to thermionic diodes and to photodiodes

  10. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Michela; Sorge, Ugo; Allocca, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Advantages of split injection in a GDI engine are studied through numerical simulation. ► At high load and speed, rich conditions, split injection does not improve engine performance. ► At moderate load and speed, lean conditions, double injection improves charge stratification. ► Optimal double injection increases work, reduces HC and increases NO. - Abstract: The greatest fuel efficiency advantages of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are achieved under the so-called mixed mode boosting, where mixture characteristics are properly adapted to the specific working condition. In particular, in the medium range of load and speed, overall lean mixtures are suitable of being used in the so-called direct injection stratified charge operation. Present paper reports the results of numerical optimization analyses aimed at increasing the energetic efficiency of a GDI engine equipped with a high pressure multi-hole injector under both single and double injection events. In moderate-load moderate-speed lean conditions, the single or double injection synchronization in the working cycle is effected through a procedure that couples a 3D numerical model of the in-cylinder processes with an optimization tool. The choice of both the start of the injection events and the time of spark advance is realized to maximize the engine work. The optimal double injection solution is shown to increase the engine energy efficiency with respect to the case injection is realized in one shot, thus confirming that split injections improve the quality of the charge stratification under lean operation. The effect on the major pollutants is also discussed.

  11. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Multiobjective Design of Turbo Injection Mode for Axial Flux Motor in Plastic Injection Molding Machine by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Long Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a turbo injection mode (TIM for an axial flux motor to apply onto injection molding machine. Since the injection molding machine requires different speed and force parameters setting when finishing a complete injection process. The interleaved winding structure in the motor provides two different injection levels to provide enough injection forces. Two wye-wye windings are designed to switch two control modes conveniently. Wye-wye configuration is used to switch two force levels for the motor. When only one set of wye-winding is energized, field weakening function is achieved. Both of the torque and speed increase under field weakening operation. To achieve two control objectives for torque and speed of the motor, fuzzy based multiple performance characteristics index (MPCI with particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to find out the multiobjective optimal design solution. Both of the torque and speed are expected to be maximal at the same time. Three control factors are selected as studied factors: winding diameter, winding type, and air-gap. Experimental results show that both of the torque and speed increase under the optimal condition. This will provide enough large torque and speed to perform the turbo injection mode in injection process for the injection molding machine.

  13. Injecting drug use: Gendered risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnow, Renee; Winstock, Adam R; Maier, Larissa J; Levy, Jay; Ferris, Jason

    2018-06-01

    Research demonstrates gender related differences in drug-use practices and risk behaviours. Females' structural vulnerability stemming from traditional gender roles and gender-power relations may enhance their propensity to experience injecting related risk. In this paper we explore gender differences in injection practices at the initiation event, during the first year of injecting and in the most recent 12-month period, to inform more effective harm reduction strategies. Data used in this study were drawn from the Global Drug Survey 2015. The study employs chi-square and logistic regression to assess gender differences in injection behaviours in a sample of current injectors residing in six global regions: North-West Europe; Southern Eastern Europe; North America. South America and Oceania. Females were more likely than males to report being injected by an intimate partner at initiation (OR = 4.4, 95%CI: 2.2-8.8), during the first year of injecting (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.4-9.3) and in the most recent 12-month period (OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.0-6.2). Females reported greater difficulties accessing sterile equipment (X 2 (2,N = 453) = 8.2, p = 0.02) and were more likely to share injecting equipment than males (X 2 (1,N = 463) = 3.9, p = 0.05). Our findings highlight females' continued dependence on their intimate partner to administer the injection into the first year of their injecting career. Females remained more likely than males to rely on intimate partners for injection during the most recent 12-month period. Females report greater difficulties in sourcing sterile equipment and are more likely to share injecting equipment. We suggest that these findings reflect the broader social structure in which females are disempowered through traditional gender roles and the lack of gender appropriate harm reduction services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacologic injection treatment of comitant strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debert, Iara; Miller, Joel M.; Danh, Kenneth K.; Scott, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the magnitude and stability of corrections in comitant horizontal strabismus achieved by injecting bupivacaine (BPX, optionally with epinephrine) and botulinum A toxin (BTXA) into extraocular muscles of alert adult subjects with electromyographic (EMG) guidance. Subjects & Methods A total of 55 adults with comitant horizontal strabismus participated in a prospective observational clinical series. Of these, 29 previously had undergone 1 or more unsuccessful strabismus surgeries; 4 had undergone other orbital surgeries. Thirty-one patients with esodeviations received BPX injections in a lateral rectus muscle, some with BTXA in the medial rectus; 24 patients with exodeviations received BPX in a medial rectus muscle, some with BTXA in the lateral rectus muscle. A second treatment (BPX, BTXA, or both) was administered to 27 patients who had residual strabismus after the first treatment. Five patients required additional injections. Clinical alignment was measured at 6 months and yearly thereafter through 5 years’ follow-up, with mean follow-up of 28 months. A successful outcome was defined as residual deviation ≤10Δ. Results On average, presenting misalignment of 23.8Δ (13.4°) was reduced at 28 months by 16.0Δ (9.1°), with successful outcomes in 56% of patients. Of patients with initial misalignments ≤25Δ, 66% had successful outcomes, with corrections averaging 13.2Δ (7.5°); of patients with larger misalignments, 40% had successful outcomes, with corrections averaging 20.9Δ (11.8°). Corrected alignments were stable over follow-ups as long as 5 years. Conclusions Injection treatments resulted in stable, clinically significant corrections in comitant horizontal strabismus. Injection provides a low-cost alternative to incisional strabismus surgery, particularly where it is desirable to minimize surgical anesthesia and avoid extraocular scarring. PMID:27079589

  15. Treatment of the Infection after Fat Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For recent years, use of autologous fat injection has increased significantly in facial contouring surgery. Along with such increase in use, complications like atypical mycoplasma infection have been also on the increasing trend. The authors report two cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infection that occurred after autologous fat injection. Patients were treated as infection that resistant to common antibiotics and results were negative to routine culture and Gram staining. Acid-fast bacillus stain, polymerase chain reaction (PCR test and mycobacterial cultures were conducted for diagnosis under suspicion of atypical mycoplasma infection. Then, combination antibiotics therapy, surgical treatment, and steroid injection were performed for treatment. Both patients were diagnosed with Mycobacterium chelonae in PCR test. They were positive to mycobacterial cultures. Combination antibiotics therapy was repeated to improvement of symptom. However, they could not be free from side effects such as deformation in facial contour, scar and pigmentation even after full recovery. When chronic wound infections after autologous fat injection, we must suspect atypical or mycobacterial infection and conduct examinations for a early diagnosis and proper antibiotic therapy that is effective to the nontuberculous mycobacteria.

  16. Safe injection practices for administration of propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cecil A; Ogg, Mary

    2012-03-01

    Sepsis and postoperative infection can occur as a result of unsafe practices in the administration of propofol and other injectable medications. Investigations of infection outbreaks have revealed the causes to be related to bacterial growth in or contamination of propofol and unsafe medication practices, including reuse of syringes on multiple patients, use of single-use medication vials for multiple patients, and failure to practice aseptic technique and adhere to infection control practices. Surveys conducted by AORN and other researchers have provided additional information on perioperative practices related to injectable medications. In 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a group of clinicians to gain a better understanding of the issues related to infection outbreaks and injectable medications. The meeting participants proposed collecting data to persuade clinicians to adopt new practices, developing guiding principles for propofol use, and describing propofol-specific, site-specific, and practitioner-specific injection techniques. AORN provides resources to help perioperative nurses reduce the incidence of postoperative infection related to medication administration. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accidental epidural injection of Atropine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayan Bakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal injection of drugs for anesthesia, regional analgesia, and chronic pain management are common practice now. Local anesthetic, adjuvants, and opioids are in common use. Human error in the Operation Theater and the Intensive Care Unit setup is also known and reported, due to stress and overwork. A case of unintentional atropine injection intrathecally, which was closely observed for any untoward effects, is reported here.

  18. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...... position was measured on the polymer μ-parts to evaluate filling behavior of the polymer melt flowing through μ-features. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses. Results showed...... that the injection speed in one of the most influencing process parameters on the μIM process and on the μ-parts filling....

  19. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  20. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  1. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  2. Comparison of two ultrasound-guided injection techniques targeting the sacroiliac joint region in equine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, John David; Bergamino, Chiara; Sanders, Ruth; Fogarty, Ursula; Puggioni, Antonella; Kearney, Clodagh; David, Florent

    2016-09-20

    To compare the accuracy and distribution of injectate for cranial (CR) and caudomedial (CM) ultrasound-guided injections of equine sacroiliac joints. Both sacroiliac joints from 10 lumbosacropelvic specimens were injected using cranial parasagittal (CR; curved 18 gauge, 25 cm spinal needles) and caudomedial (CM; straight 18 gauge, 15 cm spinal needles) ultrasound-guided approaches. Injectate consisted of 4 ml iodinated contrast and 2 ml methylene blue. Computed tomographical (CT) scans were performed before and after injections. Time for needle guidance and repositioning attempts were recorded. The CT sequences were analysed for accuracy and distribution of contrast. Intra-articular contrast was detected in sacroiliac joints following 15/40 injections. The CR and CM approaches deposited injectate ≤2 cm from sacroiliac joint margins following 17/20 and 20/20 injections, respectively. Median distance of closest contrast to the sacroiliac joint was 0.4 cm (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5 cm) for CR approaches and 0.6 cm (IQR: 0.95 cm) for CM approaches. Cranial injections resulted in injectate contacting lumbosacral intertransverse joints 15/20 times. Caudomedial injections were perivascular 16/20 times. Safety and efficacy could not be established. Cranial and CM ultrasound-guided injections targeting sacroiliac joints were very accurate for periarticular injection, but accuracy was poor for intra-articular injection. Injectate was frequently found in contact with interosseous sacroiliac ligaments, as well as neurovascular and synovial structures in close vicinity of sacroiliac joints.

  3. Optimum design of the injection duct system of a stenter machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juraeva, Makhsuda; Song, Dong Joo [Yeungnam University, Geyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung Jin [Ajou Motor College, Boryeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Stenter machines are used for drying fabrics in the textile industry and have a heater, injection duct system, and fans inside a chamber. The injection duct system has ducts and air-injecting holes. Plane-type injection duct systems were investigated to obtain uniform airflow at the air-injecting holes. The flow field of the injection duct systems was computed using ANSYS CFX with different heights of the duct end and different shapes for the air-injecting holes. There was a high mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes and high airflow circulation inside both plane-type and mountain-type ducts at the ends. The height of the duct end was varied between 40 mm and 160 mm. The injection duct systems were analyzed with four different shapes of air-injecting holes. The circular and elliptical holes had lower standard deviations of the mass flow rate than other shapes. Relatively uniform mass flow rates were obtained in the plane-type and mountain-type duct systems when the height of the duct end was 40 mm and the shape of the air-injecting holes was circular or elliptical. The developed injection duct systems were improved by obtaining a uniform mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes. A stenter prototype was fabricated with the developed injection duct system to confirm the numerical results. The developed injection duct system had better performance than the original system.

  4. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  5. Surgical versus injection treatment for injection-confirmed chronic sacroiliac joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, William Ryan; Lawrence, Brandon D.; Raich, Annie L.; Skelly, Andrea C.; Brodke, Darrel S.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Study rationale: Chronic sacroiliac joint pain (CSJP) is a common clinical entity with highly controversial treatment options. A recent systematic review compared surgery with denervation, but the current systematic review compares outcomes of surgical intervention with therapeutic injection for the treatment of CSJP and serves as the next step for evaluating current evidence on the comparative effectiveness of treatments for non-traumatic sacroiliac joint pain. Objective or clinical question: In adult patients with injection-confirmed CSJP, does surgical treatment lead to better outcomes and fewer complications than injection therapy? Methods: A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and June 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating surgery or injection treatment for injection-confirmed CSJP. Studies involving traumatic onset or non-injection–confirmed CSJP were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: We identified twelve articles (seven surgical and five injection treatment) meeting our inclusion criteria. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 40% improvement in pain as measured by Visual Analog Scale or Numeric rating Scale score. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 20% improvement in functionality. Most complications were reported in the surgical studies. Conclusion: Surgical fusion and therapeutic injections can likely provide pain relief, improve quality of life, and improve work status. The comparative effectiveness of these interventions cannot be evaluated with the current literature. PMID:23526911

  6. Numerical simulation for cyclic steam injection at Santa Clara field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Edwin; Barrios, Wilson; Sandoval, Roy; Santos, Nicolas; Cortes, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the methodology used and the results obtained in the construction, match and prediction of the first thermal composition simulation model done in Colombia by employing advanced thermal process commercial software, globally recognized because of its effectiveness in modeling these types of processes (CMG-STARS, 2005). The Santa Clara and Palermo fields were modeled and an excellent history match was achieved. All in all 28 wells and 17 years of production were matched. Two production scenes were proposed. The first involved primary production from existing wells, in other words: primary production; and a second scene where all the wells in the field are converted into injectors and producers, to simulate cyclic steam injection. This injection process included a series of sensitivity studies for several of the parameters involved in this technology, such as: pressure and temperature injection, time and rate of injection, heat injected, soaking period, steam quality, and injection cycles. This sensitivity study was focused on optimizing the processes to obtain the maximum end recovery possible. The information entered into the simulator was validated by laboratory tests developed at the Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (ICP). Among the tests performed the following were assessed: rock compressibility, relative permeability curve behavior at different temperatures, formation sensitivity to injection fluids, DRX analysis and residual saturation of crude oil for steam injection. The aforementioned results are documented in this paper

  7. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P. [Department of Combustion Engines and Transport, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  8. Effects of turbulence enhancement on combustion process using a double injection strategy in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehoon; Song, Jingeun; Park, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Using double injection strategy, turbulent kinetic energy can be improved with slight decrease in mixture homogeneity. • Retarded first injection timing reduces vapor fuel loss to intake port. • Double injection increases tumble intensity. • High turbulent intensity caused by double injection increases flame propagation speed. - Abstract: Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines have been spotlighted due to their high thermal efficiency. Increase in the compression ratio that result from the heat absorption effect of fuel vaporization induces higher thermal efficiency than found in port fuel injection (PFI) engines. Since fuel is injected at the cylinder directly, various fuel injection strategies can be used. In this study, turbulent intensity was improved by a double injection strategy while maintaining mixture homogeneity. To analyze the turbulence enhancement effects using the double injection strategy, a side fuel injected, homogeneous-charge-type DISI gasoline engine with a multi-hole-type injector was utilized. The spray model was evaluated using experimental data for various injection pressures and the combustion model was evaluated for varied ignition timing. First and second injection timing was swept by 20 degree interval. The turbulent kinetic energy and mixture inhomogeneity index were mapped. First injection at the middle of the intake stroke and second injection early in the compression stroke showed improved turbulent characteristics that did not significantly decrease with mixture homogeneity. A double injection case that showed improved turbulent intensity while maintaining an adequate level of mixture homogeneity and another double injection case that showed significantly improved turbulent intensity with a remarkable decrease in mixture homogeneity were considered for combustion simulation. We found that the improved turbulent intensity increased the flame propagation speed. Also, the mixture homogeneity

  9. Predictors of injection drug use cessation and relapse in a prospective cohort of young injection drug users in San Francisco, CA (UFO Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Page, Kimberly

    2009-05-01

    Studies of injection drug use cessation have largely sampled adults in drug treatment settings. Little is known about injection cessation and relapse among young injection drug users (IDU) in the community. A total of 365 HCV-negative IDU under age 30 years were recruited by street outreach and interviewed quarterly for a prospective cohort between January 2000 and February 2008. Participants were followed for a total of 638 person-years and 1996 visits. We used survival analysis techniques to identify correlates of injection cessation (> or =3 months) and relapse to injection. 67% of subjects were male, median age was 22 years (interquartile range (IQR) 20-26) and median years injecting was 3.6 (IQR 1.3-6.5). 28.8% ceased injecting during the follow-up period. Among those that ceased injecting, nearly one-half resumed drug injection on subsequent visits, one-quarter maintained injecting cessation, and one-quarter were lost to follow-up. Participating in a drug treatment program in the last 3 months and injecting less than 30 times per month were associated with injection cessation. Injecting heroin or heroin mixed with other drugs, injecting the residue from previously used drug preparation equipment, drinking alcohol, and using benzodiazepines were negatively associated with cessation. Younger age was associated with relapse to injection. These results suggest that factors associated with stopping injecting involve multiple areas of intervention, including access to drug treatment and behavioral approaches to reduce injection and sustain cessation. The higher incidence of relapse in the younger subjects in this cohort underscores the need for earlier detection and treatment programs targeted to adolescents and transition-age youth.

