Sample records for maximum horizontal stress

  1. True Triaxial Strength and Brittle Fracture of the Granodiorite at the SAFOD Drillhole Wall, and the Potential for Estimating the Maximum Horizontal Principal Stress

    Lee, H.; Haimson, B.


    drillhole wall conditions is drastically different from that conventionally expected, but is compatible with breakout formation mechanism in granite (Haimson, Int. J. Rock Mech., 2007). All the 'unjacketed' true triaxial strength data can be fitted by a simple function in the octahedral shear stress versus octahedral normal stress domain, yielding a Nadai-type true triaxial strength criterion. The criterion can be used in conjunction with breakouts that have been located within the cored zone to yield the maximum horizontal in situ stress σH when the other two principal stress are known. Assuming that the state of stress at breakout-drillhole intersections (located for example by BHTV logging) is sufficient to bring about brittle failure (Vernik and Zoback, 1992), one can substitute the known principal stresses there (obtained from the Kirsch solution) for the corresponding values in the criterion. The in situ σv is given by the overburden density, σh is typically obtained from hydrofrac shut-in pressures, breakout width is extracted from BHTV logs, borehole fluid pressure is a function of its density, and the Poisson's ratio is obtained from mechanical lab testing. The only unknown, σH, is thus readily computed. An actual computation was not carried out because data on hydrofrac pressures and breakout dimensions were not available at the time of this submission.

  2. Horizontal stresses below two agricultural vehicles

    Lamande, Mathieu André Maurice; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Janne Aalborg

    , while shear stress larger than soil strength may affect intensity soil properties (i.e. air permeability) by soil deformation not necessarily associated with compaction. In previous experiments in field conditions, isotropic compaction was observed below the center of tires, while shearing took place...... below the edge of tires. Stress distribution at the tire/soil contact is not uniform. Dimensions and inflation pressure are key factors for the ability of agricultural tires to distribute the wheel load. Our hypothesis was that the risk of shearing increases with the tire inflation pressure...... and the number of wheels. We measured horizontal stress at two depths (0.3 and 0.5 m) below tires of two slurry spreaders: one self-propelled machine equipped with wide tires (1.050 m) and low inflation pressure (150 kPa) but carrying a high wheel load (120 kN), and one tractor towing a three-axle slurry...

  3. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  4. Complete Release of Horizontal Shear Stresses During Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation

    Schoenball, M.; Gaucher, E.; Wellmann, F.; Kohl, T.


    Seismicity can be induced in previously seismically inactive regions by man-made changes of the stress field. Notable stress perturbations are created by injection or withdrawal of fluids such as wastewater, fresh water or hydrocarbons. Over the last decades our knowledge of the physical processes of induced seismicity has improved largely. However, the driving force of seismicity, i.e. the actual perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir during fluid injection, remains largely unknown up to now. Measurements of fluid pressure at the well are not enough to extrapolate the pressure change in the reservoir. Here we study the evolution of the stress field during a massive hydraulic stimulation of a 5 km deep well at the enhanced geothermal system at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. Fresh water was pumped with rates of 30 to 50 ls-1 for 6 days. Locations of 7215 events with maximum magnitude of MW=2.5 were obtained, for 715 events with MW > 1 focal mechanism solutions were derived. At first we present observations of several peculiar phenomena of the seismicity migration, of fluid flow and earthquake mechanisms following the shut-in of the well, which indicate to yet not understood hydro-mechanical coupling mechanisms in connection with shut-in. In order to analyze the changes of the stress field during and after the stimulation we identify the fracture planes from the two nodal planes by a probability-based method where we incorporate structural geological information gained from well logs and uncertainties of the determination of focal mechanism solutions and independent estimates of the stress field. In principle, this approach is able to incorporate further uncertainties, if available. We then conduct stress inversions resolved in time and depth to study spatio-temporal changes of the stress tensor. Our results show an increasingly perturbed stress state with time with a strong reduction of the horizontal shear stresses in areas of highest seismic activity

  5. Vertical and horizontal processes in the global atmosphere and the maximum entropy production conjecture

    S. Pascale


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to reconsider the Maximum Entropy Production conjecture (MEP in the context of a very simple two-dimensional zonal-vertical climate model able to represent the total material entropy production due at the same time to both horizontal and vertical heat fluxes. MEP is applied first to a simple four-box model of climate which accounts for both horizontal and vertical material heat fluxes. It is shown that, under condition of fixed insolation, a MEP solution is found with reasonably realistic temperature and heat fluxes, thus generalising results from independent two-box horizontal or vertical models. It is also shown that the meridional and the vertical entropy production terms are independently involved in the maximisation and thus MEP can be applied to each subsystem with fixed boundary conditions. We then extend the four-box model by increasing its resolution, and compare it with GCM output. A MEP solution is found which is fairly realistic as far as the horizontal large scale organisation of the climate is concerned whereas the vertical structure looks to be unrealistic and presents seriously unstable features. This study suggest that the thermal meridional structure of the atmosphere is predicted fairly well by MEP once the insolation is given but the vertical structure of the atmosphere cannot be predicted satisfactorily by MEP unless constraints are imposed to represent the determination of longwave absorption by water vapour and clouds as a function of the state of the climate. Furthermore an order-of-magnitude estimate of contributions to the material entropy production due to horizontal and vertical processes within the climate system is provided by using two different methods. In both cases we found that approximately 40 mW m−2 K−1 of material entropy production is due to vertical heat transport and 5–7 mW m−2 K−1 to horizontal heat transport.

  6. Survey of horizontal stresses in coal mines from available measurements and mapping.

    Frith, R


    Full Text Available OF HORIZONTAL STRESS IN THE WITBANK AND HIGHVELD COALFIELDS 21 4.1 Is Horizontal Stress at Work in Roadway Roof Behaviour? 21 4.2 Summary of Measured Horizontal Stresses 24 4.3 Proposed Model for the Origin of Horizontal Stress Within the Coalfields 27 4... effects of horizontal stress could be further mitigated within the practicalities of the mining methods in use. Based on the work undertaken, the following project findings have been arrived at: (a) Horizontal stresses are clearly evident within both...

  7. SMOS salinity in the subtropical North Atlantic salinity maximum. Part II: Two-dimensional horizontal thermohaline variability

    Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Hernandez, Olga; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reverdin, Gilles


    International audience; The horizontal thermohaline seasonal variability of the surface ocean is investigated in the subtropical North Atlantic Surface Salinity Maximum (SSSmax) region. Satellite sea surface temperature and salinity are used, along with high-resolution thermosalinograph data, and Argo interpolated products, to study the horizontal two-dimensional field of density and thermohaline variability. During late winter, compensated temperature and salinity gradients at large and meso...

  8. Maximum horizontal range of volcanic ballistic projectiles ejected during explosive eruptions at Santorini caldera

    Konstantinou, K. I.


    This study investigates the hazard posed by Volcanic Ballistic Projectiles (VBPs) to the Santorini islands considering eruption scenarios that include low (VEI = 2-3) and higher energy (VEI > 3) eruptions. A model that describes rapid decompression of pressurized magma below a caprock along with its fragmentation and acceleration of particles is utilized for estimating initial velocities during vulcanian-style eruptions. These initial velocities are inserted into the ballistic equations assuming that VBPs have a cube-like shape, are subjected to gravity/drag forces and are launched into a zone of reduced drag. Four different diameters of VBPs are considered (0.35 m, 1.0 m, 2.0 m, 3.0 m) and also different values of gas fractions and extent of the reduced drag zone are investigated. The results of these calculations show that an area of 1-2 km width along the western coast of Thera will be within the maximum range of VBPs, provided that the eruptive vent will develop either on Nea Kameni or between Nea Kameni and Thera. Initial velocities for higher energy eruptions are estimated by considering the conversion efficiency of thermal to kinetic energy. For the case of an eruption with VEI = 4 and a number of vents centered between Nea and Palea Kameni, calculations show that the coastal areas of Thera and Therasia are within the maximum horizontal range of VBPs with diameter larger than 0.35 m. As the exact position of the eruptive vent seems to be of crucial importance for determining the areas at risk, continuous seismic and geodetic monitoring of the caldera is needed in order to decipher its likely location.

  9. Distribution of horizontal tectonic stresses in the Kovdor ore region

    Savchenko S.N.


    Full Text Available The boundary-element method in 2D setting of task of elasticity theory has been used for research of stress state of rock mass in the Kovdor intrusion taking into consideration its hierarchically-block geological structure. Particularities of stresses distribution have been revealed in the region of apatite-magnetite deposit development by the "Zhelezny" mine, "Kovdorsky GOK" JSC. Zones of maximum tension deformations have been determined in the vicinity of the open-pit under the given boundary conditions and mechanical properties of rocks

  10. On some method of the space elevator maximum stress reduction

    Ambartsumian S. A.


    Full Text Available The possibility of the realization and exploitation of the space elevator project is connected with a number of complicated problems. One of them are large elastic stresses arising in the space elevator ribbon body, which are considerably bigger that the limit of strength of modern materials. This note is devoted to the solution of problem of maximum stress reduction in the ribbon by the modification of the ribbon cross-section area.

  11. Analysis of thermal stresses in horizontal delivery water heaters

    Bilan, A. V.; Plotnikov, P. N.


