Sample records for maximum pressure reached

  1. Restoring Maximum Vertical Browsing Reach in Sauropod Dinosaurs. (United States)

    Paul, Gregory S


    The ongoing controversy centered on neck posture and function in sauropod dinosaurs is misplaced for a number of reasons. Because of an absence of pertinent data it is not possible to accurately restore the posture and range of motion in long necked fossil animals, only gross approximations are possible. The existence of a single "neutral posture" in animals with long, slender necks may not exist, and its relationship to feeding habits is weak. Restorations of neutral osteological neck posture based on seemingly detailed diagrams of cervical articulations are not reliable because the pictures are not sufficiently accurate due to a combination of illustration errors, and distortion of the fossil cervicals. This is all the more true because fossil cervical series lack the critical inter-centra cartilage. Maximum vertical reach is more readily restorable and biologically informative for long necked herbivores. Modest extension of 10° between each caudal cervical allowed high shouldered sauropods to raise the cranial portion of their necks to vertical postures that allowed them to reach floral resources far higher than seen in the tallest mammals. This hypothesis is supported by the dorsally extended articulation of the only known co-fused sauropod cervicals. Many sauropods appear to have been well adapted for rearing in order to boost vertical reach, some possessed retroverted pelves that may have allowed them to walk slowly while bipedal. A combination of improved high browsing abilities and sexual selection probably explains the unusually long necks of tall ungulates and super tall sauropods. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1802-1825, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195.406 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for...

  3. Time at which the maximum of a random acceleration process is reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Satya N; Rosso, Alberto; Zoia, Andrea


    We study the random acceleration model, which is perhaps one of the simplest, yet nontrivial, non-Markov stochastic processes, and is key to many applications. For this non-Markov process, we present exact analytical results for the probability density p(t m |T) of the time t m at which the process reaches its maximum, within a fixed time interval [0, T]. We study two different boundary conditions, which correspond to the process representing respectively (i) the integral of a Brownian bridge and (ii) the integral of a free Brownian motion. Our analytical results are also verified by numerical simulations.

  4. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. (United States)


    ... distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough to...) No person may operate a low pressure distribution system at a pressure lower than the minimum... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure...

  5. Effect of Training Frequency on Maximum Expiratory Pressure (United States)

    Anand, Supraja; El-Bashiti, Nour; Sapienza, Christine


    Purpose: To determine the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) frequency on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Method: We assigned 12 healthy participants to 2 groups of training frequency (3 days per week and 5 days per week). They completed a 4-week training program on an EMST trainer (Aspire Products, LLC). MEP was the primary…

  6. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. (United States)


    ... STANDARDS Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a segment of a high pressure distribution system at a pressure that exceeds the... segment of a distribution system otherwise designed to operate at over 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, unless...

  7. Mechanical solution of the maximum point of dynamic abutment pressure under deep long-wall working face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, F.; Ma, Q. [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Tai' an (China). College of Resource and Environmental Engineering


    The paper studies the dynamic relationship between abutment pressure and overburden collapse precess with advancing of working face. The result shows that the abutment pressure reaches its maximum value when the working face dimension is 1.27 times of the mining depth. This result confirms the statistical result from the strata movement surveys that overburden reaches its full movement stage when extracting dimension reaches 1.2 1.4 times of the mining depth. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Standard values of maximum tongue pressure taken using newly developed disposable tongue pressure measurement device. (United States)

    Utanohara, Yuri; Hayashi, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Akagawa, Yasumasa


    It is clinically important to evaluate tongue function in terms of rehabilitation of swallowing and eating ability. We have developed a disposable tongue pressure measurement device designed for clinical use. In this study we used this device to determine standard values of maximum tongue pressure in adult Japanese. Eight hundred fifty-three subjects (408 male, 445 female; 20-79 years) were selected for this study. All participants had no history of dysphagia and maintained occlusal contact in the premolar and molar regions with their own teeth. A balloon-type disposable oral probe was used to measure tongue pressure by asking subjects to compress it onto the palate for 7 s with maximum voluntary effort. Values were recorded three times for each subject, and the mean values were defined as maximum tongue pressure. Although maximum tongue pressure was higher for males than for females in the 20-49-year age groups, there was no significant difference between males and females in the 50-79-year age groups. The maximum tongue pressure of the seventies age group was significantly lower than that of the twenties to fifties age groups. It may be concluded that maximum tongue pressures were reduced with primary aging. Males may become weaker with age at a faster rate than females; however, further decreases in strength were in parallel for male and female subjects.

  9. Approximation for maximum pressure calculation in containment of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.L. de


    A correlation was developed to estimate the maximum pressure of dry containment of PWR following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident - LOCA. The expression proposed is a function of the total energy released to the containment by the primary circuit, of the free volume of the containment building and of the total surface are of the heat-conducting structures. The results show good agreement with those present in Final Safety Analysis Report - FSAR of several PWR's plants. The errors are in the order of ± 12%. (author) [pt

  10. High pressure processing reaches the U.S. market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermelstein, N.H.


    The first food product commercially produced by a U.S. company using high-pressure processing has had successful test market results. High-pressure processing permits food to be preserved by subjecting it to pressures in the range of 60,000-100,000 psi for a short time instead of exposing the food to heat, freezing, chemicals, or irradiation. To produce Classic Guacamole, Avomex of Keller, Texas, uses a batch isostatic press to deactivate the enzymes in the avocado and to kill bacteria, obtaining a refrigerated shelf life of over 30 days. The guacamole is then vacuum packed and processed again. The product undergoes no heat treatment and does not contain preservatives, and the high pressure does not affect its texture, color, or taste. Meanwhile, a continuous system for high-pressure processing of pumpable foods is currently being developed by Flow International of Kent, Washington, and will be used for testing and applications work at Oregon State University

  11. Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); A. M. Prokhorov Institute of General Physics RAS, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.

  12. Maximum respiratory pressure measuring system : calibration and evaluation of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.L.; Pereira, N.C.; Oliveira Júnior, M.; Vasconcelos, F.H.; Parreira, V.F.; Tierra-Criollo, C.J.


    The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for the evaluation of uncertainties in the measurements results obtained during the calibration of a digital manovacuometer prototype (DM) with a load cell sensor pressure device incorporated. Calibration curves were obtained for both pressure

  13. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (United States)


    ... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person may operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable operating...

  14. Pressure transmission area and maximum pressure transmission of different thermoplastic resin denture base materials under impact load. (United States)

    Nasution, Hubban; Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Takahashi, Hidekazu


    The purposes of the present study were to examine the pressure transmission area and maximum pressure transmission of thermoplastic resin denture base materials under an impact load, and to evaluate the modulus of elasticity and nanohardness of thermoplastic resin denture base. Three injection-molded thermoplastic resin denture base materials [polycarbonate (Basis PC), ethylene propylene (Duraflex), and polyamide (Valplast)] and one conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin (PMMA, SR Triplex Hot) denture base, all with a mandibular first molar acrylic resin denture tooth set in were evaluated (n=6). Pressure transmission area and maximum pressure transmission of the specimens under an impact load were observed by using pressure-sensitive sheets. The modulus of elasticity and nanohardness of each denture base (n=10) were measured on 15×15×15×3mm 3 specimen by using an ultramicroindentation system. The pressure transmission area, modulus of elasticity, and nanohardness data were statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA, followed by Tamhane or Tukey HSD post hoc test (α=.05). The maximum pressure transmission data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis H test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Polymethyl methacrylate showed significantly larger pressure transmission area and higher maximum pressure transmission than the other groups (Pelasticity and nanohardness among the four types of denture bases (Pelasticity and nanohardness of each type of denture base were demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of pressure anisotropy on the maximum mass of cold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ,. Pune 411 007, India. 3 ... red-shift and mass increase in the presence of anisotropic pressures; numerical values are generated which are in ... that anisotropy may also change the limiting values of the maximum mass of com- pact stars.

  16. Critical Assessment of the Surface Tension determined by the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method


    Benedetto, Franco Emmanuel; Zolotucho, Hector; Prado, Miguel Oscar


    The main factors that influence the value of surface tension of a liquid measured with the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method are critically evaluated. We present experimental results showing the effect of capillary diameter, capillary depth, bubble spheroidicity and liquid density at room temperature. We show that the decrease of bubble spheroidicity due to increase of capillary immersion depth is not sufficient to explain the deviations found in the measured surface tension values. Thus, we pro...

  17. Pressurizer /Auxiliary Spray Piping Stress Analysis For Determination Of Lead Shielding Maximum Allow Able Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setjo, Renaningsih


    Piping stress analysis for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines Nuclear Power Plant AV Unit I(PWR Type) has been carried out. The purpose of this analysis is to establish a maximum allowable load that is permitted at the time of need by placing lead shielding on the piping system on class 1 pipe, Pressurizer/Auxiliary Spray Lines (PZR/Aux.) Reactor Coolant Loop 1 and 4 for NPP AV Unit one in the mode 5 and 6 during outage. This analysis is intended to reduce the maximum amount of radiation dose for the operator during ISI ( In service Inspection) period.The result shown that the maximum allowable loads for 4 inches lines for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines is 123 lbs/feet

  18. The maximum and minimum values of the heat Q transmitted from metal to boiling water under atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukiyama, S.


    The quantity of heat transmitted from a metal surface to boiling water increases as the temperature difference ΔT is increased, but after the ΔT has reached a certain limit, quantity Q decreases with further increase in ΔT. This turning point is the maximum value of heat transmitted. The existence of this point was actually observed in the experiment. Under atmospheric pressure, ΔT corresponding to the maximum value of heat transfer for water at 100 degrees C falls between 20-40 degrees C, and Q is between 1,080,000 and 1,800,000 kcal/m 2 h (i.e. between 2,000 and 3,000 kg/m 2 h, if expressed in constant evaporation rate at 100 degrees C); this figure is larger than the maximum value of heat transfer as was previously considered. In this paper the minimum value of heat transfer was obtained, and in the Q-ΔT curve for the high temperature region, the burn-out effect is discussed

  19. Measurement of the surface tension by the method of maximum gas bubble pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugne, Jean


    A gas bubble method for measuring surface tension was studied. Theoretical investigations demonstrated that the maximum pressure can be represented by the envelope of a certain family of curves and that the physical nature of the capillary tube imposes an upper limit to its useful radius. With a given tube and a specified liquid, the dynamic evolution of the gas bubble depends only upon the variation of the mass of gas contained with time; this fact may restrict the choice of tubes. The use of one single tube requires important corrections. Computer treatment of the problem led to some accurate equations for calculating γ. Schroedinger equations and Sudgen's table are examined. The choice of tubes, the necessary corrections, density measurement, and the accuracy attainable are discussed. Experiments conducted with water and mercury using the sessile drop method and continuous recording of the pressure verified the theoretical ideas. (author) [fr

  20. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus


    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  1. Simplified Methodology to Estimate the Maximum Liquid Helium (LHe) Cryostat Pressure from a Vacuum Jacket Failure (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Richards, W. Lance


    The aircraft-based Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a platform for multiple infrared astronomical observation experiments. These experiments carry sensors cooled to liquid helium temperatures. The liquid helium supply is contained in large (i.e., 10 liters or more) vacuum-insulated dewars. Should the dewar vacuum insulation fail, the inrushing air will condense and freeze on the dewar wall, resulting in a large heat flux on the dewar's contents. The heat flux results in a rise in pressure and the actuation of the dewar pressure relief system. A previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) assessment provided recommendations for the wall heat flux that would be expected from a loss of vacuum and detailed an appropriate method to use in calculating the maximum pressure that would occur in a loss of vacuum event. This method involved building a detailed supercritical helium compressible flow thermal/fluid model of the vent stack and exercising the model over the appropriate range of parameters. The experimenters designing science instruments for SOFIA are not experts in compressible supercritical flows and do not generally have access to the thermal/fluid modeling packages that are required to build detailed models of the vent stacks. Therefore, the SOFIA Program engaged the NESC to develop a simplified methodology to estimate the maximum pressure in a liquid helium dewar after the loss of vacuum insulation. The method would allow the university-based science instrument development teams to conservatively determine the cryostat's vent neck sizing during preliminary design of new SOFIA Science Instruments. This report details the development of the simplified method, the method itself, and the limits of its applicability. The simplified methodology provides an estimate of the dewar pressure after a loss of vacuum insulation that can be used for the initial design of the liquid helium dewar vent stacks. However, since it is not an exact

  2. Rate maximum calculation of Dpa in CNA-II pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascitti, J. A


    The maximum dpa rate was calculated for the reactor in the following state: fresh fuel, no Xenon, a Boron concentration of 15.3 ppm, critical state, its control rods in the criticality position, hot, at full power (2160 MW). It was determined that the maximum dpa rate under such conditions is 3.54(2)x10 12 s -1 and it is located in the positions corresponding to θ=210 o in the azimuthal direction, and z=20 cm and -60 cm respectively in the axial direction, considering the calculation mesh centered at half height of the fuel element (FE) active length. The dpa rate spectrum was determined as well as the contribution to it for 4 energy groups: a thermal group, two epithermal groups and a fast one. The maximum dpa rate considering the photo-neutrons production from (γ, n) reaction in the heavy water of coolant and moderator was 3.93(4)x10 12 s -1 that is 11% greater than the obtained without photo-neutrons. This verified significant difference between both cases, suggest that photo-neutrons in large heavy water reactors such as CNA-II should not be ignored. The maximum DPA rate in the first mm of the reactor pressure vessel was calculated too and it was obtained a value of 4.22(6)x10 12 s -1 . It should be added that the calculation was carried out with the reactor complete accurate model, with no approximations in spatial or energy variables. Each value has, between parentheses, a percentage relative error representing the statistical uncertainty due to the probabilistic Monte Carlo method used to estimate it. More representative values may be obtained with this method if equilibrium burn-up distribution is used (author)

  3. Dynamic surface tension measurements of ionic surfactants using maximum bubble pressure tensiometry (United States)

    Ortiz, Camilla U.; Moreno, Norman; Sharma, Vivek

    Dynamic surface tension refers to the time dependent variation in surface tension, and is intimately linked with the rate of mass transfer of a surfactant from liquid sub-phase to the interface. The diffusion- or adsorption-limited kinetics of mass transfer to interfaces is said to impact the so-called foamability and the Gibbs-Marangoni elasticity of surfaces. Dynamic surface tension measurements carried out with conventional methods like pendant drop analysis, Wilhelmy plate, etc. are limited in their temporal resolution (>50 ms). In this study, we describe design and application of maximum bubble pressure tensiometry for the measurement of dynamic surface tension effects at extremely short (1-50 ms) timescales. Using experiments and theory, we discuss the overall adsorption kinetics of charged surfactants, paying special attention to the influence of added salt on dynamic surface tension.

  4. The Influence of Pressure Distribution on the Maximum Values of Stress in FEM Analysis of Plain Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru


    Full Text Available Several methods can be used in the FEM studies to apply the loads on a plain bearing. The paper presents a comparative analysis of maximum stress obtained for three loading scenarios: resultant force applied on the shaft – bearing assembly, variable pressure with sinusoidal distribution applied on the bearing surface, variable pressure with parabolic distribution applied on the bearing surface.

  5. Negotiating interests or values and reaching integrative agreements: the importance of time pressure and temporary impasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, F.; de Dreu, C.K.W.


    Negotiation research and theory tends to focus on interests and ignores values. This experiment compared the influence of negotiations about interests with negotiations about values under low or high time pressure. Results showed that (1) individuals got locked into early impasses more often under

  6. [Effect of maximum blood pressure fluctuation on prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke within 24 hours after hospital admission]. (United States)

    Wang, H; Tang, Y; Zhang, Y; Xu, K; Zhao, J B


    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the maximum blood pressure fluctuation within 24 hours after admission and the prognosis at discharge. Methods: The patients with ischemic stroke admitted in Department of Neurology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University within 24 hours after onset were consecutively selected from April 2016 to March 2017. The patients were grouped according to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure of the patients within 24 hours after admission were measured with bedside monitors and baseline data were collected. The patients were scored by NIHSS at discharge. The relationships between the maximum values of systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the prognosis at discharge were analyzed. Results: A total of 521 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. They were divided into normal blood pressure group (82 cases) and hypertension group(439 cases). In normal blood pressure group, the maximum values of SBP and DBP were all in normal distribution ( P >0.05). The maximum value of SBP fluctuation was set at 146.6 mmHg. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR for poor prognosis at discharge in patients with SBP fluctuation ≥146.6 mmHg was 2.669 (95 %CI : 0.594-11.992) compared with those with SBP fluctuation blood pressure at admission, the maximum values of SBP and DBP within 24 hours after admission had no relationship with prognosis at discharge. In acute ischemic stroke patients with hypertension at admission, the maximum values of SBP and DBP within 24 hours after admission were associated with poor prognosis at discharge.

  7. Time to reach tacrolimus maximum blood concentration,mean residence time, and acute renal allograft rejection: an open-label, prospective, pharmacokinetic study in adult recipients. (United States)

    Kuypers, Dirk R J; Vanrenterghem, Yves


    The aims of this study were to determine whether disposition-related pharmacokinetic parameters such as T(max) and mean residence time (MRT) could be used as predictors of clinical efficacy of tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients, and to what extent these parameters would be influenced by clinical variables. We previously demonstrated, in a prospective pharmacokinetic study in de novo renal allograft recipients, that patients who experienced early acute rejection did not differ from patients free from rejection in terms of tacrolimus pharmacokinetic exposure parameters (dose interval AUC, preadministration trough blood concentration, C(max), dose). However, recipients with acute rejection reached mean (SD) tacrolimus T(max) significantly faster than those who were free from rejection (0.96 [0.56] hour vs 1.77 [1.06] hours; P clearance nor T(1/2) could explain this unusual finding, we used data from the previous study to calculate MRT from the concentration-time curves. As part of the previous study, 100 patients (59 male, 41 female; mean [SD] age, 51.4 [13.8] years;age range, 20-75 years) were enrolled in the study The calculated MRT was significantly shorter in recipients with acute allograft rejection (11.32 [031] hours vs 11.52 [028] hours; P = 0.02), just like T(max) was an independent risk factor for acute rejection in a multivariate logistic regression model (odds ratio, 0.092 [95% CI, 0.014-0.629]; P = 0.01). Analyzing the impact of demographic, transplantation-related, and biochemical variables on MRT, we found that increasing serum albumin and hematocrit concentrations were associated with a prolonged MRT (P calculated MRT were associated with a higher incidence of early acute graft rejection. These findings suggest that a shorter transit time of tacrolimus in certain tissue compartments, rather than failure to obtain a maximum absolute tacrolimus blood concentration, might lead to inadequate immunosuppression early after transplantation.

  8. Maximum Expected Wall Heat Flux and Maximum Pressure After Sudden Loss of Vacuum Insulation on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Liquid Helium (LHe) Dewars (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.


    The aircraft-based Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a platform for multiple infrared observation experiments. The experiments carry sensors cooled to liquid helium (LHe) temperatures. A question arose regarding the heat input and peak pressure that would result from a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation. Owing to concerns about the adequacy of dewar pressure relief in the event of a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation, the SOFIA Program engaged the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This report summarizes and assesses the experiments that have been performed to measure the heat flux into LHe dewars following a sudden vacuum insulation failure, describes the physical limits of heat input to the dewar, and provides an NESC recommendation for the wall heat flux that should be used to assess the sudden loss of vacuum insulation case. This report also assesses the methodology used by the SOFIA Program to predict the maximum pressure that would occur following a loss of vacuum event.

  9. Effect of Ovality on Maximum External Pressure of Helically Coiled Steam Generator Tubes with a Rectangular Wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong In; Lim, Eun Mo; Huh, Nam Su [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Shin Beom; Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Ji Ho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A structural integrity of steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants is one of crucial parameters for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Thus, many studies have been made to provide engineering methods to assess integrity of defective tubes of commercial nuclear power plants considering its operating environments and defect characteristics. As described above, the geometric and operating conditions of steam generator tubes in integral reactor are significantly different from those of commercial reactor. Therefore, the structural integrity assessment of defective tubes of integral reactor taking into account its own operating conditions and geometric characteristics, i. e., external pressure and helically coiled shape, should be made to demonstrate compliance with the current design criteria. Also, ovality is very specific characteristics of the helically coiled tube because it is occurred during the coiling processes. The wear, occurring from FIV (Flow Induced Vibration) and so on, is main degradation of steam generator tube. In the present study, maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with wear is predicted based on the detailed 3-dimensional finite element analysis. As for shape of wear defect, the rectangular shape is considered. In particular, the effect of ovality on the maximum external pressure of helically coiled tubes with rectangular shaped wear is investigated. In the present work, the maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with rectangular shaped wear is investigated via detailed 3-D FE analyses. In order to cover a practical range of geometries for defective tube, the variables affecting the maximum external pressure were systematically varied. In particular, the effect of tube ovality on the maximum external pressure is evaluated. It is expected that the present results can be used as a technical backgrounds for establishing a practical structural integrity assessment guideline of

  10. Study on Droplet Size and Velocity Distributions of a Pressure Swirl Atomizer Based on the Maximum Entropy Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan


    Full Text Available A predictive model for droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer has been proposed based on the maximum entropy formalism (MEF. The constraint conditions of the MEF model include the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The effects of liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio on the droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer are investigated. Results show that model based on maximum entropy formalism works well to predict droplet size and velocity distributions under different spray conditions. Liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio have different effects on droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer.

  11. The influence of light hypothenar contact during a reaching movement on the centre of pressure (COP forward displacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Rugelj

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional light hand contact (F<1 N in the region of the hypothenar eminence on forward movement of the center of pressure (COP and dominant hand. Subjects sled their hypothenar eminence on a vertically-oriented pressure sensitive board while reaching forward beyond their arm length. In the two separate experiments forty nine healthy, college-aged volunteers participated in the study. Thirty subjects (mean age of 22.2±2.4 years, 6 male and 24 female participated in the experiment on level ground and nineteen subjects (22±2.6 years, 5 male and 14 female in the experiment on an elevated surface. The forward displacement of the COP was significantly larger (p = 0.002 when subjects were allowed to slide with the hand as compared to no contact when the activity occurred on level ground (84±10 mm and 79±11 mm, respectively, and on a one meter elevated surface (71±17 mm and 65±21 mm, respectively. The maximal forward reach of the dominant hand was significantly greater when subjects were allowed to slide with the hypothenar eminence as compared to the no contact condition on the level ground (336±35 mm and 344±38 mm, respectively, p<0.02, and on the one meter elevated surface (298±58 mm and 307±58 mm, respectively, p<0.01. This data indicate that subjects were able to use additional haptic information from the hypothenar region to bring their COP and dominant hand further forward while standing on level ground as well as on a one m elevated surface.

  12. Social networks, leisure activities and maximum tongue pressure: cross-sectional associations in the Nagasaki Islands Study. (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Higashi, Miho; Takamura, Noboru; Tamai, Mami; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Kadota, Koichiro; Sato, Shimpei; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Koyama, Zenya; Saito, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Takahiro


    Social environment is often associated with health outcomes, but epidemiological evidence for its effect on oral frailty, a potential risk factor for aspiration, is sparse. This study aimed to assess the association between social environment and tongue pressure, as an important measure of oral function. The study focused on family structure, social networks both with and beyond neighbours, and participation in leisure activities. A population-based cross-sectional study. Annual health check-ups in a rural community in Japan. A total of 1982 participants, all over 40 years old. Anyone with missing data for the main outcome (n=14) was excluded. Tongue pressure was measured three times, and the maximum tongue pressure was used for analysis. A multivariable adjusted regression model was used to calculate parameter estimates (B) for tongue pressure. Having a social network involving neighbours (B=2.43, P=0.0001) and taking part in leisure activities (B=1.58, P=0.005) were independently associated with higher tongue pressure, but there was no link with social networks beyond neighbours (B=0.23, P=0.77). Sex-specific analyses showed that for men, having a partner was associated with higher tongue pressure, independent of the number of people in the household (B=2.26, P=0.01), but there was no association among women (B=-0.24, P=0.72; P-interaction=0.059). Having a social network involving neighbours and taking part in leisure activities were independently associated with higher tongue pressure. Marital status may be an important factor in higher tongue pressure in men. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes: A criterion to assess the influence of pressure migration along faults (United States)

    Norbeck, Jack H.; Horne, Roland N.


    The maximum expected earthquake magnitude is an important parameter in seismic hazard and risk analysis because of its strong influence on ground motion. In the context of injection-induced seismicity, the processes that control how large an earthquake will grow may be influenced by operational factors under engineering control as well as natural tectonic factors. Determining the relative influence of these effects on maximum magnitude will impact the design and implementation of induced seismicity management strategies. In this work, we apply a numerical model that considers the coupled interactions of fluid flow in faulted porous media and quasidynamic elasticity to investigate the earthquake nucleation, rupture, and arrest processes for cases of induced seismicity. We find that under certain conditions, earthquake ruptures are confined to a pressurized region along the fault with a length-scale that is set by injection operations. However, earthquakes are sometimes able to propagate as sustained ruptures outside of the zone that experienced a pressure perturbation. We propose a faulting criterion that depends primarily on the state of stress and the earthquake stress drop to characterize the transition between pressure-constrained and runaway rupture behavior.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The generalized maximum likelihood method was used to determine binary interaction parameters between carbon dioxide and components of orange essential oil. Vapor-liquid equilibrium was modeled with Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong equations, using a methodology proposed in 1979 by Asselineau, Bogdanic and Vidal. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data on binary mixtures formed with carbon dioxide and compounds usually found in orange essential oil were used to test the model. These systems were chosen to demonstrate that the maximum likelihood method produces binary interaction parameters for cubic equations of state capable of satisfactorily describing phase equilibrium, even for a binary such as ethanol/CO2. Results corroborate that the Peng-Robinson, as well as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong, equation can be used to describe phase equilibrium for the following systems: components of essential oil of orange/CO2.Foi empregado o método da máxima verossimilhança generalizado para determinação de parâmetros de interação binária entre os componentes do óleo essencial de laranja e dióxido de carbono. Foram usados dados experimentais de equilíbrio líquido-vapor de misturas binárias de dióxido de carbono e componentes do óleo essencial de laranja. O equilíbrio líquido-vapor foi modelado com as equações de Peng-Robinson e de Soave-Redlich-Kwong usando a metodologia proposta em 1979 por Asselineau, Bogdanic e Vidal. A escolha destes sistemas teve como objetivo demonstrar que o método da máxima verosimilhança produz parâmetros de interação binária, para equações cúbicas de estado capazes de descrever satisfatoriamente até mesmo o equilíbrio para o binário etanol/CO2. Os resultados comprovam que tanto a equação de Peng-Robinson quanto a de Soave-Redlich-Kwong podem ser empregadas para descrever o equilíbrio de fases para o sistemas: componentes do óleo essencial de laranja/CO2.

  15. Outcome of TVT operations in women with low maximum urethral closure pressure. (United States)

    Moe, Kjartan; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd


    (i) To establish whether low maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) is associated with a poorer prognosis after TVT-surgery, and if so to establish an MUCP cut-off value for poor outcome. (ii) To characterize the population with a low MUCP. Retrospective analysis of data from 6,646 women with stress/mixed urinary incontinence included in the Norwegian Female Incontinence Registry. Postoperative subjective (degree of satisfaction), objective (leakage on stress test) and composite cure according to preoperative MUCP were analyzed in unadjusted and adjusted analysis. Preoperative variables were compared between women having a low or normal MUCP. Non-parametric tests were used on continuous variables and χ 2 tests on categorical variables. Logistic regression was used for the adjusted analysis. Level of significance: P 20 cm H 2 O. In adjusted analysis MUCP ≤20 cm H 2 O was associated with neither objective, subjective, nor composite failure. Women with MUCP TVT-surgery compared to women with MUCP >20 cm H 2 O after adjusting for preoperative variables. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1320-1324, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Studies of the pressure dependence of the charge density distribution in cerium phosphide by the maximum-entropy method

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimatsu, N; Takata, M; Nishibori, E; Sakata, M; Hayashi, J; Shirotani, I; Shimomura, O


    The physical properties relating to 4f electrons in cerium phosphide, especially the temperature dependence and the isomorphous transition that occurs at around 10 GPa, were studied by means of x-ray powder diffraction and charge density distribution maps derived by the maximum-entropy method. The compressibility of CeP was exactly determined using a helium pressure medium and the anomaly that indicated the isomorphous transition was observed in the compressibility. We also discuss the anisotropic charge density distribution of Ce ions and its temperature dependence.

  17. Numerical estimates of the maximum sustainable pore pressure in anticline formations using the tensor based concept of pore pressure-stress coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Eckert


    Full Text Available The advanced tensor based concept of pore pressure-stress coupling is used to provide pre-injection analytical estimates of the maximum sustainable pore pressure change, ΔPc, for fluid injection scenarios into generic anticline geometries. The heterogeneous stress distribution for different prevailing stress regimes in combination with the Young's modulus (E contrast between the injection layer and the cap rock and the interbedding friction coefficient, μ, may result in large spatial and directional differences of ΔPc. A single value characterizing the cap rock as for horizontal layered injection scenarios is not obtained. It is observed that a higher Young's modulus in the cap rock and/or a weak mechanical coupling between layers amplifies the maximum and minimum ΔPc values in the valley and limb, respectively. These differences in ΔPc imposed by E and μ are further amplified by different stress regimes. The more compressional the stress regime is, the larger the differences between the maximum and minimum ΔPc values become. The results of this study show that, in general compressional stress regimes yield the largest magnitudes of ΔPc and extensional stress regimes provide the lowest values of ΔPc for anticline formations. Yet this conclusion has to be considered with care when folded anticline layers are characterized by flexural slip and the friction coefficient between layers is low, i.e. μ = 0.1. For such cases of weak mechanical coupling, ΔPc magnitudes may range from 0 MPa to 27 MPa, indicating imminent risk of fault reactivation in the cap rock.

  18. Maximum home blood pressure is a useful indicator of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: KAMOGAWA-HBP study. (United States)

    Oyabu, Chikako; Ushigome, Emi; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Tanaka, Toru; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Ohnishi, Masayoshi; Tsunoda, Sei; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Yokota, Isao; Tanaka, Muhei; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki


    Maximum home systolic blood pressure has been shown to predict target organ damage. We aimed to clarify the association between maximum home systolic blood pressure and urine albumin to creatinine ratio, an indicator of early-phase diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. In 1040 patients, we assessed the relationship of mean or maximum home systolic blood pressure and urine albumin to creatinine ratio, and compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of mean or maximum home systolic blood pressure for diabetic nephropathy (urine albumin to creatinine ratio ⩾30 mg/g Cr). Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that mean morning systolic blood pressure ( β = 0.010, p blood pressure ( β = 0.008, p blood pressure was 0.667 (0.634-0.700; p blood pressure, as well as mean home systolic blood pressure, was significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. An investigation on effects of amputee's physiological parameters on maximum pressure developed at the prosthetic socket interface using artificial neural network. (United States)

    Nayak, Chitresh; Singh, Amit; Chaudhary, Himanshu; Unune, Deepak Rajendra


    Technological advances in prosthetics have attracted the curiosity of researchers in monitoring design and developments of the sockets to sustain maximum pressure without any soft tissue damage, skin breakdown, and painful sores. Numerous studies have been reported in the area of pressure measurement at the limb/socket interface, though, the relation between amputee's physiological parameters and the pressure developed at the limb/socket interface is still not studied. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of patient-specific physiological parameters viz. height, weight, and stump length on the pressure development at the transtibial prosthetic limb/socket interface. Initially, the pressure values at the limb/socket interface were clinically measured during stance and walking conditions for different patients using strain gauges placed at critical locations of the stump. The measured maximum pressure data related to patient's physiological parameters was used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The effects of physiological parameters on the pressure development at the limb/socket interface were examined using the ANN model. The analyzed results indicated that the weight and stump length significantly affects the maximum pressure values. The outcomes of this work could be an important platform for the design and development of patient-specific prosthetic socket which can endure the maximum pressure conditions at stance and ambulation conditions.

  20. New system for measuring and controlling the maximum pressing pressure in the holes of the mould: ISOPRESS; Nuevo sistema para la medida y control de la presion maxima de prensado en los alveolos del molde: ISOPRESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyatos, A.; Bonaque, R.; Mallol, G.; Boix, J.


    The organization MACER, in collaboration with the Institute of Ceramic Technology, has developed the system ISOPRESS, an integrated control device that permits to equal automatically the maximum pressure applied on the powder contained in each of the holes of the mould. This system consists of a set of pressure transducers which are located in the isostatic punches of the mould itself. With them it is possible to register in real-time the evolution of the measured pressure of the oil contained in the compensation chamber of each punch. All the transducers are connected to a data acquisition system which transfers the pressure values to a PC which performs the signal processing to obtain the pressure maximum value reached during a pressing cycle, in each one of the holes. The system is completed with a control software especially developed, that permits to regulate individually the height of the first fall of each inferior punch to guarantee the uniformity of the pressure applied in all the holes. ISOPRESS, by assuring the constancy of the bulk density of all the pieces processed, guarantees a unique piece size and minimize production problems associated to the variability of the bulk density of the pieces. (Author)

  1. Optimization study of pressure-swing distillation for the separation process of a maximum-boiling azeotropic system of water-ethylenediamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulgueras, Alyssa Marie; Poudel, Jeeban; Kim, Dong Sun; Cho, Jungho [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    The separation of ethylenediamine (EDA) from aqueous solution is a challenging problem because its mixture forms an azeotrope. Pressure-swing distillation (PSD) as a method of separating azeotropic mixture were investigated. For a maximum-boiling azeotropic system, pressure change does not greatly affect the azeotropic composition of the system. However, the feasibility of using PSD was still analyzed through process simulation. Experimental vapor liquid equilibrium data of water-EDA system was studied to predict the suitability of thermodynamic model to be applied. This study performed an optimization of design parameters for each distillation column. Different combinations of operating pressures for the low- and high-pressure columns were used for each PSD simulation case. After the most efficient operating pressures were identified, two column configurations, low-high (LP+HP) and high-low (HP+ LP) pressure column configuration, were further compared. Heat integration was applied to PSD system to reduce low and high temperature utility consumption.