  10. Proton accumulator ring injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Protons may be created in an accelerator or storage ring by stripping electrons from neutral hydrogen atoms that have been injected into the machine. Because Liouville's theorem is violated by this type of injection, particles may be continually injected into a region of phase space that is already populated, and the density in that region increases with time. A computational investigation was made of the evolution of the distribution of particles in longitudinal phase space during such an injection process for a storage ring operating below the transition energy. In one calculation, an rf cavity is present in the ring and particles are injected into the stable phase region once each revolution. The purpose of this calculation is to determine the rf voltage necessary to overcome the longitudinal self-forces and contain the particles within the region of stable phase. In a second calculation, the rf is turned off, so that there is spreading in azimuth of the injected particles (i.e., de-bunching). The de-bunching occurs because of the initial energy spread and the action of the self-forces. One purpose of the calculation is to determine the total energy spread after a given number of revolutions. Another purpose is to elucidate the effect of finite resistance in the vacuum tank walls. For sufficiently high current, the finite resistance can cause bunching of a beam that is initially uniform in azimuth. Therefore it might be expected that the finite resistance would inhibit or prevent de-bunching once the number of particles injected reaches some threshold, and that this threshold would depend upon the energy spread in the beam

  11. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  12. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  13. Physics of the current injection process during localized helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Edward Thomas

    An impedance model has been developed for the arc-plasma cathode electron current source used in localized helicity injection tokamak startup. According to this model, a potential double layer (DL) is established between the high-density arc plasma (narc ˜ 1021 m-3) in the electron source, and the less-dense external tokamak edge plasma (nedge ˜ 10 18 m-3) into which current is injected. The DL launches an electron beam at the applied voltage with cross-sectional area close to that of the source aperture: Ainj ≈ 2 cm 2. The injected current, Iinj, increases with applied voltage, Vinj, according to the standard DL scaling, Iinj ˜ V(3/2/ inj), until the more restrictive of two limits to beam density nb arises, producing Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj), a scaling with beam drift velocity. For low external tokamak edge density nedge, space-charge neutralization of the intense electron beam restricts the injected beam density to nb ˜ nedge. At high Jinj and sufficient edge density, the injected current is limited by expansion of the DL sheath, which leads to nb ˜ narc. Measurements of narc, Iinj , nedge, Vinj, support these predicted scalings, and suggest narc as a viable control actuator for the source impedance. Magnetic probe signals ≈ 300 degrees toroidally from the injection location are consistent with expectations for a gyrating, coherent electron beam with a compact areal cross-section. Technological development of the source has allowed an extension of the favorable Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj) to higher power without electrical breakdown.

  14. Low energy, high power injection in JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Makoto; Dairaku, Masayuki; Horiike, Hiroshi

    1988-05-01

    JT-60 neutral beam injector (JT-60 NBI) is designed to inject 20 MW neutral hydrogen beam at energies of 70 ∼ 100 keV and the injection power decreases significantly at low energies (∼40 keV). For the extention of operation region aiming at the low density plasma heating and achieving H-mode by plasma periphery heating, increment of the injection power at low beam energies was required. The single-stage acceleration system was investigated in advance at the Prototype Injector Unit. From this result, the total injection power of 17 MW at 40 keV, 48 A per source was expected at the JT-60 NBI. This system was adopted in the JT-60 NBI from June, 1987 to July, 1987 and 17.6 MW neutral beam injection power was achieved. In the NB heating experiment, the H-mode transition phenomena was observed in JT-60 plasma. (author)

  15. Experimental research of percutaneous intrahepatic ethanol injection under CT guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Deqiang; Tian Jianming; Xiang Cheng; Zhang Feng; Zuo Changjing; Zang Tingzhen; Shi Lijing; Yuan Xiaodong; Tian Yuan; Li Shijian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study percutaneous ethanol injection caused liver injures on rabbits with different doses, concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The experiment was carried out in 54 New Zealand rabbits under randomized dividing groups with the purpose of observing the microscopic pathologic changes after 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks of ethanol injection and the blood sampling biochemical with imaging changes, 1, 3, 7, 10, 14 days before and after injection. Results: Both total ethanol dose and concentration can cause different size of necrosis on rabbits liver tissue with the interactions between them. Pathologic changes in rabbits liver appeared to be typical coagulative necrosis. The injuries causes by ethanol injection were transient and repairable after a short period. Conclusions: Percutaneous ethanol injection causes mild injures to the liver. The method is safe and practicable. (authors)

  16. Numerical research on the scroll compressor with refrigeration injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baolong; Shi Wenxing; Li Xianting; Yan Qisen

    2008-01-01

    A general model for a scroll compressor with refrigerant injection is established in this paper. The model can be used to predict the macro performance and inner compression process of the injected scroll compressor. A series of experiments are conducted to validate the accuracy of the model. The results show that the model can precisely predict not only the general performance of the compressor but also the inner compression with or without refrigerant injection. Based on the thermodynamic model and the test bench, the injection process of the scroll compressor has been investigated and the thermodynamic essence is revealed. It is found that the refrigerant injection process can be considered as a continual parameter-varying 'adiabatic throttling + isobaric mixture' time-varying process

  17. Durability 2007. Injection grout investigations. Background description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orantie, K.; Kuosa, H.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the durability risks of injection grouts. The investigations were done with respect to the application conditions, materials and service life requirements at the ONKALO underground research facility. The study encompassed injection grout mixtures made of ultrafine cement with and without silica fume. Some of the mixtures hade a low pH and thus a high silica fume content. The project includes a background description on durability literature, laboratory testing programme, detailed analysis of results and recommendations for selecting of ideal grout mixtures. The background description was made for the experimental study of low-pH and reference rock injection grouts as regards pore- and microstructure, strength, shrinkage/swelling and thus versatile durability properties. A summary of test methods is presented as well as examples, i.e. literature information or former test results, of expected range of results from the tests. Also background information about how the test results correlate to other material properties and mix designs is presented. Besides the report provides basic information on the pore structure of cement based materials. Also the correlation between the pore structure of cement based materials and permeability is shortly discussed. The test methods included in the background description are compressive strength, measurement of bulk drying, autogenous and chemical shrinkage and swelling, hydraulic conductivity / permeability, capillary water uptake test, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and thin section analysis. Three main mixtures with water-binder ratio of 0.8, 1.0 and 1.4 and silica fume content of 0, 15 and 40% were studied in the laboratory. Besides two extra mixtures were studied to provide additional information about the effect of varying water-dry-material ratio and silica fume content on durability. The evaluation of water tightness based on water permeability coefficient and micro cracking was

  18. Bistability in a laser with injected signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorobantu, I.A.; Vlad, V.I.; Ursu, I.

    1987-04-01

    A unified description of bistability is given in free running lasers, optical bistable devices, ring lasers and lasers with an injected signal (LIS). A general review of laser instabilities is also presented in the frame of the theory of elementary catastrophes, emphasizing the apparence of higher order catastrophes in the case of a LIS suggesting thus a possibility to devise from first principles the whole hierarchy of laser instabilities. Experimental results on the bistability in the polarisation of LIS are also discussed. (authors)

  19. Are nursing students safe when choosing gluteal intramuscular injection locations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, J

    2011-01-01

    Nurses are required to perform gluteal intramuscular (IM) injections in practice. There are dangers associated with erroneous performance of this task, particularly with dorsogluteal injections. Knowledge regarding safe injection practice is therefore vital for nursing students. Fifty-eight second year students at a New Zealand Nursing School were given schematic drawings of the posterior and lateral aspects of the gluteal region. They were asked to mark and justify the safest location for gluteal IM injections. Fifty-seven students marked the dorsal schematic and one the lateral, with 38 (66.7%) marking in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ). Twenty indicating the UOQ (52.6%) wrote 'sciatic' or 'nerve' in justifying their location. Nineteen (33.3%) marked a location outside the UOQ; nine (47.4%) of these mentioned 'sciatic' or 'nerve' as reasons for injection safety. Overall, 50% of students mentioned 'sciatic' or 'nerve' in justifying the safety of their chosen injection location. Results suggest some second year nursing students do not understand safe gluteal IM injection locations and rationale. Current teaching practices and IM injection techniques could be revisited to prepare students more effectively; this may help prevent pathologies arising from this procedure.

  20. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Ghanaati, Hossein; Bastanhagh, Mohammad-Hassan; Abbasvandi, Fereshteh; Firooznia, Kazem; Shirzad, Mahmood; Amini, Mohammad-Reza; Sarai, Maryam; Abbasvandi, Nasreen; Baradar-Jalili, Reza

    2002-12-06

    BACKGROUND: Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. METHODS: 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (thyroid hormone levels. Ethanol injections were performed once every 1-4 weeks. Ethanol injections were stopped when serum T3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. RESULTS: Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 PlusMinus; 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 PlusMinus; 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P thyroid hormone levels at 3 and 6 months follow-up [P 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

  1. Human Thrombin Injection for the Percutaneous Treatment of Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elford, Julian; Burrell, Christopher; Freeman, Simon; Roobottom, Carl

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Thrombin injection is becoming well established for the percutaneous management of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms. All the published series to date use bovine thrombin,and there have been reports of adverse immunologic effects following its use. Our study aimed to assess the efficacy of human thrombin injection for pseudoaneurysm occlusion. Methods:Fourteen patients with iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms underwent a color Doppler ultrasound examination to assess their suitability for percutaneous human thrombin injection. Human thrombin 1000 IU was then injected into the pseudoaneurysm sac under sterile conditions and with ultrasound guidance. A further color Doppler ultrasound examination was performed 24 hr later to confirm occlusion. Results: All 14 pseudoaneurysms were successfully occluded by human thrombin injection. In two cases a second injection of thrombin was required,but there were no other complications, and all pseudoaneurysms remained occluded at 24 hr. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided human thrombin injection is simple to perform, effective and safe. We recommend that human thrombin becomes the agent of choice for percutaneous injection into iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms

  2. A randomized clinical trial on comparison of corticosteroid injection with or without splinting versus saline injection with or without splinting in patients with lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Tahririan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral epicondylitis is a common problem affecting 1-3% of the population. There has been much debate about the best treatment modality for this condition. There is, however, no conclusive evidence in support of any of the proposed treatment modalities. In this trial, we have studied the effect of corticosteroid injection (with or without splinting with normal saline injection (with or without splinting. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, individuals were randomly assigned to either of four treatment groups and received either 40 mg depomedrol injection alone, 40 mg depomedrol injection with splinting, normal saline injection alone, or normal saline injection with splinting. They were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS at weeks 2, 4 and 24 and with the Oxford elbow scale (OES at 24 weeks. Results: A total of 79 patients were participated in the study. The corticosteroid injection groups had better pain relief as measured by VAS at 2 and 4 weeks compared with the two saline injection groups. Mean VAS difference at week 0 versus week 2 was 4.5 ± 0.9 and 2.8 ± 0.6 in corticosteroid injection groups and saline injection groups respectively (P < 0.01 but at 24 weeks, there was only moderate benefit reported for the group which received steroid injection and splinting (P < 0.01 compared to the saline injection groups. The saline injection groups reported better improvement in OES scores (20.1 ± 3.7 at the end of the trial compared corticosteroid injection groups (16.1 ± 2.9 (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results indicate that despite the clear pain reduction benefit associated with steroid injection in short term, this benefit in comparison with normal saline injection fades by the 24 th week of follow-up.

  3. Rituals in nursing: intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    To consider to what extent intramuscular injection technique can be described to remain entrenched in ritualistic practice and how evidence-based practice should be considered and applied to the nursing practice of this essential skill. The notion of rituals within nursing and the value or futile impact they afford to this essential nursing skill will be critically reviewed. Discursive paper. Literature review from 2002-2013 to review the current position of intramuscular injection injections. Within the literature review, it became clear that there are several actions within the administration of an intramuscular injection that could be perceived as ritualistic and require consideration for contemporary nursing practice. The essential nursing skill of intramuscular injection often appears to fit into the description of a ritualised practice. By providing evidence-based care, nurses will find themselves empowered to make informed decisions based on clinical need and using their clinical judgement. For key learning, it will outline with rationale how site selection, needle selection, insertion technique and aspiration can be cited as examples of routinised or ritualistic practice and why these should be rejected in favour of an evidence-based approach. The effect on some student nurses of experiencing differing practices between what is taught at university and what is often seen in clinical practice will also be discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparative results of gastric submucosal injection with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose and normal saline solution in a porcine model Resultados comparativos de injeção submucosa gástrica com hidroximetil celulose, carboximetilcelulose e soro fisiológico em modelo suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lenz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Endoscopic mucosal resection is an established modality for excision of sessile lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Submucosal fluid injection creates a cushion and may prevent thermal injury and perforation. OBJECTIVES: This blind study investigated the performance of three different solutions to create submucosal fluid cushions in porcine stomach. METHODS: Three solutions were injected in the stomach of nine pigs BR1: normal saline solution, carboxymethylcellulose 0.5% and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 0.25%. In each pig, submucosal injections with 6 mL per test-solution were performed. One drop of methylene blue was added to all injections for better visualization. The time for the bleb to disappear was recorded. RESULTS: The overall median time of visible submucosal cushion was 37 minutes (range 12-60 min for hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, 31 minutes for carboxymethylcellulose (range 10-43 min and 19 minutes for normal saline solution (range 8-37 min. There was no statistically significant difference neither between normal saline solution and carboxymethylcellulose (P = 0.146 nor carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (P = 0.119 but the median duration of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was significantly longer than normal saline solution (P = 0.039. CONCLUSIONS: The length of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose submucosal fluid cushion is longer in comparison with normal saline solution. The median time for carboxymethylcellulose was not longer than normal saline solution. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, in the concentration of 0.25%, may be a durable alternative for submucosal injection.CONTEXTO: A ressecção endoscópica mucosa é uma modalidade estabelecida para a excisão de lesões sésseis no trato gastrointestinal. A injeção de fluídos na submucosa cria uma coxim que pode prevenir lesão térmica e perfuração. OBJETIVO: Este estudo cego investiga o desempenho de três diferentes soluções para criar um

  5. Process Condition Monitoring of Micro Moulding Using a Two-plunger Micro Injection Moulding Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Guerrier, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The influence of micro injection moulding (µIM) process parameters (melt and mould temperature, piston injection speed and stoke length) on the injection pressure was investigated using Design of Experiments. Direct piston injection pressure measurements were performed and data collected using...... a micro injection moulding machine equipped with a two-pluger injection unit. Miniaturized dog-bone shaped speciments on polyoxymethylene (POM) were moulded over a wide range of processing cpnditions in order to characterize the process and assess its capability. Experimental results obtained under...