    Analysis of thermal stresses in tubes and a compensator, taking into account water heating in each heater bunch and temperature at which its mounting is implemented, and of stresses on pressure is presented. The 3D-model of the horizontal delivery water heater of PSG-4900-0.3-1.14 type is used. The tube plate is represented as the 3D-body with 6863 holes with offset center of the perforated area, the steam space shell is represented as a cylindrical casing, the bottoms of water chambers are considered as elliptical casings, the four-lens compensator is represented in the form of toroidal casings, and the tubes are considered as beams operating in tensile-compression and bending in two planes. Calculations were carried out for different temperatures of superheated steam and a steam space shell, respectively, as well as designs with compensator and without it. Various temperature values of the tubes on the passes were calculated and set. The studies were carried out taking into account nonaxis-symmetrical spacing the tube plate and compensator deformation. The calculation results of tensile-compression stresses in the tubes are presented. Furthermore, the central tubes experience compressive stresses, whose maximal values take place on the border between the tubes of the fourth and of the first passes. For its decrease, it is recommended to increase the distance between the tubes of these passes. The tension stresses in the peripheral tubes are the maximal stresses. To reduce the stresses and, therefore, increase service life of the delivery water heater at using wet or superheated (not more than by 30-50°C) steam in it (the larger value refers to the brass tubes and the water pressure of 1.6-2.5 MPa), it is necessary to recommend the noncompensatory design at using the steam superheated by more than 30-50°C (at Ural Turbine Works, it is the turbines of T-250/300-23.5 and T-113/145-12.4 types with intermediate superheating) and to recommend the installation of the

  12. Horizontal

    ZHONG; Chunping


    [1]Wu, H., Bochner technique in differential geometry, Advance in Math. (in Chinese), 1981, 10(1): 57-76.[2]Morrow, J., Kodaira, K., Complex Manifolds, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971.[3]Abate, M., Aikou, T., Patrizio, G., Preface for Complex Finsler Geometry, Cont. Math., Vol. 196, Providence,RI: Amer. Math. Soc., 1996, 97-100.[4]Abate, M., Patrizio, G., Finsler Metrics-A global approach with applications to geometric function theory,Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol. 1591, Bedin: Springer-Verlag, 1994.[5]Antonelli, P. L., Lackey, B.(eds.), The Theory of Finslerian Laplacians and Applications, MAIA 459, Dordrecht:Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.[6]Bao, D., Lackey, B., A Hodge decomposition theorem for Finsler spaces, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 323, Serie 1,1996, 51-56.[7]Munteanu, O., Weitzenbock formulas for horizontal and vertical Laplacians, Houston Journal of Mathematics,2003, 29(4): 889-900.[8]Faran, J. J., The equivalence problem for complex Finsler Hamiltonians, Cont. Math.,Vol. 196, Providence, RI:Amer. Math. Soc., 1996, 133-144.[9]Kobayashi, S., Complex Finsler vector bundles, Cont. Math., Vol. 196, Providence, RI: Amer. Math. Soc.,1996,145-153.[10]Aikou, T., On complex Finsler manifolds, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Math. Phys. & Chem.), 1991, 24:9-25.

  13. Stress and nurses' horizontal mobbing: moderating effects of group identity and group support.

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan A


    Horizontal mobbing is a process of systematic and repeated aggression towards a worker by coworkers. Among others, stress has been pointed out as one of the antecedents that favors the onset of horizontal mobbing, whereas group support to the target could act as a buffer. Moreover, the social identity approach emphasizes that group identity is an antecedent of group support. This study explores the interaction of group support and group identity in the explanation of horizontal mobbing in a sample (N = 388) of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses employed at two large hospitals in Madrid and Navarre (Spain). The results show that stress is positively associated to horizontal mobbing, whereas group support and group identity were negative predictors of horizontal mobbing. Furthermore, the combination of low group identity and low group support precipitated HM among nurses.

  14. Horizontal principal stress orientation in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) transect from borehole breakouts

    Malinverno, A.; Saito, S.; Vannucchi, P.


    The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) drilled the Pacific margin of the Middle America Trench just north of where the Cocos Ridge enters the subduction zone, resulting in basal erosion of the upper plate. Here we report the orientations of the maximum horizontal principal stress (SHmax) from borehole breakouts detected by logging-while-drilling and wireline downhole measurements. All SHmax directions were estimated in the sediment cover of the margin, above the deeper rocks of the deformed margin wedge. We observe three overall SHmax orientations: NNE-SSW (25° azimuth) in the deepest interval drilled at the upper slope Site U1379; ENE-WSW (82°) in the rest of Site U1379 and in Site U1413, also drilled in the upper slope; and NNW-SSE (157°) in the mid-slope Site U1378. Our preferred interpretation is that the deepest interval of Site U1379 records the stress conditions in the underlying margin wedge, as SHmax is parallel to the direction of the Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence and of the compressional axes of plate boundary fault earthquakes. The variable SHmax directions observed elsewhere are likely due to the effect of a network of normal faults that subdivide the sediment cover into a number of independently deforming blocks. In addition, the observed SHmax directions may be influenced by the subducting Cocos Ridge, which acts as an indenter causing oblique deformation, and by the transition to seismogenic subduction along the plate boundary fault.

  15. A semi-empirical model for the estimation of maximum horizontal displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading

    Faris, Allison T.; Seed, Raymond B.; Kayen, Robert E.; Wu, Jiaer


    During the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and resultant ground displacements damaged bridges, buried utilities, and lifelines, conventional structures, and other developed works. This paper presents an improved engineering tool for the prediction of maximum displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. A semi-empirical approach is employed, combining mechanistic understanding and data from laboratory testing with data and lessons from full-scale earthquake field case histories. The principle of strain potential index, based primary on correlation of cyclic simple shear laboratory testing results with in-situ Standard Penetration Test (SPT) results, is used as an index to characterized the deformation potential of soils after they liquefy. A Bayesian probabilistic approach is adopted for development of the final predictive model, in order to take fullest advantage of the data available and to deal with the inherent uncertainties intrinstiic to the back-analyses of field case histories. A case history from the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake is utilized to demonstrate the ability of the resultant semi-empirical model to estimate maximum horizontal displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.

  16. Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct

    Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Murao, Y. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan)] [and others


    Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.

  17. Towards the prediction of pre-mining stresses in the European continent. [Estimates of vertical and probable maximum lateral stress in Europe

    Blackwood, R.L.


    There are now available sufficient data from in-situ, pre-mining stress measurements to allow a first attempt at predicting the maximum stress magnitudes likely to occur in a given mining context. The sub-horizontal (lateral) stress generally dominates the stress field, becoming critical to stope stability in many cases. For cut-and-fill mining in particular, where developed fill pressures are influenced by lateral displacement of pillars or stope backs, extraction maximization planning by mathematical modelling techniques demands the best available estimate of pre-mining stresses. While field measurements are still essential for this purpose, in the present paper it is suggested that the worst stress case can be predicted for preliminary design or feasibility study purposes. In the Eurpoean continent the vertical component of pre-mining stress may be estimated by adding 2 MPa to the pressure due to overburden weight. The maximum lateral stress likely to be encountered is about 57 MPa at depths of some 800m to 1000m below the surface.

  18. Deep heterogeneity of the stress state in the horizontal shear zones

    Rebetsky, Yu. L.; Mikhailova, A. V.


    The formation structures of brittle destruction in a rock layer above an active strike-slip fault in the crystalline basement is studied. The problem is analyzed from the standpoint of loading history, when after the stage of pure gravitational loading, an additional strain state of uniform horizontal shear of both the layer and underlying basement develops, which is further followed by a vertically nonuniform shear caused by the activation of the deep fault. For the studied object, irreversible fracture deformations on macro- and microlevels arise as early as the initial stage of loading under the action of gravitational stresses. These deformations continue evolving on the megascopic level in the course of horizontal shearing that is quasi-uniform both along the depth and laterally. The final formation of the structural ensemble occurs after a long stage of horizontal displacement of the blocks of the crystalline basement—the stage of localized shear. The theoretical analysis of the evolution of the stress state and morphology of the failure structures established the presence of numerous fractures with the normal dip-slip components in the intermediate-depth part of the rock mass, which are formed at the stages of uniform and localized horizontal shearing. The fractures with a strike-slip component mainly arise in the upper and near-axial deep parts of the section.

  19. Prediction of magnitude of minimum horizontal stress from extended leak-off test conducted by the riser vessel CHIKYU

    Lin, W.; Masago, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Saito, S.; Kinoshita, M.


    By means of introduction of the drilling vessel 'CHIKYU', riser drilling operations using mud fluid will be carried out in NanTroSEIZE Stage 2 for the first time as an oceanic scientific-drilling. For determining drilling operation parameter such as a mud density, a downhole experiment, leak-off test (LOT) or extended leak-off test (XLOT), is going to be implemented next to casing and cementing at each casing shoe during the drilling process. Data of the downhole experiment aimed for operation can also be used for an important scientific application to obtain in-situ stress information which is necessary for various cases of scientific drillings such as seismogenic zone drillings etc. In order to examine feasibility of the application of the LOT or XLOT data, we analyzed an example of XLOT conducted by the riser vessel CHIKYU during its Shimokita shakedown cruise, 2006; and then estimated magnitude of minimum principal stress in horizontal plane, Shmin. Moreover, we will propose the test procedures to possibly improve the quality of stress result from the applications of LOT or XLOT. The XLOT of Shimokita cruise was conducted under following conditions; 1180 m water depth, 525 mbsf (meter below seafloor) depth, 1030 kg/m3 fluid density (seawater) and 80 litter/min injection flow-rate. Estimated magnitude of the Shmin is equal to 18.3 MPa based on the assumption that fracture closure pressure balances with the minimum principal stress perpendicular to the fracture plane. For comparison, the vertical stress magnitude at the depth was estimated from density profile of core samples retrieved from the same borehole; and was equal to 20 MPa approximately. These two values can be considered to be not disagreement. Therefore, we can say that the XLOT data is valuable and practical for estimating the magnitude of minimum horizontal stress. From the viewpoint of determining stress magnitude, the XLOT is more essential rather than the LOT because it might be hardly to obtain

  20. Vector wind, horizontal divergence, wind stress and wind stress curl from SEASAT-SASS at one degree resolution

    Pierson, W. J., Jr.; Sylvester, W. B.; Salfi, R. E.


    Conventional data obtained in 1983 are contrasted with SEASAT-A scatterometer and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data to show how observations at a single station can be extended to an area of about 150,000 square km by means of remotely sensed data obtained in nine minutes. Superobservations at a one degree resolution for the vector winds were estimated along with their standard deviations. From these superobservations, the horizontal divergence, vector wind stress, and the curl of the wind stress can be found. Weather forecasting theory is discussed and meteorological charts of the North Pacific Ocean are presented. Synoptic meteorology as a technique is examined.

  1. Case history of the response of a longwall entry subjected to concentrated horizontal stress

    Mark, C.; Gale, W.; Oyler, D.; Chen, J. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Rock Safety Engineering Branch, Pittsburgh Research Laboratory


    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Pittsburgh Research Laboratory (PRL), RAG Pennsylvania and Strata Control Technologies of Australia collaborated in an intensive study of ground behavior, reinforcement performance, and stress redistribution at the Emerald Mine in Southwestern Pennsylvania. The study site was a longwall tailgate subjected to a severe horizontal stress concentration. Field measurements indicated that the stresses applied to the study site nearly doubled during longwall mining, resulting in roof deformations extending to a height of 4.8 m (16 ft) above the entry. A computer simulation of the field site was conducted using FLAC-2D, incorporating a broad range of rock behaviors and failure mechanisms. Comparison between the measurements and the simulation showed that the model was able to capture the most significant aspects of the roof and support system behavior, particularly, the extensive slip along bedding that created a partially destressed 'softened' zone in the immediate roof. The model also showed that supplementing the normal roof bolt support pattern with cable bolts would allow the entry to survive a further 20-25% increase in the applied horizontal stress. Such information could have very practical application to the design of roof support systems for coal mines.

