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Sample records for maytenus aquifolium martius

  1. Profile of Maytenus aquifolium action over free radicals and reactive oxygen species Perfil de ação da Maytenus aquifolium sobre radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio

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    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating, accompanying or causing many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Maytenus species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and others gastric problems and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Maytenus aquifolium (Celastraceae root bark ethanol extract was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. The extract was efficient against studied reactive species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 35.5 ± 1.3 %, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.0036 ± 0.0003 mg/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 0.002 ± 0.0001 mg/mL , O2•- (obtained inhibition = 36.0 ± 2.1 %, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18.3 ± 0.4 %.Espécies Reativas do Oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres têm tido implicações na iniciação e evolução de muitas doenças ou nas causas das mesmas em organismos vivos; há portanto, necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes para inativar ERO/radicais livres. Estudos sobre extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado suas ações antioxidante e seqüestradora de radicais livres. Espécies do gênero Maytenus são utilizadas, em vários países, como medicamentos tradicionais no combate a úlceras gástricas, dispepsia e outras desordens gástricas, bem como por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da raiz da Maytenus aquifolium (Celastraceae foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e outras espécies reativas do oxigênio. Os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. O extrato foi eficiente contra

  2. PERTUMBUHAN Kappaphycus alvarezii DENGAN PENAMBAHAN EKSTRAK Sargassum aquifolium

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    Bambang Ali Akbar; Nunik Cokrowati; Mursal Ghazali; S Sunarpi; Aluh Nikmatullah

    2016-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan Sargassum aquifolium dengan konsentrasi dan lama waktu perendaman yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan Kappaphycus alvarezii, serta mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan S. aquifolium terhadap persentase kadar karaginan K. alvarezii. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan perlakuan faktorial yang terdiri dari dua faktor yaitu faktor 1 berupa konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium dan faktor 2 berupa perlakuan lama perend...

  3. INDEKS AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK RUMPUT LAUT COKLAT (Sargassum aquifolium

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    Muhamad Firdaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakIndeks aktivitas antioksidan dikembangkan guna standarisasi kekuatan aktivitas antioksidan baik dariekstrak maupun senyawa murni. Metode ini dikembangkan berdasar pereduksian radikal difenilpikrilhidrasil.Rumput laut cokelat diketahui mempunyai komponen aktif yang bersifat antioksidan. Tujuan penelitian iniadalah untuk menentukan indeks aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium. S. aquifolium didapatkandari perairan pantai pulau Talango, Kabupaten Sumenep. S. aquifolium dibersihkan, dicuci, dikeringkan,ditepungkan dan dimaserasi etanol, aseton 70%, metanol, etanol 80%, metanol 80%, dan air (1:3 b/v tigakali pada suhu 4oC selama 24 jam. Fitrat digabungkan, dipekatkan, dan dikeringkan untuk mendapatkanekstrak. Ekstrak selanjutnya diuji kemampuannya dalam mereduksiradikal difenilpikrilhidrasil. Penurunanserapan radikaldifenil pikrilhidrasil diamati dengan spektrofotometer pada panjang gelombang 517 nm. Hasilmenunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi hambatan 50% ekstrak metanol S. aquifolium lebih kecil dibanding ekstraklainnya. Indeks aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak metanol S. aquifolium sebesar 0,54. Berdasar indeks aktivitasantioksidan maka ekstrak metanol S. aquifolium tergolong antioksidan sedang dan berpotensi dikembangkansebagai nutraseutikal beraktivitas antioksidan.

  4. Determinação espectrométrica dos flavonóides das folhas de Maytenus (Celastraceae e de Passiflora (Passifloraceae e comparação com método CLAE-UV Spectrometric determination of flavonoids from Maytenus (Celastraceae and Passiflora (Passifloraceae leaves and comparison with an HPLC-UV method

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    Regina de A. O. Chabariberi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma modificação dos procedimentos descritos nas Farmacopéias Francesa e Européia para a análise de flavonoides de Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae, por espectrometria UV-Visível e propõe a sua aplicação na determinação dos flavonoides totais das folhas da espinheira-santa (Maytenus aquifolium Mart. e Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae e do maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims. e Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae. Os resultados obtidos por espectrometria no UV-Visível foram comparados aos obtidos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-UV, encontrando-se resultados estatisticamente similares entre os métodos espectrométrico modificado da Farmacopéia Francesa e CLAE-UV.This paper reports on a modification of the spectrometric procedures originally described in the French and European Pharmacopoeia for the analysis of Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae flavonoids, proposing its application in the determination of total flavonoids from "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus aquifolium Mart. and Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae and "maracujá" leaves (Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae. A comparison was made of the results obtained by the spectrometric procedure with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV, which demonstrated complete compatibility between the modified French Pharmacopoeia (spectrometric and HPLC-UV methods.

  5. INDEKS AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK RUMPUT LAUT COKLAT (Sargassum aquifolium

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    Muhamad - Firdaus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indeks aktivitas antioksidan dikembangkan guna standarisasi kekuatan aktivitas antioksidan baik dariekstrak maupun senyawa murni. Metode ini dikembangkan berdasar pereduksian radikal difenilpikrilhidrasil.Rumput laut cokelat diketahui mempunyai komponen aktif yang bersifat antioksidan. Tujuan penelitian iniadalah untuk menentukan indeks aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium. S. aquifolium didapatkandari perairan pantai pulau Talango, Kabupaten Sumenep. S. aquifolium dibersihkan, dicuci, dikeringkan,ditepungkan dan dimaserasi etanol, aseton 70%, metanol, etanol 80%, metanol 80%, dan air (1:3 b/v tigakali pada suhu 4oC selama 24 jam. Fitrat digabungkan, dipekatkan, dan dikeringkan untuk mendapatkanekstrak. Ekstrak selanjutnya diuji kemampuannya dalam mereduksiradikal difenilpikrilhidrasil. Penurunanserapan radikaldifenil pikrilhidrasil diamati dengan spektrofotometer pada panjang gelombang 517 nm. Hasilmenunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi hambatan 50% ekstrak metanol S. aquifolium lebih kecil dibanding ekstraklainnya. Indeks aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak metanol S. aquifolium sebesar 0,54. Berdasar indeks aktivitasantioksidan maka ekstrak metanol S. aquifolium tergolong antioksidan sedang dan berpotensi dikembangkansebagai nutraseutikal beraktivitas antioksidan.Kata kunci: difenilpikrilhidrasil, ekstrak, indeks aktivitas antioksidan, Sargassum aquifolium

  6. PERTUMBUHAN Kappaphycus alvarezii DENGAN PENAMBAHAN EKSTRAK Sargassum aquifolium

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    Bambang Ali Akbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan Sargassum aquifolium dengan konsentrasi dan lama waktu perendaman yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan Kappaphycus alvarezii, serta mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan S. aquifolium terhadap persentase kadar karaginan K. alvarezii. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan faktorial yang terdiri dari dua faktor yaitu faktor 1 berupa konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium dan faktor 2 berupa perlakuan lama perendaman. Faktor 1 terdiri atas 4 perlakuan konsentrasi perendaman yaitu kontrol (K0, konsentrasi 5% (K1, 10% (K2, 15% (K3. Faktor 2 terdiri atas 3 taraf yaitu lama perendaman 30 menit (T1, 60 menit (T2 dan 90 menit (T3.  Data variabel penelitian dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam (ANOVA pada taraf kesalahan 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium tidak memberikan pengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii. Perlakuan K1T3 (perendaman dengan konsentrasi 5% selama 90 menit menunjukkan hasil tertinggi dari perlakuan lainnya, nilai laju pertumbuhan spesifik 6.11%, pertumbuhan mutlak 663.89 gram, berat kering 197.80 gr dan nilai kadar karaginan yaitu 53.33%. Berat kering terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan K3T3 (perendaman dengan konsentrasi 15% selama 90 menit. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium tidak memiliki pengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan Kappaphycus alvarezii dan kadar karaginan tertinggi adalah 53.33% terdapat pada perlakuan  konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium 5% dengan perendaman selama 90 menit.Kata Kunci: berat kering, ekstrak, karaginan, perendaman, pertumbuhan.GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF Kappaphycus alvarezii WITH ADDING Sargassum aquifolium EXTRACTABSTRACTThis research purpose is to study the effect of adding Sargassum aquifolium extract dan time of submersion for growth performance and carrageenan content of Kappaphycus alvarezii. This research

  7. Martius procedure revisited for urethrovaginal fistula

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    N P Rangnekar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urethrovaginal fistula is a dreadful com-plication of obstetric trauma due to prolonged labour or obstetric intervention commonly seen in developing coun-tries. Due to prolonged ischaemic changes, the fistula is resistant to healing. The strategic location of the fistula leads to postoperative impairment of continence mecha-nism. Anatomical repair was previously the commonest mode of surgical management, but was associated with a miserable cumulative cure rate ranging from 16-60%. Hence we tried to study the efficacy of Martius procedure in the management of urethrovaginal fistula. Material and Methods: We studied the outcome of 12 urethrovaginal fistulae, all caused by obstetric trauma, treated surgically with Martius procedure in 8 and with anatomical repair in 4, retrospectively. 9 patients had re-current fistulae while I patient had multiple fistulae. Pa-tients were followed up for the period ranging from 6 months to 4′/2 years for fistula healing, continence and postoperative complications like dvspareunia. Results: Cumulative cure rate ofMartius procedure was 87.5% with no postoperative stress incontinence, while fistula healing rate of anatomical repair was only 25% (I patient out of 4 which was also complicated by Intrin-sic Sphincter Deficiency (ISD. In case of recurrent fistu-lae the success rate of anatomical repair was 0% compared to 83.33% with Martius procedure. Conclusions: Martius procedure has shown much bet-ter overall cure rate compared to anatomical repair be-cause - a it provides better reinforcement to urethral suture line, b it provides better blood supply and lymph drainage to the ischaemic fistulous area, c provides sur-face for epithelialization and, d helps to maintain conti-nence. Hence we recommend Martius procedure as a surgical modality for the treatment of urethrovaginal fis-tula.

  8. Potential antimutagenic activity of berberine, a constituent of Mahonia aquifolium

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    Tóth Jaroslav

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of a study aimed at developing new pharmaceutical products from natural resources, the purpose of this research was twofold: (1 to fractionate crude extracts from the bark of Mahonia aquifolium and (2 to evaluate the strength of the antimutagenic activity of the separate components against one of the common direct-acting chemical mutagens. Methods The antimutagenic potency was evaluated against acridine orange (AO by using Euglena gracilis as an eukaryotic test model, based on the ability of the test compound/fraction to prevent the mutagen-induced damage of chloroplast DNA. Results It was found that the antimutagenicity of the crude Mahonia extract resides in both bis-benzylisoquinoline (BBI and protoberberine alkaloid fractions but only the protoberberine derivatives, jatrorrhizine and berberine, showed significant concentration-dependent inhibitory effect against the AO-induced chloroplast mutagenesis of E. gracilis. Especially berberine elicited, at a very low dose, remarkable suppression of the AO-induced mutagenicity, its antimutagenic potency being almost three orders of magnitude higher when compared to its close analogue, jatrorrhizine. Possible mechanisms of the antimutagenic action are discussed in terms of recent literature data. While the potent antimutagenic activity of the protoberberines most likely results from the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I, the actual mechanism(s for the BBI alkaloids is hard to be identified. Conclusions Taken together, the results indicate that berberine possesses promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that is worth to be investigated further.

  9. Antinociceptive activity of Maytenus rigida stem bark.

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    Dias, Kellyane S; Marques, Maxsuel S; Menezes, Igor A C; Santos, Thiago C; Silva, Aline B L; Estevam, Charles S; Sant'Ana, Antônio E G; Pizza, Cosimo; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Marçal, Rosilene M

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Maytenus rigida stem bark and its fractions were assessed for antinociceptive activity in tail-flick test in rats. The activity was located in the chloroform, ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions. Phytochemical screening revealed that catechin was the only common class of compounds present on the ethanol extract as well as on the active fractions. 4'-Methylepigallocatechin, isolated from the ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions, showed antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick test (75 mg/kg; p.o.), which was reversed by the opiate antagonist naloxone (3 mg/kg; i.p.).

  10. Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze: o ginseng-brasileiro

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    Fernando de Oliveira

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor efetua, revisão sobre os conhecimentos farmacognósticos de Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze incluindo considerações sobre a química e o uso da espécie. Chama a atenção para a diferença existente entre o ginseng-brasileiro e os ginseng importados.

  11. Molecular authentication of Maytenus sp by PCR-RFLPAutenticação molecular de Maytenus sp por PCR-RFLP

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    Sandra Sayuri Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus aquifolia and Maytenus ilicifolia are native plants from South America and popularly known as ‘Espinheira-santa’. Both are used as tea due to their efficiency in the treatment of ulcer, gastritis and indigestion. However, adulteration of processed Maytenus genus tea with Sorocea genus may happen due to their botanical similarity, compromising the quality of the products and opening a derogatory business opportunity that may lead to the discrediting of medicinal plant products. This study aimed to distinguish Maytenus sp and Sorocea bonplandii by PCR-RFLP of a chloroplast DNA (cpDNA intergenic region. Three commercial products of processed tea leaves of Maytenus sp, and in natura leaves of Maytenus sp and S. bonplandii were analyzed. PCR detected unique fragments for all samples in natura. The trnH-psbA region amplicon of both M. ilicifolia and M. aquifolia was 660 bp, and for S. bonplandii was 565 bp. These PCR products can be used as markers to distinguish the two genera. Forty-five percent of the processed samples presented only Maytenus genus, without adulterations. However, the amplification of 38% of the samples suggests adulteration with S. bonplandii while 17% seem to be adulterated with another plant (fragment of 649 bp in brand A and 690 bp in brand B. Three out of the fifteen restriction enzymes were able to detect M. ilicifolia and M. aquifolia in natura and in processed leaf samples. It was concluded that PCR technique is efficient to distinguish Maytenus sp from S. bonplandii, and other adulterating plants in processed commercial products of ‘Espinheira-santa’ tea. The trnH-psbA spacer of cpDNA is easily amplified and has satisfactory discriminating capacity to help in authentication processes of samples of the genera in natura and in processed plants. Maytenus aquifolia e Maytenus ilicifolia são plantas nativas da América do Sul e conhecidas popularmente como “Espinheira-santa”. Ambas são usadas como ch

  12. Maytensifolone, a new triterpene from Maytenus distichophylla Mart. ex Reissek

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    Duarte, Marcelo Cavalcante; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Madeiro, Sara Alves L.; Costa, Vicente Carlos O.; Barbosa Filho, Jose Maria; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da, E-mail: marcelosobral.ufpb@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Agra, Maria de Fatima [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia. Departamento de Biotecnologia; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2013-10-15

    Phytochemical study of the leaves of Maytenus distichophylla Mart. ex Reissek led to the isolation of the new triterpene 3,16,21-trioxo-6{beta},12{alpha}-dihydroxy-1-en-friedelane, named maytensifolone, along with the known triterpenes 3-oxofriedelane, 3,12-dioxofriedelane, 3{beta}-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-12{alpha}-hydroxyfriedelane and 3-oxo- 30-hydroxyfriedelane. Their structural identification was based on spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. (author)

  13. A Hermeneutical Journey throughout the Phenomenology of Edith Stein and Hedwig Conrad-Martius

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    Carmen Cozma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Book review to: Angela Ales Bello, Francesco Alfieri, Mobeen Shahid (eds.. Edith Stein. Hedwig Conrad-Martius. Fenomenologia Metafisica Scienze. Bari: Edizioni Giuseppe Laterza di Giuseppe Laterza, 2010. Pp.500

  14. Sonochemical degradation of martius yellow dye in aqueous solution.

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    Singla, Ritu; Grieser, Franz; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2009-01-01

    The sonolytic degradation of the textile dye martius yellow, also known as either naphthol yellow or acid orange 24, was studied at various initial concentrations in water. The degradation of the dye followed first-order kinetics under the conditions examined. Based on gas chromatographic results and sonoluminescence measurements of sonicated aqueous solutions of the dye, it is concluded that pyrolysis does not play a significant role in its degradation. The chromatographic identification of hydroxy added species indicates that an OH radical induced reaction is the main degradation pathway of the dye. Considering the non-volatility and surface activity of the dye, the degradation of the dye most probably takes place at the bubble/solution interface. The quantitative and qualitative formation of the degradation intermediates and final products were monitored using HPLC and ESMS. The analytical results suggest that the sonolytic degradation of the dye proceeds via hydroxylation of the aryl ring and also by C-N bond cleavage of the chromophoric ring, either through OH radical attack or through another unidentified process. The identification of various intermediates and end products also imply that the degradation of martius yellow proceeds through multiple reaction pathways. Total organic carbon (TOC) analyses of the dye solutions at various times following sonication revealed that sonolysis was effective in the initial degradation of the parent dye but very slow in achieving mineralization. The slow rate of mineralization is likely to be due to the inability of many of the intermediate products such as, the carboxylic acids, to accumulate at the bubble (air/water) interface and undergo decomposition due to their high water solubility (low surface activity).

  15. Aedes aegypti Larvicidal Sesquiterpene Alkaloids from Maytenus oblongata.

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    Touré, Seindé; Nirma, Charlotte; Falkowski, Michael; Dusfour, Isabelle; Boulogne, Isabelle; Jahn-Oyac, Arnaud; Coke, Maïra; Azam, Didier; Girod, Romain; Moriou, Céline; Odonne, Guillaume; Stien, Didier; Houël, Emeline; Eparvier, Véronique

    2017-02-24

    Four new sesquiterpene alkaloids (1-4) with a β-dihydroagrofuran skeleton and a new triterpenoid (5) were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Maytenus oblongata stems. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as MS and ECD experiments. The M. oblongata stem EtOAc extract and the pure compounds isolated were tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions, and compounds 2 and 3 were found to be active.

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATA (WILLD. DING HOU LEAVES

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    Poonia Lalita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Dind Hou belongs to family Celastraceae, is an evergreen tree that tolerates various types of stresses of the desert, locally known as “Kankero”. Maytenus emarginata has been used for fever, asthama, rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Maytenus emarginata was investigated in rats to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity by using aspirin induced gastric ulcer pyloric ligation model. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. In present study the orally administered alcoholic extract significantly (P < 0.05 increases pH and decreases the volume of gastric acid secretion, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index with respect to control at a dose of 125 and 187 mg/kg body weight. This study lend support to the traditional use of Maytenus emarginata as antiulcerogenic.

  17. Radiossensitividade Gama de extrato de Maytenus ilicifolia: desenvolvimento de protocolo para controle de qualidade

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    santos Oliveira, Ralph; Colaço,Waldeciro

    2008-01-01

    Utilizou-se neste trabalho a radiação gama em matrizes fitoterápicas (extrato de Maytenus ilicifolia) para o controle de qualidade microbiológico destas matrizes, para tanto usou-se doses que variam de 1-10 KGy. Os resultados apontam para uma contribuição positiva da radiação gama no controle de qualidade microbiológico de matrizes fitoterápicas, em particular da Maytenus ilicifolia.

  18. Da enfermidade chamada banzo: excertos de Sigaud e de von Martius (1844

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    Ana Maria Galdini Raimundo Oda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute dois relevantes estudos sobre as doenças no Brasil do século XIX, escritos por Joseph François Xavier Sigaud e por Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. Ambos tratam da nostalgia dos escravos, a enfermidade chamada de banzo.

  19. Invasion Success by Plant Breeding Evolutionary Changes as a Critical Factor for the Invasion of the Ornamental Plant Mahonia aquifolium

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    Ross, Christel Anne

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to global biodiversity and cause significant economic costs. Studying biological invasions is both essential for preventing future invasions and is also useful in order to understand basic ecological processes. Christel Ross investigates whether evolutionary changes by plant breeding are a relevant factor for the invasion success of Mahonia aquifolium in Germany. Her findings show that invasive populations differ from native populations in quantitative-genetic traits and molecular markers, whereas their genetic diversity is similar. She postulates that these evolutionary changes are rather a result of plant breeding, which includes interspecific hybridisation, than the result of a genetic bottleneck or the releases from specialist herbivores.

  20. Chemical variation of tannins and triterpenes in Brazilian populations of Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reiss

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    AJ. Mossi

    Full Text Available Maytenus ilicifolia and Maytenus aquifolia species are widely used as a cicatrisation agent, an anti-spasmodic, contraceptive, antiulcerogenic, diuretic and analgesic. Considering the importance of these species in popular medicine, this work is focused on the determination of the chemical content of tannins and the triterpenes friedelan-3-one, friedelan-3-ol and friedelin in 15 native populations of Maytenus ilicifolia distributed in the south and mind-west regions of Brazil. Correlation of the concentration of these compounds with the environmental parameters such as average annual temperature, climate, vegetation, geomorphology, latitude and altitude was determined using Pearson's coefficient. Results showed that average annual temperature and climate have significant effect on tannin content at a 95% confidence level. The highest tannin concentration was found in Ponta Porã population, and for the triterpenes investigated, a significant correlation between their concentrations with the environmental variables studied was not verified.

  1. Urethrolysis with Martius labial fat pad graft for iatrogenic bladder outlet obstruction.

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    Carey, Jeffrey M; Chon, Joanna K; Leach, Gary E

    2003-04-01

    This article evaluates treatment outcomes of urethrolysis with the Martius labial fat pad graft for patients with outlet obstruction after incontinence surgery. A total of 23 women were diagnosed with iatrogenic bladder outlet obstruction by urinary retention, urodynamic criteria, physical examination findings, and/or temporal relation of voiding dysfunction to anti-incontinence surgery. The urodynamic definition of female outlet obstruction was a maximum flow rate 20 cm of water. Surgical treatment consisted of urethrolysis with complete circumferential urethral mobilization. A Martius labial fat pad graft was used to circumferentially wrap the urethra. No concurrent resuspension procedures were performed. Procedure efficacy was determined by retrospective review and phone interview. Mean patient age was 55 years (range, 37 to 85 years). Mean postoperative follow-up time was 15 months (maximum, 44 months). All patients related voiding dysfunction symptoms to their anti-incontinence surgery. In all, 17 of 23 (74%) patients had preoperative urinary retention requiring catheterization, and 63% of patients met urodynamic criteria for obstruction. After urethrolysis with a Martius labial fat pad graft, 20 of 23 (87%) patients had complete resolution of their obstruction; 3 patients required persistent catheterization. Postoperative stress incontinence was reported by 6 of 23 (13%) patients. Urodynamically documented detrusor instability occurred in 6 of 23 (26%) patients with de novo detrusor instability occurring in 3 of 15 (20%) patients.

  2. Antioxidant activity of extracts and condensed tannins from Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss; Atividade antioxidante de extratos e taninos condensados das folhas de Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss

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    Pessuto, Monica Bordin; Costa, Isis Casemiro da; Souza, Angelita Boldieri de; Nicoli, Fernanda Michely; Mello, Joao Carlos Palazzo de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: mello@uem.br; Petereit, Frank [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany). Inst. for Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry; Luftmann, Heinrich [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany). Inst. for Organic Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss. Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) is a native plant of South America and popularly known as 'espinheira-santa'. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of extracts and isolated compounds from this plant. The antioxidant activity of the crude and semipurified extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated through DPPH-radical and phosphomolybdenum-complex assays. By both methods, the ethyl-acetate fraction demonstrated better antioxidant capacity compared with vitamin C and trolox. In the compounds, the higher the number of hydroxyls, the greater the antioxidant activity. In addition, stereochemistry influenced antioxidant activity, i.e., compounds with 2 R,3 R showed greater activity than those with 2 R,3 S. (author)

  3. Natureza ou Deus: afinidades panteístas entre Goethe e o "brasileiro" Martius Nature or God: pantheistic affinities between Goethe and Martius, "the Brazilian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Mazzari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda parte do romance As afinidades eletivas, a jovem Ottilie registra em seu diário as seguintes palavras: "Digno de veneração é apenas o naturalista que sabe descrever e expor o mais estranho, o mais insólito, com sua cor local, com todo o seu entorno e sempre em seu elemento mais próprio. Como eu gostaria de ver-me um dia na presença de Humboldt, ouvindo suas narrações!". A passagem revela, ao lado da admiração de Goethe por Humboldt, o seu interesse pelas ciências naturais, o qual experimenta significativa intensificação em setembro de 1824, quando estabelece contato pessoal com o botânico Carl F. P. von Martius. Em seu jovem interlocutor Goethe logo reconhece as qualidades de naturalista que no romance são atribuídas a Humboldt. Passa então a acompanhar com máximo interesse as publicações em que Martius elabora as pesquisas, observações e experiências realizadas ao longo dos três anos e meio em que percorreu, junto com o zoólogo Spix, mais de dez mil quilômetros de território brasileiro. Nasce assim um intercâmbio científico e cultural dos mais fecundos, o qual se enraíza especialmente nas concepções panteístas de que partilhavam o velho poeta de Weimar e o jovem botânico. Além de enfocar alguns aspectos das viagens brasileiras de Martius, este ensaio tem por objetivo expor a sua recepção por Goethe e discutir ainda eventuais influxos sobre sua produção literária. A reelaboração, em 1825, de uma das canções que Goethe, 43 anos antes, havia redigido com o subtítulo Brasilianisch deve-se seguramente a esse intercâmbio. Pretende-se discutir também a hipótese de que determinados textos e concepções de Martius tenham deixado vestígios em passagens da segunda parte do Fausto.In the second part of the novel Elective Affinities, young Ottilie registered the following words in her diary: "The only inquirers into nature whom we care to respect, are such as know how to describe and to represent

  4. Efectos sobre la temperatura, frecuencia respiratoria, frecuencia cardiaca y electrocardiograma de Maytenus macrocarpa (Ruiz & Pav.) Briq. (chuchuhuasi)

    OpenAIRE

    Huaccho Rojas, Juan Jesús; Cavero Aguilar, Evelyn Sally; Quezada Rojas, Melissa Andrea; Lara Paredes, Andrea Mercedes; Lluen Escobar, Silvana Estela; Paragulla Bocángel, Ahmed Alberto; Rojas Villacorta, Fernando Junior; Loja Herrera, Berta; Alvarado Yarasca, Ángel Tito; Mujica Calderón, José; Salazar Granara, Alberto Alcibíades

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: estudios de árboles del género Maytenus, especies forsskaoliana, ilicifolia y krukovii revelan efectos depresores a nivel cardiovascular sobre la presión arterial y frecuencia cardiaca. Objetivos: analizar experimentalmente los efectos de las hojas de Maytenus macrocarpa "chuchuhuasi" sobre la frecuencia cardiaca, patrones electrocardiográficos, frecuencia respiratoria, y temperatura. Métodos: investigación de tipo exploratorio, analítico y experimental. Se uti...

  5. Ocorrência de cochonilhas em espinheira-santa (Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek Occurrence of mealybugs in "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vitória

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus ilicifolia é uma espécie medicinal nativa do Brasil que vem sendo cultivada para atender a crescente demanda do mercado. Os fatores que interferem na produção, tal como a incidência de pragas e doenças, devem ser estudados para garantir o incremento na produtividade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência e a identificação de cochonilhas associadas a 15 acessos de espinheira-santa (Maytenus ilicifolia do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Clima Temperado e do Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense. Foi registrada a quantidade de plantas infestadas em cada acesso e identificado, em laboratório, as espécies de cochonilhas infestantes. O número de plantas infestadas variou entre os acessos. Foram identificadas as cochonilhas Ceroplastes sp. e Saissetia oleae, família Coccidae. Dos 10 acessos infestados, 23 (11,3% plantas apresentaram infestação com Ceroplastes sp. e, apenas uma (0,5%, com Saissetia oleae. O acesso 133 mostrou a maior incidência de Ceroplastes sp. (33,3%, seguido do acesso 130 (25,0%. O acesso 123 foi o que apresentou menor quantidade de plantas infestadas (4,8%. Saissetia oleae ocorreu em apenas uma planta, pertencente ao acesso 136 (5,6%.Maytenus ilicifolia is a medicinal species native to Brazil which has been cultivated to meet the growing market demand. Factors that interfere with the production, such as the incidence of pests and diseases, should be studied to ensure increased productivity. The aim of this study was to record the occurrence and the identification of mealybugs associated with 15 "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of "Embrapa Clima Temperado" and "Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense". The quantity of infested plants in each accession was recorded and the species of infested mealybugs were identified in the laboratory. The number of infested plants varied among accessions. The identified mealybugs were Ceroplastes sp. and

  6. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae) Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,V.L.; M.F.V. Souza; L.M. Batista; Silva,B.A.; LIMA, M. S.; Souza,A.M.F; F.C Barbosa; R.M.R. Catão

    2011-01-01

    A realização de estudos farmacológicos é fundamental para comprovar a eficácia do uso de plantas medicinais pela população para o tratamento de doenças e descobrir novos fitoterápicos. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato etanólico e fase acetato de etila do bom nome (Maytenus rigida Mart.) sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 3 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus multirresistentes isoladas de pacientes com infecções nosocomiais, Escherichia coli ATCC ...

  7. Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Puc, Juan Alberto; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Miron-Lopez, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J., E-mail: mrejon@uady.mx [Laboratorio de Quimica Farmaceutica. Facultad de Quimica. Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan (Mexico); Moo-Puc, Rosa Esther [Unidad de Investigacion Medica Yucatan, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Yucatan (Mexico); Quijano, Leovigildo [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Cyclolignan (+)-lyoniresinol (1), veratric acid (2), vanillic acid (3), lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4), the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+)-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC{sub 50} 17.57 μM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4) in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol. (author)

  8. Development and physical evaluation of Maytenus ilicifolia effervescent granules using factorial design

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    Marcilio Sérgio Soares da Cunha-Filho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plant Maytenus ilicifolia is a commonly used phytomedicine for the treatment of gastritis. The high dose required and low density of these extracts make necessary a daily intake of several capsules, hindering adherence to the medication. The purpose of this work was to develop a suitable dosage form for the administration of Maytenus ilicifolia using effervescent granules. A 23 factorial design was used to study the physical characteristics of the granules (particle size distribution, repose angle, Carr index, scanning electron microscopy and disintegration time. Moisture stability was also determined. According to the experimental design, granule size is the most important factor in determining the flow characteristics of effervescent granules. In turn, the disintegration time is controlled by the content of sodium bicarbonate present in the effervescent mixture as well as the granule size. The stability of formulations when exposed to moisture is strongly influenced by the percentage of effervescent mixture present in the vegetal granules. Precautions in handling and storage should be taken to ensure the stability of these preparations. The effervescent granules produced from Maytenus ilicifolia met the pharmacopoeial quality parameters, with appropriate mechanical and physical characteristics and proved to be a promising vehicle for plant extracts.

  9. Genetic diversity and conservation of native populations of Maytenus Ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss

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    AJ. Mossi

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze genetic variability in 18 populations of Maytenus ilicifolia, and representatives of Maytenus aquifolia and Maytenus evonymoidis, collected in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, using RAPD molecular markers. Considering total samples of the three species, 263 amplified fragments were identified, of which 72.2% showed to be polymorphous. The index of similarity (Jaccard coefficient was on average 0.64 between M. ilicifolia and M. aquifolia; 0.47 between M. ilicifolia and M. evonymoidis; and 0.44 between M. aquifolia and M. evonymoidis. The analysis of groupings by the UPGMA algorithm allowed to clearly separate the three analyzed species. In determining the variability in M. ilicifolia, 222 bands were identified, on average 11.1 bands per primer, being 43.2% polymorphous. The index of similarity (Jaccard coefficient in the bulks of each population in M. ilicifolia was, on average, 0.92 and the index of similarities among the populations was 0.83. The analysis of groupings with the UPGMA algorithm and the analysis of the main coordination (PCO, allowed the separation of the analyzed populations into three groups, the populations from the south of Rio Grande do Sul and the population from Mato Grosso do Sul standing out. A relation between the groupings found and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the collecting places was observed.

  10. Estudo comparativo farmacognóstico e atividade biológica de Maytenus rigida Mart. E Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex. Reiss. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Soares da Rocha, Cristiano

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho compreende o estudo farmacognóstico comparativo (padronização botânica, avaliação fitoquímica e avaliação da atividade biológica) entre as espécies Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex. Reiss. e M. rigida Mart. (Celastraceae), esta última bastante utilizada popularmente, em nosso estado, para o tratamento de distúrbios gástricos (gastrite e úlceras gástricas), indicações idênticas àquelas registradas através de vários estudos para M. ilicifolia. A padronização botânica...

  11. Pharmacological studies of ethanolic extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Vanda Lucia dos; Costa,Viviam Bruna Machado; Agra,Maria de Fátima; Silva, Bagnólia Araújo da; Batista, Leônia Maria

    2007-01-01

    The crude ethanol extract (EEOH) of the bark of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) a plant used in Brazil herbal traditional medicine, was tested for anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antidiarrhoeal activities in animal models. No acute toxicological sign was observed in animals treated with the highest dose (5000 mg/kg, p.o. or 2000 mg/kg i.p.) of EEOH. The extract doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg revealed a significant inhibitory effect (P < 0,01) in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and exh...

  12. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,V.L.; M.F.V. Souza; L.M. Batista; Silva,B.A.; LIMA, M. S.; Souza,A.M.F; F.C Barbosa; R.M.R. Catão

    2011-01-01

    A realização de estudos farmacológicos é fundamental para comprovar a eficácia do uso de plantas medicinais pela população para o tratamento de doenças e descobrir novos fitoterápicos. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato etanólico e fase acetato de etila do bom nome (Maytenus rigida Mart.) sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 3 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus multirresistentes isoladas de pacientes com infecções nosocomiais, Escherichia coli ATCC ...

  13. Chemical constituents from branches of Maytenus gonoclada (Celastraceae) and evaluation of antimicrobial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando C.; Duarte, Lucienir P.; Silva, Gracia D.F.; Vieira Filho, Sidney A.; Lula, Ivana S., E-mail: lucienir@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DQ/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Nucleo de Estudos de Plantas Medicinais; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Sallum, William S.T. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia

    2011-07-01

    Six pentacyclic triterpenes were isolated from branches of Maytenus gonoclada (Celastraceae) and all NMR data of a new compound 3-oxo-12{alpha},29-dihydroxyfriedelane are herein reported. The stereochemistry of the new friedelane was established by bidimensional NMR (HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) data, and its molecular weight confirmed by ESI mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity assays using the method of disk diffusion and macrodilution were carried out against the bacteria Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Bacillus cereus, and against the fungi Candida albicans. The triterpene 3-oxo-12{alpha}-hydroxyfriedelane showed positive result against C. albicans. (author)

  14. Spatial profiling of maytansine during the germination process of Maytenus senegalensis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelmann, Dennis; Kusari, Souvik; Spiteller, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The ecological role of maytansine, an important antineoplastic and antimicrobial compound with high cytotoxicity, particularly as a chemical defense compound has remained elusive since its discovery in the 1970s in Maytenus and Putterlickia plants. In the present study, we have used MALDI-imaging-HRMS to visualize the occurrence as well as spatial and temporal distribution of maytansine in a Maytenus senegalensis plant, seeds obtained from the mother plant during seeding stage, through the germination of the seeds, and finally up to the establishment of seedlings (or daughter plants). Although the mother plant was devoid of maytansine, the bioactive compound was found to be distributed in the cotyledons and the endosperm of the seeds with an augmented accretion towards the seed coat. Furthermore, maytansine was always detected in the emerging seedlings, particularly the cortex encompassing the radicle, hypocotyl, and epicotyl. The typical pattern of accumulation of maytansine not only in the seeds but also during germination provides a proof-of-concept that M. senegalensis is ecologically primed to trigger the production of maytansine in vulnerable tissues such as seeds during plant reproduction. By utilizing maytansine as chemical defense compound against predators and/or pathogens, the plant can ensure viability of the seeds and successful germination, thus leading to the next generation of daughter plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genotoxicity of the medicinal plant Maytenus robusta in mammalian cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo, T M; Favilla, M; Niero, R; Andrade, S F; Maistro, E L

    2012-08-24

    Plants belonging to the Celastraceae family have been used in traditional medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic properties, among others. Maytenus ilicifolia is the principal species of this family, and is used in the treatment of gastric ulcers. However, owing to its inadequate management in Brazil, the species is becoming extinct and is being substituted with Maytenus robusta, which also displays gastroprotective activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of M. robusta hydroalcoholic extract in vivo, using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Three doses (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) were administered to mice orally 2 times at 24-h intervals. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring 200 consecutive total polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes to calculate their ratio. Parametric (analysis of variance/Tukey) and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn post hoc) tests were used to evaluate the results according to the nature of the data distribution. The results showed a significant increase in the frequency of DNA damage on leukocytes at the 2 higher doses tested, but the extract did not enhance micronucleus frequency in bone marrow cells. Our findings showed that after 48 h of treatment, M. robusta hydroalcoholic extract had weak genotoxic effects but no clastogenic effects in mice cells.

  16. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A realização de estudos farmacológicos é fundamental para comprovar a eficácia do uso de plantas medicinais pela população para o tratamento de doenças e descobrir novos fitoterápicos. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato etanólico e fase acetato de etila do bom nome (Maytenus rigida Mart. sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 3 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus multirresistentes isoladas de pacientes com infecções nosocomiais, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 e Salmonella sp. (228-R-Tet, 118-R-Sut e 01-S isoladas de ambiente aquático, utilizando o método de difusão em agar. Os testes revelaram que o extrato e fase de M. rigida apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana in vitro frente a todas as cepas de S. aureus testadas, apresentando concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de 400 mg mL-1. Entretanto, estes produtos não apresentaram atividade frente às linhagens de bactérias Gram-negativas testadas, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Salmonella sp.Ppharmacological studies are essential to prove the effectiveness of using medicinal plants to treat diseases and discover new phytotherapics. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of "bom-nome" (Maytenus rigida Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, three samples of multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with nosocomial infections, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Salmonella sp. (228-R-Tet, 118-R-Sut and 01-S isolated from water environment, using the agar diffusion test. Both extracts showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against all S. aureus strains, presenting 400 mg mL-1 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. However, these products did not show activity against strains of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella sp.

  17. Establishment of Desmoncus orthacanthos Martius (Arecaceae): effect of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Zapata, José A; Orellana, Roger; Allen, Edith B

    2006-03-01

    Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has often promoted increased growth of plants but very little work has been done in the tropics to evaluate the effects of inoculation on the establishment and development of seedlings in forests. Desmoncus orthacanthos Martius is a scandent palm present both in early and late succession, and consequently can be used in restoration processes. A test was conducted to determine the effect of AM on the establishment of Desmoncus orthacanthos in tropical forest in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Thirty inoculated and 30 non-inoculated seedlings were introduced in two sites of different successional age, a mature forest and an eight-year old abandoned cornfield (acahual). Survival and growth parameters were evaluated after 12 months. Leaf area and phosphorus, but not height, were greater in inoculated than non-inoculated plants in the forest but not in the acahual. However, mycorrhizae had a clear effect on plant survival in both sites, with a threefold increase in survival of inoculated compared with non-inoculated plants bassed on an odds ratio. The results suggest that inoculation will be important to increase the establishment of this commercially important palm.

  18. Caracterização da fibra do licuri (Syagrus coronata (Martius) Beccare) para aplicações na construção civill

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana Maria Ricl da Silva

    2010-01-01

    A pesquisa, do tipo experimental, tem como objetivo analisar as propriedades da fibra dos segmentos foliares do Syagrus coronata (Martius) Beccari e, em comparação à outras fibras , avaliar o potencial de aplicação como fibra técnica em reforços nos compósitos, para construção. O Syagrus coronata (Martius) Beccari é uma palmeira nativa e abundante no semi-árido brasileiro, pouco conhecida, oferece oportunidade de subsistência e economia para populações que dependem de sua exploração. Pa...