  6. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthaei Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Methods Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. Results A mean corneal area of 5.0 ±1.4 mm2 (mean ± SD and 7.7 ±1.4 mm2 was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Conclusions Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively

  7. MR imaging after therapeutic injection of the subacromial bursa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, N.M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division Musculoskeletal, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Objective. As a therapeutic injection into the subacromial bursa (SAB) is commonly performed for impingement syndrome, it is important to know whether this fluid can be retained for a period of time and cause confusion with a pathologic collection of fluid. This study identifies and describes the appearance of recent subacromial injection using MR imaging, and the appearance of a potential complication.Design and patients. Fourteen asymptomatic shoulders were studied with MR imaging using fast spin echo T2-weighted imaging (1.5 T) prior to injection with 7 cm{sup 3} of xylocaine. Four shoulders had subacromial fluid and were eliminated from the study. The remaining 10 (9 men, 1 woman; age range 27-36 years, average age 33 years) were then re-imaged immediately, and at 6, 12 and 24 h after the injection or until fluid resolved. Each set of images was reviewed for the presence of fluid in the SAB and for additional abnormalities.Results. Fluid was identified in all subjects in the SAB in the immediate, 6 and 12 h post-injection images. At 24 h, fluid was not identified within the SAB in eight of 10 patients. In one patient fluid resolved in 48 h. The other continued to demonstrate fluid in the SAB and in the joint as well as abnormal signal in the infraspinatus muscle from a presumed myositis. Imaging was performed up to 10 days after the injection in this patient.Conclusions. It is known that fluid identified in the SAB without evidence of a cuff tear may be due to bursitis. However, if MR imaging is performed within 24 h of injection, the presence of the fluid may be iatrogenic. In addition, the history of recent therapeutic injection is very important as complications such as myositis can occur as a result of the injection. Knowledge of injection prior to imaging is vital for accurate interpretation of MR shoulder examinations. (orig.)

  8. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, Hernan, E-mail: htb@forsmark.vattenfall.s [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, SE-742 03 Osthammar (Sweden); Buchwald, Przemyslaw [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor, E-mail: wiktor@reactor.sci.kth.s [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of

  9. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Hernan; Buchwald, Przemyslaw; Frid, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of several

  10. MR imaging after therapeutic injection of the subacromial bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. As a therapeutic injection into the subacromial bursa (SAB) is commonly performed for impingement syndrome, it is important to know whether this fluid can be retained for a period of time and cause confusion with a pathologic collection of fluid. This study identifies and describes the appearance of recent subacromial injection using MR imaging, and the appearance of a potential complication.Design and patients. Fourteen asymptomatic shoulders were studied with MR imaging using fast spin echo T2-weighted imaging (1.5 T) prior to injection with 7 cm 3 of xylocaine. Four shoulders had subacromial fluid and were eliminated from the study. The remaining 10 (9 men, 1 woman; age range 27-36 years, average age 33 years) were then re-imaged immediately, and at 6, 12 and 24 h after the injection or until fluid resolved. Each set of images was reviewed for the presence of fluid in the SAB and for additional abnormalities.Results. Fluid was identified in all subjects in the SAB in the immediate, 6 and 12 h post-injection images. At 24 h, fluid was not identified within the SAB in eight of 10 patients. In one patient fluid resolved in 48 h. The other continued to demonstrate fluid in the SAB and in the joint as well as abnormal signal in the infraspinatus muscle from a presumed myositis. Imaging was performed up to 10 days after the injection in this patient.Conclusions. It is known that fluid identified in the SAB without evidence of a cuff tear may be due to bursitis. However, if MR imaging is performed within 24 h of injection, the presence of the fluid may be iatrogenic. In addition, the history of recent therapeutic injection is very important as complications such as myositis can occur as a result of the injection. Knowledge of injection prior to imaging is vital for accurate interpretation of MR shoulder examinations. (orig.)

  11. Stability study of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection with limit tests for impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Klaus; Bogedal Jorgensen, Lene; Lindegaard Berg, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Results of an evaluation of the stability of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection are presented. Methods. Methotrexate concentrated solution (100 mg/mL) was diluted to nominal concentrations of 0.2 and 20 mg/mL in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium...... chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The filled bags were stored for 28 days at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity and protected from light. Samples were withdrawn for analysis on the day of preparation and after 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The test program included visual inspections, measurements...... in amounts of known and unknown degradation products were detected. In 5% dextrose injection, methotrexate at the higher concentration was stable for 28 days, with minor formation of degradation products; in the 0.2-mg/mL solution, however, methotrexate was stable for only 3 days. At later time points...

  12. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. TARA beamline and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.S.; Brindza, P.; Coleman, J.W.; Torti, R.P.; Blackfield, D.T.; Goodrich, P.

    1983-01-01

    The TARA beamline for neutral beam injection will permit one to three sources to fire into each plug (60 degree or optional 90 degree injection with respect to the TARA axis) or into each anchor (90 degree injection only). The sources, pre-aimed on their mounting plate at the NB test stand, may be fired into neutralizer ducts or optionally through a magnesium curtain, and the unneutralized fraction is dumped by the TARA fringing field onto a receiver plate. The beamline is housed in a cylindrical tank with the beam axis along the tank diameter at the midplane. The tank will be sorption pumped using LN + T/sub I/ or N/sub B/ and/or e-beam gettering. The beam burial tank contains sed arrays and a thin foil dump which reaches sufficiently high temperatures during the shot to boil out gas between shots

  14. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author)

  15. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  16. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  17. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the feasibility study on the utilization of biodiesel ester of Honge oil (EHO) in common rail direct injection. (CRDI) engine. Biodiesel of EHO has been obtained by transesterification process and characterization has been done. Existing single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical ...

  18. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  19. Injection heating scenarios for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Holmes, J.A.

    1977-07-01

    Neutral beam injection heating is a prime contender for heating TNS. However, injection into a full bore high density plasma during start-up will not give adequate beam penetration even with deuteron energies up to 300 keV and Z/sub eff/ < 1.5. But low density start-up may be feasible with deuteron energies of approximately 150 keV if advantage is taken of the α-heating and flux surface shifts which occur when β is increased

  20. Beam Scraping for LHC Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H; Fischer, C; Gras, J-J; Koschik, A; Kramer, Daniel; Pedersen, S; Redaelli, S

    2007-01-01

    Operation of the LHC will require injection of very high intensity beams from the SPS to the LHC. Fast scrapers have been installed and will be used in the SPS to detect and remove any existing halo before beams are extracted, to minimize the probability for quenching of superconducting magnets at injection in the LHC. We briefly review the functionality of the scraper system and report about measurements that have recently been performed in the SPS on halo scraping and re-population of tails.

  1. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  2. Pellet injection and toroidal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Mario; Meng, Huan; Bhutto, Imran; Xu, Qingguo; Boelke, Edwin; Hanes, Justin; Jun, Albert S

    2012-06-20

    Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. A mean corneal area of 5.0 ± 1.4 mm(2) (mean ± SD) and 7.7 ± 1.4 mm(2) was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively of total corneal area involved.

  4. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined

  5. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  6. VLF wave injections from the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments on wave-particle interactions using VLF whistler-mode waves injected into the magnetosphere from Antartica are described. The injected signals are single-frequency coherent waves whose amplitudes and frequencies may be changed slowly with time, or else two or more coherent wave trains transmitted simultaneously to determine the nature of the response to multifrequency excitation. The waves may be amplified 30 dB or more and may trigger intense emissions having bandwidths that vary from a few to several hundred Hertz. In most cases significant growth and triggering occur only when the driving signal is essentially monochromatic (bandwidth 10 Hz). If two frequencies are transmitted simultaneously the signal at the lower frequency tends to be suppressed by 20 dB or more. These results are interpreted in terms of a feedback interaction between the waves and counter-streaming cyclotron resonant electrons in a region several hundred wavelengths long, centered on the magnetic equator.

  7. Injection molded self-cleaning surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil

    that are superhydrophobic based on topography rather than chemical compounds. Therefore, a novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent water-repellant properties is developed. The method is based on microstructure fabrication and superposed nanostructures on silicon wafers. The nano......- and microstructured silicon is electroplated with nickel and the resulting nickel shim with inverse polarity is used in an injection molding process. A versatile injection molding process capable of producing different nano- and microstructures on areas larger than 10 cm2 is developed. Variotherm mold heating is used...... hierarchical structures with nanograss and holes. Water wetting tests are carried out using a pressure cell to control the water pressure. Microscopic wetting behavior of the structures is studied by optical transmission microscopy. Interestingly, it is found that the surface chemistry of the polymer changes...

  8. Water injection profiling by nuclear logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear logging techniques for determining the volume flow rates and flow directions of injected water moving behind a wellbore casing. The apparatus includes a sonde equipped with a neutron source and dual radiation detectors. Oxygen in the neutron irradiated water is transmitted to 16 N and the resultant primary and Compton scattered gamma rays are detected in two energy windows by both detectors. Count rate data is analysed in terms of the windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow within and behind the casing. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formation is calculated. A complete injection profile may thus be obtained. (U.K.)

  9. Relative injectivity and CS-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmed Kamal

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that a direct decomposition of modules M⊕N, with N homologically independent to the injective hull of M, is a CS-module if and only if N is injective relative to M and both of M and N are CS-modules. As an application, we prove that a direct sum of a non-singular semisimple module and a quasi-continuous module with zero socle is quasi-continuous. This result is known for quasi-injective modules. But when we confine ourselves to CS-modules we need no conditions on their socles. Then we investigate direct sums of CS-modules which are pairwise relatively inective. We show that every finite direct sum of such modules is a CS-module. This result is known for quasi-continuous modules. For the case of infinite direct sums, one has to add an extra condition. Finally, we briefly discuss modules in which every two direct summands are relatively inective.

  10. Injection Pressure as a Marker of Intraneural Injection in Procedures of Peripheral Nerves Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Vučković

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The blockade of peripheral nerves carries a certain risk of unwanted complications, which can follow after unintentional intraneural injection of a local anesthetic. Up till today, the research of measuring injection pressure has been based on animal models, even though the histological structure of periphery nerve is different for animal and human population, so the application pressure which presages intraneural injection in human population is still unknown. As material in performing this study there have been used 12 Wistar rats and 12 delivered stillborns. After bilateral access to the median nerve, we applied 3 ml of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, with the help of automatic syringe charger. The needle was at first placed perineural on one side, and then intraneural on the other side of both examination groups. During every application the pressure values were monitored using the manometer, and then they were analyzed by special software program BioBench. All perineural injections resulted with the pressure < or = 27.92 kPa, while the majority of intraneural injections were combined with the injectionpressure > or = 69.8 kPa. The difference between intraneural and perineural injection pressures for the two different examination groups (rats and delivered stillborns was not statistically significant (P>0.05. As prevention from intraneural injections today are in use two methods: the method of causing paresthesia or the method of using the peripheral nerve stimulator. However the nerve injury can still occur, independent from the technique used. If our results are used in clinical practice on human population, than the high injection pressure could be the markerof intraneural lodging of a needle.

  11. Biodistribution of radiolabelled human dendritic cells injected by various routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quillien, Veronique; Moisan, Annick; Carsin, Andre; Lesimple, Thierry; Lefeuvre, Claudia; Bertho, Nicolas; Devillers, Anne; Toujas, Louis; Adamski, Henri; Leberre, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of mature dendritic cells (DCs) injected by various routes, during a cell therapy protocol. In the context of a vaccine therapy protocol for melanoma, DCs matured with Ribomunyl and interferon-gamma were labelled with 111 In-oxine and injected into eight patients along various routes: afferent lymphatic vessel (IL) (4 times), lymph node (IN) (5 times) and intradermally (ID) (6 times). Scintigraphic investigations showed that the IL route allowed localisation of 80% of injected radioactivity in eight to ten nodes. In three cases of IN injection, the entire radioactivity stagnated in the injected nodes, while in two cases, migration to adjacent nodes was observed. This migration was detected rapidly after injection, as with IL injections, suggesting that passive transport occurred along the physiological lymphatic pathways. In two of the six ID injections, 1-2% of injected radioactivity reached a proximal lymph node. Migration was detectable in the first hour, but increased considerably after 24 h, suggesting an active migration mechanism. In both of the aforementioned cases, DCs were strongly CCR7-positive, but this feature was not a sufficient condition for effective migration. In comparison with DCs matured with TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2, our DCs showed a weaker in vitro migratory response to CCL21, despite comparable CCR7 expression, and higher allostimulatory and TH1 polarisation capacities. The IL route allowed reproducible administration of specified numbers of DCs. The IN route sometimes yielded fairly similar results, but not reproducibly. Lastly, we showed that DCs matured without PGE2 that have in vitro TH1 polarisation capacities can migrate to lymph nodes after ID injection. (orig.)

  12. Transvaginal Pelvic Floor Muscle Injection Technique: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Ehlert, Michael; Sirls, Larry T; Peters, Kenneth

    Women with pelvic floor dysfunction can have tender areas on vaginal examination, which can be treated with trigger-point injections. There are no publications to evaluate the accuracy of pelvic floor muscle injections. Trigger-point injections were performed on 2 fresh cadaveric pelvises using a curved nasal cannula guide and 7-in spinal needle. This was performed using our standard template of 2 sets of injections at the 1-, 3-, and 5-o'clock positions distally and proximally. The first pelvis was dissected to examine dye penetration. Based on these results, we modified our technique and repeated the injections on the second cadaver. We dissected the second pelvis and compared our findings. The 1-o'clock proximal and distal injections stained the obturator internus and externus near the insertion at the ischiopubic ramus. The 3-o'clock injections stained the midbody of the pubococcygeus and puborectalis. The distal 5-o'clock position was too deep and stained the fat of the ischiorectal space. The proximal 5-o'clock injection stained the area of the pudendal nerve. Our goal at the distal 5-o'clock position was to infuse the iliococcygeus muscle, so we shortened the needle depth from 2 to 1 cm beyond the cannula tip. In our second dissection, the distal 5-o'clock injection again stained only the fat of the ischiorectal space. This is the first study to characterize the distribution of pelvic floor muscle injections in a cadaver model and confirms the ability to deliver medications effectively to the pelvic floor muscles.