  2. Optimization of Multi-Cluster Fracturing Model under the Action of Induced Stress in Horizontal Wells

    Shanyong Liu


    Full Text Available Volume fracturing in shale gas forms complex fracture networks and increases stimulated reservoir volume through large-scale fracturing operation with plug-perforation technology. However, some perforation clusters are stimulated unevenly after fracturing. This study aims to solve this problem by analyzing the shortcomings of the conventional fracturing model and developing a coupled model based on the 2D fracture motion equation, energy conservation law, linear elastic mechanics, and stress superposition principle. First, a multi-fracture in-situ stress model was built by studying the induced stress produced by the fracture initiation to deduce the multi-fracture induced stress impact factor on the basis of the stress superposition principle. Then, the classical Perkins–Kern–Nordgren model was utilized with the crustal stress model. Finally, a precise fracturing design method was used to optimize perforation and fracturing parameters under the new model. Results demonstrate that the interference effect among fractures is the major factor causing the non-uniform propagation of each fracture. Compression on the main horizontal stress increases the net pressure. Therefore, both the degree of operation difficulty and the complexity of fracture geometry are improved. After applying the optimal design, the production is increased by 20%, and the cost is reduced by 15%.

  3. Evolución del campo de esfuerzos horizontal desde el eoceno a la actualidad en la cuenca neuquina Horizontal Stress Field Evolution from Eocene to Present in Neuquen Basin.

    Cecilia G Guzmán


    Full Text Available Para estudiar la continuidad y la evolución en el tiempo de la dirección de los esfuerzos horizontales en el ámbito de la cuenca Neuquina, se integraron resultados previamente obtenidos a partir del análisis de breakout de pozos con información de diques de asfaltita presentes en la región y diques volcánicos medidos en las sierras de Cara Cura y Reyes. Los diques de bitumen de la cuenca Neuquina se formaron durante el Paleoceno - Eoceno en un contexto en el que el esfuerzo máximo era horizontal y con orientación NE. Dentro de los diques volcánicos analizados se reconocieron dos poblaciones principales, población I (NE y población II (NNE y una secundaria, la población III (NO. La edad de estos diques no está aun bien establecida, pero se los relaciona a un evento magmático del Oligoceno tardío - Mioceno. Tanto entre los diques de bitumen como entre los volcánicos se logró diferenciar una población del tipo I (ENE- NE, dejando en evidencia la dirección del esfuerzo máximo al tiempo de su formación. Más allá de las incertidumbres sobre la edad de los diques volcánicos y de bitumen, se interpreta que durante gran parte del Terciario la orientación del esfuerzo horizontal máximo fue NE. Sin embargo, los datos de breakout muestran que en la actualidad es algo distinto con una dirección media ENE. Este cambio en la dirección de los esfuerzos es coherente con el cambio en el vector de subducción producido entre el Eoceno y la actualidad.Continuity and evolution in time of the horizontal stress direction in the Neuquen Basin area, derived from the analysis of recent borehole data and orientation of volcanic dykes measured in outcrop in the Cara Cura and Reyes Ranges is presented. The bitumen dykes along the Neuquén Basin were formed during Paleocene - Eocene in a context where the maximum stress was horizontal and had a NE. Within the analyzed volcanic dykes two major groups have been recognized, group I (NE orientation

  4. Maximum twin shear stress factor criterion for sliding mode fracture initiation

    黎振兹; 李慧剑; 黎晓峰; 周洪彬; 郝圣旺


    Previous researches on the mixed mode fracture initiation criteria were mostly focused on opening mode fracture. In this study, the authors proposed a new criterion for mixed mode sliding fracture initiation, which is the maximum twin shear stress factor criterion. The authors studied a finite width plate with central slant crack, subject to a far-field uniform uniaxial tensile or compressive stress.

  5. Analysis of Maximum Shear Stress of Asphalt Pavement%沥青路面最大剪应力分析

    陈光伟; 费国新; 陈荣生


    Factors and variation of the maximum shear stress of the typical semi-rigid asphalt pavement and bridge deck pavement in Jiangsu were calculated and analyzed using ABAQUS software. The maximum shear stress distribution was consistent with the semi-rigid asphalt pavement and bridge deck pavement and the maximum shear stress level was close under the level. The maximum shear stress showed a positive correlation with the verticaland horizontal vehicle loads and was significantly affected by the loads. The maximum shear stress decreased as the pavement thickness and modulus increase, and increased as the semi-rigid base thickness and modulus increase, but the increase value was small. Thereby these analysis above would provides an academic basis for solving the rutting problem.%采用ABAQUS软件对典型半刚性基层沥青路面及桥面铺装层中最大剪应力影响因素及变化规律进行了计算与分析。分析表明:半刚性基层沥青路面与水泥混凝土桥面铺装层最大剪应力分布与变化规律基本一致,在相同荷载条件作用下,最大剪应力水平亦接近;最大剪应力与车辆垂直荷载和水平荷载作用呈正比关系,最大剪应力受其影响显著;最大剪应力随着面层或铺装层厚度、模量的增加而相应地变小,随着半刚性基层厚度与模量的增加而变大。以上抗剪影响因素及变化规律的研究为解决车辙问题提供了一定的理论基础。

  6. Incorporation of Mean/Maximum Stress Effects in the Multiaxial Racetrack Filter

    Marco Antonio Meggiolaro


    Full Text Available This work extends the Multiaxial Racetrack Filter (MRF to incorporate mean or maximum stress effects, adopting a filter amplitude that depends on the current stress level along the stress or strain path. In this way, a small stress or strain amplitude event can be filtered out if associated with a non-damaging low mean or peak stress level, while another event with the very same amplitude can be preserved if happening under a more damaging high mean or peak stress level. The variable value of the filter amplitude must be calculated in real time, thus it cannot depend on the peak or mean stresses along a load event, because it would require cycle identification and as so information about future events. Instead, mean/maximum stress effects are modeled in the filter as a function of the current (instantaneous hydrostatic or normal stress along the multiaxial load path, respectively for invariantbased and critical-plane models. The MRF efficiency is evaluated from tension-torsion experiments in 316L stainless steel tubular specimens under non-proportional (NP load paths, showing it can robustly filter out nondamaging events even under multiaxial NP variable amplitude loading histories

  7. In-shoe plantar tri-axial stress profiles during maximum-effort cutting maneuvers.

    Cong, Yan; Lam, Wing Kai; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming


    Soft tissue injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ankle sprain and foot skin problems, frequently occur during cutting maneuvers. These injuries are often regarded as associated with abnormal joint torque and interfacial friction caused by excessive external and in-shoe shear forces. This study simultaneously investigated the dynamic in-shoe localized plantar pressure and shear stress during lateral shuffling and 45° sidestep cutting maneuvers. Tri-axial force transducers were affixed at the first and second metatarsal heads, lateral forefoot, and heel regions in the midsole of a basketball shoe. Seventeen basketball players executed both cutting maneuvers with maximum efforts. Lateral shuffling cutting had a larger mediolateral braking force than 45° sidestep cutting. This large braking force was concentrated at the first metatarsal head, as indicated by its maximum medial shear stress (312.2 ± 157.0 kPa). During propulsion phase, peak shear stress occurred at the second metatarsal head (271.3 ± 124.3 kPa). Compared with lateral shuffling cutting, 45° sidestep cutting produced larger peak propulsion shear stress (463.0 ± 272.6 kPa) but smaller peak braking shear stress (184.8 ± 181.7 kPa), of which both were found at the first metatarsal head. During both cutting maneuvers, maximum medial and posterior shear stress occurred at the first metatarsal head, whereas maximum pressure occurred at the second metatarsal head. The first and second metatarsal heads sustained relatively high pressure and shear stress and were expected to be susceptible to plantar tissue discomfort or injury. Due to different stress distribution, distinct pressure and shear cushioning mechanisms in basketball footwear might be considered over different foot regions.

  8. Maximum length of large diameter Czochralski silicon single crystals at fracture stress limit of seed

    Kim, K. M.; Smetana, P.


    Growth of large diameter Czochralski (CZ) silicon crystals require complete elimination of dislocations by means of Dash technique, where the seed diameter is reduced to a small size typically 3 mm in conjunction with increase in the pull rate. The maximum length of the large CZ silicon is estimated at the fracture stress limit of the seed neck diameter ( d). The maximum lengths for 200 and 300 mm CZ crystals amount to 197 and 87 cm, respectively, with d = 0.3 cm; the estimated maximum weight is 144 kg.

  9. Exploration of joint systems and major horizontal stress direction in HDR drillholes of the Soultz site (Alsace, France)

    Genter, A. [BRGM/GIG, Orleans (France); Tenzer, H. [Stadtwerke Bad Urach (Germany)


    Borehole imaging logs enable continuous recording of natural and artificial planar discontinuities on the drillhole wall and data of the drillhole geometry to be made. Efforts were made to resolve the orientation and characterization of the natural joint system, the active fault pattern, the alteration zones, the orientation of microcracks and the direction of maximum horizontal stress. Intense logging operations and measurements were carried out in the HDR drillholes GPK1 and EPS1 between 1000 and 3600 m depth in the Muschelkalk, Bunter and Granite at Soultz sous Forets. With the help of investigations on subvertical fractures the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction was determined as N175 E{+-}17 . These results are consistent with previous investigations performed in the horeholes GPK-1 and EPS-1. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Bohrlochmessungen mit dem akustschen Borehole Televiewer und elektrischen Formation MicroScanner (Imager) sowie dem Azimuthal Resistivity Imager und verschiedenen Sonic-Sonden ermoeglichen eine kontinuierliche Aufnahme sowohl von natuerlichen und kuenstlich erzeugten planaren Diskontinuitaeten an der Bohrlochwand als auch der Bohrlochgeometrie. Es wurden die Orientierung und Charakterisierung des natuerlichen Kluftsystems, das aktive Stoerungsmuster, die Alterationszonen, die Orientierung von Mikrorissen und die Orientierung der maximalen horizontalen Hauptspannungsrichtung ermittelt. Die Verfuegbarkeit von Strukturdaten aus Bohrloechern durch Bohrlochmessungen und hydraulischen Testen ermoeglicht die Bestimmung von hydraulisch aktiven Klueften und deren Beziehung zum regionalen Spannungsfeld. Mit Hilfe spezieller Bohrloch-Logs wurden die Orientierung und Haeufigkeit planarer Diskontinuitaeten und ihre scheinbare Oeffnungsweite sowie die Vorzugsrichtung der verschiedenen scheinbaren Weiten bestimmt. Innerhalb des gemeinsamen europaeischen Hot-Dry-Rock-Geothermal-Forschungsprogramms wurden vielfaeltige Bohrlochmessungen in den

  10. Examining the effects of stress-dependent reservoir permeability on stimulated horizontal Montney gas wells

    Bachman, R.C.; Sen, V [Taurus Reservoir Solutions Ltd (Canada); Khalmanova, D.; Okouma M' Angha, V. [Shell Canada Energy (Canada); Settari, A. [University of Calgary (Canada)


    Multi-stage horizontal fracturing wells have been widely developed in the British Columbia and Alberta Montney gas reservoirs. The optimal development strategy for these facilities is still an issue, especially problems related to stress-dependent permeability and its impact on oil rate. The early stages of development in the Groundbirch area resulted in an extensive series of well monitoring tests, which are used in this paper to assess, by semi-analytical production study, the sensitivity of short and long term production to geomechanically induced stress effects. Results of this analysis showed the importance of flow regime, and of methods that take into account well clean-up and shut-off events. Based on these results, different reservoir modeling techniques, simpler than a total geomechanical model, are then presented in order to illustrate more clearly the impact of induced stress on future production in the Montney gas reservoirs. Conclusive comparison between the models and the production history of specific wells makes the implemented models viable for future production predictions in this region.