  19. Phytochemical Analysis and Gastroprotective Activity of the Root Bark from Maytenus robusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenutti, Danyela Francine; Della Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Niero, Rivaldo

    2016-05-01

    The present work evaluated the chemical composition and antiulcerogenic potential of the crude extract, fractions and pure compounds isolated of roots barks from Maytenus robusta Reiss, using different pharmacological models in mice. 3,12-Dioxofriedelane (1) and 11-hydroxylup-20 (29)-en-3-one (2) were isolated from the n-hexane fraction, and mayteine (3) and 3,7-dioxofriedelane (4) from the dichloromethane fraction. The crude extract (50, 259, 500 mg/kg), all the fractions (250 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the lesion index, total lesion area, and percentage of lesions, in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05), by ethanol and NSAID-induced ulcer models. All the isolated compounds also presented significant pharmacological effects at 30 mg/kg. These results show that the root bark of M. robusta may be a promising source of molecules with applicability in the treatment of gastric disorders.

  20. EFECTO DIURÉTICO DE LAS HOJAS DE MAYTENUS MACROCARPA “CHUCHUHUASI” EN RATAS ALBINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Bastidas Garcia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad diurética del extracto acuoso obtenido a partir de la hojas del Maytenus macrocarpa “Chuchuhuasi” en ratas albinas. Material y Métodos: Se utilizaron 68 ratas albinas machos, con pesos medios de 250 g, se empleó el Método de Lipschitz, donde se registró el volumen de orina por hora y total a la sexta hora. Los grupos experimentales fueron: Control (suero fisiológico al 0.9%, chuchuhuasi 1 (250mg/kg, chuchuhuasi 2 (500mg/kg, chuchuhuasi 3 (750mg/kg, hojas de chuchuhuasi 4 (1000mg/kg, furosemida 1 (10mg/kg y furosemida 2 (20mg/kg. Para la validación estadística se usó la prueba de Shapiro-Wilk, Tukey y Dunns. Resultados: El mayor volumen total obtenido durante las primeras 24 horas fue de 5,17ml para chuchuhuasi de 1000 mg/kg, llegando a tener inclusive mayor valor que la furosemida de 20 mg/kg. Por otro lado el grupo de chuchuhuasi de 250 mg/kg (2.32 obtuvo  menor acción diurética que el grupo control (2.55 ml. El test de Tukey no indicó diferencias significativas. Sin embargo, en el análisis bioquímico el test de Xi cuadrado tuvo un p< 0.05 para el PH. Conclusión: Se demuestra una respuesta diurética positiva en todos los niveles de dosis ensayadas del extracto etanólico de Maytenus macrocarpa: 250, 500, 750 y un mayor efecto 1000 mg/kg de peso, al compararlos con el grupo control y la Furosemida. Palabras Clave: Diuresis, Furosemida, Medicina Tradicional, Etnofarmacología.

  1. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity and Synergistic Associations of Quinonemethide Triterpenes and Phenolic Substances from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Castro-Gamboa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the isolation of the secondary metabolites identified as the quinonemethides maytenin (1 and pristimerin (2 from Maytenus ilicifolia extracts obtained from root barks of adult plants and roots of seedlings and their quantification by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector. The electrochemical profiles obtained from cyclic voltammetry and a coulometric detector coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography contributed to the evaluation of their antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of individual components and the crude extracts of the root barks of Maytenus ilicifolia were compared and the possible synergistic associations of quinonemethide triterpenes and phenolic substances were investigated by using rutin as a model phenolic compound.

  2. Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Sandra S.; Andrade,Josivaldo A.; Maria Aldirene Xavier; Secundo Junior,José A.; Silmara M. Pantaleão; Charles S. Estevam; Garcia,Carlos A. B.; Ferrari, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root ste...

  3. Anatomía de leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Giménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Es objetivo del trabajo describir el leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. y M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae y determinar rasgos ecoanatómicos. Las muestras fueron recolectadas del bosque natural en la localidad Guampacha, Sierras de Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (distrito chaqueño serrano. Cinco individuos de cada especie fueron seleccionados al azar, obteniéndose una rodaja a 0.3 m. En las descripciones del leño se usó la terminología del Comité de Nomenclatura de IAWA. Los rasgos fundamentales del leño de Maytenus se resumen en: poros pequeños, numerosos, vasos pequeños, miembros de vasos cortos y anillos de crecimiento angostos. El leño de las dos especies estudiadas se caracteriza por presentar porosidad difusa a semicircular, anillos de crecimiento tipo 5b; poros numerosos y pequeños, parénquima axial de distribución apotraqueal en bandas discontinuas de una sola hilera de células, con tendencia a reticulado; escaso paratraqueal unilateral y difuso en agregados, radios heterogéneos; presencia de fibrotraqueidas. Las principales diferencias anatómicas radican en el tipo de poros, fundamentalmente solitarios en M. vitis-idaea y la presencia de radios de mayor longitud en M. viscifolia. Ambas maderas presentan rasgos xerofiticos notorios.Wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea. y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae. Is objective of this study to describe the wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. and M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae and to determine ecoanatomy features. The samples were collected from natural forest in Guampacha, Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (Chaco Serrano district. Five individuals were randomly selected; being obtained a track to 0.3 m. IAWA Committee on Nomenclature terminology was used in wood descriptions. Xylem features of Maytenus be summarized as: numerous small pores, short vessel members and growth rings narrow. The wood of the two species were characterized by diffuse to

  4. IMPORTÂNCIA E A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE VON MARTIUS PARA O CONHECIMENTO DA FLORA ARBÓREA DO CERRADO

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    Ramon Cleomar de Jesus Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os naturalistas viajantes podem ser definidos como pessoas que durante os séculos XVIII e XIX dedicavam seu tempo ao estudo da história natural. Partindo deste pressuposto, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as contribuições do naturalista alemão Carl Friederich Philipp von Martius para a flora arbórea do Cerrado. Martius veio ao Brasil no ano de 1817 acompanhado do zoólogo Johann Baptiste von Spix. Os dois cientistas passaram três anos viajando pelo Brasil e percorreram territórios dos futuros estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Bahia, Pernambuco, Piauí, Maranhão, Pará e Amazonas. Nesse contexto, Martius teve contato com várias fisionomias naturais presentes nos diversos ecossistemas brasileiros, percorreu e estudou territórios do Cerrado e suas contribuições foram importantes para a flora deste Bioma. O trabalho de Martius é diverso e de acordo com a APG III 161 espécies arbóreas foram descritas por ele ou contou com a sua colaboração, distribuídas em 39 famílias e 92 gêneros. Martius, ao longo de sua viagem, descreveu várias espécies arbóreas típicas do cerrado, a saber: Araticum (Annona crassiflora, Guatambu (Aspidosperma macrocarpon, A. tomentosum, Ingá (Inga edulis e Pau Terra (Qualea grandiflora, Q. multiflora, Q. parviflora, além de tantas outras ainda pouco conhecidas pela população, mas que do ponto de vista ecológico são extremamente importantes para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas.

  5. Aspectos anatômicos e etnofarmacológicos do caule e raiz de Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (CELASTRACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Prata, Ressiliane Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho descreve a anatomia do caule e raiz de Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek, enfatizando a localização dos princípios ativos e fornecendo dados relativos ao uso e venda da espéciemedicinal pela população de Manaus, AM. The work describes the anatomy of the stem and root Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek, emphasizing the location of the active ingredients and providing data on the use and sale of espéciemedicinal the population of Manaus, AM.

  6. Constituents from Maytenus ilicifolia leaves and bioguided fractionation for gastroprotective activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Joao Paulo V. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Braga, Fernao C.; Oliveira, Alaide B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos; Romussi, Giovanni [Universita degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche; Persoli, Rita M.; Tabach, Ricardo; Carlini, Elisaldo A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Psicobiologia

    2010-07-01

    Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek is traditionally used in Brazil for treatment of gastric ulcers. Here we report the phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (EEMIL) aiming at the isolation of constituents which were used as chemical markers to monitor an activity-guided fractionation of a lyophilized aqueous extract of M. ilicifolia leaves (LAEMIL). From EEMIL, four flavonoids were isolated, namely the tri-flavonoid glycosides mauritianin (1), trifolin, (2) hyperin (4), and epi-catechin (5). Fractionation of LAEMIL led to 5 fractions which afforded the tetra-glycoside kaempferol derivative (3), and galactitol (6). LAEMIL and its fractions were evaluated in rats for their effects on gastric secretion volume and pH. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis revealed that only fractions containing the tri- and tetra-flavonoid glycosides 1 and 3 caused significant increase of gastric volume and pH, thus indicating that these glycosides play an important role on the gastroprotective effect of M.ilicifolia leaves. (author)

  7. Ficusonic acid: a new cytotoxic triterpene isolated from Maytenus royleanus (Wall. ex M. A. Lawson) cufodontis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, Ala Ud; Uddin, Ghias [Center for Phytomedicine and Medicinal Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar(Pakistan); Hussain, Nusrat; Choudary, Mohammad Iqbal, E-mail: allauddin77@yahoo.com [International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi (Pakistan)

    2013-04-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Maytenus royleanus resulted into the isolation of a new cytotoxic triterpene ficusonic acid, 3{beta},21{beta}-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid, together with three known compounds, 3{alpha},22{beta}-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid, salaspermic acid and orthosphenic acid, reported for the first time from this source. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic techniques. The cytotoxic activity of compound 3{beta},21{beta}-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid was evaluated against two cancer cell lines, PC-3 prostate and HeLa cervical cancer lines. 3{beta},21{beta}-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid showed weak activity against PC-3 (IC{sub 50} = 35.42 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -1}) however against HeLa (IC{sub 50} = 20.47 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -1}), its activity was moderate. (author)

  8. Effects of triterpene derivatives from Maytenus rigida on VEGF-induced Kaposi's sarcoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucciello, Stefania; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Felice, Francesca; Estevam, Charles dos Santos; Sant'Ana, Antonio Euzébio Goulart; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2010-02-12

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a naturally occurring lupane-type triterpene which exhibits a variety of biological activities including potent cytotoxic properties. On the basis of the structural similarity to BA, two lupane derivatives namely lup-20(29)-ene-3beta,30-diol (1) and lup-20(29)-ene-3beta,28-diol (2), along with two friedelane derivatives, namely friedelan-3-one (3) and friedelan-3beta-ol (4), isolated from the Brazilian plant Maytenus rigida, have been evaluated for their anti-proliferative effect. Similarly to BA, compounds 1 and 3 at 1 microM concentration significantly inhibited the VEGF-induced Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cell proliferation by 50%. In contrast, this effect was not found in control endothelial cells (EC). Moreover, compounds 1 and 3 showed a dose-dependent effect on the apoptotic cell death, as detected by FACS analysis and caspase-3 assay. Specifically, at 10 microM concentration, apoptosis was significantly induced (from 45% to 55% of hypodiploid cells vs control cells) and showed the same potency order observed for the anti-proliferative effect at 1 microM, i.e., compound 3>BA>compound 1. Taking into account the interest given rise by BA as anticancer agent, the comparable anti-proliferative activity shown by compounds 1 and 3 and BA, can give an impulse to further investigate lupane and friedelane derivatives as cytotoxic agents.

  9. Genetic diversity in populations of Maytenus dasyclada (Celastraceae in forest reserves and unprotected Araucaria forest remnants

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    Manuel Castilhos Reichmann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the genetic structure and diversity of plants is fundamental to their conservation and permits their sustainable use by local communities. The genus Maytenus (Celastraceae is composed of plants possessing pharmacological and antioxidant properties. However, the genetic and economic properties of the species M. dasyclada, a typical species of Araucaria forests in Brazil and Uruguay, have been little studied. In this work, the genetic structure and diversity of natural populations of M. dasyclada located in unprotected and preserved forest remnants were investigated using RAPD and isozymes markers. The results demonstrated that in areas of preservation, populations of M. dasyclada possess a relatively high degree of polymorphism and high values for Na, Ne, Shannon index, He and Ho, indicating high genetic variability. Moreover, these protected populations are very close to each other and potentially experience significant gene flow. The results presented here highlight the relevance of preservation areas for the conservation of M. dasyclada, and that populations inhabiting these areas could serve as a genetic source for the recovery of populations in regions where genetic diversity has been lost.

  10. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in human cancerous HeLa cells by Maytenus procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, S; Hussein, A A; Ostad, S N; Abdollahi, M; Lall, N

    2013-01-01

    The possible biochemical activities of the acetonic/ethanolic extract of the leaves of Maytenus procumbens (L.M.P), and its isolated compounds were investigated in the present study. In cytotoxicity assay, L.M.P showed IC(50) of 68.79, 51.22, 78.49, 76.59, and 76.64μg/ml on Caco-2, HeLa, HT29, NIH3T3, and T47D cells, respectively. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of a new triterpene: '30-hydroxy-11α-methoxy-18β-olean-12-en-3-one' (HMO) in addition to a known terpenoid: 'asiatic acid' (AA). HMO exhibited the most cytotoxicity against HeLa cells and was further investigated for its ability to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. HMO induced apoptosis up to 20.41% in HeLa cells versus control group (0.40%). Antioxidant/oxidative properties of L.M.P and HMO were investigated using extracellular (DPPH), and intracellular (ROS) assays. Experimental samples represented a time and concentration-dependent formation of ROS in Hela cells. Generation of ROS seems one of the mechanisms by which HMO induces apoptosis in Hela cells. Conclusion is that the active components in L.M.P might serve as a mediator of the ROS scavenging system and have the potential to act as prooxidant or antioxidant depending on the biological environment of the cells.

  11. Antibacterial properties of zeylasterone, a triterpenoid isolated from Maytenus blepharodes, against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, L; López, M R; Moujir, L

    2010-10-20

    The anti-staphylococcal properties of zeylasterone and demethylzeylasterone, two 6-oxophenolic triterpenoids isolated from Maytenus blepharodes, were investigated. Zeylasterone was more active than demethylzeylasterone on Staphylococcus aureus cells, showing bactericidal activity at 30 μg/ml (6 × MIC) in less than three hours and bacteriostatic at lower concentrations. At the same cell density, a more drastic reduction in CFU count was obtained when the triterpenoid was incorporated into cultures growing actively. Zeylasterone at 3 × MIC added on S. aureus cultures showed an early inhibitory effect on incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine, uridina and N-acetyl-glucosamine, and later on leucine. It also caused cell membrane disruption in S. aureus, as shown by the inhibition of radiolabeled precursor uptake, rapid potassium leakage, inhibition of NADH oxidation, and formation of mesosome-like structures around the septa. The structural features of the molecule, the blockage of solute transport through the membrane and changes in its permeability, suggest that zeylasterone acts mainly on cytoplasmic membrane.

  12. Espinheira-santa (Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss.: saber de erveiros e feirantes em Pelotas (RS

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    C. ALMEIDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever o conhecimento popular relacionado à espinheira-santa (Maytenus ilicifolia entre erveiros e feirantes que comercializam a planta no centro de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, exploratória e descritiva, de agosto a outubro de 2013. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com questões sobre os saberes e práticas relacionados à espinheira-santa, foram aplicadas a cinco erveiros e três feirantes do mercado informal de plantas medicinais. Para a análise dos dados foi utilizada a proposta operativa de Minayo, sendo Capra o referencial teórico para este estudo. Foi verificado que o saber relacionado ao uso da espinheira-santa é transmitido de geração a geração, embora existam outras fontes de conhecimento. As indicações do uso popular da espinheira-santa com finalidade terapêutica estão relacionadas a distúrbios gástricos, cicatrização e depuração do sangue. As diferentes formas dos sujeitos deste estudo interagirem com o ambiente, com sua família e em outras relações interpessoais resultam em diferentes saberes relacionados à espinheira-santa.

  13. Acute genotoxicity analysis in vivo of the aqueous extract of Maytenus guyanensis Amazonian chichuá

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    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The species Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek, Celastraceae, present a wide variety of possible pharmacological activities and its roots and stems are used by popular medicine in the western Amazon rainforest. Few studies have demonstrated the genotoxic safety of the popular use of this species, and owing to this, the present study aimed to perform an analysis of the acute genotoxicity in vivo of the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis. Male and female mice from Mus musculus species, of weights ranging from 20 to 40 g, organized in eight groups with different treatments were used. The aqueous extracts of the bark of M. guyanensis were administered orally by gavage with 0.1 ml of the test substance per 10 g of the animal, followed by performance of comet assay in peripheral blood, PCE/NCE correlation and occurrence of micronuclei in the bone marrow. It was found that the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis, with ten times higher concentration than those used in ethnopharmacology, did not present genotoxic effect and, moreover, it has antigenotoxic action in mice treated acutely. Further studies regarding bioaccumulation and chronic effects of this species are suggested, in order to improve the understanding of its mechanism of action, ensuring the efficacy and safety of its utilization and developing phytotherapics and drugs.

  14. Intra and inter populational genetic variability in Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss. 1861, through RAPD markers

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    AJ. Mossi

    Full Text Available Maytenus ilicifolia is a medicinal plant largely used in the South Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of this study was to quantify the intra and inter populational genetic variability in three populations of M. ilicifolia, focusing on the genetic conservation of this species, which has been threatened by anthropic action. RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers were used to analyze 30 plants of each of the three populations collected in the Alto Uruguai Gaúcho region. Fourteen selected primers generated a total of 158 bands, 71.5% of which were polymorphic. The comparison of Jaccard’s distances showed that the intra populational variation was higher than the inter populational variability, and cluster analysis allowed the separation of the three populations. Just 7.6% of the bands were specific of at least two populations. Data indicate that the analyzed M. ilicifolia populations represent a single genetic pool, and therefore any of the population thoroughly can represent the overall genetic variability of the species in the sampled region.

  15. Pharmacological studies of ethanolic extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) in animal models Estudo farmacológico do extrato etanólico de Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) em modelos animais

    OpenAIRE

    Vanda Lucia dos Santos; Viviam Bruna Machado Costa; Maria de Fátima Agra; Bagnólia Araújo da Silva; Leônia Maria Batista

    2007-01-01

    The crude ethanol extract (EEOH) of the bark of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) a plant used in Brazil herbal traditional medicine, was tested for anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antidiarrhoeal activities in animal models. No acute toxicological sign was observed in animals treated with the highest dose (5000 mg/kg, p.o. or 2000 mg/kg i.p.) of EEOH. The extract doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg revealed a significant inhibitory effect (P < 0,01) in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and exh...

  16. Perfil fitoquímico e ensaio microbiológico dos extratos da entrecasca de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae) Phytochemistry and microbiological assay of the bark extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Charles S. Estevam; Cavalcanti,Amaro M.; Cambui,Érica Verena F.; Vítor Araújo Neto; Paulo T. G. Leopoldo; Roberta P. M. Fernandes; Araujo,Brancilene S.; Zenaldo Porfírio; Antonio Euzébio G. Sant'Ana

    2009-01-01

    Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae), conhecida por "Bom-homem", "Bom-nome", "Cabelo-de-negro", "Casca-grossa" e "Pau-de-colher", é uma arvore de pequeno porte. A entrecasca do caule é empregada popularmente no Nordeste do Brasil no tratamento das dores em geral, infecções e inflamações. O presente trabalho avaliou tanto o perfil fitoquímico de M. rigida por meio de um roteiro analítico, quanto à atividade antibiótica dos extratos pelo método de Kirby-Bauer modificado. Os resultados demonstrar...

  17. Perfil fitoquímico e ensaio microbiológico dos extratos da entrecasca de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Charles S. Estevam; Cavalcanti,Amaro M.; Cambui,Érica Verena F.; Araújo Neto,Vítor; Paulo T. G. Leopoldo; Roberta P. M. Fernandes; Araujo,Brancilene S.; Porfírio,Zenaldo; Antonio Euzébio G. Sant'Ana

    2009-01-01

    Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae), conhecida por "Bom-homem", "Bom-nome", "Cabelo-de-negro", "Casca-grossa" e "Pau-de-colher", é uma arvore de pequeno porte. A entrecasca do caule é empregada popularmente no Nordeste do Brasil no tratamento das dores em geral, infecções e inflamações. O presente trabalho avaliou tanto o perfil fitoquímico de M. rigida por meio de um roteiro analítico, quanto à atividade antibiótica dos extratos pelo método de Kirby-Bauer modificado. Os resultados demonstrar...

  18. Morfoanatomia de folhas de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae); uma espécie utilizada como medicinal no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Soares da Rocha, Cristiano; Magalhaes de Mendoça Pimentel, Rejane; Perrelli Randau, Karina; Xavier,Haroudo Satiro

    2004-01-01

    A descrição morfoanatômica das folhas de Maytenus rigida Mart. é de extrema importância para uma eficiente aplicabilidade desta planta à Farmacognosia. Os estudos da anatomia da folha de M. rigida foram realizadas em cortes paradérmicos e transversais de material fresco à mão livre, corados com safranina e azul de astra. As análises foram feitas em imagens digitais sob microscópio ótico pré-calibrado. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo apontam caracteres anatômicos de valor diagnó...

  19. Avaliação da Composição Centesimal, Mineral e Teor de Antocianinas da Polpa de Juçaí (Euterpe edulis Martius

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    Leilson de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A polpa de juçaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius encontrada nas áreas da Mata Atlântica e a polpa de açaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe oleracea Martius cultivado na Floresta Amazônica, foram caracterizadas obtendo assim sua composição centesimal, mineral e também seu teor de antocianinas. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível fazer um estudo comparativo da concentração de antocianinas das duas polpas congeladas e verificar a importância do consumo destes alimentos, classificados como funcionais, devido às propriedades antioxidantes de suas antocianinas no combate dos radicais livres no organismo humano.

  20. Martius flap and anterior vaginal wall sling for correction of urethrovaginal fistula (UVF associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI after vaginal delivery

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    A.M. Abdelbary

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Patients with a post-birth trauma in the form of UVF should be examined intra-operatively for the presence of associated SUI following correction of UVF. The use of the Martius flap and anterior vaginal wall sling in treating such patients is safe, efficient and reproducible. An anterior vaginal wall sling should be avoided in distal UVF to avoid recurrence of SUI.

  1. Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Sung-Eun; Piao, Xiang-Lan; Takeoka, Gary R; Wong, Rosalind Y; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2006-04-21

    The growth-inhibiting activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC dried inner bark-derived constituents against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 was examined using paper disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) bioassays. The activity of the isolated compounds was compared to that of the commercially available anti-Helicobacter pylori agents, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. The biologically active components of Tabebuia impetiginosa dried inner bark (taheebo) were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone, anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (lapachol). With the paper disc diffusion assay 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited strong activity against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 at 0.01 mg/disc. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, lapachol and metronidazole were less effective, exhibiting moderate anti-Helicobacter pylori activity at 0.1 mg/disc. Amoxicillin and tetracycline were the most potent compounds tested, displaying very strong activity at 0.005 mg/disc. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited moderate activity at this dose. Tetracycline still had strong activity at 0.001 mg/disc while amoxicillin had little activity at this dose. In the MIC bioassay, 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone (2 microg/mL), anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (8 microg/mL), and lapachol (4 microg/mL) were more active than metronidazole (32 microg/mL) but less effective than amoxicillin (0.063 microg/mL) and tetracycline (0.5 microg/mL). The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (structurally related to lapachol), 1,4-naphthoquinone, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone), 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin), 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone), and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (dichlone) was also evaluated using the paper disc

  2. Effect of Maytenus macrocarpa“Chuchuhuasi” in the male system reproductive of mouse (Mus musculus

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    Láyonal G. Acosta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus macrocarpa(chuchuhuasi is native tree of the Peruvian Amazon used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, but its effect on the male reproductive system has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study is evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of M. macrocarpa in daily doses for 7 days on reproductive parameters of male mice. We used C57BL mature male mice divided into 2 groups (n= 10, Control Group (C: 0.9% NaCl and Treatment group (T: Aqueous extract of Chuchuhuasi, both supplied daily via oral gavages. At the eight day of treatment the mice were euthanized. The weight of the body and reproductive organs: testis, epididymis and vas deferens, were registered. Concentration, motility and sperm morphology were evaluated. The results showed significantly differences (t- Student test P<0.05 in the weight of the head and body epididymis (C: 19.25±1.1 vs T: 21.26±2.0, vas deferens (C: 10.61±0.7 vs T: 11.75±0.5, progressive sperm motility (C: 42.16±5.2 vs T: 25.82±8.4 and immobile sperm (C: 36.05±4.9 vs T: 48.51±7.2. No difference in sperm count was observed. The sperm normal morphology diminished with ingest of M. macrocarpa(tStudent test p <0.05 (C: 39.72±1.3 vs T: 30.78±4.9. We conclude that the aqueous extract of chuchuhuasi, has a negative effect on the male reproductive system of mice.

  3. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

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    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  4. Efeito alelopático e toxicidade frente à Artemia salina Leach dos extatos do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius Allelopathic effects and toxicity against Artemia salina Leach of extracts of the fruit of Euterpe edulis Martius

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    Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é um processo envolvendo metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas que infl uenciam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas. Devido à toxicidade dos herbicidas sintéticos para o meio ambiente e para a saúde humana tem-se aumentado o interesse na exploração da alelopatia como uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho avaliou efeito dos extratos dos frutos de Euterpe edulis Martius sobre o desenvolvimento de cipselas e plântulas de Lactuca sativa Linné, foram determinados o índice de velocidade de germinação, o crescimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Para a avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi realizado o ensaio de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach determinando-se a CL50 e percentual de mortalidade. A fração remanescente demonstrou efeito alelopático, pois todas as concentrações alteraram os valores do índice de velocidade de germinação e as concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg inibiram tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto o crescimento do hipocótilo. No ensaio de toxicidade todos os extratos apresentaram CL50 superior a 1000 ppm e 0% de mortalidade das artemias, indicando a não toxicidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is a process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants that influence growth and development of agricultural systems. Because of the toxicity of synthetic herbicides to the environment and human health, there has been increased interest in exploiting allelopathy as an alternative for weed control. This study evaluated the eff ect of extracts of Euterpe edulis Martius fruits on the development of cypselae and seedlings of Lactuca sativa Linné; the germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl growth were determined. To evaluate the toxicity of the extracts the toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach was used, where the LC50 and mortality rate were determined. Th e remaining fraction showed allelopathic effect

  5. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário da raiz e do caule de Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae Anatomic study of secundary xylem of root and stem of Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae

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    Ressiliane Ribeiro Prata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus guyanensis é uma planta medicinal, conhecida popularmente por chichuá, possuindo ação analgésica, antiinflamatória, afrodisíaca e antireumática. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar as características estruturais, da raiz e caule desta espécie como contribuição aos trabalhos anatômicos já realizados para o gênero. O material botânico foi coletado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus/AM onde foram selecionados três indivíduos e de cada um deles retirados fragmentos de 1cm³ do caule e raiz. Amostras foram seccionadas em micrótomo de deslize e coradas com safranina e azul de astra. A análise estrutural revelou-se de acordo com o registrado pela literatura para o gênero. O xilema secundário da raiz e do caule apresentam parênquima axial apotraqueal, raios multisseriados, heterogêneos, vasos solitários, de distribuição difusa, uniforme, seção circular, com parede delgada, pontoações intervasculares alternas e areoladas.Maytenus guyanensis, known popularly as chichuá, possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac and anti-rheumatic agents. The object of this present wor was the anatomical analysis of material collected of this species at the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve. Stem and root fragments of 1cm were removed from 3 selected individuals. Sections from the stem and root were cut with slide microtome, and stained with astra blue and safranin. The structural analysis of stems and roots was in accordance with the literature available for the Maytenus genus. The secondary xylem of the root and stem presented parenchyma axial apotracheal, multiseriates, heterogeneous rays, solitary vessels, of diffuse distribution, uniform, circular section, with thin wall, bordered and alternate intervascular pits.

  6. Identification and biosynthesis of novel male specific esters in the wings of the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus martius sanaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Brattström, Oskar; Brakefield, Paul M; Francke, Wittko; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-06-01

    Representatives of the highly speciose tropical butterfly genus Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are characterized by morphological differences in the male androconia, a set of scales and hair pencils located on the surface of the wings. These androconia are assumed to be associated with the release of courtship pheromones. In the present study, we report the identification and biosynthetic pathways of several novel esters from the wings of male B. martius sanaos. We found that the volatile compounds in this male butterfly were similar to female-produced moth sex pheromones. Components associated with the male wing androconial areas were identified as ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl hexadecanoates and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoates, among which the latter are novel natural products. By topical application of deuterium-labelled fatty acid and amino acid precursors, we found these pheromone candidates to be produced in patches located on the forewings of the males. Deuterium labels from hexadecanoic acid were incorporated into (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, providing experimental evidence of a Δ11-desaturase being active in butterflies. This unusual desaturase was found previously to be involved in the biosynthesis of female-produced sex pheromones of moths. In the male butterflies, both hexadecanoic acid and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid were then enzymatically esterified to form the ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl esters, incorporating ethanol, isobutanol, and 2-phenylethanol, derived from the corresponding amino acids L-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine.

  7. Descrição de imaturos de quatro espécies de Asphondyliini neotropicais e nota taxonômica sobre Asphondylia maytenuse Maia & Couri (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae Description of immatures of four Neotropical species of Asphondyliini and taxonomic note on Asphondylia maytenuse Maia & Couri (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pupa of Stephomyia espiralis Maia, 1993, and larvae of Asphondylia communis Maia & Couri, 1992 and Proasphondylia guapirae Maia, 1993 are described and illustrated. Asphondylia maytenuse Maia & Couri, 1992 is transfered to Bruggmanniella Tavares, 1909 and its larva is characterized.

  8. Antiulcerogenic activity of fractions and 3,15-dioxo-21alpha-hydroxy friedelane isolated from Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae).

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    de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Comunello, Eros; Noldin, Vânia Floriani; Monache, Franco Delle; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo

    2008-01-01

    The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-soluble fractions from leaves of Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae) were evaluated for their protective actions against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. The treatment with all fractions (150 mg/kg) and omeprazol (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced the lesion index, the total lesion area, and the percentage of lesion, in comparison with the control group (pomeprazol, at a dose of 30 mg/kg, presented a significant reduction in lesion index, total lesion area, and in the percentage of the lesion, when compared with the control group (p<0.05). The result suggests that the antiulcer effect observed in the extract and fractions may be attributed, at least in part, to this compound. Further experiments are underway to determine which antiulcer mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  9. Anti–inflammatory activity and qualitative analysis of different extracts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich. Cuf. by high performance thin layer chromatography method

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    Mohamed F. Alajmi

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: HPTLC finger printing of AESF and dichloromethane of Maytenus obscura revealed eight major spots for alcoholic extracts and nine major spots for dichloromethane extracts. These HPTLC profiles may be of great usefulness in the quality control of herbal products containing these extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity of both extracts also revealed the medicinal importance of these extracts. The plant can be further explored for the isolation of phytoconstituents having anti-inflammatory activity.

  10. Dimorfismo sexual en el acebo, Ilex aquifolium: ¿coste de la reproducción, selección sexual o diferenciación fisiológica? Sexual dimorphism in holly Ilex aquifolium: cost of reproduction, sexual selection or physiological differentiation?

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    JOSÉ RAMÓN OBESO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la importancia de tres hipótesis que pueden explicar la existencia de dimorfismo sexual en caracteres secundarios (tamaño en árbol dioico Ilex aquifolium (Aquifoliaceae: coste de la reproducción, competencia entre machos y diferenciación fisiológica entre sexos. Para ello se presenta una síntesis de trabajos publicados junto con nuevos resultados de tipo observacional y experimental. Durante la floración los machos invirtieron el triple de carbono y el doble de nitrógeno que las hembras. En la fructificación, los árboles hembras invirtieron 10 veces más que los machos en carbono, pero sólo cinco veces más en nitrógeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre sexos en la dinámica foliar y las diferencias en el crecimiento de las ramas fueron dependientes del contexto, aunque en general crecieron más en los machos. En periodos de tiempo largos, 10-30 años, el grosor medio de los anillos de crecimiento de los árboles fue superior en los machos. Las ramas en las que se interrumpió la reproducción eliminando los brotes florales crecieron significativamente más que aquellas que maduraron frutos. Se encontraron diferencias entre machos en la producción de granos de polen por flor. La realización de todos los cruces posibles entre cinco machos y cinco hembras demostró fuertes efectos maternos en la fecundidad, pero no hubo diferencias entre machos en la probabilidad de dejar descendencia. Existen diferencias fisiológicas entre sexos en condiciones de baja luminosidad; así la eficiencia de la fotosíntesis (evaluada como Fv' / Fm' fue mayor en las hembras y por el contrario, los machos fueron más eficientes en el uso del agua (evaluado mediante discriminación isotópica del carbono. Finalmente se discute la importancia de las hipótesis consideradas para explicar estos resultadosThree hypotheses were examined in order to explain the existence of sexual size dimorphism in the dioecious tree Ilex aquifolium

  11. Evidence of gastric ulcer healing activity of Maytenus robusta Reissek: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cury, Benhur Judah; Steimbach, Viviane Miranda Bispo; Silveria, Alessandro Conrado de Oliveira; Niero, Rivaldo; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Santin, José Roberto; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2015-12-04

    Maytenus robusta Reissek (Celastraceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastric ulcer, as a substitute for M. ilicifolia, which is almost extinct. The gastroprotective properties of M. robusta were demonstrated previously using only preventive approaches, such as acute gastric ulcer models. However, the healing effect of M. robusta in gastric ulcers remains unclear. The current study was carried out to investigate the healing effectiveness of M. robusta hydroalcoholic extract (HEMR) from aerial parts in the acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model and to determine its effect on cell proliferation, scavenging free radicals, and inflammatory and oxidative damage. To evaluate the healing properties of HEMR in vivo, chronic gastric ulcer was induced in rats by 80% acid acetic. Next, different groups of animals (n=6) were treated orally with vehicle (water plus 1% tween, 1 ml/kg), omeprazole (20mg/kg), or HEMR (1-10mg/kg), twice daily for 7 days. At the end of the treatment, the total ulcer area (mm(2)) was measured and a sample of gastric tissue was taken for histological and histochemical analysis. Evaluation of GSH and LOOH levels, GST, SOD, CAT and MPO activity was also performed at the site of the lesion. In parallel, radical scavenging activity, cytoprotective effect, and cell proliferation activity in fibroblasts (L929 cells) were determined by in vitro trials. The antisecretory properties were evaluated using the pylorus ligature model in rats, and the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was determined in vitro. Acute toxicity was evaluated by relative organ weight and biochemical parameters in serum. The prokinetic properties were also evaluated in mice. Oral administration of HEMR (10mg/kg) reduced the gastric ulcer area by 53%, compared to the vehicle group (120.0 ± 8.3mm(2)), the regeneration of gastric mucosa was evidenced in histological analysis. Moreover, HEMR treatment increased gastric mucin content and reduced oxidative stress

  12. Conteúdo polifenólico e atividade antioxidante dos frutos da palmeira Juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fruits of Juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius palm tree

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    C.P Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O conteúdo polifenólico e a atividade antioxidante do extrato do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius foram avaliados. Esta espécie é uma palmeira conhecida como Juçara, nativa da Mata Atlântica e utilizada para a extração de palmito. O processo de extração do palmito acarreta a morte da planta, uma vez que esta apresenta estipe único. A elevada demanda ocasionou a escassez deste recurso natural. Muitas espécies da Mata Atlântica podem ser utilizadas pelo manejo sustentável para a preservação e exploração econômica pelas comunidades locais. O fruto da palmeira Juçara pode ser uma das alternativas de manejo sustentável dos recursos naturais da Mata Atlântica. A capacidade antioxidante do fruto pode ser utilizada como justificativa para a aplicação como alimento nutricional. O conteúdo polifenólico do fruto foi determinado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau e os resultados obtidos foram: 10,31 ± 0,25%, 12,42 ± 0,89%, 12,75 ± 0,94%, para o extrato bruto, fração acetato de etila e fração remanescente, respectivamente. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelos métodos de redução do complexo fosfomolibdênico e DPPH. O extrato bruto e as frações acetato de etila e remanescente apresentaram atividade antioxidante, sendo que as duas últimas demonstraram maior atividade indicando que o conteúdo polifenólico pode ser responsável por esta atividade.The polyphenolic content and the antioxidant activity of Euterpe edulis Martius fruit extract were assessed. This species is a Palm tree known as Juçara, native to Atlantic Forest and used for palm heart extraction. The process of palm heart extraction leads to the death of the plant since the latter has one single stem. The high demand has resulted in the depletion of this natural resource. Many species from Atlantic Forest can be used by means of sustainable management for the preservation and economic exploration by local communities. The fruit of Juçara palm can be

  13. Efeito do tamanho da semente, subtrato ambiente na produção de mudas de Copernicia Hospita Martius Effect of seed size, substrate, and environment on the production of Copernicia hospita Martius seedlings

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    Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A carnaúba hospedeira faz parte de um grupo de plantas da família Arecaceae, de relevante importância social e econômica para as regiões tropicais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a influência do tamanho da semente, tipo de substrato e do ambiente na produção de mudas de carnaúba hospedeira (Copernicia hospita Martius. As sementes de diferentes tamanhos (pequena, média, grande e mistura foram semeadas em substratos constituídos de areia vermelha + bagana de carnaúba + húmus (2,5:2,5:1 em volume e solo + arisco + composto orgânico Polefértil (2:2:1 em volume e cultivadas em ambientes distintos (pleno sol e casa de vegetação. As variáveis analisadas foram: comprimento do limbo foliar principal, área foliar, diâmetro do coleto, comprimento da maior raiz e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea e radicular. O tamanho da semente exerceu efeito significativo sobre todas as variáveis. O substrato influenciou, significativamente, o comprimento do limbo e da maior raiz e área foliar. Quanto ao ambiente, as únicas variáveis não afetadas por esse fator foram as produções de matéria seca, tanto da parte aérea como radicular. Para a produção de mudas de C. hospita recomenda-se a utilização de sementes grandes, semeadas no substrato constituído de areia vermelha + bagana de carnaúba + húmus, em cultivo a pleno sol.The 'Hostess' Carnauba belongs to a group of plants from the Arecaceae family, which is of relevant social and economic importance for tropical areas in Brazil. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the size of the seed , substrate, and environment on the production of seedlings of 'Hostess' Carnauba (Copernicia hospita Martius. Seeds of different sizes (small, medium, large, and a mixture of different sizes were planted in different substrates composed of red sand + carnauba straw + humus (2,5:2,5:1 in volume and soil + dark sand + organic compost Polefértil (2:2:1 in volume, and

  14. Evaluation of pharmacological activities, cytotoxicity and phenolic composition of four Maytenus species used in southern African traditional medicine to treat intestinal infections and diarrhoeal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Aroke Shahid; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-05-11

    Microbial infections and resulting inflammation and oxidative stress are common pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders. In South Africa, several species of the genus Maytenus are used in traditional medicine to treat various infectious diseases. Most of the previous work on this genus was focused on nonpolar extracts from the root and bark. In this study, leaf extracts of polar extracts of Maytenus peduncularis, Maytenus procumbens, Maytenus senegalensis and Maytenus undata were evaluated for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities to determine their efficacy as therapeutic agents in GIT disorders. Phenolic-enriched leaf extracts and fractions were prepared by extracting with acidified 70% methanol and solvent-solvent fractionation. The activities of the fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis as well as clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were determined using a serial microplate dilution method. Antioxidant activities were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging and linoleic acid peroxidation inhibitory assays. The phenolic composition as well as the cytotoxicity against Vero cell lines of the crude extracts was evaluated using various standard protocols. The antimicrobial activities were concentrated in the non-polar fractions of hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate (MICs 19-312 μg/ml). The crude extracts and polar fractions (butanol and water) had moderate to poor antimicrobial activity (MICs 312 to above 2500 μg/ml). The crude extracts and polar fractions had good antioxidant activity (EC50 values varied from 1.22 to 607 μg/ml, 1.71 to 312 μg/ml and 23 to 284 μg/ml for DPPH, ABTS and OH respectively. Linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition EC50 values of the crude extracts ranged between 27

  15. Desenvolvimento de um Iogurte Sabor Juçaí (Euterpe edulis Martius: Avaliação Físico-química e Sensorial

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    Gislaine Natiele dos Santos Costa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A busca constante por melhorias na qualidade de vida, saúde e bemestar dos consumidores tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Devido a esta influência o leite e seus derivados considerados como alimentos funcionais vêm apresentando um aumento significativo no consumo. Este trabalho apresenta o processo de desenvolvimento de um iogurte sabor juçaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius. Rico em nutrientes como ferro e potássio. Este fruto é similar ao açaí fruto da palmeira Euterpe oleracea Martius, porém apresenta, segundo a literatura, maior teor de antocianinas. As antocianinas possuem alto poder antioxidante e inibem a ação de radicais livres nas células diminuindo seus efeitos ao organismo humano. No desenvolvimento do produto foram preparadas formulações contendo, respectivamente, 3%, 5% e 7% da polpa da fruta visando adquirir além de funcionalidade, melhor consistência e sabor para o produto. A aceitabilidade do produto foi avaliada por meio de análise sensorial.