  2. Optimization study of pressure-swing distillation for the separation process of a maximum-boiling azeotropic system of water-ethylenediamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulgueras, Alyssa Marie; Poudel, Jeeban; Kim, Dong Sun; Cho, Jungho


    The separation of ethylenediamine (EDA) from aqueous solution is a challenging problem because its mixture forms an azeotrope. Pressure-swing distillation (PSD) as a method of separating azeotropic mixture were investigated. For a maximum-boiling azeotropic system, pressure change does not greatly affect the azeotropic composition of the system. However, the feasibility of using PSD was still analyzed through process simulation. Experimental vapor liquid equilibrium data of water-EDA system was studied to predict the suitability of thermodynamic model to be applied. This study performed an optimization of design parameters for each distillation column. Different combinations of operating pressures for the low- and high-pressure columns were used for each PSD simulation case. After the most efficient operating pressures were identified, two column configurations, low-high (LP+HP) and high-low (HP+ LP) pressure column configuration, were further compared. Heat integration was applied to PSD system to reduce low and high temperature utility consumption.

  3. Estimation of maximum pressure in small containments of PWR reactors due to loss of coolant accident in primary circuit; Estimativa da pressao maxima em contencoes de reatores PWR de pequeno porte devido a um acidente de perda de refrigerante no circuito primario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes Neto, Teofilo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)


    This work studies the problem of containment pressurization after a LOCA in reactors with small containment free volumes. The relationship between the reactor power and the containment free volume is described with the ratio between the volumes of the primary circuit and of the containment. The maximum pressure in a containment, following a LOCA, obtained after a correlation based on large containment PWR, is around 185 psia for a primary circuit and containment volumes ratio of 0.025. For the same problem, calculations with the CONTEMPT-LT code produced a maximum pressure of 162 psia. The behavior of the temperature after a LOCA to the containment, as a function of the ratio between the primary circuit and containment volume, is such that it increases reaching asymptotically to a maximum; differently, the pressure increases almost linearly with the ratio of volumes. (author)

  4. Maximum inspiratory pressure as a clinically meaningful trial endpoint for neuromuscular diseases: A comprehensive review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Schoser; Fong, E. (Edward); Geberhiwot, T. (Tarekegn); Hughes, D. (Derralynn); Kissel, J.T. (John T.); Madathil, S.C. (Shyam C.); Orlikowski, D. (David); Polkey, M.I. (Michael I.); M. Roberts (Mark); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); Young, P. (Peter)


    textabstractRespiratory muscle strength is a proven predictor of long-term outcome of neuromuscular disease (NMD), including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and spinal muscular atrophy. Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), a sensitive measure of respiratory muscle

  5. Reach Out Churches: A Community-Based Participatory Research Pilot Trial to Assess the Feasibility of a Mobile Health Technology Intervention to Reduce Blood Pressure Among African Americans. (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Cowdery, Joan; Dome, Mackenzie; Bailey, Sarah; Baek, Jonggyu; Byrd, James Brian; Hartley, Sarah E; Valley, Staci C; Saberi, Sima; Wheeler, Natalie C; McDermott, Mollie; Hughes, Rebecca; Shanmugasundaram, Krithika; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Brown, Devin L


    Innovative strategies are needed to reduce the hypertension epidemic among African Americans. Reach Out was a faith-collaborative, mobile health, randomized, pilot intervention trial of four mobile health components to reduce high blood pressure (BP) compared to usual care. It was designed and tested within a community-based participatory research framework among African Americans recruited and randomized from churches in Flint, Michigan. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of the Reach Out processes. Feasibility was assessed by willingness to consent (acceptance of randomization), proportion of weeks participants texted their BP readings (intervention use), number lost to follow-up (retention), and responses to postintervention surveys and focus groups (acceptance of intervention). Of the 425 church members who underwent BP screening, 94 enrolled in the study and 73 (78%) completed the 6-month outcome assessment. Median age was 58 years, and 79% were women. Participants responded with their BPs on an average of 13.7 (SD = 10.7) weeks out of 26 weeks that the BP prompts were sent. All participants reported satisfaction with the intervention. Reach Out, a faith-collaborative, mobile health intervention was feasible. Further study of the efficacy of the intervention and additional mobile health strategies should be considered.

  6. MEMS pressure sensor with maximum performances by using novel back-side direct-exposure concept featuring through glass vias (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, B.; Fritz, M.; Mackowiak, P.; Vu, T. C.; Ehrmann, O.; Lang, K.-D.; Ngo, H.-D.


    Design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of novel MEMS pressure sensors with new back-side-direct-exposure packaging concept are presented. The sensor design is optimized for harsh environments e.g. space, military, offshore and medical applications. Unbreakable connection between the active side of the Si-sensor and the protecting glass capping was realized by anodic bonding using a thin layer of metal. To avoid signal corruption of the measured pressure caused by an encapsulation system, the media has direct contact to the backside of the Si membrane and can deflect it.

  7. The effectiveness of combining inspiratory muscle training with manual therapy and a therapeutic exercise program on maximum inspiratory pressure in adults with asthma: a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Candelas-Fernández, Pablo; de-Diego-Cano, Beatriz; Mínguez-Calzada, Orcález; Del Corral, Tamara


    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of manual therapy and therapeutic exercise protocol to inspiratory muscle training was more effective in improving maximum inspiratory pressure than inspiratory muscle training in isolation. This is a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. In total, 43 patients with asthma were included in this study. The patients were allocated into one of the two groups: (1) inspiratory muscle training ( n = 21; 20-minute session) or (2) inspiratory muscle training (20-minute session) combined with a program of manual therapy (15-minute session) and therapeutic exercise (15-minute session; n = 22). All participants received 12 sessions, two days/week, for six weeks and performed the domiciliary exercises protocol. The main measures such as maximum inspiratory pressure, spirometric measures, forward head posture, and thoracic kyphosis were recorded at baseline and after the treatment. For the per-protocol analysis, between-group differences at post-intervention were observed in maximum inspiratory pressure (19.77 cmH 2 O (11.49-28.04), P < .05; F = 22.436; P < .001; η 2 p  = 0.371) and forward head posture (-1.25 cm (-2.32 to -0.19), P < .05; F = 5.662; P = .022; η 2 p  = 0.13). The intention-to-treat analysis showed the same pattern of findings. The inspiratory muscle training combined with a manual therapy and therapeutic exercise program is more effective than its application in isolation for producing short-term maximum inspiratory pressure and forward head posture improvements in patients with asthma.

  8. Effect of error in crack length measurement on maximum load fracture toughness of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bind, A.K.; Sunil, Saurav; Singh, R.N.; Chakravartty, J.K.


    Recently it was found that maximum load toughness (J max ) for Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material was practically unaffected by error in Δ a . To check the sensitivity of the J max to error in Δ a measurement, the J max was calculated assuming no crack growth up to the maximum load (P max ) for as received and hydrogen charged Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material. For load up to the P max , the J values calculated assuming no crack growth (J NC ) were slightly higher than that calculated based on Δ a measured using DCPD technique (JDCPD). In general, error in the J calculation found to be increased exponentially with Δ a . The error in J max calculation was increased with an increase in Δ a and a decrease in J max . Based on deformation theory of J, an analytic criterion was developed to check the insensitivity of the J max to error in Δ a . There was very good linear relation was found between the J max calculated based on Δ a measured using DCPD technique and the J max calculated assuming no crack growth. This relation will be very useful to calculate J max without measuring the crack growth during fracture test especially for irradiated material. (author)

  9. Reaching the hard to reach. (United States)

    Bhiwandi, P; Campbell, M; Potts, M


    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development proposed increasing contraceptive couple protection from 550 million in 1995 to 880 million in 2015. The task for family planning (FP) programs is to provide access to services for, sometimes, inaccessible rural populations. FP need based on desire for no more children has ranged from under 20% in Senegal to almost 80% in Peru. Socioeconomic development was found not to be a prerequisite for fertility change. Gender inequalities in education and social autonomy must be changed. FP access is very important among women with a disadvantaged background or among women unsure about FP. Bangladesh is a good example of a country with increased contraceptive prevalence despite low income. The rule of thumb is that contraception increases of 15% contribute to a drop in family size of about one child. Program effectiveness is related to a variety of factors: contraceptive availability at many locations, acceptable price of contraception, delivery of the oral contraceptives without prescriptions, and other strategies. FP is a service not a medical treatment. A range of methods must be promoted and available from a range of facilities. Contraceptive use is dependent on the woman's stage in her lifecycle and is dependent on informed choice. Community-based distribution systems are effective, whereas free distribution by poorly-trained field workers is not always very effective because patient payment of all or part of the cost assures quality and freedom of choice. Effective programs for underprivileged groups involve aggressive, easy to manage programs that can be replicated rapidly. FP serves a useful function in depressing maternal mortality among the poor in Africa, who have no access to quality health services. Social marketing is an effective strategy for reaching remote areas. Political will and robust management are necessary commodities.

  10. Relation of maximum blood pressure during exercise and regular physical activity in normotensive men with left ventricular mass and hypertrophy. MARATHOM Investigators. Medida de la Actividad fisica y su Relación Ambiental con Todos los Lípidos en el HOMbre. (United States)

    Molina, L; Elosua, R; Marrugat, J; Pons, S


    The relation between maximum systolic blood pressure (BP) during exercise and left ventricular (LV) mass is controversial. Physical activity also induces LV mass increase. The objective was to assess the relation between BP response to exercise and LV mass in normotensive men, taking into account physical activity practice. A cross-sectional study was performed. Three hundred eighteen healthy normotensive men, aged between 20 and 60 years, participated in this study. The Minnesota questionnaire was used to assess physical activity practice. An echocardiogram and a maximum exercise test were performed. LV mass was calculated and indexed to body surface area. LV hypertrophy was defined as a ventricular mass index > or =134 g/m2. BP was measured at the moment of maximum effort. Hypertensive response was considered when BP was > or =210 mm Hg. In the multiple linear regression model, maximum systolic BP was associated with LV mass index and correlation coefficient was 0.27 (SE 0.07). Physical activity practice and age were also associated with LV mass. An association between hypertensive response to exercise and LV hypertrophy was observed (odds ratio 3.16). Thus, BP response to exercise is associated with LV mass and men with systolic BP response > or =210 mm Hg present a 3-times higher risk of LV hypertrophy than those not reaching this limit. Physical activity practice is related to LV mass, but not to LV hypertrophy.

  11. The numerical simulation of the WWER-440/V-213 reactor pressure vessel internals response to maximum hypothetical large break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansky, P.; Krajcovic, M.


    The reactor internals are designed to ensure cooling of the fuel, to ensure the movement of emergency control assemblies under all operating conditions including accidents and facilitate removal of the fuel and of the internals following an accident This paper presents results of the numerical simulation of the WWER-440/V213 reactor vessel internals dynamic response to maximum hypothetical Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the reactor vessel internals response due to rapid depressurization and to prove no such deformations occur in the reactor vessel internals which would prevent timely and proper activation of the emergency control assemblies. (Authors)

  12. Reach Address Database (RAD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  13. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University of Egypt,Sherouk City 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Centre for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University,Benha, 13518 (Egypt)


    Inspired by Jacobson’s thermodynamic approach, Cai et al. have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p(ρ,a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p=ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  14. Reaching the hard-to-reach. (United States)

    Valdes, C


    Guatemala's family planning (FP) programs are innovative but contraceptive use is only 23%. Total fertility is 5.3 children/woman, and the 9.5 million population will double in 23 years. The problem is poverty and illiteracy among rural residents removed from health services. 80% live in poverty and 80% are illiterate. Government effort is devoted to combating diseases such as diarrhea so there are few funds for implementing a comprehensive population policy. There is support within the national government but FP lacks priority status. APROFAM's goals are to use innovative marketing methods to inform the rural population who lack access to and knowledge about FP. Service delivery is constrained by the difficulty in reaching remote areas where 4 out of 10 indigenous Guatemalans live. Infant mortality can reach as high as 200/1000 live births. Population growth has slowed, and APROFAM plans to reach 16,000 more in the future. Promotions are conducted in several languages and aired on radio, television, and in the print media. It has been found that market research is the most effective strategy in reaching indigenous families. APROFAM has also been effective in upgrading service facilities through training, client surveys, and setting improved clinic standards. Breastfeeding, training, and voluntary sterilization programs contribute to the primary care effort. The example is given of Paulina Lebron from a very poor area who has learned how to space her children and thus improve the standard of living for her family. Eventually, she convinced herself and her family that sterilization was necessary, and now the couple enjoy the bliss of newlyweds without fear of pregnancy.

  15. Teratology testing under REACH. (United States)

    Barton, Steve


    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  16. Global reach and engagement (United States)


    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  17. Synthesis of microparticles with complex compositions in a xenon high-pressure chamber (550 bar) under irradiation by braking radiation with a maximum energy of 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Myshinskiy, G.V.; Sabel'nikov, A.V.


    Natural xenon at a pressure of 550 bar in a high pressure chamber (XeHPC) was irradiated during 2,59 · 10 5 s by bremsstrahlung with a maximum energy of 10 MeV at the electron accelerator MT-25 microtron with an electron beam intensity of 20–22μA. The final electron fluence was 4.74 · 10 19 electrons. The growth of pressure versus temperature during the stationary exposure mode grew at first up to 620 bar and then dropped to 550 bar. After opening of the XeHPC both of the internal chambers with all the structures, but without gas, were measured using a γ-germanium detector (Canberra) during 15 h each for measurement of the background and short-lived isotopes. During a visual inspection of the interior surfaces of the XeHPC inner assembly, a visible coating of substantial thickness and greenish-yellowish color was observed. The research carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray micro-probe analysis (XMPA) allowed us to determine the elemental composition of synthesized particles. [ru

  18. The shouted voice: A pilot study of laryngeal physiology under extreme aerodynamic pressure. (United States)

    Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Galant, Camille; Amy de La Bretèque, Benoit; Meynadier, Yohann; Giovanni, Antoine


    The objective was to study the behavior of the larynx during shouted voice production, when the larynx is exposed to extremely high subglottic pressure. The study involved electroglottographic, acoustic, and aerodynamic analyses of shouts produced at maximum effort by three male participants. Under a normal speaking voice, the voice sound pressure level (SPL) is proportional to the subglottic pressure. However, when the subglottic pressure reached high levels, the voice SPL reached a maximum value and then decreased as subglottic pressure increased further. Furthermore, the electroglottographic signal sometimes lost its periodicity during the shout, suggesting irregular vocal fold vibration.

  19. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe


    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  20. Maximum discharge rate of liquid-vapor mixtures from vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.


    A discrepancy exists in theoretical predictions of the two-phase equilibrium discharge rate from pipes attached to vessels. Theory which predicts critical flow data in terms of pipe exit pressure and quality severely overpredicts flow rates in terms of vessel fluid properties. This study shows that the discrepancy is explained by the flow pattern. Due to decompression and flashing as fluid accelerates into the pipe entrance, the maximum discharge rate from a vessel is limited by choking of a homogeneous bubbly mixture. The mixture tends toward a slip flow pattern as it travels through the pipe, finally reaching a different choked condition at the pipe exit

  1. Melting temperature of H2, D2, N2 and СH4 under high pressure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the analysis indicates the presence of the melting maximum in these solids. ... values of the melting temperature in case of hydrogen up to a pressure of 4800 ... temperature, Tm, will rise with the increase in pressure, reach to a maximum and.

  2. Reaching the unreached. (United States)

    Ariyaratne, A T


    Embodied in the child survival revolution are ideological, methodological, and organizational innovations aimed at radical change in the condition of the world's children as rapidly as possible. In countries such as Sri Lanka, child survival and health for all by the year 2000 often seem to be impossible goals, given the tumultuous socioeconomic and political conditions. In Sri Lanka, the quality of life has been eroded, not enhanced, by the importation of Western technology and managerial capitalism and the destruction of indigenous processes. The chaos and violence that have been brought into the country have made it difficult to reach the poor children, women, and refugees in rural areas with primary health care interventions. Sri Lanka's unreachable--the decision making elites--have blocked access to the unreached--the urban and rural poor. If governments are to reach the unreached, they must remove the obstacles to a people-centered, community development process. It is the people themselves, and the institutions of their creation, that can reach the children amidst them in greatest need. To achieve this task, local communities must be provided with basic human rights, the power to make decisions that affect their lives, necessary resources, and appropriate technologies. Nongovernmental organizations can play a crucial role as bridges between the unreached and the unreachable by promoting community empowerment, aiding in the formation of networks of community organizations, and establishing linkages with government programs. If the ruling elites in developing countries can be persuaded to accommodate the needs and aspirations of those who, to date, have been excluded from the development process, the child survival revolution can be a nonviolent one.

  3. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu


    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  4. Solar Hydrogen Reaching Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongé Jan


    Full Text Available Increasingly vast research efforts are devoted to the development of materials and processes for solar hydrogen production by light-driven dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Storage of solar energy in chemical bonds resolves the issues associated with the intermittent nature of sunlight, by decoupling energy generation and consumption. This paper investigates recent advances and prospects in solar hydrogen processes that are reaching market readiness. Future energy scenarios involving solar hydrogen are proposed and a case is made for systems producing hydrogen from water vapor present in air, supported by advanced modeling.

  5. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood. (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat


    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  6. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  7. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis


    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani


    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  8. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10 13 ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10 13 ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10 13 ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found

  9. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10{sup 13} ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10{sup 13} ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10{sup 13} ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found.

  10. Maximum home systolic blood pressure is a useful indicator of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study. (United States)

    Ushigome, Emi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Tanaka, Toru; Atsuta, Haruhiko; Mogami, Shin-ichi; Tsunoda, Sei; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto


    Maximum (max) home systolic blood pressure (HSBP) as well as mean HSBP or HSBP variability was reported to increase the predictive value of target organ damage. Yet, the association between max HSBP and target organ damage in patients with type 2 diabetes has never been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between max HSBP and pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness which in turn is a marker of target organ damage, in patients with type 2 diabetes. We assessed the relationship of mean HSBP or max HSBP to PWV, and compared area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of mean HSBP or max HSBP for arterial stiffness in 758 patients with type 2 diabetes. In the univariate analyses, age, duration of diabetes mellitus, body mass index, mean clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean HSBP and max HSBP were associated with PWV. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that mean morning SBP (β=0.156, P=0.001) or max morning SBP (β=0.146, P=0.001) were significantly associated with PWV. AUC (95% CI) for arterial stiffness, defined as PWV equal to or more than 1800 cm per second, in mean morning SBP and max morning SBP were 0.622 (0.582-0.662; P<0.001) and 0.631 (0.591-0.670; P<0.001), respectively. Our findings implicate that max HSBP as well as mean HSBP was significantly associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reaching Beyond The Stars (United States)

    Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.


    Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

  12. GAP-REACH (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E.; Alarcón, Renato D.; Oquendo, María A.; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C.; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N.; Jacobsen, Frederick M.; Foulks, Edward F.; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E.


    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-itemGAP-REACH© checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article. PMID:24080673

  13. UX-15 Reaches LEP

    CERN Multimedia


    The creation of the world's largest sandstone cavern, not a small feat! At the bottom, cave-in preventing steel mesh can be seen clinging to the top of the tunnel. The digging of UX-15, the cavern that will house ATLAS, reached the upper ceiling of LEP on October 10th. The breakthrough which took place nearly 100 metres underground occurred precisely on schedule and exactly as planned. But much caution was taken beforehand to make the LEP breakthrough clean and safe. To prevent the possibility of cave-ins in the side tunnels that will eventually be attached to the completed UX-15 cavern, reinforcing steel mesh was fixed into the walls with bolts. Obviously no people were allowed in the LEP tunnels below UX-15 as the breakthrough occurred. The area was completely evacuated and fences were put into place to keep all personnel out. However, while personnel were being kept out of the tunnels below, this has been anything but the case for the work taking place up above. With the creation of the world's largest...

  14. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Mitigation AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... system. To that end, the Hazardous Liquid and Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management (IM...

  15. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.


    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  16. Achieving maximum baryon densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.


    In continuing work on nuclear stopping power in the energy range E/sub lab/ approx. 10 GeV/nucleon, calculations were made of the energy and baryon densities that could be achieved in uranium-uranium collisions. Results are shown. The energy density reached could exceed 2 GeV/fm 3 and baryon densities could reach as high as ten times normal nuclear densities

  17. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method


    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon


    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  18. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.


    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  19. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo


    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  20. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)


    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  1. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)


    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  2. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures. (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.


    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  3. Maximum Recoverable Gas from Hydrate Bearing Sediments by Depressurization

    KAUST Repository

    Terzariol, Marco


    The estimation of gas production rates from hydrate bearing sediments requires complex numerical simulations. This manuscript presents a set of simple and robust analytical solutions to estimate the maximum depressurization-driven recoverable gas. These limiting-equilibrium solutions are established when the dissociation front reaches steady state conditions and ceases to expand further. Analytical solutions show the relevance of (1) relative permeabilities between the hydrate free sediment, the hydrate bearing sediment, and the aquitard layers, and (2) the extent of depressurization in terms of the fluid pressures at the well, at the phase boundary, and in the far field. Close form solutions for the size of the produced zone allow for expeditious financial analyses; results highlight the need for innovative production strategies in order to make hydrate accumulations an economically-viable energy resource. Horizontal directional drilling and multi-wellpoint seafloor dewatering installations may lead to advantageous production strategies in shallow seafloor reservoirs.

  4. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.


    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  5. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.


    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  6. Reaching ignition in the tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.


    This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project

  7. The last glacial maximum (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.


    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  8. Enhanced monoclonal antibody production by gradual increase of osmotic pressure


    Lin, Jianqiang; Takagi, Mutsumi; Qu, Yinbo; Gao, Peiji; Yoshida, Toshiomi


    The time length required for the adaptation of AFP-27 hybridoma cells to high osmotic pressure and the effect of a gradual increase of osmotic pressure on monoclonal antibody production were investigated. When the cells were subjected to an increase of osmotic pressure from 300 mOsmol kg-1 to 366 mOsmol kg- 1, the intracellular content of osmoprotective free amino acids reached a maximum level 6 h after the osmotic pressure was increased to 366 mOsmol kg-1. The same time period of 6 h incubat...

  9. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.


    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  10. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.


    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.


    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  12. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.


    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  13. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  14. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin


    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  15. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  16. Water-Pressure Distribution on Seaplane Float (United States)

    Thompson, F L


    The investigation presented in this report was conducted for the purpose of determining the distribution and magnitude of water pressures likely to be experienced on seaplane hulls in service. It consisted of the development and construction of apparatus for recording water pressures lasting one one-hundredth second or longer and of flight tests to determine the water pressures on a UO-1 seaplane float under various conditions of taxiing, taking off, and landing. The apparatus developed was found to operate with satisfactory accuracy and is suitable for flight tests on other seaplanes. The tests on the UO-1 showed that maximum pressures of about 6.5 pounds per square inch occur at the step for the full width of the float bottom. Proceeding forward from the step the maximum pressures decrease in magnitude uniformly toward the bow, and the region of highest pressures narrows toward the keel. Immediately abaft the step the maximum pressures are very small, but increase in magnitude toward the stern and there once reached a value of about 5 pounds per square inch. (author)

  17. EPRI instruments reach commercial market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The Electric Power Research Institute has developed instruments capable of verifying time responses of power plant pressure sensors and temperature sensors. A patent is pending on the pressure-sensor device, and the temperature-sensor device is already commercially available. The devices, EPRI's first hardware products to be marketed, are the result of research to find technological solutions to the problems of knowing the time period when temperature and pressure changes occur in light water reactors. The hydraulic pressure-sensor device is a portable unit that can conveniently test equipment in place. Utilities can obtain detailed information from EPRI's project report to construct their own. The loop current step response (LCSR), measuring resistance temperature, is also a compact system suitable for in-plant testing

  18. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.


    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure parameters after canrenone addition to existing treatment regimens with maximum tolerated dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers plus hydrochlorothiazide in uncontrolled hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guasti L


    Full Text Available Luigina Guasti,1,* Giovanni Gaudio,2,* Alessandro Lupi,3 Marinella D’Avino,4 Carla Sala,5,6 Amedeo Mugellini,7 Vito Vulpis,8 Salvatore Felis,9 Riccardo Sarzani,10,11 Massimo Vanasia,12 Pamela Maffioli,7 Giuseppe Derosa7 1Research Center on Dyslipidemia, Internal Medicine 1, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy; 2Internal Medicine Division, Ospedale Angelo Bellini, ASST Valle Olona Somma, Varese, Italy; 3Cardiology Unit, ASL VCO Verbania-Domodossola, Verbania, Italy; 4Unit for the Treatment of Arterial Hypertension, Ospedale Cardarelli, Napoli, Italy; 5Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milano, Italy; 6Cardiovascular Unit, Fondazione IRCCSS Policlinico, Milano, Italy; 7Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 8Unit for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Policlinico di Bari, Bari, Italy; 9Cardiology Unit, Ospedale Garibaldi, Catania, Italy; 10ESH Center of Hypertension, Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 11IRCCS-INRCA, Ancona, Italy; 12THERABEL GiEnne Pharma, Milano, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is a cornerstone in cardiovascular disease prevention and hypertension treatment. The relevance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM has been widely confirmed for both increasing the accuracy of blood pressure (BP measurements, particularly in pharmacological trials, and focusing on 24 h BP prognostic parameters. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of canrenone addition on ambulatory BP in uncontrolled hypertensive patients already treated with the highest tolerated dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R antagonists plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT. Methods: ABPM was performed at baseline and after 3


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik


    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  1. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.


    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  2. Power converter with maximum power point tracking MPPT for small wind-electric pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, David; Merino, Gabriel; Salazar, Lautaro


    Highlights: • We implement a wind electric pumping system of small power. • The power converter allowed to change the operating point of the electro pump. • Two control techniques were implemented in the power converter. • The control V/f variable allowed to increase the power generated by the permanent magnet generator. - Abstract: In this work, an AC–DC–AC direct-drive power converter was implemented for a wind electric pumping system consisting of a permanent magnet generator (PMG) of 1.3 kW and a peripheral single phase pump of 0.74 kW. In addition, the inverter linear V/f control scheme and the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm with variable V/f were developed. MPPT algorithm seeks to extract water in a wide range of power input using the maximum amount of wind power available. Experimental trials at different pump pressures were conducted. With a MPPT tracking system with variable V/f, a power value of 1.3 kW was obtained at a speed of 350 rpm and a maximum operating hydraulic head of 50 m. At lower operating heads pressures (between 10 and 40 m), variable V/f control increases the power generated by the PMG compared to the linear V/f control. This increase ranged between 4% and 23% depending on the operating pressure, with an average of 13%, getting close to the maximum electrical power curve of the PMG. The pump was driven at variable frequency reaching a minimum speed of 0.5 times the rated speed. Efficiency of the power converter ranges between 70% and 95% with a power factor between 0.4 and 0.85, depending on the operating pressure

  3. REACH and nanomaterials: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia; Castelli, Stefano; Pettirossi, Flavio


    New challenges for regulators are emerging about a specific assessment and appropriate management of the potential risks of nanomaterials. In the framework of European legislation on chemicals, Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 REACH aims to ensure the safety of human health and the environment through the collection of information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the substances and on their profile (eco) toxicological and the identification of appropriate risk management linked to 'exposure to these substances without impeding scientific progress and the competitiveness of industry. In order to cover the current shortage of information on the safety of nanomaterials and tackle the acknowledged legal vacuum, are being a rich activities, carried out both by regulators both by stake holders, and discussions on the proposals for adapting the European regulatory framework for chemicals . The European Commission is geared to strengthen the REACH Regulation by means of updates of its annexes. The importance of responding to the regulatory requirements has highlighted the need for cooperation between European organizations, scientists and industries to promote and ensure the safe use of nanomaterials. [it

  4. Children's Visual Processing of Egocentric Cues in Action Planning for Reach (United States)

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl


    In this study the authors examined children's ability to code visual information into an egocentric frame of reference for planning reach movements. Children and adults estimated reach distance via motor imagery in immediate and response-delay conditions. Actual maximum reach was compared to estimates in multiple locations in peripersonal and…

  5. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy


    Lukasiewicz, Thomas


    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  6. Has Silicon Reached It's Limit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan John Charles Davidson


    Full Text Available In light of the rapidly increasing demand for ultra-high speed data transmission, data centres are under pressure to provide ever increasing data transmission through their networks and at the same time improve the quality of data handling in terms of reduced latency, increased scalability and improved channel speed for users. However as data rates increase, present electronic switching technology using current data centre architecture is becoming increasingly difficult to scale despite improvements in data management. In this paper the tremendous bandwidth potential of optical fibre based networks will be explored alongside the issues of electronic scalability and switching speed. A resulting need for alternative optical solutions for all-optical signal processing systems will be discussed. With this in mind, progress in the form of a novel and highly scalable optical interconnect will be reviewed.

  7. Reaching for the red planet (United States)

    David, L


    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  8. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency. (United States)

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang


    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures--so-called metasurfaces--have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.

  9. The pressure effect on the superconducting transition temperature of black phosphorus

    CERN Document Server

    Karuzawa, M; Endo, S


    We have measured the pressure effect on the superconducting transition temperature T sub c of black phosphorus up to 160 GPa using a superconducting quantum interference device vibrating coil magnetometer. It was found that T sub c had a maximum value of about 9.5 K at about 32 GPa, began decreasing with pressure and reached about 4.3 K at about 100 GPa.

  10. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets. (United States)

    Alibert, Yann


    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  11. Maximum mass of magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto; Martínez, Aurora Perez


    We revisit the problem of the maximum masses of magnetized white dwarfs (WDs). The impact of a strong magnetic field on the structure equations is addressed. The pressures become anisotropic due to the presence of the magnetic field and split into parallel and perpendicular components. We first construct stable solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for parallel pressures and find that physical solutions vanish for the perpendicular pressure when B ≳ 10 13 G. This fact establishes an upper bound for a magnetic field and the stability of the configurations in the (quasi) spherical approximation. Our findings also indicate that it is not possible to obtain stable magnetized WDs with super-Chandrasekhar masses because the values of the magnetic field needed for them are higher than this bound. To proceed into the anisotropic regime, we can apply results for structure equations appropriate for a cylindrical metric with anisotropic pressures that were derived in our previous work. From the solutions of the structure equations in cylindrical symmetry we have confirmed the same bound for B ∼ 10 13 G, since beyond this value no physical solutions are possible. Our tentative conclusion is that massive WDs with masses well beyond the Chandrasekhar limit do not constitute stable solutions and should not exist. (paper)

  12. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights (United States)


    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  13. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng


    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  14. Operational Reach: Is Current Army Doctrine Adequate?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heintzelman, Scott


    The term operational reach, an element of operational design, is new to U.S. Army doctrine. Operational reach is not found in the previous edition of the Army's basic operational doctrine, Field Manual...

  15. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  16. When Does the Warmest Water Reach Greenland? (United States)

    Grist, J. P.; Josey, S. A.; Boehme, L.; Meredith, M. P.; Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Kovacs, K. M.; Lydersen, C.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Stenson, G. B.; Hammill, M. O.; Marsh, R.; Coward, A.


    The warmest water reaching the east and west coast of Greenland is found between 200 and 600 m, in the warm Atlantic Water Layer (WL). Temperature changes within the WL have been highlighted as a possible cause of accelerated melting of tidewater glaciers and therefore are an important consideration for understanding global sea level rise. However, a limited number of winter observations of the WL have prohibited determining its seasonal variability. To address this, temperature data from Argo profiling floats, a range of sources within the World Ocean Database, and unprecedented coverage from marine-mammal borne sensors have been analyzed for the period 2002-2011. A significant seasonal range in temperature ( 1-2°C) is found in the warm layer, in contrast to most of the surrounding ocean. The magnitude of the seasonal cycle is thus comparable with the 1990s warming that was associated with an increased melt rate in a marine terminating glacier of West Greenland. The phase of the seasonal cycle exhibits considerable spatial variability; with high-resolution ocean model trajectory analysis suggesting it is determined by the time taken for waters to be advected from the subduction site in the Irminger Basin. For western Greenland, the annual temperature maximum occurs near or after the turn of the calendar year. This is significant because a recent study suggested that it is in the non-summer months when fjord-shelf exchanges allow the WL to most strongly influence glacier melt rate. However this is also the time of the year when the WL is least well observed. It is therefore clear that year-round subsurface temperature measurements are still required for a complete description of the WL seasonality, and in particular to ensure that the ice-melting potential of the WL is not underestimated.

  17. Decoding natural reach-and-grasp actions from human EEG (United States)

    Schwarz, Andreas; Ofner, Patrick; Pereira, Joana; Ioana Sburlea, Andreea; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.


    Objective. Despite the high number of degrees of freedom of the human hand, most actions of daily life can be executed incorporating only palmar, pincer and lateral grasp. In this study we attempt to discriminate these three different executed reach-and-grasp actions utilizing their EEG neural correlates. Approach. In a cue-guided experiment, 15 healthy individuals were asked to perform these actions using daily life objects. We recorded 72 trials for each reach-and-grasp condition and from a no-movement condition. Main results. Using low-frequency time domain features from 0.3 to 3 Hz, we achieved binary classification accuracies of 72.4%, STD  ±  5.8% between grasp types, for grasps versus no-movement condition peak performances of 93.5%, STD  ±  4.6% could be reached. In an offline multiclass classification scenario which incorporated not only all reach-and-grasp actions but also the no-movement condition, the highest performance could be reached using a window of 1000 ms for feature extraction. Classification performance peaked at 65.9%, STD  ±  8.1%. Underlying neural correlates of the reach-and-grasp actions, investigated over the primary motor cortex, showed significant differences starting from approximately 800 ms to 1200 ms after the movement onset which is also the same time frame where classification performance reached its maximum. Significance. We could show that it is possible to discriminate three executed reach-and-grasp actions prominent in people’s everyday use from non-invasive EEG. Underlying neural correlates showed significant differences between all tested conditions. These findings will eventually contribute to our attempt of controlling a neuroprosthesis in a natural and intuitive way, which could ultimately benefit motor impaired end users in their daily life actions.

  18. Gamma-ray spectra deconvolution by maximum-entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.


    A maximum-entropy method which includes the response of detectors and the statistical fluctuations of spectra is described and applied to the deconvolution of γ-ray spectra. Resolution enhancement of 25% can be reached for experimental peaks and up to 50% for simulated ones, while the intensities are conserved within 1-2%. (orig.)

  19. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  20. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.


    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  1. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.


    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  2. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.


    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  3. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine (United States)

    Corey, John A.