  11. Model of horizontal stress in the Aigion10 well (Corinth) calculated from acoustic body waves

    Rousseau, A


    In this paper we try to deduce the in situ stresses from the monopole acoustic waves of the well AIG10 between 689 and 1004 meters in depth (Corinth Golf). This borehole crosses competent sedimentary formations (mainly limestone), and the active Aigion fault between 769 and 780 meters in depth. This study is the application of two methods previously described by the author who shows the relationships between in situ horizontal stresses, and (i) the presence or absence of double body waves, (ii) the amplitude ratios between S and P waves (Rousseau, 2005a,b). The full waveforms of this well exhibit two distinct domains separated by the Aigion fault. Within the upper area the three typical waves (P, S and Stoneley) may appear, but the S waves are not numerous, and there is no double body wave, whereas within the lower area there are sometimes double P waves, but no S waves. From those observations, we conclude that the stress domain is isotropic above the Aigion fault, and anisotropic below, which is consistent ...

  12. Creep measurements confirm steady flow after stress maximum in extension of branched polymer melts

    Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Román Marín, José Manuel; Huang, Qian;


    We provide conclusive evidence of nonmonotonic mechanical behavior in the extension of long-chain branched polymer melts. While nonmonotonic behavior is known to occur for solids, for the case of polymeric melts, this phenomenon is in direct contrast with current theoretical models. We rule out...... the possibility of the overshoot being an experimental artifact by confirming the existence of steady flow after a maximum in the ratio of stress to strain rate versus strain under both constant stress and constant strain-rate kinematics. This observation indicates the omission of important physics from current...

  13. Design of reinforced concrete walls casted in place for the maximum normal stress of compression

    T. C. Braguim

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate which designing models are safe and appropriate to structural analysis of buildings constructed in Concrete Wall system. In this work it is evaluated, through comparison of maximum normal stress of compression, a simple numerical model, which represents the walls with frame elements, with another much more robust and refined, which represents the walls with shells elements. The designing of the normal stress of compression it is done for both cases, based on NBR 16055, to conclude if the wall thickness initially adopted, it is enough or not.

  14. Analysis of Crack Tip Stress of Transversal Crack on Slab Corner During Vertical-Horizontal Rolling Process by FEM

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong


    Behavior of transversal crack notched on slab comer during vertical-horizontal rolling process was simula-ted by FEM. The crack tip stress in the whole rolling process was obtained. Influences of the friction coefficient, the initial crack size, the edger roll profile, and the groove fillet radii of grooved edger roll on crack tip stress were ana-lyzed. For vertical rolling, the tension stress appears at crack tip near the slab top surface and the compression stress appears at crack tip near the slab side surface for the flat edger roll; however, the compression stress appears at crack tip near the slab top surface and the tension stress appears at crack tip near the slab side surface in the exit stage for the grooved edger roll. For horizontal rolling, the tension stress appears at crack tip just at the exit stage for the flat edger roll, and the tension stress appears in whole rolling stage; the tension stress value near the slab side surface is much larger than that near the slab top surface for the grooved edger roll.

  15. Optimal design of the gerotor (2-ellipses) for reducing maximum contact stress

    Kwak, Hyo Seo; Li, Sheng Huan [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Technology, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul [School of Mechanical Design and Manufacturing, Busan Institute of Science and Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    The oil pump, which is used as lubricator of engines and auto transmission, supplies working oil to the rotating elements to prevent wear. The gerotor pump is used widely in the automobile industry. When wear occurs due to contact between an inner rotor and an outer rotor, the efficiency of the gerotor pump decreases rapidly, and elastic deformation from the contacts also causes vibration and noise. This paper reports the optimal design of a gerotor with a 2-ellipses combined lobe shape that reduces the maximum contact stress. An automatic program was developed to calculate Hertzian contact stress of the gerotor using the Matlab and the effect of the design parameter on the maximum contact stress was analyzed. In addition, the method of theoretical analysis for obtaining the contact stress was verified by performing the fluid-structural coupled analysis using the commercial software, Ansys, considering both the driving force of the inner rotor and the fluid pressure, which is generated by working oil.


    Ji Changjiang; Li Zhonghua; Sun Jun


    A closed-form solution for predicting the tangential stress of an inclusion located in mixed mode Ⅰ and Ⅱ crack tip field was developed based on the Eshelby equivalent inclusion theory. Then a mixed mode fracture criterion, including the fracture direction and the critical load, was established based on the maximum tangential stress in the inclusion for brittle inclusioninduced fracture materials. The proposed fracture criterion is a function of the inclusion fracture stress, its size and volume fraction, as well as the elastic constants of the inclusion and the matrix material. The present criterion will reduce to the conventional one as the inclusion having the same elastic behavior as the matrix material. The proposed solutions are in good agreement with detailed finite element analysis and measurement.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of the Maximum Stress at the Joints of the Transmission Tower

    Itam, Zarina; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Bamashmos, Khaled H.


    Transmission towers are tall structures, usually a steel lattice tower, used to support an overhead power line. Usually, transmission towers are analyzed as frame-truss systems and the members are assumed to be pin-connected without explicitly considering the effects of joints on the tower behavior. In this research, an engineering example of joint will be analyzed with the consideration of the joint detailing to investigate how it will affect the tower analysis. A static analysis using STAAD Pro was conducted to indicate the joint with the maximum stress. This joint will then be explicitly analyzed in ANSYS using the Finite Element Method. Three approaches were used in the software which are the simple plate model, bonded contact with no bolts, and beam element bolts. Results from the joint analysis show that stress values increased with joint details consideration. This proves that joints and connections play an important role in the distribution of stress within the transmission tower.

  18. Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress

    Paterson, C.


    © 2014 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: The steady flow of a slowly varying rivulet with prescribed flux in the azimuthal direction round a large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a solution corresponding to a rivulet flowing down at least part of one side of the cylinder. We consider both a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle but slowly varying width (that is, de-pinned contact lines) and a rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle (that is, pinned contact lines), and show that they have qualitatively different behaviour. When shear is present, a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can never run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, and so we consider the scenario in which an infinitely wide two-dimensional film of uniform thickness covers part of the upper half of the cylinder and \\'breaks\\' into a single rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle. In contrast, a sufficiently narrow rivulet with constant width can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, whereas a wide rivulet can do so only if its contact lines de-pin, and so we consider the scenario in which the contact lines of a wide rivulet de-pin on the lower half of the cylinder.

  19. Stress distribution in maxillary first molar periodontium using straight pull headgear with vertical and horizontal tubes: A finite element analysis.

    Feizbakhsh, Masood; Kadkhodaei, Mahmoud; Zandian, Dana; Hosseinpour, Zahra


    One of the most effective ways for distal movement of molars to treat Class II malocclusion is using extraoral force through a headgear device. The purpose of this study was the comparison of stress distribution in maxillary first molar periodontium using straight pull headgear in vertical and horizontal tubes through finite element method. Based on the real geometry model, a basic model of the first molar and maxillary bone was obtained using three-dimensional imaging of the skull. After the geometric modeling of periodontium components through CATIA software and the definition of mechanical properties and element classification, a force of 150 g for each headgear was defined in ABAQUS software. Consequently, Von Mises and Principal stresses were evaluated. The statistical analysis was performed using T-paired and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests. Extension of areas with Von Mises and Principal stresses utilizing straight pull headgear with a vertical tube was not different from that of using a horizontal tube, but the numerical value of the Von Mises stress in the vertical tube was significantly reduced (P 0/05). Based on the results, when force applied to the straight pull headgear with a vertical tube, Von Mises stress was reduced significantly in comparison with the horizontal tube. Therefore, to correct the mesiolingual movement of the maxillary first molar, vertical headgear tube is recommended.

  20. Experimental analysis of minimum shear stress to drag particles in a horizontal bed; Analise experimental da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito horizontal

    Dornelas, Breno Almeida; Soares, Edson Jose [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil)], e-mails:,; Quirino Filho, Joao Pedro; Loureiro, Bruno Venturini [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL). Laboratorio de Fluidos e Fenomenos de Transporte (Brazil)], e-mails:,


    Efficient hole cleaning is still a challenge in well bore drilling to produce oil and gas. The critical point is the horizontal drilling that inherently tends to form a bed of sediment particles at the well bottom during drilling. The cuttings bed erosion depends mainly on the shear stress promoted by the drilling fluid flow. The shear stress required to cause drag in the cuttings bed is investigated according to the fluid and particles properties, using an experimental assembly, composed of: a system for fluid circulation, a particle box, a pump system and measuring equipment. The observation area is a box below the flow line in an acrylic duct used to calibrate sand particles. The test starts with the pumps in a low frequency which is increased in steps. At each frequency level, images are captured of carried particles and the established flow rate is recorded. The images are analyzed when the dragged particle is no longer random and sporadic, but becomes permanent. The shear stress is identified by the PKN correlation (by Prandtl, von Karman, and Nikuradse) for the minimum flow rate necessary to cause drag. Results were obtained for just water and water-glycerin solution flows. (author)

  1. Variation in community structure across vertical intertidal stress gradients: how does it compare with horizontal variation at different scales?