  16. Characterization of Maytenus ilicifolia samples by {sup 1}H NMR relaxation in the solid state; Caracterizacao dos constituintes polimericos da Maytenus ilicifolia por relaxacao nuclear de {sup 1}H por RMN no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preto, Monica S. de M.; Tavares, Maria I.B., E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano. Lab de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear; Sebastiao, Pedro J.O. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    The Maytenus ilicifolia (espinheira-santa) is a popular medicinal plant with different uses. It is native of South America and can be found in Brazil. In the Brazilian market it is possible found products labeled as M. ilicifolia. So far, the studies published in the literature involve the modification of the natural materials and do not concern the comparison between commercial the raw natural materials. Different non-destructive NMR techniques can be used to study natural materials. In this work it is presented a characterization study by Fast Field Cycling of the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) NMR, in the frequency range 100 khz-10 MHz. The results obtained in two commercial M. ilicifolia samples and one control sample collected in natura are compared. It was intended to study the possibility to elaborate a characterization method using FFCNMR suitable for the verification of authenticity and/or evaluation of tampering on products. The differences detected by FFCNMR relaxometry were confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  17. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

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    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  18. Contribuição ao estudo da atividade antifúngica de Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss., Celastraceae

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    M. M. Cunico

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss, Celastraceae, espinheira-santa, é nativa em muitas partes da América do Sul, sendo encontrada no sul do Brasil. É utilizada no tratamento de gastrite, úlceras e outras desordens do estômago, na forma de decocção das folhas ou extrato liofilizado em cápsulas. Neste trabalho, estudou-se a atividade antifúngica do seu extrato etanólico sobre o crescimento micelial dos fungos fitopatogênicos Colletotrichum acutatum, Fusarium oxysporum e Cylindrocladium spathulatum. Na comparação do crescimento micelial de isolados desses fungos em BDA (Batata Dextrose Agar, adicionados do extrato etanólico da espinheira-santa, foi observado que o mesmo inibiu em mais de 10% o crescimento micelial de Fusarium oxysporum, nas três concentrações avaliadas (0,2; 0,4 e 0,6mg/mL, estimulou o crescimento micelial de Colletotrichum acutatum em mais de 30% na concentração de 0,2mg/mL, e algumas de suas frações inibiram o desenvolvimento de Cylindrocladium spathulatum.

  19. Friedelin Synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia: Leucine 482 Plays an Essential Role in the Production of the Most Rearranged Pentacyclic Triterpene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M.; Alves, Thaís B.; Pinheiro, Karina A.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; de Lima, Gustavo M. A.; Watanabe, Tatiana F.; Barbosa, Cristina C.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Guido, Rafael V. C.; Furlan, Maysa; Zanelli, Cleslei F.

    2016-11-01

    Among the biologically active triterpenes, friedelin has the most-rearranged structure produced by the oxidosqualene cyclases and is the only one containing a cetonic group. In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized friedelin synthase and one cycloartenol synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae). The complete coding sequences of these 2 genes were cloned from leaf mRNA, and their functions were characterized by heterologous expression in yeast. The cycloartenol synthase sequence is very similar to other known OSCs of this type (approximately 80% identity), although the M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase amino acid sequence is more related to β-amyrin synthases (65-74% identity), which is similar to the friedelin synthase cloned from Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Multiple sequence alignments demonstrated the presence of a leucine residue two positions upstream of the friedelin synthase Asp-Cys-Thr-Ala-Glu (DCTAE) active site motif, while the vast majority of OSCs identified so far have a valine or isoleucine residue at the same position. The substitution of the leucine residue with valine, threonine or isoleucine in M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase interfered with substrate recognition and lead to the production of different pentacyclic triterpenes. Hence, our data indicate a key role for the leucine residue in the structure and function of this oxidosqualene cyclase.

  20. Antinociceptive effects of an extract, fraction and an isolated compound of the stem bark of Maytenus rigida

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    Marina V. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive activity of the Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae ethanol extract and its ethyl acetate fraction as well as of (--4'-methylepigallocatechin (1, a previously isolated compound, was demonstrated in vivo. ED50 for 1 in the writhing test was 14.14 mg/kg. The acetic acid-induced writhing was inhibited by 98.4, 84.4, and 58.3%, respectively, when mice were treated with the ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and 1. In the hot plate test, mice pretreated with 1 showed significantly increased reaction times (60-89%. Oral administration of 1 significantly inhibited first and second phases of the formalin-induced pain (50 and 26.5%, respectively, whereas indomethacin inhibited only the second phase of the test (41.2%. Ethanol extract and its fraction showed effects on inflammatory pain, while neurogenic and inflammatory pain suppression by 1 is a strong indication of the presence of both central and peripheral effects and suggests its analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential.

  1. Interacciones farmacológicas de las hojas de Maytenus macrocarpa o “chuchuhuasi” con fármacos inhibitorios y estimuladores de la motilidad intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndez-Espíritu, S.; Huaccho Rojas, Juan Jesús; Santos-Cajahuanca, F.; Abanto-Cabeza, C.; Jáuregui-Farfán, J.; Mendoza-Toribio, J.; Morales-Zenteno, E.; Salgado-Silva, L.; Sueyoshi-Hernández, H.; Robles-Ojeda, M.; Loja Herrera, Berta; Alvarado Yarasca, Ángel Tito; Salazar Granara, Alberto Alcibíades

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar las posibles interacciones farmacológicas de las hojas de Maytenus macrocarpa, con fármacos estimulantes e inhibitorios de la motilidad intestinal. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron 110 ratones albinos machos, con pesos medios de 25 g, se empleó el método de Arbos y col, se administró carbón activado al 5 % vía oral, dosis de 0.1ml/10g, como marcador intestinal. Los grupos experimentales fueron: control (agua destilada 0,3ml), hojas de chuchuhuasi 1 (500mg/kg), hojas de chuchuhua...

  2. Analysis of flavonol glycoside isomers from leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia by offline and online high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lauro M; Cipriani, Thales R; Serrato, Rodrigo V; da Costa, Denise E; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J; Sassaki, Guilherme L

    2008-10-17

    Flavonol glycosides present in leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia, were examined after fractionation on silica-gel column. Flavonol mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraglycosides, containing kaempferol, quercetin or myricetin were identified by offline electrospray mass spectrometry. Increasing the cone energy induced to adducts variation, from H(+) to Na(+). Protonated ions were characteristically fragmented by sequentially removing the monosaccharide residues, whereas in the sodiated ions, the aglycone was firstly removed. Online high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, with simple gradients of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid indicated the presence of several isomers, which were further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as containing galactose or glucose.

  3. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

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    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  4. Antioxidant, cytotoxic and UVB-absorbing activity of Maytenus guyanensis Klotzch. (Celastraceae bark extracts Atividade antioxidante, citotóxica e absorção no UVB de extratos da casca de Maytenus guyanensis Klotzch. (Celastraceae

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    Patrícia de Almeida Telles Macari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus guyanensis Klotzch. is an Amazonian medicinal tree species known in Brazil by the common name chichuá and in Peru and Colombia by the name chuchuhuasi. It is used in traditional medicine as stimulant, tonic, and muscle relaxant, for the relief of arthritis, rheumatism, hemorrhoids, swollen kidney, skin eruptions, and skin cancer prevention, among others. Initially, different extraction solvents and methods were applied to dried, ground bark which made possible the preparation of extracts having both significant lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemia franciscana Leach as well as antioxidant activity in vitro based on tests involving reactions with 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Analysis of fractions from serial extractions with solvents of increasing polarity supports the notion that antioxidant activity is associated with compounds of intermediate polarity and cytotoxicity is associated with compounds of low to intermediate polarity. Variation of extraction time and conditions revealed that hot, continuous ethanol extraction provided good yields of bark extract in several hours. Hot extraction also provided ethanol extracts having greater lethality to brine shrimp and antioxidant activity (compared to the flavonoid rutin in semi-quantitative methods based on DPPH than extracts obtained from maceration at room temperature. Freeze-dried ethanol extracts were prepared by: 1 maceration at room temperature and 2 hot extraction (eight hours on several hundred gram scales and the latter extract was shown to have partial screening effects on UVB light. In this work, cytotoxic, antioxidant and potential sun-screening activity are shown for the first time in M. guyanensis.Maytenus guyanensisKlotzch. é uma árvore medicinal proveniente da Amazônia conhecida comochichuá (xixuáe no Peru e Colombia porchuchuhuasi. É utilizada medicinalmente como estimulante, tônico e relaxante muscular, para o alívio de artrite, reumatismo, hemorr

  5. Perfil fitoquímico e ensaio microbiológico dos extratos da entrecasca de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae Phytochemistry and microbiological assay of the bark extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae

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    Charles S. Estevam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae, conhecida por "Bom-homem", "Bom-nome", "Cabelo-de-negro", "Casca-grossa" e "Pau-de-colher", é uma arvore de pequeno porte. A entrecasca do caule é empregada popularmente no Nordeste do Brasil no tratamento das dores em geral, infecções e inflamações. O presente trabalho avaliou tanto o perfil fitoquímico de M. rigida por meio de um roteiro analítico, quanto à atividade antibiótica dos extratos pelo método de Kirby-Bauer modificado. Os resultados demonstraram que os extratos etanólico, aquoso, clorofórmico, acetato de etila e hidroalcoólico de M. rigida apresentam atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, enquanto que a fração hexânica não exibe qualquer atividade. Catequinas, quinonas, esteróides, triterpenos, saponinas, flavonóides e compostos fenólicos foram detectados na análise fitoquímica.Maynetus rigida Mart (Celastraceae, known as "Bom-homem", "Bom-nome", "Cabelo-de-negro", "Casca-grossa" and "Pau-de-colher", is a small tree. The stem bark is used by the population in the northeast of Brazil to treat aches, infections and inflammations in general. The present work evaluated both the phytochemistry of M. rigida Mart by an analytical routine, and the antimicrobial activity of the bark extracts by the Kirby-Bauer modified method. Our results showed the aqueous, methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoolic extracts of M. rigida Mart has antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, while the hexane extract does not have any activity. Catechins, quinones, steroids, triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds were detected by the phytochemical analysis.

  6. Variabilidade química de compostos orgânicos voláteis e semivoláteis de populações nativas de Maytenus ilicifolia Chemical variability of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in native populations of Maytenus ilicifolia

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    Altemir José Mossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the chemical distribution of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of 18 native populations of Maytenus ilicifolia collected all over Brazil. The extracts of bulk samples (30 plants of each population were obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction technique, and analyzed by GC/MS. The quantification of compounds (phytol, squalene, vitamin E, limonene, stigmasterol, friedelan-3-ol, friedelin, fridelan-3-one, palmitic acid and geranyl acetate showed significant variations within the different populations, which could be related tom microclimate characteristics.

  7. Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758 recent range expansion leads to the coalescence of the two former distribution areas in northern Spain.

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    GAINZARAIN, J.A., FERNÁNDEZ-GARCÍA, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Basque Country (N Spain the black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758 was virtually unrecorded until the late 1990’s, but since then the number of observations has increased sharply. To determine the current distribution of the species, extensive, standardized field surveys of suitable forest patches in the province of Álava were performed during the 2011 early breeding season. The presence of the species was recorded in 16 UTM 100 km2 squares. Furthermore, reliable observations were collected during the 2003 to 2011 breeding seasons in another 23 UTM 100 km2 squares, adjacent to the study area, where the black woodpecker had gone undetected in the last published breeding atlas for the period 1998-2002. This range increase implies that the two, formerly separate populations in Spain (Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountains have currently coalesced into a continuous distribution, highlighting the relevance of the study area in the expansion of forest species between the two great mountain ranges of northern Iberia. Forest biomass growth and ageing of stands due to a reduction in felling operations over the last few decades have probably allowed the colonization of previously vacant localities.

  8. HPTLC finger print and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of different Maytenus species grown in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed F. Alajmi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory activity and to develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of ethanolic extract of Maytenus obscura (M. obscura and Maytenus parviflora (M. parviflora. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested by injecting different groups of rats (6 each with formalin in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1 h after formalin injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extract treatment was injected i.p with doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg 1 h before formalin administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg was used as standard. Results: Treatment of rats (i.p. with M. obscura and M. parviflora in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg inhibited significantly (P<0.05 formalin-induced inflammation by 55.9%, 63.2% and 77.9%, 82.4%, respectively. Preliminary phytochemical studies were done which confirmed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, phenol, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenoid, alkaloid and anthraquinone. Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the solvent system: Toluene: ethylacetate: glacial acetic acid (5:2:0.1, v/v/v as mobile phase. HPTLC finger printing of M. obscura revealed major 8 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.27 to 0.77 and the M. parviflora revealed maximum 9 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.17 to 0.76. The purity of sample was confirmed by comparing the absorption spectra at start, middle and end position of the band. Conclusions: HPTLC of M. parviflora revealed 8 major spots and 9 spots for M. obscura. HPTLC finger printing of ethanolic extract of M. obscura and M. parviflora may become potential tool for checking authenticity of these species. It may help in quality control against adulterant and act as a biochemical marker

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity and qualitative analysis of different extracts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. by high performance thin layer chromatography method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed F. Alajmi; Perwez Alam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform aqueous ethanol soluble fraction (AESF) and dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and to test anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts.Methods:HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with formalin in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1 h later formalin injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg 1 h before formalin administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard.Results:The results of preliminary phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, phenol, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenoid, alkaloid and anthraquinone in both extracts. Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents toluene: ethyacetate: glacial acetic acid (5:3:0.2, v/v/v) as mobile phase. HPTLC finger printing of AESF revealed major eight peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.28 to 0.80 and the dichloromethane revealed major 11 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.12 to 0.76. The purity of sample was confirmed by comparing the absorption spectra at start, middle and end position of the band. Treatment of rats (i.p.) with AESF and dichloromethane in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg inhibited singnificantly (P<0.05, n=6) formalin-induced inflammation by 50%, 55.9%, 45.5%, and 51.4%, respectively.Conclusions:HPTLC finger printing of AESF and dichloromethane of Maytenus obscura revealed eight major spots for alcoholic extracts and nine major spots for dichloromethane extracts. These HPTLC profiles may be of great usefulness in the quality control of herbal products containing these extracts. The

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Maytenus rigida Mart. (CELASTRACEAE) IN ETHANOL-INDUCED DAMAGE GASTRIC IN MICE: ANALYSIS OF INVOLVEMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE, PROSTAGLANDINS, OPIOIDS RECEPTORS AND α-2-ADRENERGICS.

    OpenAIRE

    Ãngela MagalhÃes Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae) pupularly known as âbom-homemâ, âbom-nomeâ, âCabelo de Negroâ, âCasca-grossaâ, ChapÃu de couroâ or âpau-de-colherâ is a native species in the northeast region of Brazil, used in folk medicine in the tratament of inflammatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders such diarrhea, dysentery and ulcers, kidney problems, hypertension, impotence and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the possible mechanism (s) of action underlying the gastroprotec...

  11. Etnoecologia e etnobotânica da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius em comunidades quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo Ethnoecology and ethnobotany of the juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius in "quilombola" communities of the Ribeira River Valley, São Paulo

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    Renata Moreira Barroso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As comunidades quilombolas são consideradas comunidades negras rurais formadas por descendentes de africanos escravizados. No Vale do Ribeira, uma das regiões mais pobres do estado de São Paulo, estas comunidades vivem da agricultura de subsistência e principalmente da coleta do palmito juçara para complemento da renda familiar. A palmeira juçara possui importante papel ecológico e econômico para a Floresta Atlântica e para as comunidades rurais locais. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi investigar aspectos etnoecológicos e etnobotânicos da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius em comunidades quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira, SP. A investigação se deu em sete comunidades quilombolas através da aplicação de 25 entrevistas semi-estruturadas e da realização de uma oficina de identificação dos animais consumidores de frutos da palmeira. Também foram realizadas coletas e identificação de visitantes florais. Os quilombolas entrevistados demonstraram um detalhado conhecimento ecológico local sobre a palmeira juçara, principalmente a relação da biodiversidade animal associada à espécie. Neste trabalho a etnoecologia e a etnobotânica mostram-se ferramentas importantes no levantamento participativo do conhecimento ecológico local do E. edulis que pode ser considerado no manejo e na conservação da espécie na Floresta Atlântica."Quilombola" communities are distributed all over Brazil. They are composed of the descendents of African slaves. In the Ribeira River Valley, one of the poorest regions in São Paulo state, they practice subsistence agriculture and extract plant resources from the environment, especially the juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius, a species that contributes to "quilombola" income. The juçara palm has special ecological and economic importance for "quilombolas". The main aim of this study was to investigate ethnobotanical and ethnoecological aspects of the juçara palm in "quilombola" communities

  12. Avaliação da atividade antiviral e determinação do perfil cromatográfico de Hippeastrum glaucescens (Martius Herbert (Amaryllidaceae Evaluation of antiviral activity and determination of the chromatographic profile of Hippeastrum glaucescens (Martius Herbert (Amaryllidaceae

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    A. E. Hofmann JR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas da família Amaryllidaceae são caracterizadas pela presença de alcalóides isoquinolínicos. Desde o primeiro estudo envolvendo alcalóides desta família em 1877, um grande número destas plantas tem sido analisado quimicamente. Estes compostos apresentam uma ampla variedade de atividades biológicas, tais como: antiviral, citotóxica, antitumoral e analgésica. Neste trabalho, foram avaliados o perfil cromatográfico e a potencial atividade antiviral das frações diclorometano A e B, isoladas dos diferentes órgãos vegetais (bulbos, raízes, folhas e flores de Hippeastrum glaucescens (Martius Herbert, assim como dos alcalóides licorina, tazetina e pretazetina, previamente isolados desta planta. A extração dos alcalóides de H. glaucescens foi realizada por métodos clássicos, a partir de bulbos, raízes, folhas e flores fornecendo rendimentos totais em alcalóides de 0,53%; 0,81%; 0,29% e 0,12%, respectivamente. Empregando-se cromatografia em camada delgada, verificou-se que os bulbos e as raízes apresentam perfis cromatográficos semelhantes e que os alcalóides licorina, tazetina e pretazetina estão presentes em todas as partes testadas do vegetal. As frações diclorometano A e B, de cada órgão vegetal, e os alcalóides isolados (licorina, tazetina e pretazetina não inibiram a replicação do herpesvírus simples humano tipo 1 (HSV-1 cepa KOS, quando avaliados através do método de inibição do efeito citopático viral.Plants of Amaryllidaceae are characterized by isoquinoline alkaloids. Since the first study with Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in 1877, a large number of these plants have been chemically investigated. These compounds have shown a wide range of biological activities such as: antiviral, cytotoxic, antitumoral and analgesic. In this work, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 extracts obtained from different parts of the Hippeastrum glaucescens (Martius Herbert (bulbs, roots, leaves and flowers and the isolated

  13. Quality evaluation of products with Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek – Celastraceae traded in the city of Umuarama – PR Avaliação da qualidade de produtos contendo Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek – Celastraceae (espinheira-santa comercializados na cidade de Umuarama – PR

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    Ariadne Alvares Yokota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reissek belongs to the Celastraceae family and is used for the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the quality of products containing Maytenus ilicifolia traded in the city of Umuarama – PR.. For this purpose, 31 of its samples were bought from herb dealers, pharmacies and supermarkets. Eleven samples were in capsule form, 14 ‘in natura’, 2 in sachet form, one in powder form, and 3 in fluid extract form. The samples were analyzed considering several aspects: packaging evaluation, moisture content, total ashes content, purity evaluation and chromatographic analysis. Results obtained for moisture content showed that only 10.7% of the samples were below the allowed value concerning water content determination (limited at 6% and 67.8% were in accordance with the total ashes content (limited at 8%. The thin layer chromatography (TLC showed that only 29% of the samples were indentified as M. ilicifolia, due to the presence of catechins and epicatechins. Over 50% of the analyzed samples showed high content of impurities. In conclusion, most analyzed samples showed to be inappropriate for consumption, either for the presence of contaminants,or for the ashes and moisture contents, besides inappropriate packaging. A Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reissek (espinheira-santa, pertencente à família Celastraceae, é usada popularmente para tratamento de gastrite e de úlcera gástrica. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a análise da qualidade de produtos comercializados na cidade de Umuarama/PR, contendo M. ilicifolia. Para tanto, foram adquiridas 31 amostras de ervanários, farmácias de manipulação e dispensação, e supermercados. As amostras se apresentaram das seguintes formas: 11 na forma de cápsulas, 14 na forma de folhas íntegras, duas na forma de sachês, uma na forma de pó e três na forma de extrato fluido. As amostras foram analisadas sob vários aspectos

  14. Increasing the instrumental throughput of gas chromatography method using multiple injections in a single experimental run: application in determination of friedelan-3-ol and friedelin in Maytenus ilicifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Piovezan, Marcel; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Rebelo, Andrey Martinez; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Amadeu Micke, Gustavo

    2013-01-25

    The aim of this study was to develop a separation method using multiple injections in a single experimental run (MISER) employing gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the first time, without instrument modification, to increase the instrumental throughput. The method was applied to the determination of the triterpenes friedelan-3-ol and friedelin in a plant extract obtained from Maytenus ilicifolia leaves. The column used in the chromatography system was a ZB-50 (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.15 μm) with 50% phenyl-50% methyl-polysiloxane. The samples (1.0 μL) were injected using the split mode (1:90), with the injector at 280 °C and FID detector at 320 °C. The column temperature was programmed to isothermal mode at 300°C. Helium was used as the carrier gas with a constant flow of 1.5 mL min(-1). It was possible to perform three injections in the same run using the MISER method. An increase in the instrumental throughput by a factor of around 2.6 was observed when the use of multiple injections was compared with the single injection method. This method showed good linearity for both analytes with R(2)>0.99 and the values for the limit of detection were 0.24 mg L(-1) and 0.44 mg L(-1), for friedelan-3-ol and friedelin, respectively. Furthermore, the values for the limits of quantification were 0.79 mg L(-1) for friedelan-3-ol and 1.16 mg L(-1) for friedelin. The proposed method has potential for other GC applications, allowing an increase in the instrumental throughput of the methods by applying this separation technique.

  15. REVISITANDO A FONÉTICA/FONOLOGIA DA LÍNGUA XERENTE AKWE : UMA VISÃO COMPARATIVA DOS DADOS DE MARTIUS (1866 A MAYBURY-LEWIS (1965 COM OS DE BRAGGIO (2004

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    SILVIA LUCIA BIGONJAL BRAGGIO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Em artigo anterior apontei que, a partir de 1996, percebi a constante observação dos jovens Xerente Akwe  de que “não entendem a língua dos mais velhos” e a dos mais velhos, de que “não é Xerente o que os jovens falam”. Como já havia constatado anteriormente que o problema não está na passagem da língua de uma geração à outra, comecei a trabalhar com os empréstimos de Português (L2 para o Xerente Akwe  (L1, considerados marcadores sensíveis de uma dada situação sociolingüística. Como uma decorrência desse primeiro momento, neste artigo trato destes empréstimos e de aspectos dos processos fonéticofonológicos da língua Xerente Akwe , partindo dos dados de Martius (1866 e de Maybury-Lewis (1965, comparando-os com os dados de minha pesquisa em andamento e de outras anteriores, na tentativa de começar a verificar se a língua está em processo de obsolescência.

  16. Caracterização dos constituintes poliméricos da Maytenus ilicifolia por relaxação nuclear de ¹H por RMN no estado sólido Characterization of Maytenus ilicifolia Samples by ¹H NMR relaxation in the solid state

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    Mônica S. de M. Preto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Maytenus ilicifolia, conhecida como espinheira-santa, é uma planta popular de uso diverso, como chá é empregada no combate a problemas de doenças gástricas e da diabetes, por exemplo. As plantas possuem em sua constituição polímeros naturais como polissacarídeos, politerpenoides, celulose e fibras. O estudo dos constituintes poliméricos nesse tipo de material tem importância fundamental tanto na identificação, ou seja, qualificação quanto na adulteração da planta. É sabido que podem ser encontrados diversos produtos rotulados como sendo originário da mesma planta, entretanto, muitas das vezes a origem da planta é similar, mas não a mesma, o que pode gerar algum desconforto ou não atividade biológica dos chás quando da ingestão destes. Na literatura não são encontrados muitos trabalhos que envolvam a caracterização comparativa dos constituintes poliméricos, como polissacarídeos e fibras presentes em amostras de origens distintas, para comprovação de adulteração destes produtos. Uma técnica que pode ser promissora para este tipo de estudo é a Ressonância Magnética Nuclear (RMN em estado sólido, já que permite analisar a amostra in natura não sendo um método destrutivo ou invasivo. Esta espectroscopia analisa amostras em campos magnéticos de diferentes potências ou forças. Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo de caracterização dos constituintes poliméricos majoritários presentes na M. ilicifolia. Três amostras foram estudadas: uma amostra denominada controle e duas comerciais. O estudo envolveu a determinação dos tempos de relaxação spin-rede (T1 do ¹H utilizando a técnica de campo cíclico rápido (FFC, numa gama de frequências que variou de 100 kHz a 10 MHz. Assim, o principal objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a possibilidade de utilização da RMN de baixo campo magnético na elaboração de um método expedito de análise que permita realizar a caracterização estrutural

  17. Capacidade de enraizamento de estacas de Maytenus muelleri Schwacke com a aplicação de ácido indol butírico relacionada aos aspectos anatômicos Rooting capacity of Maytenus muelleri Schwacke cuttings with indolebutyric acid application related to anatomical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A espinheira-santa (Maytenus muelleri - Celastraceae é a planta medicinal nativa do Sul do Brasil, cujas folhas são tradicionalmente utilizadas pela medicina popular para o tratamento de úlceras e outros problemas gástricos. Existem poucos trabalhos publicados sobre a produção de mudas e técnicas de propagação vegetativa da espécie. A propagação de espinheira-santa por estaquia poderia ser um método eficiente para obtenção de material homogêneo, com características genéticas desejáveis, produzido a partir de plantas matrizes selecionadas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos da aplicação de ácido indol butírico (AIB, em solução e em pó, no enraizamento de estacas de espinheira-santa coletadas nas quatro estações do ano (abril/2005 a janeiro/2006, bem como averiguar, por meio de análises anatômicas e histoquímicas das estacas, a presença de possíveis impedimentos à iniciação do enraizamento adventício. Estacas provenientes de ramos de plantas matrizes de seis anos cultivadas da Estação Experimental do Canguiri, Pinhais, PR, foram coletadas e tratadas com AIB (0, 1500, 3000 mg L-1 ou mg kg-1, em solução alcoólica (50% v/v e em talco. Aos 365 dias foram avaliadas as porcentagens de estacas enraizadas e mortas, número e comprimento médio de raízes formadas por estaca. Análises anatômicas e histoquímicas com lugol e cloreto férrico foram realizadas. A estação mais promissora para o enraizamento foi o verão/2006 com 62,50% para o tratamento controle, devido à menor lignficação dos ramos no período de intenso crescimento vegetativo. O número médio de raízes formadas por estaca foi de 6,94 (solução e o comprimento médio de raízes formadas/estaca chegou a 4,82 cm nesta mesma estação. As concentrações de AIB aplicadas não foram eficientes na indução radicial, independentemente do modo de aplicação. Foi detectada a presença de uma camada quase contínua de fibras e

  18. 云南美登木共生放线菌菌株3C产生的苯丙素类化合物%Phenylpropanoids produced by Streptomyces sp.3C,a commensal microbe of Maytenus hookeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春华; 沈月毛

    2005-01-01

    从云南美登木共生放线菌菌株3C的发酵提取物中分离得到两个苯丙素类化合物1和2.通过谱学特征鉴定了化合物的结构,其中,化合物2为新化合物.通过乙酰化反应得到了相应的乙酰化产物,并通过纸片扩散法测定了所有化合物的抗细菌活性.%Two phenylpropanoids(1 and 2)were isolated from the fermentation extracts of commensal microbe of Maytenus hookeri(Streptomyces sp.3C).Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and EIMS techniques and compound 2 was a new one.Their acetylated products,1a,1b and 2a,were obtained by acetylation with Ac2O-pyridine.The antibacterial activities of all the five compounds were performed by paper-disc assay method,and potential activities were observed.

  19. 云南美登木共生放线菌菌株1B1产生的一个新的angucycline抗生素%New angucycline antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp.1B1,a commensal microbe of Maytenus hookeri Loes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春华; 沈月毛

    2003-01-01

    A compound from the fermentation extracts of the commensal microbe(Streptomyces sp.1B1)of Maytenus hookeri was elucidated as a new angucycline antibiotic on the basis of 1D-NMR,2D-NMR and HREIMS techniques.%从云南美登木共生放线菌菌株1B1的发酵提取物中分离得到了一个新的angucycline抗生素,并通过其谱学特征鉴定了化合物1的化学结构.

  20. Study on Secondary Metabolites of Endophytic Fungal Strain Botryosphaeria sp.MHF of Maytenus hookeri%云南美登木内生真菌Botryosphaeria sp. MHF次生代谢产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琳; 沈放; 马银海; 陈晓妮; 黄兴南; 顾雪竹; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    目的:对云南美登木内生真菌Botryosphaeria sp.MHF的化学成分进行研究.方法:采用反相、正相等多种柱色谱法进行分离;应用波谱技术进行结构鉴定.结果:从云南美登木内生真菌B.sp.MHF的发酵物中分离得到8个化合物:分别是麦角甾-5-烯-3-醇(1)、麦角甾-4,6,8,22-四烯-3-酮(2)、麦角甾-3β,5α,9α-三羟基-7,22-二烯-6-酮(3)、麦角甾-7,22-二烯-3β,5α,6β-三醇(4)、麦角甾-5α,8α-环二氧-6,22-二烯-3-醇(5)、fusaproliferin (6)、脑苷脂C(7)和3,4,5-三羟基-四氢萘酮(8).结论:所有化合物均为首次从以Murashige-Skoog培养基培养的该菌株中分离得到.%Objective: To study the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungal strain Botryosphaeria sp. MHF of Maytenus hookeri. Method; The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography such as normal phase or reverse phase etc. The structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Result; Eight compounds were obtained and elucidated as 22E, 24R-ergosta-5-en-3β-ol (1) , 22E, 24R-ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one (2) , 22E, 24R-3B, 5a, 9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-diene-6-one (3) , 22E, 24R-ergosta-7, 22-diene-3β, 5a, 6β-triol (4), 22E, 24R-5α, 8α-epidioxyergosta-6, 22-dien-3β-ol (5), fusaproliferin (6), cerebroside C (7) and 3, 4, 5-trihydroxyl-tetralone (8). Conclusion; All these compounds were isolated from this strain cultivated on Murashige-Skoog culture medium for the first time.

  1. Alternathera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach - alligator weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of Alternanthera philoxeroides, alligator weed, began when George Vogt, USDA, conducted several surveys by public transport in South America during the 1960s. Three agents were released in USA and two of them, the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila and the moth Arcola malloi were re...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Syagrus coronata (Martius Beccari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Ferreira da Silva Hughes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves, inflorescences, nut-shell, liquid and solid endosperm nuts of Syagrus coronata against pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Screening was initially performed using the agar dilution method. The extracts regarded as bioactive underwent liquid-liquid partition for determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericide concentration (MIC and MBC and those of their respective fractions against the microorganisms inhibited in preliminary tests. Antimicrobial activity was observed only in inflorescences. The corresponding aqueous extract was effective against B. cereus and the three strains of S. aureus, and the corresponding MIC and MCB values were lower than those of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of the same extract. The methanol extract was effective against B. cereus, and the corresponding MIC and MBC values were higher than those of ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of the same extract.

  3. Evolución de las poblaciones de Pito Negro (Dryocopus martius y Pico Dorsiblanco (Dendrocopos leucotos lilfordi en los montes de Quinto Real (Navarra y su relación con la gestión forestal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárcamo Bravo, S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study try to know the current conservation status of two species: White-backed Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos lilfordi and Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martius in “Quinto Real” Forest, a beechwood of 3.500 hectares at the west edge of the Pyrenees (Navarra. We study if there is any relation between the forest management and the habitat carrying capacity for the two species. The known areas by previous censuses and other potential zones have been visited when breeding, with the objective to confirm their use at the present time. We study which breeding areas have supported forest interventions, which kind of works and how this works can modify the habitat use of these species.

    Both species show certain sensitivity to logging, more marked for White-backed Woodpecker. This confirms the importance of establishing specific measures of forest management to minimize impacts. We set out some of them in this work



    Los autores pretenden dar a conocer el estado actual de conservación en que se encuentran dos especies de pícidos, el pico dorsiblanco (Dendrocopos leucotos lilfordi y el pito negro (Dryocopus martius en los montes de Quinto Real, un hayedo de 3.500 ha en el extremo occidental del Pirineo (Navarra. Se estudia la posible relación entre la gestión forestal y la capacidad de acogida del hábitat para las dos especies. Se han visitado las áreas de cr

  4. Biologia floral do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Martius).

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    O presente estudo avalia a biologia floral em uma população natural de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) no estuário amazônico, localizado na Ilha do Combu, Município de Acará, Pará (48º25´W; 1º25´S). O período de estudo foi de um ano (janeiro a dezembro de 1991). Os resultados mostraram que Euterpe oleracea é uma espécie monóica, dicógama e protândrica; as brácteas abrem-se cinco dias após maturação; as flores masculinas permanecem de 10 a 12 dias nas inflorescências e as flores femininas ...

  5. Attalea blepharopus Mart. (Arecaceae) from Bolivia revisited since Martius

    OpenAIRE

    MORAES, R. M.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Populations in Bolivia of an Attalea Kunth species (Arecaceae) with regularly spaced pinnae were historically assigned to Attalea butyracea (Mutis) Wess. Boer, which also occurs in Colombia, western Venezuela and northern Ecuador. During a recent fieldtrip to the Chapare province in Cochabamba department (central Bolivia), we visited the Yuracare people's territory that Alcide d'Orbigny mentioned as harboring a large and distinct palm, Attalea blepharopus Mart. Based on its morphology, we rec...

  6. Phytophthora root and stem rot – new disease of Ilex aquifolium "Myrtifolia” in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek B. Orlikowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora cinnamomi was often isolated from rotted roots and stems of English holly "Myrtifolia" together with Alternaria alternata, Cylindrocarpon destructanss, Fusarium avenaceum and other fungal species. Inoculation of leaf blades and stem parts of 4 species and 12 holly cultivars with P. cinnamomi showed the spread of rot symptoms on the most of them. On Ilex crenata tissues necrosis did not develop or spread slowly. Isolation of P. cinnamomi only from one holly cultivar in surveyed nursery indicate on transmission of the pathogen with imported young plants.

  7. Water management in hardening Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of seedling height and irrigation management on M. ilicilofia seedlings. The experiment used a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Seedlings of two height classes (greater than or less than 18.0 cm were subjected to three irrigation regimes (daily irrigation, irrigation every other day, and gradual reduction of irrigation. After eight weeks, the morphophysiological and performance attributes of the seedlings were quantified. Gradual reduction of irrigation promoted the highest rate of net carbon assimilation. Irrigating every other day resulted in greater secondary growth rate, biomass accumulation in the shoot and root tissues, and lower electrolyte leakage rate. After planting, these treatments maintained higher leaf relative water content (RWC. RWC in seedlings smaller than 18 cm was significantly higher until the third week after planting. Therefore, larger seedlings submitted to hardening by gradually reducing irrigation improves seedling quality.

  8. Relation between chemical composition of Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius, and abiotic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Perfeto, Paulo Nelo Medeiros

    1998-01-01

    In Grateloupia doryphora and Gymnogongrus griffithsiae the seasonal variation of their chemical compounds was studied, establishing a relation with the physical and chemical properties of seawater. High values of proteins in the studied species were detected during the winter, 28.88% in G. doryphora and 26.68% in G. griffithsiae, corresponding to the maximum period of ammonium concentration in the marine environment. The variation in carbohydrates content showed an inverse relation with the p...

  9. Diterpenóides com esqueleto cleistantano de Vellozia aff. carunculares martius ex seubert (Velloziaceae

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    Silva Gilson Cruz da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From the hexane extract of leaves, stem and roots, of Vellozia aff. carunculares, fourteen cleistanthane diterpenoids were detected by HRGC-MS, through the analysis of their fragmentation patterns. Comparison of their MS spectra with those of authentic standards previously isolated from other species of the family Velloziaceae allowed the identification, with a high degree of confidence, of eigth known cleistanthane diterpenoids. Of these, four were isolated and identified from their MS, IR and ¹H and 13C NMR spectra, as the known cleistantha-8,11,13-trien-7-one, cleistantha-8,11,13-trien-3,7-dione, cleistantha-1,8,11,13-tetraen-3,7-dione and the first reported 6-alpha-hydroxy-cleistantha-8,11,13-trien-7-one. The triterpenoid beta-amyrin was also isolated.

  10. Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phenolic Compounds from Fruits of Libidibia ferrea Martius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Magda R A; Fernandes, Mônica T M; da Silva, Wliana A V; Bezerra, Isabelle C F; de Souza, Tatiane P; Pimentel, Maria F; Soares, Luiz A L

    2016-05-01

    Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) L.P. Queiroz (Fabaceae) is a tree which is native to Brazil, widely known as "Jucá," where its herbal derivatives are used in folk medicine with several therapeutic properties. The constituents, which have already been described in the fruit, are mainly hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid [GA] and ellagic acid [EA]). The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic variability in the fruit of L. ferrea by ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) and chromatographic methods (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC]/high-performance thin layer chromatography [HPTLC]). Several samples were collected from different regions of Brazil and the qualitative (fingerprints by HPTLC and HPLC) and quantitative analysis (UV/VIS and HPLC) of polyphenols were performed. The HPTLC and HPLC profiles allowed separation and identification of both major analytical markers: EA and GA. The chemical profiles were similar in a number of spots or peaks for the samples, but some differences could be observed in the intensity or area of the analytical markers for HPTLC or HPLC, respectively. Regarding the quantitative analysis, the polyphenolic content by UV/VIS ranged from 13.99 to 37.86 g% expressed as GA or from 10.75 to 29.09 g% expressed as EA. The contents of EA and GA by liquid chromatography-reversed phase (LC-RP) method ranged from 0.57 to 2.68 g% and from 0.54 to 3.23 g%, respectively. The chemical profiles obtained by HPTLC or HPLC, as well as the quantitative analysis by spectrophotometry or LC-RP method, were suitable for discrimination of each herbal sample and can be used as tools for the comparative analysis of the fruits from L. ferrea. The polyphenols of fruits of Libidibia ferrea can be quantified by UV/VIS and HPLCThe HPLC method was able to detect the gallic and ellagic acids in several samples of fruits of Libidibia ferreaThe phenolic profiles of fruits from Libidibia ferrea by HPTLC and HPLC were reproductible. Abbreviations used: HPTLC: high performance thin layer chromatography, HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography, UV-Vis: spectrophotometry.