    The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

  4. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu


    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  5. REACH: impact on the US cosmetics industry? (United States)

    Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Barbara; Polla, Ada


    The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sizykh Grigory


    Full Text Available Maximum principle for subsonic flow is fair for stationary irrotational subsonic gas flows. According to this prin- ciple, if the value of the velocity is not constant everywhere, then its maximum is achieved on the boundary and only on the boundary of the considered domain. This property is used when designing form of an aircraft with a maximum critical val- ue of the Mach number: it is believed that if the local Mach number is less than unit in the incoming flow and on the body surface, then the Mach number is less then unit in all points of flow. The known proof of maximum principle for subsonic flow is based on the assumption that in the whole considered area of the flow the pressure is a function of density. For the ideal and perfect gas (the role of diffusion is negligible, and the Mendeleev-Clapeyron law is fulfilled, the pressure is a function of density if entropy is constant in the entire considered area of the flow. Shows an example of a stationary sub- sonic irrotational flow, in which the entropy has different values on different stream lines, and the pressure is not a function of density. The application of the maximum principle for subsonic flow with respect to such a flow would be unreasonable. This example shows the relevance of the question about the place of the points of maximum value of the velocity, if the entropy is not a constant. To clarify the regularities of the location of these points, was performed the analysis of the com- plete Euler equations (without any simplifying assumptions in 3-D case. The new proof of the maximum principle for sub- sonic flow was proposed. This proof does not rely on the assumption that the pressure is a function of density. Thus, it is shown that the maximum principle for subsonic flow is true for stationary subsonic irrotational flows of ideal perfect gas with variable entropy.

  7. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (United States)


    ... that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure piping... tests conducted in accordance with this section shall be either hydrostatic tests or pneumatic tests. (1... times the maximum allowable working pressure. (2) When a pneumatic test is conducted on a pressure...

  8. Conduction mechanism in a novel oxadiazole derivative: effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jifeng; Han Yonghao; Tang Bencheng; Gao Chunxiao; Li Min; Zou Guangtian


    The quasi-four-probe resistivity measurement on the microcrystal of 1,4-bis[(4-heptyloxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl]phenylene (OXD-3) is carried out under variable pressure and temperature conditions using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Sample resistivity is calculated with a finite element analysis method. The temperature and pressure dependences of the resistivity of OXD-3 microcrystal are measured up to 150 0 C and 15 GPa, and the resistivity of OXD-3 decreases with increasing temperature, indicating that OXD-3 exhibits organic semiconductor transport property in the region of experimental pressure. With an increase of pressure, the resistivity of OXD-3 first increases and reaches a maximum at about 8 GPa, and then begins to decrease at high pressures. From the x-ray diffraction data in DAC under pressure, we can conclude that the anomaly of resistivity variation at 8 GPa results from the pressure-induced amorphism of OXD-3

  9. Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-Reaching Task in Individuals with Paraplegia (United States)

    de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.


    We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…

  10. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele


    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  11. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan


    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  12. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.


    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  13. Determination of Secondary Encasement Pipe Design Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document published results of iterative calculations for maximum tank farm transfer secondary pipe (encasement) pressure upon failure of the primary pipe. The maximum pressure was calculated from a primary pipe guillotine break. Results show encasement pipeline design or testing pressures can be significantly lower than primary pipe pressure criteria.

  14. Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hayato; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru


    Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water, which is a unit reaction in the IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production, was studied experimentally at 323 K under iodine saturation. Quasi-equilibrium state was observed in the presence of sulfur dioxide gas at constant pressure. The composition of the poly-hydriodic acid solution formed was discussed assuming an ideal desulfurization by the reverse reaction of the Bunsen reaction. The value of HI/(HI+H 2 O) of the desulfurized solution was large at high sulfur dioxide pressure and reached the maximum of 15.7 ± 0.3 mol%. (author)

  15. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo


    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  16. REACH: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary (United States)

    Sibieta, Luke


    REACH is a targeted reading support programme designed to improve reading accuracy and comprehension in pupils with reading difficulties in Years 7 and 8. It is based on research by the Centre for Reading and Language at York and is delivered by specially trained teaching assistants (TAs). This evaluation tested two REACH interventions, one based…

  17. Heat Convection at the Density Maximum Point of Water (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Korganci, Nuri


    Water exhibits a maximum in density at normal pressure at around 4° degree temperature. This paper demonstrates that during cooling, at around 4 °C, the temperature remains constant for a while because of heat exchange associated with convective currents inside the water. Superficial approach implies it as a new anomaly of water, but actually it…

  18. How long do centenarians survive? Life expectancy and maximum lifespan. (United States)

    Modig, K; Andersson, T; Vaupel, J; Rau, R; Ahlbom, A


    The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated. The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included. Birth cohort-specific probabilities of dying were calculated. Exact ages were used for calculations of maximum length of life. Whether maximum age changed over time was analysed taking into account increases in cohort size. The results confirm that there has not been any improvement in mortality amongst centenarians in the past 30 years and that the current rise in life expectancy is driven by reductions in mortality below the age of 100 years. The death risks seem to reach a plateau of around 50% at the age 103 years for men and 107 years for women. Despite the rising life expectancy, the maximum age does not appear to increase, in particular after accounting for the increasing number of individuals of advanced age. Mortality amongst centenarians is not changing despite improvements at younger ages. An extension of the maximum lifespan and a sizeable extension of life expectancy both require reductions in mortality above the age of 100 years. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. The database for reaching experiments and models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Walker

    Full Text Available Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc. from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM. DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis.

  20. System for memorizing maximum values (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.


    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  1. Remarks on the maximum luminosity (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon


    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  2. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  3. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.


    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  4. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin


    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  5. The effect of high pressure on the intracellular trehalose synthase activity of Thermus aquaticus. (United States)

    Dong, Yongsheng; Ma, Lei; Duan, Yuanliang


    To understand the effect of high pressure on the intracellular trehalose synthase activity, Thermus aquaticus (T. aquaticus) in the logarithmic growth phase was treated with high-pressure air, and its intracellular trehalose synthase (TSase) activity was determined. Our results indicated that pressure is a factor strongly affecting the cell growth. High pressure significantly attenuated the growth rate of T. aquaticus and shortened the duration of stationary phase. However, after 2 h of culture under 1.0 MPa pressure, the activity of intracellular TSase in T. aquaticus reached its maximum value, indicating that pressure can significantly increase the activity of intracellular TSase in T. aquaticus. Thus the present study provides an important guide for the enzymatic production of trehalose.

  6. Enhancing US Operational Reach in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, David


    .... While this treat continues to exist, the US Pacific Command (PACOM) must also pursue a neat term methodology to expand its operational reach and ability to respond to contingencies throughout the East Asian littoral, especially within Southeast Asia...

  7. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education (United States)

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad


    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  8. Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field

    CERN Multimedia


    Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)

  9. Probabilistic maximum-value wind prediction for offshore environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staid, Andrea; Pinson, Pierre; Guikema, Seth D.


    statistical models to predict the full distribution of the maximum-value wind speeds in a 3 h interval. We take a detailed look at the performance of linear models, generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines models using meteorological covariates such as gust speed, wind speed......, convective available potential energy, Charnock, mean sea-level pressure and temperature, as given by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecasts. The models are trained to predict the mean value of maximum wind speed, and the residuals from training the models are used to develop...... the full probabilistic distribution of maximum wind speed. Knowledge of the maximum wind speed for an offshore location within a given period can inform decision-making regarding turbine operations, planned maintenance operations and power grid scheduling in order to improve safety and reliability...

  10. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.


    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  11. Effects of bruxism on the maximum bite force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Jelena T.


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bruxism is a parafunctional activity of the masticatory system, which is characterized by clenching or grinding of teeth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of bruxism has impact on maximum bite force, with particular reference to the potential impact of gender on bite force values. Methods. This study included two groups of subjects: without and with bruxism. The presence of bruxism in the subjects was registered using a specific clinical questionnaire on bruxism and physical examination. The subjects from both groups were submitted to the procedure of measuring the maximum bite pressure and occlusal contact area using a single-sheet pressure-sensitive films (Fuji Prescale MS and HS Film. Maximal bite force was obtained by multiplying maximal bite pressure and occlusal contact area values. Results. The average values of maximal bite force were significantly higher in the subjects with bruxism compared to those without bruxism (p 0.01. Maximal bite force was significantly higher in the males compared to the females in all segments of the research. Conclusion. The presence of bruxism influences the increase in the maximum bite force as shown in this study. Gender is a significant determinant of bite force. Registration of maximum bite force can be used in diagnosing and analysing pathophysiological events during bruxism.

  12. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers? (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas


    Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.

  13. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.


    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  14. The crystal structure and stability of molybdenum at ultrahigh pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jona, F; Marcus, P M


    Crystal structures and their stabilities for molybdenum under increasing hydrostatic pressures are investigated by first-principles calculations of the Gibbs free energy. Three structures are considered: body-centred cubic (bcc, the ground state at zero pressure), hexagonal close-packed (hcp) and face-centred cubic (fcc). For each structure and each pressure (up to 8 Mbar) the equilibrium states are found from minima of the Gibbs free energy at zero temperature. The stability is tested by calculating the elastic constants and checking whether they satisfy the appropriate stability conditions. The bcc structure is confirmed to be stable at zero pressure and at 6 Mbar. At and above 6.2 M-bar the ground-state structure changes to hcp, which is found to be stable at 7 M-bar. At 7.7 Mbar another transition occurs, and the ground-state structure changes from hcp to fcc. The fcc structure, which is unstable at zero pressure, becomes metastable over the range from 3 to 7.7 M-bar and becomes the ground state at higher pressures (at least up to 8 Mbar). Direct confirmation of these calculated transition pressures with experiment is not now possible, as the maximum static pressure currently reached experimentally is 5.6 Mbar, where Mo is found to be still in the bcc phase

  15. Effect of Contact Pressure on the Resistance Contact Value and Temperature Changes in Copper Busbar Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Risdiyanto


    Full Text Available This paper discussed the influence of tightness or contacts pressure on copper busbar joints to determine changes in the value of the initial contact resistance and the maximum temperature at the joint due to high current load. The test sample was copper busbar 3 x 30 mm with configuration of bolted overlapping joint. Increasing contact pressure at the joint was measured to find out its effect on the value of contact resistance. The applied pressure was 6 to 36 MPa. Procedure of contact resistance measurement refer to the ASTM B539 standard using four-wire method. The sample subsequently loaded with the current of 350 A for 60 minutes and the maximum temperature at the joint was measured. The result showed that increasing contact pressure at the busbar joint will reduce the contact resistance and maximum temperature. The increase of contact pressure from 6 to 30 MPa causes decreasing contact resistance from 16 μΩ to 11 μΩ. Further increasing of contact pressure more than 30 MPa did not affect the contact resistance significantly. The lowest temperatur of busbar joint of 54°C was reached at a contact pressure of 36 Mpa.

  16. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...... of developing best practices in the education and implementation of IHL in capacity building of security forces....

  17. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene


    PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  18. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.


    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  19. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks (United States)


    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  20. Pressurized thermal shock (PTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Ricardo D.; Ventura, Mirta A.


    methodology, offer results, very similar to the obtained ones that are validated against experiences of experimental facilities such like the experimental facility UPTF (Upper Plenum Test Facility). An important observation arises from the analysis of the behavior of the temperature in the fluid contained in the RPV downcomer, below the cold leg level, versus the water injected temperature (T HPI ) by the CAN-I low pressure emergency system (T j system). It is possible to be noticing that when the temperature T HPI increases, the possibility that the conditions occur so that a phenomenon of PTS happens is decreasing. The temperature that is reached in the fuel elements, that is to say, that does not put in risk the structural integrity of the cladding of the fuel element, will fix the maximum limit for the temperature T HPI . We insist on the solution of engineering that would allow modifying the Emergency Core Cooler System (ECCS) behavior, extending the safety margin, what it means, the distance between the K lc of the material and the K l of the process. It is emphasized the excessive conservative hypotheses that have been used in all the previous studies and the necessity to replace them with other more realists that would allow to extend the safety margin. At the moment this safety margin based in these coefficients is about 22 C degrees. (author) [es

  1. Reaching Reluctant Students: Insights from Torey Hayden. (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike


    Illustrates principles of reaching students who fight or avoid adults by using examples drawn from the writings of Torey Hayden. Presents ten concepts that can serve as guidelines for building relationships with resistant children, and gives excerpts from Hayden's works to illustrate each concept. Demonstrates how books provide teachers with…

  2. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia


     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  3. Superconductivity of divalent Chevrel phases at very high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.S.; Guertin, R.P.; Hinks, D.G.; Jorgensen, J.; Capone II, D.W.


    The electrical resistivity and the superconducting transition temperatures were examined for three representative divalent Chevrel phase systems, SnMo 6 S 8 , EuMo 6 S 8 , and BaMo 6 S 8 , as a function of hydrostatic pressure to 2 GPa and in quasihydrostatic pressures to 10 GPa. In all systems, T/sub c/ is depressed to 0 K for sufficiently large pressures. For the Sn- and Eu-based systems, both highly purified samples and samples with controlled oxygen content were used. In an oxygenated SnMo 6 S 8 sample (less than 3% O 2 substituted for the S atoms) the pressure threshold and maximum T/sub c/ are 40% lower than in the pure sample, but for P>3.5 GPa the T/sub c/-P phase diagrams nearly coincide, with T/sub c/ reaching zero at an extrapolated pressure of about 12 GPa. In pure EuMo 6 S 8 , superconductivity appears only above a threshold pressure of about 1 GPa and is depressed to 0 K above 4.5 GPa. In an oxygenated sample the maximum T/sub c/ and the threshold pressure are depressed, and above about 3.5 GPa the T/sub c/-P phase diagrams coincide, as in the Sn-based system, although T/sub c/ is then rapidly depressed to 0 K at about 4.5 GPa. In a highly purified BaMo 6 S 8 sample superconductivity appears above about 2 GPa and is depressed to 0 K at extrapolated pressures above 12 GPa. A full transition to the zero-resistance superconducting state is observed in BaMo 6 S 8 . The data are discussed in terms of a model linking the rhombohedral-to-triclinic structural transition, the superconducting transition temperature, and the role of pressure in suppressing the structural transition

  4. Analysis of containment pressure and temperature changes following loss of coolant accident (LOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Thai; Kieu Ngoc Dung


    This paper present a preliminary thermal-hydraulics analysis of AP1000 containment following loss of coolant accident events such as double-end cold line break (DECLB) or main steam line break (MSLB) using MELCOR code. A break of this type will produce a rapid depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel (primary system) and release initially high pressure water into the containment followed by a much smaller release of highly superheated steam. The high pressure liquid water will flash and rapidly pressurize the containment building. The performance of passive containment cooling system for steam removal by condensation on large steel containment structure is a major contributing process, controlling the pressure and temperature maximum reached during the accident event. The results are analyzed, discussed and compared with the similar work done by Sandia National Laboratories. (author)

  5. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.


    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  6. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John


    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  7. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.; Ito, N.


    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  8. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.


    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  9. Variation with Mach Number of Static and Total Pressures Through Various Screens (United States)

    Adler, Alfred A


    Tests were conducted in the Langley 24-inch highspeed tunnel to ascertain the static-pressure and total-pressure losses through screens ranging in mesh from 3 to 12 wires per inch and in wire diameter from 0.023 to 0.041 inch. Data were obtained from a Mach number of approximately 0.20 up to the maximum (choking) Mach number obtainable for each screen. The results of this investigation indicate that the pressure losses increase with increasing Mach number until the choking Mach number, which can be computed, is reached. Since choking imposes a restriction on the mass rate of flow and maximum losses are incurred at this condition, great care must be taken in selecting the screen mesh and wire dimmeter for an installation so that the choking Mach number is

  10. Inactivation of Parietal Reach Region Affects Reaching But Not Saccade Choices in Internally Guided Decisions. (United States)

    Christopoulos, Vassilios N; Bonaiuto, James; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A


    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been considered important for awareness, spatial perception, and attention. However, recent findings provide evidence that the PPC also encodes information important for making decisions. These findings have initiated a running argument of whether the PPC is critically involved in decision making. To examine this issue, we reversibly inactivated the parietal reach region (PRR), the area of the PPC that is specialized for reaching movements, while two monkeys performed a memory-guided reaching or saccade task. The task included choices between two equally rewarded targets presented simultaneously in opposite visual fields. Free-choice trials were interleaved with instructed trials, in which a single cue presented in the peripheral visual field defined the reach and saccade target unequivocally. We found that PRR inactivation led to a strong reduction of contralesional choices, but only for reaches. On the other hand, saccade choices were not affected by PRR inactivation. Importantly, reaching and saccade movements to single instructed targets remained largely intact. These results cannot be explained as an effector-nonspecific deficit in spatial attention or awareness, since the temporary "lesion" had an impact only on reach choices. Hence, the PPR is a part of a network for reach decisions and not just reach planning. There has been an ongoing debate on whether the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents only spatial awareness, perception, and attention or whether it is also involved in decision making for actions. In this study we explore whether the parietal reach region (PRR), the region of the PPC that is specialized for reaches, is involved in the decision process. We inactivated the PRR while two monkeys performed reach and saccade choices between two targets presented simultaneously in both hemifields. We found that inactivation affected only the reach choices, while leaving saccade choices intact

  11. Improving exposure scenario definitions within REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne

    In recent years, the paradigm of chemical management system has changed from being toxicity oriented and media based to being risk oriented and receptor based. This trend is evident not only regarding environmental quality standards, but also for industrial chemical regulations. Political...... instruments to support a precautionary chemicals management system and to protect receptor’s health have also been increasing. Since 2007, the European Union adopted REACH (the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals): REACH makes industry responsible for assessing...... and managing the risks posed by industrial chemicals and providing appropriate safety information to their users (EC, 2007). However, to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment, there is a need to consider ‘aggregate exposure’ including background exposures from environment which...

  12. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas


    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  13. What controls the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes? (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.


    Three different approaches for estimation of maximum magnitude are considered here, along with their implications for managing risk. The first approach is based on a deterministic limit for seismic moment proposed by McGarr (1976), which was originally designed for application to mining-induced seismicity. This approach has since been reformulated for earthquakes induced by fluid injection (McGarr, 2014). In essence, this method assumes that the upper limit for seismic moment release is constrained by the pressure-induced stress change. A deterministic limit is given by the product of shear modulus and the net injected fluid volume. This method is based on the assumptions that the medium is fully saturated and in a state of incipient failure. An alternative geometrical approach was proposed by Shapiro et al. (2011), who postulated that the rupture area for an induced earthquake falls entirely within the stimulated volume. This assumption reduces the maximum-magnitude problem to one of estimating the largest potential slip surface area within a given stimulated volume. Finally, van der Elst et al. (2016) proposed that the maximum observed magnitude, statistically speaking, is the expected maximum value for a finite sample drawn from an unbounded Gutenberg-Richter distribution. These three models imply different approaches for risk management. The deterministic method proposed by McGarr (2014) implies that a ceiling on the maximum magnitude can be imposed by limiting the net injected volume, whereas the approach developed by Shapiro et al. (2011) implies that the time-dependent maximum magnitude is governed by the spatial size of the microseismic event cloud. Finally, the sample-size hypothesis of Van der Elst et al. (2016) implies that the best available estimate of the maximum magnitude is based upon observed seismicity rate. The latter two approaches suggest that real-time monitoring is essential for effective management of risk. A reliable estimate of maximum

  14. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH. (United States)

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus


    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  15. Performance reach in the LHC for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduini, G.


    Based on the 2011 experience and Machine Development study results, the performance reach of the LHC with 25 and 50 ns beams will be addressed for operation at 3.5 and 4 TeV. The possible scrubbing scenarios and potential intensity limitations resulting from vacuum, heating will be taken into account wherever possible. The paper mainly covers the performance of the two high luminosity regions in IR1 and IR5. (author)

  16. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生


    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  17. How Selby coal will reach the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In many respects this conveyor will exemplify the NCB's intention to employ the latest technology at Selby. This single conveyor will be almost 15km long, and will bring coal to the surface from almost 1 km below ground level. A steel cord belt, 1300 mm wide and weighing over 2500 tonnes, will travel at up to 8.4 m/s to bring as much as 3200 t/h of coal to the surface. The conveyor is capable of delivering up to 1800 t/h of coal even from the furthest and deepest point in the conveyor run. Maximum tension in the belt is almost 200 tonnes, and even on the slack side of the pulley, the tension will be 68 tonnes. Eleven bunkering points will each be capable of feeding 750 tonnes of coal per hour, and a computerized control will ensure that the required mix is brought from the bunkers without exceeding the maximum capacity of the conveyor. When maximum tonnage is not being handled, the conveyor will be capable of running at the lowest speed which is capable of bringing out the tonnage on the belt. This minimizes wear and tear on all moving parts of the system. From each bunkering point, the coal will be fed down a chute onto a short accelerating conveyor which feeds the coal centrally onto the main conveyor and ensures that it is moving in the same direction as the main conveyor.

  18. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller


    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  19. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  20. Long-reach manipulators for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D.A.; Challinor, S.F.


    A survey of redundant facilities at Sellafield has identified that in many cases the conventional means of deploying remote handling equipment are not appropriate and that novel means must be employed. However, decommissioning is not a value adding activity and so expensive one off designs must be avoided. The paper will describe BNFL's approach to the synthesis from proprietary parts of a manipulator which can lift 3 te at a horizontal reach of over 5 metres and yet can still perform the dextrous manipulation necessary to remove small items. It will also cover the development of the manipulator control systems and the adaption of commercial handtools to be manipulator friendly. (author)

  1. Luminosity performance reach after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W.


    Based on past experience (2010/2011), in particular expected limitations from beam-beam effects, and taking into account the expected beam quality from the LHC injectors, the peak and integrated luminosity at top energy is discussed for different scenarios (e.g. bunch spacing, beta*). In particular it will be shown which are the key parameters to reach the nominal luminosity and it is also shown that peak luminosities two times larger than nominal (or higher) are possible. Possible test in 2012 are discussed

  2. City Reach Code Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frankel, Mark [New Buildings Inst., Portland, OR (United States); Lyles, Mark [New Buildings Inst., Portland, OR (United States)


    This report describes and analyzes a set of energy efficiency measures that will save 20% energy over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013. The measures will be used to formulate a Reach Code for cities aiming to go beyond national model energy codes. A coalition of U.S. cities together with other stakeholders wanted to facilitate the development of voluntary guidelines and standards that can be implemented in stages at the city level to improve building energy efficiency. The coalition's efforts are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy via Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and in collaboration with the New Buildings Institute.

  3. The Maximum Flux of Star-Forming Galaxies (United States)

    Crocker, Roland M.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Thompson, Todd A.; Clutterbuck, Julie


    The importance of radiation pressure feedback in galaxy formation has been extensively debated over the last decade. The regime of greatest uncertainty is in the most actively star-forming galaxies, where large dust columns can potentially produce a dust-reprocessed infrared radiation field with enough pressure to drive turbulence or eject material. Here we derive the conditions under which a self-gravitating, mixed gas-star disc can remain hydrostatic despite trapped radiation pressure. Consistently taking into account the self-gravity of the medium, the star- and dust-to-gas ratios, and the effects of turbulent motions not driven by radiation, we show that galaxies can achieve a maximum Eddington-limited star formation rate per unit area \\dot{Σ }_*,crit ˜ 10^3 M_{⊙} pc-2 Myr-1, corresponding to a critical flux of F*, crit ˜ 1013L⊙ kpc-2 similar to previous estimates; higher fluxes eject mass in bulk, halting further star formation. Conversely, we show that in galaxies below this limit, our one-dimensional models imply simple vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and that radiation pressure is ineffective at driving turbulence or ejecting matter. Because the vast majority of star-forming galaxies lie below the maximum limit for typical dust-to-gas ratios, we conclude that infrared radiation pressure is likely unimportant for all but the most extreme systems on galaxy-wide scales. Thus, while radiation pressure does not explain the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, it does impose an upper truncation on it. Our predicted truncation is in good agreement with the highest observed gas and star formation rate surface densities found both locally and at high redshift.

  4. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences? (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey


    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  5. Efficacy of REACH Forgiveness across cultures. (United States)

    Lin, Yin; Worthington, Everett L; Griffin, Brandon J; Greer, Chelsea L; Opare-Henaku, Annabella; Lavelock, Caroline R; Hook, Joshua N; Ho, Man Yee; Muller, Holly


    This study investigates the efficacy of the 6-hour REACH Forgiveness intervention among culturally diverse undergraduates. Female undergraduates (N = 102) and foreign extraction (46.2%) and domestic (43.8%) students in the United States were randomly assigned to immediate treatment or waitlist conditions. Treatment efficacy and the effect of culture on treatment response were assessed using measures of emotional and decisional forgiveness across 3 time periods. Students in the treatment condition reported greater improvement in emotional forgiveness, but not decisional forgiveness, relative to those in the waitlist condition. Gains were maintained at a 1-week follow-up. Although culture did not moderate the effect of treatment, a main effect of culture on emotional forgiveness and marginally significant interaction effect of culture on decisional forgiveness were found. The REACH Forgiveness intervention was efficacious for college students from different cultural backgrounds when conducted in the United States. However, some evidence may warrant development of culturally adapted forgiveness interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.


    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or open-quotes criticalclose quotes) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration

  7. Performance analysis and comparison of an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs under maximum power and maximum power density conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.-Y.; Hou, S.-S.


    In this paper, performance analysis and comparison based on the maximum power and maximum power density conditions have been conducted for an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The Atkinson cycle is internally reversible but externally irreversible, since there is external irreversibility of heat transfer during the processes of constant volume heat addition and constant pressure heat rejection. This study is based purely on classical thermodynamic analysis methodology. It should be especially emphasized that all the results and conclusions are based on classical thermodynamics. The power density, defined as the ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle, is taken as the optimization objective because it considers the effects of engine size as related to investment cost. The results show that an engine design based on maximum power density with constant effectiveness of the hot and cold side heat exchangers or constant inlet temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs will have smaller size but higher efficiency, compression ratio, expansion ratio and maximum temperature than one based on maximum power. From the view points of engine size and thermal efficiency, an engine design based on maximum power density is better than one based on maximum power conditions. However, due to the higher compression ratio and maximum temperature in the cycle, an engine design based on maximum power density conditions requires tougher materials for engine construction than one based on maximum power conditions

  8. Seeking the epoch of maximum luminosity for dusty quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanyan, Valeri; Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine


    Infrared luminosities νL ν (7.8 μm) arising from dust reradiation are determined for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with 1.4 maximum at any redshift z < 5, reaching a plateau for z ≳ 3 with maximum luminosity νL ν (7.8 μm) ≳ 10 47 erg s –1 ; luminosity functions show one quasar Gpc –3 having νL ν (7.8 μm) > 10 46.6 erg s –1 for all 2 reached their maximum luminosity has not yet been identified at any redshift below 5. The most ultraviolet luminous quasars, defined by rest frame νL ν (0.25 μm), have the largest values of the ratio νL ν (0.25 μm)/νL ν (7.8 μm) with a maximum ratio at z = 2.9. From these results, we conclude that the quasars most luminous in the ultraviolet have the smallest dust content and appear luminous primarily because of lessened extinction. Observed ultraviolet/infrared luminosity ratios are used to define 'obscured' quasars as those having >5 mag of ultraviolet extinction. We present a new summary of obscured quasars discovered with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and determine the infrared luminosity function of these obscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1. This is compared with infrared luminosity functions of optically discovered, unobscured quasars in the SDSS and in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. The comparison indicates comparable numbers of obscured and unobscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1 with a possible excess of obscured quasars at fainter luminosities.

  9. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  10. Reach and get capability in a computing environment (United States)

    Bouchard, Ann M [Albuquerque, NM; Osbourn, Gordon C [Albuquerque, NM


    A reach and get technique includes invoking a reach command from a reach location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the reach location and the object copied into the reach location.

  11. Unified communication to reach vulnerable mothers. (United States)

    Tezcan, B; Von Rege, I; Henkson, H; Oteng-Ntim, E


    The feasibility of using a mobile text to reach vulnerable patient groups was assessed in this study. A total of 121 pregnant or postnatal women were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire was given to them in the antenatal clinic, postnatal ward, antenatal ward or in the day assessment unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. The forms were collected and analysed using an Excel database. The results of this survey show that mobile technology is readily available for 97% of the obstetric population. In mothers from vulnerable groups and in mothers from deprived areas, 61% possessed 3rd generation mobile technology. The majority of mothers surveyed wanted their care supplemented by the use of their mobile phones.

  12. Validity of an Interactive Functional Reach Test. (United States)

    Galen, Sujay S; Pardo, Vicky; Wyatt, Douglas; Diamond, Andrew; Brodith, Victor; Pavlov, Alex


    Videogaming platforms such as the Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Kinect(®) are increasingly being used in rehabilitation to improve balance performance and mobility. These gaming platforms do not have built-in clinical measures that offer clinically meaningful data. We have now developed software that will enable the Kinect sensor to assess a patient's balance using an interactive functional reach test (I-FRT). The aim of the study was to test the concurrent validity of the I-FRT and to establish the feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting. The concurrent validity of the I-FRT was tested among 20 healthy adults (mean age, 25.8±3.4 years; 14 women). The Functional Reach Test (FRT) was measured simultaneously by both the Kinect sensor using the I-FRT software and the Optotrak Certus(®) 3D motion-capture system (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, ON, Canada). The feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting was assessed by performing the I-FRT in 10 participants with mild balance impairments recruited from the outpatient physical therapy clinic (mean age, 55.8±13.5 years; four women) and obtaining their feedback using a NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. There was moderate to good agreement between FRT measures made by the two measurement systems. The greatest agreement between the two measurement system was found with the Kinect sensor placed at a distance of 2.5 m [intraclass correlation coefficient (2,k)=0.786; PNASA/TLX questionnaire. FRT measures made using the Kinect sensor I-FRT software provides a valid clinical measure that can be used with the gaming platforms.

  13. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  14. Blood pressure (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  15. Proposal and design of a natural gas liquefaction process recovering the energy obtained from the pressure reducing stations of high-pressure pipelines (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong


    Taking advantage of the refrigerating effect in the expansion at an appropriate temperature, a fraction of high-pressure natural gas transported by pipelines could be liquefied in a city gate station through a well-organized pressure reducing process without consuming any extra energy. The authors proposed such a new process, which mainly consists of a turbo-expander driven booster, throttle valves, multi-stream heat exchangers and separators, to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid light hydrocarbons (LLHs) utilizing the high-pressure of the pipelines. Based on the assessment of the effects of several key parameters on the system performance by a steady-state simulation in Aspen HYSYS, an optimal design condition of the proposed process was determined. The results showed that the new process is more appropriate to be applied in a pressure reducing station (PRS) for the pipelines with higher pressure. For the feed gas at the pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum total liquefaction rate (ytot) of 15.4% and the maximum exergy utilizing rate (EUR) of 21.7% could be reached at the optimal condition. The present process could be used as a small-scale natural gas liquefying and peak-shaving plant at a city gate station.

  16. Ultimate capacity and influenced factors analysis of nuclear RC containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenning; Hou Gangling; Zhou Guoliang


    Ultimate compressive bearing capacity, influenced factors and its rules of nuclear RC containment are key problems of safety assessment, accident treatment and structure design, etc. Ultimate compressive bearing capacity of nuclear RC containment is shown by concrete damaged plasticity model and steel double liner model of ABAQUS. The study shows that the concrete of nuclear RC containment cylinder wall becomes plastic when the internal pressure is up to 0.87 MPa, the maximum tensile strain of steel liner exceeds 3000 × 10 6 and nuclear RC containment reaches ultimate status when the internal pressure is up to 1.02 MPa. The result shows that nuclear RC containment is in elastic condition under the design internal pressure and the bearing capacity meets requirement. Prestress and steel liner play key parts in the ultimate internal pressure and failure mode of nuclear RC containment. The study results have value for the analysis of ultimate compressive bearing capacity, structure design and safety assessment. (authors)

  17. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineke, K; Mathys, A; Knorr, D; Heinz, V


    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect of the adiabatic heating. To analyse the individual effect of pressure and temperature on microorganism inactivation an exact temperature control of the sample to reach ideal adiabatic conditions and isothermal dwell times is necessary. Hence a heating/cooling block for a high pressure unit (Stansted Mini-Food-lab; high pressure capillary with 300 μL sample volume) was constructed. Without temperature control the sample would be cooled down during pressure built up, because of the non-adiabatic heating of the steel made vessel. The heating/cooling block allows an ideal adiabatic heat up and cooling of the pressure vessel during compression and decompression. The high pressure unit has a pressure build-up rate up to 250 MPa s -1 and a maximum pressure of 1400 MPa. Sebacate acid was chosen as pressure transmitting medium because it had no phase shift over the investigate pressure and temperature range. To eliminate the temperature difference between sample and vessel during compression and decompression phase, the mathematical model of the adiabatic heating/cooling of water and sebacate acid was implemented into a computational routine, written in Test Point. The calculated temperature is the setpoint of the PID controller for the heating/cooling block. This software allows an online measurement of the pressure and temperature in the vessel and the temperature at the outer wall of the vessel. The accurate temperature control, including the model of the adiabatic heating opens up the possibility to realise an ideal adiabatic heating and cooling

  18. Factors associated with high probability of target blood pressure non-achievement in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Zhemanyuk


    periods DBP (HS = 36,6; the average pulse blood pressure (OR = 65.9, the rate of morning rise of SBP (OR = 3.6, and the maximum aggregation time of 5-minute ADP-induced platelet aggregation (OR = 3.5. Independent factors influencing the target blood pressure level pure reaching are the average diurnal DBP (OR = 47.8; variability of diurnal SBP (HS = 4.6; the maximum aggregation time of ADP-induced platelet aggregation (OR = 3.4. Female sex is associated with the best prognosis for the target level of BP reaching (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2‒0.8; p = 0.012. Conclusions. The independent factors influencing the target blood pressure level poor reaching in patients with EH are two ABPM parameters (the average diurnal diastolic blood pressure of more than 76 mm Hg and the variability of SBP diurnal more than 17 mm Hg; and one ADP-induced platelet aggregation parameter (the maximum aggregation time more than 143 seconds. The female sex is associated with better prediction of achieving the target level of blood pressure.