    Nelson Valdivia

    Full Text Available In rocky intertidal habitats, the pronounced increase in environmental stress from low to high elevations greatly affects community structure, that is, the combined measure of species identity and their relative abundance. Recent studies have shown that ecological variation also occurs along the coastline at a variety of spatial scales. Little is known, however, on how vertical variation compares with horizontal variation measured at increasing spatial scales (in terms of sampling interval. Because broad-scale processes can generate geographical patterns in community structure, we tested the hypothesis that vertical ecological variation is higher than fine-scale horizontal variation but lower than broad-scale horizontal variation. To test this prediction, we compared the variation in community structure across intertidal elevations on rocky shores of Helgoland Island with independent estimates of horizontal variation measured at the scale of patches (quadrats separated by 10s of cm, sites (quadrats separated by a few m, and shores (quadrats separated by 100s to 1000s of m. The multivariate analyses done on community structure supported our prediction. Specifically, vertical variation was significantly higher than patch- and site-scale horizontal variation but lower than shore-scale horizontal variation. Similar patterns were found for the variation in abundance of foundation taxa such as Fucus spp. and Mastocarpus stellatus, suggesting that the effects of these canopy-forming algae, known to function as ecosystem engineers, may explain part of the observed variability in community structure. Our findings suggest that broad-scale processes affecting species performance increase ecological variability relative to the pervasive fine-scale patchiness already described for marine coasts and the well known variation caused by vertical stress gradients. Our results also indicate that experimental research aiming to understand community structure on

  2. Effect of initial stress on propagation behaviors of shear horizontal waves in piezoelectric/piezomagnetic layered cylinders.

    Zhao, X; Qian, Z H; Zhang, S; Liu, J X


    An analytical approach is taken to investigate shear horizontal wave (SH wave) propagation in layered cylinder with initial stress, where a piezomagnetic (PM) material thin layer is bonded to a piezoelectric (PE) cylinder. Two different material combinations are taken into account, and the phase velocities of the SH waves are numerically calculated for the magnetically open and short cases, respectively. It is found that the initial stress, the thickness ratio and the material performance have a great influence on the phase velocity. The results obtained in this paper can offer fundamental significance to the application of PE/PM composite media or structure for the acoustic wave and microwave technologies.

  3. Comparison of numerical approaches for modeling gravitationally-induced horizontal deviatoric stresses within a Hawaiian basaltic shield volcano

    Klein, E. C.; Le Corvec, N.; Galgana, G.


    Basaltic shield volcanoes are subjected to important gravitational loads that lead to their spreading. Such deformation influences the stress state within the volcano, thus the formation of faults and the location of earthquakes and the propagation of magmas and the potential eruption location. Using distinct numerical approaches constrained by geophysical data from the Hawai`i Island Shield Volcano (HISV), we studied the extent to which horizontal deviatoric stresses (HDS) induced from gravitational loading drives the process of volcanic spreading. Two distinct numerical approaches based on similar models were used: 1- the thin-sheet method, and 2- finite element models using COMSOL Multiphysics. We quantified depth integrals of vertical stress (i.e., the gravitational potential energy per unit area or GPE) and then we derived the HDS that balance the horizontal gradients in GPE. We performed the integration over series of single layers that encompasses the surface of variable topography down to a uniform depth of 10 km b.s.l. consistent with the base of the HISV. To compare the results of our numerical approaches we built a fine-scale, Island-wide, set of kinematically constrained deformation indicators (KCDI) using the slip-rate and fault style information from a comprehensive fault database for the HISV. We measure the success of each numerical approach by how well model HDS match the horizontal styles of the strain rates associated with KCDI. Thus far we find that the HDS obtained using the thin-sheet method match well with the KCDI. This may indicate that to first order that patterns of observed surface deformation on the HISV are governed by gradients in GPE. This provides a balance to the gravitationally-induced stresses associated with the volcano load. These HDS do not account for other competing sources of stress (e.g., flexure, magmatic, or hoop) that taken all together may combine to better explain the volcano spreading process for basaltic shield type

  4. Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress

    Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)


    Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.

  5. Maximum-power-point tracking with reduced mechanical stress applied to wind-energy-conversion-systems

    Gonzalez, L.G. [Departamento de Electronica y Comunicaciones, Universidad de los Andes, nucleo la Hechicera, 5101 Merida (Venezuela); Figueres, E.; Garcera, G. [Grupo de Sistemas Electronicos Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Carranza, O. [Escuela Superior de Computo, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Batiz s/n, 07738 DF (Mexico)


    This paper presents an improved maximum-power-point tracking algorithm for wind-energy-conversion-systems. The proposed method significantly reduces the turbine mechanical stress with regard to conventional techniques, so that both the maintenance needs and the medium time between failures are expected to be improved. To achieve these objectives, a sensorless speed control loop receives its reference signal from a modified Perturb and Observe algorithm, in which the typical steps on the reference speed have been substituted by a fixed and well-defined slope ramp signal. As a result, it is achieved a soft dynamic response of both the torque and the speed of the wind turbine, so that the whole system suffers from a lower mechanical stress than with conventional P and O techniques. The proposed method has been applied to a wind turbine based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator operating at variable speed, which is connected to the distribution grid by means of a back to back converter. (author)

  6. The Influence of the Supporting Wheel Deflection of Large-scale Rotary Kiln on Maximum Contact Stress

    Li Xuejun; Qiu Weiliang; Yuan Yincai; Li Ping


    The relation between the maximum contact stress ratio and deflection angle is derived from Hertz contact theory when the deflection of rotary kiln supporting wheel happens. According to the analysis of practical example, the maximum contact stress ratio within the deflection range of rotary kiln supporting wheel is listed. The contact stress will increase largely when rotary kiln supporting wheel deflects with little angle,which probably will result in accidents correlating to safety. This will provide theory conference for the design,the operating condition analysis and adjusting of the rotary kiln.

  7. Maximum Stress Estimation Model for Multi-Span Waler Beams with Deflections at the Supports Using Average Strains

    Sung Woo Park


    Full Text Available The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this paper, a maximum stress estimation model for a waler beam based on average strains measured from vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs, the most frequently used sensors in construction field, is presented. The model is derived by defining the relationship between the maximum stress and the average strains measured from VWSGs. In addition to the maximum stress, support reactions, deflections at supports, and the magnitudes of distributed loads for the beam structure can be identified by the estimation model using the average strains. Using simulation tests on two multi-span beams, the performance of the model is evaluated by estimating maximum stress, deflections at supports, support reactions, and the magnitudes of distributed loads.

  8. The Influence of Pressure Distribution on the Maximum Values of Stress in FEM Analysis of Plain Bearings

    Vasile Cojocaru


    Full Text Available Several methods can be used in the FEM studies to apply the loads on a plain bearing. The paper presents a comparative analysis of maximum stress obtained for three loading scenarios: resultant force applied on the shaft – bearing assembly, variable pressure with sinusoidal distribution applied on the bearing surface, variable pressure with parabolic distribution applied on the bearing surface.

  9. Towards quantifying horizontal stresses of free-polling pneumatic rubber tyres on road surfaces

    De Beer, Morris


    Full Text Available Multi-dimensional forces (and stresses) inside the contact patch of a freerolling pneumatic rubber tyre generally occur as a direct result of a complex interaction between flexible rubber and a rigid test surface or road surface. These forces...

  10. Comparison of Maximum Gear-Tooth Operating Bending Stresses Derived from Niemann's Analytical Procedure and the Finite Element Method

    Ándonios D. Tsolakis


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Main purpose of this study was to investigation toothed gear loading problems using the Finite Element Method. Approach: We used Niemann's equations to compare maximum bending stress which was developed at critical gear-tooth flank point during gear meshing, applied for three distinct spur-gear sizes, each having different teeth number, module and power rating. Results: The results emerging after the application of Niemann's equations were compared to the results derived by application of the Finite Element Method (FEM for the same gear-loading input data. Results are quite satisfactory, since von Mises' equivalent stresses calculated with FEM are of the same order with the results of classical analytical method. Conclusion: Judging from the emerging results, deviation of the two methods, analytical (Niemann's equations and computational (FEM, referring to maximum bending stress is fairly slight, independently of the applied geometrical and loading data of each gear.

  11. Effect of temperature-dependent surface heat transfer coefficient on the maximum surface stress in ceramics during quenching

    Shao, Y. F.; Song, F.; Jiang, C. P.; Xu, X. H.; Wei, J. C.; Zhou, Z. L.


    We study the difference in the maximum stress on a cylinder surface σmax using the measured surface heat transfer coefficient hm instead of its average value ha during quenching. In the quenching temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800°C, the maximum surface stress σmmax calculated by hm is always smaller than σamax calculated by ha, except in the case of 800°C; while the time to reach σmax calculated by hm (fmmax) is always earlier than that by ha (famax). It is inconsistent with the traditional view that σmax increases with increasing Biot number and the time to reach σmax decreases with increasing Biot number. Other temperature-dependent properties also have a small effect on the trend of their mutual ratios with quenching temperatures. Such a difference between the two maximum surface stresses is caused by the dramatic variation of hm with temperature, which needs to be considered in engineering analysis.

  12. Assessment of conditions of service to maximum demand in decennial horizon; Avaliacao das condicoes de atendimento a demanda maxima em horizonte decenal

    Guimaraes, Flavio Borsato; Nasser, Ivana Costa [Wise Systems, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Danielle Bueno de; Machado, Renato Simoes; Morozowski Filho, Marciano [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Planning the future hydro capacity in Brazil includes considering power reinforcements in the peak hours due to the increasing numbers of run-of-river plants. It means that the Brazilian's reservoir profile has been changing over the years from five years regularization to monthly regularization. This article presents a deterministic methodology to evaluate the capacity reserve of the Brazilian power system. It is based on the 'capacity reserve margin' calculation done by a monthly comparison between peak availability and maximum peak load. This methodology was applied to the Decennial Energy Expansion Plan 2019 (PDE 2019) and its final results are shown here through Peak Balances considering different operation conditions and the whole inflows historical records. Additionally, it is presented a suggestion about the evolution of peak evaluation criteria to be applied to the Brazilian power system on its expansion planning. (author)

  13. Performance and stress analysis of oxide thermoelectric module architecture designed for maximum power output

    Wijesekara, Waruna; Rosendahl, Lasse; Wu, NingYu;

    Oxide thermoelectric materials are promising candidates for energy harvesting from mid to high temperature heat sources. In this work, the oxide thermoelectric materials and the final design of the high temperature thermoelectric module were developed. Also, prototypes of oxide thermoelectric...... generator were built for high temperature applications. This paper specifically discusses the thermoelectric module design and the prototype validations of the design. Here p type calcium cobalt oxide and n type aluminum doped ZnO were developed as the oxide thermoelectric materials. Hot side and cold side...... temperatures were used as 1100 K and 400 K respectively. Using analytical methods, the optimum thermoelement length and the thermoelements area ratio were explored in order to provide the maximum power output by the uni-couple and it is compared to methods reported in literature. Based on operating conditions...