  11. Antioxidant activity and characterization of volatile constituents of Taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Lee, Sung-Eun; Takeoka, Gary R

    2003-01-01

    Volatiles were isolated from the dried inner bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa using steam distillation under reduced pressure followed by continuous liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major volatile constituents of T. impetiginosa were 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (52.84 microg/g), 4-methoxyphenol (38.91 microg/g), 5-allyl-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene (elemicin; 34.15 microg/g), 1-methoxy-4-(1E)-1-propenylbenzene (trans-anethole; 33.75 microg/g), and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (30.29 microg/g). The antioxidant activity of the volatiles was evaluated using two different assays. The extract exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (from methyl linoleate) at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. The extract also inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for 40 days at a level of 5 microg/mL. The antioxidative activity of T. impetiginosa volatiles was comparable with that of the well-known antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, and butylated hydroxytoluene.

  12. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherien; Kamal; Hassan; Nermin; Mohammed; El-Sammad; Amria; Mamdouh; Mousa; Maha; Hashim; Mohammed; Abd; el; Razik; Hussein; Farrag; Amani; Nassir; Eldin; Hashim; Victoria; Werner; Ulrike; Lindequist; Mahmoud; Abd; El-Moein; Nawwar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant ef ects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia ferrea(C. ferrea) leaf in normal and streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal administration of STZ(65 mg/kg body weight). C. ferrea extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration serum, liver and pancreas were used for evaluating biochemical and histopathological changes.Results: Oral administration of C. ferrea leaf extract significantly reduced elevated serum glucose, α-amylase, liver function levels and signii cantly increased serum insulin, total protein and body weight as well as improved lipid proi le due to diabetes. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione, and diminished levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. Histopathological studies demonstrated the reduction in the pancreas and liver damage and coni rmed the biochemical i ndings.Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract ef ectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Photodynamic therapy mediated by acai oil (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in nanoemulsion: A potential treatment for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Silva, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; de Souza, Paulo; Faria, Fernando; Degterev, Igor Anatolievich; Rodriguez, Anselmo; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Lucci, Carolina Madeira; Escobar, Patricia; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer, responsible for >80% of deaths. Standard treatments for late-stage melanoma usually present poor results, leading to life-threatening side effects and low overall survival. Thus, it is necessary to rethink treatment strategies and design new tools for the treatment of this disease. On that ground, we hereby report the use of acai oil in nanoemulsion (NanoA) as a novel photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) used to treat melanoma in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. NIH/3T3 normal cells and B16F10 melanoma cell lines were treated with PDT and presented 85% cell death for melanoma cells, while maintaining high viability in normal cells. Flow cytometry indicated that cell death occurred by late apoptosis/necrosis. Tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice treated five times with PDT using acai oil in nanoemulsion showed tumor volume reduction of 82% in comparison to control/tumor group. Necrotic tissue per tumor area reached its highest value in PDT-treated mice, supporting PDT efficacy. Overall, acai oil in nanoemulsion was an effective photosensitizer, representing a promising source of new photosensitizing molecules for PDT treatment of melanoma, a tumor with an inherent tendency to be refractory for this type of therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherien Kamal Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract effectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  15. NOVAS APLICAÇÕES DE SISTEMAS SFE "HOME MADE".: I. PLANTAS MEDICINAIS BRASILEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. LANÇAS

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se uma visão geral da evolução do uso da SFE (extração com fluido supercrítico na análise de plantas medicinais brasileiras dentro das pesquisas desenvolvidas pelo Laboratório de Cromatografia do IQSC-USP. Utilizou-se como fluido extrator o CO2, puro ou modificado com solventes de polaridade baixa a alta (pentano, solventes halogenados, álcoois, água, para a extração seletiva de princípios ativos de Maytenus aquifolium ("espinheira santa" e Mikania glomerata ("guaco", respectivamente contendo triterpenos e cumarina. Os extratos obtidos por SFE foram analisados por CGAR (cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução, CLAE-DAD (cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector" photodiodearray" ou CCD (cromatografia de camada delgada. A SFE forneceu resultados similares ou melhores do que os obtidos com métodos convencionais de extração (Soxhlet, maceração, etc, indicando o potencial uso da SFE para análise e/ou produção de preparações contendo estas plantas medicinais.Further applications of "home made" SFE systems. I. Brazilian medicinal plants. In this paper, an overview on the evolution of the utilization of SFE for the analysis of Brazilian medicinal plants in the research developed by the Laboratório de Cromatografia, IQSC-USP, is presented. CO2, pure or with modifiers from low to high polarity (pentane, halogenated solvents, alcohols, water were used for the selective extraction of active compounds. Maytenus aquifolium (known popularly in Brazil as" espinheira santa", and Mikania glomerata ("guaco", containing respectively triterpenes and coumarin, were studied. The extracts obtained by SFE showed similar or better results than of those extracts obtained by conventional extraction methods (Soxhlet, maceration, etc., which indicates the potential of SFE technique in the analysis and/or production of phytomedicines.

  16. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Vanessa G.; Duarte, Lucienir P.; Silva, Gracia D.F.; Silva, Fernando C.; Goes, Jefferson V.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Pimenta, Lucia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney A., E-mail: vanessa.greg@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    The phyto chemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1) extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1), ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina. (author)

  17. Evaluation de l'efficacité de l'extrait éthanolique de Maytenus undata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    d`étudier les activités biologiques de l`extrait ethanolique des écorces de tronc de .... sitosterol, beturin et leurs structures chimiques ont été établi (9). Ces ... Brine Schrimp portaient sur les oeufs de brine schrimp, Artemia salina. (Leach), un ...

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1 extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11α-hydroxylup-20(29-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, ¹H and 13C NMR and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11α-hydroxylup-20(29-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina.

  19. Proposição métodos analíticos para tinturas-mãe e misturas: avaliação estatística Proposition of analytical methods for tinctures and mixtures: statistical valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rubens Biancalana

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetiuo de propor métodos analíticos de tinturas-mãe e misturas utilizadas em preparações homeopáticas estudou-se a sua aplicabilidade a uma mistura em partes iguais de 10 (dez tinturas-mãe, das seguintes plantas: Archangelica offcinalis L.; Drymis granatensis L.; Mentha piperita L.; Peumus boldus Molina; Cassia medica; Cassia augustifolia Bahl; Maytenus ilicifolia Martius; Artemisia absin­thium L. e Coriandrum sativum L. todas de usp terapêutico comprovado(6,7,8,9,10, e preparadas a partir de padões, em períodos distintos, durante cinco anos consecutivos. Os valores estatísticos calculados permitiram estabelecer os seguintes limites para os métodos propostos: a Resíduo alcalino clorofórmico: entre 0,203 e 0,387%; b Resíduo de ácido clorídrico adicionado ao extrato clorofórmico:entre 0,016 e 0,072%; c Determinacdo de pll: entre 6,39 e 6,80; d Determinação da acidez total: entre 0,048 a 0,112%.To propose a new analytical methodology applied to homeopathy, and its consequent statistical valuation, the autors studied its applicability to a mixture of ten tinctures in equal parts of the following plants: Archangelica officinalis L; Matricaria chamomile L; Drymis granatensis L; Mentha piperita L; Peumus boldus Molina; Cassia medica; Cassia augustifolia Vahl; Maytenus ilicifolia Martius; Artemisa absinthium L. and Coriandrum sativum L. all of them with therapeutic activity proved (6,7,8,9,10 and prepared from standards, in distinct periods, during five consecutive years. The calculated statistical values permitted to establish the following limits form proposed methods: a chloroform alkaline residue: form 0.203 to 0.387%; b hydrochloride acid residue added to the chloroform extract: from 0.016 to 0.072%; c pH: 6.39 to 6.80; d Total acidity: from 0.048 to 0.112%.

  20. Preparation nanowhiskers pulp from residue of palm fiber Attalea funifera Martius; Preparacao de nanowhiskers de celulose a partir do residuo da fibra de piacava da palmeira Attalea funifera Martius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.B.A. da; Miranda, C.S.; Jose, N.M.; Vargas, F.P.; Druzian, J.I., E-mail: janiabet@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The residue from piassava fiber is higher in cellulose and lignin. This study aimed to extract the pulp and the development of methodology for preparation nanowhiskers from residue fiber. The first step extraction of cellulose, the second step to obtain the nanoparticles by acid hydrolysis (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The samples were characterized by: SEM, chemical composition, TGA, FTIR and XRD. The XRD result shows that cellulose is of type I and TGA shows two events at 54 deg C and 370 deg C attributed to mass loss of water and cellulose, respectively. After hydrolysis, X-ray diffraction showed an intense reflection 2{theta}= 22.3 deg and an increase in the degree of crystallinity to 70% which is an indication of the formation of nanowhiskers. (author)

  1. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS FOR OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN Butia capitata (MARTIUS BECCARI SEEDS TRATAMENTOS FÍSICOS E QUÍMICOS PARA SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE Butia capitata (MARTIUS BECCARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delacyr da Silva Brandão Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-germination treatments for overcoming dormancy in Butia capitata seeds. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme (mechanical treatments x immersion substances, with 20 seeds per plot and four replications. For mechanical treatments, seeds with endocarp (pyrene, seeds without endocarp, and scarified pyrenes were used, whereas, for the immersion substances, gibberellic acid, water, and the control (without immersion were used. The emergence of seedlings began within 51 days, in pyrenes scarified and treated with gibberellic acid. The difference between the first and last count was 190 days. There was no interaction effect for the characteristics assessed, except for the mechanical treatments. It was possible to conclude that the scarified pyrenes showed a higher performance for most  characteristics assessed: emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length, and root fresh and dry mass.

    KEY-WORDS: Arecaceae; pyrene; scarification; gibberellins.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos, na superação de dormência em sementes de coquinho-azedo. O experimento foi montado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (tratamentos mecânicos x substâncias de imersão, com 20 sementes por parcela e quatro repetições. Nos tratamentos mecânicos, utilizaram-se sementes com endocarpo (pirênio, sementes sem endocarpo e pirênios escarificados, enquanto, nos tratamentos de substância de imersão, foram utilizados ácido giberélico, água e a testemunha (sem imersão. A emergência das plântulas iniciou-se aos 51 dias, em pirênios escarificados e tratados com ácido giberélico. A diferença entre a primeira e a última contagem foi de 190 dias. Para as características avaliadas, não houve efeito da interação, somente dos tratamentos mecânicos. Concluiu-se que os pirênios escarificados apresentaram maior desempenho, para a maioria das características avaliadas: percentagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento, massa fresca e seca da raiz.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE:  Arecaceae; pirênio; escarificação; giberelina.

  2. Repair of the radiation induced rectovaginal fistulas without or with interposition of the bulbocavernosus muscle (Martius procedure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, E.J.; Sindram, I.S.

    1988-04-01

    Two local repair procedures, one without (9) and the other with (14) a bulbocavernosus muscle graft were performed on 20 patients with a radiation induced rectovaginal fistula. Four patients had two procedures successively. The initial success rate of both procedures was 7/9 and 14/14 respectively. Though the initial result of the bulbocavernosus graft was obviously better, in many of the local repair procedures, subclinical radiation damage progressed, resulting in recurrence of rectovaginal fistula (5), rectovesical fistula (4), pararectal abscess (2) etc. After a mean follow up of around 10 years, the success rate of fistula repair decreased to 5/9 and 13/14 and only 2/9 and 6/14 finally remained without a colostomy. A local repair operation should be restricted to carefully selected cases. The musculus gracilis is proposed as a better vascular graft. If the general condition of the patient does not allow more aggressive reconstructive procedures, fistula repair is better cancelled because there is a high risk of subsequent radiation damage.

  3. Histopathology of black gill disease caused by Fusarium solani ( Martius ) infection in the Kuruma prawn Penaeus japonicus Bate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Z.BIAN; S.EGUSA

    1986-01-01

    A histopathological description is given of the black gill disease in Kururna prawn Penaeus japomicns. The inflammatory responses of P. japonicu against Fusarium solaniare haemocytic infiltration, haemocytic encapsulation,

  4. EFEITO DOS TRATAMENTOS SUPERFICIAIS NAS PROPRIEDADES DO BAGAÇO DA FIBRA DE PIAÇAVA Attalea funifera Martius

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    Cleidiene S. Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the properties of waste piassava fiber with the goal of aggregating additional business value. The fiber surface was subjected to four different treatments. In the present work, it was found that washing the fibers with water partially removed impurities from the surface rendering it rougher. Alkaline treatment removed impurities from the surface, hemicellulose and lignin, improving the flexibility of the fibers. Increasing the concentration of washing agents, times and temperature of treatment promoted intense defibrillation on the fiber surface, reducing its strength.

  5. Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758 distribution, abundance, habitatuse and breeding performance in a recentlycolonized region in SW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olano, M., Aierbe, T., Beñaran, H., Hurtado, R., Ugarte, Urruzola, A., Vázquez, J., Ansorregi, F., Galdos, A. ... [et al.

    2015-01-01

    localidades potenciales utilizando inventarios forestales, y cada localidad fue visitada durante el periodo enero-marzo. Las localidades ocupadas se consideraron “dominios vitales reproductivos” cuando se pudo comprobar el emparejamiento o la nidificación, o cuando se registró presencia de individuos en un mínimo de tres visitas consecutivas. Se vigiló el desarrollo de la reproducción en nidos activos durante mayo y junio. Se detectaron y cartografiaron 21 "dominios vitales reproductivos", distribuidos fundamentalmente a lo largo de las franjas oriental y meridional del área de estudio. Las determinantes ambientales relacionadas positivamente con la presencia de "dominios vitales reproductivos" fueron elevada cobertura arbolada, estructura madura, superficies de haya Fagus sylvatica, bosque mixto caducifolio y pino laricio Pinus nigra, y parcelas forestales poco fragmentadas. Las plantaciones de pino de Monterrey P. radiata y las alturas bajas del arbolado se seleccionaron negativamente. Las parcelas de alimentación preferidas incluyeron proporciones de roble americano Quercus rubra y plantaciones de pino laricio. Se detectaron trece nidos activos. Todos los nidos salvo dos fueron excavados en hayas. El éxito de cría fue elevado (92% pero la tasa de vuelo (1.8 estuvo por debajo de los promedios descritos en Europa, lo que podría indicar limitaciones intrínsecas en esta población periférica.

  6. Selection, efficacy, ecological characterization and formulation of fungal control agents against water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms] in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Dagno, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Rice and irrigated orchards are considered as the most important food and economical sources in Mali, which watered from Niger River. However, stable productions of rice and orchards products have been limited by many disease, insects, and weeds. Recently, water hyacinth infestation in river of Niger has increased drastically and as affected by the decrease of water flow due to clogging dams and irrigation work. Biological control of weeds is an alternative approach to chemical herbicide use,...

  7. Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milanesi, Lucas de Souza; Peroni, Nivaldo; dos Reis, Maurício Sedrez

    2013-01-01

    .... This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil...

  8. Four Brazilian Maytenus salicifolia Reissek (Celastraceae groups studied by TLC and UV/Vis spectrophotometry Estudo de quatro populações de Maytenus salicifolia Reissek (Celastraceae por CCD e espectrometria na região do UV/Vis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico N. Valladão

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The great variety of angiosperms shows the need to development of botanical classification systems supported by phytochemistry, biochemistry and others. Recently, techniques of analysis used for the isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites have been employed as auxiliary quick and efficient methods for the identification and classification of plant species. M. salicifolia is popularly known in Brazil, as "small coffee" and decoct obtained from its fresh leaves is topically used to alleviate itches and other skins allergic symptoms. This work presents the use of TLC and UV/Vis spectrophotomety processes to be applied like an auxiliary method in botanical taxonomy. The results demonstrate that this process can be used in differentiation of the same genera species, and in the selection of chemical variations between individuals of the same species.A grande variedade de angiospermas apontou a necessidade do desenvolvimento de sistemas de classificação botânica apoiada pela fitoquímica, bioquímica e outras. Recentemente, técnicas de análise utilizadas para o isolamento e caracterização de metabólitos secundários vêm sendo empregadas como métodos auxiliares rápidos e eficientes para identificação e classificação de espécies vegetais. M. salicifolia é popularmente conhecida no Brasil, como "cafezinho". O chá obtido a partir de folhas frescas é usado topicamente para aliviar pruridos e sintomas alergiformes. Este trabalho apresenta a utilização do CCD em sílica gel e espectrofotometria no UV / Vis como métodos auxiliares na identificação botânica de M. salicifolia. Os resultados demonstraram que este processo pode ser usado na diferenciação de plantas do mesmo gênero, assim como detectar variações químicas entre indivíduos de uma mesma espécie.

  9. 77 FR 39666 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Maytenus cymosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... normal business hours at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Caribbean Ecological Services Field Office....I. Code, Title 12, Chapter 2) and has amended an existing regulation (Bill No. 18-0403) to...

  10. Crescimento do ipê-roxo, tabebuia impetiginosa martius ex a. p. de candolle, na depressão central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Schneider Pigatto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a dendrocronological approach developed by the American archae logist Andrew Douglas in 1920 was used to analyze the species Tabebuia impetiginosa and to evaluate the growth tendencies in diameter, commercial volume, percentual annual current increment in commercial volume as well as the commercial form factor. Backman´s function was adjusted to diameter and commercial volume considering the age, obtaining for both an excellent adjustment. Backman´s function was also adjusted for commercial volume, commercial form factor and the percentual annual current increment due to the diameter, obtaining a comparable excellent adjustment. The percentual annual current increment in commercial volume varied from 54,02 % with 7 years to 11,26 % at the age of 21 years. Commercial form factor was 0,7 between diameters of 5,2 and 30,0 cm at the ages of 7 and 21 years, respectively.

  11. Light and temperature requirements for germination of seeds of Aechmea nudicaulis (l. Griesebach and Streptocalyx floribundus (Martius ex Shultes f. Mez (Bromeliaceae

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    Pinheiro Fernanda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus were collected in a restinga located at Presidente Kennedy (ES, Brazil. This sandy community is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation interspersed by open areas with a sparse plant covering. In order to evaluate the capacity of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus to recruit individuals from seeds in the distinct microclimates generated by this heterogeneous plant covering, experiments were conducted in laboratory to test the effects of light and temperature on the germination for both species. Seeds of A. nudicaulis were unable to germinate in darkness but they achieved high germinability (≥90% from 15 to 40°C under red light. Seeds of S. floribundus germinated in darkness only at 40ºC (22.5%, whereas the germinability was high (≥90% from 15 to 30ºC under light. For both species, the germination rate was highest at 25ºC. For these bromeliads, alternating temperature (20/30ºC promoted high germinability (≥92.5% only under red light. The seeds at 20/30°C in darkness were later transferred to light and a high germinability (>89% was achieved for both species. No seed germinated at alternating temperatures of 20/50ºC and they were dead after 720h of incubation. The seeds showed to be photoblastic and did not tolerate high temperatures. The results suggest that under natural conditions the germination of seeds of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus is restricted to microclimates where light and moderate temperatures are present. The microsites generated by the plant covering seem to provide these requirements.

  12. Seed dispersal, plant recruitment and spatial distribution of Bactris acanthocarpa Martius (Arecaceae) in a remnant of Atlantic forest in northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria G.; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2001-12-01

    Seed dispersal ecology of Bactris acanthocarpa Mart. (Arecaceae), an Atlantic forest understory palm, was investigated during two years as an attempt to test the following predictions: (i) seeds of Bactris are dispersed by mammals and large-gaped birds; (ii) Bactris benefits from seed dispersal in terms of seed predation avoidance, improvement of seed germination and seedling survival; and (iii) spatial distribution of adults is related to patterns of seed dispersal. The study was conducted at Dois Irmãos Reserve, a 387.4-ha reserve of Atlantic forest in northeastern Brazil (8º S-35º W). Black-rumped agoutis ( Dasyprocta prymnolopha) and Guianan squirrels ( Sciurus aestuans) were identified as the seed dispersers/predators, moving seeds short distances ( 4 m away in contrast to 96% of seedlings that occurred concentrated within 4 m from adults (77% under the palm crowns). Here, we present evidence that spatial distribution of B. acanthocarpa is partly due to low rates of seed removal, short-distance seed dispersal by agoutis and squirrels, and early seedling mortality associated with presence of seedlings under palm crowns.

  13. Morfologia e densidade básica das folhas de tucum (Bactris inundata Martius como fonte de fibras celuló sicas para papel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanatiel de Jesus Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at making an evaluation of the morphological characteristics and density of fibers obtained from straws of Bactris inundata palms leaves. A value of 0,342 g/cm³ was found for the basic density. Bactris inundata presented two different fibers due to their morphological characteristics: Fiber A, with average fiber length of 0,69 mm, width of 10,56 μm, lumen width of 2,63 μm and cell-wall thickness of 3,97 μm, classified as short; Fiber B, with length of 2,33 mm, width of 7,66 μm, lumen width of 1,85 μm and cell-wall thickness of 2,91 μm, classified as long. The fiber “A” of Bactris inundata presented a low coefficient of flexibility of 25,12%, and a rather high felting index of 66,85. The fiber “B” of Bactris inundata presented a low coefficient of flexibility (24,09%, and a high felting index (313,59. The relationship between fibers dimensions indicated that they could be used in kraft production with good indexes of physical-mechanical resistance in some properties.

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SILVICULTURAL ASPECTS OF BRAZILIAN PALMHEART (Euterpe edulis Martius PLANTED IN DIFFERENT TIPES OF CONSORTIUM IN LAVRAS – MINAS GERAIS

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    Augusto Ramalho de Morais

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the initial growth of the Brazilian palmheart in agroforestry systems. Four treatments were selected: t1: Brazilian palmheart x hondurean pine; t2: Brazilian palmheart x eucalipto; t3: Brazilian palmheart x secondary forest; t4: Brazilian palmheart in full open conditions. Mensurations of the total height (H, “bold diameter” (DAC and number of leaves were done. The following evaluations have been made: luminosity, dry matter of the litter, density, moisture content and water avaibility in the soil. The results showed that treatment t1 was the most promising due to low relative luminosity index and soil water avaibility found in that treatment. The low values of H and DAC made unviable the introduction of the Brazilian palmheart in the treatments t2, t3 and t4. Luminosity and water deficit were the main factors limiting Brazilian palmheart growth.

  15. Biochemical assessment of oxidative stress by the use of açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius gel in physically active individuals

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    Daniela Soares VIANA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relation between oxidative stress and inflammation induced by diseases and exercise has increased the interest in the benefits of antioxidant supplements in the improvement of health and physical and mental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of açai gel in reducing oxidative stress in individuals engaged in physical activities as well as their acceptance. Sensory evaluation was performed to determine its acceptability and the biochemical parameters related to immune profile and biomarkers of muscle, liver and oxidative stress, with and without the use of gel were evaluated. The appearance, sweetness and overall impression of the açai gel were considered good. It was observed a significant increase in CK enzyme, without the gel as well as the oxidative stress biomarkers, it was observed that the MDA (with and without gel a significant increase (p < 0.05. Through biochemical evaluation, it is concluded that the gel provided protection for some of parameters studied, since it modulated the immunological parameter reducing the lymphocyte activity and muscular stress. However, more studies must be carried out with a larger number of individuals to confirm the gel functionality.

  16. Biochemical assessment of oxidative stress by the use of açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius gel in physically active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Soares VIANA

    Full Text Available Abstract The relation between oxidative stress and inflammation induced by diseases and exercise has increased the interest in the benefits of antioxidant supplements in the improvement of health and physical and mental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of açai gel in reducing oxidative stress in individuals engaged in physical activities as well as their acceptance. Sensory evaluation was performed to determine its acceptability and the biochemical parameters related to immune profile and biomarkers of muscle, liver and oxidative stress, with and without the use of gel were evaluated. The appearance, sweetness and overall impression of the açai gel were considered good. It was observed a significant increase in CK enzyme, without the gel as well as the oxidative stress biomarkers, it was observed that the MDA (with and without gel a significant increase (p < 0.05. Through biochemical evaluation, it is concluded that the gel provided protection for some of parameters studied, since it modulated the immunological parameter reducing the lymphocyte activity and muscular stress. However, more studies must be carried out with a larger number of individuals to confirm the gel functionality.

  17. CRESCIMENTO DO IPÊ-ROXO, Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex A. P. de Candolle, NA DEPRESSÃO CENTRAL DO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi utilizada a técnica da dendrocronologia, desenvolvida pelo arqueólogo americano Andrew Douglass, em 1920, e o auxílio do aparelho LINTAB II, para analisar a espécie Tabebuia impetiginosa e avaliar as tendências de crescimento em diâmetro, volume comercial, incremento corrente anual em percentagem do volume comercial, bem como o fator de forma comercial. Para isso, foi selecionada a função de Backman para o diâmetro e volume comercial em razão da idade, tendo obtido, para ambas, um excelente ajuste. Também, foi ajustada a mesma equação para as variáveis volume comercial, fator de forma comercial e incremento corrente anual percentual em volume comercial em razão do diâmetro, conseguindo igualmente um excelente ajuste. O incremento corrente anual percentual em volume comercial variou de 54,02%, com, 7 anos a 11,26%, aos 21 anos. Já o fator de forma comercial, foi 0,7 para diâmetros entre 5,2 cm e 30,0 cm, nas idades de 7 e 21 anos.

  18. GROWTH OF IPÊ-ROXO, Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex A. P. de Candolle, IN THE CENTER DEPRESSION IN THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a dendrocronological approach developed by the American archae logist Andrew Douglas in 1920 was used to analyze the species Tabebuia impetiginosa and to evaluate the growth tendencies in diameter, commercial volume, percentual annual current increment in commercial volume as well as the commercial form factor. Backman´s function was adjusted to diameter and commercial volume considering the age, obtaining for both an excellent adjustment. Backman´s function was also adjusted for commercial volume, commercial form factor and the percentual annual current increment due to the diameter, obtaining a comparable excellent adjustment. The percentual annual current increment in commercial volume varied from 54,02 % with 7 years to 11,26 % at the age of 21 years. Commercial form factor was 0,7 between diameters of 5,2 and 30,0 cm at the ages of 7 and 21 years, respectively.

  19. Relation between chemical composition of Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius, and abiotic parameters Relação entre composição química de Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius e parâmetros abióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Nelo Medeiros Perfeto

    1998-01-01

    In Grateloupia doryphora and Gymnogongrus griffithsiae the seasonal variation of their chemical compounds was studied, establishing a relation with the physical and chemical properties of seawater. High values of proteins in the studied species were detected during the winter, 28.88% in G. doryphora and 26.68% in G. griffithsiae, corresponding to the maximum period of ammonium concentration in the marine environment. The variation in carbohydrates content showed an inverse relation with the p...

  20. Temperatura e regime de luz na germinação de sementes de Tabebuia impetiginosa (Martius ex A. P. de Candolle Standley e T. serratifolia Vahl Nich. - Bignoniaceae Temperature and light in germination of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Martius ex A. P. de Candolle Standley and T. serratifolia Vahl Nich. seeds - Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Magda de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O teste mais tradicionalmente utilizado para a avaliação da qualidade de lotes de sementes é o teste de germinação. A metodologia do teste de germinação ainda não está bem definida para sementes de Tabebuia impetiginosa (ipê-roxo e T. serratifolia (ipê-amarelo, uma vez que são encontrados na literatura poucos trabalhos referentes especificamente à definição das condições ideais para a realização do teste nessas espécies. Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o efeito de temperatura e luz na germinação de sementes de diferentes lotes de ipê-roxo e ipê-amarelo. Para o ipê-roxo, a seleção das temperaturas foi realizada inicialmente em mesa de termogradiente, com temperaturas variando de 20,9ºC a 34,4ºC e, posteriormente, em BODs, com temperaturas de 25ºC, 30ºC e 35ºC. Para o estudo do efeito da luz na germinação das sementes de ambas as espécies, os tratamentos foram instalados em BODs sob três regimes de luz: luz branca contínua/temperatura de 30ºC, branca alternada com fotoperíodo de 8 horas/temperatura de 20/30ºC e escuro/temperatura de 30ºC. A temperatura de 30ºC foi adequada para a germinação de sementes de ipê-roxo, independente do ano de colheita ou da qualidade fisiológica dos lotes, enquanto a resposta da germinação em relação ao regime de luz variou conforme o ano de colheita. A condição ideal para realização do teste de germinação em sementes de ipê-amarelo, independente da procedência e do ano de colheita, foi sob luz constante a 30ºC.The most traditionally used test in order to evaluation seed lots quality is the germination test. However, the germination test methodology is not well defined for Tabebuia impetiginosa (ipê-roxo and T. serratifolia (ipê-amarelo seeds. This is probably due to the little attention that the species received, specifically, about the definition of the ideals conditions for germination of these species. Thus, the objective of this research was to verify the effect of temperature and light on germination of T. impetiginosa and T. serratifolia seeds. The research was performed in a thermo-gradient table with temperature varying from 20,9ºC to 34,4ºC and in BODs with temperatures adjusted at 25ºC, 30ºC and 35ºC. To study the effect of light on germination for both species the seeds were incubated in BODs at white light/temperature 30ºC, alternate white with photoperiod 8 hours/temperature 20/30ºC and in the darkness/temperature 30ºC. The temperature of 30ºC was suitable for the germination of T. impetiginosa seeds, irrespective of the year of collection or physiological quality of the batches, while the effect of light on germination varied according to the year of collection. The ideal condition for accomplishment of the germination test in T. serratifolia seeds, irrespective of the provenance and year of collection, was under constant light at 30ºC.

  1. Relation between chemical composition of Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne Howe, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, and abiotic parameters Relação entre composição química de Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne Howe, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius e parâmetros abióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nelo Medeiros Perfeto

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In Grateloupia doryphora and Gymnogongrus griffithsiae the seasonal variation of their chemical compounds was studied, establishing a relation with the physical and chemical properties of seawater. High values of proteins in the studied species were detected during the winter, 28.88% in G. doryphora and 26.68% in G. griffithsiae, corresponding to the maximum period of ammonium concentration in the marine environment. The variation in carbohydrates content showed an inverse relation with the proteins, with a maximum of 54.72% in G. doryphora and of 55.36% in G. griffithsiae, both in summer, positively correlated with salinity and temperature of sea water. Lipids content was low in both species. In G. doryphora the values ranged between 0.81 and 1.30% and, in G. griffithsiae, from 0.71 to 1.50% of dry weight, showing a direct relation with the amount of nitrogen in the seawater. The maximum content of ashes, phosphorus and potassium occurred in autumn and winter, respectively, with 11.85%, 0.20%, 1.27% in G. doryphora, and 14.46%, 0.14%, 1.41% in G. griffithsiae.Foi estudado em Grateloupia doryphora e Gymnogongrus griffithsiae a variação sazonal de seus compostos químicos, estabelecendo uma relação com os parâmetros físico-químicos da água do mar. Durante o inverno foram detectados valores altos de proteína nas espécies estudadas, com 28,88 % em G. doryphora e 26,68 % em G. griffithsiae, correspondendo ao período de concentração máxima de amônio no ambiente marinho. A variação no conteúdo de carboidratos apresentou relação inversa à de proteínas. Os valores máximos de 54,72 % em G. doryphora e de 55,36 % em G. griffithsiae, ocorreram no verão, correlacionados positivamente com salinidade e temperatura da água do mar. Os conteúdos de lipídeos foram baixos em ambas as espécies. Em G. doryphora os valores variaram entre 0,81 e 1,30 % e em G. griffithsiae, de 0,71 a 1,50 % do peso seco, mostrando relação direta com a quantidade de nitrogênio na água do mar. O conteúdo máximo de cinzas, fósforo e potássio ocorreu no outono e inverno, respectivamente com 11,85 %, 0,20 % e 1,27 % em G. doryphora e 14,46 %, 0,14 % e 1,41 % em G. griffithsiae.

  2. Horta orgânica de ervas medicinais: inclusão social na comunidade da Barra em Muriaé/MG - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz de Freitas Paixão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi implantada uma horta orgânica de ervas medicinais na comunidade da Barra (Muriaé, MG com o objetivo de inclusão social de pessoas carentes ao permitir acesso ao tratamento por fitoterapia. O início das atividades foi em janeiro de 2006, com a escolha das espécies, obtenção de mudas e instalação da horta. As 40 espécies selecionadas, sob manejo agroecológico, eram indicadas com terapêutica aos 25 principais problemas de saúde levantados na comunidade. O formato didático da horta, representando o corpo humano, serviu como referência às indicações de uso de cada espécie. A horta foi mantida até meados de 2012 na Barra e transferida ao IFMURIAÉ, em área de cultivo agroecológico, no Bairro Sofoco, onde se realizam as práticas do curso de técnico em agroecologia. A comunidade da Barra auxiliou desde as primeiras ações, sendo atuante na colheita das plantas medicinais. As plantas coletadas foram levadas a sala anexa à Paróquia local onde se realizou o processamento pós-colheita e o preparo de fitoterápicos. A dispensação dos preparados foi em outra sala cedida pela Paróquia. As formas fitoterápicas disponibilizadas à população foram de uso interno (erva seca, tintura, xarope e externo (creme, gel, pomada, sendo as mais procuradas: gel, tintura e xarope. De 2006 a 2012 foram  32.400 atendimentos, média de 385 pessoas/mês. O sucesso do projeto se reflete no aumento do número de espécies utilizadas, passando de 40 espécies em 2006 para 170 espécies em 2012, dentre elas: alecrim de jardim (Rosmarinus officinalis, alfavaca (Ocimum basilicum, amora (Morus alba, arnica brasileira (Solidago microglossa, calêndula (Calendula officinalis, camomila (Matricaria chamomilla, capim gordura (Melinis minutiflora, cavalinha (Equisetum arvense, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus grandiflorus e espinheira santa (Maytenus aquifolium.

  3. Estudo fitoquímico do decocto das folhas de Maytenus truncata Reissek e avaliação das atividades antinociceptiva, antiedematogênica e antiulcerogênica de extratos do decocto Phytochemical study of the decoct from the leaves of Maytenus Truncata Reissek and the evaluation of the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic and antiulcerogenic activities of the decoct extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Nascentes de Deus Fonseca

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the phytochemical investigation and biological activities of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of leaf decocts of M. truncata Reiss (Celastraceae. Our studies afforded two flavonoid glycosides, quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-glucopyranosyl- O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-galactopyranoside (1 and kampferol-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-glucopyranosyl- O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-galactopyranoside (2 from the methanolic extract and dulcitol (3 from the ethyl acetate extract. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited considerable antiulcerogenic and analgesic activities. The results of the phytochemical studies suggest that the healing activity of methanol extracts can be related to the presence of glycosyl flavonoids.

  4. Final Environmental Assessment for Wide Area Coverage Construct Land Mobile Network Communications Infrastructure Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    to his vegetation type include common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), needle-and thread, phlox, lupine (Lupinus sp.), and buckwheat (Montana...Common species include common snowberry, Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), bluegrass, western wheatgrass, lupine , yarrow (Achillea millefolium

  5. Phenrica littoralis a potential candidate for the biological control of alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides: redscription of the adult, first description of immature stages and biological notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flea beetles of aliligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae), were collected in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil. Species in the genera Disonycha Chevrolat, Agasicles Jacoby Systena Chevrolat and Phenrica Bechyne were frequently found on this weed. Phenric...

  6. Allometry of the babassu palm growing on a slash-and-burn agroecosystem of the eastern periphery of Amazonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christoph Gehring; Marcelo Luís C. Zelarayán; Rosângela B. Almeida; Flávio Henrique R. Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Babassu (Attalea speciosa C.Martius, Arecaceae) is a palm with extraordinary socioeconomic and ecologic importance in large areas of tropical Brazil, especially in frequently burned and degraded landscapes...

  7. Larva de quinto estádio e pupa de Dasyophthalma rusina rusina (Godart (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae Fifth larval instar and pupa of Dasyophthalma rusina rusina (Godart. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna M. Casagrande

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of the fifth larval instar and pupa of Dasyophthalma rusina rusina (Godart, [1824] from material reared in southern Brasil are described and illustrated. The larva feed on leaves of Geonoma schottiana Martius (Arecaceae.

  8. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Full Length Research Paper ... 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, ..... in lesion index on the gastric mucosa of rats treated with the ... of Maytenus robusta and the fruit of Kochia scoparia (which.

  9. α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibition by Brown Seaweed (Sargassum sp Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to control post-prandial hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus. In vitro inhibitory effects of crude extracts of seaweed against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were studied. Crude ethyl acetate extracts of Sargassum aquifolium were the stronger inhibitor to α-amylase and α-glucosidase than others. Furthermore, Sargassum aquifolium ethyl acetate extract significantly suppressed the rise in postprandial glucose level after oral administration of glucose in normal rats. The results of this study suggest that the crude Sargassum aquifolium extract may suppress the rise in postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo in part, through inhibition of alpha amylase and glucosidase

  10. No evidence for enemy release during range expansion of an evergreen tree in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Anne-Marie Thonning; Markussen, Bo; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1. Plant distributions are dynamic but the role of plantÐinsect interactions in controlling range dynamics is not well understood. Enemy release, for example could facilitate plant range expansion under climate change. 2. We conducted a transplant experiment with the evergreen tree Ilex...... aquifolium L. in both the historical and the expanding range in Denmark to study possible effects of geographical position, small-scale distance, and plant types on presence and performance of the monophagous insect leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis Curtis. 3. The leaf miner was present in the entire range of I...... had an effect on leaf miner feeding, oviposition and mining, and the native provenance of I. aquifolium supported higher densities than two cultivars. 5. There was no evidence that enemy release facilitates the current range expansion of I. aquifolium....

  11. Polyphasic characterisation of three new Phyllosticta spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Y.Y.; Cai, L.

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Phyllosticta, P. hostae on Hosta plantaginea (China), P. schimae on Schima superba (China), and P. ilicis-aquifolii on Ilex aquifolium (UK), are described and illustrated in this study. They are compared with morphologically similar and phylogenetically closely related species.

  12. Sonnenaufgang am Amazonas. Goethes Farbenlehre und die Brasilianische Moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Bolle

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois tableaux de la nature, duas descrições do nascer do sol no Amazonas, da autoria dos viajantes Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1819 e Mário de Andrade (1927, são comentados à luz da teoria das cores de Goethe (1810. Enquanto o texto de Martius é tributário da tradição naturalista e romântica, Mário, uma das vozes das vanguardas do século XX, expressa uma nova estesia, numa conjunção de materialismo estético e antropológico. O objetivo deste estudo é examinar até que ponto o naturalista Martius, o poeta Mário e o cientista-poeta Goethe apresentam uma visão da natureza em que esta não seja dominada, mas reconhecida como parceira igual pela civilização.

  13. The evolutionary history of an invasive species: alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eco-evolutionary mechanisms of biological invasions are still not thoroughly understood. Alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Gisebach (Amaranthaceae), is a plant native to South America and a weed in Australia and other countries. To better understand its success as an invader,...

  14. Nitration of Naphthol: A Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Dwight F.

    1982-01-01

    Products of nitrations, upon distillation or steam distillation, may produce dermatitis in some students. A procedure for nitration of beta-naphthol producing a relatively non-volatile product not purified by steam distillation is described. Nitration of alpha-naphthol by the same procedure yields Martius Yellow dye which dyes wool yellow or…

  15. Squibb academic lecture: Shakespeare and DSM-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, E A

    1986-03-01

    Modern literary criticism generally rejects the idea of off-stage lives for Shakespeare's characters. All we have is behaviour--the visible behaviour of 'Shakespeare's talking animals'. But a review of that behaviour in the light of DSM-III suggests a high degree of clinical accuracy in some of it. The depictions of Ophelia, Lear and Caius Martius Coriolanus supply examples.