  19. A Comprehensive Prediction Model of Hydraulic Extended-Reach Limit Considering the Allowable Range of Drilling Fluid Flow Rate in Horizontal Drilling. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gao, Deli; Chen, Xuyue


    Hydraulic extended-reach limit (HERL) model of horizontal extended-reach well (ERW) can predict the maximum measured depth (MMD) of the horizontal ERW. The HERL refers to the well's MMD when drilling fluid cannot be normally circulated by drilling pump. Previous model analyzed the following two constraint conditions, drilling pump rated pressure and rated power. However, effects of the allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate (Q min  ≤ Q ≤ Q max ) were not considered. In this study, three cases of HERL model are proposed according to the relationship between allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate and rated flow rate of drilling pump (Q r ). A horizontal ERW is analyzed to predict its HERL, especially its horizontal-section limit (L h ). Results show that when Q min  ≤ Q r  ≤ Q max (Case I), L h depends both on horizontal-section limit based on rated pump pressure (L h1 ) and horizontal-section limit based on rated pump power (L h2 ); when Q min  drilling fluid flow rate, while L h2 keeps decreasing as the drilling fluid flow rate increases. The comprehensive model provides a more accurate prediction on HERL.

  20. Pressure test method for reactor pressure vessel in construction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masakado; Ushiroda, Koichi; Miyahara, Ryohei; Takano, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Tadashi; Sato, Keiya.


    Plant constitutional parts as targets of both of a primary pressure test and a secondary pressure test are disposed in communication with a reactor pressure vessel, and a pressure of the primary pressure test is applied to the targets of both tests, so that the primary pressure test and the second pressure test are conducted together. Since the number of pressure tests can be reduced to promote construction, and the number of workers can also be reduced. A pressure exceeding the maximum pressure upon use is applied to the pressure vessel after disposing the incore structures, to continuously conduct the primary pressure test and the secondary pressure test joined together and an incore flowing test while closing the upper lid of the pressure vessel as it is in the construction field. The number of opening/closing of the upper lid upon conducting every test can be reduced, and since the pressure resistance test is conducted after arranging circumference conditions for the incore flowing test, the tests can be conducted collectively also in view of time. (N.H.)

  1. Toxicological comments to the discussion about REACH. (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Arand, Michael; Autrup, Herman; Bolt, Hermann M; Bridges, James; Dybing, Erik; Glomot, Rémi; Foa, Vito; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf


    It is the ultimate goal of the intended REACH process (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) of the European Union to identify substances of hazardous properties and to evaluate the risks of human and environmental exposure. During the last few months there has been a controversial discussion as to what extent in vitro studies and consideration of structure activity relationship provide sufficient information to waive repeated exposure studies. Industry as well as certain regulatory agencies or NGOs support this approach and propose that repeated dose studies may only be required beyond 100 t/a. From a toxicological point of view it has to be stressed that this discussion primarily considers the cost reduction and protection of animals, whereas protection of human health and the environment are secondary. In vitro studies only allow identification of specific hazardous properties which can be detected by the specific test system. Moreover, appropriate information on the dose response of adverse effects, identification of thresholds and NOELs that are essential for risk characterization cannot be obtained from these studies. Consequently, identification of all relevant hazardous properties and endpoints of adverse effects can only be determined in the intact animal by repeated dose studies such as 28-day or 90-day studies. In the absence of such information the hazard identification is incomplete and there is no basis for appropriate risk assessment of human exposure. Thus, any waiving of repeated dose studies in animals bears the probability of unforeseen effects in case of acute or continuous human exposure. From this the undersigning European Toxicologists conclude: 1. The intention of REACH is to identify hazardous properties in order that a reliable risk assessment can be made and measures taken to deal with chemicals posing a significant risk. 2. The recent debate has centered on ways in which the well established in vivo methods for risk

  2. Electric wind produced by a surface dielectric barrier discharge operating in air at different pressures: aeronautical control insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, N; Balcon, N; Moreau, E


    The effects of the ambient air pressure level on the electric wind produced by a single dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been investigated by Pitot velocity measurements. Pressures from 1 down to 0.2 atm were tested with a 32 kV p-p 1 kHz excitation. This preliminary study confirms the effectiveness of surface DBD at low pressure. Indeed, the induced velocity is strongly dependent on the ambient air pressure level. Quite surprisingly the produced airflow presents a local maximum at 0.6 atm. The measured velocities at 1 atm and 0.2 atm are 2.5 m s -1 and 3 m s -1 , respectively while 3.5 m s -1 is reached at 0.6 atm. The position of the maximal velocity always coincides with the plasma extension. Mass flow rate calculations indicate that the DBD is effective in real flight pressure conditions. (fast track communication)

  3. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out (United States)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.


    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  4. Using New Media to Reach Broad Audiences (United States)

    Gay, P. L.


    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Working Group (IYA NMWG) has a singular mission: To flood the Internet with ways to learn about astronomy, interact with astronomers and astronomy content, and socially network with astronomy. Within each of these areas, we seek to build lasting programs and partnerships that will continue beyond 2009. Our weapon of choice is New Media. It is often easiest to define New Media by what it is not. Television, radio, print and their online redistribution of content are not New Media. Many forms of New Media start as user provided content and content infrastructures that answer that individual's creative whim in a way that is adopted by a broader audience. Classic examples include Blogs and Podcasts. This media is typically distributed through content specific websites and RSS feeds, which allow syndication. RSS aggregators (iTunes has audio and video aggregation abilities) allow subscribers to have content delivered to their computers automatically when they connect to the Internet. RSS technology is also being used in such creative ways as allowing automatically updating Google-maps that show the location of someone with an intelligent GPS system, and in sharing 100 word microblogs from anyone (Twitters) through a single feed. In this poster, we outline how the IYA NMWG plans to use New Media to reach target primary audiences of astronomy enthusiasts, image lovers, and amateur astronomers, as well as secondary audiences, including: science fiction fans, online gamers, and skeptics.

  5. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences (United States)

    Haswell, Katy


    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  6. Has Athletic Performance Reached its Peak? (United States)

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Marck, Adrien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Schipman, Julien; Saulière, Guillaume; Marc, Andy; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François


    Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules.

  7. LEP Dismantling Reaches Half-Way Stage

    CERN Multimedia


    LEP's last superconducting module leaves its home port... Just seven months into the operation, LEP dismantling is forging ahead. Two of the eight arcs which form the tunnel have already been emptied and the last of the accelerator's radiofrequency (RF) cavities has just been raised to the surface. The 160 people working on LEP dismantling have reason to feel pleased with their progress. All of the accelerator's 72 superconducting RF modules have already been brought to the surface, with the last one being extracted on 2nd May. This represents an important step in the dismantling process, as head of the project, John Poole, explains. 'This was the most delicate part of the project, because the modules are very big and they could only come out at one place', he says. The shaft at point 1.8 through which the RF cavity modules pass is 18 metres in diameter, while each module is 11.5 metres long. Some modules had to travel more than 10 kilometres to reach the shaft. ... is lifted up the PM 1.8 shaft, after a m...

  8. CAST reaches milestone but keeps on searching

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Courier (september 2011 issue)


    After eight years of searching for the emission of a dark matter candidate particle, the axion, from the Sun, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has fulfilled its original physics programme.   Members of the CAST collaboration in July, together with dipole-based helioscope. CAST, the world’s most sensitive axion helioscope, points a recycled prototype LHC dipole magnet at the Sun at dawn and dusk, looking for the conversion of axions to X-rays. It incorporates four state-of-the-art X-ray detectors: three Micromegas detectors and a pn-CCD imaging camera attached to a focusing X-ray telescope that was recovered from the German space programme (see CERN Courier April 2010).  Over the years, CAST has operated with the magnet bores - the location of the axion conversion - in different conditions: first in vacuum, covering axion masses up to 20 meV/c2, and then with a buffer gas (4He and later 3He) at various densities, finally reaching the goal of 1.17 eV/c2 on 22 ...

  9. Important ATLAS Forward Calorimeter Milestone Reached

    CERN Document Server

    Loch, P.

    The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter working group has reached an important milestone in the production of their detectors. The mechanical assembly of the first electromagnetic module (FCal1C) has been completed at the University of Arizona on February 25, 2002, only ten days after the originally scheduled date. The photo shows the University of Arizona FCal group in the clean room, together with the assembled FCal1C module. The module consists of a stack of 18 round copper plates, each about one inch thick. Each plate is about 90 cm in diameter, and has 12260 precision-drilled holes in it, to accommodate the tube/rod electrode assembly. The machining of the plates, which was done at the Science Technology Center (STC) at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, required high precision to allow for easy insertion of the electrode copper tube. The plates have been carefully cleaned at the University of Arizona, to remove any machining residue and metal flakes. This process alone took about eleven weeks. Exactly 122...

  10. Bubble column fermenter modeling: a comparison for pressure effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioya, S; Dang, N D.P.; Dunn, I J


    Two models which describe the oxygen transfer, oxygen uptake, and axial mixing in a bubble column fermenter are described. Model I includes no pressure effects and can be solved analytically. Model II incorporates the influence of hydrostatic pressure on oxygen solubility and gas expansion and must be solved numerically. The liquid phase oxygen concentration profiles from both models are compared to ascertain for what parametric conditions and for what maximum column height Model I is valid. Results show that for many situations Model I can approximate the oxygen profiles in a 10 m column within 20%. As the transfer and uptake rates increase, the deviation of Model I can reach 80% for a 10 m column. 7 figures.

  11. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.


    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  12. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 16, Maximum hypothetical accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Fault tree analysis of the maximum hypothetical accident covers the basic elements: accident initiation, phase development phases - scheme of possible accident flow. Cause of the accident initiation is the break of primary cooling pipe, heavy water system. Loss of primary coolant causes loss of pressure in the primary circuit at the coolant input in the reactor vessel. This initiates safety protection system which should automatically shutdown the reactor. Separate chapters are devoted to: after-heat removal, coolant and moderator loss; accident effects on the reactor core, effects in the reactor building, and release of radioactive wastes [sr

  13. Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.


    The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q'/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same α in all its force-free regions and with a positive q'/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked α's

  14. Planning of the Extended Reach well Dieksand 2; Planung der Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, U.; Berners, H. [RWE-DEA AG, Hamburg (Germany). Drilling Team Mittelplate und Dieksand; Hadow, A.; Klop, G.; Sickinger, W. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Barnstdorf (Germany); Sudron, K.


    The Mittelplate oil field is located 7 km offshore the town of Friedrichskoog. Reserves are estimated at 30 million tonnes of oil. At a production rate of 2,500 t/d, it will last about 33 years. The transport capacity of the offshore platform is limited, so that attempts were made to enhance production by constructing the extended reach borehole Dieksand 2. Details are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Erdoelfeld Mittelplate liegt am suedlichen Rand des Nationalparks Schleswig Holsteinisches Wattenmeer, ca. 7000 m westlich der Ortschaft Friedrichskoog. Die gewinnbaren Reserven betragen ca. 30 Millionen t Oel. Bei einer Foerderkapazitaet von 2.500 t/Tag betraegt die Foerderdauer ca. 33 Jahre. Aufgrund der begrenzten Transportkapazitaeten von der Insel, laesst sich durch zusaetzliche Bohrungen von der kuenstlichen Insel Mittelplate keine entscheidende Erhoehung der Foerderkapazitaet erzielen. Ab Sommer 1996 wurde erstmals die Moeglichkeit der Lagerstaettenerschliessung von Land untersucht. Ein im Mai 1997 in Hamburg etabliertes Drilling Team wurde mit der Aufgabe betraut, die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 zu planen und abzuteufen. Die Planungsphasen fuer die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 wurden aufgezeigt. Die fuer den Erfolg einer Extended Reach Bohrung wichtigen Planungsparameter wurden erlaeutert. Es wurden Wege gezeigt, wie bei diesem Projekt technische und geologische Risiken in der Planung mit beruecksichtigt und nach Beginn der Bohrung weiter bearbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  15. Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation improves quality of reaching movements more than traditional reaching therapy following stroke. (United States)

    Duff, Margaret; Chen, Yinpeng; Cheng, Long; Liu, Sheng-Min; Blake, Paul; Wolf, Steven L; Rikakis, Thanassis


    Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation (AMRR) is a novel integration of motion capture technology and high-level media computing that provides precise kinematic measurements and engaging multimodal feedback for self-assessment during a therapeutic task. We describe the first proof-of-concept study to compare outcomes of AMRR and traditional upper-extremity physical therapy. Two groups of participants with chronic stroke received either a month of AMRR therapy (n = 11) or matched dosing of traditional repetitive task therapy (n = 10). Participants were right handed, between 35 and 85 years old, and could independently reach to and at least partially grasp an object in front of them. Upper-extremity clinical scale scores and kinematic performances were measured before and after treatment. Both groups showed increased function after therapy, demonstrated by statistically significant improvements in Wolf Motor Function Test and upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scores, with the traditional therapy group improving significantly more on the FMA. However, only participants who received AMRR therapy showed a consistent improvement in kinematic measurements, both for the trained task of reaching to grasp a cone and the untrained task of reaching to push a lighted button. AMRR may be useful in improving both functionality and the kinematics of reaching. Further study is needed to determine if AMRR therapy induces long-term changes in movement quality that foster better functional recovery.

  16. Review : Pressure Ulcer and Its treatment


    Bijan Khorasani; Ali Ghafouri


    Pressure ulcer is a signifcant problem in elderly and critically ill patients, causing pain, decreasing quality of life and leading to prolonged hospital stay. Treatment of pressure ulcer to improve health status is a cost-effective approach. So, preventing the ulcers will be economical. Pressure ulcer is considered as a damage or necrosis of skin and its layers, which happens when there is a considerable pressure over the tissues. If the capillary arterie's pressure reaches 70 mmHg (2 ti...

  17. Can coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures? (United States)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Doyle, J. G.


    Aims: The present study aims to provide observational evidence of whether coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures. Methods: We combine multi-instrument co-observations obtained with the SUMER/SoHO and with the EIS/SOT/XRT/Hinode. Results: The analysed three large spicules were found to be comprised of numerous thin spicules that rise, rotate, and descend simultaneously forming a bush-like feature. Their rotation resembles the untwisting of a large flux rope. They show velocities ranging from 50 to 250 kms-1. We clearly associated the red- and blue-shifted emissions in transition region lines not only with rotating but also with rising and descending plasmas. Our main result is that these spicules although very large and dynamic, are not present in the spectral lines formed at temperatures above 300 000 K. Conclusions: In this paper we present the analysis of three Ca ii H large spicules that are composed of numerous dynamic thin spicules but appear as macrospicules in lower resolution EUV images. We found no coronal counterpart of these and smaller spicules. We believe that the identification of phenomena that have very different origins as macrospicules is due to the interpretation of the transition region emission, and especially the He ii emission, wherein both chromospheric large spicules and coronal X-ray jets are present. We suggest that the recent observation of spicules in the coronal AIA/SDO 171 Å and 211 Å channels probably comes from the existence of transition region emission there. Movie is available in electronic form at

  18. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.


    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  19. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.


    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  20. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas


    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  1. Gas electron multiplier (GEM) operation with tissue-equivalent gases at various pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahmand, M.; Bos, A.J.J.; Eijk, C.W.E. van


    We have studied the operation of two different Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) structures in both methane and propane based Tissue-Equivalent (TE) gases at different pressures varying from 0.1 to 1 atm. This work was motivated to explore the possibility of using a GEM for a new type of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter. In methane based TE gas, a maximum safe GEM gain of 1.5x10 3 has been reached while in propane based TE gas this is 6x10 3 . These maxima have been reached at different gas pressures depending on GEM structure and TE gas. Furthermore, we observed a decrease of the GEM gain in time before it becomes stable. Charge up/polarisation effects can explain this

  2. Erich Regener and the ionisation maximum of the atmosphere (United States)

    Carlson, P.; Watson, A. A.


    In the 1930s the German physicist Erich Regener (1881-1955) did important work on the measurement of the rate of production of ionisation deep under water and in the atmosphere. Along with one of his students, Georg Pfotzer, he discovered the altitude at which the production of ionisation in the atmosphere reaches a maximum, often, but misleadingly, called the Pfotzer maximum. Regener was one of the first to estimate the energy density of cosmic rays, an estimate that was used by Baade and Zwicky to bolster their postulate that supernovae might be their source. Yet Regener's name is less recognised by present-day cosmic ray physicists than it should be, largely because in 1937 he was forced to take early retirement by the National Socialists as his wife had Jewish ancestors. In this paper we briefly review his work on cosmic rays and recommend an alternative naming of the ionisation maximum. The influence that Regener had on the field through his son, his son-in-law, his grandsons and his students, and through his links with Rutherford's group in Cambridge, is discussed in an appendix. Regener was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics by Schrödinger in 1938. He died in 1955 at the age of 73.

  3. Maximum Range of a Projectile Thrown from Constant-Speed Circular Motion (United States)

    Poljak, Nikola


    The problem of determining the angle ? at which a point mass launched from ground level with a given speed v[subscript 0] will reach a maximum distance is a standard exercise in mechanics. There are many possible ways of solving this problem, leading to the well-known answer of ? = p/4, producing a maximum range of D[subscript max] = v[superscript…

  4. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.


    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  5. Association between imagined and actual functional reach (FR): a comparison of young and older adults. (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto


    Recent studies indicate that the ability to mentally represent action using motor imagery declines with advanced age (>64 years). As the ability to represent action declines, the elderly may experience increasing difficulty with movement planning and execution. Here, we determined the association between estimation of reach via use of motor imagery and actual FR. Young adults (M=22 years) and older adults (M=66 years) estimated reach while standing with targets randomly presented in peripersonal (within actual reach) and extrapersonal (beyond reach) space. Imagined responses were compared to the individual's scaled maximum reach. FR, also while standing, was assessed using the standardized Functional Reach Test (FRT). Results for total score estimation accuracy showed that there was no difference for age; however, results for mean bias and distribution of error revealed that the older group underestimated while the younger group overestimated. In reference to FR, younger adults outperformed older adults (30 versus 14in.) and most prominent, only the younger group showed a significant relationship between estimation and FR. In addition to gaining insight to the effects of advanced age on the ability to mentally represent action and its association with movement execution, these results although preliminary, may have clinical implications based on the question of whether motor imagery training could improve movement estimations and how that might affect actual reach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reaching remote areas in Latin America. (United States)

    Jaimes, R


    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  7. Flow model for open-channel reach or network (United States)

    Schaffranek, R.W.


    Formulation of a one-dimensional model for simulating unsteady flow in a single open-channel reach or in a network of interconnected channels is presented. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be used to simulate a wide range of flow conditions for various channel configurations. It is based on a four-point (box), implicit, finite-difference approximation of the governing nonlinear flow equations with user-definable weighting coefficients to permit varying the solution scheme from box-centered to fully forward. Unique transformation equations are formulated that permit correlation of the unknowns at the extremities of the channels, thereby reducing coefficient matrix and execution time requirements. Discharges and water-surface elevations computed at intermediate locations within a channel are determined following solution of the transformation equations. The matrix of transformation and boundary-condition equations is solved by Gauss elimination using maximum pivot strategy. Two diverse applications of the model are presented to illustrate its broad utility. (USGS)

  8. Contact stresses, pressure and area in a fixed-bearing total ankle replacement: a finite element analysis. (United States)

    Martinelli, Nicolo; Baretta, Silvia; Pagano, Jenny; Bianchi, Alberto; Villa, Tomaso; Casaroli, Gloria; Galbusera, Fabio


    Mobile-bearing ankle implants with good clinical results continued to increase the popularity of total ankle arthroplasty to address endstage ankle osteoarthritis preserving joint movement. Alternative solutions used fixed-bearing designs, which increase stability and reduce the risk of bearing dislocation, but with a theoretical increase of contact stresses leading to a higher polyethylene wear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contact stresses, pressure and area in the polyethylene component of a new total ankle replacement with a fixed-bearing design, using 3D finite element analysis. A three-dimensional finite element model of the Zimmer Trabecular Metal Total Ankle was developed and assembled based on computed tomography images. Three different sizes of the polyethylene insert were modeled, and a finite element analysis was conducted to investigate the contact pressure, the von Mises stresses and the contact area of the polyethylene component during the stance phase of the gait cycle. The peak value of pressure was found in the anterior region of the articulating surface, where it reached 19.8 MPa at 40% of the gait cycle. The average contact pressure during the stance phase was 6.9 MPa. The maximum von Mises stress of 14.1 MPa was reached at 40% of the gait cycle in the anterior section. In the central section, the maximum von Mises stress of 10.8 MPa was reached at 37% of the gait cycle, whereas in the posterior section the maximum stress of 5.4 MPa was reached at the end of the stance phase. The new fixed-bearing total ankle replacement showed a safe mechanical behavior and many clinical advantages. However, advanced models to quantitatively estimate the wear are need. To the light of the clinical advantages, we conclude that the presented prosthesis is a good alternative to the other products present in the market.

  9. Attenuation of pressure dips underneath piles of spherocylinders. (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyang; An, Xizhong; Gou, Dazhao; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Runyu


    The discrete element method (DEM) was used to simulate the piling of rod-like (elongated sphero-cylindrical) particles, mainly focusing on the effect of particle shape on the structural and force properties of the piles. In this work, rod-like particles of different aspect ratios were discharged on a flat surface to form wedge-shaped piles. The surface properties of the piles were characterized in terms of angle of repose and stress at the bottom of the piles. The results showed that the rise of the angle of repose became slower with the increase of particle aspect ratio. The pressure dip underneath the piles reached the maximum when the particle aspect ratio was around 1.6, beyond which the pressure dip phenomenon became attenuated. Both the pressure dip and the shear stress dip were quantitatively examined. The structure and forces inside the piles were further analyzed to understand the change in pressure dip, indicating that "bridging" or "arching" structures within the piles were the cause of the pressure dip.

  10. Functional reach and lateral reach tests adapted for aquatic physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Angélica Ribeiro de Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional reach (FR and lateral reach (LR tests are widely used in scientific research and clinical practice. Assessment tools are useful in assessing subjects with greater accuracy and are usually adapted according to the limitations of each condition. Objective: To adapt FR and LR tests for use in an aquatic environment and assess the performance of healthy young adults. Methods: We collected anthropometric data and information on whether the participant exercised regularly or not. The FR and LR tests were adapted for use in an aquatic environment and administered to 47 healthy subjects aged 20-30 years. Each test was repeated three times. Results: Forty-one females and six males were assessed. The mean FR test score for men was 24.06 cm, whereas the mean value for right lateral reach (RLR was 10.94 cm and for left lateral reach (LLR was 9.78 cm. For females, the mean FR score was 17.57 cm, while the mean values for RLR was 8.84cm and for LLR was 7.76 cm. Men performed better in the FR (p < 0.001 and RLR tests than women (p = 0.037. Individuals who exercised regularly showed no differences in performance level when compared with their counterparts. Conclusion: The FR and LR tests were adapted for use in an aquatic environment. Males performed better on the FR and RLR tests, when compared to females. There was no correlation between the FR and LR tests and weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI, foot length or length of the dominant upper limb.

  11. Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs. (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Barry, John; Russell, Jeremy; Bell, Robert; Gurung, Som


    How blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. For example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple 'normal' sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. By means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to adequately perfuse the sauropod brain. The return venous circulation may have been protected from complete collapse by a structure akin to the vertebral venous plexus. We derive an equation relating neck height and mean arterial pressure, which indicates that with a mean arterial pressure similar to that of the giraffe, the maximum safe vertical distance between heart and head would have been about 12 m. A hypothesis is presented that the maximum neck length in the fossil record is due to the siphon height limit. The equation indicates that to migrate over high ground, sauropods would have had to either significantly increase their mean arterial pressure or keep their necks below a certain height dependent on altitude. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. The pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.L.


    Pressurized water reactor technology has reached a maturity that has engendered a new surge of innovation, which in turn, has led to significant advances in the technology. These advances, characterized by bold thinking but conservative execution, are resulting in nuclear plant designs which offer significant performance and safety improvements. This paper describes the innovations which are being designed into mainstream PWR technology as well as the desings which are resulting from such innovations. (author)

  13. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.


    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  14. Ductile fracture prediction of an axially cracked pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Jun; Okamura, Hiroyuki


    In this paper, the J-value of an axially cracked cylinder under several PTS conditions are evaluated using a simple estimation scheme which we proposed. Results obtained are summerized as follow: (1) Under any PTS conditions, the effect of internal pressure is so predominant upon the J-value and dJ/da that it is very important to grasp the transient of internal pressure under any imaginable accident from the viewpoint of structural integrity. (2) Under any IP, TS, and PTS conditions, J - a/W relation shows that the J-value reaches its maximum at a certain crack depth, then drops to zero at a/W ≅ 0.9. Though the effect of inertia is not taken into account, this fact may explain the phenomena of crack arrest qualitatively. (3) The compliance of a cylindrical shell plays an important role in the fracture prediction of a pressure vessel. (4) Under typical PTS conditions, the region at the crack tip dominated by the Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren singularity is substantially large enough to apply the J-based criterion to predict unstable ductile fracture. (author)

  15. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.


    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  16. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.


    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  17. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.


    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  18. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.


    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  19. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.


    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets

  20. Pressure Sores (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  1. The electromagnetic rocket gun - a means to reach ultrahigh velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.


    A novel kind of electromagnetic launcher for the acceleration of multigram-size macroparticles, up to velocities required for impact fusion, is proposed. The novel launcher concept combines the efficiency of a gun with the much higher velocities attainable by a rocket. In the proposed concept a rocket-like projectile is launched inside a gun barrel, drawing its energy from a travelling magnetic wave. The travelling magnetic wave heats and ionizes the exhaust jet of the rocket. As a result, the projectile i propelled both by the recoil from the jet and the magnetic pressure of the travelling magnetic wave. In comparison to magnetic linear accelerators, accelerating either superconducting or ferromagnetic projectiles, the proposed concept has several important advantages. First, the exhaust jet is much longer than the rocket-like projectile and which permits a much longer switching time to turn on the travelling magnetic wave. Second, the proposed concept does not require superconducting projectiles, or projectiles made from expensive ferromagnetic material. Third, unlike in railgun accelerators, the projectile can be kept away from the wall, and thereby can reach much larger velocities. (orig.)

  2. Effects of accuracy constraints on reach-to-grasp movements in cerebellar patients. (United States)

    Rand, M K; Shimansky, Y; Stelmach, G E; Bracha, V; Bloedel, J R


    Reach-to-grasp movements of patients with pathology restricted to the cerebellum were compared with those of normal controls. Two types of paradigms with different accuracy constraints were used to examine whether cerebellar impairment disrupts the stereotypic relationship between arm transport and grip aperture and whether the variability of this relationship is altered when greater accuracy is required. The movements were made to either a vertical dowel or to a cross bar of a small cross. All subjects were asked to reach for either target at a fast but comfortable speed, grasp the object between the index finger and thumb, and lift it a short distance off the table. In terms of the relationship between arm transport and grip aperture, the control subjects showed a high consistency in grip aperture and wrist velocity profiles from trial to trial for movements to both the dowel and the cross. The relationship between the maximum velocity of the wrist and the time at which grip aperture was maximal during the reach was highly consistent throughout the experiment. In contrast, the time of maximum grip aperture and maximum wrist velocity of the cerebellar patients was quite variable from trial to trial, and the relationship of these measurements also varied considerably. These abnormalities were present regardless of the accuracy requirement. In addition, the cerebellar patients required a significantly longer time to grasp and lift the objects than the control subjects. Furthermore, the patients exhibited a greater grip aperture during reach than the controls. These data indicate that the cerebellum contributes substantially to the coordination of movements required to perform reach-to-grasp movements. Specifically, the cerebellum is critical for executing this behavior with a consistent, well-timed relationship between the transport and grasp components. This contribution is apparent even when accuracy demands are minimal.

  3. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid


    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  4. Pressure Ulcers


    Monfre, Jill M.


    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  5. Using Elementary Mechanics to Estimate the Maximum Range of ICBMs (United States)

    Amato, Joseph


    North Korea's development of nuclear weapons and, more recently, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) has added a grave threat to world order. The threat presented by these weapons depends critically on missile range, i.e., the ability to reach North America or Europe while carrying a nuclear warhead. Using the limited information available from near-vertical test flights, how do arms control experts estimate the maximum range of an ICBM? The purpose of this paper is to show, using mathematics and concepts appropriate to a first-year calculus-based mechanics class, how a missile's range can be estimated from the (observable) altitude attained during its test flights. This topic—while grim—affords an ideal opportunity to show students how the application of basic physical principles can inform and influence public policy. For students who are already familiar with Kepler's laws, it should be possible to present in a single class period.

  6. Modulation of hand aperture during reaching in persons with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Stahl, Victoria A; Hayes, Heather B; Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Wolf, Steven L; Trumbower, Randy D


    The intact neuromotor system prepares for object grasp by first opening the hand to an aperture that is scaled according to object size and then closing the hand around the object. After cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), hand function is significantly impaired, but the degree to which object-specific hand aperture scaling is affected remains unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persons with incomplete cervical SCI have a reduced maximum hand opening capacity but exhibit novel neuromuscular coordination strategies that permit object-specific hand aperture scaling during reaching. To test this hypothesis, we measured hand kinematics and surface electromyography from seven muscles of the hand and wrist during attempts at maximum hand opening as well as reaching for four balls of different diameters. Our results showed that persons with SCI exhibited significantly reduced maximum hand aperture compared to able-bodied (AB) controls. However, persons with SCI preserved the ability to scale peak hand aperture with ball size during reaching. Persons with SCI also used distinct muscle coordination patterns that included increased co-activity of flexors and extensors at the wrist and hand compared to AB controls. These results suggest that motor planning for aperture modulation is preserved even though execution is limited by constraints on hand opening capacity and altered muscle co-activity. Thus, persons with incomplete cervical SCI may benefit from rehabilitation aimed at increasing hand opening capacity and reducing flexor-extensor co-activity at the wrist and hand.

  7. Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology (United States)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.


    In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

  8. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi


    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  9. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus


    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  10. Maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Veenings, B.; Asma, G.B.; Lips, P.T.A.M.


    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors in older persons living in the community or homes for the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Emergency departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Hip fracture patients aged 70 and older who

  11. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.


    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  12. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    represents maximum dry density, signifies plastic limit and is liquid limit. Researchers [6, 7] estimate compaction parameters. Aside from the correlation existing between compaction parameters and other physical quantities there are some other correlations that have been investigated by other researchers. The well-known.

  13. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu


    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  14. The maximum-entropy method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Schneider, M.


    Roč. 59, - (2003), s. 459-469 ISSN 0108-7673 Grant - others:DFG(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : maximum-entropy method, * aperiodic crystals * electron density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2003

  15. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna


    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  16. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends. (United States)


    ... maximum stipend established under this section. (e) A trainee at a non-Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental laboratory who is assigned to a Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student...

  17. Influence of maximum bite force on jaw movement during gummy jelly mastication. (United States)

    Kuninori, T; Tomonari, H; Uehara, S; Kitashima, F; Yagi, T; Miyawaki, S


    It is known that maximum bite force has various influences on chewing function; however, there have not been studies in which the relationships between maximum bite force and masticatory jaw movement have been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maximum bite force on masticatory jaw movement in subjects with normal occlusion. Thirty young adults (22 men and 8 women; mean age, 22.6 years) with good occlusion were divided into two groups based on whether they had a relatively high or low maximum bite force according to the median. The maximum bite force was determined according to the Dental Prescale System using pressure-sensitive sheets. Jaw movement during mastication of hard gummy jelly (each 5.5 g) on the preferred chewing side was recorded using a six degrees of freedom jaw movement recording system. The motion of the lower incisal point of the mandible was computed, and the mean values of 10 cycles (cycles 2-11) were calculated. A masticatory performance test was conducted using gummy jelly. Subjects with a lower maximum bite force showed increased maximum lateral amplitude, closing distance, width and closing angle; wider masticatory jaw movement; and significantly lower masticatory performance. However, no differences in the maximum vertical or maximum anteroposterior amplitudes were observed between the groups. Although other factors, such as individual morphology, may influence masticatory jaw movement, our results suggest that subjects with a lower maximum bite force show increased lateral jaw motion during mastication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Control-rod, pressure and flow-induced accident and transient analysis of a direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitoh, Kazuaki; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki


    The features of the direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled fast breeder reactor (SCFBR) are high thermal efficiency and simple reactor system. The safety principle is basically the same as that of an LWR since it is a water-cooled reactor. Maintaining the core flow is the basic safety requirement of the reactor, since its coolant system is the one through type. The transient behaviors at control rod, pressure and flow-induced abnormalities are analyzed and presented in this paper. The results of flow-induced transients of SCFBR were reported at ICONE-3, though pressure change was neglected. The change of fuel temperature distribution is also considered for the analysis of the rapid reactivity-induced transients such as control rod withdrawal. Total loss of flow and pump seizure are analyzed as the accidents. Loss of load, control rod withdrawal from the normal operation, loss of feedwater heating, inadvertent start of an auxiliary feedwater pump, partial loss of coolant flow and loss of external power are analyzed as the transients. The behavior of the flow-induced transients is not so much different from the analyses assuming constant pressure. Fly wheels should be equipped with the feedwater pumps to prolong the coast-down time more than 10s and to cope with the total loss of flow accident. The coolant density coefficient of the SCFBR is less than one tenth of a BWR in which the recirculation flow is used for the power control. The over pressurization transients at the loss of load is not so severe as that of a BWR. The power reaches 120%. The minimum deterioration heat flux ratio (MDHFR) and the maximum pressure are sufficiently lower than the criteria; MDHFR above 1.0 and pressure ratio below 1.10 of 27.5 MPa, maximum pressure for operation. Among the reactivity abnormalities, the control rod withdrawal transient from the normal operation is analyzed

  19. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order ... Reaching mode; sliding mode controlled systems; output tracking ... The uncertainty in the input distribution function g is expressed as.

  20. Nanomaterials under REACH. Nanosilver as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk MEJ; Wijnhoven SWP; Bleeker EAJ; Heugens EHW; Peijnenburg WJGM; Luttik R; Hakkert BC; SEC; SIR; LER


    Om de risico's van nanomaterialen te kunnen inschatten en beheersen, zijn enkele aanpassingen nodig in de Europese chemicalienwetgeving REACH. De gegevens over stoffen waar REACH standaard om vraagt, zijn namelijk onvoldoende om de specifieke eigenschappen van nanomaterialen te bepalen. Hetzelfde

  1. Reaching Adolescents and Youth in Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    typical profile of individuals in contact with peer educators or attending youth ... being reached (versus not reached) by programs ... characteristics in order to serve groups that may be ... places for counseling services but the frequency of.