  14. Maximum Stress Estimation Model for Multi-Span Waler Beams with Deflections at the Supports Using Average Strains

    Sung Woo Park; Byung Kwan Oh; Hyo Seon Park


    The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this...

  15. Pressure Transient Analysis and Flux Distribution for Multistage Fractured Horizontal Wells in Triple-Porosity Reservoir Media with Consideration of Stress-Sensitivity Effect

    Jingjing Guo


    Full Text Available Triple-porosity model is usually adopted to describe reservoirs with multiscaled pore spaces, including matrix pores, natural fractures, and vugs. Multiple fractures created by hydraulic fracturing can effectively improve the connectivity between existing natural fractures and thus increase well deliverability. However, little work has been done on pressure transient behavior of multistage fractured horizontal wells in triple-porosity reservoirs. Based on source/sink function method, this paper presents a triple-porosity model to investigate the transient pressure dynamics and flux distribution for multistage fractured horizontal wells in fractured-vuggy reservoirs with consideration of stress-dependent natural fracture permeability. The model is semianalytically solved by discretizing hydraulic fractures and Pedrosa’s transformation, perturbation theory, and integration transformation method. Type curves of transient pressure dynamics are generated, and flux distribution among hydraulic fractures for a fractured horizontal well with constant production rate is also discussed. Parametric study shows that major influential parameters on transient pressure responses are parameters pertinent to reservoir properties, interporosity mass transfer, and hydraulic fractures. Analysis of flux distribution indicates that flux density gradually increases from the horizontal wellbore to fracture tips, and the flux contribution of outermost fractures is higher than that of inner fractures. The model can also be extended to optimize hydraulic fracture parameters.

  16. Influence of oxidative stress, diaphragm fatigue, and inspiratory muscle training on the plasma cytokine response to maximum sustainable voluntary ventilation.

    Mills, Dean E; Johnson, Michael A; McPhilimey, Martin J; Williams, Neil C; Gonzalez, Javier T; Barnett, Yvonne A; Sharpe, Graham R


    The influence of oxidative stress, diaphragm fatigue, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on the cytokine response to maximum sustainable voluntary ventilation (MSVV) is unknown. Twelve healthy males were divided equally into an IMT or placebo (PLA) group, and before and after a 6-wk intervention they undertook, on separate days, 1 h of (1) passive rest and (2) MSVV, whereby participants undertook volitional hyperpnea at rest that mimicked the breathing and respiratory muscle recruitment patterns commensurate with heavy cycling exercise. Plasma cytokines remained unchanged during passive rest. There was a main effect of time (P ventilation and increases in plasma IL-6 concentration. In conclusion, increases in plasma IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations during MSVV were not due to diaphragm fatigue or DNA damage in PBMC. Increases in plasma IL-6 concentration during MSVV are attenuated following IMT, and the plasma IL-6 response is dependent upon the level of respiratory muscle work and minute ventilation.

  17. Analytical modeling of the lattice and thermo-elastic coefficient mismatch-induced stress into silicon nanowires horizontally embedded on insulator-on-silicon substrates

    Chatterjee, Sulagna; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan


    In the current work, an analytical model has been developed to estimate the amount of induced stress in nanowires which are horizontally embedded with different fractions within an Insulator-on-Silicon substrate. For estimating such stress, different crystallographic orientations of substrates and embedded nanowires have been considered. The induced stress for both the difference in thermo-elastic constants and lattice-mismatch is included and accuracy of the analytical model has been verified with the similar results obtained from ANSYS Multiphysics. Induced stress is observed to be insensitive of the nanowire size, however, depends significantly on the fractional insertion of the nanowires. A tensile stress of 1.95 GPa and a compressive stress of -1.0719 GPa have been obtained for the oriented Si-nanowires. Hole mobility of 850 cm2/Vs can be achieved for the 3/4th insertion of the nanowires which is comparable to electron mobility and therefore can be utilized for the design of symmetric nano-electronic devices.

  18. Horizontal Accelerator

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  19. Tectonic stress in the plates

    Richardson, R. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Sleep, N. H.


    In the present paper, the basic set of global intraplate stress orientation data is plotted and tabulated. Although the global intraplate stress field is complicated, several large-scale patterns can be seen. Much of stable North America is characterized by an E-W to NE-SW trend for the maximum compressive stress. South American lithosphere beneath the Andes, and perhaps farther east in the stable interior, has horizontal compressive stresses trending E-W to NW-SE. Western Europe north of the Alps is characterized by a NW-SE trending maximum horizontal compression, while Asia has the maximum horizontal compressive stress trending more nearly N-S, especially near the Himalayan front.

  20. Tectonic stress in the plates

    Richardson, R. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Sleep, N. H.


    In the present paper, the basic set of global intraplate stress orientation data is plotted and tabulated. Although the global intraplate stress field is complicated, several large-scale patterns can be seen. Much of stable North America is characterized by an E-W to NE-SW trend for the maximum compressive stress. South American lithosphere beneath the Andes, and perhaps farther east in the stable interior, has horizontal compressive stresses trending E-W to NW-SE. Western Europe north of the Alps is characterized by a NW-SE trending maximum horizontal compression, while Asia has the maximum horizontal compressive stress trending more nearly N-S, especially near the Himalayan front.

  1. Experimental study on natural convection of cold water near the maximum density in horizontal annulus%水平环缝内冷水自然对流换热实验

    唐经文; 王林豪; 高诚; 梁鑫俐; 李佳


    对水平环缝内冷水自然对流换热性能进行了实验研究.水平环缝宽度为6~18 mm,外壁温度维持0℃,换热温差为2~24℃.结果表明,在实验范围内,内壁面的平均表面传热系数随环缝宽度的增大而增加;当温差小于4℃或大于8℃时,平均表面传热系数随温差的增大而增大,在4~8℃范围内,随温差的增大而减小.采用逐步线性回归方法,得到了内壁传热关联式.%This paper conducts the experimental study on the natural convection characteristics of cold water near the maximum density in horizontal annulus with the fixed inner radius r_i=14 mm and different width l = 6~18 mm. The temperature at outer wall is maintained at 0 ℃, and the temperature differences between the inner and outer walls range from 2 to 24 ℃. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient at inner wall increases with the increase of the annulus width. When the temperature difference is bellow 4 ℃ or above 8 ℃, the heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of the temperature difference. When the temperature difference is between 4 ℃ and 8 ℃, it. decreases with the increase of the temperature difference. The formula of heat transfer at inner walls is obtained by using the method of linear regression.

  2. Well Spacing for Horizontal Wells

    C.D.S. Keuengoua


    Full Text Available In the developing phase of a hydrocarbon reservoir and planning for drilling the production wells, it is necessary to drill the wells in an appropriate spacing to achieve maximum economic revenues during the reservoir life span. Well spacing which is the real location and interrelationship between producing oil or gas wells in an oil field is an important parameter. It is determined for the maximum ultimate production of a given reservoir and should be taken in consideration during well planning to avoid drilling of unnecessary wells. This study presents the concept of drainage area on horizontal well and horizontal productivity indices with different equations and their applications. A user friendly Excel Spreadsheet program was developed to calculate the productivity values of horizontal wells using three major available productivity equations. Also, the developed spreadsheet program was used to evaluate the effect of well spacing on the productivities of horizontal wells using productivity index approach and drainage area concept. It also helps to review the comparison between vertical and horizontal wells spacing based on drainage area concept. This program was validated, and then was used to study the effect of horizontal well length on the ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity. The results show that higher ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity values are obtained with increase length of the horizontal well. It is a very useful tool for making decision about the application of well spacing for horizontal wells.

  3. Sliding Downhill Horizontally

    Zurcher, Ulrich


    We study the motion of object sliding on a rough incline plane. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the surface and the object is such that the magnitude of the gravitational force along the incline F is equal to the magnitude of the kinetic friction S. If the initial velocity of the object is along the incline, the object slides down the incline with constant velocity. We study the case when the object in launched in horizontal direction. We derive exact expressions for the terminal speed of the object and the maximum horizontal displacement of the object.

  4. Use of Maximum Likelihood-Mixed Models to select stable reference genes: a case of heat stress response in sheep

    Salces Judit


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal, gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental

  5. Work ability and stress in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil Avaliação da capacidade para o trabalho e estresse em uma empresa de transporte coletivo de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Rosana Ferreira Sampaio


    Full Text Available Demographic, occupational and psychosocial characteristics affect the health and occupational performance of workers. The objective of the present study was to elaborate a profile of the work ability and factors that affect it in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The instruments used included a socio-demographic and occupational questionnaire, the Work Ability Index and the Job Stress Scale. Demographic information revealed that 85.7% of the 126 employees of the company were active workers, 98% were males, with an average of 39 years of age (SD= 10 and 79 months working in the company (SD= 68; more than half reported having a low schooling level. In terms of personal habits, 88% were exposed to one or more risk factors, especially a sedentary lifestyle. The average strain value (as a consequence of stress was 0.78 (SD= 0.2 and 75.3% reported episodes of violence at the workplace. The work ability was good to excellent among 89% of the workers. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that strain was the only significant variable in relation to the Work Ability Index, (estimated odds ratio of 0.02. The results suggest that psychosocial factors presented the greatest association with work ability, and preventive and/or corrective measures should be implemented.Características demográficas, ocupacionais e psicossociais afetam a saúde e o desempenho dos trabalhadores. O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar um perfil da capacidade para o trabalho e fatores que a afetam em uma empresa de transporte coletivo de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Índice de Capacidade para o Trabalho, a Job Stress Scale e um questionário sociodemográfico e ocupacional. Dos 126 trabalhadores, 14,3% estavam aposentados ou afastados, todos por doença. Entre os ativos, a maioria era do sexo masculino (98%, com idade média de 39 anos (DP=10, baixa escolaridade (acima de 50% e tempo médio na empresa de 79 meses

  6. The de-correlation of westerly winds and westerly-wind stress over the Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Liu, Wei; Lu, Jian; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Liu, Zhengyu; Zhu, Jiang


    This paper investigates the changes of the Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) and Southern Ocean (SO) upwelling between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and preindustrial (PI) in the PMIP3/CMIP5 simulations, highlighting the role of the Antarctic sea ice in modulating the wind stress effect on the ocean. Particularly, a discrepancy may occur between the changes in SWW and westerly wind stress, caused primarily by an equatorward expansion of winter Antarctic sea ice that undermines the wind stress in driving the liquid ocean. Such discrepancy may reflect the LGM condition in reality, in view of that the model simulates this condition has most credible simulation of modern SWW and Antarctic sea ice. The effect of wind stress on the SO upwelling is further explored via the wind-induced Ekman pumping, which is reduced under the LGM condition in all models, in part by the sea-ice “capping” effect present in the models.