  16. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Weckesser, Steffi; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts and isolated compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics and food supplements to improve skin conditions. We first introduce the positive plant monographs with dermatological relevance of the former German Commission E. Subsequently clinical studies with botanicals for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex are discussed. The best studies have been conducted with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Mahonia aquifolium, Hypericum perforatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and certain traditional Chinese therapies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Mahonia aquifolium, Indigo naturalis and Capsicum frutescens are effective treatments for psoriasis. Green tea extract and tea tree oil have been investigated in the treatment of acne. Podophyllin and green tea extract are effective treatments for condylomata acuminata. Balm mint and a combination of sage and rhubarb have been shown to be effective in the treatment of herpes simplex in proof of concept studies.

  17. Antispasmodic effect of 4'-methylepigallocatechin on guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Marcelly Barbosa; Souza, Fábia Valéria Menezes; dos Santos Estevam, Charlez; Pizza, Cosimo; Sant'ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti

    2012-10-01

    The antispasmodic effect of 4'-methylepigallocatechin (MEC), which was isolated from Maytenus rigida Mart (Celestraceae), was investigated in vitro in guinea pig intestinal segments. In the isolated ileum, MEC (1 nM-100 μM) did not modify the ileal spontaneous tonus or the electrically elicited contractions. MEC (8 μM) significantly (prigida stem bark.

  18. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Andrejić Gordana; Rakić Tamara; Šinžar-Sekulić Jasmina; Mihailović Nevena; Grubin Jasmina; Stevanović Branka; Tomović Gordana

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia) concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensi...

  19. Bioindication of heavy metals in the town Wrocław (Poland) with evergreen plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Kempers, A. J.

    In this paper the results are reported of a study on the concentration of macroelements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Fe) and heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Co, V, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ba and Sr) in soil and in three species of the evergreen plants Ilex aquifolium, Mahonia aquifolium and Rhododendron catawbiense. These plants are collected in the Botanical Garden of the Polish town Wrocław (which is exposed to atmospheric exhausts of heavy traffic, chemical factories, metal smelters and a heat and power plant partly alimented with lignite and coals) and in two presumed unpolluted reference (background) sites, one in Poland (the Dendrological Garden in Wojslawice near Niemcza, south from Wrocław) and the other in The Netherlands (the Botanical Garden of the University of Nijmegen). Analyses of both soil and plant samples point to the pollution of the Wrocław Botanical Garden by Ni, Cr, Co, Cd via the atmosphere and pollution by Zn, Pb and Hg probably via atmosphere and soil. Especially pollution with Hg via soil is supported by a significant positive correlation between Hg content in soil and in all the examined species of which Ilex aquifolium seemed to be the best monitor of soil pollution with this element.

  20. Uma nova espécie de Euterpe (Palmae - Arecoideae - Areceae do Brasil A new species of Euterpe (Palmae - Arecoideae - Areceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio de Queiroz Boudet Fernandes

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe espiritosantensis Fernandes é descrita e ilustrada a partir de coleções feitas no município de Santa Teresa, estado do Espírito Santo, sendo comparada com Euterpe edulis Martius, espécie dispersa nas florestas do leste do Brasil, com quem está relacionada. São feitas considerações sobre nomes vulgares, fenologia, ocorrência, habitat, usos e conservação.Euterpe espiritosantensis Fernandes is described and illustrated from collections in the municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, as compared with Euterpe edulis Martius, a widespread species of eastern Brazil forests, to which is related. Considerations about common names, fenology, ocurrence, habitat, uses and conservation are made.

  1. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size. PMID:27186334

  2. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça; Lucas Gonçalves Ribeiro; José Roque Azevedo Assunção; Teresa Aparecida Soares de Freitas; Josival Santos Souza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container) and 10 repetitions, with 64 s...

  3. LATIN AND SCIENCE: PERSPECTIVES ON TRANSLATION OF THE NEO-LATIN ON SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Kaltner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists in a study of interdisciplinary perspectives that arise in the translation of scientific texts, from the Translation Studies, Linguistics, Textlinguistik (Text Linguistic and Latin Language. Here is the translation of an excerpt from Historia Naturalis Palmarum (Natural History of Palms, written in the nineteenth century by the botanist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868, a pioneer in the description of the Brazilian flora.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal barks used in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Svobodova, B; Polesny, Z; Langrova, I; Smrcek, S; Kokoska, L

    2007-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six barks traditionally used in Callería District (Ucayali Department, Peru) for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. Ethanol extracts of stem barks of Abuta grandifolia (Menispermaceae), Dipteryx micrantha (Leguminosae), Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), Naucleopsis glabra (Moraceae), Pterocarpus rohrii (Leguminosae), and root bark of Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae) were tested against nine bacteria and one yeast using the broth microdilution method. All plants possessed significant antimicrobial effect, however, the extract of Naucleopsis glabra exhibited the strongest activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MICs ranging from 62.5 to 125 microg/ml), while the broadest spectrum of action was shown by the extract of Maytenus macrocarpa, which inhibited all the strains tested with MICs ranging from 125 to 250 microg/ml.

  5. Antibacterial activity of ifve Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis; Mara del Carmen De Lama-Odra; Jos Camarena-Lizarzaburu; Juana del Valle Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants. Methods:The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol (1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. Results:The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa (“Chuchuhuasi”), Dracontium loretense Krause (“Jergon Sacha”), Tabebuia impetiginosa (“Tahuari”), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa (“Uña de gato”) exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity. Conclusions:The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  6. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela; Ulloa-Urizar; Miguel; Angel; Aguilar-Luis; María; del; Carmen; De; Lama-Odría; José; Camarena-Lizarzaburu; Juana; del; Valle; Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa)in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants.Methods: The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol(1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cupplate agar diffusion method.Results: The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa("Chuchuhuasi"), Dracontium loretense Krause("Jergon Sacha"), Tabebuia impetiginosa("Tahuari"), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn(eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa("U?a de gato") exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity.Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  7. Dispersal limitation at the expanding range margin of an evergreen tree in urban habitats?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Linda Agerbo; Skou, Anne-Marie Thonning; Kollmann, Johannes Christian

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal limitations contribute to shaping plant distribution patterns and thus are significant for biodiversity conservation and urban ecology. In fleshy-fruited plants, for example, any preference of frugivorous birds affects dispersal capacities of certain fruit species. We conducted a removal...... canopies compared with open habitats. The preference for red cultivars compared with native I. aquifolium may contribute to naturalization and potential invasion of garden escapes. Preferential foraging under closed canopies indicates trees and shrubs as recruitment foci for fleshy-fruited plants in urban...

  8. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  9. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera

  10. UPLC-MS/MS Profile of Alkaloids with Cytotoxic Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants of the Berberidaceae and Papaveraceae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Och

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most occurring diseases in developed and developing countries. Plant-based compounds are still researched for their anticancer activity and for their quantity in plants. Therefore, the modern chromatographic methods are applied to quantify them in plants, for example, UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the content of sanguinarine, berberine, protopine, and chelidonine in Dicentra spectabilis (L. Lem., Fumaria officinalis L., Glaucium flavum Crantz, Corydalis cava L., Berberis thunbergii DC., Meconopsis cambrica (L. Vig., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt., Macleaya cordata Willd., and Chelidonium majus L. For the first time, N,N-dimethyl-hernovine was identified in M. cambrica, B. thunbergii, M. aquifolium, C. cava, G. flavum, and C. majus; methyl-hernovine was identified in G. flavum; columbamine was identified in B. thunbergii; and methyl-corypalmine, chelidonine, and sanguinarine were identified in F. officinalis L. The richest source of protopine among all the examined species was M. cordata (5463.64 ± 26.3 μg/g. The highest amounts of chelidonine and sanguinarine were found in C. majus (51,040.0 ± 1.8 μg/g and 7925.8 ± 3.3 μg/g, resp., while B. thunbergi contained the highest amount of berberine (6358.4 ± 4.2 μg/g.

  11. of polyphenolic compounds in Ilex Sp.

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    Zwyrzykowska Anna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds are an important source of desired biological activity which help to improve nutritional status, enhance productivity and bring many health benefits. The leaves of the Ilex paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae are used for preparing a beverage known as yerba mate and represent a proven source of natural polyphenols which are known to foster biological activity with the emphasis on antioxidant properties. In present work we focused on the polyphenolic content of air-dried leaves of Ilex aquifolium L., Ilex aquifolium ‘Argentea Mariginata’, Ilex meserveae ‘Blue Angel’, and a commercially available mate as the reference product. Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC and LC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC, were used to establish polyphenolic substances content in aqueous methanolic extracts obtained from the biological matter. Up to 20 polyphenolic compounds were identified in the extracts, including rutin, quinic acid and its caffeoyl esters, i.e. chlorogenic acid and its isomers as well as dicaffeoyl derivatives. We took chlorogenic acid and rutin as reference compounds to quantify their levels in the extracts. It was determined that in all tested plants, high levels of these antioxidants were present. This led us to the conclusion that their leaves might serve as valuable food additives.

  12. Ecologia floral de duas especies invasoras de Ipomoea (convolvulaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana de Oliveira Fidalgo

    1997-01-01

    Resumo: Aspectos do sistema de reprodução, morfologia e biologia florais e a ocorrência de ataque de herbívoros às flores de Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet e Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistu/osa (Martius ex Choisy) Austin (Convolvulaceae) foram estudados no Município de Campinas/São Paulo, Brasil, entre julho de 1995 e julho de 1996. Ipomoea cairica é uma planta invasora de culturas, herbácea com ramos longos e volúveis, capaz de se reproduzir por sementes e vegetatívamente. Suas flores são inodoras, tu...

  13. A transvaginal removal and repair of vesicovaginal fistula due to mesh erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF is a devastating social problem. It can either result from obstetric trauma or following gynecological surgeries, malignancy, or radiation. We present a case of a 70-year-old woman who had a VVF following mesh augmentation surgery for anterior compartment prolapse. She required a transvaginal removal of the eroded mesh followed by a transvaginal repair of VVF using a Martius flap, 6 weeks later. Transvaginal removal of mesh is technically feasible and a good approach. Timing and route of surgery should be individualized.

  14. Bromeliaceae do Herbário do Dr. Adolpho Lutz: Encholirium Lutzii L. B. Smith n. sp

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    Lyman B. Smith

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Encholirium Lutzii is distinguished from the majority of species by its branched inflorescence. Only E. horridum L. B. Smith and rarely E. spectabile Martius exhibit this character, but have much larger flowers than E. Lutzii and stout floral axes. Also the wing of the seed in E. horridum is very long-caudate. We feel that it is particularly appropriate to dedicate this new species to Dr. Adolpho Lutz because of his great discoveries in the biological relationships of the Bromeliaceae.

  15. Amadurecimento pós-colheita de frutos de macaúba e qualidade do óleo para a produção de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart, Samuel de Melo

    2014-01-01

    A macaúba [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Martius] é uma espécie promissora como fonte de matéria prima para a produção do biodiesel devido a alta produtividade em óleo, a possibilidade de completo aproveitamento de seus frutos e sua adaptabilidade a diversos biomas brasileiros. Devido ao sistema extrativista de exploração da espécie praticado até os dias atuais, informações a respeito do comportamento fisiológico pós-colheita de seus frutos e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade do óleo, bem ...

  16. New littoral mite species (Acari, Oribatida, Fortuyniidae) from the Galápagos archipelago, with ecological and zoogeographical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfingstl, Tobias; Schatz, Heinrich

    2017-03-17

    Two species of Fortuyniidae, found on the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) are described and illustrated based on the adult and juvenile instars. Alismobates galapagoensis sp. nov. was found on six islands of the archipelago, in littoral and supralittoral habitats. It is morphologically similar to A. inexpectatus Pfingstl & Schuster, 2012 from Bermuda, but differs from that species and all other known congeners by a prominent cuticular ridge on epimeron III among other unique character combinations. Litoribates caelestis gen. and sp. nov. was found on the islands Santa Cruz and Bartolomé in the littoral zone under Maytenus and mangroves. Notes on distribution and ecological preferences of both species are included.

  17. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

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    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of solid-liquid and enzyme-assisted extraction of phenolic compound from three species of tropical Sargassum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspita, M.; Deniel, M.; Widowati, I.; Radjasa, O. K.; Douzenel, P.; Bedoux, G.; Bourgougnon, N.

    2017-02-01

    Sargassum has been well acknowledged for the potential natural product of its phlorotannins. Solid-liquid extraction (SLE) is the most common method used to extract them. However, this method has some drawbacks such as low yield and toxic. An alternative ecofriendly method has been proposed, i.e. enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), proven to be more efficient. The aim is to compare the efficiency of SLE and EAE concerning their extraction yield, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. S. aquifolium, S. ilicifolium and S. polycystum were extracted using water, methanol, methanol 50%, and ethanol 75% and enzymes (Viscozyme and Protamex). Total phenolic content (TPC) was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant activity via DPPH and FRAP analysis. This study implied that bioactivity of Sargassum extracted with enzymes is better compared to the one using organic solvents.

  19. Low proton conductance of plant cuticles and its relevance to the acid-growth theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, S.A.; Seymour, V.; Cleland, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    Evidence obtained on the relation between the pH of the medium and the growth of intact stem sections is compatible with the acid-growth theory only if the proton conductance of the cuticle is an effective barrier to the entry or exit of protons from the tissue. By measuring the rate at which protons cross frozen-thawed epidermal strips of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) and soybean hypocotyls (Glycine max Morr.) and enzymically isolated cuticles of Berberis aquifolium Persh. and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) fruit, we have now demonstrated the low proton conductance of the cuticular layer. Unless the conductance is enhanced by abrasion of the cuticle or by removal of the cuticular waxes, proton movement into and out of a tissue across the cuticle will be significant only over long time periods.

  20. Low proton conductance of plant cuticles and its relevance to the Acid-growth theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, S A; Seymour, V; Cleland, R E

    1981-09-01

    Evidence obtained on the relation between the pH of the medium and the growth of intact stem sections is compatible with the acid-growth theory only if the proton conductance of the cuticle is so low that the cuticle is an effective barrier to the entry or exit of protons from the tissue. By measuring the rate at which protons cross frozen-thawed epidermal strips of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean hypocotyls (Glycine max Morr.) and enzymically isolated cuticles of Berberis aquifolium Persh. and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) fruit, we have now demonstrated the low proton conductance of the cuticular layer. Unless the conductance is enhanced by abrasion of the cuticle or by removal of the cuticular waxes, proton movement into and out of a tissue across the cuticle will be significant only over long time periods.

  1. Tingenone, a pentacyclic triterpene, induces peripheral antinociception due to opioidergic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Clarice de Carvalho; Rodrigues, Vanessa Gregório; Ferreira, Renata Cristina Mendes; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Klein, Andre; Duarte, Igor Dimitri; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima; Perez, Andrea de Castro

    2014-11-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Maytenus are routinely used in folk medicine for the treatment of pain diseases. Our previous phytochemical study of the roots of Maytenus imbricata resulted in the isolation and characterization of tingenone, a pentacyclic triterpene. Natural triterpenoids are of growing interest because they have several biological activities, including analgesic properties. The present study assessed the involvement of the opiodergic pathway in the tingenone-induced antinociceptive effect against hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin E2 (2 µg) in the peripheral pathway. We evaluated the effect of several antagonists to opioid receptors using the mouse paw pressure test. Tingenone administered into the right hind paw induced a local antinociceptive effect that was antagonized by naloxone, a nonselective antagonist to opioid receptors. Clocinnamox, naltrindole, and nor-binaltorphimine are selective antagonists to µ, δ, and κ receptors, respectively, which reverted the peripheral antinociception induced by tingenone. Bestatine acts as an inhibitor of aminopeptidase, an enzyme that degrades endogenous opioid peptides, and was shown to intensify the antinociceptive effect of tingenone. The results suggest that the opioidergic system participates in the peripheral antinociception induced by tingenone.

  2. Plant extracts for the topical management of psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S; May, B H; Zhang, A L; Lu, C; Xue, C C L

    2013-10-01

    Patients with psoriasis frequently use preparations of plant extracts. Physicians need to be aware of the current evidence concerning these products. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of preparations of plant extracts used topically for psoriasis. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, two Chinese databases and article reference lists. Randomized controlled trials investigating extracts of single plants were included. Preparations of multiple plants and combinations of plant extracts plus conventional therapies were excluded. Two authors conducted searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Outcomes used in meta-analyses were: clinical efficacy, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score, and quality of life and symptom scores. The 12 included studies investigated extracts of: Mahonia aquifolium (n = 5), Aloe vera (n = 3), indigo naturalis (n = 2), kukui nut oil (n = 1) and Camptotheca acuminata nut (n = 1). Methodological quality was variable. Six studies provided data suitable for meta-analysis of clinical efficacy, and five were vs. placebo (relative risk 3·37, 95% confidence interval 1·36-8·33). Experimental studies indicate components of indigo naturalis, Mahonia and Camptotheca have anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and other actions of relevance to psoriasis. The clinical trial evidence provides limited support for preparations containing extracts of M. aquifolium, indigo naturalis and Aloe vera for the topical management of plaque psoriasis based on multiple studies. No serious adverse events were reported. Because of the small size of most studies and methodological weaknesses, strong conclusions cannot be made. The magnitudes of any effects cannot be measured with accuracy, so it is difficult to assess the clinical relevance of these preparations.

  3. Four miniature kidneys: supernumerary kidney and multiple organ system anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrouzian, Marjan; Sonstein, Joseph; Dadfarnia, Tahereh; Sreshta, J Nicholas; Hawkins, Hal K

    2014-05-01

    More than 350 years after Martius's first reported case in 1656, supernumerary kidney (SNK) continues to fascinate the world of medicine, generating new ideas in the domain of embryogenesis. Association of a normal kidney with a second or third ipsilateral smaller kidney is an extremely rare anomaly with only a total of 81 cases reported until today. We are reporting a case of SNK, clinically diagnosed as right hydronephrosis, associated with an ipsilateral ectopic ureter, a contralateral partially duplicated ureter, and a multiseptate gallbladder. Pathologic examination of the nephrectomy revealed 4 miniature kidneys, joining a dilated ureter through 4 separate conduits. Our patient is the first reported case of SNK with absent ipsilateral normal kidney, presence of more than 3 kidneys on 1 side, and associated anomaly in the gallbladder. This case represents a unique combination of rarities, suggesting insights in the domain of molecular embryology.

  4. The role of the sun in the Pantheon's design and meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Hannah, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Despite being one of the most recognisable buildings from ancient Rome, the Pantheon is poorly understood. While its architecture has been well studied, its function remains uncertain. This paper argues that both the design and the meaning of the Pantheon are in fact dependent upon an understanding of the role of the sun in the building, and of the apotheosised emperor in Roman thought. Supporting evidence is drawn not only from the instruments of time in the form of the roofed spherical sundial, but also from other Imperial monuments, notably Nero's Domus Aurea and Augustus's complex of structures on the Campus Martius: his Ara Pacis, the "Horologium Augusti", and his Mausoleum. Hadrian's Mausoleum and potentially part of his Villa at Tivoli are drawn into this argument as correlatives. Ultimately, it is proposed that sun and time were linked architecturally into cosmological signposts for those Romans who could read such things.

  5. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae in Formosa, Argentina, with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y Platygastridae de Taosa (Cuernavaca longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Este dictiofárido se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach, y fue colectado en Formosa, Argentina, donde algunos de sus huevos estaban parasitados. Se describen dos especies nuevas: Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus taosae Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae y Telenomus formosanus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Telenominae. La última especie, que pertenece al grupo crassiclava de especies de Telenomus Haliday, también ataca los huevos de Taosa sp. sobre Pontederia subovata (Seubert Lowden. Estos son los primeros parasitoides oófagos registrados para el género Taosa Distant.

  6. Archaeoastronomy introduction to the science of stars and stones

    CERN Document Server

    Magli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the first complete, easy to read, up-to-date account of the fascinating discipline of archaeoastronomy, in which the relationship between ancient constructions and the sky is studied in order to gain a better understanding of the ideas of the architects of the past and of their religious and symbolic worlds. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which explores the past relations between astronomy and people, power, the afterworld, architecture, and landscape. The fundamentals of archaeoastronomy are then addressed in detail, with coverage of the celestial coordinates; the apparent motion of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets; observation of celestial bodies at the horizon; the use of astronomical software in archaeoastronomy; and current methods for making and analyzing measurements. The final section reviews what archaeoastronomy can now tell us about the nature and purpose of such sites and structures as Stonehenge, the Pyramids of Giza, Chichen Itza, the Campus Martius, an...

  7. Systematic review and gamma radiosensitivity of medicinal plants: development of protocol for quality control; Revisao sistematica e radiossensitividade gama de plantas medicinais: desenvolvimento de protocolo para controle de qualidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ralph Santos

    2006-07-01

    The present study discusses the contribution of the adoption of more rigorous and objective criteria to the selection and analysis of information sources, leading to more scientific rigour when registering phytotherapic drugs. To this end, it is herein proposed the adoption of a previously tested and acknowledged methodology, namely the Systematic Revision, as a standard for phytotherapic drug analyses. In order to show differences brought about by the Systematic Revision during the registration procedures of phytotherapic drugs, the case of the Maytenus ilicifolia (known popularly in Brazil as 'espinheira-santa') is presented. As it is well known, the use of ionizing radiation is expanding, especially in medicine and pharmacy. Therefore, gamma radiation was applied to the microbiological quality control of phytotherapic matrices. Results indicated a positive contribution of Systematic Revision to the registration procedures of phytotherapic drugs, as well as the advantages of using gamma radiation to the microbiological quality control of phytotherapic matrices. (author)

  8. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  9. Avaliação da inibição da acetilcolinesterase por extratos de plantas medicinais Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by extracts from medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliada a atividade inibitória da acetilcolinesterase (AChE pelo método de Ellman, modificado por Rhee, de extratos aquosos e etanólicos de oito plantas utilizadas na medicina popular da região Nordeste do Brasil. O extrato aquoso de E. velutina não apresentou atividade inibitória enquanto o extrato aquoso de Maytenus rigida apresentou baixa atividade inibitória (percentual de inibição de 4%. Detectou-se atividade inibitória moderada com o extrato aquoso de P. piperoides (percentual de inibição de 40 %, enquanto o extrato de V. agnus-castus L. inibiu 74% da atividade da AChE, caracterizando-se como potente atividade inibitória. A avaliação da inibição da AChE com os extratos etanólicos demonstrou que os extratos de Sideroxylon obtusifolium, Erythrina velutina, Vitex agnus-castus, Phoradendron piperoides, Chrysobalanus icaco, Bauhinia cheilantha e Orbignya phalerata não apresentaram atividade inibitória. Baixa atividade inibitória foi observada com os extratos etanólicos de Maytenus rigida (percentual de inibição de 7% e de Hyptis fruticosa (percentual de inibição de 11%. O extrato etanólico de Moringa oleifera apresentou atividade inibitória moderada, inibindo 47% da atividade dessa enzima. Nenhum dos extratos etanólicos testados apresentou atividade inibitória potente da AChE. Os resultados dos estudos de inibição da acetilcolinesterase permitem concluir que o extrato aquoso de V. agnus-castus L. mostrou-se o mais eficaz quanto a inibição da AChE. Este resultado reforça a necessidade da continuidade do estudo desse extrato, de forma a realizar a partição do extrato e a purificação das frações para isolar a molécula responsável pela inibição observada.In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE according to Ellman's method, modified by Rhee, for ethanol and aqueous extracts from eight plants used in folk medicine in the northeast region of

  10. Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Soares Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus, Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum, Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis, Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis, Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia, Guaraná (Paullinia cupana, Maracujá (Passiflora sp., Mulungu (Erythrina velutina, Sene (Cassia angustifolia and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0 in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

  11. MARCADORES POLÍNICOS EN MIELES DEL NOROESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio melisopalinológico de 49 muestras de miel provenientes del noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba. Prosopis spp., Larrea divaricata , Schinopsis spp., Condalia microphylla , Sarcomphalus mistol , Cercidium praecox , Geoffroea decorticans , Capparis atamisquea , Aloysia gratissima , Mimosa spp. y Schinus spp. fueron los tipos polínicos de mayor importancia y frecuencia de aparición, todos representantes de la flora nativa. Cuatro grupos de mieles se diferenciaron por análisis discriminante: Traslasierra, Perisalina, Chaco Árido y Chaco Serrano; algunas especies permitieron diferenciarlos entre sí: Schinus areira , Maytenus vitis-idaea , Cantinoa mutabilis y Schinopsis spp., respectivamente. Los tipos polínicos con mayor índice de importancia de especie y frecuencia se proponen como marcadores útiles para la Denominación de Origen.

  12. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-03

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml).

  13. RAPD-PCR na identificação molecular de plantas medicinais regulamentadas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde do Brasil | RAPD-PCR in molecular identification of medicinal plants regulated by the Unified Health System in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Neves Aguiar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de metodologia altamente discriminatória para a identificação e caracterização de genótipos das espécies de plantas medicinais regulamentadas pelo sistema público de saúde brasileiro (SUS é de suma importância para o controle de qualidade destas espécies como matérias-primas na produção de medicamentos fitoterápicos, consequentemente, minimizar o risco sanitário associado à ineficácia terapêutica devido ao uso de matéria prima de identidade duvidosa. Por isto, foi utilizado o método RAPD-PCR para a elaboração de um perfil genético de três espécies de plantas medicinais regulamentadas pelo SUS do Brasil: Mikania glomerata, Maytenus ilicifolia e Schinus terebinthifolius, a partir de exemplares destas plantas, que foram cedidas pela Coleção Temática de Plantas Medicinais do Instituto de Pesquisas do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Os 60 iniciadores utilizados no RAPD-PCR com o DNA das três espécies geraram 1284 produtos amplificados que variaram de 100-1500 pb. Foram selecionados cinco iniciadores que geraram no total 76 fragmentos entre 200-1100 pb com astrês espécies, sendo os iniciadores OPG18, OPA7 e OPG17 para a Mikania glomerata, os iniciadores OPG20, OPC13 e OPA11 para a Maytenus ilicifolia e OPA4, OPA18 e OPG14 para a Schinus terebinthifolius e os iniciadores OPA17 e OPC6 para as três espécies. Os perfis resultantes permitiram a identificação eficiente das espécies. Foram identificados iniciadores que geraram um único fragmento que poderão servir para desenhar um iniciador específico, que poderá ser usado na identificação da planta em produtos como monofarmacos e associações. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Development of a highly discriminatory method for the identification of genotypes and species of medicinal plants regulated by the Brazilian public health system (SUS is of paramount importance for the

  14. Utilization of labelled urea in Helicobacter pylori eradication study by Espinheira Santa; Utilizacao de ureia marcada no estudo da erradicacao do Helicobacter pylori pela Espinheira Santa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausson, Yvon [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Passos, Maria do Carmo Friche; Andrade, Angela Almeida Magalhaes [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Paiva Leriza, Duilio de; Paula Castro, Luiz de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1995-12-31

    Maytenus ilicifolia, Espinheira Santa, is usually used to treat some gastric diseases, in special duodenal ulcer, in agreement with the medical literature. The aim of this work was to verify the efficiency of those leaves in such disease. It was selected a group of volunteers with ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) confirmed by Urea Breath Test (UBT). It was administered to all patients one capsule having 300 mg of dry extract of the leaves 20 minutes before the UBT. The capsule went on being administered during a week three times a day. At the end of this period two tests were applied to evaluate the Hp eradication: one 12 hours just after the treatment and another after one month. The results indicated that the antibiotic action was not confirmed. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Venda livre de Sorocea bomplandii Bailon como Espinheira Santa no município de Rio de Janeiro- RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coulaud-Cunha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho surgiu da observação de que a espécie vendida livremente nas feiras e bancas populares do município do Rio de Janeiro (RJ difere botanicamente de Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex. Reiss (Celastraceae, comercializada industrialmente (e com uso reconhecido e registrado no Ministério da Saúde como Espinheira Santa. Por comparação botânica foi constatado que nenhuma das espécies recolhidas correspondia a M. ilicifolia Mart. Ex. Reiss e sim, provavelmente a Sorocea bomplandii Bailon (Moraceae, uma das espécies mais utilizadas na adulteração da Espinheira Santa. Uma vez que não existem estudos suficientes que justifiquem o uso ou comprovem a segurança de S. Bomplandii Bailon, este passa a configurar um problema de saúde pública.

  16. Efeito do composto "mais vida" na ativação de macrófagos de ratos diabéticos Effects of "mais vida", a commercial natural mix, on the activation of macrophages from diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. França

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade funcional de macrófagos de ratos diabéticos, através da liberação do ânion superóxido, na presença do composto "mais vida". Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos, controle (N=20 e diabético (N=20. Avaliou-se a glicemia, massa corpórea e a liberação de superóxido pelos macrófagos de baço de ratos. O composto "mais vida" foi obtido através da mistura de extratos de sete plantas, sendo Orbignia martiana Rodr., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G., Arctium lappa L., Rosa centifolia L., Maytenus ilicifolia Mart., Vernonia condensata Baker e Thuja occidentalis L. Observou-se que glicemia foi maior no grupo diabético. A liberação espontânea do ânion superóxido pelos macrófagos foi menor no grupo diabético. O composto "mais vida", independente dos níveis glicêmicos, aumentou a liberação de superóxido dos macrófagos. Quando as células foram estimuladas pelos extratos vegetais isolados, também houve aumento na liberação do ânion superóxido pelos macrófagos em ambos os grupos. As maiores liberações de superóxido ocorreram quando os macrófagos foram estimulados pela Thuja occidentalis L., Rosa centifolia L., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G. e Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Estes dados sugerem que a ativação de macrófagos pelo composto "mais vida" pode representar um mecanismo alternativo de defesa para infecções em indivíduos diabéticos.This study investigated the effects of "mais vida", a commercial natural mix, on macrophages functional activity as evaluated by the superoxide release in diabetic rats. The animals were divided into two groups, control (N = 20 and diabetic (N = 20. This was achieved by determining blood glucose weight and the superoxide released by spleen macrophages. The "mais vida" mix was obtained by the combination of extracts from seven medicinal species, which were: Orbignia martiana Rodr., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G., Arctium lappa L., Rosa centifolia L

  17. Population Diversity ofPuccinia graminis is Sustained Through Sexual Cycle on Alternate Hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Jin; Matt Rouse; Jim Groth

    2014-01-01

    A high degree of virulence diversity has been maintained in the population ofPuccinia graminis f. sp.tritici (Pgt) in northwestern United States. AlthoughBerberis vulgaris is present in the region andPgthas been isolated from aecial infections onB. vulgaris, the population is too diverse to be explained by the limited presence ofB. vulgaris alone. Since 2008, we have isolatedP. graminis from aecial infections on fruits ofMahonia repens andMahonia aquifolium from northwestern United States. These two native woody shrub species, widely distributed in western North America, were once classiifed as resistant to P. graminis based on artiifcial inoculations. By isolatingP. graminis from aecia, we established that M. repens andM. aquifolium along withB. vulgaris (albeit infrequent) serve as the alternate hosts ofP. graminis in the region. The isolates ofP. graminis from Mahonia of North America had diverse virulence patterns and most of the isolates could be differentiated on Morocco, Line E, Chinese Spring, Little Club, LMPG-6, Rusty, and other genotypes that are considered to be universally susceptible to mostPgt isolates. This discovery explained the persistence of virulence diversity ofPgt observed in isolates derived from uredinia on cereal crops in the region. In addition to cereal crops, uredinial stage of theP. graminis population is sustained by wild grasses, especiallyElymus glaucus, a native grass sharing the same habitat with the rusted Mahonia spp. Although virulence to some important stem rust resistance genes was observed in some isolates derived from Mahonia of North America when tested against single stem rust resistance gene stocks, the overall virulence is very limited in these isolates. This is likely a result of limited selection pressure on the rust population. In contrast to northwestern United Sates, thePgt population in east of the Rocky Mountains of North America has declined steadily with a single race, QFCSC, being predominant in the last

  18. New Perspectives on Antiacne Plant Drugs: Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyam Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne is a common but serious skin disease, which affects approximately 80% adolescents and young adults in 11–30 age group. 42.5% of men and 50.9% of women continue to suffer from this disease into their twenties. Bacterial resistance is now at the alarming stage due to the irrational use of antibiotics. Hence, search for new lead molecule/bioactive and rational delivery of the existing drug (for better therapeutic effect to the site of action is the need of the hour. Plants and plant-derived products have been an integral part of health care system since time immemorial. Therefore, plants that are currently used for the treatment of acne and those with a high potential are summarized in the present review. Most active plant extracts, namely, P. granatum, M. alba, A. anomala, and M. aquifolium exhibit minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC in the range of 4–50 µg/mL against P. acnes, while aromatic oils of C. obovoides, C. natsudaidai, C. japonica, and C. nardus possess MICs 0.005–0.6 μL/mL and phytomolecules such as rhodomyrtone, pulsaquinone, hydropulsaquinone, honokiol, magnolol, xanthohumol lupulones, chebulagic acid and rhinacanthin-C show MIC in the range of 0.5–12.5 μg/mL. Novel drug delivery strategies of important plant leads in the treatment of acne have also been discussed.

  19. Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-11-01

    Long chain (C 16-C 18) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple ( Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

  20. Modifiche compositive e strutturali in soprassuoli in evoluzione naturale della riserva M.a.B. di Montedimezzo (Isernia

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    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree species composition and structural dynamics in forest stands under natural evolution in the Montedimezzo M.a.B. reserve. This study is included in an experimental protocol established in 1954 aimed at examining the natural dynamics in mixed broadleaves high forests dominated by Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. Stand development patterns in the last fifteen years are reported. Repeated quantitative and qualitative inventories were carried out in two permanent plots (3 ha each and in two structural transects (0.2 ha each located in Collemeluccio-Montedimezzo M.a.B. reserve (Is. The study highlighted, as already observed in 1954, the differences between the two multilayered stands. In the higher elevation beech is the predominant species recording 53% of importance value index (I, followed by Turkey oak (I=25%. In the lower elevation the dominant species is Turkey oak (I=46%, followed by hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. (I=28% and beech (I=12%. The decreased presence of Turkey oak and the increase of beech density are confirmed in each plot over the last fifteen years. Among the other tree species, importance values rise only for silver fir (Abies alba Mill. (introduced and holly tree (Ilex aquifolium L., while hornbeam and hedge maple have been reducing their own presence.

  1. Where do seeds go when they go far? Distance and directionality of avian seed dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Tomás A; García, Daniel; Martínez, Daniel; Gleditsch, Jason M; Morales, Juan M

    2013-02-01

    Seed dispersal at large scales strongly influences plant population dynamics. Still, ecologists have rarely measured seed dispersal at relevant scales, and the role of habitat types in affecting seed dispersal at long distances remains unexplored. We studied seed dispersal of Ilex aquifolium and Crataegus monogyna in northern Spain, hypothesizing that seeds would be recovered at higher rates and at longer distances (LDD) at habitats with fleshy-fruited trees, compared to habitats with other tree types or at open habitats. We tracked seeds in eight landscapes by enriching trees with 15N isotopes at the center of landscapes, and then detected 15N-marked seeds by sampling at distances of up to 700 m. We found that seeds arrive in greater densities and at longer distances in habitats with trees, particularly fleshy-fruited types, producing different LDD probabilities for each habitat. Results also show a disproportional arrival of seeds in habitats similar to those of mother plants, which should affect seed establishment and the genetic diversity of plant neighborhoods. Findings reveal the strong dependence of seed dispersal on the existing templates that guide the movements of avian dispersers in heterogeneous landscapes and also suggest that LDD above tree lines and beyond hard habitat edges can be difficult.

  2. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

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    Andrejić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution. Even though various types of soils from different quarts of Belgrade were sampled, their heavy metal contents were very similar, with somewhat higher concentrations of almost all elements detected in the proximity to high traffic roads. Generally, concentrations of heavy metals in leaves of investigated plant species paralleled the heavy metal concentrations found in their respective soils and were higher in plants sampled from boulevards then from urban parks. Since investigated plant show no visible injuries induced by detected heavy metal pollution these species are suitable for the successful urban landscaping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  3. Desirable leaf traits for hydrological reinforcement of soil

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    Boldrin D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation has an important influence on slope hydrology and hence slope stability via plant transpiration. Little is known about the relative merit of evergreen versus deciduous shrubs in maintaining suctions through the year. This study aims to quantify the soil-plant-water relations of two shrub species and to identify relevant plant traits that correlate with hydro-mechanical properties of vegetated soil. Corylus avellana L. (Hazel and Ilex aquifolium L. (Holly were chosen as contrasting deciduous and evergreen broadleaf species. For each species, three replicates were planted in separated pots of sandy loam soil. Each pot was irrigated until the soil was saturated and then was left to transpire for 20 days. Soil suction, leaf conductance to water vapour (gL and soil penetration resistance were recorded. After testing, some key plant traits were determined. It was found that Hazel dried soil faster than Holly. The mean suction induced by Hazel (82.9±1.5 kPa was 2.7 times greater than that induced by Holly (30.6±8.2 kPa, as Hazel has significantly higher gL and specific leaf area. Both suction and soil penetration resistance were strongly correlated with the total leaf area, but not the total leaf biomass.

  4. New perspectives on antiacne plant drugs: contribution to modern therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Priyam; Srivastava, Shruti; Mishra, Nidhi; Yadav, Narayan Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a common but serious skin disease, which affects approximately 80% adolescents and young adults in 11-30 age group. 42.5% of men and 50.9% of women continue to suffer from this disease into their twenties. Bacterial resistance is now at the alarming stage due to the irrational use of antibiotics. Hence, search for new lead molecule/bioactive and rational delivery of the existing drug (for better therapeutic effect) to the site of action is the need of the hour. Plants and plant-derived products have been an integral part of health care system since time immemorial. Therefore, plants that are currently used for the treatment of acne and those with a high potential are summarized in the present review. Most active plant extracts, namely, P. granatum, M. alba, A. anomala, and M. aquifolium exhibit minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 4-50 µg/mL against P. acnes, while aromatic oils of C. obovoides, C. natsudaidai, C. japonica, and C. nardus possess MICs 0.005-0.6 μL/mL and phytomolecules such as rhodomyrtone, pulsaquinone, hydropulsaquinone, honokiol, magnolol, xanthohumol lupulones, chebulagic acid and rhinacanthin-C show MIC in the range of 0.5-12.5 μg/mL. Novel drug delivery strategies of important plant leads in the treatment of acne have also been discussed.

  5. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes Christian

    2011-01-01

    Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to planteherbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex of the h......Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to planteherbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex...... of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different...... stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size...

  6. Intracuticular wax fixes and restricts strain in leaf and fruit cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Bishnu Prasad; Grimm, Eckhard; Finger, Sebastian; Blume, Alfred; Knoche, Moritz

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the effects of cuticular wax on the release of strain and on the tensile properties of enzymatically isolated cuticular membranes (CMs) taken from leaves of agave (Agave americana), bush lily (Clivia miniata), holly (Ilex aquifolium), and ivy (Hedera helix) and from fruit of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Biaxial strain release was quantified as the decrease in CM disc area following wax extraction. Stiffness, maximum strain and maximum force were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of CM and dewaxed CMs (DCMs). Biaxial strain release, stiffness, and maximum strain, but not maximum force, were linearly related to the amount of wax extracted. Apple CM has the most wax and here the effect of wax extraction was substantially accounted for by the embedded cuticular wax. Heating apple CM to 80°C melted some wax constituents and produced an effect similar to, but smaller than, that resulting from wax extraction. Our results indicate that wax 'fixes' strain, effectively converting reversible elastic into irreversible plastic strain. A consequence of 'fixation' is increased cuticular stiffness.