  2. Reaching Hard-to-Reach Individuals: Nonselective Versus Targeted Outbreak Response Vaccination for Measles (United States)

    Minetti, Andrea; Hurtado, Northan; Grais, Rebecca F.; Ferrari, Matthew


    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureable effective campaign impact (i.e., a reduction in measles cases in the targeted age groups greater than that observed in nonvaccinated districts). Simulation models suggest that selective campaigns targeting hard-to-reach individuals are of greater benefit, particularly in highly vaccinated populations, even for low target coverage and with late implementation. However, the choice between targeted and nonselective campaigns should be context specific, achieving a reasonable balance of feasibility, cost, and expected impact. In addition, it is critical to develop operational strategies to identify and target hard-to-reach individuals. PMID:24131555

  3. High pressure experimental water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.


    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  4. High pressure studies of as grown WX2-x single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, G.K.; Agarwal, M.K.; Patel, Yogesh A.


    The structural optical and transport properties of tungsten metal dichalogenides having layered structure have been extensively studied in the last two decades. These materials shows highly anisotropic behaviour and have been receiving considerable interest for a variety of applications. Several of these layered semiconductors have attracted attention as a new class of solar cell material. We present here the results of simultaneous resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements upto 7 GPa on single crystals of WS 2 , WS 1.9 , WSe 2 and WSe 1.9 grown using Direct Vapour Transport (DVT) technique. The observations clearly shows WS 2 and WS 1.9 are more resistive compared to other two crystals. In all samples an exponential fall of resistivity on increases in pressure upto 2.1 GPa but after 2.2 GPa the resistivity decreases substantially with increases pressure. The TEP of WSe 2 increases steadily and reaches maximum at 0.65 GPa, while for WSe 1.9 TEP increases upto pressure 0.5 GPa. In both the cases after attaining the maximum TEP, then decreases monotonically with increase in pressure. TEP of WS 2 and WS 1.9 increase upto pressure 1.1 GPa, beyond 1.1 GPa pressure in both the cases TEP decreases steadily with further increase in pressure. In all the samples, the sign of TEP is positive indicating that all of them are p-type and remain p-type with increase in pressure. The variation of thermoelectric power factor with pressure has been thoroughly studied. An analysis of the data point out that perfectly stoichiometric crystals of WSe 2 work as superior thermoelectric materials. The results have been presented and implications have been discussed. (author)

  5. Heating of a fully saturated darcian half-space: Pressure generation, fluid expulsion, and phase change (United States)

    Delaney, P.


    Analytical solutions are developed for the pressurization, expansion, and flow of one- and two-phase liquids during heating of fully saturated and hydraulically open Darcian half-spaces subjected to a step rise in temperature at its surface. For silicate materials, advective transfer is commonly unimportant in the liquid region; this is not always the case in the vapor region. Volume change is commonly more important than heat of vaporization in determining the position of the liquid-vapor interface, assuring that the temperatures cannot be determined independently of pressures. Pressure increases reach a maximum near the leading edge of the thermal front and penetrate well into the isothermal region of the body. Mass flux is insensitive to the hydraulic properties of the half-space. ?? 1984.

  6. Agreement reached on integrated safeguards in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with the European Commission, has reached agreement on arrangements to implement 'integrated safeguards' in all non-nuclear-weapon States of the European Union with significant nuclear activities. 'This important milestone is the result of the constructive common efforts of all parties concerned. It is a clear signal of the importance attributed by the EU and its Member States, as well as the IAEA, to the reinforcement of the nuclear non-proliferation regime,' said Andris Piebalgs, Member of the European Commission in charge of Energy. 'Once we have sufficient confidence that a State' s nuclear activities are purely peaceful, we can apply safeguards measures in a less prescriptive, more customised manner. This reduces the inspection burden on the State and the inspection effort of the IAEA, while enabling the IAEA to maintain the conclusion that all nuclear material has remained in peaceful activities,' said Olli Heinonen, Deputy Director General and Head of IAEA Safeguards Department. Background The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the main international Treaty prohibiting the spread of nuclear weapons. It entrusts the IAEA to verify that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices through the application of 'safeguards'. IAEA safeguards include comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols that enable the IAEA to conclude that all nuclear material has remained in peaceful activities in a State. Integrated Safeguards refers to the optimum combination of all safeguards measures available to the Agency under comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency in meeting the Agency ' s safeguards obligations. In the European Union, nuclear safeguards are implemented on the basis of the Euratom Treaty and trilateral agreements between Euratom, its Member States and the IAEA

  7. Maximum production rate optimization for sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Xia, Shaojun; Sun, Fengrui


    A sulphuric acid decomposition process in a tubular plug-flow reactor with fixed inlet flow rate and completely controllable exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile is studied in this paper by using finite-time thermodynamics. The maximum production rate of the aimed product SO 2 and the optimal exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile are obtained by using nonlinear programming method. Then the optimal reactor with the maximum production rate is compared with the reference reactor with linear exterior wall temperature profile and the optimal reactor with minimum entropy generation rate. The result shows that the production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor with the maximum production rate has an increase of more than 7%. The optimization of temperature profile has little influence on the production rate while the optimization of reactants pressure profile can significantly increase the production rate. The results obtained may provide some guidelines for the design of real tubular reactors. - Highlights: • Sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor is studied. • Fixed inlet flow rate and controllable temperature and pressure profiles are set. • Maximum production rate of aimed product SO 2 is obtained. • Corresponding optimal temperature and pressure profiles are derived. • Production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor increases by 7%.

  8. Maximum entropy reconstruction of spin densities involving non uniform prior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.; Ressouche, E.; Papoular, R.J.; Zheludev, A.I.


    Diffraction experiments give microscopic information on structures in crystals. A method which uses the concept of maximum of entropy (MaxEnt), appears to be a formidable improvement in the treatment of diffraction data. This method is based on a bayesian approach: among all the maps compatible with the experimental data, it selects that one which has the highest prior (intrinsic) probability. Considering that all the points of the map are equally probable, this probability (flat prior) is expressed via the Boltzman entropy of the distribution. This method has been used for the reconstruction of charge densities from X-ray data, for maps of nuclear densities from unpolarized neutron data as well as for distributions of spin density. The density maps obtained by this method, as compared to those resulting from the usual inverse Fourier transformation, are tremendously improved. In particular, any substantial deviation from the background is really contained in the data, as it costs entropy compared to a map that would ignore such features. However, in most of the cases, before the measurements are performed, some knowledge exists about the distribution which is investigated. It can range from the simple information of the type of scattering electrons to an elaborate theoretical model. In these cases, the uniform prior which considers all the different pixels as equally likely, is too weak a requirement and has to be replaced. In a rigorous bayesian analysis, Skilling has shown that prior knowledge can be encoded into the Maximum Entropy formalism through a model m(rvec r), via a new definition for the entropy given in this paper. In the absence of any data, the maximum of the entropy functional is reached for ρ(rvec r) = m(rvec r). Any substantial departure from the model, observed in the final map, is really contained in the data as, with the new definition, it costs entropy. This paper presents illustrations of model testing

  9. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  10. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for... (United States)


    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  11. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt


    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  12. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement. (United States)

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M


    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  13. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test. (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano


    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  14. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in diffusion models when the data is a discrete time sample of the integral of the process, while no direct observations of the process itself are available. The data are, moreover, assumed to be contaminated...... EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...... by measurement errors. Integrated volatility is an example of this type of observations. Another example is ice-core data on oxygen isotopes used to investigate paleo-temperatures. The data can be viewed as incomplete observations of a model with a tractable likelihood function. Therefore we propose a simulated...

  15. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa. (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D


    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  16. A comparison of two Shuttle launch and entry suits - Reach envelope, isokinetic strength, and treadmill tests (United States)

    Schafer, Lauren E.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.


    A quantification has been conducted of any existing differences between the performance, in operational conditions, of the Space Shuttle crew Launch Entry Suit (LES) and the new Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). While LES is a partial-pressure suit, the ACES system which is being considered as a replacement for LES is a full-pressure suit. Three tests have been conducted with six subjects to ascertain the suits' reach envelope, strength, and treadmill performance. No significant operational differences were found between the two suit designs.

  17. Pressure melting and ice skating (United States)

    Colbeck, S. C.


    Pressure melting cannot be responsible for the low friction of ice. The pressure needed to reach the melting temperature is above the compressive failure stress and, if it did occur, high squeeze losses would result in very thin films. Pure liquid water cannot coexist with ice much below -20 °C at any pressure and friction does not increase suddenly in that range. If frictional heating and pressure melting contribute equally, the length of the wetted contact could not exceed 15 μm at a speed of 5 m/s, which seems much too short. If pressure melting is the dominant process, the water films are less than 0.08 μm thick because of the high pressures.

  18. Maximum entropy analysis of liquid diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Nickel, B.G.


    A maximum entropy method for reducing truncation effects in the inverse Fourier transform of structure factor, S(q), to pair correlation function, g(r), is described. The advantages and limitations of the method are explored with the PY hard sphere structure factor as model input data. An example using real data on liquid chlorine, is then presented. It is seen that spurious structure is greatly reduced in comparison to traditional Fourier transform methods. (author)

  19. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping


    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  20. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.


    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  1. maximum neutron flux at thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.


    Since actual research reactors are technically complicated and expensive facilities it is important to achieve savings by appropriate reactor lattice configurations. There is a number of papers, and practical examples of reactors with central reflector, dealing with spatial distribution of fuel elements which would result in higher neutron flux. Common disadvantage of all the solutions is that the choice of best solution is done starting from the anticipated spatial distributions of fuel elements. The weakness of these approaches is lack of defined optimization criteria. Direct approach is defined as follows: determine the spatial distribution of fuel concentration starting from the condition of maximum neutron flux by fulfilling the thermal constraints. Thus the problem of determining the maximum neutron flux is solving a variational problem which is beyond the possibilities of classical variational calculation. This variational problem has been successfully solved by applying the maximum principle of Pontrjagin. Optimum distribution of fuel concentration was obtained in explicit analytical form. Thus, spatial distribution of the neutron flux and critical dimensions of quite complex reactor system are calculated in a relatively simple way. In addition to the fact that the results are innovative this approach is interesting because of the optimization procedure itself [sr

  2. Development of multi-frequency ESR system for high-pressure measurements up to 2.5 GPa (United States)

    Sakurai, T.; Fujimoto, K.; Matsui, R.; Kawasaki, K.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Tanaka, H.


    A new piston-cylinder pressure cell for electron spin resonance (ESR) has been developed. The pressure cell consists of a double-layer hybrid-type cylinder with internal components made of the ZrO2-based ceramics. It can generate a pressure of 2 GPa repeatedly and reaches a maximum pressure of around 2.5 GPa. A high-pressure ESR system using a cryogen-free superconducting magnet up 10 T has also been developed for this hybrid-type pressure cell. The frequency region is from 50 GHz to 400 GHz. This is the first time a pressure above 2 GPa has been achieved in multi-frequency ESR system using a piston-cylinder pressure cell. We demonstrate its potential by showing the results of the high-pressure ESR of the S = 1 system with the single ion anisotropy NiSnCl6 · 6H2O and the S = 1 / 2 quantum spin system CsCuCl3. We performed ESR measurements of these systems above 2 GPa successfully.

  3. Limitations of the usual blood-pressure hypothesis and importance of variability, instability, and episodic hypertension. (United States)

    Rothwell, Peter M


    Although hypertension is the most prevalent treatable vascular risk factor, how it causes end-organ damage and vascular events is poorly understood. Yet, a widespread belief exists that underlying usual blood pressure can alone account for all blood-pressure-related risk of vascular events and for the benefits of antihypertensive drugs, and this notion has come to underpin all major clinical guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Other potentially informative measures, such as variability in clinic blood pressure or maximum blood pressure reached, have been neglected, and effects of antihypertensive drugs on such measures are largely unknown. Clinical guidelines recommend that episodic hypertension is not treated, and the potential risks of residual variability in blood pressure in treated hypertensive patients have been ignored. This Review discusses shortcomings of the usual blood-pressure hypothesis, provides background to accompanying reports on the importance of blood-pressure variability in prediction of risk of vascular events and in accounting for benefits of antihypertensive drugs, and draws attention to clinical implications and directions for future research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Swelling pressure and water absorption property of compacted granular bentonite during water absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, T.; Komine, H.; Murakami, S.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekine, I.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite is currently planned to be used as buffer materials in engineered barrier of radioactive waste disposal. Granular bentonites are expected as the materials used in constructions as buffer materials by in-situ compaction methods. After applying these buffer materials, it is expected that the condition of the buffer area changes in long-term by the seepage of groundwater into buffer area. Therefore, it is important to understand water movement and swelling behavior of the buffer materials for evaluating the performance of engineered barrier. In this study, we investigated water absorption property and swelling pressure of compacted granular bentonite. Specifically, the process of swelling pressure and amount of water absorption of granular bentonite-GX (Kunigel-GX, produced at the Tsukinuno mine in Japan) were observed by laboratory tests. To discuss the influence of maximum grain size of bentonite particle on swelling pressure and water absorption property, two types of samples were used. One is granular sample which is Bentonite-GX controlled under 2 mm the maximum grain size, the other is milled sample which is Bentonite-GX with the maximum grain size under 0.18 mm by milling with the agate mortar. In addition, the mechanism on the swelling pressure of compacted granular bentonite was considered and discussed. In the cases of granular sample, swelling pressure increases rapidly, then gradually continues to increase up to maximum value. In the cases of milled sample, swelling pressure also increases rapidly at first. However, then its value decreases before progressing of gradual increase continues. Especially, this trend was clearly observed at a relatively low dry density. At the peaks of these curves, the swelling pressure of granular samples is lower than that of milled samples. In addition, the increasing of swelling pressure by the time the peak observed during the process of swelling pressure from

  5. Reduced oxygen at high altitude limits maximum size. (United States)

    Peck, L S; Chapelle, G


    The trend towards large size in marine animals with latitude, and the existence of giant marine species in polar regions have long been recognized, but remained enigmatic until a recent study showed it to be an effect of increased oxygen availability in sea water of a low temperature. The effect was apparent in data from 12 sites worldwide because of variations in water oxygen content controlled by differences in temperature and salinity. Another major physical factor affecting oxygen content in aquatic environments is reduced pressure at high altitude. Suitable data from high-altitude sites are very scarce. However, an exceptionally rich crustacean collection, which remains largely undescribed, was obtained by the British 1937 expedition from Lake Titicaca on the border between Peru and Bolivia in the Andes at an altitude of 3809 m. We show that in Lake Titicaca the maximum length of amphipods is 2-4 times smaller than other low-salinity sites (Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal).

  6. Maximum Power Point Tracking in Variable Speed Wind Turbine Based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Using Maximum Torque Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Ghaderi; Hossein Tohidi; Behnam Khosrozadeh


    The present study was carried out in order to track the maximum power point in a variable speed turbine by minimizing electromechanical torque changes using a sliding mode control strategy.In this strategy,fhst,the rotor speed is set at an optimal point for different wind speeds.As a result of which,the tip speed ratio reaches an optimal point,mechanical power coefficient is maximized,and wind turbine produces its maximum power and mechanical torque.Then,the maximum mechanical torque is tracked using electromechanical torque.In this technique,tracking error integral of maximum mechanical torque,the error,and the derivative of error are used as state variables.During changes in wind speed,sliding mode control is designed to absorb the maximum energy from the wind and minimize the response time of maximum power point tracking (MPPT).In this method,the actual control input signal is formed from a second order integral operation of the original sliding mode control input signal.The result of the second order integral in this model includes control signal integrity,full chattering attenuation,and prevention from large fluctuations in the power generator output.The simulation results,calculated by using MATLAB/m-file software,have shown the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for wind energy systems based on the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG).

  7. Comprehensive performance analyses and optimization of the irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) under maximum power (MP) and maximum power density (MPD) conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Parlak, Adnan


    This paper presents comprehensive performance analyses and comparisons for air-standard irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) based on the power output, power density, thermal efficiency, maximum dimensionless power output (MP), maximum dimensionless power density (MPD) and maximum thermal efficiency (MEF) criteria. Internal irreversibility of the cycles occurred during the irreversible-adiabatic processes is considered by using isentropic efficiencies of compression and expansion processes. The performances of the cycles are obtained by using engine design parameters such as isentropic temperature ratio of the compression process, pressure ratio, stroke ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, exhaust temperature ratio, cycle temperature ratio and cycle pressure ratio. The effects of engine design parameters on the maximum and optimal performances are investigated. - Highlights: • Performance analyses are conducted for irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines. • Comprehensive computations are performed. • Maximum and optimum performances of the engines are shown. • The effects of design parameters on performance and power density are examined. • The results obtained may be guidelines to the engine designers

  8. Action plans can interact to hinder or facilitate reach performance. (United States)

    Fournier, Lisa R; Wiediger, Matthew D; Taddese, Ezana F


    Executing a reach action can be delayed while retaining another action in working memory (WM) if the two action plans partly overlap rather than do not overlap. This delay (partial repetition cost) occurs when reach responses are under cognitive control. In this study, we investigated whether facilitation (a partial repetition benefit) occurs when reach responses are automatic. We also examined whether the hemisphere controlling the limb or selection of the preferred limb (based on a free-reach task) influences reach performance when the actions partly overlap. Left- and right-handers reached to different stimulus locations to the left and right of body midline with their ipsilateral hand while maintaining an action plan in WM that required the same or the different hand. The results showed a partial repetition benefit for spatially compatible reaches to left and right stimulus locations far from the body midline, but not for those near the body midline. Also, no partial repetition cost was found at any of the stimulus-reach locations. This indicates that automatic reach responses that partly overlap with an action plan maintained in WM are not delayed, but instead can be facilitated (partial repetition benefit). The roles of hemisphere and reach-hand preference in action control and the importance of the degree of feature overlap in obtaining a partial repetition benefit (and cost) are discussed.

  9. Development of a combined piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor using a chemical protective coating for Kraft pulp digester process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Abdolreza R; Chiao, Mu; Bennington, Chad P J


    We have developed an integrated piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor for multiphase chemical reactors, primarily Kraft pulp digesters (pH 13.5, temperatures up to 175 °C, reaching a local maximum of 180 °C and pressures up to 2 MPa). The absolute piezoresistive pressure sensor consisted of a large square silicon diaphragm (1000 × 1000 µm 2 ) and high resistance piezoresistors (10 000 Ω). A 4500 Ω buried piezoresistive wire was patterned on the silicon chip to form a piezoresistive temperature sensor which was used for pressure sensor compensation and temperature measurement. A 4 µm thick Parylene HT® coating, a chemically resistant epoxy and a silicone conformal coating were deposited to passivate the pressure sensor against the caustic environment in Kraft digesters. The sensors were characterized up to 2 MPa and 180 °C in an environment chamber. A maximum thermal error of ±0.72% full-scale output (FSO), an average sensitivity of 0.116 mV (V kPa) −1 and a power consumption of 0.3 mW were measured in the pressure sensor. The sensors' resistances were measured before and after test in a Kraft pulping cycle and showed no change in their values. SEM pictures and topographical surfaces were also analyzed before and after pulp liquor exposure and showed no observable changes.

  10. Residual-stresses in austenitic stainless-steel primary coolant pipes and welds of pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, F.; Leggatt, R.H.


    Surface and through thickness residual stress measurements were performed on an aged cast austenitic-ferritic stainless steel pipe and on an orbital TIG weld representative of those of primary coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors. An abrasive-jet hole drilling method and a block removal and layering method were used. Surface stresses and through thickness stress profiles are strongly dependent upon heat treatments, machining and welding operations. In the aged cast stainless steel pipe, stresses ranged between -250 and +175 MPa. On and near the orbital TIG weld, the outside surface of the weld was in tension both in the axial and hoop directions, with maximum values reaching 420 MPa in the weld. On the inside surface, the hoop stresses were compressive, reaching -300 MPa. However, the stresses in the axial direction at the root of the weld were tensile within 4 mm depth from the inside surface, locally reaching 280 MPa. (author)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris L.; Bulik, Tomasz; Ruiter, Ashley; Valsecchi, Francesca; Vink, Jorick S.; Hurley, Jarrod R.


    We present the spectrum of compact object masses: neutron stars and black holes (BHs) that originate from single stars in different environments. In particular, we calculate the dependence of maximum BH mass on metallicity and on some specific wind mass loss rates (e.g., Hurley et al. and Vink et al.). Our calculations show that the highest mass BHs observed in the Galaxy M bh ∼ 15 M sun in the high metallicity environment (Z = Z sun = 0.02) can be explained with stellar models and the wind mass loss rates adopted here. To reach this result we had to set luminous blue variable mass loss rates at the level of ∼10 -4 M sun yr -1 and to employ metallicity-dependent Wolf-Rayet winds. With such winds, calibrated on Galactic BH mass measurements, the maximum BH mass obtained for moderate metallicity (Z = 0.3 Z sun = 0.006) is M bh,max = 30 M sun . This is a rather striking finding as the mass of the most massive known stellar BH is M bh = 23-34 M sun and, in fact, it is located in a small star-forming galaxy with moderate metallicity. We find that in the very low (globular cluster-like) metallicity environment the maximum BH mass can be as high as M bh,max = 80 M sun (Z = 0.01 Z sun = 0.0002). It is interesting to note that X-ray luminosity from Eddington-limited accretion onto an 80 M sun BH is of the order of ∼10 40 erg s -1 and is comparable to luminosities of some known ultra-luminous X-ray sources. We emphasize that our results were obtained for single stars only and that binary interactions may alter these maximum BH masses (e.g., accretion from a close companion). This is strictly a proof-of-principle study which demonstrates that stellar models can naturally explain even the most massive known stellar BHs.

  12. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.


    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  13. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto


    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  14. Maximum entropy method in momentum density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.; Holas, A.


    The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is applied to the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional electron momentum density distributions observed through the set of Compton profiles measured along various crystallographic directions. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out with the aid of simple iterative algorithm suggested originally by Collins. A number of distributions has been simulated in order to check the performance of MEM. It is shown that MEM can be recommended as a model-free approach. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  15. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro


    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  16. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  17. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S


    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  18. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking. (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M


    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  19. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej


    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  20. Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Paul M.


    We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.

  1. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant. (United States)

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas


    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.

  2. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)


    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  3. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks. (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine


    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  4. Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony


    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike


    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...

  5. Reach/frequency for printed media: Personal probabilities or models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl


    The author evaluates two different ways of estimating reach and frequency of plans for printed media. The first assigns reading probabilities to groups of respondents and calculates reach and frequency by simulation. the second estimates parameters to a model for reach/frequency. It is concluded ...... and estiamtes from such models are shown to be closer to panel data. the problem, however, is to get valid input for such models from readership surveys. Means for this are discussed....

  6. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power (United States)

    Garrido, Aitor J.; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier


    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness. PMID:29439408

  7. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power. (United States)

    Lekube, Jon; Garrido, Aitor J; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier


    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness.

  8. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson


    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  9. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search. (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter


    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  10. Adaptation of reach-to-grasp movement in response to force perturbations. (United States)

    Rand, M K; Shimansky, Y; Stelmach, G E; Bloedel, J R


    This study examined how reach-to-grasp movements are modified during adaptation to external force perturbations applied on the arm during reach. Specifically, we examined whether the organization of these movements was dependent upon the condition under which the perturbation was applied. In response to an auditory signal, all subjects were asked to reach for a vertical dowel, grasp it between the index finger and thumb, and lift it a short distance off the table. The subjects were instructed to do the task as fast as possible. The perturbation was an elastic load acting on the wrist at an angle of 105 deg lateral to the reaching direction. The condition was modified by changing the predictability with which the perturbation was applied in a given trial. After recording unperturbed control trials, perturbations were applied first on successive trials (predictable perturbations) and then were applied randomly (unpredictable perturbations). In the early predictable perturbation trials, reach path length became longer and reaching duration increased. As more predictable perturbations were applied, the reach path length gradually decreased and became similar to that of control trials. Reaching duration also decreased gradually as the subjects adapted by exerting force against the perturbation. In addition, the amplitude of peak grip aperture during arm transport initially increased in response to repeated perturbations. During the course of learning, it reached its maximum and thereafter slightly decreased. However, it did not return to the normal level. The subjects also adapted to the unpredictable perturbations through changes in both arm transport and grasping components, indicating that they can compensate even when the occurrence of the perturbation cannot be predicted during the inter-trial interval. Throughout random perturbation trials, large grip aperture values were observed, suggesting that a conservative aperture level is set regardless of whether the

  11. Growth and maximum size of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii. (United States)

    Meyer, Carl G; O'Malley, Joseph M; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Dale, Jonathan J; Hutchinson, Melanie R; Anderson, James M; Royer, Mark A; Holland, Kim N


    Tiger sharks (Galecerdo cuvier) are apex predators characterized by their broad diet, large size and rapid growth. Tiger shark maximum size is typically between 380 & 450 cm Total Length (TL), with a few individuals reaching 550 cm TL, but the maximum size of tiger sharks in Hawaii waters remains uncertain. A previous study suggested tiger sharks grow rather slowly in Hawaii compared to other regions, but this may have been an artifact of the method used to estimate growth (unvalidated vertebral ring counts) compounded by small sample size and narrow size range. Since 1993, the University of Hawaii has conducted a research program aimed at elucidating tiger shark biology, and to date 420 tiger sharks have been tagged and 50 recaptured. All recaptures were from Hawaii except a single shark recaptured off Isla Jacques Cousteau (24°13'17″N 109°52'14″W), in the southern Gulf of California (minimum distance between tag and recapture sites  =  approximately 5,000 km), after 366 days at liberty (DAL). We used these empirical mark-recapture data to estimate growth rates and maximum size for tiger sharks in Hawaii. We found that tiger sharks in Hawaii grow twice as fast as previously thought, on average reaching 340 cm TL by age 5, and attaining a maximum size of 403 cm TL. Our model indicates the fastest growing individuals attain 400 cm TL by age 5, and the largest reach a maximum size of 444 cm TL. The largest shark captured during our study was 464 cm TL but individuals >450 cm TL were extremely rare (0.005% of sharks captured). We conclude that tiger shark growth rates and maximum sizes in Hawaii are generally consistent with those in other regions, and hypothesize that a broad diet may help them to achieve this rapid growth by maximizing prey consumption rates.

  12. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.V.


    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  13. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  14. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.


    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  15. Analogue of Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals minimization problems


    Mikhail, Zelikin


    The theorem like Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals is proved. Unlike the usual maximum principle, the maximum should be taken not over all matrices, but only on matrices of rank one. Examples are given.

  16. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  17. A conductance maximum observed in an inward-rectifier potassium channel



    One prediction of a multi-ion pore is that its conductance should reach a maximum and then begin to decrease as the concentration of permeant ion is raised equally on both sides of the membrane. A conductance maximum has been observed at the single-channel level in gramicidin and in a Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel at extremely high ion concentration (> 1,000 mM) (Hladky, S. B., and D. A. Haydon. 1972. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 274:294-312; Eisenmam, G., J. Sandblom, and E. Neher. 1977. In ...

  18. Anomalous maximum and minimum for the dissociation of a geminate pair in energetically disordered media (United States)

    Govatski, J. A.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Koehler, M.


    We study the geminated pair dissociation probability φ as function of applied electric field and temperature in energetically disordered nD media. Regardless nD, for certain parameters regions φ versus the disorder degree (σ) displays anomalous minimum (maximum) at low (moderate) fields. This behavior is compatible with a transport energy which reaches a maximum and then decreases to negative values as σ increases. Our results explain the temperature dependence of the persistent photoconductivity in C60 single crystals going through order-disorder transitions. They also indicate how an energetic disorder spatial variation may contribute to higher exciton dissociation in multicomponent donor/acceptor systems.

  19. Exploring high-density baryonic matter: Maximum freeze-out density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrup, Joergen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cleymans, Jean [University of Cape Town, UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)


    The hadronic freeze-out line is calculated in terms of the net baryon density and the energy density instead of the usual T and μ{sub B}. This analysis makes it apparent that the freeze-out density exhibits a maximum as the collision energy is varied. This maximum freeze-out density has μ{sub B} = 400 - 500 MeV, which is above the critical value, and it is reached for a fixed-target bombarding energy of 20-30 GeV/N well within the parameters of the proposed NICA collider facility. (orig.)

  20. Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers


    Richard Billich; Jakub Štvrtňa; Karel Jelen


    Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers In today’s world of strength training there are many myths surrounding effective exercising with the least possible negative effect on one’s health. In this experiment we focus on the finding of a relationship between maximum output, used load and the velocity with which the exercise is performed. The main objective is to find the optimal speed of the exercise motion which would allow us to reach the ma...

  1. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting. (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L


    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  2. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen


    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  3. The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony. (United States)

    Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal


    One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of Θ(√n) and Θ(n), respectively, where n is the number of species.

  4. A life under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik


    Microvessels live 'a life under pressure' in several ways. In a literal sense, vessels of the microcirculation are exposed to high levels of stress caused primarily by the intravascular pressure head. In a figurative sense, the individual vessel and the microvascular network as a whole must...... continuously strive to meet the changing demands of the surrounding tissue. The 'principle of optimal operation' as formulated by Y. C. Fung states that living tissues adapts structurally through remodelling and growth until a level of tensile and compressive stresses is reached at which tissue performance...... stress component has a huge impact on the state of the vascular wall. It is involved as a unifying factor on vastly different timescales in processes as diverse as acute regulation of vessel diameter, structural vessel remodelling and growth or atrophy of the vascular wall. The aim of this Mini...

  5. Modelling maximum likelihood estimation of availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, R.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Rock, G.W.


    Suppose the performance of a nuclear powered electrical generating power plant is continuously monitored to record the sequence of failure and repairs during sustained operation. The purpose of this study is to assess one method of estimating the performance of the power plant when the measure of performance is availability. That is, we determine the probability that the plant is operational at time t. To study the availability of a power plant, we first assume statistical models for the variables, X and Y, which denote the time-to-failure and the time-to-repair variables, respectively. Once those statistical models are specified, the availability, A(t), can be expressed as a function of some or all of their parameters. Usually those parameters are unknown in practice and so A(t) is unknown. This paper discusses the maximum likelihood estimator of A(t) when the time-to-failure model for X is an exponential density with parameter, lambda, and the time-to-repair model for Y is an exponential density with parameter, theta. Under the assumption of exponential models for X and Y, it follows that the instantaneous availability at time t is A(t)=lambda/(lambda+theta)+theta/(lambda+theta)exp[-[(1/lambda)+(1/theta)]t] with t>0. Also, the steady-state availability is A(infinity)=lambda/(lambda+theta). We use the observations from n failure-repair cycles of the power plant, say X 1 , X 2 , ..., Xsub(n), Y 1 , Y 2 , ..., Ysub(n) to present the maximum likelihood estimators of A(t) and A(infinity). The exact sampling distributions for those estimators and some statistical properties are discussed before a simulation model is used to determine 95% simulation intervals for A(t). The methodology is applied to two examples which approximate the operating history of two nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Peer Pressure (United States)

    ... for: Teens Dealing With Bullying Emotional Intelligence Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Coping With Stressful Situations Prom Pressure What Stresses You Out About School? Virginity: A Very Personal Decision Stress & Coping Center ...

  7. Review : Pressure Ulcer and Its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Khorasani


    Full Text Available Pressure ulcer is a signifcant problem in elderly and critically ill patients, causing pain, decreasing quality of life and leading to prolonged hospital stay. Treatment of pressure ulcer to improve health status is a cost-effective approach. So, preventing the ulcers will be economical. Pressure ulcer is considered as a damage or necrosis of skin and its layers, which happens when there is a considerable pressure over the tissues. If the capillary arterie's pressure reaches 70 mmHg (2 times more than the normal pressure pressure ulcer happens and depending on the depth of the ulcer, will be divided into 4 stages. The most important point for preventing the ulcers is reducing the pressure. Patients should be repositioned to relieve or minimize the tissue pressure. Considering the type of the ulcer, the necessary treatment (dressing, Antibiotic Therapy, debridement or surgery should be performed.

  8. Should these potential CMR substances have been registered under REACH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Dybdahl, Marianne


    (Q)SAR models were applied to screen around 68,000 REACH pre-registered substances for CMR properties (carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction). Predictions from 14 relevant models were combined to reach overall calls for C, M and R. Combining predictions may reduce “noise” and increase...

  9. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory


    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Damage during Forging with Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure by Active Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Hagen, T.; Roehr, S.; Sidhu, K. B.


    The effective reduction of energy consumption and a reasonable treatment of resources can be achieved by minimizing a component's weight using lightweight metals. In this context, aluminum alloys play a major role. Due to their material-sided restricted formability, the mentioned aluminum materials are difficult to form. The plasticity of a material is ascertained by its maximum forming limit. It is attained, when the deformation causes mechanical damage within the material. Damage of that sort is reached more rapidly, the greater the tensile strength rate in relation to total tension rate. A promising approach of handling these low ductile, high-strength aluminum alloys within a forming process, is forming with a synchronized superposition of comprehensive stress by active media such as by controlling oil pressure. The influence of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the flow stress was analyzed as well as the formability for different procedures at different hydrostatic pressures and temperature levels. It was observed that flow stress is independent of superimposed hydrostatic pressure. Neither the superimposed pressure has an influence on the plastic deformation, nor does a pressure dependent material hardening due to increasing hydrostatic pressure take place. The formability increases with rising hydrostatic pressure. The relative gain at room temperature and increase of the superimposed pressure from 0 to 600 bar for tested materials was at least 140 % and max. 220 %. Therefore in this paper, based on these experimental observations, it is the intended to develop a numerical simulation in order to predict ductile damage that occurs in the bulk forging process with superimposed hydrostatic pressure based Lemaitre's damage model

  11. Chemical placement in heterogeneous and long reach horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalker, Robert; Wahid, Fazrie; Graham, Gordon M.