  13. Knowledge and Practice on Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Kaski District, Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kc, Vikash Kumar; Jha, Nisha; Sharma, Damodar

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe injection practice can transmit various blood borne infections. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of injection safety among injection providers, to obtain information about disposal of injectable devices, and to compare the knowledge and practices of urban and rural injection providers. Methods The study was conducted with injection providers working at primary health care facilities within Kaski district, Nepal. Ninety-six health care workers from 69 primary health care facilities were studied and 132 injection events observed. A semi-structured checklist was used for observing injection practice and a questionnaire for the survey. Respondents were interviewed to complete the questionnaire and obtain possible explanations for certain observed behaviors. Results All injection providers knew of at least one pathogen transmitted through use/re-use of unsterile syringes. Proportion of injection providers naming hepatitis/jaundice as one of the diseases transmitted by unsafe injection practice was significantly higher in urban (75.6%) than in rural (39.2%) area. However, compared to urban respondents (13.3%), a significantly higher proportion of rural respondents (37.3%) named Hepatitis B specifically as one of the diseases transmitted. Median (inter-quartile range) number of therapeutic injection and injectable vaccine administered per day by the injection providers were 2 (1) and 1 (1), respectively. Two handed recapping by injection providers was significantly higher in urban area (33.3%) than in rural areas (21.6%). Most providers were not aware of the post exposure prophylaxis guideline. Conclusion The knowledge of the injection providers about safe injection practice was acceptable. The use of safe injection practice by providers in urban and rural health care facilities was almost similar. The deficiencies noted in the practice must be addressed. PMID:27540325

  14. Cross-border drug injection relationships among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla D.; Pollini, Robin A.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Vera, Alicia; Volkmann, Tyson A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background International borders are unique social and environmental contexts characterized by high levels of mobility. Among drug users, mobility increases risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in part through its effects on the social environment. However, the social dynamics of drug users living in border regions are understudied. Methods 1056 injection drug users (IDUs) residing in Tijuana, Mexico were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from 2006 to 2007, and underwent surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis (TB). Using logistic regression on baseline data, we identified correlates of having ever injected drugs with someone from the US. Results Almost half (48%) reported ever injecting drugs with someone from the US. In RDS-adjusted logistic regression, factors independently associated with having ever injected with someone from the US included: having greater than middle school education (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.91; 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.52, 5.91), speaking English (AOR 3.24, 95% C.I. 1.96, 5.36), age (AOR 1.10 per year; 95% C.I. 1.07, 1.14), age at initiation of injection drug use (AOR 0.90 per year; 95% C.I. 0.86, 0.94), homelessness (AOR 2.61; 95% C.I. 1.27, 5.39), and having ever been incarcerated (AOR 11.82; 95% C.I., 5.22, 26.77). No associations with HIV, syphilis, TB, drug use, or injection risk behavior were detected. Conclusion Findings suggest that IDU networks in Mexico and the US may transcend international borders, with implications for cross-border transmission of infectious disease. Binational programs and policies need to consider the structure and geographic distribution of drug using networks. PMID:20889270

  15. Outcome analysis of two different injection solutions for epidural injection in radicular lumbar backache syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Mukhtar, M.; Bhatti, S.N; Afridi, E.A.K.; Khan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Backache is a significant source of disability and suffering in our society. The treatment modalities need continued enhancement in order to achieve the desired goals of lowering morbidity and financial losses while improving the response of the patient. Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted at the department of Orthopaedics and Spine Surgery, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from July 2013 to June 2015. Two interventional groups were designated; Group 1 was comprised of 54 patients who were injected with epidural bupivacaine plus methylprednisolone while Group 2 included 55 patients who were injected with bupivacaine only. Outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Results: Fifty-five female and 54 male patients with mean age 49.37 years+-10.46 SD, Mean symptoms duration was 15.01 months+-9.32 SD. Common presenting symptoms were backache (77.1 percent), lower limbs pain (66.1 percent), dermatomal paresthesias (54.1 percent) and neurogenic claudication in 57.8 percent patients. The mean visual analogue score (VAS) after injection was 3.18+-1.29 while mean ODI after injection was 23.615. There was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores (2-sided p=0.003, OR =4.03, 95 percent CI: 1.535-10.60) following the injection. Conclusion: An epidural spinal injection is a viable option for achieving relief of pain and improves functioning in individuals with radicular backache. However, further research is advised in order to clarify the role of ESI for long-term relief. (author)

  16. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-07-27

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.).

  18. Evolution of the dispersionless injection boundary associated with substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sarris

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available One manifestation of energetic particle acceleration during magnetospheric substorms is the sudden appearance of particle injections into the inner magnetosphere, often observed near geosynchronous orbit. Injections that show simultaneous flux increases in all energy ranges of a detector are called dispersionless injections, and are most often observed in a narrow region around local midnight. In these events it is assumed that the satellite is located close to or inside the region where acceleration and/or transport processes are taking place, called the injection region. We present a study of the location, extent and temporal evolution of the injection region, based on simulation results of a model of the expansion of the electric and magnetic fields associated with a substorm. The model simulates the fields during a substorm onset with an electric field and consistent magnetic field pulse that propagates towards the Earth with a decreasing speed. Our simulation shows that the dispersionless injection boundary can be considered coincident with the leading edge of the pulse field, which transports particles toward the Earth across a certain range of local time. Under the same model field, the dispersionless injection boundary shifts eastward for electrons and westward for protons, consistent with the observation results deduced from statistical analysis of multiple spacecraft measurements.

  19. Dependability validation by means of fault injection: method, implementation, application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlat, Jean

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation presents theoretical and practical results concerning the use of fault injection as a means for testing fault tolerance in the framework of the experimental dependability validation of computer systems. The dissertation first presents the state-of-the-art of published work on fault injection, encompassing both hardware (fault simulation, physical fault Injection) and software (mutation testing) issues. Next, the major attributes of fault injection (faults and their activation, experimental readouts and measures, are characterized taking into account: i) the abstraction levels used to represent the system during the various phases of its development (analytical, empirical and physical models), and Il) the validation objectives (verification and evaluation). An evaluation method is subsequently proposed that combines the analytical modeling approaches (Monte Carlo Simulations, closed-form expressions. Markov chains) used for the representation of the fault occurrence process and the experimental fault Injection approaches (fault Simulation and physical injection); characterizing the error processing and fault treatment provided by the fault tolerance mechanisms. An experimental tool - MESSALINE - is then defined and presented. This tool enables physical faults to be Injected In an hardware and software prototype of the system to be validated. Finally, the application of MESSALINE for testing two fault-tolerant systems possessing very dissimilar features and the utilization of the experimental results obtained - both as design feedbacks and for dependability measures evaluation - are used to illustrate the relevance of the method. (author) [fr

  20. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  1. The effect of blood injection for the prevention of Ethanol reflux after intrahepatic Ethanol injection in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Choon Yul; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1998-01-01

    To reduce ethanol reflux from the needle channel by injecting rat blood immediately after the injection of ethanol into rat liver. The first experiment involved 33 rat livers which were divided into four groups (three livers in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and 0.1ml saline was injected into the liver; in group 2, ethanol-Tc-99m-O 4 - mixed solution (0.1ml, 0.2mCi) was injected into the liver;in groups 3 and 4, the needle channel was blocked with 0.02ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After removing the needle, a 3cm round filter paper was laid on each injection site to absorb refluxed ethanol-T c -99m-O 4 - mixed solution from the liver, and each paper was then counted by a gamma camera unit. In the second experiment, 33rats were divided into four groups (three rats in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and after exposing the left lateral lobe of the liver, 0.05 ml of saline was injected;in group 2, 0.05 ml of ethanol was injected into the livder;in groups 3 and 4 the needle channel was blocked with 0.02 ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After ten days, peritoneal adhesions were scored macroscopically and microscopically. In the first experiment using ethanol- T c -99m-O 4 - mixed solution, groups blocked with blood after the injection of mixed solution showed lower gamma counts than the group injected with mixed solution only (p-value=3D0.0002). The group blocked with old blood showed the lowest count. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of peritoneal adhesions indicated that the grade of adhesion was lower in groups blocked with blood than in the group injected with ethanol onluy (p-value=3D0.0261 and 0.0163, respectively). The above results suggest that an injection of blood after an injection of ethanol is a very effective way of preventing reflux from the liver.=20

  2. Gas injected washer plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, K.K.; John, P.I.; Punithavelu, A.M.; Rao, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    A plasma gun similar in geometry to the washer plasma gun has been operated with gas injected externally. hydrogen, nitrogen and argon plasmas have been ionised and accelerated to velocities of the order of 10 7 mm s -1 and densities 10 11 mm -3 . Higher parameter range is possible with higher electrical input power. (author)

  3. Medical simulator with injection device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    medical simulator 611 comprises a vessel 609 representing a simulated blood vessel. The vessel comprises a simulated vessel wall capable of being punctured by an electrically conductive injection needle 503. The vessel wall comprises a first electrically conductive layer for closing an electric

  4. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  5. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 249 Cf, or 252 Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  6. injection-induced sciatic nerve injury among children managed in an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    their carers and relatives, had the injections administered by nurses. The results ... and health professionals who administer injections adhere strictly to safe ethical practices and that unqualified personnel are ... presently a common practice in developing countries, ... age, side affected, personnel/place where injection was.

  7. Drug injecting and HIV risk among injecting drug users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Long, Thanh Nguyen; Huong, Phan Thi; Stewart, Donald Edwin

    2015-01-29

    Hai Phong, located in northern Vietnam, has become a high HIV prevalence province among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) since the infection shifted from the southern to the northern region of the country. Previous research indicates high levels of drug and sex related risk behaviour especially among younger IDUs. Our recent qualitative research provides a deeper understanding of HIV risk behaviour and highlights views and experiences of IDUs relating to drug injecting and sharing practices. Fifteen IDUs participated in semi-structured interviews conducted in September-October, 2012. Eligible participants were selected from those recruited in a larger scale behavioural research project and identified through screening questions. Interviews were conducted by two local interviewers in Vietnamese and were audiotaped. Ethical procedures, including informed consent and participants' understanding of their right to skip and withdraw, were applied. Transcripts were translated and double checked. The data were categorised and coded according to themes. Thematic analysis was conducted and a qualitative data analysis thematic framework was used. Qualitative analysis highlighted situational circumstances associated with HIV risks among IDUs in Hai Phong and revealed three primary themes: (i) places for injecting, (ii) injecting drugs in small groups, and (iii) sharing practices. Our results showed that shared use of jointly purchased drugs and group injecting were widespread among IDUs without adequate recognition of these as HIV risk behaviours. Frequent police raids generated a constant fear of arrest. As a consequence, the majority preferred either rail lines or isolated public places for injection, while some injected in their own or a friend's home. Price, a heroin crisis, and strong group norms encouraged collective preparation and group injecting. Risk practices were enhanced by a number of factors: the difficulty in getting new syringes, quick withdrawal management

  8. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a uniform hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into core fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). Unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection is similar to compact toroid injection but with much higher plasma density and total mass, and consequently lower required injection velocit...

  9. Target injection and engagement for neutron generation at 1 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komeda, Osamu; Mori, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Target injection is a key technology to realizing inertial fusion energy. Here we present the first demonstration of target injection and neutron generation. We injected more than 600 spherical deuterated polystyrene (C 8 D 8 ) bead targets during 10 minutes at 1 Hz. After the targets fell for a distance of 18 cm, we applied the synchronized laser-diode-pumped ultra-intense laser HAMA and successfully generated neutrons repeatedly. The result is a step toward fusion power and also suggests possible industrial neutron sources. (author)

  10. Chaos synchronization communication using extremely unsymmetrical bidirectional injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei Li; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xi Hua; Wang, Meng Yao; Zhou, Zhi

    2008-02-01

    Chaos synchronization and message transmission between two semiconductor lasers with extremely unsymmetrical bidirectional injections (EUBIs) are discussed. By using EUBIs, synchronization is realized through injection locking. Numerical results show that if the laser subjected to strong injection serves as the receiver, chaos pass filtering (CPF) of the system is similar to that of unidirectional coupled systems. Moreover, if the other laser serves as the receiver, a stronger CPF can be obtained. Finally, we demonstrate that messages can be extracted successfully from either of the two transmission directions of the system.

  11. Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, S.; Machida, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ohzu, H.

    1993-09-01

    The intensity-noise properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser were studied experimentally. The constant-current-driven semiconductor laser producing the amplitude-squeezed state whose intensity noise was reduced below the standard quantum limit (SQL) by 0.72 dB was injection-locked by an external master laser. The measured intensity-noise level of the injection-locked semiconductor laser was 0.91 dB below the SQL. This experimental result indicates that a phase-coherent amplitude-squeezed state or squeezed vacuum state together with a reference local oscillator wave can be generated directly by semiconductor laser systems.

  12. Efficient Injection of Electron Beams into Magnetic Guide Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorny, V.; Cooperstein, G.; Dubyna, V.; Frolov, O.; Harper-Slaboszewicz, V.; Hinshelwood, D.; Schneider, R.; Solovyov, V.; Tsepilov, H.; Vitkovitsky, I.; Ware, K.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary experimental and modeling study of injection and transport of high current electron beams in current-neutralized background gas has been performed. Initial analysis of the results indicates that high current triaxial ring diode operates very reproducibly in the pinch mode. High current density beam can be injected efficiently into the drift region, using azimuthal guide field with reduced intensity near the injection region. This was shown to improve the effectiveness of capturing the beam for the transport. The transport length was insufficient to measure losses, such as would arise from scattering with the background gas

  13. Tomography at Injection in the PSB

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The PSB was conceived as an intensity booster for fixed-target physics. Consequently, no attempt was ever made to synchronize the turns injected into each ring with the rf in that ring because as many as a dozen such turns were expected to be superposed longitudinally [1]. When only a small, non-integer number of turns is injected, this asynchronism results in a particle distribution whose initial phase fluctuates wildly from shot to shot with respect to the rf bucket into which it is subsequently captured. This has long been suspected to be an ingredient in the intensity non-reproducibility observed for low-intensity beams, such as pilot beams for the LHC [2]. An MD cycle has been built to pursue this suspicion (in one ring, at least) by introducing, in a fully ppm fashion, distributor timings that are first resynchronized to the rf train of Ring3 and that then count 40 MHz clock ticks to reduce any jitter to just 25 ns (cf., the bucket duration at Booster injection is 1.67 μs). Leaving aside the origin...

  14. Turbulent shear control with oscillatory bubble injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Oishi, Yoshihiko; Tasaka, Yuji; Murai, Yuichi; Takeda, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    It is known that injecting bubbles into shear flow can reduce the frictional drag. This method has advantages in comparison to others in simplicity of installation and also in environment. The amount of drag reduction by bubbles depends on the void fraction provided in the boundary layer. It means, however, that certain power must be consumed to generate bubbles in water, worsening the total power-saving performance. We propose oscillatory bubble injection technique to improve the performance in this study. In order to prove this idea of new type of drag reduction, velocity vector field and shear stress profile in a horizontal channel flow are measured by ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP) and shear stress transducer, respectively. We measure the gas-liquid interface from the UVP signal, as well. This compound measurement with different principles leads to deeper understanding of bubble-originated drag reduction phenomena, in particular for unsteady process of boundary layer alternation. At these experiments, the results have demonstrated that the intermittency promotes the drag reduction more than normal continuous injection for the same void fraction supplied.

  15. Jet noise reduction via dispersed phase injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greska, Brent; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Arakeri, Vijay

    2001-11-01

    A recently developed hot jet aeroacoustics facility at FMRL,FAMU-FSU College of Engineering has been used to study the far field noise characteristics of hot supersonic jets as influenced by the injection of a dispersed phase with low mass loading.The measured SPL from a fully expanded Mach 1.36 hot jet shows a peak value of about 139 dB at 40 deg from the jet axis.By injecting atomized water,the SPL are reduced in the angular region of about 30 deg to 50 deg with the maximum reduction being about 2 dB at 40 deg.However,with the use of non atomized aqueous polymer solution as a dispersed phase the noise levels are reduced over all angular positions by at least 1 dB with the maximum reduction being about 3 dB at 40 deg.The injection of a dispersed phase readily kills the screech; the initial results show promise and optimization studies are underway to find methods of further noise reduction.