  7. Tempo de cultivo e tamanho do recipiente na formação de mudas de Copernicia hospita =Growth period and plastic pots for Copernicia hospita nursery plants production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesmo tendo-se avançando nas técnicas de produção de mudas, ainda existem muitos problemas a serem solucionados, principalmente no que se refere ao desenvolvimento do sistema radicular das mudas, em função das características dos recipientes utilizados. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o efeito do tamanho do recipiente e do tempo de cultivo da planta na produção de mudas de Copernicia hospitaMartius. Sementes extraídas de frutos em estádio visual de maturação foram pré-germinadas e semeadas em sacos plásticos de 20 x 30, 28 x 40 e 40 x 60 cm, contendo como substrato a mistura de arisco + areia vermelha + esterco bovino curtido (2:1:1. Após a semeadura, osrecipientes foram mantidos por três, seis ou nove meses em pleno sol. Nenhum dos recipientes analisados, durante seus respectivos períodos de cultivo, influenciou as variáveis de crescimento utilizadas na avaliação das respostas da planta. O tamanho dos recipientes não influenciou na formação das mudas de C. hospita; contudo, em função da economia e praticidade, recomenda-se a utilização do recipiente com dimensões de 20 x 30 cm. O tempo de cultivo, de nove meses, forma mudas mais vigorosas.Even though advances have been made in the techniques of seedlingproduction, there are still many problems to be solved, especially with regard to the development of the root system of seedlings, depending on the containers used. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of recipient size and the plant cultivationtime in the production of C. hospita seedlings. Seeds of carnauba (Copernicia hospita Martius obtained from mature fruit, were pre-germinated and sown in plastic 20 x 30, 28 x 40 and 40 x 60 cm bags, within a substrate of sandy loam + red sand + cured cow manure (2:1:1. After sowing, the bags were kept for 3, 6 or 9 months at a place with direct sunlight. The variables of growth of the plants were not influenced either by the size of the recipients or

  8. Algunas Leguminosas de la Amazonía y Orinoquia Colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabido es que el célebre explorador botánico Von Martius, organizador principal de la Flora Brasiliensis, recorrió una extensa parte del territorio suroriental de Colombia durante su viaje por el río Japurá o Yapurá (llamado Caquetá en Colombia en enero y febrero de 1820. La parte colombiana de su itinerario -unos 370 kilómetros a vuelo de pájaro-- comprende las riberas del río Caquetá desde la boca del río Apaporis en la actual frontera colombo-brasileña, hasta los raudales de Araracuara, la serranía del mismo nombre y la región en que confluyen los ríos Mesay y Yarí (rio de los Engaños , Según los datos que publique hace poco más de cinco años en la Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias (Vol. V, No. 18, pp. 212-216, Diciembre 1942, relativos a la localización típica de algunas palmas coleccionadas por Martius en el Caquetá colombiano, se sabe que este explorador entro al territorio que hoy pertenece a Colombia entre el 2 y el 5 de enero de 1820 y colecciono a lo largo del rio mencionado en las siguientes localidades colombianas: Río Apapuris (= boca del río Apaporis en la frontera colombo-brasileña , Serra o Monte Cupatí (= Cerro de La Pedrera, Cataractas de Cupatí (= Raudal de Puerto Córdoba, Manacarú, Porto dos Miranhas (= Mirañas o Puerto Mirañas, Rio Irú (= Rio Jerú o Yerú, Río Uvania, "Poucoassú", Barrancos de Oacarí, Araracoara (= Araracuara, Rio Messai (= río Mesay, Río dos Enganos (= río de los Engaños o Yarí. A su regreso por el mismo río Caquetá hacia Teffé (Brasil, coleccionó en Mirañas, Manacarú, rio Miritiparaná, Oupatí, y salió del territorio colombiano probablemente entre el 15 y el 20 de febrero.

  9. Maria Graham: anotações sobre a flora do Brasil Maria Graham: notes on the flora of Brazil

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    Ariane Luna Peixoto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os 65 autores e 135 coletores que colaboraram para a grandiosa obra botânica denominada Flora Brasiliensis, coordenada inicialmente por Martius, e posteriormente por Eichler e Urban, publicada entre 1840 e 1906, participaram apenas duas mulheres: Maria Graham e a Princesa Teresa da Baviera. O presente estudo trata da contribuição de Maria Graham, que esteve no Brasil em três períodos entre 1821 e 1825, quando D. Pedro I era imperador, descreveu paisagens e coletou exemplares botânicos que foram enviados à Inglaterra, e utilizados por monografistas da dita Flora. A contribuição de Maria Graham para o estudo histórico das paisagens e aspectos da flora brasileira é pontual, porém importante. Os registros foram feitos no frescor da primeira impressão, conjugando uma observação acurada, às vezes acompanhada de iconografia. Mulher avançada para sua época, relacionava-se com a população local em situações diversas. Isto a coloca na privilegiada posição de testemunha da história daquele momento da monarquia brasileira.Of the 65 authors and 135 collaborators of the magnificent botanical publication Flora Brasiliensis, initially edited by Martius, and later by Eichler and Urban, published between 1840 and 1906, there were only two women: Maria Graham and the princess Therese von Bayern. Here the authors discuss the contribution made by Maria Graham during her three trips to Brazil (between 1821 and 1825, under Dom Pedro I, emperor of Brazil. She described landscapes and collected botanical specimens that were sent to England and were used by monographers of the said Flora. Maria Graham's contribution to the historical study of landscapes and aspects of the Brazilian flora is limited, but very important because she was recording her first impressions at the time. Besides her interesting descriptions and objective observations, she often documented her work with artistic renditions. A woman beyond her time, Mrs. Graham

  10. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: estados inmaduros y biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mariani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae are described, keyed and illustrated. The description of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are: body size, color, number of tarsomeres, espinulation of the metatibia and number of teeth on the spur; presence of sensoria on antennal pedicel. This insect was reared on pieces of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Biological data based on lab and field observations show that M. bellicus carries out its biological cycle successfully on Pontederiaceae. One to nine eggs per scar are laid deeply into the aerenquima of the petiole, being most frequent 3-4, less frequent 5, 2 and 6 and rarely 1, 7 and 9. Eulophid wasps Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp, known as eggs parasitoid, was registered and quantified. As M. bellicus occupies the same ecological habitat that M. scutellaris Berg, we highlighted some morphological and biological aspects that allow their differentiation.Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son m

  11. Variações sazonais de aspectos fisiológicos de espécies da Caatinga Seazonal variations of physiological aspects of Caatinga species

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    Dilma M. de B. M. Trovão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de compreender as estratégias de sobrevivência utilizadas pelas espécies da Caatinga para se adaptarem às condições oferecidas pelo clima da região, avaliaram-se o potencial hídrico e a eficiencia quântica da fotossíntese obtida pela fluorescência das espécies: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis,Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp, Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigida, considerando-se dois períodos de observação: estiagem (1 e chuvoso (2, para se verificar os possíveis identificadores de estresse. Com relação ao potencial hídrico verificaram-se diferenças estatísticas entre as duas estações, porém o fato que chamou a atenção reside nos altos níveis do potencial hídrico, mesmo no período de estiagem que, caracteristicamente, provocaria o estresse hídrico em função da ausência de água no solo. Os dados de fluorescência revelaram ótimos estados nos aparatos fotossintéticos, não indicando condição de estresse. Concluiu-se que as estratégias de sobrevivência dessas espécies são altamente eficientes e resultam de uma alta complexidade evolutiva.With the purpose of understanding the survival strategies used by Caatinga species to face the weather conditions, the water potential and quantical photosynthetic efficiency of some species were studied. The data were obtained through the fluorescence of 11 species: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis, Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrine var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp., Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro, Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigidat. Two observation conditions of weather, the dry period and the wet one were studied, in which possible stress characteristics were verified. The study of the water potential presented statistical differences between

  12. Anatomia foliar de soja infectada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais Leaf anatomy of soybean infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts

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    R.M. Mussury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Glycine max (L. Merril,infectadas pelo fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais foram avaliadas, visando determinar in vivo as modificações anatômicas nas diferentes estruturas/tecidos foliares, além de reconhecer prováveis mecanismos de defesa. Folhas de soja cultivar 181 provenientes do quinto nó foram inoculadas com fungo e tratadas com diferentes extratos vegetais, água e álcool 70%. Para comparação foram analisadas a anatomia das folhas sadia e infectada e realizadas medidas nas estruturas/tecidos foliares. Na folha infectada, observou-se destruição da epiderme e parênquima lacunoso, visível proliferação de tricomas e cutícula espessada, principalmente na face abaxial. Observou-se a presença de compostos fenólicos nas células da epiderme quando rompida, em função do crescimento micelial. Nas folhas infectadas e tratadas com os extratos vegetais de Azadirachta indica, Maytenus ilicifolia e Allium sativum, as estruturas/tecidos vegetais apresentaram aumento de espessura por alongamento celular.Glycine max (L. Merril leaves, infected by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts, were evaluated with the aim of determining in vivo the anatomical modifications in different leaf structures and of identifying probable defense mechanisms. Leaves from the 181 soybean cultivar originated from the fifth node were inoculated with the fungus and treated with different plant extracts, water and alcohol at 70%. For comparison, the anatomy of the healthy and infected leaves was analyzed and the leaf structures were measured. In the infected leaf, there was destruction of the epidermis and lacunar parenchyma, apparent trichome proliferation and denser cuticle, especially on the abaxial surface. There were also phenolic compounds in ruptured epidermis cells, due to mycelium growth. In the infected leaves treated with Azadirachta indica, Maytenus

  13. Amphotericin B-conjugated biogenic silver nanoparticles as an innovative strategy for fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Wei, Yun; Syed, Fatima; Tahir, Kamran; Taj, Raheela; Khan, Arif Ullah; Hameed, Muhammad Usman; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-10-01

    New strategies are required to improve the efficacy of drugs and to treat the emerging microbial resistance. An effective strategy is to combine drugs with metal nanoparticles for the control of microbial infections and resistance. Keeping in view this fact, we developed a facile and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of amphotericin B-conjugated silver nanoparticles and their assessment as an antifungal agent. Phytochemicals from the aqueous extract of Maytenus royleanus and amphotericin B were used as capping agents to prepare two types of silver nanoparticles i.e. (i) biogenic silver nanoparticles (b-AgNPs) and (ii) amphotericin B-conjugated biogenic silver nanoparticles (Amp-bAgNPs). UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to detect the characteristic surface Plasmon resonance peaks (SPR) for the prepared nanoparticles (424-433 nm). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study revealed the formation of well dispersed and spherical silver nanoparticles and Amp-bAgNPs with an average particles size of 10 and 15 nm. EDX and FTIR studies confirmed the elemental composition and surface adhered biomolecules in the prepared nanoparticles respectively. Biogenic silver nanoparticles revealed low to moderate antifungal activity (4-8 mm ± 0.2), however, the amphotericin B conjugated silver nanoparticles exhibited significant activity against Candida albicans (16 mm ± 1.4) and Candida tropicalis (18 mm ± 1.5). In conclusion, the enhanced antifungal activity of the Amp-AgNPs conjugate system is due to the synergy between the antifungal activity of amphotericin B and the antimicrobial property of silver. The findings of this study suggest that the conjugated nanoparticles could be used as efficient antifungal agents and drug delivery vehicles. Furthermore, this is the first report describing the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Maytenus royleanus and the conjugation of amphotericin B, an antifungal drug, to the

  14. Plantas medicinais comercializadas por raizeiros no Centro de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul Medicinal plants from herb sellers operating in downtown Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    G.P. Nunes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das plantas medicinais mais solicitadas a raizeiros do centro da cidade de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, ou por eles indicadas. Esse levantamento foi efetuado em duas épocas distintas: 1992 e 2002. A compilação dos dados revelou que 27 espécies foram citadas em 1992 e 32 em 2002. As seis espécies mais freqüentemente consumidas (Maytenus cf. macrodonta, "cancorosa"; Baccharis trimera, "carqueja"; Achyrocline alata, "jateí-kaá"; Stryphnodendron adstringens, "barbatimão"; Cochlospermum regium, "algodãozinho", e Echinodorus macrophyllus, "chapéu-de-couro" foram adquiridas para identificação e avaliação preliminar da sua qualidade. Nas duas épocas, a qualidade das plantas medicinais apresentava itens que reprovavam seu consumo. Em ambos os levantamentos, observou-se uma constância das espécies mais utilizadas e uma coerência satisfatória com os dados disponíveis sobre os hábitos da automedicação da população do município. Os motivos e sintomas mais freqüentes para a aquisição de plantas medicinais foram os relacionados ao uso analgésico, sistemas genitourinário, respiratório e osteomuscular, dispepsia/má digestão e tecido conjuntivo.A survey of the medicinal plants requested from and/or indicated by herb sellers operating in the central area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, was performed at two different times - 1992 and 2002. The first survey revealed 27 species being used; the second one, 32 species. The species most often consumed (Maytenus cf. macrodonta, ‘cancorosa’; Baccharis trimera, ‘carqueja’; Achyrocline alata, ‘jateí-kaá’; Stryphnodendron adstringens, ‘barbatimão’; Cochlospermum regium, ‘algodãozinho’, and Echinodorus macrophyllus, ‘chapéu-de-couro’ were acquired for identification and evaluation of their quality. On both occasions, the quality of the samples was negatively affected by features that made them inappropriate for

  15. Microondas como alternativa na abertura de amostras para dosagem de silício em tecido foliar de espécies florestais por determinação colorimétrica Microwave as an alternative to sample preparation in the foliar tissue silicon analysis of wood species for colorimetric determination

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    Claudia Mara Pereira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade do uso de digestão em microondas na determinação
    colorimétrica de silício em amostras de tecido vegetal de espécies florestais. Nos testes realizados, o coeficiente
    de correlação (r foi de 0,998 para a faixa de concentração de 0,4 até 7 mg.g-1. As recuperações realizadas, a partir
    de testes de fortificação em celulose, foram superiores a 90 % para duas concentrações testadas (2 e 4 mg.g-1, so
    coeficiente de variação foi igual a 4,2 % e 7,0 % para a espinheira santa (Maytenus ilicifolia e eucalipto
    (Eucalyptus benthamii, respectivamente. A digestão por microondas foi comparada com a digestão por autoclave
    em teste interlaboratorial, sendo que os erros relativos apresentaram-se menores que 17 % para todas as amostras
    testadas. Considerando os resultados obtidos, a abertura das amostras de tecido foliar de espécies florestais em
    microondas apresenta-se como uma alternativa, dentro dos limites testados, na dosagem de silício pelo método
    colorimétrico, com leitura realizada no comprimento de onda de 410 nm.The aim of this work was to test the viability of microwave digestion for the colorimetric determination of silicon in foliar tissues of wood species. In the test, the correlation coefficient was 0.998 in the concentration range of 0.4 to 7 mg.g-1. Spiked cellulose samples were used and the recovery was high than 90 % in two tested concentrations (2 e 4 mg.g-1. The obtained coefficients of variation were equal to 4.2 % and 7.0 % for espinheira santa (Maytenus ilicifolia and eucalipto (Eucalyptus benthamii, respectively. The microwave-induced digestion was compared to autoclave-induced digestion by interlaboratorial test, with relative errors smaller than 17 % in all tested samples (n=10. Based on these results, the microwave digestion of foliar tissues samples of wood species showed to be an alternative to determination of

  16. Efeitos do pastoreio de bovinos na estrutura populacional de plantas em fragmentos de floresta ombrófila mista Effect of cattle grazing on plant population structure in Araucaria Forest fragments

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    Maurício Bonesso Sampaio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentos de Floresta Ombrófila Mista têm sido freqüentemente utilizados para o manejo de bovinos na região do médio rio Pelotas, Sul do Brasil. Para avaliar o efeito dos animais na estrutura populacional de Araucaria angustifolia, Clethra scabra, Dicksonia sellowiana e Maytenus ilicifolia, foram amostrados sítios, sujeitos à alta e baixa intensidade de pastoreio, em cinco fragmentos, utilizando-se parcelas de 20 x 20 m. Apesar do pequeno tamanho dos fragmentos e da alta perturbação pelo manejo do gado e pela extração seletiva de madeira, as espécies ocorreram em abundância, e a densidade de plântulas e infantis foi maior do que de árvores. O efeito do gado na estrutura das populações de A. angustifolia variou em função das características ambientais de cada fragmento, não havendo, assim, um padrão na resposta das populações estudadas ao pastoreio. Com relação às demais espécies, os resultados não foram conclusivos, pois ocorreram em alta densidade apenas em um fragmento.Araucaria Forest fragments have been used for cattle grazing in the Pelotas River basin. We sampled five fragments using 20 x 20 m plots to evaluate the effects of cattle grazing on the population structure of Araucaria angustifolia, Clethra scabra, Dicksonia sellowiana and Maytenus ilicifolia. Despite the small size of the fragments and the high intensity of cattle grazing and selective logging, the species occurred in abundance and had higher seedling and sapling density than did the trees. The effects of cattle grazing on the population structure of A. angustifolia were influenced by the habitat heterogeneity of each fragment, thus a reliable pattern could not be found. Since the other species occurred abundantly in only one fragment, the results obtained were not conclusive.

  17. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  18. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

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    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  19. 深圳地区椰心叶甲寄主和天敌种类调查%Host plants and natural enemies for coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青; 梁广文; 曾玲; 陆永跃

    2006-01-01

    调查结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲Brontispa longissima(Gestro)的寄主植物有26属36种,危害比较严重的寄主有椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)、大王椰子(Roystonea regia O.F.Cook)、假槟榔(Archontophoenix alexandrae(F.V.Mueller))、鱼尾葵(Caryota ochlandra Hance)、三药槟榔(Areca triandra Roxburgh ex Buchanan)、金山葵(Syagrus romanzoffiana(Chamisso)Glassman)、菲岛鱼尾葵(Caryota cumingii Loddiges ex Martius)、刺葵(Phoenix hanceana Naudin)、国王椰子(Ravenea rivularis L.)等.野外观察和采集标本鉴定结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲捕食性天敌有11种,主要种类为蚂蚁Formica sp.、毛蠼螋Cheatospania sp.、中华大螳螂Parattenodera sinensis Saussure;致病微生物有3种,主要是绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae var.anisopliae.

  20. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND LIPID COMPOSITION OF JUÇARA (EUTERPE EDULIS MART. PULP

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    Paula Porrelli Moreira da SILVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius is native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and is an endangered species due to intensive exploration to produce hearts of palm. In the last few years, juçara plantation has been implemented for fruit production and pulp extraction, similar to açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.. The objective of this study was to assess the physical, chemical, and lipid composition of juçara pulp, in order to establish the exact measures of its quality aiming to demonstrate the product potential for commercialization. Our results revealed high content of essential minerals, such as magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and manganese, antioxidant compounds (anthocyanins, and high quality fatty acids (palmitic, oleic and linoleic, indicating the importance and functionality of the product for human consumption. Due to the high content of dark pigments found in juçara pulp, this product can also be used as a natural food dye, not only producing an attractive appearance, but also adding beneficial compounds for human health.

  1. Extracellular enzymatic profiles and taxonomic identification of endophytic fungi isolated from four plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R N; Costa, A T; Polonio, J C; Santos, M S; Rhoden, S A; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-11-03

    Plants of medicinal and economic importance have been studied to investigate the presence of enzyme-producing endophytic fungi. The characterization of isolates with distinct enzyme production potential may identify suitable alternatives for specialized industry. At Universidade Estadual de Maringá Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology, approximately 500 isolates of endophytic fungi have been studied over the last decade from various host plants, including medicinally and economically important species, such as Luehea divaricata (Martius et Zuccarini), Trichilia elegans A. Juss, Sapindus saponaria L., Piper hispidum Swartz, and Saccharum spp. However, only a fraction of these endophytes have been identified and evaluated for their biotechnological application, having been initially grouped by morphological characteristics, with at least one representative of each morphogroup tested. In the current study, several fungal strains from four plants (L. divaricata, T. elegans, S. saponaria, and Saccharum spp) were identified by ribosomal DNA typing and evaluated semi-quantitatively for their enzymatic properties, including amylase, cellulase, pectinase, and protease activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of four genera of endophytic fungi (Diaporthe, Saccharicola, Bipolaris, and Phoma) in the plants examined. According to enzymatic tests, 62% of the isolates exhibited amylase, approximately 93% cellulase, 50% pectinase, and 64% protease activity. Our results verified that the composition and abundance of endophytic fungi differed between the plants tested, and that these endophytes are a potential enzyme production resource of commercial and biotechnological value.

  2. 麻疯树根腐病的病原鉴定%Identification of the Causal Agent of Root Rot Disease of Jatropha curcas L.in Luodian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴跃开; 欧国腾; 朱秀娥; 余金勇

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to identify the causal agent of root rot disease of Jatropha curcas L. In Luodian County. [ Method ] Typical root rot samples were collected from different planting areas of Jatropha curcas L. In Luodian County, and then pathogens of the root rot samples were isolated, cultured, made a pathogenic test and observed under the microscope. [Result] The causal agent of root rot disease of Jatropha curcas L. Was Fusarium solani ( Martius) Appel & Wollenweber. [ Conclusion] The research provides reference for the effective prevention and control of root rot disease of Jatropha curcas L. In Luodian County.%[目的]鉴定麻疯树根腐病的病原.[方法]从罗甸县境内的不同麻疯树种植地点采集典型的根腐病病根标本,并对其病原物进行了分离培养、致病性测试以及形态特征观察.[结果]最终确认麻疯树根腐病病原菌为腐皮镰孢菌(Fusarium solani).[结论]为贵州罗甸县境内麻疯树根腐病的有效防治提供了参考.

  3. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology

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    Roxana MARIANI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son más frecuentes de 3-4, menos frecuentes 5, 2 y 6, y raramente 1, 7 y 9. Se registra el porcentaje de parasitoidismo de un Hymenoptera oófilo de la familia Eulophidae, Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp. Debido a que M. bellicus ocupa el mismo hábitat ecológico que M. scutellaris Berg, se resaltan las principales diferencias morfológicas y de comportamiento entre las mismas.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Lippia Species from the Brazilian Semiarid Region Traditionally Used as Antiseptic and Anti-Infective Agents

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    Cristiana da Purificação Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia origanoides Kunth, Lippia alnifolia Schauer, and Lippia thymoides Martius and Schauer are shrubs used in the traditional Brazilian medicine as antiseptics, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts of these species, as new potential sources of antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts was investigated against resistant yeasts and bacteria by agar disk diffusion. Then, the MIC determination of the most active species and its fractions in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water was performed. By the agar diffusion assay, all species were active against at least two microorganisms, giving evidence to support their use in the popular medicine. L. origanoides leaves exhibited the widest antimicrobial action, inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts; this activity was also confirmed by the MIC evaluation. The fractionation of L. origanoides crude extracts improved the activity in spectrum and intensity. The results obtained in this study indicate that L. origanoides may be a promising alternative in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and in the seeking of new antimicrobial drugs.

  5. Vegetative propagation capacity of invasive alligator weed through small stolon fragments under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuemei; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Yunfei; Zhi, Heng; Li, Chengcheng; Guo, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The ability to propagate via small diaspores is crucial for the invasion of a clone plant that does not reproduce sexually in its introduced range. We investigated the effects of node and internode adjacent mode, fragment type, burial orientation and position of the node in relation to the soil surface on the sprouting and growth of alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Griseb.). All the factors had effects and interaction effects on the sprouting rate and growth. As a whole fragment in all treatments, the fragments with basal node buried upward on the soil surface, exhibited the best above-ground growth and root growth. The one-node fragment with basal node buried downward above the soil surface and upward under the soil surface significantly decreased the above-ground growth and root growth compared to that of the two-node fragment. Therefore, the one-node fragments were more affected by environmental conditions than the two-node fragments. The results indicated that reducing the number of nodes of a fragment and burying the node under the soil or orienting it downward above the soil surface could be applied to control the invasion of alligator weed. PMID:28262788

  6. Comparison of eight methods of genomic DNA extraction from babassu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, J P G; Borges, A N C; Lopes, A C A; Gomes, R L F; Britto, F B; Lima, P S C; Valente, S E S

    2015-12-22

    Babassu (Orbignya phalerata Martius) is one of the most important palms in Brazil because of the largest morphological variation, wide geographic distribution, and high socio-economic importance. The diversity present in babassu germplasm should be protected against loss to ensure their use with high productivity. Study of the available variability in populations of babassu is necessary to develop conservation strategies. The study of genetic variability can be conducted using molecular markers and many of these studies require significant quantity of high-quality DNA. The present study aimed to effect comparison among eight DNA extraction methods in case of O. phalerata. The quality and concentration of nucleic acids were analyzed by spectrophotometry and integrity of DNA was ascertained by agarose gel electrophoresis. The spectrophotometry revealed that some methods resulted in high levels of concentration of nucleic acids, in which values of the ratio A260/280 and A260/230 were outside the range of purity. The agarose gel electrophoresis established the concentration and integrity of DNA. The methods of Murray and Thompson (1980) and Ferreira and Grattapaglia (1998) did not result in satisfactory quantities of DNA. Conversely, the method proposed by Khanuja et al. (1999) resulted in DNA of adequate quality and quantity that could be satisfactorily used for amplification reactions performed with two ISSR primers.

  7. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis.

  8. O Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro e a criação de um símbolo nacional

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    Rouston Junior, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como principal preocupação analisar alguns elementos importantes existentes nos momentos iniciais da escrita da história do Brasil no período de consolidação do Estado imperial brasileiro, principalmente com a criação, em 1838, do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB, responsável pelas primeiras tentativas de reconstrução do passado do novo país e de produção de uma identidade que se pretendia ser nacional. Tendo em vista este objetivo, analisaremos, num primeiro momento, dois autores: o cônego Januário da Cunha Barbosa e Karl Philipp von Martius. A escolha desses dois autores se deve ao fato de ambos apresentarem, através de suas produções, os fundamentos que deveriam definir a identidade nacional brasileira naquela conjuntura histórica e que tipo de passado e história deveriam ser produzidos naquele momento, ou seja, no contexto de consolidação do Estado imperial. Além disso, apresentaremos algumas características que foram significativas para marcar o papel desempenhado pela literatura romântica indianista na defesa do jovem Estado imperial e na idealização do indígena enquanto símbolo nacional

  9. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

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    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  10. Breeding avifauna of the Special Protection Area Natura 2000 ‘Grądy Odrzańskie’ in Czernica and Siechnice counties, Wrocław district (Poland

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, in the Special Protection Area Natura 2000 ‘Grądy Odrzańskie’ in Czernica and Siechnice counties, Wrocław district, 95 breeding bird species were recorded. For 33 of them, maps of distribution of their breeding pairs are presented and for the remaining a relative abundance was estimated based on line transect method. In 2009, the following species were recorded in the study area for the first time: Cygnus olor, Crex crex, Upupa epops, and Picus canus. On the other hand, 11 species recorded in 1978-87 as breeding in the study area (Ciconia nigra, Pernis apivorus, Milvus migrans, Milvus milvus, Falco tinnunculus, Gallinago gallinago, Limosa limosa, Tringa totanus, Riparia riparia, Anthus campestris, Phoenicurus phoenicurus were not recorded again in 2009. It has been shown that Saxicola torquata, Ficedula albicollis, Corvus corax and Remiz pendulinus have increased in numbers. The following species recorded in 2009 as breeding in the the study area: Cygnus olr, Ciconia ciconia, Circus aeruginosus, Crex crex, Alcedo atthis, Dryocopus martius, Picus canus, Dendrocopos medius, Lulula arborea, Sylvia nisoria, Ficedula albicollis, Lanius collurio and Emberiza hortulana are included in Annex 1 of the Bird Directive.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Carotenoids in Four Species of Trentepohlia (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta

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    Diana Kharkongor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trentepohlia Martius, a dominant green subaerial alga, grows abundantly in Shillong and imparts the yellow, red, and orange colours to most of the tree barks, walls, rocks, and electric poles because of high accumulation of carotenoids in their filaments. This study emphasised the seasonal changes in carotenoid content amongst four different species of Trentepohlia, that is, T. diffracta, T. arborum, T. umbrina, and T. abietina, collected from four different substrata, that is, wall, rock, electric pole, and three types of tree bark (smooth, fissured, and rough. Quantitative estimation of different carotenoids, namely, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene, from HPLC chromatogram peak showed a significant seasonal variation in all of the four species and β-carotene was threefold more in winter compared to summer. Amongst the selected species, T. diffracta collected from wall contained the highest amount of β-carotene both in summer and in winter, followed by T. arborum from rock and T. abietina from bark, and least amount was in T. umbrina collected from electric pole. Comparing the carotenoid content in Trentepohlia abietina growing in different types of barks, sample from smooth bark had the highest amount of carotenoids both in summer and in winter, followed by the sample from rough bark, and lowest amount was noted in fissured bark.

  12. Determination of 40 synthetic food colors in drinks and candies by high-performance liquid chromatography using a short column with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, N; Ichihashi, K

    2008-02-15

    Forty synthetic food colors were determined in drinks and candies by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The following food colors were analyzed within 19 min using a short analytical column (50 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 1.8 microm) at 50 degrees C with gradient elution: Ponceau 6R, Tartrazine, Fast yellow AB, Amaranth, Indigotine, Naphthol yellow S, Chrysoine, Ponceau 4R, Sunset yellow FCF, Red 10B, Orange G, Acid violet 7, Brilliant black PN, Allura red AC, Yellow 2G, Red 2G, Uranine, Fast red E, Green S, Ponceau 2R, Azorubine, Orange I, Quinoline yellow, Martius yellow, Ponceau SX, Ponceau 3R, Fast green FCF, Eosine, Brilliant blue FCF, Orange II, Orange RN, Acid blue 1, Erythrosine, Amido black 10B, Acid red 52, Patent blue V, Acid green 9, Phloxine B, Benzyl violet 4B, and Rose bengal. The recoveries of these compounds added to soft drinks and candies at 5 microg/g ranged from 76.6 to 115.0%, and relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) were within 6.0%. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 microg/g, respectively.

  13. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

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    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  14. Present status of the development of mycoherbicides against water hyacinth: successes and challenges. A review

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    Jijakli, MH.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in the implementation of bioherbicide use in the control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Martius] Solms Laubach have depended primarily on several strategies. The use of bioherbicides has been stimulated as part of the search for alternatives to chemical control, as the use of these more environmentally-friendly formulations minimizes hazards resulting from herbicide residue to both human and animal health, and to the ecology. In addition, one of the major strategies in the concept of biological control is the attempt to incorporate biological weed control methods as a component of integrated weed management, in order to achieve satisfactory results while reducing herbicide application to a minimum. Several fungal pathogens with mycoherbicide potential (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Hyakillä and Cercospora rodmanii, named ABG-5003 have been discovered on diseased water hyacinth plants, but none has become commercially available in the market. Biological, technological, and commercial constraints have hindered progress in this area. Many of these constraints are being addressed, but there is a critical need to better understand the biochemical and physiological data regarding the pathogenesis of these new bioherbicides. Oil emulsions are recognized as a way to increase both efficiency of application and efficacy of biocontrol agents.

  15. Sexual dimorphism and mating behavior in Anomala testaceipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

    2014-01-01

    The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis. Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male's last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found.

  16. German S3-Guideline: Rectovaginal fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommer, Andreas; Herold, Alexander; Berg, Eugen; Fürst, Alois; Schiedeck, Thomas; Sailer, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rectovaginal fistulas are rare, and the majority is of traumatic origin. The most common causes are obstetric trauma, local infection, and rectal surgery. This guideline does not cover rectovaginal fistulas that are caused by chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Results: Rectovaginal fistula is diagnosed on the basis of the patient history and the clinical examination. Other pathologies should be ruled out by endoscopy, endosonography or tomography. The assessment of sphincter function is valuable for surgical planning (potential simultaneous sphincter reconstruction). Persistent rectovaginal fistulas generally require surgical treatment. Various surgical procedures have been described. The most common procedure involves a transrectal approach with endorectal suture. The transperineal approach is primarily used in case of simultaneous sphincter reconstruction. In recurrent fistulas. Closure can be achieved by the interposition of autologous tissue (Martius flap, gracilis muscle) or biologically degradable materials. In higher fistulas, abdominal approaches are used as well. Stoma creation is more frequently required in rectovaginal fistulas than in anal fistulas. The decision regarding stoma creation should be primarily based on the extent of the local defect and the resulting burden on the patient. Conclusion: In this clinical S3-Guideline, instructions for diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal fistulas are described for the first time in Germany. Given the low evidence level, this guideline is to be considered of descriptive character only. Recommendations for diagnostics and treatment are primarily based the clinical experience of the guideline group and cannot be fully supported by the literature. PMID:23255878

  17. Co-processing Plant Extracts for Improvement of Their Pharmacotechnic Properties

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    P. C. Gustmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The herbal Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia can ingested in capsules for treatment of injuries from digestive tract, such as gastritis. However, the large amount of drug administered dose medication adherence difficult, so this study sought an alternative by formulating effervescent granules facilitating drug intake. The obtained granules made by wet and effervescent mixture of citric acid, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate at different concentrations, totaling eight formulations, in addition to lactose as diluent and disintegrant in the composition. The granules were produced in sizes from 1 and 2mm. Rheological tests were compared against the dry extract, analyzed the average particle sizes of beads, mapped its surface by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated their behavior effervescent. The flow properties of the granules showed better values than the dry extract. The co-processed formulations showed average particle sizes distributed closed, where 1mm time effervescence had smaller, respecting all formulations, pharmacopeial limits of maximum 5 minutes. The preparation of effervescent granules Espinheira Santa proved to be a good alternativel, once that have easy preparation, low cost, excellent flow and rapid disintegration.Keywords: Espinheira Santa, effervescent granules, dry extract.

  18. Plant homeostasis of foliar manganese sinks: specific variation in hyperaccumulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Woodrow, Ian E; Baker, Alan J M; Marshall, Alan T

    2012-11-01

    Plant manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulation provides unusual insight into homeostasis of this essential micronutrient, in particular its excessive storage in shoot tissues. The compartmentation of hyperaccumulated foliar Mn appears exceptional among metal hyperaccumulators, since it occurs via specific microdistribution patterns. Here, three associated Mn hyperaccumulators, Virotia neurophylla, Maytenus fournieri, and Garcinia amplexicaulis exhibiting distinctly different Mn detoxification strategies were examined. Non-invasive sample preparation in conjunction with cryo scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to obtain in vivo quantitative microprobe X-ray and anatomical data from fully hydrated cells. Highly vacuolated large palisade mesophyll cells in V. neurophylla leaves were found to contain around 650 mM Mn. The large non-photosynthetic hypodermal cells of M. fournieri leaves, also with high vacuolar content, and the main site for Mn disposal, had an estimated mean vacuolar Mn concentration of around 600 mM. Previous qualitative X-ray mapping had shown Mn to be almost evenly sequestered across the entire leaf cross section of G. amplexicaulis. However, quantitative data obtained here showed a marked variation in localised concentrations that ranged between ~15 and >800 mM. Notable among these were mean values of >600 mM in spongy mesophyll cells, and ~800 mM within cells of a narrow sub epidermal layer preceding the palisade mesophyll. This study demonstrated the extraordinary Mn carrying capacities of different types of leaf cell vacuoles.

  19. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

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    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  20. Determination of herb authenticity by low-field NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preto, M S M; Tavares, M I B; Sebastião, P J O; Azeredo, R B V

    2013-02-15

    The safe use of herbal medicines requires prior authentication of the raw materials used to make them. This is an important step, since the ingestion of herbal preparations or extracts can cause serious health problems. Among the different analytical techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has the advantage of being non-invasive and therefore suitable for the characterization of natural products such as medicinal plants. This work presents a characterisation study of the samples of the popular plant Maytenus ilicifolia, obtained from different commercial producers. This plant is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, as it possesses antitumorigenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The differences in the chemical structure and molecular organisation detected by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were also investigated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, in particular by fast field cycling (FFC) relaxometry, and relaxometry in the rotating frame. All results confirmed the similarity between the control sample and only one of the plant investigated. The differences detected between the samples could be related to their non-authenticity, due to the non recognise the plant due to the leaves similarity among plants from the same family and/or contamination, due to addition of similar other plants parts to the commercial ones, as they are mixed together this difficulties the acceptation of the plant.

  1. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

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    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  2. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  3. Major constituents of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the Caatinga and Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A F; Salatino, A

    2000-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes of leaves of four species (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) from the Caatinga, (a semi-arid ecosystem of Northeast Brazil) and four species (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) from the Cerrado, (a savanna ecosystem covering one third of the Brazilian territory), were analyzed. Six species contained a high content (above 60 microg x cm(-2)) of wax, four of them from the Caatinga. Triterpenoids and n-alkanes were the most frequent and abundant constituents found in the species from both habitats. The distribution of n-alkanes predominated by homologues with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms, displayed no consistent differences between species from the two habitats. Lupeol, beta-amyrin, epifriedelinol and ursolic acid were the triterpenoids found. Triterpenoids clearly predominate over alkanes in the waxes from the Cerrado species. The waxes of two evergreen species from the Caatinga yielded n-alkanes as predominant constituents. A comparison of foliar epicuticular waxes of native plants from ecosystems with different hydric constraints is discussed.

  4. Ethnomedicinal Plants of Barmer District, Rajasthan Used in Herbal and Folk Remedies

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    B.B.S. Kapoor1* and Sunil Kumar2

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barmer district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in herbal plant wealth. The herbal plants of this region havegreat potential to be used in drug and pharmaceutical industries. These herbal plants have been used by local people,tribal communities, vendors, native doctors such as Ojhas, Bhagats Bhopas and experts of Ayurvedic fields sincelong time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar Langa andManganiars communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines.Ethnomedicinal plants like Aristolochia bracteolata Lamk., Calligonum polygonoides Linn., Cardiospermumhalicacabum Linn., Clerodendrum phlomoidis Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Grewia tenax (Forsk. Fiori.,Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Ding Hau., Mollugo Cerviana (Linn. Seringe. Neurada procumbens Linn., Ocimumamericanum Linn., Peganum harmala Linn., Pergularia daemia (Forsk Chiov., Portulaca oleracea Linn.,Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb. Voigt. and Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. have been selected for this researchwork.The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and theiruses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

  5. Evaluation of fungal burden and aflatoxin presence in packed medicinal plants treated by gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Simone; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Rossi, Maria Helena; Nogueira, Juliana Hellmeister de Campos; Reis, Tatiana Alves Dos; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-05-01

    This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinal plants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in São Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a (60)Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinal plants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinal plants subject to long-term storage.

  6. Evaluation of fungal burden of medicinal plants submitted to gamma radiation process after 30 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone; Araujo, Michel M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com; Goncalez, Edlayne; Reis, Tatiana A. dos; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Forty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia and Cassia angustifolia), purchased from pharmacies and street market in the five cities of Sao Paulo State, were irradiated using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with a dose of 10.0 kGy, delivered at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For fungal counts and identification in medicinal plants a serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. Mycological analysis of control samples revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of colony forming units (cfu/g) in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days, using the dose of 10.0 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. (author)

  7. Friedelane-type triterpenoids as selective anti-inflammatory agents by regulation of differential signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Lorenzo, Andrea; Ardiles, Alejandro E; Arroba, Ana I; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Pardo, Virginia; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Valverde, Ángela M

    2016-12-15

    A series of 31 pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the root barks of Celastrus vulcanicola and Maytenus jelskii were tested for cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced NO release at 50 and 25μM concentrations, respectively, and decreased mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, C18 neither inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) nor nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Instead, C18 enhanced and prolonged nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the expression of its target genes including hemeoxigenase 1 (HO1). C25 efficiently inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, without affecting NFκB or Nrf2 signaling pathways. Both compounds reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β (IL1β) proform, reflecting their ability to target the inflammasome. C25 also counteracted LPS effects on iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in Bv-2 microglial cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of both compounds was also assessed in human macrophages. Our results suggest that triterpenoids C18 and C25 possess anti-inflammatory effects, which may be therapeutically relevant for diseases linked to inflammation.