  7. Is crack branching under shear loading caused by shear fracture? ——A critical review on maximum circumferential stress theory



    When a crack is subjected to shear force, crack branching usually occurs. Theoretical study shows that the crack branching under shear loading is caused by tensile stress, but not caused by shear fracture. The co-plane shear fracture could be obtained if compressive stress with given direction is applied to the specimen, subsequently, calculated shear fracture toughness, KⅡ C, is larger than KⅠ C. A prerequisite of possible occurrence of mode Ⅱ fracture was proposed. The study of shear fracture shows that the maximum circumferential stress theory considered its criterion as a parametric equation of a curve in KⅠ, KⅡ plane is incorrect; the predicted ratio KⅡ C/KⅠ C=0.866 is incorrect too.

  8. The Role Of The Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ) On Horizontal Stress (SH) Orientations In Northern Germany And Surrounding Regions

    Connelly, P. T.; Hettel, S.; Fleckenstein, P.

    A major component of the European stress field is the negative isostatic point developed close to the German North Sea coast [1] which separates the Norwegian margin (SH trends EW) from the British Isles and most of W Europe (NWSE trending SH). > 100 new SH orientation data from the preevaporite sequence of the N Germany region support existing data that south of the isostatic point SH exhibits a fanning geometry. Initial 2D elastic finite element (FE) models of N. Germany incorporated all recognized basement faults and used "typical European stress field" (i.e. NWSE SH farfield, SH = 20MPa; Sh = 15MPa) boundary conditions. These models do not reproduce the regional swing in SH orientation observed. Furthermore, no significant improvement in the fit was found for a wide range of boundary conditionsand fault properties (rheological and frictional). Previous workers [2, 3] have used panEuropean models to study central Eu- rope and the Norwegian Margin respectively. Following this reasoning panEuropean FE models extending eastwards from the MidAtlantic ridge to the 35r line of longitude (and southward from the Jan Mayen frac- ture zone to the N margin of Africa were constructed. The models included up to 15 major tectonic terranes within continental Europe the elastic properties of which where varied. It was found that relative elastic properties closely mimicking the local heat flow provided a closest fit to SH orientation data for most of Europe. Relative loads of 25MPa were applied normal to spreading ridge segments and in a NW direction to the African margin. Movement parallel to the JanMayen Fracture Zone was allowed, whilst its onshore continuation, and the E. margin of the model, was limited by "foundation elements". The TESZ was mod- elled in 3 different ways: 1) absent, 2) as a frictional structure and 3) as a locked structure. Omitting the TESZ from the models gave a reasonable fit across most of Europe but located the SH fan too far east, as reported by

  9. Modern tectonic stress field deeply in Xuzhou Coal Mine

    Zhen-jie JING; Fu-ren XIE; Xiao-feng CUI; Jing-fei ZHANG


    By inverting fault slip data,the parameters of 12 tectonic stress tensors in the mine region can be determined.The following characteristics can be obtained for recent tectonic stress fields,which are found deep in the study region.The results show that the recent tectonic stress field mainly presents the characteristics of near NWW-SSE maximum compressional stress and near NE-SW minimum extensional stress,while the stress regimes are mainly of strike slip,part of the reverse-fault type.Recent tectonic stress field in the region is characterized by horizontal components.The maximum principal compression stress direction was from NEE to SEE,the average principal compression stress direction was near NWW-SSE maximum compressional stress and near NE-SW minimum extensional.The recent tectonic stress field of the studied area can be controlled by a large tectonic stress area.

  10. Maximum Fidelity

    Kinkhabwala, Ali


    The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...

  11. Stress perturbation associated with the Amazonas and other ancient continental rifts

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Richardson, Randall M.


    The state of stress in the vicinity of old continental rifts is examined to investigate the possibility that crustal structure associated with ancient rifts (specifically a dense rift pillow in the lower crust) may modify substantially the regional stress field. Both shallow (2.0-2.6 km depth) breakout data and deep (20-45 km depth) crustal earthquake focal mechanisms indicate a N to NNE maximum horizontal compression in the vicinity of the Paleozoic Amazonas rift in central Brazil. This compressive stress direction is nearly perpendicular to the rift structure and represents a ˜75° rotation relative to a regional E-W compressive stress direction in the South American plate. Elastic two-dimensional finite element models of the density structure associated with the Amazonas rift (as inferred from independent gravity modeling) indicate that elastic support of this dense feature would generate horizontal rift-normal compressional stresses between 60 and 120 MPa, with values of 80-100 MPa probably most representative of the overall structure. The observed ˜75° stress rotation constrains the ratio of the regional horizontal stress difference to the rift-normal compressive stress to be between 0.25 and 1.0, suggesting that this rift-normal stress may be from 1 to 4 times larger than the regional horizontal stress difference. A general expression for the modification of the normalized local horizontal shear stress (relative to the regional horizontal shear stress) shows that the same ratio of the rift-normal compression relative to the regional horizontal stress difference, which controls the amount of stress rotation, also determines whether the superposed stress increases or decreases the local maximum horizontal shear stress. The potential for fault reactivation of ancient continental rifts in general is analyzed considering both the local stress rotation and modification of horizontal shear stress for both thrust and strike-slip stress regimes. In the Amazonas

  12. Horizontally oriented plates in clouds

    Bréon, François-Marie


    Horizontally oriented plates in clouds generate a sharp specular reflectance signal in the glint direction, often referred to as "subsun". This signal (amplitude and width) may be used to analyze the relative area fraction of oriented plates in the cloud top layer and their characteristic tilt angle to the horizontal. We make use of spaceborne measurements from the POLDER instrument to provide a statistical analysis of these parameters. More than half of the clouds show a detectable maximum reflectance in the glint direction, although this maximum may be rather faint. The typical effective fraction (area weighted) of oriented plates in clouds lies between 10-3 and 10-2. For those oriented plates, the characteristic tilt angle is less than 1 degree in most cases. These low fractions imply that the impact of oriented plates on the cloud albedo is insignificant. The largest proportion of clouds with horizontally oriented plates is found in the range 500-700 hPa, in agreement with typical in situ observation of p...

  13. Stress Formula of Soil under Horizontal Line Load%水平向线荷载作用下土中应力

    吴小锋; 李光范; 骆俊晖


    Based on Melan integral, integral method was used to deduce the stress formula of soil under vertical line load and arbitrary Poisson' s ratio. The results indicated that when the line loads act on the ground surface, the stress formula of soil under arbitrary Poisson' s ratio is equal to the formula under Poisson' s ratio (0. 5). Because domestic soil mechanics textbooks have no such stress bubble graphics, a detailed mapping of stress bulbs under vertical liner load was given, which provide convenient for the judgment about the stress distribution form in engineering foundation.%在MELAN积分的思想上,通过积分法详细完整推导了在水平向线荷载下、任意泊松比下的土中应力公式,通过比较发现,当线荷载作用在地基表面时,任意泊松比下的土中应力公式等同于泊松比为0.5时的应力表达式.同时,鉴于国内土力学教材中无此荷载下的应力泡图形,给出了应力泡的详细绘制方法,为工程中地基中的应力分布形式的判断提供方便.

  14. Stress perturbation associated with the Amazonas and other ancient continental rifts

    Zoback, M.L.; Richardson, R.M.


    The state of stress in the vicinity of old continental rifts is examined to investigate the possibility that crustal structure associated with ancient rifts (specifically a dense rift pillow in the lower crust) may modify substantially the regional stress field. Both shallow (2.0-2.6 km depth) breakout data and deep (20-45 km depth) crustal earthquake focal mechanisms indicate a N to NNE maximum horizontal compression in the vicinity of the Paleozoic Amazonas rift in central Brazil. This compressive stress direction is nearly perpendicular to the rift structure and represents a ???75?? rotation relative to a regional E-W compressive stress direction in the South American plate. Elastic two-dimensional finite element models of the density structure associated with the Amazonas rift (as inferred from independent gravity modeling) indicate that elastic support of this dense feature would generate horizontal rift-normal compressional stresses between 60 and 120 MPa, with values of 80-100 MPa probably most representative of the overall structure. The observed ???75?? stress rotation constrains the ratio of the regional horizontal stress difference to the rift-normal compressive stress to be between 0.25 and 1.0, suggesting that this rift-normal stress may be from 1 to 4 times larger than the regional horizontal stress difference. A general expression for the modification of the normalized local horizontal shear stress (relative to the regional horizontal shear stress) shows that the same ratio of the rift-normal compression relative to the regional horizontal stress difference, which controls the amount of stress rotation, also determines whether the superposed stress increases or decreases the local maximum horizontal shear stress. The potential for fault reactivation of ancient continental rifts in general is analyzed considering both the local stress rotation and modification of horizontal shear stress for both thrust and strike-slip stress regimes. In the Amazonas

  15. Bilateral horizontal Vogt’s striae in keratoconus

    Inci Ulu Güngör


    Full Text Available Inci Ulu Güngör, Ümit Beden, Baris SönmezOndokuz Mayis University, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Samsun, TurkeyPurpose: To report a keratoconus case with bilateral horizontal Vogt’s striae.Method: The clinical findings of the patient and the development of the direction of striae are discussed.Results: Vogt’s striae, defined as vertical stress lines, are rarely horizontal. One patient with unilateral horizontal stress lines on his left eye has been reported in the literature. Our patient has horizontal Vogt’s striae in both eyes.Conclusion: Horizontal Vogt’s striae may be seen in keratoconus as a rare slit-lamp biomicroscopic finding.Keywords: keratoconus, Vogt’s striae, horizontal stress lines


    Konstandinos G. Raptis


    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is the consideration of loading and contact problems encountered at rotating machine elements and especially at toothed gears. The later are some of the most commonly used mechanical components for rotary motion and power transmission. This fact proves the necessity for improved reliability and enhanced service life, which require precise and clear knowledge of the stress field at gear tooth. This study investigates the maximum allowable stresses occurring during spur gear tooth meshing computed using Niemann’s formulas at Highest Point of Single Tooth Contact (HPSTC. Gear material, module, power rating and number of teeth are considered as variable parameters. Furthermore, the maximum allowable stresses for maximum power transmission conditions are considered keeping the other parameters constant. After the application of Niemann’s formulas to both loading cases, the derived results are compared to the respective estimations of Finite Element Method (FEM using ANSYS software. Comparison of the results derived from Niemann’s formulas and FEM show that deviations between the two methods are kept at low level for both loading cases independently of the applied power (either random or maximum and the respective tangential load.