  16. Allergic anaphylaxis due to subcutaneously injected heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heparins are one of the most used class of anticoagulants in daily clinical practice. Despite their widespread application immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to heparins are rare. Among these, the delayed-type reactions to s.c. injected heparins are well-known usually presenting as circumscribed eczematous plaques at the injection sites. In contrast, potentially life-threatening systemic immediate-type anaphylactic reactions to heparins are extremely rare. Recently, some cases of non-allergic anaphylaxis could be attributed to undesirable heparin contaminants. A 43-year-old patient developed severe anaphylaxis symptoms within 5–10 minutes after s.c. injection of enoxaparin. Titrated skin prick testing with wheal and flare responses up to an enoxaparin dilution of 1:10.000 indicated a probable allergic mechanism of the enoxaparin-induced anaphylaxis. The basophil activation test as an additional in-vitro test method was negative. Furthermore, skin prick testing showed rather broad cross-reactivity among different heparin preparations tested. In the presented case, history, symptoms, and results of skin testing strongly suggested an IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity against different heparins. Therefore, as safe alternative anticoagulants the patient could receive beneath coumarins the hirudins or direct thrombin inhibitors. Because these compounds have a completely different molecular structure compared with the heparin-polysaccharides.

  17. Injection of pellets into the TCA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Y.

    1993-05-01

    This thesis presents experimental results from the analysis of the ablation process of pellets injected into the TCA tokamak. The determination of scaling laws relating the pellet penetration to the pellet and plasma parameters preceding injection, were used to improve the understanding of the interaction of the pellet with the plasma since a) the pellet and plasma conditions preceding injection were varied over a large range, and b) the estimation of the penetration depth takes into account the influence of striations in the deposition profile. Over 400 pellets with a range of sizes and speeds were injected into a range of plasma parameters in order to create a database from which the scaling laws could be deduced. The ablation characteristics were principally measured with two CCD video cameras, which provided good spatial resolution, and two filtered photomultiplier tubes, which provided good temporal resolution of the light emitted from the pellet ablation cloud. In the text, the traditional methods of analysing these diagnostics are examined with special reference to the presumptions that a) the pellet velocity is constant in the plasma, and b) the light intensity determined from the ablation cloud is proportional to the ablation rate. After successive data reduction from the database, in order to separate the effects of varying different parameters, the main observations were that, a) the pellet penetration varies as the square root of the pellet velocity, b) the scaling laws for the other parameters strongly depend on whether the pellet has sufficient velocity to reach the q=1 rational magnetic surface in the tokamak. (author) 45 refs

  18. EDF plan for a dispersant injection trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, Stephane; Corredera, Geraldine; Alves-Vieira, Maria; Mansour, Carine; You, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    In its strategy for SG fouling control, EDF is considering the use of dispersant as a preventive remedy. A trial on Golfech 2 started in May 2012. The dispersant selected for the trial is Polyacrylic Acid (PAA). The main goals of the test are to check and quantify the gain on iron transport to blowdown, to evaluate the possible effects on secondary side chemistry and the operational costs of the injection - reactant, ion exchange resins and filters. The results of the test, if satisfying, will be used to set EDF strategy for dispersant long term use on its fleet. So, one concern about the trial is to make sure that the conclusions of this test will be applicable to a wide range of EDF plants. For that purpose, several criteria have been examined for the choice of the candidate plant such as fouling level, secondary circuit materials (presence or absence of copper alloys,...), SG tube material, thermal power margin, secondary side chemistry (amine used and pH applied). Before starting the trial, EDF had to take into account the international feedback and to adapt it to its specific requirements: the neutralization amine was switched from ETA to morpholine, additional work had been completed to validate the innocuousness of PAA injection for EDF plants... This work especially includes laboratory testing of secondary side corrosion cracking in the presence of PAA and water chemistries used in EdF plants. Moreover, investigation on the thermal stability of PAA and degradation products was completed and further evaluation of environmental impact was performed. A dedicated skid for the injection of PAA was implemented in Golfech Chemicals injection room. The installation and the process were notably designed to take into account the high viscosity of the commercial product, and the need to proceed to a good rinsing of the pipes without increasing the discharged effluents. The first available data from Golfech 2 trial are also provided and discussed. (authors)

  19. Tennis elbow: role of local steroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gulzar Saeed; Ali, Muhammad; Trago, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a condition, characterised by pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and pain on resisted dorsiflexion of the wrist, middle finger, or both. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the short term efficacy of local steroid injection compared with oral and topical NSAIDs. Sixty patients (45 male and 15 female) were included in the study. The mean age was 42 years for men and 40 years for women. They were placed in group A and B (30 cases each). Group A received local steroid injection (triamcinolone 20 mg mixed with lignocaine 2% 1 cc) and topical NSAID cream application (diclofenac diethylammonium) twice a day, tab. diclofenac sodium 50 mg twice a day for 3 weeks. Group B received tab diclofenac 50 mg twice a day and, topical NSAID cream application twice a day for 3 weeks. Assessment of patients was made 3 times; first at the start of the study, 2nd time after 6 weeks, and 3rd time after 12 weeks. A blinded assessor rated the elbow complaints of the patients at resisted dorsiflexion of wrist using VAS (0 = no severity, 1-3 mild, 4-6 moderate, 7-9 sever, 10 = maximum severity). At six weeks, 22 (73.33%) patient in group A had no pain as compared to 7 (23.33%) patients in group B who were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 38.75). At 12 weeks 27 (90%) patients in group A were pain free compared to group B in which 7 (23.33%) patients were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 27.56). In patients with tennis elbow, the use of local steroid injection in combination with topical and oral NSAIDs is superior to the use of combination of topical and oral NSAIDs. Better results with combination therapy using local steroid injection may be limited to the short term.

  20. Evaluation of upward migration around a deep injection well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Yeeping; Chiu, J.

    1994-01-01

    The long-term containment of injected wastes in the deep subsurface is expected to be achieved under suitable geologic and hydrologic conditions and by the use of competent engineering practices. Field experiences, however, indicate that waste containment may be affected by hydrologic conduits around the injection well. To assess the potential effects of these conduits, upward migration of injected waste is examined through the use of numerical models under various conditions. Test results indicate that without any preferential hydrologic conduits, most of the injected waste moves laterally in the injection interval, whereas only a small amount of waste migrates upward into the containment interval. When vertical fractures in the disturbed zone or defects in the cement seal around the wellbore exist, the contaminant can move rapidly upward along these conduits to an overlying aquifer, from which it migrates in the lateral direction. The contamination of the overlying aquifer that results from the upward migration of injected waste through these conduits cannot be impeded by a thick, low-permeability containment interval. However, when permeable interbeds exist within the containment interval, a significant portion of the waste migrating upward can be diverted laterally before reaching the overlying aquifer. The front of built-up pressure can reach the aquifer or permeable interbed immediately overlying the injection interval through the preferential hydrologic conduits shortly after the injection starts, but it cannot move farther upward because of pressure dissipation in the permeable formation. This study suggests that the injected waste has the potential to migrate upward into overlying formations through preferential migration conduits around the wellbore

  1. Surface multipole guide field for plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breun, R.A.; Rael, B.H.; Wong, A.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Described here is a surface guide field system which is useful for injection of plasmas into confinement devices. Experimental results are given for 5--25-eV hydrogen plasmas produced by a coaxial discharge (Marshall) gun. It is found that better than 90% of the plasma produced by the gun is delivered to the end of the guide 180 cm away, while the neutral component falls by more than an order of magnitude. For these results the rod current providing the magnetic field had to be large enough to provide at least 1.5-ion gyroradii from the center of the guide to the surface of the inner rod

  2. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine long-acting injection, I: analysis of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaniak Victoria J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An advance in the treatment of schizophrenia is the development of long-acting intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics, such as olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI. During clinical trials, a post-injection syndrome characterized by signs of delirium and/or excessive sedation was identified in a small percentage of patients following injection with olanzapine LAI. Methods Safety data from all completed and ongoing trials of olanzapine LAI were reviewed for possible cases of this post-injection syndrome. Descriptive analyses were conducted to characterize incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome. Regression analyses were conducted to assess possible risk factors. Results Based on approximately 45,000 olanzapine LAI injections given to 2054 patients in clinical trials through 14 October 2008, post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome occurred in approximately 0.07% of injections or 1.4% of patients (30 cases in 29 patients. Symptomatology was consistent with olanzapine overdose (e.g., sedation, confusion, slurred speech, altered gait, or unconsciousness. However, no clinically significant decreases in vital signs were observed. Symptom onset ranged from immediate to 3 to 5 hours post injection, with a median onset time of 25 minutes post injection. All patients recovered within 1.5 to 72 hours, and the majority continued to receive further olanzapine LAI injections following the event. No clear risk factors were identified. Conclusions Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome can be readily identified based on symptom presentation, progression, and temporal relationship to the injection, and is consistent with olanzapine overdose following probable accidental intravascular injection of a portion of the olanzapine LAI dose. Although there is no specific antidote for olanzapine overdose, patients can be treated symptomatically as needed. Special precautions include use of proper injection technique and a post-injection

  3. Clinical evaluation of gadodiamide injection in paediatric MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanquinet, S.; Christophe, C.; Greef, D. de; Gordon, P.; Perlmutter, N.

    1996-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of intravenous gadodiamide injection, 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, have been evaluated in an open label, non-comparative as to drug, phase III clinical trial in 50 children from 6 months to 13 years of age, referred for MRI requiring the injection of a contrast medium. The central nervous system and other body areas were examined with T1 sequences before and after intravenous injection of the contrast medium. Overall safety was very good and no clinically relevant changes were evident as regards heart rate and venous blood oxygen saturation after injection. No adverse event or discomfort was experienced by conscious patients that could with certainty be related to the contrast medium, but slight movements were observed in two sedated patients that could be related to the injection. Comparing pre- and post-injection images, additional diagnostic information could be obtained from the latter in 41 patients (82 %). In these images, the number of lesions detected increased and they were generally better delineated and their size more easily estimated. The results of this trial indicate that gadodiamide injection is safe and effective for MRI examinations in children. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Autologous Blood Injection and Wrist Immobilisation for Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Massy-Westropp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored the effect of autologous blood injection (with ultrasound guidance to the elbows of patients who had radiologically assessed degeneration of the origin of extensor carpi radialis brevis and failed cortisone injection/s to the lateral epicondylitis. Methods. This prospective longitudinal series involved preinjection assessment of pain, grip strength, and function, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Patients were injected with blood from the contralateral limb and then wore a customised wrist support for five days, after which they commenced a stretching, strengthening, and massage programme with an occupational therapist. These patients were assessed after six months and then finally between 18 months and five years after injection, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Results. Thirty-eight of 40 patients completed the study, showing significant improvement in pain; the worst pain decreased by two to five points out of a 10-point visual analogue for pain. Self-perceived function improved by 11–25 points out of 100. Women showed significant increase in grip, but men did not. Conclusions. Autologous blood injection improved pain and function in a worker’s compensation cohort of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, who had not had relief with cortisone injection.

  5. Autologous Blood Injection and Wrist Immobilisation for Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massy-Westropp, Nicola; Simmonds, Stuart; Caragianis, Suzanne; Potter, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This study explored the effect of autologous blood injection (with ultrasound guidance) to the elbows of patients who had radiologically assessed degeneration of the origin of extensor carpi radialis brevis and failed cortisone injection/s to the lateral epicondylitis. Methods. This prospective longitudinal series involved preinjection assessment of pain, grip strength, and function, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Patients were injected with blood from the contralateral limb and then wore a customised wrist support for five days, after which they commenced a stretching, strengthening, and massage programme with an occupational therapist. These patients were assessed after six months and then finally between 18 months and five years after injection, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Results. Thirty-eight of 40 patients completed the study, showing significant improvement in pain; the worst pain decreased by two to five points out of a 10-point visual analogue for pain. Self-perceived function improved by 11–25 points out of 100. Women showed significant increase in grip, but men did not. Conclusions. Autologous blood injection improved pain and function in a worker's compensation cohort of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, who had not had relief with cortisone injection. PMID:23251809

  6. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  7. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Age at Initiation of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133

  9. Unicameral bone cysts treated by injection of bone marrow or methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C H; Stanton, R P; Glutting, J

    2002-04-01

    In 79 consecutive patients with unicameral bone cysts we compared the results of aspiration and injection of bone marrow with those of aspiration and injection of steroid. All were treated by the same protocol. The only difference was the substance injected into the cysts. The mean radiological follow-up to detect activity in the cyst was 44 months (12 to 108). Of the 79 patients, 14 received a total of 27 injections of bone marrow and 65 a total of 99 injections of steroid. Repeated injections were required in 57% of patients after bone marrow had been used and in 49% after steroid. No complications were noted in either group. In this series no advantage could be shown for the use of autogenous injection of bone marrow compared with injection of steroid in the management of unicameral bone cysts.

  10. Preliminary study on functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tanks is studied. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive flow features in compound type safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study is carried out to evaluate the functional performance of a compound type multistage safety injection tank that would be considered one of the components for the passive safety injection systems in nuclear power plants. The effects of key design parameters such as the initial volume fraction and charging pressure of gas, tank elevation, vertical location of a sparger, resistance coefficient, and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized along with a discussion of the relevant flow features. The obtained results indicate that the compound type multistage safety injection tank can effectively control the injection flow rate in a passive manner, by switching the driving force for the safety injection from gas pressure to gravity during the refill and reflood phases, respectively

  11. Neutralizing SQL Injection Attack Using Server Side Code Modification in Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asish Kumar Dalai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports on web application security risks show that SQL injection is the top most vulnerability. The journey of static to dynamic web pages leads to the use of database in web applications. Due to the lack of secure coding techniques, SQL injection vulnerability prevails in a large set of web applications. A successful SQL injection attack imposes a serious threat to the database, web application, and the entire web server. In this article, the authors have proposed a novel method for prevention of SQL injection attack. The classification of SQL injection attacks has been done based on the methods used to exploit this vulnerability. The proposed method proves to be efficient in the context of its ability to prevent all types of SQL injection attacks. Some popular SQL injection attack tools and web application security datasets have been used to validate the model. The results obtained are promising with a high accuracy rate for detection of SQL injection attack.

  12. Rapid contrast infusion of bolus injection for i.v. urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenborn, H.; Klose, P.; Klose, K.; Schmiedel, E.

    1993-01-01

    The rate of contrast injection during i.v. urography may vary considerably (bolus injection or drip infusion). The effect of 5 rates of injection (6, 12, 18, 36 and 72 ml/min) on the contrast density in the renal collecting system was examined over a period of 30 minutes. Measurements showed an inter-individual difference of more than 200% in each group. The intra-individual variations for different rates of injection were very slight; individual concentration in the kidney for a given dose depends only slightly on the rate of injection. There is no statistically significant improvement in contrast values as a result of a bolus injection. The reduced incidence of side effects justifies the use of bolus injections but pressure injections are unnecessary from a diagnostic point view. (orig.) [de

  13. Comparative study of oxihydrogen injection in turbocharged compression ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, L.; Lelea, D.

    2018-01-01

    This document proposes for analysis, comparative study of the turbocharged, compression-ignition engine, equipped with EGR valve, operation in case the injection in intake manifold thereof a maximum flow rate of 1l/min oxyhydrogen resulted of water electrolysis, at two different injection pressures, namely 100 Pa and 3000 Pa, from the point of view of flue gas opacity. We found a substantial reduction of flue gas opacity in both cases compared to conventional diesel operation, but in different proportions.