  8. Prevalence Of Traditional Medications Through Native Floral Elements Among Tribal Communities Of Kachchh Arid Ecosystem, Gujarat, India

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    Ekta B Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This communication deals with the documentation of 38 medicinal plant species used for indigenous medications by local villagers such as pastoralists (Maldharis and farmers of Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR, Bhuj Taluka, Kachchh District, Gujarat, India. Traditional knowledge on medicinally important plant species has been recorded from tribal communities through semi-questionnaire survey using an open-ended questionnaire datasheets. The response from the people interviewed clearly indicated that most of the villagers were fully or partially dependent on the forest produce for their primary healthcare requirements as well as for curing chronic or acute disorders and ailments. Plant parts such as bark, flowers, fruits, gum, latex, leaves, roots, seeds, and spadix, were found to be used for the cure of bronchitis, cold, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, earache, fever, fistula, gastric troubles, hypothermia, indigestion, piles, skin diseases, snake-bites, toothache, and ulcer. The most predominantly used 10 plant species in the area are Asparagus racemosus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Capparis cartilaginea, Cassia auriculata, Commiphora wightii, Enicostema axillare, Fagonia schweienfurthii, Maytenus emerginata, Tinospora cordifolia, and Tribulus terrestris. An enumeration of these 38 medicinal plant species is presented; each species is cited with correct scientific names, vernacular names, ailments treated for, mode of preparation and dosages. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 184-201 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9221

  9. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana.

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    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-06-12

    The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 μg g(-1), chromium 0.15-1.27 μg g(-1), lead 0.12-0.23 μg g(-1) and nickel 0.09-0.21 μg g(-1) of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pristimerin, a Triterpenoid, Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis by Targeting VEGFR2 Activation

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    Luyong Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pristimerin is a triterpenoid isolated from Celastrus and Maytenus spp. that has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including anti-cancer activity. However, little is known about pristimerin’s effects on tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the function and the mechanism of this compound in tumor angiogenesis using multiple angiogenesis assays. We found that pristimerin significantly reduced both the volume and weight of solid tumors and decreased angiogenesis in a xenograft mouse tumor model in vivo. Pristimerin significantly inhibited the neovascularization of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM in vivo and abrogated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting in an ex vivo rat aortic ring assay. Furthermore, pristimerin inhibited the VEGF-induced proliferation, migration and capillary-like structure formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies revealed that pristimerin suppressed the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 kinase (KDR/Flk-1 and the activity of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the first time that pristimerin potently suppresses angiogenesis by targeting VEGFR2 activation. These results provide a novel mechanism of action for pristimerin which may be important in the treatment of cancer.

  11. Floristic composition of Peruvian plantcutter (Phytotoma raimondii habitat

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    Mónica Romo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Through of the analysis of the floristic composition of 16 plots of half an hectare in 12 sites where the Phyto-toma raimondii, Peruvian plantcutter exists, we found that richness and diversity of plants are not related to the abundance of the bird, neither the abundance of any of the 7 species used as food or for nestting, except the algarrobo (Prosopis pallida. The most frequent species in the 12 sites were algarroboProsopis pallida(92% of the sites, vichayoCapparis ovalifolia(67%, canutilloGrabowskia boerhaviifolia(58%, sapoteCapparis scabrida(58% and realengoMaytenus octogona(25%. Besides algarrobo, canutillo seem to be a key species because in the plots where only three species occurred, those two were present. In the plots where canutillo was present, realengo did not more than expected statistically. It is alarming the decrease and few places or habitats for the occurrence and reproduction of the Peruvian plantcutter, a species considered in danger of extinction.

  12. [First observations on the topical use of Primin, Plumbagin and Maytenin in patients with skin cancer].

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    Melo, A M; Jardim, M L; De Santana, C F; Lacet, Y; Lobo Filho, J; De Lima e Ivan Leoncio, O G

    1974-12-01

    Eleven cases of patients bearing basic cellular carcinoma, and one case of patient bearing Kaposi's sarcomatosis, all treated with antibiotics isolated by Goncalves de Lima and Co-workers at the Instituto de Antibióticos, are presented by the authors. Primin, an antibiotic extracted from a vegetal named Miconia sp. (Herb. I.A.-1903) with a 2-metoxi-6-n-pentil-p benzoquinone structure, presented a strong antineoplastic action in the cases treated. Plumbagin isolated from Plumbago scandens in local use, was responsible for a complete healing of the injuries treated. Maytenin extracted from Maytenus sp. (Herb. I.A.-1750) showed less activity than the two previous mentioned, but with a low irritant action and late antineoplastic properties. The authors are going on these experiments. They believe that these antibodies, in local use, may advantageously substitute the surgery and the radiotherapy, meanly in those external ear tumidities and back of the nose, owing to a hurtful action in cartilage, provoked by radiotherapy.

  13. Persistência de plantas medicinais em sistemas agroflorestais no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, Brasil

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    A.L. Hanisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 90, a comunidade de Rio Natal, no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, passou a fazer parte de uma Área de Preservação Ambiental e desde então, muitas áreas de cultivo, paulatinamente, estão retomando o processo de formação florestal. Neste cenário, foi sugerido pela comunidade, a possibilidade de cultivo de plantas medicinais adaptadas às condições de sombreamento. Em atendimento a essa demanda foi realizada uma pesquisa participativa na comunidade, de 2005 a 2008, onde foram avaliadas 14 espécies de plantas medicinais com potencial de mercado, cultivadas em áreas sombreadas, em três propriedades familiares. Foram avaliados: taxa de sobrevivência das espécies, incidência de doenças e pragas, teor de massa seca e altura das plantas. Apresentaram persistência ao cultivo em áreas sombreadas as espécies: Curcuma longa L. (açafrão-da-índia; Arctium lappa L. (bardana; Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (fáfia ou ginseng-brasileiro; Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco; Alternanthera brasiliana L. Kuntze (penicilina; Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth (patchuli e Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reissek (espinheira-santa.

  14. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

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    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Nobre Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001).

  15. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the mountains of northern Sicily (Italy)

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    Tinner, Willy; Vescovi, Elisa; Van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; Colombaroli, Daniele; Henne, Paul; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Beffa, Giorgia; Gnaegi, Bettina; Van der Knaap, Pim W O; La Mantia, Tommaso; Pasta, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about vegetation and fire history of the mountains of Northern Sicily is scanty. We analysed five sites to fill this gap and used terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish robust radiocarbon chronologies. Palynological records from Gorgo Tondo, Gorgo Lungo, Marcato Cixé, Urgo Pietra Giordano and Gorgo Pollicino show that under natural or near natural conditions, deciduous forests (Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ulmus), that included a substantial portion of evergreen broadleaved species (Q. suber, Q. ilex, Hedera helix), prevailed in the upper meso-mediterranean belt. Mesophilous deciduous and evergreen broadleaved trees (Fagus sylvatica, Ilex aquifolium) dominated in the natural or quasi-natural forests of the oro-mediterranean belt. Forests were repeatedly opened for agricultural purposes. Fire activity was closely associated with farming, providing evidence that burning was a primary land use tool since Neolithic times. Land use and fire activity intensified during the Early Neolithic at 5000 bc, at the onset of the Bronze Age at 2500 bc and at the onset of the Iron Age at 800 bc. Our data and previous studies suggest that the large majority of open land communities in Sicily, from the coastal lowlands to the mountain areas below the thorny-cushion Astragalus belt (ca. 1,800 m a.s.l.), would rapidly develop into forests if land use ceased. Mesophilous Fagus-Ilex forests developed under warm mid Holocene conditions and were resilient to the combined impacts of humans and climate. The past ecology suggests a resilience of these summer-drought adapted communities to climate warming of about 2 °C. Hence, they may be particularly suited to provide heat and drought-adaptedFagus sylvatica ecotypes for maintaining drought-sensitive Central European beech forests under global warming conditions.

  16. Rodent seed predation promotes differential recruitment among bird-dispersed trees in temperate secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Daniel; Obeso, José Ramón; Martínez, Isabel

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the role of seed predation by rodents in the recruitment of the fleshy-fruited trees Taxus baccata, Ilex aquifolium and Crataegus monogyna in temperate secondary forests in NW Spain. We measured the densities of dispersed seeds, early emerged seedlings, established recruits and adults, at four sites over a period of 2 years. Seed predation among species was compared by seed removal experiments and analysis of rodent larder-hoards. The three species differed markedly in local regeneration patterns. The rank order in the seed rain following decreasing seed density was Ilex, Taxus and Crataegus. However, Crataegus established 3.3 times more seedlings than Taxus. For all species, there was a positive linear relationship between the density of emerged seedlings and seed density, suggesting that recruitment was seed- rather than microsite-limited. A consistent pattern of seed selection among species was exerted by rodents, which preferred Taxus and, secondarily, Ilex seeds to Crataegus seeds. Predation ranking was the inverse of that of seed protection against predators, measured as the mass of woody coat per mass unit of the edible fraction. Recruitment potential, evaluated as the ratio of seedlings to seeds, was negatively related to seed predation, with the rank order Crataegus > Ilex > Taxus. The selective early recruitment limitation exerted by predation may have a demographic effect in the long term, as judged by the positive relationship between early seedling emergence and the density of established recruits. By modulating the pre-emptive competition for seed safe sites, rodents may preclude the progressive exclusion of species that produce low numbers of seeds (i.e. Crataegus) by those dominant in seed number (i.e. Ilex, Taxus), or at least foster the evenness for site occupation among seedlings of different species.

  17. Whole-plant allocation to storage and defense in juveniles of related evergreen and deciduous shrub species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, T P; Karolewski, P; Żytkowiak, R; Chmielarz, P; Oleksyn, J

    2016-05-01

    In evergreen plants, old leaves may contribute photosynthate to initiation of shoot growth in the spring. They might also function as storage sites for carbohydrates and nitrogen (N). We hence hypothesized that whole-plant allocation of carbohydrates and N to storage in stems and roots may be lower in evergreen than in deciduous species. We selected three species pairs consisting of an evergreen and a related deciduous species: Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. and Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Prunus laurocerasus L. and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae), and Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. and Viburnum lantana L. (Adoxaceae). Seedlings were grown outdoors in pots and harvested on two dates during the growing season for the determination of biomass, carbohydrate and N allocation ratios. Plant size-adjusted pools of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems and roots were lower in the evergreen species of Berberidaceae and Adoxaceae, and the slope of the carbohydrate pool vs plant biomass relationship was lower in the evergreen species of Rosaceae compared with the respective deciduous species, consistent with the leading hypothesis. Pools of N in stems and roots, however, did not vary with leaf habit. In all species, foliage contained more than half of the plant's nonstructural carbohydrate pool and, in late summer, also more than half of the plant's N pool, suggesting that in juvenile individuals of evergreen species, leaves may be a major storage site. Additionally, we hypothesized that concentration of defensive phenolic compounds in leaves should be higher in evergreen than in deciduous species, because the lower carbohydrate pool in stems and roots of the former restricts their capacity for regrowth following herbivory and also because of the need to protect their longer-living foliage. Our results did not support this hypothesis, suggesting that evergreen plants may rely predominantly on structural defenses. In summary, our study indicates that leaf habit has

  18. Evaluation of public policies on renewable natural resources management: a forest approach/ br Avaliação da política pública na gestão de recursos naturais renováveis: uma abordagem florestal

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    Ricardo Ralisch

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of palm tree (Euterpe edulis Martius reforestation projects carried out in the 70s’, in the coast of the State of Paraná, with funds collected under the Law 5,106/66 and the Judicial Decree 1,134/70, using a forest approach. Data were provided by IBAMA – The Brazilian Environment and Natural Resources Protection Agency, an autarchy that took on the function once exercised by the IBDF – Brazilian Institute for Forest Development. Results showed that there was an over-dimensioning of plant quantity in these projects, reaching a density level of 5,000 trees/ha, and creating conditions for resources embezzlement. Analysis of the cut down plans throughout history showed that, after 32 years of incentives, only 1.22% of planted trees had been chopped down, according to the plan. This research confirms the non-correlation between palm trees planting areas and cutting down plans, placing the inspection reports elaborated by the IBDF under suspicion. Cost per cut down and subsidized palm tree unit is R$12.57 (twelve reais and fifty seven cents, while, currently, this same adult tree can be bought for R$2.00 (two reais each, characterizing mismanagement of public resources.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência do projeto de reflorestamento de palmito (Euterpe edulis Martius na década de 70, no litoral paranaense, com recursos captados sob a égide da Lei n. 5.106/66 e Decreto-lei n. 1.134/70, numa abordagem florestal. A pesquisa foi realizada com base nos dados que foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – IBAMA, autarquia que sucedeu as funções do extinto Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal – IBDF. Os resultados mostram ter havido um superdimensionamento da quantidade de plantas empregadas nos projetos, chegando a uma densidade de plantio de 5.000 árvores/ha, propiciando condições para o desvio

  19. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae

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    M. Cristina Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae, digging a mine near the epidermis and forming several holes to the exterior. T. romus Bickel & Hernández develop in E. azurea (Sw. Kunth petioles; the mine is curved and short compared with other Thrypticus species. T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández develops in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, and digs the mine between the epidermis and the big central cell of the petioles. T. taragui Bickel & Hernández breeds in submersed stems of P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, and forms a mine close to the epidermis with branches to the central vascular stele. The mines of T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus and T. azuricola could not be associated with the corresponding species. Neither predators nor parasites were found associated with the group, but some cases of cannibalism were observed when two mines were confluent. The truncatus group species have a very specific feeding habit, live completely enclosed within host plant tissues, and feed on the sap obtained from holes chewed in the vascular bundles of the petioles, possibly using yeast as supplementary nourishment. Extensive field collections and laboratory tests indicate that each species in the truncatus group is associated with a specific host plant in the Pontederiaceae. Such specialization suggests a long association between the members of this group and their respective host plants.Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms

  20. Evaluation in public policy on renewable natural resources management in Paraná State: economic and environmental impacts/ Avaliação da política pública na gestão de recursos naturais renováveis no Estado do Paraná: impactos econômicos e ambientais

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    Ricardo Ralisch

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of renewable natural resources management in the State of Paraná, in an approach aimed at economic and environmental impacts. It was based on a case study in areas with unsuccessful incentives and unclarified frauds. The research diagnosed the land tenure and possession structure on the coast of the State of Paraná, by relating data provided by Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – IBAMA on heart-of-palm trees (Euterpe edulis Martius reforestation projects in the 1970’s with cutting and management plans granted. The results indicate that the researched areas are vitiated, with overlappings of tenure titles and land disputes. An analysis of native heart of palm management plans confirmed ineffectiveness, as cuts were allowed in illegal areas, contributing toward Atlantic Forest degradation. The distortions verified in the study remain to the present day, in acquisitions of Conservation Units, in proceedings for the acknowledgement of Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural – (RPPN – Private Natural Heritage Reserves, in Forest Certification – FSC, or in environmental ventures such as the carbon trade, and may constitute a network.O trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência na gestão de recursos naturais renováveis no Estado do Paraná na abordagem de impactos econômicos e ambientais. Baseou-se num estudo de caso em áreas com incentivos malsucedidos e fraudes não esclarecidas. A pesquisa realizada diagnosticou a estrutura fundiária e possessória do litoral paranaense, relacionando com os dados fornecidos pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – IBAMA sobre projetos de reflorestamento de palmito (Euterpe edulis Martius na década de 1970 e com planos de cortes e manejos concedidos. Os resultados apontam que as áreas pesquisadas são viciadas, com sobreposições de títulos dominiais e lit

  1. German S3-Guideline: Rectovaginal fistula [Deutsche S3-Leitlinie: Rektovaginale Fistel

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    Ommer, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Rectovaginal fistulas are rare, and the majority is of traumatic origin. The most common causes are obstetric trauma, local infection, and rectal surgery. This guideline does not cover rectovaginal fistulas that are caused by chronic inflammatory bowel disease.Methods: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Results: Rectovaginal fistula is diagnosed on the basis of the patient history and the clinical examination. Other pathologies should be ruled out by endoscopy, endosonography or tomography. The assessment of sphincter function is valuable for surgical planning (potential simultaneous sphincter reconstruction.Persistent rectovaginal fistulas generally require surgical treatment. Various surgical procedures have been described. The most common procedure involves a transrectal approach with endorectal suture. The transperineal approach is primarily used in case of simultaneous sphincter reconstruction. In recurrent fistulas. Closure can be achieved by the interposition of autologous tissue (Martius flap, gracilis muscle or biologically degradable materials. In higher fistulas, abdominal approaches are used as well. Stoma creation is more frequently required in rectovaginal fistulas than in anal fistulas. The decision regarding stoma creation should be primarily based on the extent of the local defect and the resulting burden on the patient.Conclusion: In this clinical S3-Guideline, instructions for diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal fistulas are described for the first time in Germany. Given the low evidence level, this guideline is to be considered of descriptive character only. Recommendations for diagnostics and treatment are primarily based the clinical experience of the guideline group and cannot be fully supported by the literature.[german] Hintergrund: Rektovaginale Fisteln stellen eine seltene Erkrankung dar. Die Mehrzahl der rektovaginalen Fisteln ist traumatischer Genese. Die wichtigsten

  2. Fungos Filamentosos Associados às Espécies Atta sexdens (Linnaeus e Atta laevigata (F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Aline Dornelas

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. Leaf-cutting ants, Atta and Acromyrmex genera, are considered major pests in a neotropical agroforestry system because they cut plant material that will serve as food for the symbiotic fungus cultivated by them. Several fungi naturally occurring in the soil can be found associated with leaf-cutting ants, many of them are demonstrably entomopathogenic. However, these agents have not been used as biological control of leaf-cutting ants. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify filamentous fungi associated with forage workers of Atta sexdens (Linnaeus and Atta laevigata (F. Smith and to test their pathogenicity against workers from laboratory colonies. To isolate filamentous fungi, it was collected a total of 180 forage workers (30 in each colony in six field colonies, 90 of A. sexdens and 90 workers of A. laevigata. Six fungi species from A. sexdens were isolated and identified: Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, Aspergillus flavus Link, Acremonium sp. 1, Aspergillus sp. 1, Colletotrichum sp. and Acremonium sp. 2. In A. laevigata, it was found four species: Mucor sp., Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani (Martius Saccardo, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem. Three of these fungi were selected for pathogenicity tests against workers of the leaf-cutting ant A. sexdens: A. flavus, A. niger and M. anisopliae. The LT50 (time to cause 50% mortality of workers in tests with A. niger and M. anisopliae were five days and significantly lower than the control group. Therefore, further tests should proceed with those isolates to demonstrate their potential use in the biological control of leaf-cutting ants.

  3. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

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    M. Cristina HERNÁNDEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae, minando cerca de la epidermis y abriendo varios orificios al exterior. La larva de T. romus Bickel & Hernández crece en E. azurea (Sw. Kunth, formando una mina curva, corta en comparación con las otras especies. La larva de T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández se desarrolla en Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, excavando la mina entre la epidermis y la gran celda central de los pecíolos. Por último, la larva de T. taragui Bickel & Hernández se cría en tallos sumergidos de P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, formando una mina subepidérmica con ramificaciones hacia la estela central del tallo. No se pudieron asociar las minas correspondientes a las especies T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus y T. azuricola. No se encontraron predadores ni parásitos de larvas o pupas, se observaron casos de canibalismo entre larvas cuando el trazado de dos minas confluye. Las especies del grupo truncatus poseen un modo de alimentación sumamente específico, confinadas al aerénquima, se alimentan de la savia extraída de los orificios roídos en los haces vasculares de los pecíolos y tallos, posiblemente con levaduras simbiontes como suplemento para la nutrición. Numerosas colecciones en el campo y pruebas en el laboratorio, indican que estos insectos están asociados con plantas hospedadoras específicas dentro de la misma familia. Esta especialización sugiere una larga asociación insecto-hospedadora.

  4. The distribution of presumptive thoracic paraganglionic tissue in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

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    Clarke J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aortic-pulmonary regions (APR of seven adult marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and the region of the right subclavian artery of a further three marmosets were diffusion-fixed with 10% buffered formol-saline solution. In both regions serial 5-µm sections were cut and stained by the Martius yellow, brilliant crystal scarlet and soluble blue method. Presumptive thoracic paraganglionic (PTP tissue was only observed in the APR. PTP tissue was composed of small groups of cells that varied in size and number. The distribution of the groups of cells was extremely variable, so much so that it would be misleading to attempt to classify their position; they were not circumscribed by a connective tissue capsule, but were always related to the thoracic branches of the left vagus nerve. The cells lay in loose areolar tissue characteristic of this part of the mediastinum and received their blood supply from small adjacent connective tissue arterioles. Unlike the paraganglionic tissue found in the carotid body the cells in the thorax did not appear to have a profuse capillary blood supply. There was, however, a close cellular-neural relationship. The cells, 10-15 µm in diameter, were oval or rounded in appearance and possessed a central nucleus and clear cytoplasm. No evidence was found that these cells possessed a 'companion' cell reminiscent of the arrangement of type 1 and type 2 cells in the carotid body. In conclusion, we found evidence of presumed paraganglionic tissue in the APR of the marmoset which, however, did not show the characteristic histological features of the aortic body chemoreceptors that have been described in some non-primate mammals. A survey of the mediastina of other non-human primates is required to establish whether this finding is atypical for these animals.

  5. Implications of Habitat Loss on Seed Predation and Early Recruitment of a Keystone Palm in Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Leiza Aparecida S. S.; Faria, Deborah; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Vieira, Emerson M.; Talora, Daniela C.; Cazetta, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the early recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%). We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E. edulis recruitment to

  6. Armazenamento de sementes de palmiteiro sob atmosfera modificada

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    Maite dos Santos ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do armazenamento sob atmosfera modificada (AM, passiva e ativa, sobre o desempenho de sementes de Euterpe edulis Martius. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: T1 - controle (sem embalagem; T2 - polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD; T3 - PEBD + absorvedor de CO2, T4 - PEBD + N2; e T5 - PEBD + absorvedor de CO2 + N2. O tratamento T2 consistiu no armazenamento em AM passiva e os tratamentos T3, T4 e T5 no armazenamento em AM ativa. As sementes foram armazenadas por 150 e 480 dias a 7 ºC. Após 150 dias de armazenamento, as sementes dos tratamentos com AM (passiva ou ativa mantiveram germinação (%, velocidade de emergência (VE, grau de umidade e vigor (comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz primária e menor condutividade elétrica superiores ao tratamento controle. Após 480 dias de armazenamento, as sementes armazenadas nos tratamentos PEBD, PEBD + N2 e PEBD + absorvedor de CO2 + N2 estavam com maior germinação e menor condutividade elétrica, enquanto as sementes dos tratamentos PEBD e PEBD + N2, maior VE, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz. O grau de umidade não variou significativamente entre os tratamentos de AM, mas esses foram superiores ao controle. A AM contribui para preservar o desempenho das sementes de Euterpe edulis por um período de até 150 dias de armazenamento. Quando há extensão desse período para 480 dias, tanto sob AM passiva como AM ativa, a injeção de N2 é benéfica à conservação de sementes de Euterpe edulis.

  7. Implications of Habitat Loss on Seed Predation and Early Recruitment of a Keystone Palm in Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

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    Soares, Leiza Aparecida S S; Faria, Deborah; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Vieira, Emerson M; Talora, Daniela C; Cazetta, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the early recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%). We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E. edulis recruitment to

  8. Implications of Habitat Loss on Seed Predation and Early Recruitment of a Keystone Palm in Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

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    Leiza Aparecida S S Soares

    Full Text Available Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the early recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%. We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E

  9. Antitumor effect of the essential oil from leaves of Guatteria pogonopus (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do N Fontes, José Eraldo; Ferraz, Rosana P C; Britto, Anny C S; Carvalho, Adriana A; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2013-04-01

    Guatteria pogonopus Martius, a plant belonging to the Annonaceae family, is found in the remaining Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In this study, the chemical composition and antitumor effects of the essential oil isolated from leaves of G. pogonopus was investigated. The chemical composition of the oil was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against three different tumor cell lines (OVCAR-8, NCI-H358M, and PC-3M), and the in vivo antitumor activity was tested in mice bearing sarcoma 180 tumor. A total of 29 compounds was identified and quantified in the oil. The major compounds were γ-patchoulene (13.55%), (E)-caryophyllene (11.36%), β-pinene (10.37%), germacrene D (6.72%), bicyclogermacrene (5.97%), α-pinene (5.33%), and germacrene B (4.69%). The essential oil, but neither (E)-caryophyllene nor β-pinene, displayed in vitro cytotoxicity against all three tumor cell lines tested. The obtained average IC50 values ranged from 3.8 to 20.8 μg/ml. The lowest and highest values were obtained against the NCI-H358M and the OVCAR-8 cell lines, respectively. The in vivo tumor-growth-inhibition rates in the tumor-bearing mice treated with essential oil (50 and 100 mg/kg/d) were 25.3 and 42.6%, respectively. Hence, the essential oil showed significant in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity.

  10. Epitypification of Fusisporium (Fusarium) solani and its assignment to a common phylogenetic species in the Fusarium solani species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, Hans-Josef; Samuels, Gary J; Zhang, Ning; Short, Dylan P G; Juba, Jean; Geiser, David M

    2016-01-01

    Fusisporium solani was described as the causal agent of a dry rot of potato in Germany in the mid 19th century. As Fusarium solani, the species became known as a plurivorous plant pathogen, endophyte, decomposer, and opportunistic pathogen of humans and nutritional symbiont of insects. In parallel, it became evident that the morphologically defined species F. solani represents a phylogenetically and biologically complex group of often morphologically cryptic species that has come to be known in part as the F. solani species complex (FSSC), accommodating several formae speciales and mating populations/biological species. The FSSC currently includes more than 60 phylogenetic species. Several of these have been named, but the majority remains unnamed and the identity of F. solani sensu stricto is unclear. To promote further taxonomic developments in the FSSC, lectoand epitypification is proposed for Fusisporium solani Although no type material for F. solani is known to exist, the species was abundantly illustrated in the protologue. Thus, a relevant illustration provided by von Martius is selected as the lectotype. The epitype selected here originates from a rotting potato collected in a field in Slovenia. This strain causes a dry rot of artificially inoculated potatoes. It groups in the heretofore unnamed phylogenetic species 5, which is nested within clade 3 of the FSSC (FSSC 5). Members of this phylogenetic species have a wide geographic distribution and include soil saprotrophs and plant and opportunistic human pathogens. This typification is consistent with the original description of Fusisporium solani and the concept of F. solani as a widely distributed soil inhabitant and pathogen. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  11. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C; Skaltsounis, Alexios L

    2015-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase) and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms "(plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb) AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease)." The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA). Initially, 1848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases.

  12. Fungos endofíticos associados a plantas medicinais Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants

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    V Mussi-Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a utilização de plantas medicinais em infusões, xaropes, tinturas, ungüentos, dentre outras formas, pressupõe-se que fungos endofíticos, presentes no interior das plantas, mas sem causar doença, possam tornar-se um componente destes produtos, principalmente quando utilizados in natura. Além disso, os fungos endofíticos podem também produzir substâncias tóxicas aos usuários ou mesmo alterar o metabolismo vegetal, modificando a composição e as propriedades medicinais, assim como, a qualidade do produto armazenado e comercializado. Neste sentido, objetivou-se isolar e identificar a flora fúngica endofítica de onze espécies medicinais escolhidas ao acaso. Obtiveram-se culturas-puras dos fungos Phomopsis, Colletotrichum, Pestalotia, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Nigrospora e Glomerella ocorrendo endofiticamente em Plectranthus barbatus, Vernonia condensata, Pfaffia paniculata, Foeniculum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cordia curassavica, Maytenus ilicifolia, Punica granatum, Morus nigra e Bauhinia forficata. As espécies vegetais em que se identificaram o maior número de fungos endofíticos foram Vernonia condensata, Punica granatum e Morus nigra. Todos os fungos recuperados neste trabalho apresentaram características estritamente endofíticas, não manifestando patogenicidade nas espécies hospedeiras. Dentre os fungos detectados, especial atenção deve ser dada ao gênero Fusarium, uma vez que inúmeras espécies deste gênero são conhecidas produtoras de micotoxinas e constituem-se em importantes patógenos pós-colheita.With the use of medicinal plants in infusions, syrups, dyes, unguents, among other forms, it is expected that endophytic fungi, present inside the plants but not causing diseases, become components of these products, especially when used in natura. In addition, endophytic fungi can produce toxic substances to the users or even modify the plant metabolism, altering the medicinal composition and

  13. Composição florística e a conservação de floresta secundárias na serra da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic composition and conservation of old secondary Forest in the serra Cantareira in São Paulo, South-Eastern Brazil.

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    Frederico Alexandre Roccia Dal Pozzo ARZOLLA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Florestas secundárias estão seriamente ameaçadas pela expansão urbana na região metropolitana. Alguns remanescentes são protegidos, principalmente em parques estaduais e municipais, mas a maioria dessas florestas está sob risco de supressão pela contínua expansão de áreas urbanas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a composição florística do componente arbóreo de trecho de floresta, em estágio médio a avançado de regeneração no Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo (SP. Foram realizadas caminhadas nos traçados antigo e novo da Linha de Transmissão Guarulhos–Anhanguera, num total aproximado de 11 km de extensão. A amostragem foi realizada no período de 2006 a 2010. No levantamento florístico, foram identificadas 179 espécies, pertencentes a 54 famílias e 127 gêneros. As famílias com maior riqueza de espécies foram Fabaceae (19 espécies, Myrtaceae (18, Lauraceae (16 e Rubiaceae (15 e os gêneros mais ricos, Ocotea e Myrcia (6, Eugenia (5 e Maytenus, Mollinedia e Nectandra com quatro espécies cada. Foram registradas dez espécies consideradas ameaçadas de extinção, sendo quatro espécies na lista de São Paulo e seis na lista da IUCN. Uma delas, Mollinedia oligotricha, é considerada presumivelmente extinta. A similaridade florística encontrada com outros remanescentes florestais da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo e arredores variou entre 11% a 38%. Florestas secundárias apresentam uma considerável riqueza de espécies, incluindo espécies ameaçadas de extinção. Foram discutidas as pressões incidentes sobre esses remanescentes florestais, bem como possíveis estratégias para a sua conservação.Secondary forests are seriously threatened by urban expansion in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Some remnants are protected, mainly in state or municipal parks, but most of these forests are in immanent danger of being destroyed by the continual expansion of urban areas. The aim of this

  14. Flora arbórea da bacia do rio Tibagi (Paraná, Brasil: Celastrales sensu Cronquist Tree flora of the Tibagi river basin (Paraná, Brazil: Celastrales sensu Cronquist

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    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou, por meio de coleções de herbários, os representantes arbóreos da ordem Celastrales sensu Cronquist, encontrados na bacia do rio Tibagi, estado do Paraná, Brasil. Esta bacia hidrográfica, subdividida em três zonas de norte para sul, baixo Tibagi (BT, médio Tibagi (MT e alto Tibagi (AT, apresenta diferentes condições ambientais e tipos de vegetação ao longo de sua extensão. A ordem Celastrales está representada na bacia estudada por 15 espécies arbóreas, pertencentes às famílias Aquifoliaceae, Celastraceae e Icacinaceae. Icacinaceae conta com apenas duas espécies, Citronella gongonha e C. paniculata, sendo a primeira distinta pelo ovário glabro e folhas geralmente com espinhos. Aquifoliaceae contém seis espécies: Ilex brasiliensis, I. brevicuspis, I. chamaedryfolia, I. dumosa, I. paraguariensis e I. theezans, que ocorrem preferencialmente no AT e MT e se distinguem pela dimensão, revestimento, ápice e margem da folha e pela morfologia das sépalas. Celastraceae está representada por sete espécies pertencentes a dois gêneros, Plenckia populnea, espécie de cerrado, encontrada apenas no MT e seis espécies de Maytenus (M. aquifolia, M. dasyclada, M. evonymoides, M. ilicifolia, M. robusta e M. salicifolia, com distinção baseada principalmente no tipo de margem e dimensão das folhas, forma do ramo e número de flores por inflorescência.A study of the tree species of the order Celastrales sensu Cronquist from the Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil, is presented, based on herbarium material. This basin is subdivided into three zones, from north to south: lower Tibagi (BT, mid Tibagi (MT and upper Tibagi (AT, each with different environmental conditions and vegetation types. The order Celastrales is represented in the basin by 15 tree species belonging to three families: Aquifoliaceae, Celastraceae and Icacinaceae. Icacinaceae has only two species, Citronella gongonha and C. paniculata. The

  15. O Complexo Vegetacional da Zona Litorânea no Ceará: Pecém, São Gonçalo do Amarante The vegetation complex of the coastal zone of Ceará: Pecém, São Gonçalo do Amarante

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    Antônio Sérgio Farias Castro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O Litoral Setentrional do Nordeste (LSN por sua localização geográfica apresenta clima mais quente e seco do que na costa leste do Brasil. Por sua proximidade com a caatinga e o cerrado, o LSN permite a co-existência de espécies destes Domínios conjuntamente com espécies de restinga, em diferentes formações, constituindo um Complexo Vegetacional. Apesar da grande importância ecológica e botânica deste ecótono, existem poucos estudos sobre a flora regional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aprofundar o conhecimento sobre a composição florística e fitossociológica da região. Para isso, fizemos um levantamento florístico na área (entre 2007-2011, bem como consultas a registros de herbário na região e um levantamento fitossociológico em um trecho da floresta estacional semidecídua costeira (mata de tabuleiro. Foram inventariadas 382 espécies vegetais, pertencentes a 96 famílias. Na parcela fitossociológica (0,32 ha foram registrados 2.970 indivíduos de 52 espécies, sendo as mais abundantes as arbóreas Manilkara triflora, Chamaecrista ensiformis e Guapira nitida e as arbustivas Cordiera sessilis e Maytenus erythroxyla (altura média 3,8 m, diâmetro médio 6,2 cm, área basal 39,28 m²/ha. A flora local inclui elementos florísticos de caatinga, cerrado e restinga, sugerindo que a comunidade vegetal na região costeira do Ceará possui natureza ecotonal.Due to its geographical location, the northeastern Coast of Brazil (Litoral Setentrional do Nordeste - LSN is a hotter and drier climate than the eastern coast. In addition, because of its proximity to caatinga and cerrado, the LSN contains species from these vegetation biomes and from the restinga on the coast, which comprise different plant formations and creates a vegetation complex. Despite the great importance of this ecotone, there are few studies about its flora. The objective of this work was to contribute to what is known about the floristic and phytosociological

  16. Evaluation of the proliferative activity of methanol extracts from six medicinal plants in murine spleen cells

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    Rodrigo Hermes Zandonai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural compounds have been used as immunomodulatory agents, enabling the function of the immune system to be modified by stimulating or suppressing it. There has been increasing interest in the study of therapeutic action of plant extracts regarding their immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the action of extracts of the medicinal plants Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis and Vernonia scorpioides on the development of spleen cells from mice, using the in vitro cellular proliferation assay. The cells, obtained by mechanical rupture of mice spleen (5x10(4 cells/mL, were incubated with methanol extracts (10, 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL and phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 5 µg/mL. The basal control for proliferation consisted of cells alone, while the positive control consisted of cells and PHA. The cell culture was kept at 37 ºC in 5% CO2 for 72 hours, and cell proliferation was revealed by the blue tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT. The results were expressed as percentage of growth and were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The C. brasiliense, I. pes-caprae and M. elaeagnoides extracts showed dose-dependent induction of cell proliferation, with a significant increase in cell proliferation (pVárias substâncias de origem natural têm sido utilizadas como agentes imunomoduladores, permitindo modificar a função do sistema imune e propiciando o estudo de atividades terapêuticas de extratos de plantas. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a atividade imunomodulatória dos extratos de seis plantas medicinais da flora brasileira, Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis e Vernonia scorpioides, sobre a proliferação de células esplênicas de camundongos. As células esplênicas murinas obtidas por ruptura mecânica do baço (5x14³ células/mL foram

  17. Perfil dos consumidores de plantas medicinais e condimentares do município de Pato Branco (PR The profile of consumers medicinal plants and spices of Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil

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    José Abramo Marchese

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosticou-se o perfil dos consumidores de supermercados em Pato Branco (PR, com relação às suas preferências pelas plantas medicinais e condimentares, como subsídio à produção por pequenos produtores rurais. Os consumidores preferem produtos orgânicos, observam a aparência e o preço do produto, e vão ao mercado uma vez por semana, preferencialmente aos sábados. As dez plantas medicinais preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são camomila, anis, boldo, carqueja, guaco, malva, poejo, espinheira-santa, menta e sálvia. As dez plantas condimentares preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são cebola, cravo, canela, orégano, alho, nóz-moscada, pimentão, cebolinha, endro e salsinha.The profile of supermarket users in Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil, was obtained, related to their preference for medicinal and spice plants, as a subsidy to production by small farmers. The consumers prefer organic products observing the appearance and price of the product, and they go once a week to the market, preferably on Saturdays. The ten favorite medicinal plants are Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Vernonia condensata, Baccharis sp., Mikania sp., Malva sp., Cunilla sp., Maytenus sp., Mentha sp. and Salvia officinalis. The ten favorite spices are: Allium cepa, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgaris, Allium sativum, Myristicia fragans, Capsicum annuum, Allium schoenoprasum, Anethum graveolens and Petroselinum crispum.

  18. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market; Avaliacao da microbiota fungica e da presenca de micotoxinas em amostras de plantas medicinais irradiadas adquiridas no comercio varejista e atacadista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-07-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a {sup 60}Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  19. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  20. Trichothecin induces cell death in NF-κB constitutively activated human cancer cells via inhibition of IKKβ phosphorylation.

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    Jia Su

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is involved in tumorigenesis and chemo-resistance. As the key regulator of NF-κB, IKKβ is a major therapeutic target for various cancers. Trichothecin (TCN is a metabolite isolated from an endophytic fungus of the herbal plant Maytenus hookeri Loes. In this study, we evaluated the anti-tumor activity of TCN and found that TCN markedly inhibits the growth of cancer cells with constitutively activated NF-κB. TCN induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells, activating pro-apoptotic proteins, including caspase-3, -8 and PARP-1, and decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. Reporter activity assay and target genes expression analysis illustrated that TCN works as a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway. TCN inhibits the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and blocks the nuclear translocation of p65, and thus inhibits the expression of NF-κB target genes XIAP, cyclin D1, and Bcl-xL. Though TCN does not directly interfere with IKKβ kinase, it suppresses the phosphorylation of IKKβ. Overexpression of constitutively activated IKKβ aborted TCN induced cancer cell apoptosis, whereas knockdown of endogenous IKKβ with siRNA sensitized cancer cells toward apoptosis induced by TCN. Moreover, TCN showed a markedly weaker effect on normal cells. These findings suggest that TCN may be a potential therapeutic candidate for cancer treatment, targeting NF-κB signaling.

  1. The triterpenes 3β-lup-20(29)-en-3-ol and 3β-lup-20(29)-en-3-yl acetate and the carbohydrate 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-O-acetyl-dulcitol as photosynthesis light reactions inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-de-Oliveira, Djalma; Aguilar, Maria-Isabel; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Vieira-Filho, Sidney Augusto; Pains-Duarte, Lucinier; Silva, Grácia-Divina de Fátima; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2011-12-01

    Three compounds were isolated from Maytenus acanthophylla Reissek (Celastraceae): the pentacyclic triterpenes lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (lupeol, 1) and 3β-lup-20(29)-en-3-yl acetate (2) and the carbohydrate 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-O-acetyldulcitol (3); lupeol was also isolated from Xylosma flexuosa. The compounds' structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 acts as an energy transfer inhibitor, interacting with isolated CF₁ bound to thylakoid membrane, and dulcitol hexaacetate 3 behaves as a Hill reaction inhibitor and as an uncoupler, as determined by polarography. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence induction kinetics from the minimum yield F₀ to the maximum yield F(M )provides information of the filling up from electrons coming from water to plastoquinone pool with reducing equivalents. In this paper we have examined the effects of compounds 1 and 3 on spinach leaf discs. Compound 1 induces the appearance of a K-band, which indicates that it inhibits the water splitting enzyme. In vivo assays measuring the fluorescence of chl a in P. ixocarpa leaves sprayed with compound 1, showed the appearance of the K-band and the PSII reaction centers was transformed to "heat sinks" or silent reaction centers unable to reduce Q(A). However, 3 also induced the appearance of a K band and a new band I appears in P. ixocarpa plants, therefore it inhibits at the water splitting enzyme complex and at the PQH₂ site on b₆f complex. Compounds 1 and 3 did not affect chlorophyll a fluorescence of L. perenne plants.