    The effective placement of chemical squeeze treatments in heterogeneous wells and long reach horizontal wells has proved a significant challenge, with various factors including heterogeneity, crossflow and pressure gradients between otherwise non-communicating zones within the well, all contributing to an uneven placement of the scale squeeze treatment into the reservoir. Current methods to circumvent these problems often rely on extremely expensive coiled tubing operations, staged diversion (temporary shut off) treatments or by designing treatments to deliberately overdose some zones in order to gain placement in other (e.g. low permeability) zones. Moreover for deepwater sub sea horizontal wells the costs associated with ''spot'' treating along the length of horizontal wells by coil tubing tractor operations can often be prohibitively expensive. For other very near well bore treatments such as acid stimulation a number of self diverting strategies including gelled acid treatments, staged viscoelastic surfactant treatments and foams have been applied in field treatments with some success. However the properties which make such treatments applicable for acid stimulation may also make them inappropriate for bullhead scale squeeze treatments. Recent work by the current authors has however indicated the possible benefits of using modified injection fluids to aid uniform scale inhibitor placement in such wells in order to effect more even placement. In summary this paper will describe the various options available for achieving self diversion and describes the potential drawbacks associated with the viscous placement fluids commonly used for acid simulation techniques. In addition, various simulation packages commonly used for scale related calculations are reviewed and their limitations, primarily due to the inherent assumptions made and input parameters used, for modelling squeeze treatments using such modified fluids are described. The paper

  12. On the regime transitions during the formation of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, T; Bogaerts, A; Brok, W J M; Van Dijk, J


    The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in helium is a pulsed discharge in nature. If during the electrical current pulse a glow discharge is reached, then this pulse will last only a few microseconds in operating periods of sinusoidal voltage with lengths of about 10 to 100 μs. In this paper we demonstrate that right before a glow discharge is reached, the discharge very closely resembles the commonly assumed Townsend discharge structure, but actually contains some significant differing features and hence should not be considered as a Townsend discharge. In order to clarify this, we present calculation results of high time and space resolution of the pulse formation. The results indicate that indeed a maximum of ionization is formed at the anode, but that the level of ionization remains high and that the electric field at that time is significantly disturbed. Our results also show where this intermediate structure comes from. (fast track communication)

  13. Laterally Driven Resonant Pressure Sensor with Etched Silicon Dual Diaphragms and Combined Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Du


    Full Text Available A novel structure of the resonant pressure sensor is presented in this paper, which tactfully employs intercoupling between dual pressure-sensing diaphragms and a laterally driven resonant strain gauge. After the resonant pressure sensor principle is introduced, the coupling mechanism of the diaphragms and resonator is analyzed and the frequency equation of the resonator based on the triangle geometry theory is developed for this new coupling structure. The finite element (FE simulation results match the theoretical analysis over the full scale of the device. This pressure sensor was first fabricated by dry/wet etching and thermal silicon bonding, followed by vacuum-packaging using anodic bonding technology. The test maximum error of the fabricated sensor is 0.0310%F.S. (full scale in the range of 30 to 190 kPa, its pressure sensitivity is negative and exceeding 8 Hz/kPa, and its Q-factor reaches 20,000 after wafer vacuum-packaging. A novel resonant pressure sensor with high accuracy is presented in this paper.

  14. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach. (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz


    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  15. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)


    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)

  16. Energy dependence of CP-violation reach for monochromatic neutrino beam (United States)

    Bernabéu, José; Espinoza, Catalina


    The ultimate goal of future neutrino facilities is the determination of CP violation in neutrino oscillations. Besides | U (e 3) | ≠ 0, this will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source and energy control. With this objective in mind, the creation of monochromatic neutrino beams from the electron capture decay of boosted ions by the SPS of CERN has been proposed. We discuss the capabilities of such a facility as a function of the energy of the boost and the baseline for the detector. We compare the physics potential for two different configurations: (I) γ = 90 and γ = 195 (maximum achievable at present SPS) to Frejus; (II) γ = 195 and γ = 440 (maximum achievable at upgraded SPS) to Canfranc. We conclude that the SPS upgrade to 1000 GeV is important to reach a better sensitivity to CP violation iff it is accompanied by a longer baseline.

  17. Energy dependence of CP-violation reach for monochromatic neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, Jose; Espinoza, Catalina


    The ultimate goal of future neutrino facilities is the determination of CP violation in neutrino oscillations. Besides |U(e3)|≠0, this will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source and energy control. With this objective in mind, the creation of monochromatic neutrino beams from the electron capture decay of boosted ions by the SPS of CERN has been proposed. We discuss the capabilities of such a facility as a function of the energy of the boost and the baseline for the detector. We compare the physics potential for two different configurations: (I) γ=90 and γ=195 (maximum achievable at present SPS) to Frejus; (II) γ=195 and γ=440 (maximum achievable at upgraded SPS) to Canfranc. We conclude that the SPS upgrade to 1000 GeV is important to reach a better sensitivity to CP violation iff it is accompanied by a longer baseline

  18. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and retrogradation treatments on structural and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch. (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Bao; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing


    In this study, the effects of high hydrostatic pressure and retrogradation (HHPR) treatments on in vitro digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were investigated. The waxy wheat starch slurries (10%, w/v) were treated with high hydrostatic pressures of 300, 400, 500, 600MPa at 20°C for 30min, respectively, and then retrograded at 4°C for 4d. The results indicated that the content of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in HHPR-treated starch samples increased with increasing pressure level, and it reached the maximum (31.12%) at 600MPa. HHPR treatment decreased the gelatinization temperatures, the gelatinization enthalpy, the relative crystallinity and the peak viscosity of the starch samples. Moreover, HHPR treatment destroyed the surface and interior structures of starch granules. These results suggest that the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of waxy wheat starch are effectively modified by HHPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An investigation of the neural circuits underlying reaching and reach-to-grasp movements: from planning to execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eBegliomini


    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests the existence of a sophisticated brain circuit specifically dedicated to reach-to-grasp planning and execution, both in human and non human primates (Castiello, 2005. Studies accomplished by means of neuroimaging techniques suggest the hypothesis of a dichotomy between a reach-to-grasp circuit, involving the intraparietal area (AIP, the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv - Castiello and Begliomini, 2008; Filimon, 2010 and a reaching circuit involving the medial intraparietal area (mIP and the Superior Parieto-Occipital Cortex (SPOC (Culham et al., 2006. However, the time course characterizing the involvement of these regions during the planning and execution of these two types of movements has yet to be delineated. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study has been conducted, including reach-to grasp and reaching only movements, performed towards either a small or a large stimulus, and Finite Impulse Response model (FIR - Henson, 2003 was adopted to monitor activation patterns from stimulus onset for a time window of 10 seconds duration. Data analysis focused on brain regions belonging either to the reaching or to the grasping network, as suggested by Castiello & Begliomini (2008.Results suggest that reaching and grasping movements planning and execution might share a common brain network, providing further confirmation to the idea that the neural underpinnings of reaching and grasping may overlap in both spatial and temporal terms (Verhagen et al., 2013.

  20. Proprioceptive body illusions modulate the visual perception of reaching distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Petroni

    Full Text Available The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide-without engaging in explicit action-whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas.

  1. Environmental stressors afflicting tailwater stream reaches across the United States (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.


    The tailwater is the reach of a stream immediately below an impoundment that is hydrologically, physicochemically and biologically altered by the presence and operation of a dam. The overall goal of this study was to gain a nationwide awareness of the issues afflicting tailwater reaches in the United States. Specific objectives included the following: (i) estimate the percentage of reservoirs that support tailwater reaches with environmental conditions suitable for fish assemblages throughout the year, (ii) identify and quantify major sources of environmental stress in those tailwaters that do support fish assemblages and (iii) identify environmental features of tailwater reaches that determine prevalence of key fish taxa. Data were collected through an online survey of fishery managers. Relative to objective 1, 42% of the 1306 reservoirs included in this study had tailwater reaches with sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. The surface area of the reservoir and catchment most strongly delineated reservoirs maintaining tailwater reaches with or without sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. Relative to objective 2, major sources of environmental stress generally reflected flow variables, followed by water quality variables. Relative to objective 3, zoogeography was the primary factor discriminating fish taxa in tailwaters, followed by a wide range of flow and water quality variables. Results for objectives 1–3 varied greatly among nine geographic regions distributed throughout the continental United States. Our results provide a large-scale view of the effects of reservoirs on tailwater reaches and may help guide research and management needs.

  2. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.


    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (˜1049erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.MNRAA40035-8711 327, 639 (2001),] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 1048-1049erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  3. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.


    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (∼10 49 erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001),] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10 48 -10 49 erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  4. Mixed integer linear programming for maximum-parsimony phylogeny inference. (United States)

    Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell


    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue to make effective use of the rapidly growing stores of variation data now being gathered. In this paper, we present two integer linear programming (ILP) formulations to find the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree from a set of binary variation data. One method uses a flow-based formulation that can produce exponential numbers of variables and constraints in the worst case. The method has, however, proven extremely efficient in practice on datasets that are well beyond the reach of the available provably efficient methods, solving several large mtDNA and Y-chromosome instances within a few seconds and giving provably optimal results in times competitive with fast heuristics than cannot guarantee optimality. An alternative formulation establishes that the problem can be solved with a polynomial-sized ILP. We further present a web server developed based on the exponential-sized ILP that performs fast maximum parsimony inferences and serves as a front end to a database of precomputed phylogenies spanning the human genome.

  5. Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ferrara, Andrea


    The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10 10 M ⊙ , nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M • ≳ 10 4 M ⊙ ) hosted in small isolated halos ( M h ≲ 10 9 M ⊙ ) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M • – σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10 4–6 M ⊙ , we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.

  6. Mass loss from the southern half of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age Maximum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Northern hemisphere temperatures reached their Holocene minimum and most glaciers reached their maximum during The Little Ice Age (LIA), but the timing of specific cold intervals is site-specific. In southern Greenland, we have compiled data from organic matter incorporated in LIA sediments, used...... retreat. Our results show that the advance of glaciers during the LIA occurs early after the Medieval Warm Period terminating soon after 1200 AD and culminates c. 1500-1600 AD. Historical maps also show that many glaciers on the western coast occupy a still-stand near the LIA maximum until 1900 AD before...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M


    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  8. Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannetta, A; Jackson, J C; Kotre, C J; Birch, I P; Robson, K J; Padgett, R


    An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization

  9. Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data (United States)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.


    In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

  10. Paving the road to maximum productivity. (United States)

    Holland, C


    "Job security" is an oxymoron in today's environment of downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions. Workers find themselves living by new rules in the workplace that they may not understand. How do we cope? It is the leader's charge to take advantage of this chaos and create conditions under which his or her people can understand the need for change and come together with a shared purpose to effect that change. The clinical laboratory at Arkansas Children's Hospital has taken advantage of this chaos to down-size and to redesign how the work gets done to pave the road to maximum productivity. After initial hourly cutbacks, the workers accepted the cold, hard fact that they would never get their old world back. They set goals to proactively shape their new world through reorganizing, flexing staff with workload, creating a rapid response laboratory, exploiting information technology, and outsourcing. Today the laboratory is a lean, productive machine that accepts change as a way of life. We have learned to adapt, trust, and support each other as we have journeyed together over the rough roads. We are looking forward to paving a new fork in the road to the future.

  11. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J.


    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R E ) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 x 10 -13 W m -2 Hz -1 at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R E assuming the power falls off as r -2 . A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3

  12. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup


    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  13. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony. (United States)

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike


    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference and for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (MP). In this manuscript, we focus on this method and on ancestral state inference for fully bifurcating trees. In particular, we investigate a conjecture published by Charleston and Steel in 1995 concerning the number of species which need to have a particular state, say a, at a particular site in order for MP to unambiguously return a as an estimate for the state of the last common ancestor. We prove the conjecture for all even numbers of character states, which is the most relevant case in biology. We also show that the conjecture does not hold in general for odd numbers of character states, but also present some positive results for this case.

  14. Proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior in preterm infants. (United States)

    de Toledo, Aline Martins; Soares, Daniele de Almeida; Tudella, Eloisa


    The authors aimed to investigate proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior and grasping in 5-, 6-, and 7-month-old preterm infants. Nine low-risk preterm and 10 full-term infants participated. Both groups showed the predominance of unimanual reaching, an age-related increase in the frequency of vertical-oriented and open hand movement, and also an increase in successful grasping from 6 to 7 months. The frequency of open hand was higher in the preterm group at 6 months. Intrinsic restrictions imposed by prematurity did not seem to have impaired reaching performance of preterm infants throughout the months of age.

  15. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  16. 20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52 Total annuity subject to maximum. The total annuity amount which is compared to the maximum monthly amount to...

  17. Peer Support for the Hardly Reached: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Sokol, Rebeccah; Fisher, Edwin


    Health disparities are aggravated when prevention and care initiatives fail to reach those they are intended to help. Groups can be classified as hardly reached according to a variety of circumstances that fall into 3 domains: individual (e.g., psychological factors), demographic (e.g., socioeconomic status), and cultural-environmental (e.g., social network). Several reports have indicated that peer support is an effective means of reaching hardly reached individuals. However, no review has explored peer support effectiveness in relation to the circumstances associated with being hardly reached or across diverse health problems. To conduct a systematic review assessing the reach and effectiveness of peer support among hardly reached individuals, as well as peer support strategies used. Three systematic searches conducted in PubMed identified studies that evaluated peer support programs among hardly reached individuals. In aggregate, the searches covered articles published from 2000 to 2015. Eligible interventions provided ongoing support for complex health behaviors, including prioritization of hardly reached populations, assistance in applying behavior change plans, and social-emotional support directed toward disease management or quality of life. Studies were excluded if they addressed temporally isolated behaviors, were limited to protocol group classes, included peer support as the dependent variable, did not include statistical tests of significance, or incorporated comparison conditions that provided appreciable social support. We abstracted data regarding the primary health topic, categorizations of hardly reached groups, program reach, outcomes, and strategies employed. We conducted a 2-sample t test to determine whether reported strategies were related to reach. Forty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria, and these studies represented each of the 3 domains of circumstances assessed (individual, demographic, and cultural-environmental). Interventions

  18. Half-width at half-maximum, full-width at half-maximum analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    addition to the well-defined parameter full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The distribution of ... optical side-lobes in the diffraction pattern resulting in steep central maxima [6], reduc- tion of effects of ... and broad central peak. The idea of.

  19. Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Taylor, Andy


    We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior can help with mitigation of noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely subdominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estimates, demonstrating in our simple set-up that shear biases can be reduced by orders of magnitude and potentially to within the requirements of planned space-based surveys at mild signal-to-noise ratio. We find that second-order terms can exhibit significant cancellations at low signal-to-noise ratio when Gaussian noise is assumed, which has implications for inferring the performance of shear-measurement algorithms from simplified simulations. We discuss the viability of our point estimators as tools for lensing inference, arguing that they allow for the robust measurement of ellipticity and shear.

  20. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.


    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ∼5 × 10 10 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  1. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.


    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  2. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k Watercourses (arcs) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the ARC features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes are also...

  3. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k Waterbodies (polygons) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the POLYGON waterbody features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes...

  4. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  5. LTRM Fish Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  6. LTRM Water Quality Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  7. A maximum likelihood framework for protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hervé


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces

  8. Delays in using chromatic and luminance information to correct rapid reaches. (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Wade, Alex; Ma-Wyatt, Anna


    People can use feedback to make online corrections to movements but only if there is sufficient time to integrate the new information and make the correction. A key variable in this process is therefore the speed at which the new information about the target location is coded. Conduction velocities for chromatic signals are lower than for achromatic signals so it may take longer to correct reaches to chromatic stimuli. In addition to this delay, the sensorimotor system may prefer achromatic information over the chromatic information as delayed information may be less valuable when movements are made under time pressure. A down-weighting of chromatic information may result in additional latencies for chromatically directed reaches. In our study, participants made online corrections to reaches to achromatic, (L-M)-cone, and S-cone stimuli. Our chromatic stimuli were carefully adjusted to minimize stimulation of achromatic pathways, and we equated stimuli both in terms of detection thresholds and also by their estimated neural responses. Similar stimuli were used throughout the subjective adjustments and final reaching experiment. Using this paradigm, we found that responses to achromatic stimuli were only slightly faster than responses to (L-M)-cone and S-cone stimuli. We conclude that the sensorimotor system treats chromatic and achromatic information similarly and that the delayed chromatic responses primarily reflect early conduction delays.

  9. 77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of... occurs. This reporting requirement is applicable to all gas transmission pipeline facility owners and...

  10. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines. (United States)


    ... (SCADA) system, other leak detection system, or an alternative method of control. (iii) Remote valve... outs, leakage, or other activities or conditions affecting the safety operation of the pipeline. (ii... requirements of § 192.707(d) except in agricultural areas, large water crossings or swamp, steep terrain, or...

  11. REACH: next step to a sound chemicals management. (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Arnold


    REACH is the new European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on new and on existing chemical substances of the European Union. Companies which manufacture or import more than 1 tonne of a substance per year will be required to register the substance at the new EU Chemicals Agency located in Helsinki. REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment and to provide safety information that will be passed down the supply chain. In principle, REACH applies to all chemicals as such, as components in preparations and as used in articles. REACH is a radical step forward in the EU chemicals management. The onus will move from the authorities to industry. In addition, REACH will allow the further evaluation of substances where there are grounds for concern, foresees an authorisation system for the use of substances of very high concern and a system of restrictions, where applicable, for substances of concern. The Authorisation system will require companies to switch progressively to safer alternatives where a suitable alternative exists. Current use restrictions will remain under REACH system.

  12. Consistency assessment of rating curve data in various locations using Bidirectional Reach (BReach) (United States)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim; Verhoest, Niko E. C.


    When estimating discharges through rating curves, temporal data consistency is a critical issue. In this research, consistency in stage-discharge data is investigated using a methodology called Bidirectional Reach (BReach), which departs from a (in operational hydrology) commonly used definition of consistency. A period is considered to be consistent if no consecutive and systematic deviations from a current situation occur that exceed observational uncertainty. Therefore, the capability of a rating curve model to describe a subset of the (chronologically sorted) data is assessed in each observation by indicating the outermost data points for which the rating curve model behaves satisfactorily. These points are called the maximum left or right reach, depending on the direction of the investigation. This temporal reach should not be confused with a spatial reach (indicating a part of a river). Changes in these reaches throughout the data series indicate possible changes in data consistency and if not resolved could introduce additional errors and biases. In this research, various measurement stations in the UK, New Zealand and Belgium are selected based on their significant historical ratings information and their specific characteristics related to data consistency. For each country, regional information is maximally used to estimate observational uncertainty. Based on this uncertainty, a BReach analysis is performed and, subsequently, results are validated against available knowledge about the history and behavior of the site. For all investigated cases, the methodology provides results that appear to be consistent with this knowledge of historical changes and thus facilitates a reliable assessment of (in)consistent periods in stage-discharge measurements. This assessment is not only useful for the analysis and determination of discharge time series, but also to enhance applications based on these data (e.g., by informing hydrological and hydraulic model

  13. Maximum entropy production rate in quantum thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo, E-mail: beretta@ing.unibs.i [Universita di Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)


    In the framework of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, a recent paper [Gheorghiu-Svirschevski 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 054102] reproposes the nonlinear equation of motion proposed by the present author [see Beretta G P 1987 Found. Phys. 17 365 and references therein] for quantum (thermo)dynamics of a single isolated indivisible constituent system, such as a single particle, qubit, qudit, spin or atomic system, or a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac field. As already proved, such nonlinear dynamics entails a fundamental unifying microscopic proof and extension of Onsager's reciprocity and Callen's fluctuation-dissipation relations to all nonequilibrium states, close and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we propose a brief but self-contained review of the main results already proved, including the explicit geometrical construction of the equation of motion from the steepest-entropy-ascent ansatz and its exact mathematical and conceptual equivalence with the maximal-entropy-generation variational-principle formulation presented in Gheorghiu-Svirschevski S 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 022105. Moreover, we show how it can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of the equation of motion, consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability and of compatibility with general thermodynamics principles. The irreversible term in the equation of motion describes the spontaneous attraction of the state operator in the direction of steepest entropy ascent, thus implementing the maximum entropy production principle in quantum theory. The time rate at which the path of steepest entropy ascent is followed has so far been left unspecified. As a step towards the identification of such rate, here we propose a possible

  14. Determination of the maximum-depth to potential field sources by a maximum structural index method (United States)

    Fedi, M.; Florio, G.


    A simple and fast determination of the limiting depth to the sources may represent a significant help to the data interpretation. To this end we explore the possibility of determining those source parameters shared by all the classes of models fitting the data. One approach is to determine the maximum depth-to-source compatible with the measured data, by using for example the well-known Bott-Smith rules. These rules involve only the knowledge of the field and its horizontal gradient maxima, and are independent from the density contrast. Thanks to the direct relationship between structural index and depth to sources we work out a simple and fast strategy to obtain the maximum depth by using the semi-automated methods, such as Euler deconvolution or depth-from-extreme-points method (DEXP). The proposed method consists in estimating the maximum depth as the one obtained for the highest allowable value of the structural index (Nmax). Nmax may be easily determined, since it depends only on the dimensionality of the problem (2D/3D) and on the nature of the analyzed field (e.g., gravity field or magnetic field). We tested our approach on synthetic models against the results obtained by the classical Bott-Smith formulas and the results are in fact very similar, confirming the validity of this method. However, while Bott-Smith formulas are restricted to the gravity field only, our method is applicable also to the magnetic field and to any derivative of the gravity and magnetic field. Our method yields a useful criterion to assess the source model based on the (∂f/∂x)max/fmax ratio. The usefulness of the method in real cases is demonstrated for a salt wall in the Mississippi basin, where the estimation of the maximum depth agrees with the seismic information.

  15. Using Maximum Entropy to Find Patterns in Genomes (United States)

    Liu, Sophia; Hockenberry, Adam; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Jewett, Michael; Amaral, Luis

    The existence of over- and under-represented sequence motifs in genomes provides evidence of selective evolutionary pressures on biological mechanisms such as transcription, translation, ligand-substrate binding, and host immunity. To accurately identify motifs and other genome-scale patterns of interest, it is essential to be able to generate accurate null models that are appropriate for the sequences under study. There are currently no tools available that allow users to create random coding sequences with specified amino acid composition and GC content. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we developed a method that generates unbiased random sequences with pre-specified amino acid and GC content. Our method is the simplest way to obtain maximally unbiased random sequences that are subject to GC usage and primary amino acid sequence constraints. This approach can also be easily be expanded to create unbiased random sequences that incorporate more complicated constraints such as individual nucleotide usage or even di-nucleotide frequencies. The ability to generate correctly specified null models will allow researchers to accurately identify sequence motifs which will lead to a better understanding of biological processes. National Institute of General Medical Science, Northwestern University Presidential Fellowship, National Science Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Camille Dreyfus Teacher Scholar Award.

  16. Memory-guided reaching in a patient with visual hemiagnosia. (United States)

    Cornelsen, Sonja; Rennig, Johannes; Himmelbach, Marc


    The two-visual-systems hypothesis (TVSH) postulates that memory-guided movements rely on intact functions of the ventral stream. Its particular importance for memory-guided actions was initially inferred from behavioral dissociations in the well-known patient DF. Despite of rather accurate reaching and grasping movements to visible targets, she demonstrated grossly impaired memory-guided grasping as much as impaired memory-guided reaching. These dissociations were later complemented by apparently reversed dissociations in patients with dorsal damage and optic ataxia. However, grasping studies in DF and optic ataxia patients differed with respect to the retinotopic position of target objects, questioning the interpretation of the respective findings as a double dissociation. In contrast, the findings for reaching errors in both types of patients came from similar peripheral target presentations. However, new data on brain structural changes and visuomotor deficits in DF also questioned the validity of a double dissociation in reaching. A severe visuospatial short-term memory deficit in DF further questioned the specificity of her memory-guided reaching deficit. Therefore, we compared movement accuracy in visually-guided and memory-guided reaching in a new patient who suffered a confined unilateral damage to the ventral visual system due to stroke. Our results indeed support previous descriptions of memory-guided movements' inaccuracies in DF. Furthermore, our data suggest that recently discovered optic-ataxia like misreaching in DF is most likely caused by her parieto-occipital and not by her ventral stream damage. Finally, multiple visuospatial memory measurements in HWS suggest that inaccuracies in memory-guided reaching tasks in patients with ventral damage cannot be explained by visuospatial short-term memory or perceptual deficits, but by a specific deficit in visuomotor processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sulphate chemistry under pressurized oxidizing, reducing and fluctuating conditions; Sulfatkemi under trycksatta oxiderande, reducerande och fluktuerande foerhaallanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Yrjas, P.; Backman, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group


    In the literature it has been reported that sulfur capture with limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) under atmospheric fluidized bed combustion conditions reaches a maximum at about 850 deg C. Previously, the maximum has been attributed to the sintering of sorbent particles which decreases the reactive surface area. Lately, also another explanation has been reported. In this case the sulfur capture decrease at higher temperatures was concluded to be due to fluctuating oxidizing/reducing conditions in the atmospheric combustor. In this work the influence of alternating oxidizing/reducing conditions on SO{sub 2} capture at atmospheric and elevated pressure (15 bar) has been studied. In the pressurized case, the CO{sub 2} partial pressure was kept high enough to prevent CaCO{sub 3} from calcining and therefore the CaSO{sub 4} would not form CaO but CaCO{sub 3} under reducing conditions. The experiments were done with a pressurized TGA by periodically changing the gas environment between oxidizing (O{sub 2}. SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) and slightly reducing (CO, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) gas mixtures at different temperatures. The results from the experiments showed that under normal pressure and slightly reducing conditions CaO formation from CaSO{sub 4} increased with temperature as expected. However, no significant amounts of CaCO{sub 3} were formed from CaSO{sub 4} at elevated pressure. It was also concluded that since the formation of CaO from CaSO{sub 4} was relatively slow it could not explain the sharp sulfur capture maximum at about 850 deg C. Therefore, it was assumed that the strongly reducing zones, where CaS thermodynamically is the stable compound, play a more important role concerning the sulfur capture in fluidized bed combustors. (orig.)

  18. Weighted Maximum-Clique Transversal Sets of Graphs


    Chuan-Min Lee


    A maximum-clique transversal set of a graph G is a subset of vertices intersecting all maximum cliques of G. The maximum-clique transversal set problem is to find a maximum-clique transversal set of G of minimum cardinality. Motivated by the placement of transmitters for cellular telephones, Chang, Kloks, and Lee introduced the concept of maximum-clique transversal sets on graphs in 2001. In this paper, we study the weighted version of the maximum-clique transversal set problem for split grap...

  19. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability (United States)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.


    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  20. [The REACH legislation: the consumer and environment protection perspective]. (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula


    REACH has been initiated with the aim of improving existing legislation. In order to assist in the interpretation of the REACH legislation, guidance documents have been developed, which have only lately become available. According to the REACH annexes and supported by guidance documents, waiving of test requirements will be possible, thus, opening the possibility that under REACH no new (eco)toxicological data will be required. Concerning products, a guidance document was released in April 2008 stating that the substance concentration threshold of 0.1 % (w/w) applies to the article as produced or imported and it does not relate to the homogeneous materials or parts of an article, but relates to the article as such (i.e., as produced or imported). Hence, notification will not be required for many products containing chemicals with properties which place them on the candidate list for authorization. In summary, it is at present not foreseeable whether the expected benefit of the REACH legislation will materialise for the environment and for the health of consumers and at the work place.

  1. Spinal Cord Injury and Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Using Functional Activity in Pressure Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Stinson


    Full Text Available Background. People with spinal cord injury (SCI are at increased risk of pressure ulcers due to prolonged periods of sitting. Concordance with pressure relieving movements is poor amongst this population, and one potential alternative to improve this would be to integrate pressure relieving movements into everyday functional activities. Objectives. To investigate both the current pressure relieving behaviours of SCI individuals during computer use and the application of an ergonomically adapted computer-based activity to reduce interface pressure. Design. Observational and repeated measures design. Setting. Regional Spinal Cord Injury Unit. Participants. Fourteen subjects diagnosed with SCI (12 male, 2 female. Intervention.Comparing normal sitting to seated movements and induced forward reaching positions. Main Outcome Measures. Interface pressure measurements: dispersion index (DI, peak pressure index (PPI, and total contact area (CA. The angle of trunk tilt was also measured. Results. The majority of movements yielded less than 25% reduction in interface pressure compared to normal sitting. Reaching forward by 150% of arm length during an adapted computer activity significantly reduced DI (P<0.05, angle of trunk tilt (p<0.05, and PPI for both ischial tuberosity regions (P<0.001 compared to normal sitting. Conclusion. Reaching forward significantly redistributed pressure at the seating interface, as evidenced by the change in interface pressures compared to upright sitting.

  2. The transformation of nitrogen during pressurized entrained-flow pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris. (United States)

    Maliutina, Kristina; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong


    The transformation of nitrogen in microalgae during entrained-flow pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris was systematically investigated at the temperatures of 600-900 °C and pressures of 0.1-4.0 MPa. It was found that pressure had a profound impact on the transformation of nitrogen during pyrolysis. The nitrogen retention in bio-char and its content in bio-oil reached a maximum value at 1.0 MPa. The highest conversion of nitrogen (50.25 wt%) into bio-oil was achieved at 1.0 MPa and 800 °C, which was about 7 wt% higher than that at atmospheric pressure. Higher pressures promoted the formation of pyrrolic-N (N-5) and quaternary-N (N-Q) compounds in bio-oil at the expense of nitrile-N and pyridinic-N (N-6) compounds. The X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results on bio-chars clearly evidenced the transformation of N-5 structures into N-6 and N-Q structures at elevated pressures. The nitrogen transformation pathways during pyrolysis of microalgae were proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smart blood pressure holter. (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan


    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  4. REACH-related substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten; Markussen, Helene

    are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual......The accomplishment of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... fulfil one or more of the criteria (e.g. CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (authorisation). The paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results of the actual substitutions. Keywords: REACH, chemicals, substitution, printing industry....

  5. Horizontal single-trip gravel pack and selective simulation system for deep water extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Most of the reservoirs located in the deep water and ultra-deep water offshore South America are described as unconsolidated sandstone that require sand control on both producers and water injection wells. Horizontal Open Hole Gravel Pack completions are the preferred method of development. If completing heavy oil reservoirs, there is a necessity of longer horizontal open hole sections. Low fracture gradients may limit the length of gravel pack in the open hole section because of the pressure increase during the Beta wave proppant deposition phase. This system allows the gravel pack assembly to be installed and the gravel pack to be pumped during the alpha and beta wave deposition phases without the limitation of high pressures that could fracture the well. The benefits of the Horizontal Single-Trip Gravel Pack and Selective Stimulation System (HSTSSS) using the differential valve include the ability to complete longer horizontal intervals, valuable rig-time savings and, efficient mechanical diversion of the stimulation fluid. This paper outlines the application of the HSTSSS system using a differential valve to complete a horizontal well in offshore deep waters. The need for a differential valve is primarily in horizontal gravel packing operations when normal circulating rates and pressures around the open hole would exceed formation break down pressure. The valve is intended to be easily spaced out and run in the wash pipe. At a predetermined differential pressure the valve opens and the return flow path distance around the bottom of the tailpipe is shortened, thus reducing back pressure preventing filter cake damage without slowing the pump rate. In addition the said valve has to close to allow the selective stimulation to take place. Economic considerations along with completion efficiencies are especially important on deep water, subsea completions. The utilization of differential valves allows completion of extended-reach open hole wells and/or low fracture

  6. Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ferrara, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)


    The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M {sub •} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ⊙}) hosted in small isolated halos ( M {sub h} ≲ 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M {sub •}– σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10{sup 4–6} M {sub ⊙}, we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.

  7. Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of photovoltaic ... Determination of MPP enables the PV system to deliver maximum available power. ..... adaptive artificial neural network: Proposition for a new sizing procedure.

  8. Maximum power per VA control of vector controlled interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thakur Sumeet Singh


    Apr 11, 2018 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New ... The MPVA operation allows maximum-utilization of the drive-system. ... Permanent magnet motor; unity power factor; maximum VA utilization; ...

  9. Electron density distribution in Si and Ge using multipole, maximum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Si and Ge has been studied using multipole, maximum entropy method (MEM) and ... and electron density distribution using the currently available versatile ..... data should be subjected to maximum possible utility for the characterization of.

  10. Composite Coiled Tubing for Extended Reach in Horizontal Oil Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Berggreen, Christian


    Conventional steel coiled tubing cannot reach along the entire length of very long horizontal oil wells. A lighter and more buoyant coiled tube is made possible using composite materials. The high stiffness to weight ratio of fiber reinforced polymers, coupled with a lower coefficient of friction......, has the potential of greatly extending the reach in horizontal oil wells. This study shows how to design composite coiled tubing and gives a comprehensive discussion about the most influential parameters. Several solutions, using glass-fiber and carbon are considered. Finite element models are used...

  11. Telerobotic operation of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.


    As a part of the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, long-reach manipulators are being considered for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Long-reach manipulators may have characteristics significantly different from those of typical industrial robots because of the flexibility of long links needed to cover the large workspace. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A new approach that uses embedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, generation of joint trajectories considering link flexibility was also investigated

  12. Magnetization at high pressure in CeP (United States)

    Naka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okayama, Y.; Môri, N.; Haga, Y.; Suzuki, T.


    We have investigated the pressure dependence of magnetization below 60 K up to 1.6 GPa in the low-carrier concentration system CeP showing two step transitions at T = TL and TH under high pressure. At high pressure, M( P, T) exhibits a maximum at around the lower transition temperature TL. This behavior implies that the magnetic state changes at TL. The pressure dependence of isothermal magnetization M( P) is different above and below TL. In fact, M( P) below TL exhibits a maximum at around 1.4 GPa, whereas M( P) above TL increases steeply with pressure up to 1.6 GPa.