  14. Plasma heating by cluster injection: basic features and expected behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1976-08-01

    The main components of a cluster injection line intended for plasma heating is briefly discussed, that is the beam source, the cluster ionizer and the accelerating tube, as well as the behavior of clusters interacting with a plasma. Outlines of the experiment of cluster injection into TFR, in progress at Fontenay-aux-Roses, and expected results will be presented and discussed all along the paper

  15. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, J Bart; de Bie, Rob; de Vet, Henrica Cw; Hildebrandt, Jan; Nelemans, Patty

    2008-07-16

    The effectiveness of injection therapy for low-back pain is still debatable. Heterogeneity of target tissue, pharmacological agent and dosage generally found in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) points to the need for clinically valid comparisons in a literature synthesis. To determine if injection therapy is more effective than placebo or other treatments for patients with subacute or chronic low-back pain. We updated the search of the earlier systematic review and searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from January 1999 to March 2007 for relevant trials reported in English, French, German, Dutch and Nordic languages. We also screened references from trials identified. RCTs on the effects of injection therapy involving epidural, facet or local sites for subacute or chronic low-back pain were included. Studies which compared the effects of intradiscal injections, prolotherapy or Ozone therapy with other treatments, were excluded unless injection therapy with another pharmaceutical agent (no placebo treatment) was part of one of the treatment arms. Studies about injections in sacroiliac joints and studies evaluating the effects of epidural steroids for radicular pain were also excluded. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the trials. If study data were clinically and statistically too heterogeneous to perform a meta-analysis, we used a best evidence synthesis to summarize the results. The evidence was classified into five levels (strong, moderate, limited, conflicting or no evidence), taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. 18 trials (1179 participants) were included in this updated review. The injection sites varied from epidural sites and facet joints (i.e. intra-articular injections, peri-articular injections and nerve blocks) to local sites (i.e. tender- and trigger points). The drugs that were studied consisted of corticosteroids, local anesthetics and a variety of

  16. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques among retina specialists in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ori Segal,1,2 Yael Segal-Trivitz,1,3 Arie Y Nemet,1,2 Noa Geffen,1,2 Ronit Nesher,1,2 Michael Mimouni4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 3Department of Psychiatry, Geha Psychiatric Hospital, Petah Tikva, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe antivascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injection techniques of retinal specialists in order to establish a cornerstone for future practice guidelines. Methods: All members of the Israeli Retina Society were contacted by email to complete an anonymous, 19-question, Internet-based survey regarding their intravitreal injection techniques. Results: Overall, 66% (52/79 completed the survey. Most (98% do not instruct patients to discontinue anticoagulant therapy and 92% prescribe treatment for patients in the waiting room. Three quarters wear sterile gloves and prepare the patient in the supine position. A majority (71% use sterile surgical draping. All respondents apply topical analgesics and a majority (69% measure the distance from the limbus to the injection site. A minority (21% displace the conjunctiva prior to injection. A majority of the survey participants use a 30-gauge needle and the most common quadrant for injection is superotemporal (33%. Less than half routinely assess postinjection optic nerve perfusion (44%. A majority (92% apply prophylactic antibiotics immediately after the injection. Conclusion: The majority of retina specialists perform intravitreal injections similarly. However, a relatively large minority performs this procedure differently. Due to the extremely low percentage of complications, it seems as though such differences do not increase the risk. However, more evidence-based medicine, a cornerstone for practice guidelines, is required in order to identify the intravitreal injection techniques

  17. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9804-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste [[Page 23247...

  18. Identification of the Allergenic Ingredients in Reduning Injection by Ultrafiltration and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduning injection is a traditional Chinese medicine injection which has multiple functions such as clearing heat, dispelling wind, and detoxification. Although Reduning injection was widely utilized, reports of its allergenicity emerged one after another. However, there is little research on its allergenic substances. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitization of Reduning injection and explore the underlying cause of the anaphylactic reaction. The main ingredients in Reduning injection were analyzed before and after ultrafiltration. Ultrafiltrate Reduning injection, unfiltered Reduning injection, egg albumin, Tween-80, and nine effective components in Reduning injection were utilized to sensitize guinea pigs. The serum 5-hydroxytryptamine level was used to assess the sensitization effect of Reduning injection. We found a significant decrease in Tween-80 content comparing to other components in the injection after ultrafiltration. Unfiltered Reduning injection, Tween-80, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenin acid caused remarkable anaphylactoid reaction on guinea pigs while ultrafiltration Reduning resulted in a significantly lower degree of sensitization. Our results suggest that ultrafiltration could significantly reduce the sensitization of Reduning injection, which is likely due to the decrease of Tween-80. We also conjectured that the form of chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenin acid within the complex solution mixture may also affect the sensitizing effect.

  19. Effects of Injection Rate Profile on Combustion Process and Emissions in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When multi-injection is implemented in diesel engine via high pressure common rail injection system, changed interval between injection pulses can induce variation of injection rate profile for sequential injection pulse, though other control parameters are the same. Variations of injection rate shape which influence the air-fuel mixing and combustion process will be important for designing injection strategy. In this research, CFD numerical simulations using KIVA-3V were conducted for examining the effects of injection rate shape on diesel combustion and emissions. After the model was validated by experimental results, five different shapes (including rectangle, slope, triangle, trapezoid, and wedge of injection rate profiles were investigated. Modeling results demonstrate that injection rate shape can have obvious influence on heat release process and heat release traces which cause different combustion process and emissions. It is observed that the baseline, rectangle (flat, shape of injection rate can have better balance between NOx and soot emissions than the other investigated shapes. As wedge shape brings about the lowest NOx emissions due to retarded heat release, it produces the highest soot emissions among the five shapes. Trapezoid shape has the lowest soot emissions, while its NOx is not the highest one. The highest NOx emissions were produced by triangle shape due to higher peak injection rate.

  20. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  1. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of atracurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Nahid; Soltani, Ghasem; Ghomian, Naiere; Hasanpour, Mohamad Reza; Mashayekhi, Zahra

    2011-04-01

    This report relates how tracurium was given by mistake, intrathecally, during spinal anesthesia, to a 38-year-old woman, who was a candidate for abdominal hysterectomy. When no analgesia was observed, the mistake in giving the injection was understood. She was evaluated postoperatively by train of four ratio, measuring her breathing rate, eye opening, and protruding of tongue at one, two, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours, and then at one and two weeks, with the final evaluation the following month. The patient had normal timings during the operation and postoperation periods, and no abnormal findings were observed through the first month. This finding was contrary to several studies, which described adverse reactions due to accidental intrathecal injection of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  2. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of atracurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Zirak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report relates how tracurium was given by mistake, intrathecally, during spinal anesthesia, to a 38-year-old woman, who was a candidate for abdominal hysterectomy. When no analgesia was observed, the mistake in giving the injection was understood. She was evaluated postoperatively by train of four ratio, measuring her breathing rate, eye opening, and protruding of tongue at one, two, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours, and then at one and two weeks, with the final evaluation the following month. The patient had normal timings during the operation and postoperation periods, and no abnormal findings were observed through the first month. This finding was contrary to several studies, which described adverse reactions due to accidental intrathecal injection of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  3. An experimental study on the effects of high-pressure and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2013-03-25

    An experimental study on effects of high-pressure injections in conjunction with split fuel injections were conducted on an AVL single cylinder DI diesel engine. Various injection schemes were studied through the use of an electronically controlled, common rail injection system capable of injection pressures up to 200 MPa and a maximum of six injections per combustion event. Up to 100 MPa of the fuel injection pressure, the higher injection pressures create faster combustion rates that result in the higher in-cylinder gas temperatures as compared to conventional low-pressure fuel injection systems. When applying high-pressure injections, particulate emission reductions of up to 50% were observed with no change in hydrocarbon emissions, reductions of CO emissions and only slightly higher NOx emissions. Over 100 MPa, on the other hand, the higher injection pressures still reduced up to almost zero-level of particulate emission, at the same time that the NO emission is reduced greatly. Under these high-pressure injection conditions, strong correlations between soot and CO emissions were observed, which compete for the oxidizing OH species. Multiple or split high-pressure injections also investigated as a means to decrease particulate emissions. As a result, a four-split injection strategy resulted in a 55% reduction in particulates and with little or no penalty on NOx emissions. The high pressure split injection strategy with EGR was more effective in reducing particulate and CO emissions simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 TSAE.

  4. Model for pneumatic pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A hydrodynamic code has been developed to model the performance of pneumatic pellet injection systems. The code describes one dimensional, unsteady compressible gas dynamics, including gas friction and heat transfer to the walls in a system with variable area. The mass, momentum, and energy equations are solved with an iterated Lax-Wendroff scheme with additional numerical viscosity. The code is described and comparisons with experimental data are presented

  5. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  6. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  7. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  8. The effect of low capacity injection systems on transient initiated loss of vessel water injection at Browns Ferry unit one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses have indicated the transient initiated loss of vessel water injection (TQUV sequence) to be a dominant accident scenario for BWR plants. The PRA studies assumed the low capacity injection systems to be unimportant in severe accidents. The results of a Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program study have shown that these systems are capable of preventing or significantly delaying core damage in a TQUV sequence

  9. Development of devices for self-injection: using tribological analysis to optimize injection force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jakob Lange, Leos Urbanek, Stefan BurrenYpsomed Delivery Systems, Ypsomed AG, Burgdorf, Switzerland Abstract: This article describes the use of analytical models and physical measurements to characterize and optimize the tribological behavior of pen injectors for self-administration of biopharmaceuticals. One of the main performance attributes of this kind of device is its efficiency in transmitting the external force applied by the user on to the cartridge inside the pen in order to effectuate an injection. This injection force characteristic is heavily influenced by the frictional properties of the polymeric materials employed in the mechanism. Standard friction tests are available for characterizing candidate materials, but they use geometries and conditions far removed from the actual situation inside a pen injector and thus do not always generate relevant data. A new test procedure, allowing the direct measurement of the coefficient of friction between two key parts of a pen injector mechanism using real parts under simulated use conditions, is presented. In addition to the absolute level of friction, the test method provides information on expected evolution of friction over lifetime as well as on expected consistency between individual devices. Paired with an analytical model of the pen mechanism, the frictional data allow the expected overall injection system force efficiency to be estimated. The test method and analytical model are applied to a range of polymer combinations with different kinds of lubrication. It is found that material combinations used without lubrication generally have unsatisfactory performance, that the use of silicone-based internal lubricating additives improves performance, and that the best results can be achieved with external silicone-based lubricants. Polytetrafluoroethylene-based internal lubrication and external lubrication are also evaluated but found to provide only limited benefits unless used in

  10. Factors associated with time between using a drug and injection initiation among people who inject drugs in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Mehdi; Farhadi, Mohammad Hassan; Armoon, Bahram; Farhoudian, Ali; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Sharhani, Asaad; Karimi, Salah Eddin; Sayadnasiri, Mohammad; Rezaei, Omid; Ghiasvand, Hesam

    2018-05-17

    Background The transition from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically increases the risk of transmitting HIV and other blood borne infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the transition from first illicit drug use to first injection among drug users. Methods Using snowball sampling and convenience sampling through needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), we recruited 500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kermanshah, between September and December 2014. Trained interviewers collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing and drug-related risk behaviors over the last month prior to interview using a structured questionnaire. Our main outcome variable was first illicit drug use to first injection (TIJ). TIJ was calculated by subtracting age at first drug injection from age of first illicit drug use. Results Overall, the average age at first drug use and injection were 21.4 [standard deviation (SD 5.6)] and 22.8 (SD 8.9), respectively. The average duration of injection was 6.0 (SD 4.6) years. Overall, the mean of TIJ for participants was 1.4 (IQR = 2, 4) years. Age of first injecting drug use negatively correlated with TIJ (R2 = 0.219, p = 0.001). Education level and socioeconomic status (SES), and negatively correlated with TIJ. Conclusion Some demographic factors and drug use characteristics including educational level, SES, knowledge of HIV status, age of initiating drug use, being a poly drug user and using methamphetamine were predictors of the time to transition.

  11. Steam injection for heavy oil recovery: Modeling of wellbore heat efficiency and analysis of steam injection performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Hao; Cheng, Linsong; Huang, Shijun; Li, Bokai; Shen, Fei; Fang, Wenchao; Hu, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive mathematical model was established to estimate wellbore heat efficiency of steam injection wells. • A simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores was proposed. • High wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality can improve wellbore heat efficiency. • High wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean good performance of heavy oil recovery. • Using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels. - Abstract: The aims of this work are to present a comprehensive mathematical model for estimating wellbore heat efficiency and to analyze performance of steam injection for heavy oil recovery. In this paper, we firstly introduce steam injection process briefly. Secondly, a simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores is presented and a complete expression for steam quality is derived. More importantly, both direct and indirect methods are adopted to determine the wellbore heat efficiency. Then, the mathematical model is solved using an iterative technique. After the model is validated with measured field data, we study the effects of wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality on steam injection performance reflected in wellbores. Next, taking cyclic steam stimulation as an example, we analyze steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs with numerical reservoir simulation method. Finally, the significant role of improving wellbore heat efficiency in saving water and fuels is discussed in detail. The results indicate that we can improve the wellbore heat efficiency by enhancing wellhead injection rate or steam quality. However, high wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean satisfactory steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs or good performance of heavy oil recovery. Moreover, the paper shows that using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels due to enhancement of wellbore heat efficiency

  12. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  13. Tooth breakage in patients injected with 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnabend, E.; Spiess, H.; Mays, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Tooth breakage has been common among the 224 Ra patients, especially those injected as teenagers. The fracture of 1 or more teeth was reported by 26% (8/31) of boys and 23% (7/30) of girls injected with 224 Ra at 16-20 years of age. Combining results from all age groups, the incidence of tooth fractures increased significantly with dose (P=0.01). Unlike the normal loss of permanent teeth by periodontal disease, in which the entire tooth is lost, the tooth loss following 224 Ra injection was primarily from tooth resorption near the gum line causing the tooth crowns to break off easily. Eventually the tooth roots may either become incorporated into the jawbone or are resorbed and replaced with bone. These tooth fractures resembled those observed in the U.S. radium dial painters and in dogs injected with bone-seeking α-emitters. (orig.)

  14. Effects of Lightning Injection on Power-MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose; Saha, Sankalita; Wysocki, Phil; Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Szatkowski, George; Koppen, Sandra; Mielnik, John; Vaughan, Roger; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Lightning induced damage is one of the major concerns in aircraft health monitoring. Such short-duration high voltages can cause significant damage to electronic devices. This paper presents a study on the effects of lightning injection on power metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). This approach consisted of pin-injecting lightning waveforms into the gate, drain and/or source of MOSFET devices while they were in the OFF-state. Analysis of the characteristic curves of the devices showed that for certain injection modes the devices can accumulate considerable damage rendering them inoperable. Early results demonstrate that a power MOSFET, even in its off-state, can incur considerable damage due to lightning pin injection, leading to significant deviation in its behavior and performance, and to possibly early device failures.