  2. The Triterpenes 3β-Lup-20(29-en-3-ol and 3β-Lup-20(29-en-3-yl Acetate and the Carbohydrate 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexa-O-acetyl-dulcitol as Photosynthesis Light Reactions Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas Lotina-Hennsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three compounds were isolated from Maytenus acanthophylla Reissek (Celastraceae: the pentacyclic triterpenes lup-20(29-en-3β-ol (lupeol, 1 and 3β-lup-20(29-en-3-yl acetate (2 and the carbohydrate 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-O-acetyldulcitol (3; lupeol was also isolated from Xylosma flexuosa. The compounds’ structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 acts as an energy transfer inhibitor, interacting with isolated CF1 bound to thylakoid membrane, and dulcitol hexaacetate 3 behaves as a Hill reaction inhibitor and as an uncoupler, as determined by polarography. Chlorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics from the minimum yield F0 to the maximum yield FM provides information of the filling up from electrons coming from water to plastoquinone pool with reducing equivalents. In this paper we have examined the effects of compounds 1 and 3 on spinach leaf discs. Compound 1 induces the appearance of a K-band, which indicates that it inhibits the water splitting enzyme. In vivo assays measuring the fluorescence of chl a in P. ixocarpa leaves sprayed with compound 1, showed the appearance of the K-band and the PSII reaction centers was transformed to “heat sinks” or silent reaction centers unable to reduce QA. However, 3 also induced the appearance of a K band and a new band I appears in P. ixocarpa plants, therefore it inhibits at the water splitting enzyme complex and at the PQH2 site on b6f complex. Compounds 1 and 3 did not affect chlorophyll a fluorescence of L. perenne plants.

  3. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  4. Precipitation signal in pollen rain from tropical forests, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, D; Bonnefille, R

    2001-04-01

    We have analyzed the pollen content of 51 surface soil samples collected in tropical evergreen and deciduous forests from the Western Ghats of South India sampled along a west to east gradient of decreasing rainfall (between 11 degrees 30-13 degrees 20'N and 75 degrees 30-76 degrees 30'E). Values of mean annual precipitation (Pann, mm/yr) have been calculated at each of the 51 sampling sites from a great number of meteorological stations in South India, using a method of data interpolation based on artificial neural network. Interpolated values at the pollen sites of Pann range from 1200 to 5555mm/yr, while mean temperature of the coldest month (MTCO) remains >15 degrees C and humidity factor (AET/PET, the actual evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration ratio) remains also included between 65 and 72%.Results are presented in the form of percentage pollen diagrams where samples are arranged according to increasing values of annual precipitation. They indicate that the climatic signal of rainfall is clearly evidenced by distinct pollen associations. Numerical analyses show that annual precipitation is an important parameter explaining the modern distribution of pollen taxa in this region. Pollen taxa markers of high rainfall (Pann >2500mm/yr) are Mallotus type, Elaeocarpus, Syzygium type, Olea dioica, Gnetum ula, and Hopea type, associated with Ixora type and Caryota. Pollen taxa markers of low rainfall (Pann <2500mm/yr) are Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Maytenus type, Lagerstroemia and Grewia. The proportions of evergreen taxa and of arboreal taxa vary according to rainfall values. Indeed, when rainfall is <2500mm/yr, percentage of arboreal pollen (AP) is <50% and proportion of evergreen taxa is <20%. When rainfall exceeds 2500mm/yr, AP values average 70%, and proportion of evergreen taxa increases from 60 to 90%. Moreover, a good correlation between precipitation and proportion of evergreen taxa (0.85) presumes that precipitation can be estimated from

  5. Dynamics of plant--frugivore interactions: a long-term perspective on holly--redwing relationships in northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitián, José; Bermejo, Teresa

    2006-09-01

    The ecological and evolutionary importance of plant-animal mutualistic relationships depends largely on temporal stability in these relationships, so that only studies performed over a relatively long period can hope to offer a realistic picture of the interactions. The published studies on among-year variation in variables relevant to plant-frugivore interactions have all found marked variations. We investigated relationships between holly ( Ilex aquifolium L.) and the main disperser of holly seeds, the redwing ( Turdus iliacus L.), in the Sierra de Ancares (Galicia, NW Spain). We studied holly dependence on redwing over a 21-year period, monitoring birds feeding on holly fruits. To evaluate redwing dependence on holly fruits, we analyzed a total of 1109 redwing droppings obtained during a total of 17 years. To investigate interannual relationships between holly fruits and redwing abundance, we estimated the fruit set of marked holly females over a 9-year period, and performed redwing censuses along 4 km of track per year. To assess long-term changes in redwing abundance we compared two periods separated by 23 years: 1979-1982 and 2001-2005. Possible long-term changes in holly abundance in the woodland study area were investigated by vegetation analyses performed in 1979 and 2005 (27 years later). The redwing was the most important disperser of holly in all years (85% of feeding records, N = 3771). Over a 17-year period, holly fruits were the main component of the redwing diet during the winter (November-December) (present in 96% of the 1109 droppings analyzed; the only component present in 85% of droppings). Holly fruit availability showed significant interannual variation, but this variation does not appear to have affected the importance of holly fruits in the redwing diet. There were more redwings in the years with higher holly fruit abundance, but this relationship was not statistically significant. There was no difference in redwing abundance between the

  6. Seedling diversity and spatially related regenaration dynamics in holly woodlands and surrounding habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arrieta

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of seedling distribution and diversity were analysed in small fragments of holly Ilex aquifolium L. woodlands and in their surrounding areas. Two sampling locations with similar structure were selected for this study: Oncala and Robregordo. They consist of nearly monospecific Ilex stands surrounded by grasslands with high scrub abundance.

    The seedling appearance of woody species was quantified from March to November 1998. Sampled areas were: 1 closed holly canopy; 2 open holly canopy or small forest gaps; 3 holly woodland edge; 4 surrounding grassland; 5 under isolated fleshy-fruited shrubs scattered over the grassland; 6 under dry-fruited shrubs and 7 the closest forest to the holly woodland. Additionally, a pine forest at a distance of 20 km from Oncala was sampled. In every area ten permanent 50 × 50 cm quadrats were fixed for monthly seedling control.

    The highest germination density occurs under the holly woodland, especially in closed canopy areas. Nevertheless, these closed woodlands neither maintain a great quantity of surviving seedlings nor a high diversity. Seedling density is considerable in canopy gaps, shrubs and forest edge, and these habitats have greater diversity values than understorey habitats. Fleshy-fruited shrubs maintain higher seedling densities and diversity than dry-fruited shrubs. Woody seedlings are rare over the grassland. The three non-holly forests studied have very similar seedling densities and diversity values, higher than those under closed-canopy holly.

    Regional differences are important for the numbers of seedlings surviving from previous years, which are scareer in Robregordo. However, little difference is observed in spatial patterns of seedling diversity between the two locations.

    We discuss a number of processes affecting seed rain density and differential mortality rates that could account for these spatial patterns, namely competition

  7. Mast cells in common wolffish Anarhichas lupus L.: ontogeny, distribution and association with lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Hege; Bjerkås, Inge; Vågnes, Øyvind B; Noga, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    The morphology, ontogeny and tissue distribution of mast cells were studied in common wolffish(Anarhichas lupus L.) at the larval, juvenile and adult life stages using light and electron-microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Fish were sampled at 1 day, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-hatching in addition to 6 and 9 months and 2 years and older. From 8 weeks post-hatching, mast cells in common wolffish mainly appeared as oval or rounded cells 8-15 mm in diameter with an eccentrically placed, ovoid nucleus and filled with cytoplasmic granules up to 1.2 mm in diameter. Granules were refractile and eosinophilic to slightly basophilic in H&E and stained bright red with Martius-scarlet-blue and purple with pinacyanol erythrosinate in formalin-fixed tissues. Mast cells stained positive for piscidin 4 and Fc ε RI by immunohistochemistry. From 1 day to 4 weeks post-hatching, immature mast cell containing only a few irregularly sized cytoplasmic granules were observed by light and electron-microscopy in loose connective tissue of cranial areas. From 1 day post-hatching, these cells stained positive for piscidin 4 and Fc ε RI by immunohistochemistry. From 12 weeks post-hatching, mast cells showed a primarily perivascular distribution and were particularly closely associated with lymphatic vessels and sinuses. Mast cells were mainly located at the peripheral border of the adventitia of arteries and veins, while they were in intimate contact with the endothelium of the lymphatic vessels. Numerous mast cells were observed in the intestine. A stratum compactum, as described in salmonids, was not observed in wolffish intestine,nor were mast cells confined to a separate layer, a stratum granulosum. Lymphatic vessels consisting of endothelium, intimal connective tissue and a poorly developed basal lamina were observed in the intestine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the structure and localization of intestinal mast cells of common wolffish and rainbow trout

  8. Thrombocytopenia in the experimental leptospirosis of guinea pig is not related to disseminated intravascular coagulation

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    HU Bao-Yu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombocytopenia is commonly observed in severe leptospirosis. However, previous studies on coagulation alterations during leptospirosis resulted in inconsistent conclusions. Some findings showed that the prominent levels of thrombocytopenia observed in severe leptospirosis did not reflect the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC syndrome, while the others reached the conclusion that the hemorrhages observed in leptospirosis were due to DIC. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether DIC is an important feature of leptospirosis. Methods The leptospirosis model of guinea pig was established by intraperitoneal inoculation of Leptospira interrogans strain Lai. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry staining were used to detect the pathologic changes. Platelet thrombus or fibrin thrombus was detected by HE, Martius Scarlet Blue (MSB staining and electron microscopy. Hemostatic molecular markers such as 11-dehydrogenate thromboxane B2 (11-DH-TXB2, thrombomodulin (TM, thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, D-Dimer and fibrin (ogen degradation products (FDPs in the plasma were examined by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to evaluate the hematological coagulative alterations in leptospirosis models. Results Pulmonary hemorrhage appeared in the model guinea pig 24 hours after leptospires intraperitoneal inoculation, progressing to a peak at 96 hours after the infection. Leptospires were detected 24 hours post-inoculation in the liver, 48 hours in the lung and 72 hours in the kidney by immunohistochemistry staining. Spiral form of the bacteria was initially observed in the liver, lung and kidney suggestive of intact leptospires, granular form of leptospires was seen as the severity increased. Platelet aggregation in hepatic sinusoid as well as phagocytosis of erythrocytes and platelets by Kupffer cells were both observed. Neither platelet thrombus

  9. Analysis of different management systems for water and soil conservation in experimental plots of "macauba" (Acrocomia aculeata) in Araponga (MG, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Lúcio-Correa, João; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil, the conservation of water resources and agricultural soil are key environmental and economic aspects to mantain land services and the quality of life people in rural and urban communities. The macaw - Acrocomia aculeata) (Jacq.) Lodd. (Ex Martius) - is a Brazilian native oleaginous palm, whose potential has been highlighted in the scientific community due to its high economic potential and its recent advances in crop farming. This study aims to quantify the runoff in macaw plantation, comparing different techniques of crop management for a period of one year (from September 2012 to August 2013). The data from this study were collected in the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) located in the municipality of Araponga, MG, Brazil. The seedlings took place in February 2009, in holes, spaced 5X5 in an area of 1.7 ha (680 plants) with a slope of 25%. Rainfall was monitored through three pluviometers with expose area of 162.86 cm² whereas the impact of different management systems on runoff was measured by using 10 plots of 63 m² each: 3 treatments with three repetitions plus the control plot. Each plot presented four macaw plants. The treatment one (T1), was formed by macaw plants without using any soil conservation technique; the treatment two (T2) consisted of macaws with a contour cord with 40 cm wide by 30 cm deep, located between the plantation lines; for the treatment three (T3) beans were planted forming vegetation strips; the control (T0) was represented by a portion without macaws plants, with spontaneous vegetation growing throughout the plot, which was not used any soil conservation technique. T2 presented the lowest values of runoff during the twelve months and at the same time, the greatest requirements of initial rainfall for runoff generation. In contrast, T3 showed the highest volumes of runoff for the study period, with a small reduction with the exception of January and February 2013, when the bean plants were well

  10. Vasculitis as part of the fetal response to acute chorioamnionitis likely plays a role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis and spontaneous intestinal perforation in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, Jonathan; Owen, Anthony; Coombs, Robert; Cohen, Marta

    2015-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) are causes of bowel perforation in premature neonates. Studies have demonstrated that both are associated with acute chorioamnionitis (ACA) of the placenta. The aim of our study was to identify any histopathological links between placental histopathological abnormalities and the later development of NEC and/or SIP in premature patients presenting at our institution. Cases with a diagnosis of NEC/SIP were identified. Entry criteria were the diagnosis of NEC/SIP was confirmed clinically and/or histologically, had been made within the first 7 days of life, neonates were premature, and the placenta had been submitted for histological examination. In those cases with ACA, CD34 immunohistochemistry and Martius scarlet blue staining was performed. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, clinical variables, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test. In total, 21 cases met defined inclusion criteria (12 NEC, 8 SIP, and 1 clinically indeterminate). Mean gestational age was 27 weeks. Median age of presentation was 5 days. Placental histology showed ACA in 16 of 21 cases (76.2%). Of those with ACA, 13 of 16 (81.3%) had umbilical phlebitis, 12 of 16 (75.0%) had umbilical arteritis, 6 of 16 (37.5%) funisitis, and 12 of 16 (75.0%) had chorionic vasculitis. No differences (p > 0.05) were seen between ACA and diagnosis or clinical outcome (Fisher exact test). Of the 16 cases, 14 with ACA that later developed either NEC or SIP showed vasculitis in the umbilical cord and/or chorionic plate and/or stem villi vasculature. The association between ACA and vasculitis was highly significant (p vasculitis. NEC or SIP shows a significant association with ACA with presence of vasculitis as part of the FIR (p < 0.01). In a proportion of cases, the development of fibrin deposition in response to vasculitic endothelial damage of the placental vasculature may form part of

  11. Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaura, C N; Keriko, J M; Mutai, C; Yenesew, Abiy; Gathirwa, J W; Irungu, B N; Nyangacha, R; Mungai, G M; Derese, Solomon

    2015-12-04

    Maytenus obtusifolia was very promising (IC50 malaria and antimalarial activity. The results seem to indicate that ethnopharmacological inquiry used in search for new herbal remedies as predictive and could be used as the basis for search of new active principles. Eight plant (8) species are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. This is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and evaluation of its antiplasmodial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Avaliação da Qualidade de Amostras de Plantas Medicinais Comercializadas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pamplona Cardozo Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drogas vegetais constituem uma das matérias-primas utilizadas na fabricação de fitoterápicos, além de serem largamente utilizadas pela população como recurso terapêutico. O mercado de produtos derivados de matéria-prima vegetal, com isso, se tornou alvo de investimentos de empresas do setor farmacêutico. O presente trabalho objetivou verificar a qualidade de drogas vegetais comercializadas no mercado brasileiro, utilizando-se conjuntamente métodos de análise simples e de baixo custo.Para tanto , foram usadas amostras de “centela”, “chá verde” e “espinheira santa”, obtidas em estabelecimentos comerciais, sendo sua identidade e qualidade avaliadas por meio de análises anatômicas e microquímicas. O estudo anatômico demonstrou que as três amostras de centela continham Centella asiatica, estando algumas em mau estado de conservação. Os contaminantes desta amostra eram principalmente outras partes do corpo vegetativo de C. asiatica, além de folhas de Poaceae e de outras espécies vegetais. Duas amostras de chá verde foram identificadas como Camellia sinensis e apresentavam caules da mesma espécie como contaminantes. A terceira amostra de chá verde era constituída por Ilex paraguariensis, sendo que folhas de Bambusoideae (Poaceae também foram encontradas. Uma das amostras de espinheira santa era constituída de Sorocea bonplandii. As demais continham folhas e fragmentos de caule de Maytenus ilicifolia. As três amostras de centela apresentaram saponinas triterpênicas. Todas as amostras de chá verde possuíam metilxantinas. Dessas, apenas aquelas constituídas por C. sinensis demonstraram a presença de flavonoides. As amostras de espinheira-santa apresentaram taninos condensados. Desse modo, as metodologias propostas forneceram resultados complementares que podem ser empregados no controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais.

  13. Medicinal plants in Brazil: Pharmacological studies, drug discovery, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Rafael C; Campos, Maria M; Santos, Adair R S; Calixto, João B

    2016-10-01

    This review article focuses on pre-clinical and clinical studies with some selected Brazilian medicinal plants in different areas of interest, conducted by research groups in Brazil and abroad. It also highlights the Brazilian market of herbal products and the efforts of Brazilian scientists to develop new phytomedicines. This review is divided into three sections. The section I describes the Brazilian large biodiversity and some attempts of Brazilian scientists to assess the pharmacological profile of most plant extracts or isolated active principles. Of note, Brazilian scientists have made a great effort to study the Brazilian biodiversity, especially among the higher plants. In fact, more than 10,000 papers were published on plants in international scientific journals between 2011 and 2013. This first part also discussed the main efforts to develop new medicines from plants, highlighting the Brazilian phytomedicines market. Despite the large Brazilian biodiversity, notably with the higher plants, which comprise over 45,000 species (20-22% of the total worldwide), and the substantial number of scientific publications on medicinal plants, only one phytomedicine is found in the top 20 market products. Indeed, this market is still only worth about 261 million American dollars. This represents less than 5% of the global Brazilian medicine market. The section II of this review focus on the use of Brazilian plant extract and/or active principles for some selected diseases, namely: central nervous systems disorders, pain, immune response and inflammation, respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal tract and metabolic diseases. Finally, section III discusses in more details some selected Brazilian medicinal plants including: Cordia verbenacea, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mandevilla velutina, Phyllanthus spp., Euterpe oleracea, Vitis labrusca, Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum polyanthemum, Maytenus ilicifolia, Protium kleinii and Protium heptaphylium and Trichilia catigua. Most

  14. Preference of goats (Capra hircus L.) for tanniniferous browse species available in semi-arid areas in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, G; Bezabih, M; Hendriks, W H; Pellikaan, W F

    2016-11-29

    The objectives were to determine browse species preference of goats using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy, to compare preference when offered in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and to establish relationships between browse species intake and chemical compositional data. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days, were conducted using four local mature male goats of 2-2.5 years receiving a daily ration of grass hay (4% of body weight) and 200 g wheat bran. In trial 1, goats were offered 25 g of each browse species for a total of 30 min with intake, time spent on consumption and the number of visits to specific browse species recorded at 10-min intervals. In trial 2, the same procedure was followed except that 25 g of PEG 4000 was added to the daily wheat bran ration. Crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in browse species ranged from 69.0-245.5 to 159.8-560.6 g/kg dry matter (DM) respectively. Total phenols and total tannins contents ranged between 3.7-70.6 and 2.5-68.1 mg tannic acid equivalent/g DM, respectively, and condensed tannins 1.7-18.4 Abs550 nm /g DM. Preference indicators measured in the first 10 min of browse species intake differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (p < 0.0001). Principal components explained 69.9% of the total variation in browse species DMI. Despite the high tannin levels, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Tannin levels at the observed browse species DMI did not determine preference, instead, preference appeared to be based on hemicellulose. Determining browse species preference is essential to exploit them to improve nutrient utilization and control parasites in goats.

  15. Avaliação do fator de proteção solar em fotoprotetores acrescidos com extratos da flora brasileira ricos em substâncias fenólicas

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    Vanessa Marquito Munhoz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que o número de casos de câncer de pele tem crescido muito nos últimos anos. Com isso, novos produtos são constantemente desenvolvidos no intuito de aumentar a gama de substâncias para proteção solar. O principal objetivo desse trabalho foi a análise in vitro da propriedade fotoprotetora de uma formulação contendo filtros solares químicos, adicionada de extratos brutos de Guazuma ulmifolia, Maytenus ilicifolia, Stryphnodendron adstringens e Trichilia catigua, respectivamente, e a avaliação quanto ao acréscimo do Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS. O ensaio foi conduzido pelo método espectrofotométrico in vitro do Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS. O teor de Polifenóis Totais (PT e sua correlação com a Capacidade Antioxidante (CA dos extratos avaliados foram realizados. Os resultados demonstram que as formulações foram estáveis após a adição dos extratos, quanto a características físicoquímicas (características macroscópicas, ensaio de centrifugação e pH quando comparadas ao controle. O ensaio de FPS in vitro demonstrou decaimento do FPS das formulações acrescidas de extratos vegetais ricas em compostos fenólicos, exceto para o extrato de S. adstringens. Os FPS obtidos para os extratos foram ≤2. O teor em PT foram (%: G. ulmifolia, 24,26±0,34; M. ilicifolia, 14,66±0,18; S. adstringens, 34,38±0,62 e T. catigua, 41,60±0,13. Os valores da CA (IC50 frente ao radical DPPH foram (μg/mL: vitamina C (7,52±0,12, G. ulmifolia (8,94±0,13, M. ilicifolia (38,41±0,93, S. adstringens (7,31±0,15 e T. catigua (5,48±0,04. A CA foi diretamente proporcional ao teor de PT.

  16. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium

  17. Allometria da palmeira babaçu em um agroecossistema de derruba-e-queima na periferia este da Amazônia Allometry of the babassu palm growing on a slash-and-burn agroecosystem of the eastern periphery of Amazonia

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    Christoph Gehring

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A palmeira babaçu (Attalea speciosa C.Martius, Arecaceae tem grande importância socioeconômica e ecológica em grande parte da área tropical brasileira, especialmente em áreas degradadas por queimadas freqüentes na Amazônia. No entanto, ainda pouco se sabe sobre as características ecológicas desta espécie-chave. Este estudo investiga a alometria do babaçu com o objetivo de estabelecer uma metodologia eficiente na estimativa da biomassa aérea de palmeiras juvenis e adultas e para um melhor entendimento da sua arquitetura. A biomassa de palmeiras juvenis pode ser estimada facilmente e com precisão com o diâmetro mínimo das ráquis das folhas a 30 cm de extensão. A biomassa de palmeiras adultas pode ser estimada com base na altura do tronco lenhoso, também relativamente de fácil medição em campo. A biomassa foliar das palmeiras adultas foi em media 31,7% da biomassa aérea, porém houve uma alta variação e, portanto, somente pode ser estimada indiretamente através da relação entre a razão madeira:folha e biomassa aérea total. Os teores de carbono no babaçu apresentaram baixa variação, sem diferenças sistemáticas em relação ao tamanho ou estágio de crescimento, o que aponta à aplicabilidade geral dos valores 42.5% C para troncos, 39.8% C para folhas. Em conseqüência do limitado crescimento secundário do diâmetro inerente de palmeiras, não houve relação do diâmetro de tronco com a altura e a biomassa das palmeiras adultas. Observou-se que o afilamento do caule diminui com o aumento da altura das palmeiras, o que é parcialmente compensado pelo incremento da densidade de madeira em troncos quase-cilíndricos. No entanto, a altura máxima do babaçu, de cerca de 30 metros, aparentemente está definida por limitações na estabilidade mecânica. Todas as relações alométricas aqui descritas são independentes da idade da vegetação, indicando a aplicabilidade geral das relações encontradas

  18. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedham Elvidge, Emma C.; Sturges, William T.; Malin, Gill; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah

    2017-01-01

    Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner) C. Agardh), Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient), 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr3), dibro­momethane (CH2Br2), iodomethane (CH3I), diiodomethane (CH2I2), bromoiodomethane (CH2BrI), bromochlorometh­ane (CH2BrCl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), and dibro­mochloromethane (CHBr2Cl). These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH2I2 and CH3I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis. The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv∕Fm) prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis

  19. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH

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    Paramjeet Kaur Mithoo-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient, 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr3, dibro­momethane (CH2Br2, iodomethane (CH3I, diiodomethane (CH2I2, bromoiodomethane (CH2BrI, bromochlorometh­ane (CH2BrCl, bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2, and dibro­mochloromethane (CHBr2Cl. These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH2I2 and CH3I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis. The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv∕Fm prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum quantum yield of

  20. A flora melitófila de uma área de dunas com vegetação de caatinga, Estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil The bee flora of caatinga vegetation on sand dunes in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

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    Ana Tereza Araújo Rodarte

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As espécies melitófilas de uma área de caatinga foram caracterizadas quanto à morfologia e recursos florais, floração e abelhas visitantes. As coletas foram realizadas, durante quatro dias consecutivos, em fevereiro, abril, junho, agosto, outubro e dezembro/2000 (10º47'37'S e 42º49'25'W. A área foi percorrida das 06:00 às 17:00 h, seguindo dois transectos paralelos (com 450 m × 100 m e 550 m × 100 m e distando 50 m entre si, abrangendo 10 ha. As 42 espécies melitófilas identificadas (55% da flora local foram visitadas por 2.924 indivíduos de 41 espécies abelhas. As famílias Caesalpiniaceae e Malpighiaceae foram as mais visitadas. As espécies predominantemente visitadas por 35 espécies de abelhas, correspondendo a 78% do total de indivíduos foram: Byrsonima blanchetiana Miq., Copaifera coriacea Mart., Senna macranthera, Peltogyne pauciflora Benth., Senna gardneri (Benth. H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Serjania comata, Mouriri pusa (Gardner, Jatropha mutabilis (Pohl. Baill., Maytenus rigida Mart. e Turnera calyptrocarpa Urb. (24% da flora apícola. A produção de flores dessas espécies representou 95% do total. Em geral, os aspectos básicos da morfologia floral das espécies: pequenas, dispostas em inflorescências, zigomorfas, de cores alva e rosa, monoclinas e com deiscência longitudinal das anteras, não diferiram em relação à flora local, corroborando o seu caráter generalista. O predomínio de interações generalistas deve-se à abundância local de abelhas eussociais nativas (Meliponinae e Apis mellifera. Embora a produção de flores tenha sido maior na estação chuvosa, as abelhas foram mais abundantes no período seco, indicando que o recurso não limitou a atividade das abelhas. As plantas do estrato arbustivo e herbáceo floresceram mais intensamente no período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente, gerando um grau de compartimentalização no padrão de uso dos recursos pelas abelhas. Esse padrão pode favorecer a

  1. Pesquisas agronômicas das plantas medicinais da Mata Atlântica regulamentadas pela ANVISA Agronomic research of Atlantic Forest medicinal plants regulated by ANVISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a divulgação da lista das espécies medicinais pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA, de acordo com a Resolução RDC Nº10, de 09 de março de 2010, o uso dessas plantas passa a ter a chancela oficial do órgão governamental regulamentando seu uso e, em consequência disso, ter sua demanda bastante aumentada. A obtenção desses materiais adquire então grande importância, uma vez que haverá a necessidade de se produzir essas plantas. Com o objetivo de se avaliar a situação das pesquisas agronômicas com essas espécies, particularmente as de ocorrência na Mata Atlântica, foi feito um levantamento do número de publicações a partir dos nomes científicos, na base de dados eletrônica CAB Abstract, de 1990 a 2011. A pesquisa mostrou que o número de publicações por espécie varia de 2 a 1129, sendo que as espécies com maior número de artigos são aquelas já cultivadas como alimentícias. Das 66 espécies listadas, 36 são exóticas, 24 são da Mata Atlântica e 6 são nativas de outros biomas. Dentre as espécies da Mata Atlântica, foram excluídas as ruderais, frutíferas e arbóreas, devido à maioria dos trabalhos na área agronômica estarem relacionados ao manejo, controle ou produção de frutos e não ao seu cultivo sobre o ponto de vista medicinal. A única exceção foi a espécie medicinal arbórea Maytenus ilicifolia. Assim, foram selecionadas 16 espécies, as quais tiveram as publicações divididas em quatro áreas: Agronomia; Fitoquímica, Ensaios biológicos e Outros. Nesta pesquisa foi possível identificar que 32% dos artigos publicados são agronômicos, área que apresenta menos publicações do que a área de atividade biológica, que tem 40% das publicações, e a área de fitoquimica tem 20% das publicações. Estes resultados mostram que os pesquisadores estão atentos à importância das pesquisas agronômicas com plantas medicinais, mas que se faz necessário realizar trabalhos de

  2. Revisión taxonómica de la familia Celastraceae para la flora de Colombia Revisión taxonómica de la familia Celastraceae para la flora de Colombia

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    Fernandez Alonso José Luis

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTaxonomic processing of the Celastraceae was made based on morphological characters andpollen from exsiccates pertaining to the different herbaria from Colombia an some fromoutside: MO, NY y US, along with characters taken directly from plants in the field,concatenating with the distributions patterns. Besides the taxonomical study, a review of thisplant group nomenclature was made, in order to establish the valid names, those ones whichare synonymous, and species location. The characters established in the descriptions of thespecies were compared with the observed ones in the study material. The study of pollen tookinto account grain type, opening of the pores, presence of rims and ribs ambit, exine, sexine andnexine, reticulation and measurements including equatorial and polar axis and the ratio long-width of pores and colpes. Fourteen pollen samples were analyzed, belonging to 8 nativegenera, revealing that palinology makes valuable contributions in the boundary of taxons,providing valid characters, that they are complemented with the other morphologic characters.The taxonomic description of the family fits with the Colombian constituent taxons.Dichotomizing keys were made in order to identify genera and species, and descriptions of eachone of the species, as well as their distribution, citation studied material of each taxon and insome cases illustrations of the species, were drawn at least one for each genus. Eigth native and1 cultivated genera were found: Celastrus 4, andean and subandean woody scandent species.Crossopetalum: 2 species of islands of Tintipán and San Andrés and Providencia. Goupia: 1species from equatorial rain forest. Gymnosporia: 2 species, one of forest of the median valleyof Magdalena and the other of the andean and subandean forest. Maytenus considered aspreliminary synopsis, with 26 species coming of different habitats. Perrottetia with 10 species,4 of these new; 1 species from piedemonte, the rest live in

  3. Problemas associados ao uso de plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercadão de Madureira, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Problems associated with the use of medicinal plants commercialized in "Mercadão de Madureira", Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bochner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais pela população brasileira é prática tradicional, sendo muitas vezes o único recurso utilizado na atenção básica de saúde. O uso terapêutico dessas plantas envolve várias etapas da cadeia produtiva, sendo a procedência, coleta, secagem, armazenamento, comércio, modo de preparo pelo usuário e uso. O objetivo desse trabalho documental, de caráter exploratório, foi levantar a produção científica existente sobre os problemas associados a cada uma dessas etapas e discutir as questões relacionadas à carência de estudos para comprovar a eficácia farmacológica e a ausência de riscos toxicológicos, bem como a prática de autodiagnóstico. As vinte plantas mais comercializadas em grande mercado do município do Rio de Janeiro em agosto de 2007 serviram de base para o levantamento documental do presente estudo. Dessas, seis apresentaram propriedades tóxicas comprovadas dependendo do preparo e uso, a arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi., arruda (Ruta graveolens L., babosa (Aloe vera L., confrei (Symphytum officinale L. e poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. & DC.. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária aponta contra indicações para boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br., erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp., espinheira-santa (Maytenus spp., picão (Bidens pilosa L., poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. e tanchagem (Plantago major L.. O abajerú, arnica, boldo-do-Chile, confrei, erva-de-bicho e espinheira-santa tiveram relato de problemas de identificação na coleta e comercialização frente a outras morfologicamente semelhantes. Plantas cultivadas e silvestres apresentam variabilidade de princípios ativos influenciados por fatores ambientais e genéticos, como chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br. e erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp.. A contaminação e

  4. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    validate the model performance during a larger number of events. Compo, G. P., J. S. Whitaker, P. D. Sardeshmukh, N. Matsui, R. J. Allan, X. Yin,B. E. Gleason, R. S. Vose, G. Rutledge, P. Bessemoulin, S. Bronnimann, M. Brunet, R. I. Crouthamel, A. N. Grant, P. Y. Groisman, P. D. Jones, M. C. Kruk, A. C. Kruger, G. J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H. Y. Mok, O. Nordli, T. F. Ross, R. M. Trigo, X. L. Wang, S. D. Woodruff, S. J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly J. Roy. Met. Soc., 137, 1-28, DOI: 10.1002/qj.776. Hohenegger, C., Walser, A., Langhans, H. and Schär, C., 2008, Cloud-resolving ensemble simulations of the August 2005 Alpine flood, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 2008, DOI: 10.1002/qj.252 Stucki, P., Rickli, R., Brönnimann, S., Martius, O., Wanner, H., Grebner, D. and Luterbacher, J., 2012, Weather patterns and hydro-climatological precursors of extreme floods in Switzerland since 1868, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 21, No. 6, 531-550.

  5. A climatological analysis of high-precipitation events in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and associated large-scale atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Froidevaux, Paul; Reijmer, Carleen H.; Fischer, Hubertus

    2015-04-01

    South Pacific several days before the precipitation event. At the surface, a cyclone located over the Weddell Sea is the main synoptic "ingredient" for high precipitation both at Halvfarryggen and at Kohnen. Although a blocking anticyclone downstream is not a requirement for high precipitation per se, a larger share of blocking occurrences during the highest-precipitation days in DML suggests an amplification of the IVT into DML when blocking occurs. We regard the large-scale IVT as one of the most relevant factors in creating high precipitation in DML, in particular over DML's interior. However, we also find that it is important to take into account both the magnitude and the direction of the IVT. Whereas the location of Kohnen Station on the Antarctic plateau allows moisture fluxes from different directions, high moisture fluxes over Halvfarryggen with, for example, an easterly direction do not result in high precipitation in most cases due to the interaction of the moisture flux with the local orography. In other words, high precipitation at Halvfarryggen does not necessarily correspond to high IVT values, but rather corresponds to the IVT with the strongest component perpendicular to the local orography. Welker, C., O. Martius, P. Froidevaux, C. H. Reijmer, and H. Fischer (2014), A climatological analysis of high-precipitation events in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and associated large-scale atmospheric conditions, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 11932-11954, doi:10.1002/2014JD022259.

  6. Anti-parasitic activity and cytotoxicity of selected medicinal plants from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigondu, Elizabeth V M; Rukunga, Geoffrey M; Keriko, Joseph M; Tonui, Willy K; Gathirwa, Jeremiah W; Kirira, Peter G; Irungu, Beatrice; Ingonga, Johnstone M; Ndiege, Isaiah O

    2009-06-25

    Indigenous rural communities in the tropics manage parasitic diseases, like malaria and leishmaniasis, using herbal drugs. The efficacy, dosage, safety and active principles of most of the herbal preparations are not known. Extracts from 6 selected plant species, used as medicinal plants by indigenous local communities in Kenya, were screened for in vitro anti-plasmodial and anti-leishmanial activity, against 2 laboratory-adapted Plasmodium falciparum isolates (D6, CQ-sensitive and W2, CQ-resistant) and Leishmania major (IDU/KE/83=NLB-144 strain), respectively. The methanol extract of Suregada zanzibariensis leaves exhibited good anti-plasmodial activity (IC(50) 4.66+/-0.22 and 1.82+/-0.07 microg/ml for D6 and W2, respectively). Similarly, the methanol extracts of Albizia coriaria (IC(50) 37.83+/-2.11 microg/ml for D6) and Aspergillus racemosus (32.63+/-2.68 and 33.95+/-2.05 microg/ml for D6 and W2, respectively) had moderate anti-plasmodial activity. Acacia tortilis (IC(50) 85.73+/-3.36 microg/ml for W2) and Albizia coriaria (IC(50) 71.17+/-3.58 microg/ml for W2) methanol extracts and Aloe nyeriensis var kedongensis (IC(50) 87.70+/-2.98 and 67.84+/-2.12 microg/ml for D6 and W2, respectively) water extract exhibited mild anti-plasmodial activity. The rest of the extracts did not exhibit any anti-plasmodial activity. Although the leishmanicidal activity of extracts were lower than for pentosam (80%), reasonable activity was observed for Aloe nyeriensis methanol (68.4+/-6.3%), Albizia coriara water (66.7+/-5.0%), Maytenus putterlickoides methanol (60.0+/-6.23%), Asparagus racemosus methanol and water (58.3+/-8.22 and 56.8+/-6.58%, respectively), Aloe nyeriensis water (53.3+/-5.1%) and Acacia tortilis water (52.9+/-6.55%) extracts at 1000 microg/ml. Leishmania major infected macrophages treated with methanol extracts of Suregada zanzibariensis and Aloe nyeriensis var kedongensis and pentostam had infection rates of 28+/-2.11, 30+/-1.22 and 40+/-3.69%, respectively at

  7. Pleistocene and Holocene Iberian flora: a complete picture and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sampériz, Penélope

    2010-05-01

    diversity and nuclei of population expansion during climatic ameliorations of the Pleistocene. The floristic composition, location and structure of glacial tree populations and communities may have been a primary control on these developments and on the origin and composition of Holocene scenarios. Refugial populations would have been a source, but not the only one, for the early Lateglacial oak expansions for example. From Middle to Late Holocene, inertial, resilient, and rapid responses of vegetation to climatic change are described, any time with regional and local differences. The role of fire, pastoralism, agriculture and other anthropogenic disturbances such as mining during the Copper, Bronze, Iberic, and Roman times must be also considered as an important factor of the current vegetation distribution. In fact, the Iberian Peninsula constitutes a territory where climatic, geological, biogeographical and historical conditions have converged to produce environmental heterogeneity, large biological diversity and ecosystem richness. A note of singularity: in comparison with other Mediterranean peninsulas, Iberia was, doubtless, particularly suitable for the survival and permanence of sclerophyllous elements of any kind (including Ibero-Maghrebian scrubs such as Maytenus, Periploca, Ziziphus,Withania, Lycium, and Calicotome), currently, during the Holocene, and even during glacial stages of the Pleistocene. However, no macro-remains of these taxa have been documented until Late Holocene chronologies, but the survival of other thermophilous species, such as Olea, reveals the existence of glacial refugia in the southernmost areas of Iberia. Over all, and dealing with plant species, the Iberian Peninsula is a land of survival.

  8. Wheat stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanquan; Wellings, Colin; Chen, Xianming; Kang, Zhengsheng; Liu, Taiguo

    2014-06-01

    as Elymus canadensis L., Leymus secalinus Hochst, Agropyron spp. Garetn, Hordeum spp. L., Phalaris spp. L and Bromus unioloides Kunth. Pycnial/aecial (alternative) hosts: Barberry (Berberis chinensis, B. koreana, B. holstii, B. vulgaris, B. shensiana, B. potaninii, B. dolichobotrys, B. heteropoda, etc.) and Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium). Stripe rust appears as a mass of yellow to orange urediniospores erupting from pustules arranged in long, narrow stripes on leaves (usually between veins), leaf sheaths, glumes and awns on susceptible plants. Resistant wheat cultivars are characterized by various infection types from no visual symptoms to small hypersensitive flecks to uredinia surrounded by chlorosis or necrosis with restricted urediniospore production. On seedlings, uredinia produced by the infection of a single urediniospore are not confined by leaf veins, but progressively emerge from the infection site in all directions, potentially covering the entire leaf surface. Individual uredinial pustules are oblong, 0.4-0.7 mm in length and 0.1 mm in width. Urediniospores are broadly ellipsoidal to broadly obovoid, (16-)18-30(-32) × (15-)17-27(-28) μm, with a mean of 24.5 × 21.6 μm, yellow to orange in colour, echinulate, and with 6-18 scattered germ pores. Urediniospores can germinate rapidly when free moisture (rain or dew) occurs on leaf surfaces and when the temperatures range is between 7 and 12 °C. At higher temperatures or during the later growing stages of the host, black telia are often produced, which are pulvinate to oblong, 0.2-0.7 mm in length and 0.1 mm in width. The teliospores are predominantly two-celled, dark brown with thick walls, mostly oblong-clavate, (24-)31-56(-65) × (11-)14-25(-29) μm in length and width, and rounded or flattened at the apex. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.