  13. Characteristics of Plantar Loads in Maximum Forward Lunge Tasks in Badminton. (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyue; Li, Jing Xian; Hong, Youlian; Wang, Lin


    Badminton players often perform powerful and long-distance lunges during such competitive matches. The objective of this study is to compare the plantar loads of three one-step maximum forward lunges in badminton. Fifteen right-handed male badminton players participated in the study. Each participant performed five successful maximum lunges at three directions. For each direction, the participant wore three different shoe brands. Plantar loading, including peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area, was measured by using an insole pressure measurement system. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was employed to determine the effects of the different lunge directions and different shoes, as well as the interaction of these two variables, on the measurements. The maximum force (MF) on the lateral midfoot was lower when performing left-forward lunges than when performing front-forward lunges (p = 0.006, 95% CI = -2.88 to -0.04%BW). The MF and peak pressures (PP) on the great toe region were lower for the front-forward lunge than for the right-forward lunge (MF, p = 0.047, 95% CI = -3.62 to -0.02%BW; PP, p = 0.048, 95% CI = -37.63 to -0.16 KPa) and left-forward lunge (MF, p = 0.015, 95% CI = -4.39 to -0.38%BW; PP, p = 0.008, 95% CI = -47.76 to -5.91 KPa). These findings indicate that compared with the front-forward lunge, left and right maximum forward lunges induce greater plantar loads on the great toe region of the dominant leg of badminton players. The differences in the plantar loads of the different lunge directions may be potential risks for injuries to the lower extremities of badminton players.

  14. Characteristics of Plantar Loads in Maximum Forward Lunge Tasks in Badminton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Hu

    Full Text Available Badminton players often perform powerful and long-distance lunges during such competitive matches. The objective of this study is to compare the plantar loads of three one-step maximum forward lunges in badminton.Fifteen right-handed male badminton players participated in the study. Each participant performed five successful maximum lunges at three directions. For each direction, the participant wore three different shoe brands. Plantar loading, including peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area, was measured by using an insole pressure measurement system. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was employed to determine the effects of the different lunge directions and different shoes, as well as the interaction of these two variables, on the measurements.The maximum force (MF on the lateral midfoot was lower when performing left-forward lunges than when performing front-forward lunges (p = 0.006, 95% CI = -2.88 to -0.04%BW. The MF and peak pressures (PP on the great toe region were lower for the front-forward lunge than for the right-forward lunge (MF, p = 0.047, 95% CI = -3.62 to -0.02%BW; PP, p = 0.048, 95% CI = -37.63 to -0.16 KPa and left-forward lunge (MF, p = 0.015, 95% CI = -4.39 to -0.38%BW; PP, p = 0.008, 95% CI = -47.76 to -5.91 KPa.These findings indicate that compared with the front-forward lunge, left and right maximum forward lunges induce greater plantar loads on the great toe region of the dominant leg of badminton players. The differences in the plantar loads of the different lunge directions may be potential risks for injuries to the lower extremities of badminton players.

  15. In-shoe plantar tri-axial stress profiles during maximum-effort cutting maneuvers. (United States)

    Cong, Yan; Lam, Wing Kai; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming


    Soft tissue injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ankle sprain and foot skin problems, frequently occur during cutting maneuvers. These injuries are often regarded as associated with abnormal joint torque and interfacial friction caused by excessive external and in-shoe shear forces. This study simultaneously investigated the dynamic in-shoe localized plantar pressure and shear stress during lateral shuffling and 45° sidestep cutting maneuvers. Tri-axial force transducers were affixed at the first and second metatarsal heads, lateral forefoot, and heel regions in the midsole of a basketball shoe. Seventeen basketball players executed both cutting maneuvers with maximum efforts. Lateral shuffling cutting had a larger mediolateral braking force than 45° sidestep cutting. This large braking force was concentrated at the first metatarsal head, as indicated by its maximum medial shear stress (312.2 ± 157.0 kPa). During propulsion phase, peak shear stress occurred at the second metatarsal head (271.3 ± 124.3 kPa). Compared with lateral shuffling cutting, 45° sidestep cutting produced larger peak propulsion shear stress (463.0 ± 272.6 kPa) but smaller peak braking shear stress (184.8 ± 181.7 kPa), of which both were found at the first metatarsal head. During both cutting maneuvers, maximum medial and posterior shear stress occurred at the first metatarsal head, whereas maximum pressure occurred at the second metatarsal head. The first and second metatarsal heads sustained relatively high pressure and shear stress and were expected to be susceptible to plantar tissue discomfort or injury. Due to different stress distribution, distinct pressure and shear cushioning mechanisms in basketball footwear might be considered over different foot regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood Pressure Test (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  17. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX


    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  18. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. (United States)


    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a representative...

  19. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running. (United States)

    Ebben, William P.


    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  20. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840... COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any...

  1. 7 CFR 3565.210 - Maximum interest rate. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum interest rate. 3565.210 Section 3565.210... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.210 Maximum interest rate. The interest rate for a guaranteed loan must not exceed the maximum allowable rate specified by the Agency in...

  2. Characterizing graphs of maximum matching width at most 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Jisu; Ok, Seongmin; Suh, Geewon


    The maximum matching width is a width-parameter that is de ned on a branch-decomposition over the vertex set of a graph. The size of a maximum matching in the bipartite graph is used as a cut-function. In this paper, we characterize the graphs of maximum matching width at most 2 using the minor o...

  3. Conditions for maximum isolation of stable condensate during separation in gas-condensate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivus, N.A.; Belkina, N.A.


    A thermodynamic analysis is made of the gas-liquid separation process in order to determine the relationship between conditions of maximum stable condensate separation and physico-chemical nature and composition of condensate. The analysis was made by considering the multicomponent gas-condensate fluid produced from Zyrya field as a ternary system, composed of methane, an intermediate component (propane and butane) and a heavy residue, C/sub 6+/. Composition of 5 ternary systems was calculated for a wide variation in separator conditions. At each separator pressure there is maximum condensate production at a certain temperature. This occurs because solubility of condensate components changes with temperature. Results of all calculations are shown graphically. The graphs show conditions of maximum stable condensate separation.

  4. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI (United States)


    interface pressures and increased blood flow. This level of off-loading is achieved by postural changes during sustained reaching, leaning and other...project has been designed to fill two significant gaps in the current state of knowledge: 1) accurate measurement of dedicated pressure reliefs and other...significant gaps in the current state of knowledge: 1) accurate measurement of dedicated pressure reliefs and other weight shift activities and 2) the

  5. Low temperature magnetoresistance in La1.32Sr1.68Mn2O7 layered manganite under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresavanji, M.; Fontes, M.B.


    The La 1.32 Sr 1.68 Mn 2 O 7 layered manganite system has been studied by the low temperature electrical resistance and magnetoresistance under hydrostatic pressure up to 25 kbar. We have observe both, a Curie temperature (T C ) and a metal-insulator transition (T MI ) at 118 K in the ambient pressure. The applied pressure shifts the T MI to higher temperature values and induces a second metal-insulator transition (T 2 MI ) at 90 K, in the temperature dependence of resistivity measurements. Also, the pressure suppresses the peak resistance abruptly at T C . When an external field of 5 T is applied, we have observed a large negative magnetoresistance of 300% at the transition temperature and a 128% at 4.5 K. However, the increased pressure decreases the magnetoresistance ratio gradually. When the pressure reaches its maximum available value of 25 kbar, the magnetoresistance ratio decreases at a rate of 1.3%/kbar. From our experimental results, the decrease of magnetoresistance ratio with pressure is explained by the pressure induced canted spin state which is not favor for the spin polarized intergrain tunneling in layered manganites.

  6. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaedel, K.L.


    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury

  7. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.


    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  8. Task-dependent vestibular feedback responses in reaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyser, J.; Medendorp, W.P.; Selen, L.P.J.


    When reaching for an earth-fixed object during self-rotation, the motor system should appropriately integrate vestibular signals and sensory predictions to compensate for the intervening motion and its induced inertial forces. While it is well established that this integration occurs rapidly, it is

  9. Reaching the Unreached - Special Emphasis on the Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an overview of the existing communication component in the Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) training in Zambia and critically analyses the need for a humane touch in the communication process so as to reach the target audience effectively. Interpersonal Communication (IPC) in Zambia has ...

  10. Shaping of Reach-to-Grasp Kinematics by Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Køppe, Simo


    is primarily associated with transporting the hand to the object (i.e., extrinsic object properties), the decelerating part of the reach is used as a preparation for object manipulation (i.e., prepare the grasp or the subsequent action), and the grasp is associated with manipulating the object's intrinsic...

  11. Recognition for reaching the most vulnerable populations in Burkina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Recognition for reaching the most vulnerable populations in Burkina Faso. 07 novembre 2016. An IDRC supported project was recognized for its efforts to improve health service provision and the monitoring of pregnant women, new mothers, children, and people living with HIV in Burkina Faso's Nouna district. Dr Maurice ...

  12. Object Permanence, Reaching, and Locomotion in Infants Who Are Blind. (United States)

    Ross, S.; Tobin, M. J.


    The literature on the effects of congenital blindness on infants' development of motor functions and concepts of object permanence is reviewed. The article questions the idea that infants must first develop an object concept before sound clues alone will elicit reaching. Possible interventions to redress the effects of congenital blindness on…

  13. Reaching an understanding innovations in how we view reading assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Sabatini, John; O'Reilly, Tenaha


    Reaching an Understanding: Innovations in How We View Reading Assessment builds upon the editors previous book Measuring Up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability by representing some early attempts to apply theory to help guide the development of new assessments and measurement models.

  14. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  15. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach? (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin


    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  16. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, IBM; Stremmelaar, EF; Touwen, BCL


    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment

  17. Evaluation of the Implementation of the Reaching Every District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Background: In 2003, the Government of Zambia in collaboration with implementing partners in immunisation introduced the Reaching Every District. (RED) strategy to improve immunization coverage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the. RED strategy in Lusaka district. Methods: A ...

  18. Reach for the Stars: Visions for Literacy Coaching Programs (United States)

    DeFord, Diane


    This brief by the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse is about reaching for the stars--stories of vision and commitment from educators in small and large schools. Everyone knows of people who are held up as "visionaries" throughout history: Leonardo Da Vinci, Mahatma Gandhi, Jules Verne, Thomas Edison, Susan Anthony, or John Dewey, to name a few. The…

  19. Advanced reach tool (ART) : Development of the mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Tongeren, M. van; Cherrie, J.W.; Tischer, M.; Schneider, T.; Schinkel, J.; Kromhout, H.; Warren, N.; Goede, H.; Tielemans, E.


    This paper describes the development of the mechanistic model within a collaborative project, referred to as the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) project, to develop a tool to model inhalation exposure for workers sharing similar operational conditions across different industries and locations in Europe.

  20. Reaching the Summit: Deaf Adults as Essential Partners in Education (United States)

    Bourne-Firl, Bridgetta


    How do we reach the summit in terms of supporting the best transition possible for each young deaf or hard of hearing individual in the United States? Should professionals who are hearing work alone to succeed with deaf and hard of hearing students? No matter how good the intention, if we want deaf and hard of hearing students to transition from…

  1. Reaching the Millennium Development Goals : Mauritania Should Care


    Magnoli Bocchi, Alessandro; Pontara, Nicola; Fall, Khayar; Tejada, Catalina M.; Gallego Cuervo, Pablo


    Mauritania is a resource-rich developing country. As many other African nations, it will not reach most of the Millennium Development Goals, unless the authorities commit to accelerating progress. To succeed by 2015, the government needs to: mobilize additional financial resources, introduce policy changes at the sector level, and strengthen the links between strategic objectives and the b...

  2. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements. (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B


    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm.

  3. How infants' reaches reveal principles of sensorimotor decision making (United States)

    Dineva, Evelina; Schöner, Gregor


    In Piaget's classical A-not-B-task, infants repeatedly make a sensorimotor decision to reach to one of two cued targets. Perseverative errors are induced by switching the cue from A to B, while spontaneous errors are unsolicited reaches to B when only A is cued. We argue that theoretical accounts of sensorimotor decision-making fail to address how motor decisions leave a memory trace that may impact future sensorimotor decisions. Instead, in extant neural models, perseveration is caused solely by the history of stimulation. We present a neural dynamic model of sensorimotor decision-making within the framework of Dynamic Field Theory, in which a dynamic instability amplifies fluctuations in neural activation into macroscopic, stable neural activation states that leave memory traces. The model predicts perseveration, but also a tendency to repeat spontaneous errors. To test the account, we pool data from several A-not-B experiments. A conditional probabilities analysis accounts quantitatively how motor decisions depend on the history of reaching. The results provide evidence for the interdependence among subsequent reaching decisions that is explained by the model, showing that by amplifying small differences in activation and affecting learning, decisions have consequences beyond the individual behavioural act.

  4. Advanced REACH tool: A Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNally, K.; Warren, N.; Fransman, W.; Entink, R.K.; Schinkel, J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Kromhout, H.; Schneider, T.; Tielemans, E.


    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate

  5. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.


    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  6. Challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in Enugu State Nigeria. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample size of 52 extension workers. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean statistic, chart and factor analysis. Results revealed that training and visit ...

  7. Quality, Reach, and Impact of Open Scholarly Publishing in Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Quality, Reach, and Impact of Open Scholarly Publishing in Latin America. Better understanding Open Access of scholarly research will help determine how it contributes to the greater circulation of knowledge and disseminating research in Latin America. Open Access (defined as unrestricted access to articles published in ...

  8. The Internet and the Global Reach of EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    and learning; international negotiation; coercion and conditionality; and blocking recognition of third country legal measures. The EU’s actions in exercising its global reach implicate important normative issues, such as distinguishing between the furtherance of core EU legal values and the advancement...

  9. Simulating stream response to floodplain connectivity, reforestation and wetland restoration from reach to catchment scales (United States)

    Singh, N.; Bomblies, A.; Wemple, B. C.; Ricketts, T.


    Natural infrastructure (e.g., floodplains, forests) can offer multiple ecosystem services (ES), including flood resilience and water quality improvement. In order to maintain these ES, state, federal and non-profit organizations may consider various interventions, such as increased floodplain connectivity, reforestation, and wetland restoration to minimize flood peaks and erosion during events. However, the effect of these interventions on hydro-geomorphic responses of streams from reach to catchment scales (>100 km2) are rarely quantified. We used stream geomorphic assessment datasets with a hydraulic model to investigate the influence of above mentioned interventions on stream power (SP), water depth (WD) and channel velocity (VEL) during floods of 2yr and 100yr return periods for three catchments in the Lake Champlain basin, Vermont. To simulate the effect of forests and wetlands, we changed the Manning's coefficient in the model, and to simulate the increased connectivity of the floodplain, we edited the LIDAR data to lower bank elevations. We find that the wetland scenario resulted in the greatest decline in WD and SP, whereas forested scenario exhibited maximum reduction in VEL. The connectivity scenario showed a decline in almost all stream responses, but the magnitude of change was relatively smaller. On average, 35% (2yr) and 50% (100yr) of altered reaches demonstrated improvement over baseline, and 39% (2yr) and 31% (100yr) of altered reaches showed degradation over baseline, across all interventions. We also noted changes in stream response along unaltered reaches (>30%), where we did not make interventions. Overall, these results point to the complexity related to stream interventions and suggest careful evaluation of spatially explicit tradeoffs of these interventions on river-floodplain ecosystem. The proposed approach of simulating and understanding stream's response to interventions, prior to the implementation of restoration activities, may lead to

  10. Maximum overpressure in gastight containers of the storage and transport of dangerous liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, H.


    For a design of containers suitable under safety aspects for the transport and storage of dangerous liquids the maximum overpressure to be expected is an important value. The fundamentals for the determination of the internal pressure are pointed out for the simplified model of a rigid (i.e. not elastically or plastically deforming) and gastight container. By assuming of extreme storage and transport conditions (e.g. for the maximum liquid temperatures due to sun radiation) the figures of the maximum overpressure are calculated for about hundred liquids being of practical interest. The results show a significant influence of the compression of air in the ullage space caused by liquid expansion due to temperature rise (compression effect), particularly for liquids with a higher boiling point. The influence of the solubility of air in the liquid on the internal pressure can be neglected under the assumed transport conditions. The estimation of the volume increase of the container due to the effect of the internal pressure leads to the limitation, that the assumption of a rigid container is only justified for cylindrical and spherical steel tanks. The enlargement of the container volume due to a heating of the container shell does play no significant roll for all metal containers under the assumed conditions of storage and transport. The results obtained bear out essentially the stipulations for the test pressure and the filling limits laid down in the older German regulations for the transport of dangerous liquids in rail tank waggons and road tank vehicles without pressure relief valves. For the recently fixed and internationally harmonized regulations for tankcontainers the considerations and the results pointed out in this paper give rise to a review. (orig.) [de

  11. Pulsatile pressure driven rarefied gas flow in long rectangular ducts (United States)

    Tsimpoukis, Alexandros; Valougeorgis, Dimitris


    The pulsatile pressure driven fully developed flow of a rarefied gas through an orthogonal duct is investigated, based on the time-dependent linear Bhatnagar, Gross, and Krook equation, by decomposing the flow into its steady and oscillatory parts. The investigation is focused on the oscillatory part, which is characterized by the gas rarefaction and oscillation parameters, the duct aspect ratio, and the accommodation coefficient. As the oscillation frequency is increased, the amplitude of all macroscopic quantities is decreased, while their phase angle lag is increased reaching the limiting value of π/2. As the gas becomes more rarefied, higher frequencies are needed to trigger this behavior. At small and moderate frequencies, there is a critical degree of gas rarefaction, where a maximum flow rate is obtained. As the duct aspect ratio is decreased and tends to zero, the flow rate and mean wall shear stress amplitudes are increased, while their phase angle lags are slightly affected. The accommodation coefficient has a significant effect on the amplitude and a very weak one on the phase angle of the macroscopic quantities. The computation of the inertia and viscous forces clarifies when the flow consists of only one oscillating viscous region or of two regions, namely, the inviscid piston flow in the core and the oscillating Stokes layer at the wall with the velocity overshooting. Finally, the time average oscillatory pumping power is increased as the oscillation frequency is reduced and its maximum value is one half of the corresponding steady one.

  12. Amplified Erosion above Waterfalls and Oversteepened Bedrock Reaches (United States)

    Haviv, I.; Enzel, Y.; Whipple, K. X.; Zilberman, E.; Stone, J.; Matmon, A.; Fifield, K. L.


    Although waterfalls are abundant along steep bedrock channels, none of the conventional erosion laws can predict incision at the lip of a waterfall where flow is non-uniform and bed slope can be vertical. Considering the expected increase in flow velocity and shear stress at the lip of a vertical waterfall we determine erosion amplification at a waterfall lip as: Elip/Enormal= (1+0.4/Fr2)3n, where Fr is the Froude number and n ranges between 0.5-1.7. This amplification expression suggests that erosion at the lip could be as much as 2-5 times higher than normally expected in a setting with identical hydraulic geometry. It also demonstrates that a freefall is expected to amplify upstream incision rates even when the flow approaching the waterfall is highly supercritical. Utilizing this erosion amplification expression in numerical simulations in conjunction with a standard detachment-limited incision model we demonstrate its impact on reach-scale morphology above waterfalls. These simulations indicate that amplified erosion at the lip of a waterfall can trigger the formation of an oversteepened reach whose length is longer than the flow acceleration zone, provided incision velocity (Vi) at the edge of the flow acceleration zone is higher than the retreat velocity of the waterfall face. Such an oversteepened reach is expected to be more pronounced when Vi increases with increasing slope. The simulations also suggest that oversteepening can eventually lead to quasi steady-state gradients upstream from a waterfall provided Vi decreases with increasing slope. Flow acceleration above waterfalls can thus account, at least partially, for oversteepened bedrock reaches that are prevalent above waterfalls. Such reaches have been reported for the escarpments of southeast Australia, western Dead Sea, and at Niagara Falls. Using the cosmogenic isotope 36Cl we demonstrate that Vi upstream of a waterfall at the Dead Sea western escarpment is high enough for freefall

  13. Task-dependent vestibular feedback responses in reaching. (United States)

    Keyser, Johannes; Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc P J


    When reaching for an earth-fixed object during self-rotation, the motor system should appropriately integrate vestibular signals and sensory predictions to compensate for the intervening motion and its induced inertial forces. While it is well established that this integration occurs rapidly, it is unknown whether vestibular feedback is specifically processed dependent on the behavioral goal. Here, we studied whether vestibular signals evoke fixed responses with the aim to preserve the hand trajectory in space or are processed more flexibly, correcting trajectories only in task-relevant spatial dimensions. We used galvanic vestibular stimulation to perturb reaching movements toward a narrow or a wide target. Results show that the same vestibular stimulation led to smaller trajectory corrections to the wide than the narrow target. We interpret this reduced compensation as a task-dependent modulation of vestibular feedback responses, tuned to minimally intervene with the task-irrelevant dimension of the reach. These task-dependent vestibular feedback corrections are in accordance with a central prediction of optimal feedback control theory and mirror the sophistication seen in feedback responses to mechanical and visual perturbations of the upper limb. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Correcting limb movements for external perturbations is a hallmark of flexible sensorimotor behavior. While visual and mechanical perturbations are corrected in a task-dependent manner, it is unclear whether a vestibular perturbation, naturally arising when the body moves, is selectively processed in reach control. We show, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, that reach corrections to vestibular perturbations are task dependent, consistent with a prediction of optimal feedback control theory. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Bimanual reach to grasp movements after cervical spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Britten

    Full Text Available Injury to the cervical spinal cord results in bilateral deficits in arm/hand function reducing functional independence and quality of life. To date little research has been undertaken to investigate control strategies of arm/hand movements following cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI. This study aimed to investigate unimanual and bimanual coordination in patients with acute cSCI using 3D kinematic analysis as they performed naturalistic reach to grasp actions with one hand, or with both hands together (symmetrical task, and compare this to the movement patterns of uninjured younger and older adults. Eighteen adults with a cSCI (mean 61.61 years with lesions at C4-C8, with an American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA grade B to D and 16 uninjured younger adults (mean 23.68 years and sixteen uninjured older adults (mean 70.92 years were recruited. Participants with a cSCI produced reach-to-grasp actions which took longer, were slower, and had longer deceleration phases than uninjured participants. These differences were exacerbated during bimanual reach-to-grasp tasks. Maximal grasp aperture was no different between groups, but reached earlier by people with cSCI. Participants with a cSCI were less synchronous than younger and older adults but all groups used the deceleration phase for error correction to end the movement in a synchronous fashion. Overall, this study suggests that after cSCI a level of bimanual coordination is retained. While there seems to be a greater reliance on feedback to produce both the reach to grasp, we observed minimal disruption of the more impaired limb on the less impaired limb. This suggests that bimanual movements should be integrated into therapy.

  15. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. (United States)


    ... cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum engine power, displacement... Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. This section describes...

  16. Enhancement of the jojobyl alcohols and biodiesel production using a renewable catalyst in a pressurized reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Marcos; Avhad, Mangesh R.; Marchetti, Jorge M.; Martínez, Mercedes; Aracil, José


    Highlights: • The reaction time of the process is reduced to 5 h at pressure environment. • Optimum conditions are 140 °C, methanol:oil ratio of 6 and 6% of catalyst percent. • The catalyst crumbles at temperatures and pressures higher than 160 °C and 15 bar. • The kinetic mechanism is the same as the one used at atmospherical pressure. - Abstract: In this paper, the study of the methanolysis of Jojoba oil using CaO derived from mussel shells in a Parr reactor has been conducted through the use of two different mathematical tools: Surface Response Methodology and kinetic modeling. First of all, the factorial design of experiments allowed to determine the influence of the three chosen variables in the process. The three variables studied are the reaction temperature, the methanol:Jojoba oil ratio and the catalyst percent. The variables which have the higher positive effect on the methanolysis of Jojoba oil, in a pressurized environment, are the methanol:oil ratio and the temperature whereas the catalyst percent has a slight negative impact on the process, within the experimental limits. The reaction time was reduced from 10 to 5 h and the Jojoba oil conversion reached a maximum of 96.3% when the Parr reactor reaches 10 bars approximately; which supposes a great advance regarding other studies conducted at atmospheric pressure. Finally, a kinetic model, which includes the assumption for mass transfer limitations on the process, was obtained using the same variables as the design of experiments and it fits the experiments accurately.

  17. Measurement of in-bore side loads and comparison to first maximum yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Carlucci


    Full Text Available In-bore yaw of a projectile in a gun tube has been shown to result in range loss if the yaw is significant. An attempt was made to determine if relationships between in-bore yaw and projectile First Maximum Yaw (FMY were observable. Experiments were conducted in which pressure transducers were mounted near the muzzle of a 155 mm cannon in three sets of four. Each set formed a cruciform pattern to obtain a differential pressure across the projectile. These data were then integrated to form a picture of what the overall pressure distribution was along the side of the projectile. The pressure distribution was used to determine a magnitude and direction of the overturning moment acting on the projectile. This moment and its resulting angular acceleration were then compared to the actual first maximum yaw observed in the test. The degree of correlation was examined using various statistical techniques. Overall uncertainty in the projectile dynamics was between 20% and 40% of the mean values of FMY.

  18. The maximum entropy production and maximum Shannon information entropy in enzyme kinetics (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Markovič, Rene; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš


    We demonstrate that the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) serves as a physical selection principle for the description of the most probable non-equilibrium steady states in simple enzymatic reactions. A theoretical approach is developed, which enables maximization of the density of entropy production with respect to the enzyme rate constants for the enzyme reaction in a steady state. Mass and Gibbs free energy conservations are considered as optimization constraints. In such a way computed optimal enzyme rate constants in a steady state yield also the most uniform probability distribution of the enzyme states. This accounts for the maximal Shannon information entropy. By means of the stability analysis it is also demonstrated that maximal density of entropy production in that enzyme reaction requires flexible enzyme structure, which enables rapid transitions between different enzyme states. These results are supported by an example, in which density of entropy production and Shannon information entropy are numerically maximized for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase.

  19. Solar Maximum Mission Experiment - Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry on the Solar Maximum Mission (United States)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Cheng, C. C.; Woodgate, B. E.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Athay, R. G.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.; Gurman, J. B.; Hyder, C. L.


    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft is described. It is pointed out that the instrument, which operates in the wavelength range 1150-3600 A, has a spatial resolution of 2-3 arcsec and a spectral resolution of 0.02 A FWHM in second order. A Gregorian telescope, with a focal length of 1.8 m, feeds a 1 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometer. A polarimeter comprising rotating Mg F2 waveplates can be inserted behind the spectrometer entrance slit; it permits all four Stokes parameters to be determined. Among the observing modes are rasters, spectral scans, velocity measurements, and polarimetry. Examples of initial observations made since launch are presented.

  20. Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program (United States)

    Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…

  1. Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Change Management--Key Theories to Consider when Extending Reach (United States)

    Barrett, Sharon Kebschull


    As schools, their teachers, and outside facilitators redesign jobs and incorporate technology to extend the reach of excellent teachers to more students and develop an Opportunity Culture for all, choosing the right school models is just one part of the task. The human experience--and experience in education--says that even perfect design will not…

  2. Perceiver as polar planimeter: Direct perception of jumping, reaching, and jump-reaching affordances for the self and others. (United States)

    Thomas, Brandon J; Hawkins, Matthew M; Nalepka, Patrick


    Runeson (Scandanavian Journal of Psychology 18:172-179, 1977) suggested that the polar planimeter might serve as an informative model system of perceptual mechanism. The key aspect of the polar planimeter is that it registers a higher order property of the environment without computational mediation on the basis of lower order properties, detecting task-specific information only. This aspect was posited as a hypothesis for the perception of jumping and reaching affordances for the self and another person. The findings supported this hypothesis. The perception of reaching while jumping significantly differed from an additive combination of jump-without-reaching and reach-without-jumping perception. The results are consistent with Gibson's (The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1966; The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1979) theory of information-that aspects of the environment are specified by patterns in energetic media.

  3. Simulation of Columbia River Floods in the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Serkowski, John A.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.


    Columbia River water elevations and flows in the Hanford Reach affect the environment and facilities along the shoreline, including movement of contaminants in groundwater, fish habitat, and infrastructure subject to flooding. This report describes the hydraulic simulation of hypothetical flood flows using the best available topographic and bathymetric data for the Hanford Reach and the Modular Aquatic Simulation System in 1 Dimension (MASS1) hydrodynamic model. The MASS1 model of the Hanford Reach was previously calibrated to field measurements of water surface elevations. The current model setup can be used for other studies of flow, water levels, and temperature in the Reach. The existing MASS1 channel geometry and roughness and other model configuration inputs for the Hanford Reach were used for this study, and previous calibration and validation results for the model are reprinted here for reference. The flood flows for this study were simulated by setting constant flow rates obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers, and a constant water level at McNary Dam, and then running the model to steady state. The discharge levels simulated were all low-probability events; for example, a 100-year flood is one that would occur on average every 100 years, or put another way, in any given year there is a 1% chance that a discharge of that level or higher will occur. The simulated floods and their corresponding Columbia River discharges were 100-year (445,000 cfs), 500-year (520,000 cfs), and the USACE-defined Standard Project Flood (960,000 cfs). The resulting water levels from the steady-state floods can be viewed as “worst case” outcomes for the respective discharge levels. The MASS1 output for water surface elevations was converted to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 and projected across the channel and land surface to enable mapping of the floodplain for each scenario. Floodplain maps show that for

  4. Reach-to-grasp movement as a minimization process. (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Feldman, Anatol G


    It is known that hand transport and grasping are functionally different but spatially coordinated components of reach-to-grasp (RTG) movements. As an extension of this notion, we suggested that body segments involved in RTG movements are controlled as a coherent ensemble by a global minimization process associated with the necessity for the hand to reach the motor goal. Different RTG components emerge following this process without pre-programming. Specifically, the minimization process may result from the tendency of neuromuscular elements to diminish the spatial gap between the actual arm-hand configuration and its virtual (referent) configuration specified by the brain. The referent configuration is specified depending on the object shape, localization, and orientation. Since the minimization process is gradual, it can be interrupted and resumed following mechanical perturbations, at any phase during RTG movements, including hand closure. To test this prediction of the minimization hypothesis, we asked subjects to reach and grasp a cube placed within the reach of the arm. Vision was prevented during movement until the hand returned to its initial position. As predicted, by arresting wrist motion at different points of hand transport in randomly selected trials, it was possible to halt changes in hand aperture at any phase, not only during hand opening but also during hand closure. Aperture changes resumed soon after the wrist was released. Another test of the minimization hypothesis was made in RTG movements to an object placed beyond the reach of the arm. It has previously been shown (Rossi et al. in J Physiol 538:659-671, 2002) that in such movements, the trunk motion begins to contribute to hand transport only after a critical phase when the shifts in the referent arm configuration have finished (at about the time when hand velocity is maximal). The minimization rule suggests that when the virtual contribution of the arm to hand transport is completed

  5. Assessment of wheel propeller contact pressure upon soil with use of tire universal performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Godzhaev


    Full Text Available A maximum contact pressure is a key parameter characterizing a level of ecological impact of tractor propellers on the soil. The maximum pressure upon the soil varies with internal pressure in tires and vertical load of a wheel. An universal tire performance can be used at an assessment of change of contact pressure of a wheel propeller upon the soil. The authors offered a technique of definition and regulation of the maximum contact pressure of the wheel propeller upon the basic basis. This technique allows to set parameters for monitoring systems and regulation of the maximum pressure upon the soil by measurement of a tire deflection and change of pressure in tires. At statistical tests for determination of the maximum contact pressure it is necessary to consider the universal performance of the tire nomographically. This nomogram allows to consider visually influence of loading and internal pressure in the tire on a size of the maximum contact pressure. An internal pressure decrease in the tire makes it possible to reduce the maximum pressure upon the soil at constant loading. The authors investigated universal performances of the tires in the range of change of internal air pressure from 160 to 90 kPas. Change of internal pressure from 150 to 100 kPas reduce for the tire 15,5R38 the maximum contact pressure upon 13 kPas (9,6 percent: from 135 to 122 kPas. That corresponds to the admissible level of pressure upon the soil at its humidity in a layer of 0-30 cm: 0,5-0,6 minimum moisture-holding capacity during the spring period and 0,6-0,7 minimum moisture-holding capacity during the autumn period. In case of use of the tire 16,9R38 the maximum pressure upon the soil decreases from 84 to 75 kPas, that is by 10,4 percent.

  6. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of a high-temperature printed circuit heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Minghui; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Skavdahl, Isaac; Utgikar, Vivek; Sabharwall, Piyush


    Highlights: • Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of a high-temperature printed circuit heat exchanger have been obtained. • Comparisons of experimental data and available correlations have been performed. • New Fanning friction factor and heat transfer correlations for the test PCHE are developed. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is one of the leading intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) candidates to be employed in the very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) due to its capability for high-temperature, high-pressure applications. In the current study, a reduced-scale zigzag-channel PCHE was fabricated using Alloy 617 plates for the heat exchanger core and Alloy 800H pipes for the headers. The pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the PCHE were investigated experimentally in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF) at The Ohio State University. The PCHE helium inlet temperatures and pressures were varied up to 464 °C/2.7 MPa for the cold side and 802 °C/2.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the maximum helium mass flow rates on both sides of the PCHE reached 39 kg/h. The corresponding maximum channel Reynolds number was approximately 3558, covering the laminar flow and laminar-to-turbulent flow transition regimes. New pressure drop and heat transfer correlations for the current zigzag channels with rounded bends were developed based on the experimental data. Comparisons between the experimental data and the results obtained from the available PCHE and straight circular pipe correlations were conducted. Compared to the heat transfer performance in straight circular pipes, the zigzag channels provided little advantage in the laminar flow regime but significant advantage near the transition flow regime.

  7. Viscosity of komatiite liquid at high pressure and temperature (United States)

    O Dwyer, L.; Lesher, C. E.; Wang, Y.


    The viscosities of komatiite liquids at high pressures and temperatures are being investigated by the in-situ falling sphere technique, using the T-25 multianvil apparatus at the GSECARS 13 ID-D beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, ANL. The refractory and fluid nature of komatiite and other ultramafic liquids relevant to the Earth's deep interior, presents unique challenges for this approach. To reach superliquidus temperatures we use a double reservoir configuration, where marker spheres are placed at the top of both a main melt reservoir and an overlying reservoir containing a more refractory composition. Using this approach, we have successfully measured the viscosity of a komatiite from Gorgona Island (GOR-94-29; MgO - 17.8 wt.%; NBO/T = 1.6) up to 6 GPa and 1900 K. Under isothermal conditions, viscosity increases with pressure, consistent with the depolymerized nature of the komatiite. At 1900 K, viscosity increases from 1.5 (+- 0.3) Pa s at 3.5 GPa to 3.4 (+- 0.3) Pa s at 6 GPa, corresponding to an activation volume of 2.2 cm3/mol. At high pressures, the viscosities of Gorgona Island komatiite melt are an order of magnitude higher than those measured by Liebske et al. (2005, EPSL, v. 240) for peridotite melt (MgO 37.1 wt.%; NBO/T = 2.5), and similar in magnitude to molten diopside (NBO/T = 2) (Reid et al. 2003, PEPI, v. 139). The positive pressure dependence is consistent with the reduction in interatomic space diminishing the free volume of the liquid as it is compressed. Above 6 GPa the free volume reduction may become less important with the production of high-coordinated network formers, as attributed to the reversal of the pressure dependence of viscosity for peridotite melt at ~8.5 GPa and diopside melt at ~10 GPa. Experiments at higher pressures are underway to determine if a similar viscosity maximum occurs for komatiite melt and whether its pressure is greater than 10 GPa, as suggested by the data for peridotite and diopside melts.