  15. Bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qianhong; Gong Xueyu; Yang Lei; Li Xinxia; Lu Xingqiang; Yu Jun

    2012-01-01

    The bootstrap current of fast ions produced by the neutral beam injection is investigated in a large aspect ratio tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. The bootstrap current density distribution and the total bootstrap current are figured out. In addition, the beam bootstrap current always accompanies the electron return current due to the parallel momentum transfer from fast ions. With the electron return current considered, the net current density obviously decreases due to electron return current, at the same time the peak of current moves towards the centre plasma. Numerical results show that the value of the net current depends sensitively not only on the angle of the neutral beam injection but also on the ratio of the velocity of fast ions to the critical velocity: the value of net current is small for the neutral beam parallel injection but increases multipliedly for perpendicular injection, and increases with beam energy increasing. (authors)

  16. Preliminary pellet injection experiment in the Gamma 10 tandem mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Tamano, Teruo; Nakashima, Yousuke; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Shinji; Cho, Teruji; Ishii, Kameo; Yatsu, Kiyoshi [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mase, Atsushi [Advanced Sceince and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror, pellet injection experiments have been started as a solution for the density limit problem. This is the first pellet injection experiment in open systems. We describe the possibilities of confinement of pellet fueled particles. For that, we measure the number of end loss particles and compare them with pellet fueled ones in various conditions of confining potentials. The deterioration of confining potential with the pellet injection is a fundamental issue. The results show that the ion confining potential recover faster than central electron temperature due to thermal barrier. We also consider the operating space for fueling method. It is demonstrated that the operating space for pellet injection exceeds gas fueled one on hot ion mode plasmas. (author)

  17. Outcomes After Diagnostic Hip Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Steinhaus, Michael E; Popkin, Charles A; Ahmad, Christopher S; Rosneck, James

    2016-08-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of outcomes associated with local anesthetic (LA) or LA and corticosteroid (CS) diagnostic hip injections, and how well response predicts subsequent operative success. A systematic review from database (PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Embase) inception to January 2015 for English-language articles reporting primary patient outcomes data was performed, excluding studies with >50% underlying osteoarthritis. Studies were assessed by 2 reviewers who collected pertinent data. Seven studies were included, reporting on a total 337 patients undergoing diagnostic hip injection. The mean age was 34.4 years, with 5 studies reporting 94 (35.2%) males and 173 (64.8%) females. One study examined the rate of pain relief with LA (92.5%); 2 CS studies reported relief on a scale from 0% to 100% (no to complete relief), ranging from 61% to 82.3%; and 3 studies used 10-point pain scales, with a CS study noting a pain score of 1.0, an LA study with a score of 3.03, and 1 study using either CS or LA scores of 3 to 5.6. Duration of pain relief was 9.8 (CS) and 2.35 days (LA). By pathology, greatest relief was achieved in acetabular chondral injury (93.3%) and least in cam impingement (81.6%), with clinical and imaging findings being unreliable predictors of relief. One study showed nonresponse to be a strong predictor of negative surgical outcome for femoroacetabular impingement. Diagnostic hip injections provide substantial pain relief for patients with various hip pathologies, with limited data to suggest greatest relief for those with chondral injury. Clinical and imaging findings are unreliable predictors of injection response, and nonresponse to injection is a strong negative predictor of surgical outcome. Future research should focus on elucidating differences by underlying pathology and predicting future operative success. Level IV, systematic review. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  19. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmar, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet experiments, which began at TFTR in 1989, and are expected to continue at least through 1991, have continued to produce new and significant results. The most significant of these are: (1) improvements in TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection; (2) accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using the polarization angles of line emission from Li + in the pellet ablation cloud; and (3) initial measurements of pitch angle profiles using the tilt of the LI + emission region of the ablation cloud which is stretched out along the field lines

  20. Effects of pilot injection timing and EGR on a modern V6 common rail direct injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli Abdullah, Nik; Mamat, Rizalman; Wyszynski, Miroslaw L.; Tsolakis, Anthanasios; Xu, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide and smoke emissions in diesel engine can be controlled by optimising the air/fuel mixture. Early injection produces premixed charge resulted in simultaneous NOx and smoke emissions reduction. However, there could be an increase in hydrocarbons and CO emissions due to fuel impinged to the cylinder wall. The focus of the present work is to investigate the effects of a variation of pilot injection timing with EGR to NOx and smoke level on a modern V6 common rail direct injection. This study is carried out at two different engine load conditions of 30 Nm and 55 Nm, at constant engine speed of 2000 rpm. The results show that the early pilot injection timing contributed to the lower smoke level and higher NOx emissions. The higher level of NOx is due to higher combustion temperatures resulting from the complete combustion. Meanwhile, the lower smoke level is due to complete fuel combustion and soot oxidation. The early pilot injection timing produces an intermediate main ignition delay which also contributed to complete combustion. The formation of smoke is higher at a high engine load compared with low engine load due to the higher amount of fuel being injected.

  1. Charge exchange injection for Nuclotron and Nuclotron booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.; Mikhajlov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized beams is between the major items in the JINR LHE's heavy ion superconducting synchrotron Nuclotron research programme. One effective way to increase the intensities of polarized deuteron beams is the application of the charge exchange injection into the Nuclotron. The paper represents the results of a new analytical description of the heavy ion stripping injection based on the Boltzmann kinetic equation. Expressions for the ion density evolution in the transverse phase plane for the emittance growth due to the elastic scattering and to energy losses in the stripping foil and for the number of successfully stored particles have been derived. These results have been applied to the stripping injection of polarized deuterons into the Nuclotron as well as to the stripping injection of heavy ions into the now under consideration Nuclotron rapid cycling booster. It has been shown that an estimated 40-fold intensity gain could be achieved for the stripping injection of polarized D - into the Nuclotron and that an effective stripping injection of light and medium ions into the booster could be realized

  2. Astragalus Injection for Hypertensive Renal Damage: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of astragalus injection (a traditional Chinese patent medicine for patients with renal damage induced by hypertension according to the available evidence. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese VIP Information, China Biology Medicine (CBM, and Chinese Medical Citation Index (CMCI, and the date of search starts from the first of database to August 2011. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized controlled trials testing astragalus injection against placebo or astragalus injection plus antihypertensive drugs against antihypertensive drugs. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane review standards. Results. 5 randomized trials (involving 429 patients were included and the methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. The pooled results showed that astragalus injection was more effective in lowering β2-microglobulin (β2-MG, microalbuminuria (mAlb compared with placebo, and it was also superior to prostaglandin in lowering blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine clearance rate (Ccr. There were no adverse effects reported in the trials from astragalus injection. Conclusions. Astragalus injection showed protective effects in hypertensive renal damage patients, although available studies are not adequate to draw a definite conclusion due to low quality of included trials. More rigorous clinical trials with high quality are warranted to give high level of evidence.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected advanced gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Devendra; Bade, Mukund H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle. To analyse the thermodynamic performance of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycles, a methodology based on pinch analysis is proposed. This graphical methodology is a systematic approach proposed for a selection of gas turbine with steam injection. The developed graphs are useful for selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) for optimal operation of it and helps designer to take appropriate decision. The selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle can be done either at minimum steam ratio (ratio of mass flow rate of steam to air) with maximum efficiency or at maximum steam ratio with maximum net work conditions based on the objective of plants designer. Operating the steam injection based advanced gas turbine plant at minimum steam ratio improves efficiency, resulting in reduction of pollution caused by the emission of flue gases. On the other hand, operating plant at maximum steam ratio can result in maximum work output and hence higher available power.

  4. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  5. Deep-well injection of radioactive waste in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Russian federation, deep borehole injection of liquid radioactive waste has been established practice since at least 1963. The liquid is injected into sandy or other formations with high porosity, which are isolated by water-tight layers. This technique has also been used elsewhere for toxic liquid waste and residues from mining operations. Deep-well injection of radioactive waste is not currently used in any of the European Commission (EC) countries. In this paper the results of a EC-funded study were presented. The study is entitled 'Measurements, modelling of migration and possible radiological consequences at deep well injection sites for liquid radioactive waste in Russia', COSU-CT94-0099-UK. The study was carried out jointly by AEA Technology, CAG and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (NIIAR) at Dimitrovgrad. Many scientists have contributed to the results reported here. The aims of the study are: Provision of extensive information on the deep-well injection repositories and their use in the former Soviet Union; Provision of a methodology to assess safety aspects of deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in deep geological formations; This will allow evaluation of proposals to use deep-well injection techniques in other regions; Support for Russian regulatory bodies through evaluation of the suitability of the sites, including estimates of the maximum amount of waste that can be safely stored in them; and Provision of a methodology to assess the use of deep-well injection repositories as an alternative disposal technique for EC countries. 7 refs

  6. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hirano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,000 rpm with the parameter of the circumferential position of the injection nozzle. The present experimental results revealed that the optimum circumferential position, which most effectively reduced the flow rate for the surge inception, existed at the opposite side of the tongue of the scroll against the rotational axis and did not depend on the compressor system and the rotational speeds.

  7. Steam injections wells: topics to consider in casing design of steam injection wells; Revestimento para pocos de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Antonio Carlos Farias [PETROBRAS, Recife, PE (Brazil). Gerencia de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Operacoes

    1994-07-01

    Steam injection is one of the processes used to increase production from very viscous oil reservoirs. A well is completed at a temperature of about 110 deg F and during steam injection that temperature varies around 600 deg F. Strain or breakdowns may occur to the casing, due to the critical conditions generated by the change of temperature. The usual casing design methods, do not take into account special environmental conditions, such as those which exist for steam injection. From the results of this study we come up to the conclusion that casing grade K-55, heavy weight with premium connections, without pre-stressing and adequately heated, is the best option for steam injection well completion for most of the fields in Brazil. (author)

  8. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy; Langzeitergebnisse der interventionellen Therapie von grossen, inoperablen hepatozellulaeren Karzinomen (HCC): signifikanter Ueberlebensvorteil von transarterieller Chemoembolisation (TACE) und perkutaner Ethanolinjektion (PEI) gegenueber der TACE-Monotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Schemmer, P. [Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Duex, M. [Radiologisches Zentralinstitut Krankenhaus Nordwest Frankfurt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  9. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... repeated in 14 to 21 days. (ii) For the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency, administer an...

  10. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

  11. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

  12. Fatal injection: a survey of modern code injection attack countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Mitropoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With a code injection attack (CIA an attacker can introduce malicious code into a computer program or system that fails to properly encode data that comes from an untrusted source. A CIA can have different forms depending on the execution context of the application and the location of the programming flaw that leads to the attack. Currently, CIAs are considered one of the most damaging classes of application attacks since they can severely affect an organisation’s infrastructure and cause financial and reputational damage to it. In this paper we examine and categorize the countermeasures developed to detect the various attack forms. In particular, we identify two distinct categories. The first incorporates static program analysis tools used to eliminate flaws that can lead to such attacks during the development of the system. The second involves the use of dynamic detection safeguards that prevent code injection attacks while the system is in production mode. Our analysis is based on nonfunctional characteristics that are considered critical when creating security mechanisms. Such characteristics involve usability, overhead, implementation dependencies, false positives and false negatives. Our categorization and analysis can help both researchers and practitioners either to develop novel approaches, or use the appropriate mechanisms according to their needs.

  13. To study the effect of injection dexmedetomidine for prevention of pain due to propofol injection and to compare it with injection lignocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sapate

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain due to injection propofol is a common problem. Different methods are used to decrease the pain but with limited success. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of injection dexmedetomidine 0.2 mcg/kg for prevention of pain due to propofol injection and compare it with injection lignocaine 0.2 mg/kg. METHOD: After taking permission of the Institutional Ethical Committee, written informed consent was obtained from all patients, in a randomized prospective study. 60 American Society of Anesthesiology I and II patients of age range 20-60 years of either sex posted for elective surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups. Group I (dexmedetomidine group: Inj. dexmedetomidine 0.2 mcg/kg diluted in 5 mL normal saline and Group II (lignocaine group: Inj. lignocaine 0.2 mg/kg diluted in 5 mL normal saline. IV line was secured with 20 G cannula and venous occlusion was applied to forearm using a pneumatic tourniquet and inflated to 70 mm Hg for 1 min. Study drug was injected, tourniquet released and then 25% of the calculated dose of propofol was given intravenously over 10 s. After 10 s of injection, severity of pain was evaluated using McCrirrick and Hunter scale and then remaining propofol and neuromuscular blocking agent was given. Endotracheal intubation was done and anaesthesia was maintained on O2, N2O and isoflurane on intermittent positive pressure ventilation with Bain's circuit and inj. vecuronium was used as muscle relaxant. RESULTS: Demographic data showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups in respect to inj. propofol pain. No adverse effects like oedema, pain, wheal response at the site of injection were observed in the two groups.

  14. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  15. Compartmentalized safety coolant injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    A safety coolant injection system for nuclear reactors wherein a core reflood tank is provided to afford more reliable reflooding of the reactor core in the event of a break in one of the reactor coolant supply loops. Each reactor coolant supply loop is arranged in a separate compartment in the containment structure to contain and control the flow of spilled coolant so as to permit its use during emergency core cooling procedures. A spillway allows spilled coolant in the compartment to pass into the emergency water storage tank from where it can be pumped back to the reactor vessel. (author)

  16. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  17. Computational design of mould sprue for injection moulding thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Lakkanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To injection mould polymers, designing mould is a key task involving several critical decisions with direct implications to yield quality, productivity and frugality. One prominent decision among them is specifying sprue-bush conduit expansion as it significantly influences overall injection moulding; abstruseness anguish in its design criteria deceives direct determination. Intuitively designers decide it wisely and then exasperate by optimising or manipulating processing parameters. To overwhelm that anomaly this research aims at proposing an ideal design criteria holistically for all polymeric materials also tend as a functional assessment metric towards perfection i.e., criteria to specify sprue conduit size before mould development. Accordingly, a priori analytical criterion was deduced quantitatively as expansion ratio from ubiquitous empirical relationships specifically a.k.a an exclusive expansion angle imperatively configured for injectant properties. Its computational intelligence advantage was leveraged to augment functionality of perfectly injecting into an impression gap, while synchronising both injector capacity and desired moulding features. For comprehensiveness, it was continuously sensitised over infinite scale as an explicit factor dependent on in-situ spatio-temporal injectant state perplexity with discrete slope and altitude for each polymeric character. In which congregant ranges of apparent viscosity and shear thinning index were conceived to characteristically assort most thermoplastics. Thereon results accorded aggressive conduit expansion widening for viscous incrust, while a very aggressive narrowing for shear thinning encrust; among them apparent viscosity had relative dominance. This important rationale would certainly form a priori design basis as well diagnose filling issues causing several defects. Like this the proposed generic design criteria, being simple would immensely benefit mould designers besides serve

  18. Thermorespiratory Response of West African Dwarf Does to Progestagen Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundana, FA.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological responses in terms of respiration rate (RR and rectal temperature (RT of 30 West African Dwarf (WAD does were monitored after a single im injection of different doses of progestagens meant for synchronising oestrus. The treatments involved im injection of 1 2 ml of sterile water (Control; 2 25 mg Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, MPA; 3 50 mg MPA; 4 50 mg Progesterone and 5 100 mg progesterone. The RR and RT of each animal were measured at 9:00, 13:00 and 17:00 h for 21 days after each injection. In all the treatment groups the RT did not change significantly (P> 0.05 during the weeks following treatment. On the contrary the RR was significantly higher (P< 0.05 in the week after injection than in the pre-injection period. Both the RR and the RT were higher at 13:00 h and 17:00 h than at 9:00 h. The RR was more influenced by the animal body size than the RT, while the ambient temperature and humidity affected both the animal's RT and RR. These results indicate that the thermorespiratory function of WAD does under their native humid environment is not negatively affected by injecting ≤ 100 mg progesterone or ≤ 50 mg MPA to synchronize oestrus.