  8. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio


    in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we......REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported...... present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo...

  9. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, D.S.


    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  10. Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.


    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  11. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.


    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  12. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations


    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror


    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging...

  13. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.


    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  14. The processing of visual and auditory information for reaching movements. (United States)

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Welsh, Timothy N; Tremblay, Luc


    Presenting target and non-target information in different modalities influences target localization if the non-target is within the spatiotemporal limits of perceptual integration. When using auditory and visual stimuli, the influence of a visual non-target on auditory target localization is greater than the reverse. It is not known, however, whether or how such perceptual effects extend to goal-directed behaviours. To gain insight into how audio-visual stimuli are integrated for motor tasks, the kinematics of reaching movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a non-target in the other modality were examined. When present, the simultaneously presented non-target could be spatially coincident, to the left, or to the right of the target. Results revealed that auditory non-targets did not influence reaching trajectories towards a visual target, whereas visual non-targets influenced trajectories towards an auditory target. Interestingly, the biases induced by visual non-targets were present early in the trajectory and persisted until movement end. Subsequent experimentation indicated that the magnitude of the biases was equivalent whether participants performed a perceptual or motor task, whereas variability was greater for the motor versus the perceptual tasks. We propose that visually induced trajectory biases were driven by the perceived mislocation of the auditory target, which in turn affected both the movement plan and subsequent control of the movement. Such findings provide further evidence of the dominant role visual information processing plays in encoding spatial locations as well as planning and executing reaching action, even when reaching towards auditory targets.

  15. Taking family planning services to hard-to-reach populations. (United States)

    Donovan, P


    Interviews were conducted in 1995 among 100 US family planning program personnel who serve hard-to-reach populations, such as drug abusers, prisoners, the disabled, homeless persons, and non-English speaking minorities. Findings indicate that a range of services is available for hard-to-reach groups. Most family planning agencies focus on drug abusers because of the severity of HIV infections and the availability of funding. This article describes the activities of various agencies in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts that serve substance abuse centers with family planning services. One recommendation for a service provider is to present services in an environment where it is safe to talk about a person's needs. One other program offered personal greetings upon arrival and the continuity of having a familiar face to oversee all reproductive and health needs. Programs for prisoners ranged from basic sex education classes to comprehensive reproductive health care. Some prisons offered individual counseling. Some programs were presented in juvenile offender facilities. Outreach to the homeless involved services at homeless shelters, outreach workers who recruited women into traditional family planning clinics, and establishment of nontraditional sites for the homeless and other hard-to-reach persons. One provider's suggestion was to offer services where high-risk women already go for other services. Most services to the disabled target the developmentally disabled rather than the physically disabled. Experience has shown that many professionals working with the disabled do not recognize their clients' sexual needs. Other hard-to-reach groups include women in housing projects and shelters for battered women, welfare applicants, and sex workers. Key to service provision is creating trust, overcoming language and cultural differences, and subsidizing the cost of care.

  16. International reach of tobacco marketing among young children. (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Cohen, Joanna E


    Prosmoking messages, delivered through marketing and the media, can reach very young children and influence attitudes and behaviors around smoking. This study examined the reach of tobacco marketing to 5 and 6 year olds in 6 low- and middle-income countries. Researchers worked one-on-one with 5 and 6 year olds in Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Russia (N = 2423). The children were asked to match logos with pictures of products, including 8 logos for cigarette brands. Analyses examined, overall and by country, whether gender, age, location, household use of tobacco, and knowledge of media characters were associated with awareness of cigarette brand logos. Additional analyses considered the relationship between cigarette brand logo awareness and intentions to smoke. Overall, 68% of 5 and 6 year olds could identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo, ranging from 50% in Russia to 86% in China. Across countries, being slightly older and having someone in the household who used tobacco, were significantly associated with greater odds of being able to identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo. The majority of young children from low- and middle-income countries are familiar with cigarette brands. This study's findings suggest that more effective measures are needed to restrict the reach of tobacco marketing.

  17. The German REACH Congress 2016: a workshop report. (United States)

    Reihlen, Antonia; Jepsen, Dirk; Broschinski, Lutz; Luch, Andreas; Schulte, Agnes


    In October 2016, the German REACH Congress was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. Here, the associated improvement made in the fields of consumer protection and the progress in and experiences gained from the implementation of the authorisation procedure were discussed. Several speakers from EU institutions, German authorities, industry, and civil society organisations were invited to present their views. There was a shared consensus that REACH contributes to the advancement of consumer protection against chemical risks, mainly because more and higher quality information on substance-related hazards and potential exposures becomes available. In addition, risk management measures, particularly regarding restrictions on uses, scale down consumer exposures to chemicals. Opportunities for improvements identified at the congress include the quality of registration dossiers and the management of and communication on substances of very high concern (SVHC) that may be present in consumer articles. Although regarded as being in an early implementation phase, the authorisation process was generally found to be operational and progressing well. Criticism was expressed with regard to the consistency of authorisation decisions and the costs and uncertainties related to authorisation applications. Consumer protection legislation consists of several legal provisions which are interlinked. The congress participants agreed that REACH is an important element of this legal framework as it enhances and complements other legal provisions.

  18. Do older adults perceive postural constraints for reach estimation? (United States)

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl


    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Recent evidence indicates that older persons have difficulty mentally representing intended movements. Furthermore, in an estimation of reach paradigm using motor imagery, a form of mental representation, older persons significantly overestimated their ability compared with young adults. The authors tested the notion that older adults may also have difficulty perceiving the postural constraints associated with reach estimation. The authors compared young (Mage = 22 years) and older (Mage = 67) adults on reach estimation while seated and in a more postural demanding standing and leaning forward position. The expectation was a significant postural effect with the standing condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Whereas there was no difference between groups in the seated condition (both overestimated), older adults underestimated whereas the younger group once again overestimated in the standing condition. From one perspective, these results show that older adults do perceive postural constraints in light of their own physical capabilities. That is, that group perceived greater postural demands with the standing posture and elected to program a more conservative strategy, resulting in underestimation.

  19. Distractor interference during a choice limb reaching task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ray

    Full Text Available According to action-centered models of attention, the patterns of distractor interference that emerge in selective reaching tasks are related to the time and effort required to resolve a race for activation between competing target and non-target response producing processes. Previous studies have only used unimanual aiming tasks and, as such, only examined the effects of competition that occurs within a limb. The results of studies using unimanual aiming movements often reveal an "ipsilateral effect"--distractors on the same side of space as the effector cause greater interference than distractors on the opposite side of space. The cost of the competition when response selection is between the limbs has yet to be addressed. Participants in the present study executed reaching movements to 1 of 4 (2 left, 2 right possible target locations with and without a distractor. Participants made ipsilateral reaches (left hand to left targets, right hand to right targets. In contrast to studies using unimanual aiming movements, a "contralateral effect" was observed; distractors affording responses for the other hand (in contralateral space caused more interference than distractors affording responses for the same hand. The findings from the present research demonstrate that when certain portions of response planning must be resolved prior to response initiation, distractors that code for that dimension cause the greatest interference.

  20. Why and how to make a REACH registration of combustion ash; Moejligheter vid REACH-registrering av energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevgren, Linnea; Wik, Ola


    The new chemical regulation, REACH (1997/2006/EC), Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals, took effect the 1st of June 2007. The background to this report was the introduction of REACH and the difficulties to understand the implications for ash. The most important consequence of REACH is that all chemical substances that are manufactured, handled and used above one tonne per annum per legal entity shall be registered according to this regulation. The registration includes specifying the chemical, physical, toxicity and ecotoxicity properties of the substance and risk assessing the identified areas of use. The report describes the use of ash in connection to the waste legislation and its planned end-of-waste-criteria, the chemical legislation and the Construction Products Directive. The target audience of this report is companies producing ashes and having a use or seeing a use for its ash. The report describes how to make a REACH registration of ash independent if a company did or did not pre-register ash during 2008. It describes how to change from one ash registration into another if the pre-registration was done for one type of ash but the company changes opinion during the sameness check, i.e. changing SIEF (Appendix A). Taking part in REACH registration projects during 2009-2010 can be advantageous since knowledge and financing are shared. Ash can be REACH registered also in the future but it is important to know that the registration have to be done prior the production and marketing starts. If ash is consider to be a waste the handling is covered by the community and national waste legislation. In Sweden ashes are by and large being regarded as waste, and recycling is risk assessed and permits are given case by case. End-of-waste criteria for different waste material are being elaborated within the EU. Such criteria will among other details cover chemical safety. When a material fulfils the end-of-waste criteria such material

  1. An electromagnetism-like method for the maximum set splitting problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratica Jozef


    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetism-like approach (EM for solving the maximum set splitting problem (MSSP is applied. Hybrid approach consisting of the movement based on the attraction-repulsion mechanisms combined with the proposed scaling technique directs EM to promising search regions. Fast implementation of the local search procedure additionally improves the efficiency of overall EM system. The performance of the proposed EM approach is evaluated on two classes of instances from the literature: minimum hitting set and Steiner triple systems. The results show, except in one case, that EM reaches optimal solutions up to 500 elements and 50000 subsets on minimum hitting set instances. It also reaches all optimal/best-known solutions for Steiner triple systems.

  2. Access to expert stroke care with telemedicine: REACH MUSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Swanson Kazley


    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and rtPA can significantly reduce the long-term impact of acute ischemic stroke (AIS if given within 3 hours of symptom onset. South Carolina is located in the stroke belt and has a high rate of stroke and stroke mortality. Many small rural SC hospitals do not maintain the expertise needed to treat AIS patients with rtPA. MUSC is an academic medical center using REACH MUSC telemedicine to deliver stroke care to 15 hospitals in the state, increasing the likelihood of timely treatment with rtPA. The purpose of this study is to determine the increase in access to rtPA through the use of telemedicine for AIS in the general population and in specific segments of the population based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality.We used a retrospective cross-sectional design examining Census data from 2000 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS analysis to identify South Carolina residents that live within 30 or 60 minutes of a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC site. We include all South Carolina citizens in our analysis and specifically examine the population’s age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality. Our sample includes 4,012,012 South Carolinians. The main measure is access to expert stroke care at a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC hospital within 30 or 60 minutes. We find that without REACH MUSC, only 38% of the population has potential access to expert stroke care in SC within sixty minutes given that most PSCs will maintain expert stroke coverage. REACH MUSC allows 76% of the population to be within sixty minutes of expert stroke care, and 43% of the population to be within 30 minute drive time of expert stroke care. These increases in access are especially significant for groups that have faced disparities in care and high rates of AIS. The use of telemedicine can

  3. Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controller using Arduino (United States)

    Abdelilah, B.; Mouna, A.; KouiderM’Sirdi, N.; El Hossain, A.


    the platform Arduino with a number of sensors standard can be used as components of an electronic system for acquiring measures and controls. This paper presents the design of a low-cost and effective solar charge controller. This system includes several elements such as the solar panel converter DC/DC, battery, circuit MPPT using Microcontroller, sensors, and the MPPT algorithm. The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) algorithm has been implemented using an Arduino Nano with the preferred program. The voltage and current of the Panel are taken where the program implemented will work and using this algorithm that MPP will be reached. This paper provides details on the solar charge control device at the maximum power point. The results include the change of the duty cycle with the change in load and thus mean the variation of the buck converter output voltage and current controlled by the MPPT algorithm.

  4. Anomalous Capacitance Maximum of the Glassy Carbon-Ionic Liquid Interface through Dilution with Organic Solvents. (United States)

    Bozym, David J; Uralcan, Betül; Limmer, David T; Pope, Michael A; Szamreta, Nicholas J; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Aksay, Ilhan A


    We use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to measure the effect of diluting a hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid with miscible organic solvents on the differential capacitance of the glassy carbon-electrolyte interface. We show that the minimum differential capacitance increases with dilution and reaches a maximum value at ionic liquid contents near 5-10 mol% (i.e., ∼1 M). We provide evidence that mixtures with 1,2-dichloroethane, a low-dielectric constant solvent, yield the largest gains in capacitance near the open circuit potential when compared against two traditional solvents, acetonitrile and propylene carbonate. To provide a fundamental basis for these observations, we use a coarse-grained model to relate structural variations at the double layer to the occurrence of the maximum. Our results reveal the potential for the enhancement of double-layer capacitance through dilution.

  5. Operation of gas electron multiplier (GEM) with propane gas at low pressure and comparison with tissue-equivalent gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nardo, L., E-mail: [University of Padova, Physics and Astronomy Department and PD-INFN, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Farahmand, M., E-mail: [Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)


    A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 µm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a {sup 244}Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×10{sup 3} has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.

  6. Benefits of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) concept in aquatic toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Boegi, Christian; Winter, Matthew J.; Owens, J. Willie


    There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic organisms and the

  7. The maximum energy of cosmic rays gained in the jet of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascau, Oana; Biermann, Peter


    In this paper we will present the results of the calculation of maximum energy gained by a particle in the acceleration process done by the black hole mechanism. We are using here the model of P. Biermann and H. Falcke to determine if and how the black holes contribute to the cosmic rays that reach the Earth. The conclusion is that at the highest energy only M87 contributes, as has been claimed for many years. Secondly, at lower energy, Cen A may indeed take over as second most important source, again as expected for some time. (authors)

  8. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  9. Determination of the optimum pressure for neutron yield with d2, in the PF facility dena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V.; Khorram, C.; Sobhanian, S.; Hamzeh Fafreshi, M. A.


    Using physical model, which describes the dynamics of plasma in the Filipov type plasma focus, we have simulated the pinch current for different voltages and pressures. The results show that for a specific voltage, there is an optimum pressure for which the pinch current has maximum value. A comparison between the simulated and the experimental data from dena shows that the maximum values of pinch current are obtained at the same pressure for which the maximum neutron yield is observed

  10. Microprocessor Controlled Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiya, J. D.; Tahirou, G.


    This paper presents a microprocessor controlled maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic module. Input current and voltage are measured and multiplied within the microprocessor, which contains an algorithm to seek the maximum power point. The duly cycle of the DC-DC converter, at which the maximum power occurs is obtained, noted and adjusted. The microprocessor constantly seeks for improvement of obtained power by varying the duty cycle

  11. Phase Behavior of Three PBX Elastomers in High-Pressure Chlorodifluoromethane (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Chul


    The phase equilibrium behavior data are presented for three kinds of commercial polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) elastomers in chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC22). Levapren^{{registered }} ethylene- co-vinyl acetate (LP-EVA), HyTemp^{{registered }} alkyl acrylate copolymer (HT-ACM), and Viton^{{registered }} fluoroelastomer (VT-FE) were used as the PBX elastomers. For each elastomer + HCFC22 system, the cloud point (CP) and/or bubble point (BP) pressures were measured while varying the temperature and elastomer composition using a phase equilibrium apparatus fitted with a variable-volume view cell. The elastomers examined in this study indicated a lower critical solution temperature phase behavior in the HCFC22 solvent. LP-EVA showed the CPs at temperatures of 323 K to 343 K and at pressures of 3 MPa to 10 MPa, whereas HT-ACM showed the CPs at conditions between 338 K and 363 K and between 4 MPa and 12 MPa. For the LP-EVA and HT-ACM elastomers, the BP behavior was observed at temperatures below about 323 K. For the VT-FE + HCFC22 system, only the CP behavior was observed at temperatures between 323 K and 353 K and at pressures between 6 MPa and 21 MPa. As the elastomer composition increased, the CP pressure increased, reached a maximum value at a specific elastomer composition, and then remained almost constant.

  12. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods (United States)

    Tamura, Koichiro; Peterson, Daniel; Peterson, Nicholas; Stecher, Glen; Nei, Masatoshi; Kumar, Sudhir


    Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from PMID:21546353

  13. Rejection index for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.B.; Meneley, D.


    The objective of the present study was to establish a set of criteria (or Rejection Index) which could be used to decide whether a zirconium-2 1/2 w/o niobium pressure tube in a CANDU reactor should be removed from service due to in-service degradation. A critique of key issues associated with establishing a realistic rejection index was prepared. Areas of uncertainty in available information were identified and recommendations for further analysis and laboratory testing made. A Rejection Index based on the following limits has been recommended: 1) Limits related to design intent and normal operation: any garter spring must remain within the tolerance band specified for its design location; the annulus gas system must normally be operated in a circulating mode with a procedure in place for purging to prevent accumulation of deuterium. It must remain sensitive to leaks into any part of the systems; and pressure tube dimensions and distortions must be limited to maintain the fuel channels within the original design intent; 2) Limits related to defect tolerance: adequate time margins between occurrence of a leaking crack and unstable failure must be demonstrated for all fuel channels; long lap-type flaws are unacceptable; crack-like defects of any size are unacceptable; and score marks, frat marks and other defects with contoured profiles must fall below certain depth, length and stress intensity limits; and 3) Limits related to property degradation: at operating temperature each pressure tube must be demonstrated to have a critical length in excess of a stipulated value; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any pressure tube should not exceed a limit which should be defined taking into account the known history of that tube; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any rolled joint should not exceed a limit which is presently recommended as 200 ppm equivalent hydrogen; and the maximum diametral creep strain should be limited to less than 5%

  14. Low Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  15. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  16. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  18. Radiation-resistant pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasov, Sh.M.; Kerimova, T.I.


    Full text : The sensitive element of vibrofrequency tensor converter (VTC) is an electromechanical resonator of string type with electrostatic excitation of longitudinal mechanical vibrations. The string is made from tensosensitive thread-like monocrystal n-Ge1-x Six (length 1-5 mm, diameter 8-12 mcm) with current outlet and strictly fixed by ends at plate or deformable surface (in elastic element) at 50 mcm apartheid. With increasing Si atomic percent in n-Ge1-x Six the converter tens sensitivity increases. There has been shown the scheme of pressure transducer which contains monocrystalline silicon membrane and string tens converter from thread-like monocrystal Ge-Si. Using method, when crystal position on membrane while it deforms by pressure, corresponds to free (uptight) state, allowed to obtain the maximum sensitivity in measurement of pressure fluctuation. The transducers of absolute and pressure differential of this type can be used in automated systems of life activity. The high sensitivity of string transducers to pressure exceeding 100 hertz/mm (water column) permits to use them in devices for measuring gas concentration. The combination of optical and deformation methods of measurements forms the basis of their operation. The pressure change occurs due to the fact that gas molecules absorbing the quanta of incident light, become at excited state and then excitation energy of their vibrational-rotatory degrees of freedom converts to the energy of translational motion of molecules, i.e. to heat appropriate to pressure increase. Using these tens converters of high pressure one can prevent the possible accidents on oil pipe-like Baku-Tibilisi-Ceyhan

  19. LQ optimal and reaching law-based sliding modes for inventory management systems (United States)

    Ignaciuk, Przemysław; Bartoszewicz, Andrzej


    In this article, the theory of discrete sliding-mode control is used to design new supply strategies for periodic-review inventory systems. In the considered systems, the stock used to fulfil an unknown, time-varying demand can be replenished from a single supply source or from multiple suppliers procuring orders with different delays. The proposed strategies guarantee that demand is always entirely satisfied from the on-hand stock (yielding the maximum service level), and the warehouse capacity is not exceeded (which eliminates the cost of emergency storage). In contrast to the classical, stochastic approaches, in this article, we focus on optimising the inventory system dynamics. The parameters of the first control strategy are selected by minimising a quadratic cost functional. Next, it is shown how the system dynamical performance can be improved by applying the concept of a reaching law with the appropriately adjusted reaching phase. The stable, nonoscillatory behaviour of the closed-loop system is demonstrated and the properties of the designed controllers are discussed and strictly proved.

  20. Research on axial total pressure distributions of sonic steam jet in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xinzhuang; Li Wenjun; Yan Junjie


    The axial total pressure distributions of sonic steam jet in subcooled water were experimentally investigated for three different nozzle diameters (6.0 mm, 8.0 mm and 10.0 mm). The inlet steam pressure, and pool subcooling subcooled water temperature were in the range of 0.2-0.6 MPa and 420-860 ℃, respectively. The effect of steam pressure, subcooling water temperature and nozzle size on the axial pressure distributions were obtained, and also the characteristics of the maximum pressure and its position were studied. The results indicated that the characteristics of the maximum pressure were influenced by the nozzle size for low steam pressure, but the influence could be ignored for high steam pressure. Moreover, a correlation was given to correlate the position of the maximum pressure based on steam pressure and subcooling water temperature, and the discrepancies of predictions and experiments are within ±15%. (authors)

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.D.; Poston, T.M.


    We summarized radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus from the Columbia River during a period when several plutonium-production reactors were operating at the Hanford Site in Washington State and compared these values to those measured several years after reactor shutdown. Studies conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River during 1953-1955 indicated that high concentrations of radionuclides (as total beta) were present in some internal organs on the external surface of white sturgeons. Average concentrations were about 1,480 Bq/kg for liver and kidney and exceeded 2,200 Bq/kg for fins and scutes. The principal radionuclides in the tissues of white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach during 1963-1967, the peak reactor operation interval, were 32 P, 65 Zn, and 51 Cr. Average concentrations of 32 P in muscle ranged from 925 to 2,109 Bq/kg and were typically two to seven times greater than 65 Zn. Average concentrations of radionuclides were usually in the order of gut contents much-gt carcass > muscle. Studies from 1989 to 1990 showed that radionuclide concentrations had decreased dramatically in white sturgeon tissue since the time of reactor operation. Maximum concentrations for artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 60 Co, 137 Cs) in muscle and cartilage of white sturgeons in the Columbia River had declined to less than 4 Bq/kg. Formerly abundant radionuclides, including 32 P, 65 Zn, and 51 Cr, could not be detected in recent tissue samples. Further, radionuclide tissue burden in populations of sturgeons from the Hanford Reach and the upstream or downstream reference locations did not differ significantly. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Reaching Consensus on Essential Biomedical Science Learning Objectives in a Dental Curriculum. (United States)

    Best, Leandra; Walton, Joanne N; Walker, Judith; von Bergmann, HsingChi


    This article describes how the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry reached consensus on essential basic biomedical science objectives for DMD students and applied the information to the renewal of its DMD curriculum. The Delphi Method was used to build consensus among dental faculty members and students regarding the relevance of over 1,500 existing biomedical science objectives. Volunteer panels of at least three faculty members (a basic scientist, a general dentist, and a dental specialist) and a fourth-year dental student were formed for each of 13 biomedical courses in the first two years of the program. Panel members worked independently and anonymously, rating each course objective as "need to know," "nice to know," "irrelevant," or "don't know." Panel members were advised after each round which objectives had not yet achieved a 75% consensus and were asked to reconsider their ratings. After a maximum of three rounds to reach consensus, a second group of faculty experts reviewed and refined the results to establish the biomedical science objectives for the renewed curriculum. There was consensus on 46% of the learning objectives after round one, 80% after round two, and 95% after round three. The second expert group addressed any remaining objectives as part of its review process. Only 47% of previous biomedical science course objectives were judged to be essential or "need to know" for the general dentist. The consensus reached by participants in the Delphi Method panels and a second group of faculty experts led to a streamlined, better integrated DMD curriculum to prepare graduates for future practice.

  3. Mechanisms of Short-Term Training-Induced Reaching Improvement in Severely Hemiparetic Stroke Patients: A TMS Study (United States)

    Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Morton, Susanne M.; Perez, Monica A.; Cohen, Leonardo G.


    Background The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying improved upper-extremity motor skills have been partially investigated in patients with good motor recovery but are poorly understood in more impaired individuals, the majority of stroke survivors. Objective The authors studied changes in primary motor cortex (M1) excitability (motor evoked potentials [MEPs], contralateral and ipsilateral silent periods [CSPs and ISPs] using transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]) associated with training-induced reaching improvement in stroke patients with severe arm paresis (n = 11; Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer score (F-M) = 27 ± 6). Methods All patients underwent a single session of reaching training focused on moving the affected hand from a resting site to a target placed at 80% of maximum forward reaching amplitude in response to a visual “GO” cue. Triceps contribute primarily as agonist and biceps primarily as antagonist to the trained forward reaching movement. Response times were recorded for each reaching movement. Results Preceding training (baseline), greater interhemispheric inhibition (measured by ISP) in the affected triceps muscle, reflecting inhibition from the nonlesioned to the lesioned M1, was observed in patients with lower F-M scores (more severe motor impairment). Training-induced improvements in reaching were greater in patients with slower response times at baseline. Increased MEP amplitudes and decreased ISPs and CSPs were observed in the affected triceps but not in the biceps muscle after training. Conclusion These results indicate that along with training-induced motor improvements, training-specific modulation of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric mechanisms occurs after reaching practice in chronic stroke patients with substantial arm impairment. PMID:21343522

  4. Vestibular feedback maintains reaching accuracy during body movement (United States)

    Reynolds, Raymond F.


    Key points Reaching movements can be perturbed by vestibular input, but the function of this response is unclear.Here, we applied galvanic vestibular stimulation concurrently with real body movement while subjects maintained arm position either fixed in space or fixed with respect to their body.During the fixed‐in‐space conditions, galvanic vestibular stimulation caused large changes in arm trajectory consistent with a compensatory response to maintain upper‐limb accuracy in the face of body movement.Galvanic vestibular stimulation responses were absent during the body‐fixed task, demonstrating task dependency in vestibular control of the upper limb.The results suggest that the function of vestibular‐evoked arm movements is to maintain the accuracy of the upper limb during unpredictable body movement, but only when reaching in an earth‐fixed reference frame. Abstract When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism that could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should operate only when the arm is being controlled in an earth‐fixed rather than a body‐fixed reference frame. In the latter case, compensation would be unnecessary and even deleterious. To test this hypothesis, subjects were gently rotated in a chair while being asked to maintain their outstretched arm pointing towards either earth‐fixed or body‐fixed memorized targets. Galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied concurrently during rotation to isolate the influence of vestibular input, uncontaminated by inertial factors. During the earth‐fixed task, galvanic vestibular stimulation produced large polarity‐dependent corrections in arm

  5. Optical fiber reach extended FMCW radar for remote respiratory tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José


    Wireless monitoring of human vital signs such as breathing rate is a nonintrusive alternative to contemporary solutions relying on physical contact. To ease the installment, fiber optical transmission is used to extend the reach from the transmitter and receiver circuitry to the antenna subsystem....... In this paper, a frequency modulated carrier wave radar, operating at 25.7–26.6 GHz and utilizing optical fiber extension, was experimentally demonstrated to accurately recover the breathing rate of a human placed 1 m away from the radar antennas....

  6. Family (oikos Evangelism for reaching forward caste Hindus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DW Fowlkes


    Full Text Available This article acknowledges the need for Church Planting Movements among the unreached peoples of India. Of particular concern to this study is the application of Church Planting Movement strategy to forward caste Hindus of India. It is shown that evangelizing households (family or �oikos� evangelism is a New Testament strategy and the most appropriate strategy for reaching forward caste Hindus. It is concluded that Christian disciples remaining within Hindu culture and familial systems hold the potential for the most indigenous approach to evangelizing forward caste Hindus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa González Mendoza


    Full Text Available The massive growth of Internet and all the possibilities that it offers, have made us beings of instant gratification. The need to know, to be informed, and to communicate at all times, stands above many other things, and rules our daily life. Tools like Twitter provide the citizen a way in which they can express their ideas, either to be heard or to make a change even in the political atmosphere. This article searches to determine the influence and the reach of Twitter in the political activism of a country.

  8. Interaction torque contributes to planar reaching at slow speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshi Fumihiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background How the central nervous system (CNS organizes the joint dynamics for multi-joint movement is a complex problem, because of the passive interaction among segmental movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that the CNS predictively compensates for interaction torque (INT which is arising from the movement of the adjacent joints. However, most of these studies have mainly examined quick movements, presumably because the current belief is that the effects of INT are not significant at slow speeds. The functional contribution of INT for multijoint movements performed in various speeds is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of INT to a planer reaching in a wide range of motion speeds for healthy subjects. Methods Subjects performed reaching movements toward five targets under three different speed conditions. Joint position data were recorded using a 3-D motion analysis device (50 Hz. Torque components, muscle torque (MUS, interaction torque (INT, gravity torque (G, and net torque (NET were calculated by solving the dynamic equations for the shoulder and elbow. NET at a joint which produces the joint kinematics will be an algebraic sum of torque components; NET = MUS - G - INT. Dynamic muscle torque (DMUS = MUS-G was also calculated. Contributions of INT impulse and DMUS impulse to NET impulse were examined. Results The relative contribution of INT to NET was not dependent on speed for both joints at every target. INT was additive (same direction to DMUS at the shoulder joint, while in the elbow DMUS counteracted (opposed to INT. The trajectory of reach was linear and two-joint movements were coordinated with a specific combination at each target, regardless of motion speed. However, DMUS at the elbow was opposed to the direction of elbow movement, and its magnitude varied from trial to trial in order to compensate for the variability of INT. Conclusion Interaction torque was important at

  9. International Alliance of Green Hotels to Reach Sustainable Competitive Advantages


    Hufei Ge; Silu Chen; Yujie Chen


    Under increasing environmental pressure, hotel firms need to improve their ability to access international alliances while maintaining good performance for sustainable development. This paper uses survey data from 784 hotels running at different levels of service in China to test the hypothesis in an integrated analytical model, and the findings show that the impact of international alliances varies with different levels of green hotels. Despite operating in the same sector, hotels running at...

  10. Giant Overlap between the Magnetic and Superconducting Phases of CeAu_{2}Si_{2} under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ren


    Full Text Available High pressure provides a powerful means for exploring unconventional superconductivity which appears mostly on the border of magnetism. Here, we report the discovery of pressure-induced heavy-fermion superconductivity up to 2.5 K in the antiferromanget CeAu_{2}Si_{2} (T_{N}≈10  K. Remarkably, the magnetic and superconducting phases are found to overlap across an unprecedentedly wide pressure interval from 11.8 to 22.3 GPa. Moreover, both the bulk T_{c} and T_{M} are strongly enhanced when increasing the pressure from 16.7 to 20.2 GPa. T_{c} reaches a maximum at a pressure slightly below p_{c}≈22.5  GPa, at which magnetic order disappears. Furthermore, the scaling behavior of the resistivity provides evidence for a continuous delocalization of the Ce 4f electrons associated with a critical end point lying just above p_{c}. We show that the maximum T_{c} of CeAu_{2}Si_{2} actually occurs at almost the same unit-cell volume as that of CeCu_{2}Si_{2} and CeCu_{2}Ge_{2}, and when the Kondo and crystal-field splitting energies become comparable. Dynamical mean-filed theory calculations suggest that the peculiar behavior in pressurized CeAu_{2}Si_{2} might be related to its Ce-4f orbital occupancy. Our results not only provide a unique example of the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism, but also underline the role of orbital physics in understanding Ce-based heavy-fermion systems.

  11. 78 FR 49370 - Inflation Adjustment of Maximum Forfeiture Penalties (United States)


    ... ``civil monetary penalties provided by law'' at least once every four years. DATES: Effective September 13... increases the maximum civil monetary forfeiture penalties available to the Commission under its rules... maximum civil penalties established in that section to account for inflation since the last adjustment to...

  12. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges. (United States)


    ..., commodity rate classification, quantity, vessel flag category (U.S.-or foreign-flag), choice of ports, and... the United States. (2) Maximum charter rates. (i) USAID will not finance ocean freight under any... owner(s). (4) Maximum liner rates. USAID will not finance ocean freight for a cargo liner shipment at a...

  13. Maximum penetration level of distributed generation without violating voltage limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, J.; Haan, de S.W.H.


    Connection of Distributed Generation (DG) units to a distribution network will result in a local voltage increase. As there will be a maximum on the allowable voltage increase, this will limit the maximum allowable penetration level of DG. By reactive power compensation (by the DG unit itself) a

  14. Particle Swarm Optimization Based of the Maximum Photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photovoltaic electricity is seen as an important source of renewable energy. The photovoltaic array is an unstable source of power since the peak power point depends on the temperature and the irradiation level. A maximum peak power point tracking is then necessary for maximum efficiency. In this work, a Particle Swarm ...

  15. Maximum-entropy clustering algorithm and its global convergence analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Constructing a batch of differentiable entropy functions touniformly approximate an objective function by means of the maximum-entropy principle, a new clustering algorithm, called maximum-entropy clustering algorithm, is proposed based on optimization theory. This algorithm is a soft generalization of the hard C-means algorithm and possesses global convergence. Its relations with other clustering algorithms are discussed.

  16. Application of maximum entropy to neutron tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Silver, R.N.


    We demonstrate the maximum entropy method for the deconvolution of high resolution tunneling data acquired with a quasielastic spectrometer. Given a precise characterization of the instrument resolution function, a maximum entropy analysis of lutidine data obtained with the IRIS spectrometer at ISIS results in an effective factor of three improvement in resolution. 7 refs., 4 figs

  17. The regulation of starch accumulation in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decrease the starch level. These observations are discussed in relation to the photosynthetic characteristics of P. maximum. Keywords: accumulation; botany; carbon assimilation; co2 fixation; growth conditions; mesophyll; metabolites; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; nitrogen supply; panicum maximum; plant physiology; starch; ...

  18. 32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide” to...

  19. The maximum significant wave height in the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouws, E.; Tolman, H.L.; Holthuijsen, L.H.; Eldeberky, Y.; Booij, N.; Ferier, P.


    The maximum possible wave conditions along the Dutch coast, which seem to be dominated by the limited water depth, have been estimated in the present study with numerical simulations. Discussions with meteorologists suggest that the maximum possible sustained wind speed in North Sea conditions is

  20. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies


    Gregor, Ivan; Steinbr?ck, Lars; McHardy, Alice C.


    Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we ...