  19. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 {mu}g of plasma with density above 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 {mu}g has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  20. Hyperosmolar dextrose injection for recalcitrant Osgood-Schlatter disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, Gastón Andrés; Podesta, Leandro Ariel; Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Raya, Marcelo Francisco; Fullerton, Bradley Dean; Yeh, Hung-wen

    2011-11-01

    To examine the potential of dextrose injection versus lidocaine injection versus supervised usual care to reduce sport alteration and sport-related symptoms in adolescent athletes with Osgood-Schlatter disease. Girls aged 9 to 15 and boys aged 10 to 17 were randomly assigned to either therapist-supervised usual care or double-blind injection of 1% lidocaine solution with or without 12.5% dextrose. Injections were administered monthly for 3 months. All subjects were then offered dextrose injections monthly as needed. Unaltered sport (Nirschl Pain Phase Scale dextrose-treated (21 of 21 vs 13 of 22; P = .001) and lidocaine-treated (20 of 22 vs 13 of 22; P = .034) knees, and asymptomatic sport was more frequent in dextrose-treated knees than either lidocaine-treated (14 of 21 vs 5 of 22; P = .006) or usual-care-treated (14 of 21 vs 3 of 22; P dextrose-treated knees than knees treated with only lidocaine (32 of 38 vs 6 of 13; P = .024) or only usual care (32 of 38 vs 2 of 14; P dextrose component of a dextrose/lidocaine solution. Dextrose injection over the apophysis and patellar tendon origin was safe and well tolerated and resulted in more rapid and frequent achievement of unaltered sport and asymptomatic sport than usual care.

  1. Injectable neurotoxins and fillers: there is no free lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Jason; Waldorf, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Injection of neurotoxins and filling agents for the treatment of facial aesthetics has increased dramatically during the past few decades due to an increased interest in noninvasive aesthetic improvements. An aging but still youth-oriented population expects effective treatments with minimal recovery time and limited risk of complications. Injectable neurotoxins and soft tissue stimulators and fillers have filled this niche of "lunch-time" procedures. As demand for these procedures has increased, supply has followed with more noncore cosmetic specialty physicians, as well as unsupervised ancillary staff, becoming providers and advertising them as easy fixes. Despite an excellent record of safety and efficacy demonstrated in scores of published studies, injectable agents do carry risks of complications. These procedures require a physician with in-depth knowledge of facial anatomy and injection techniques to ensure patient safety and satisfaction. In general, adverse events are preventable and technique-dependent. Although most adverse events are minor and temporary, more serious complications can occur. The recognition, management, and treatment of poor outcomes are as important as obtaining the best aesthetic results. This review addresses important considerations regarding the complications of injectable neurotoxins and fillers used for "lunch-time" injectable procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Injection quality measurements with diamond based particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Oliver; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During the re-commissioning phase of the LHC after the long shutdown 1 very high beam losses were observed at the TDI during beam injection. The losses reached up to 90% of the dump threshold. To decrease the through beam losses induced stress on the accelerator components these loss levels need to be reduced. Measurements with diamond based particle detectors (dBLMs), which have nano-second time resolution, revealed that the majority of these losses come from recaptured SPS beam surrounding the nominal bunch train. In this MD the injection loss patterns and loss intensities were investigated in greater detail. Performed calibration shots on the TDI (internal beam absorber for injection) gave a conversion factor from impacting particles intensities to signal in the dBLMs (0.1Vs/109 protons). Using the SPS tune kicker for cleaning the recaptured beam in the SPS and changing the LHC injection kicker settings resulted in a reduction of the injection losses. For 144 bunch injections the loss levels were decreased...

  3. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  4. Human and bovine spinal disc mechanics subsequent to trypsin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Jeremy; Bishop, Timothy; Eggett, Dennis; Bowden, Anton E

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the biomechanical effects of injections of a protease on the characteristics of bovine coccygeal and human lumbar disc motion segments. Mechanics of treated tissues were measured immediately after injection and 3 h after injection. Motion segments underwent axial rotation and flexion-extension loading. Stiffness and neutral zone parameters experienced significant changes over time, with bovine tissues more strongly affected than human cadaver tissues. This was true in both axial rotation and flexion-extension. The treatment type significantly affected the neutral zone measurements in axial rotation. Hysteresis parameters were impacted by control injections. The extrapolation of bovine coccygeal motion testing results to human lumbar disc mechanics is not yet practical. The injected treatment may have a smaller impact on disc mechanics than time in testing. Viscoelasticity of human lumbar discs may be impacted by any damage to the annulus fibrosis induced by needlestick. Preclinical testing of novel spinal devices is essential to the design validation and regulatory processes, but current testing techniques rely on cadaveric testing of primarily older spines with essentially random amounts of disc degeneration. The present work investigates the viability of using trypsin injections to create a more uniform preclinical model of disc degeneration from a mechanics perspective, for the purpose of testing spinal devices. Such a model would facilitate translation of new spinal technologies to clinical practice.

  5. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 μg of plasma with density above 10 17 cm -3 to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 μg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  6. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Maryam

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. Methods 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. Results Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 ± 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 ± 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P 4 and sTSH did not change significantly between 6 months and 2 years [P > 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. Conclusion Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

  7. The distribution of CIK cell after intravenous injection in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Chen Xuefen; Gu Yucan; Chen Shuguang; Li Beilei; Liu Wenguan; Shi Hongcheng; Xu Lanwen; Qiao Weiwei; Wu Zhijiang; Gao Qirong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the in vivo distribution of cytokine induced killer (CIK) cell after intravenous injection in animals. Methods: CIK cell was labeled with 99 Tc m . Forty mice were equally divided into 8 groups. These mice were killed at 3, 15, 30 min and 1,3,6, 24, 48 h after intravenous 99 Tc m -CIK cell injection. The radioactivity of blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, brain, bone and muscle were measured. Three New Zealand rabbits were scanned by dynamic SPECT imaging after intravenous injection of 37 MBq 99 Tc m -CIK cell. Serial images over whole body were acquired from immediately after injection to 48 h later. Results: The radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -CIK cell was over 95% and remained stable within 6 h at room temperature. The clearance of 99 Tc m -CIK cell in blood was fast. High uptake of 99 Tc m -CIK cell was noted in lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Little uptake was found in heart, brain, bone and muscle. Dynamic SPECT imaging showed that 99 Tc m -CIK cell accumulated in lungs early after injection and cleared thereafter. Then the uptake in liver increased and remained there after 2 d. There was little uptake in heart, brain, bone and muscle. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -CIK cell clears fast in the blood after injection. Within 1 h, the tracer mainly accumulates in lungs. Then the uptake is mostly in liver and spleen. (authors)

  8. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, G.J.; Mamora, D.D. [Texas A and M Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Laboratory experiments have been conducted at Texas A and M University to examine the use of steam additives such as propane, methane and nitrogen to improve the production of heavy oils and increase steam recovery efficiency. In particular, the use of steam-propane injection for heavy Hamaca crude oil with API gravity of 9.3 and viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50 degrees C was examined. Experimental runs involved the injection of steam or propane into injection cells at a constant rate, temperature and cell outlet pressure. The experimental results suggest that the use of steam-propane injection may translate to reduction of fuel costs for field injections. Initially, propane-steam injection resulted in a two-month oil production acceleration compared to pure steam injection. A significant gain in discounted revenue and savings in steam injection costs could be realized. The study also showed the oil product rate peak with steam-propane injection was much higher than that with pure steam injection. The oil production acceleration increases with increasing propane content. Oil recovery at the end of a five-year forecast period increases by 6.7 per cent of original oil in place (OOIP) compared to 2.3 per cent OOIP with pure steam injection. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 28 figs.

  9. The effect of air-lock technique on pain at the site of intramuscular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek K. Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effects of air-lock technique (ALT on pain of intramuscular (IM injection delivered to the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal site (DS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used to assess the pain intensity associated with IM injections administered using 2 different methods and injection sites. Recruitment of patients was carried out between April and August 2013 at the Department of Brain Surgery, Cekirge State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey. The sample comprised 60 patients who developed no complications at the IM site, and had no illness that could affect their perception of pain. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients. Patients in the first group received injections in the ventrogluteal site (VS, while the DS was used for injections in the second group. Patients in each group received 2 injections, one using ALT and one not using the technique. After each injection, the pain felt by patients during the injection was immediately assessed using a visual analog scale. Results: The mean pain score after injections to the DS by the ALT was 3.30 ± 2.70, while the mean pain score after injections to the VS using the same technique was 2.53 ± 2.52. Conclusion: Although the difference between groups was not significant, the results of the study supported the idea that injections delivered to the VS by ALT are less painful than those delivered to the DS.

  10. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  11. Shoulder pain: the role of diagnostic injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H M; O'Connor, F G; Nirschl, R P

    1996-04-01

    Many different shoulder disorders cause similar symptoms and pain patterns. An accurate diagnosis can generally be made by obtaining a detailed history, performing a comprehensive, directed physical examination and obtaining selected radiographs. Occasionally, shoulder injections can be of great assistance in establishing a clear diagnosis and providing relief of symptoms. Subacromial space injection, acromioclavicular joint injection, intra-articular injection and injection of the biceps tendon are helpful in identifying such disorders as subacromial bursitis, acromioclavicular arthritis, injury to the glenohumeral joint and bicipital tendinitis.

  12. Compact toroid injection into C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Thomas; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; Putvinski, S.; Allfrey, I.; Beall, M.; Cordero, M.; Granstedt, E.; Kinley, J.; Morehouse, M.; Sheftman, D.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; the TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    Sustainment of an advanced neutral beam-driven FRC for a period in excess of 5 ms is the primary goal of the C-2U machine at Tri Alpha Energy. In addition, a criteria for long-term global sustainment of any magnetically confined fusion reactor is particle refueling. To this end, a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun has been developed. Compact toroids (CT) are to be injected perpendicular to the axial magnetic field of C-2U. To simulate this environment, an experimental test-stand has been constructed. A transverse magnetic field of B ~ 1 kG is established (comparable to the C-2U axial field) and CTs are fired across it. As a minimal requirement, the CT must have energy density greater than that of the magnetic field it is to penetrate, i.e., 1/2 ρv2 >=B2 / 2μ0 . This criteria is easily met and indeed the CTs traverse the test-stand field. A preliminary experiment on C-2U shows the CT also capable of penetrating into FRC plasmas and refueling is observed resulting in a 20 - 30% increase in total particle number per single-pulsed CT injection. Results from test-stand and C-2U experiments will be presented.

  13. Achieving improved ohmic confinement via impurity injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Soeldner, F.X.

    1991-01-01

    Improved Ohmic Confinement (IOC) was obtained in ASDEX after a modification of the divertors that allowed a larger (deuterium and impurity) backflow from the divertor chamber. The quality of IOC depended crucially on the wall conditions, i.e. IOC was best for uncovered stainless steels walls and vanished with boronization. Furthermore, IOC was found only in deuterium discharges. These circumstances led to the idea that IOC correlates with the content of light impurities in the plasma. To substantiate this working hypothesis, we present observations in deuterium discharges with boronized wall conditions into which various impurities have been injected with the aim to induce IOC conditions. Firstly, the plasma behaviour in typical IOC discharges is characterized. Secondly, injection experiments with the low-Z impurities nitrogen and neon as well as with the high-Z impurities argon and krypton are discussed. Then, we concentrate on optimized neon puffing that yields the best confinement results which are similar to IOC conditions. Finally, these results are compared with eperiments in other tokamaks and some conclusions are drawn about the effects of the impurity puffing on both, the central and the edge plasma behaviour. (orig.)

  14. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection ('lithiumization'). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li + line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li + emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from ∼0.3 to ∼7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper

  15. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  16. Effects of surface deposition and droplet injection on film cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Cui, Pei; Vujanović, Milan; Baleta, Jakov; Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cooling effectiveness is significantly affected by the deposition size. • Coverage area for model without mist is reduced by increasing the deposition height. • Wall temperature is decreased by 15% with 2% mist injection. • Cooling coverage is increased by more than three times with 2% mist injection. • Cooling effectiveness for mist models is improved by increasing deposition height. - Abstract: In the present research, the influence of the particle dispersion onto the continuous phase in film cooling application was analysed by means of numerical simulations. The interaction between the water droplets and the main stream plays an important role in the results. The prediction of two-phase flow is investigated by employing the discrete phase model (DPM). The results present heat transfer characteristics in the near-wall region under the influence of mist cooling. The local wall temperature distribution and film cooling effectiveness are obtained, and results show that the film cooling characteristics on the downstream wall are affected by different height of surface deposits. It is also found that smaller deposits without mist injection provide a lower wall temperature and a better cooling performance. With 2% mist injection, evaporation of water droplets improves film cooling effectiveness, and higher deposits cause lateral and downstream spread of water droplets. The results indicate that mist injection can significantly enhance film cooling performance.

  17. Deformation analysis considering thermal expansion of injection mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Yi, Dae Eun; Jang, Jeong Hui; Lee, Min Seok

    2015-01-01

    In the design of injection molds, the temperature distribution and deformation of the mold is one of the most important parameters that affect the flow characteristics, flash generation, and surface appearance, etc. Plastic injection analyses have been carried out to predict the temperature distribution of the mold and the pressure distribution on the cavity surface. As the input loads, we transfer the temperature and pressure results to the structural analysis. We compare the structural analysis results with the thermal expansion effect using the actual flash and step size of a smartphone cover part. To reduce the flash problem, we proposed a new mold design, and verified the results by performing simulations

  18. Deformation analysis considering thermal expansion of injection mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Yi, Dae Eun; Jang, Jeong Hui; Lee, Min Seok [Samsung Electronics Co., LTD., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In the design of injection molds, the temperature distribution and deformation of the mold is one of the most important parameters that affect the flow characteristics, flash generation, and surface appearance, etc. Plastic injection analyses have been carried out to predict the temperature distribution of the mold and the pressure distribution on the cavity surface. As the input loads, we transfer the temperature and pressure results to the structural analysis. We compare the structural analysis results with the thermal expansion effect using the actual flash and step size of a smartphone cover part. To reduce the flash problem, we proposed a new mold design, and verified the results by performing simulations.

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Heroin–Methamphetamine Co-Injection Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Meredith C.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Rangel, Gudelia; Armenta, Richard F.; Gaines, Tommi L.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the western United States–Mexico border region are known to inject both heroin and methamphetamine, little is known about the prevalence and risks associated with co-injection of this depressant–stimulant combination (also known as “goofball” and “Mexican speedball”). Method: Baseline data from parallel cohort studies of PWID conducted concurrently in San Diego, CA, and Tijuana, Mexico, were used to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of heroin–methamphetamine co-injection. PWID older than 18 years of age who reported injecting illicit drugs in the past month (N = 1,311; 32.7% female) were recruited in San Diego (n = 576) and Tijuana (n = 735) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify correlates of heroin–methamphetamine co-injection. Results: The prevalence of co-injection in the past 6 months was 39.9% overall and was higher in Tijuana (55.8%) than in San Diego (19.8%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for study cohort, distributive syringe sharing, purchasing syringes prefilled with drugs, finding it hard to get new syringes, reporting great or urgent need for treatment, and younger age were independently associated with co-injection. Past-6-month overdose was significantly associated with higher odds of co-injection in San Diego than in Tijuana. Conclusions: These findings indicate that heroin–methamphetamine co-injection is more common in Tijuana than in San Diego, yet this practice was only associated with overdose in San Diego. Heroin–methamphetamine co-injection was also independently associated with HIV-associated injection risk behaviors. Overdose-prevention interventions should address co-injection of depressants and stimulants. PMID:27588536

  20. The LHC injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, Laurent; Barnes, M J; Wait, G D

    2003-01-01

    Proton beams will be injected into LHC at 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 900 ns rise time and up to 7.86 s flat top duration. One of the stringent design requirements of these systems is a flat top ripple of less than ± 0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.7 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's). To achieve the required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, a low characteristic impedance has been chosen and ceramic plate capacitors are used to obtain 5 Omega. Conductive stripes in the aperture of the magnets limit the beam impedance and screen the ferrite. The electrical circuit has been designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. A full size magnet prototype has been built and tested up to 60 kV with the magnet under ultra high vacuum (UHV). The pulse shape has been precision measured at a voltage of 15 kV. After reviewing the performance requirements the paper presents the magnet...