  17. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  18. Stress Related Fracturing in Dimension Stone Quarries

    Hamdi Deliormanli, Ahmet; Maerz, Norbert H.


    In Missouri, the horizontal stresses (pressures) in the near surface rock are uncommonly high. While the vertical stresses in rock are simply a function of the weight of the overlying rock, near surface stresses can be many times higher. The near surface horizontal stresses can be in excess of 5 times greater than the vertical stresses. In this research, Flatjack method was used to measure horizontal stress in Red Granite Quarry in Missouri. The flat jack method is an approved method of measuring ground stresses. A saw cut is used to “relax” the stress in the ground by allowing the rock to deform inwards the cut. A hydraulic flat jack is used to inflate the slot; to push the rock back to its stressed position, as measured by a strain gauge on either side of the slot. The pressure in the jack, when the rock is exactly back to its original position, is equal to the ground stress before the saw cut was made. According to the results, present production direction for each pit is not good because the maximum stress direction is perpendicular with production direction. This case causes unintentional breakage results in the loss rock. The results show that production direction should be changed.

  19. Stress Measurement with an Improved Hollow Inclusion Technique In Jinchuan Nickel Mine


    Borehole overcoring stress measurement with an improved hollow inclusion technique was carried out at 10 points on 3 levels in Jinchuan nickel mine which is situated in north-west of China. Through the measurement, 3-D in situ stress state at the measuring points and distribution characteristics of the stress field in the mine were obtained. The stress state in Jinchuan mine is dominated by the horizontal tectonic stress field. The maximum principal stress is horizontal which is about twice the weight of the overburden and its orientation is approximately vertical to the regional tectonic line. The difference between two horizontal principal stresses is quite large which is an important reason to cause failure of underground excavations.

  20. Estudio del horizonte local

    Ros Ferré, Rosa Maria


    El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical).

  1. 水平地震力作用下框架结构中楼梯的内力分析%Analysis of the stress of stairs in frame structure with under horizontal earthquake action

    刘木禾; 张超


    SAP2000 software was used to build the model of concrete frame structure with monolithic cast-in-site stairs,and the modal analysis was carried out in order to analyze the stress distribution of the stairs. The analysis results show that stress concentration occurs on area of the platform boards around stair shaft,the beams on both sides of gang-boards,and four angular points of gang-boards in different direction under hor-izontal earthquake action. The effect of stairs on frame structure should be allowed for when conducting seismic design.%利用SAP2000软件,建立了带有现浇整体式楼梯的混凝土框架结构模型,并对模型进行了振型分解法计算,分析了楼梯的内力分布情况,分析结果表明:在双向水平地震力作用下,梯井附近的平台板、梯板两侧连梁的位置以及梯板的四个角点附近在不同方向上会发生明显的应力集中,因此,楼梯对框架结构的影响在结构设计中不应忽略。

  2. Occupational stress of workers in a public hospital of belo horizonte: a case study in intensive care units Estrés ocupacional de los trabajadores de un hospital público de belo horizonte: un estudio de caso en los centros de tratamiento intensivo Estresse ocupacional dos trabalhadores de um hospital público de belo horizonte: um estudo de caso nos centros de terapia intensiva

    Maria de Lourdes Ulhôa


    Full Text Available This survey was conducted in 2009 to identify the main factors contributing to occupational stress of health workers in three adult ICUs of a public municipal hospital in Belo Horizonte. For this purpose a structured questionnaire was used with 28 questions taken from a version of the Job Stress Scale of the Demand-Control model of Karasek, abridged and adapted to Portuguese. This is a quantitative case study of a descriptive nature. One may consider that the objectives presented were achieved and that results indicated high levels of demand, control and social support. Correlation between the constructs showed no statistically significant differences for ICUs under study. Workers experience the work process actively and even when demands are excessive, they generate less harmful impacts because the worker can develop strategies to deal with difficulties of planning working hours according to his biological rhythms. The need to conduct research in the occupational health area is emphasized to develop and orient the hospital sectors together with the human resources sector to offer improved conditions for obtaining occupational health quality for these professionals.Esta investigación fue realizada en 2009 y tuvo como objetivo identificar los principales factores que contribuyen para el estrés ocupacional de los trabajadores de la salud en los tres CTIs adulto de un hospital público municipal de Belo Horizonte. Por ese motivo, se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado compuesto de 28 preguntas obtenidas de la versión resumida y adaptada para el portugués de la Job Stress Scale, proveniente del modelo de Demanda-Control de Karasek. Se trata de un estudio de caso cuantitativo de naturaleza descriptiva. Se puede considerar que los objetivos presentados fueron alcanzados y que los resultados indicaron altos niveles de Demanda, Control y Apoyo Social. La correlación entre los constructos no presenta diferencias estadísticamente significativas

  3. Putrescine production via the ornithine decarboxylation pathway improves the acid stress survival of Lactobacillus brevis and is part of a horizontally transferred acid resistance locus.

    Romano, Andrea; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A; Lucas, Patrick M


    Decarboxylation pathways are widespread among lactic acid bacteria; their physiological role is related to acid resistance through the regulation of the intracellular pH and to the production of metabolic energy via the generation of a proton motive force and its conversion into ATP. These pathways include, among others, biogenic amine (BA) production pathways. BA accumulation in foodstuffs is a health risk; thus, the study of the factors involved in their production is of major concern. The analysis of several lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from different environments, including fermented foods and beverages, revealed that the genes encoding these pathways are clustered on the chromosome, which suggests that these genes are part of a genetic hotspot related to acid stress resistance. Further attention was devoted to the ornithine decarboxylase pathway, which affords putrescine from ornithine. Studies were performed on three lactic acid bacteria belonging to different species. The ODC pathway was always shown to be involved in cytosolic pH alkalinisation and acid shock survival, which were observed to occur with a concomitant increase in putrescine production.

  4. In situ geomechanics of crystalline and sedimentary rocks; Part IV, continued field testing of the modified U.S. Geological Survey 3-D borehole stress probe

    Nichols, Thomas C.


    Two modified and calibrated U.S. Geological Survey 3-D borehole probes were successfully tested in the field at a site on South Table Mountain, near Golden, Colo. The probes were installed in separate core holes at depths of 84 and 99 cm in the latite cap rock and subsequently stress relieved with overcoring techniques. The determined stresses from both probes are very low and contain both tensile and compressive components. Magnitudes range from 1196 KPa in tension to 832 KPa in compression. The principal stress orientations are in fair agreement whereas the horizontal secondary principal stress directions are in good agreement; the maximum horizontal compressive stress is oriented N. 76? W.-S. 76? E. for one probe and N. 63? W.-S. 63? E. for the second probe. The greatest determined Young's modulus of the rock is in the N. 89? E. direction, only 15? from the maximum horizontal compressive stress direction.

  5. Characteristics of recent tectonic stress field in Jiashi, Xinjiang and adjacent regions

    CUI Xiao-feng


    In this paper, we analyze the general directional features of regional tectonic stress field in Jiashi, Xinjiang and adjacent regions from the data of focal mechanism solutions, borehole breakouts and fault slip. The direction of maximum horizontal principal stress given by these three sorts of stress data differs slightly, which indicates there is a NS-trending horizontal compression in the tectonic stress field in the region of interest. We also invert and analyze the temporal and spatial changes of recent tectonic stress field in the research region by using 137 focal mechanism solutions. The inverted results show that the maximum principal stress σ1 in Jiashi and adjacent regions is NNW-SSE with an azimuth of 162°. In the period from 1997 to 2003 before the occurrence of Jiashi-Bachu earthquake, the directions of the maximum principal stress σ1 and the minimum principal stress σ3 in Jiashi seismic source zone changed clockwise with respect to the tectonic stress field in the regions around. The maximum principal stress σ1 adjusted to the direction of NNE-SSW with an azimuth of 25°. Under the control of this tectonic stress field, a series of earthquakes happened, including the Jiashi strong earthquake swarm in 1997.Then, the tectonic stress field in the Jiashi seismic source zone might adjust again. And the tectonic stress field controlling the Jiashi-Bachu earthquake in 2003 was in accordance with the regions around.

  6. Investigating the Influence of Regional Stress on Fault and Fracture Permeability at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site

    Reeves, Donald M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Smith, Kenneth D. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Parashar, Rishi [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Collins, Cheryl [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Heintz, Kevin M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    Regional stress may exert considerable control on the permeability and hydraulic function (i.e., barrier to and/or conduit for fluid flow) of faults and fractures at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). In-situ measurements of the stress field are sparse in this area, and short period earthquake focal mechanisms are used to delineate principal horizontal stress orientations. Stress field inversion solutions to earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that Pahute Mesa is located within a transtensional faulting regime, represented by oblique slip on steeply dipping normal fault structures, with maximum horizontal stress ranging from N29°E to N63°E and average of N42°E. Average horizontal stress directions are in general agreement with large diameter borehole breakouts from Pahute Mesa analyzed in this study and with stress measurements from other locations on the NNSS.

  7. Analytical model and application of stress distribution on mining coal floor

    ZHU Shu-yun; JIAN Zhen-quan; HOU Hong-liang; XIAO Wei-guo; YAO Pu


    Given the analysis of underground pressure, a stress calculation model of coal floor stress has been established based on a theory of elasticity. The model presents the law of stress distribution on the relatively fixed position of the mining coal floor: the extent of stress variation in a fixed floor position decreases gradually along with depth, the decreasing rate of the vertical stress is clearly larger than that of the horizontal stress at a specific depth. The direction of the maximum principal stress changes gradually from a vertical direction to a horizontal direction with the advance of the working face. The deformation and permeability of the rock mass of the coal floor are obtained by contrasting the difference of the principal stress established from theoretical calculations with curves of stress-strain and permeability-strain from tests, which is an important mechanical basis for preventing water inrush from confined aquifers.

  8. RETRACTED: Rift-related active fault-system and a direction of maximum horizontal stress in the Cairo-Suez district, northeastern Egypt: A new approach from EMR-Technique and Cerescope data

    Hagag, Wael; Obermeyer, Hennes


    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( This article has been retracted at the request of Editor-in-Chief Read Mapeo in agreement with Editor-in-Chief Damien Delvaux. The authors have plagiarized part of the following papers. The introduction and methodology sections of the paper are similar and in places slightly modified versions of the abstract, introduction and sections and of the PhD Thesis of Michael Krumbholz (2010) Text from the sections of introduction, methodology and "EMR-measurements in the Cairo-Suez district" is found also in the paper "Detection of active faults using EMR-Technique and Cerescope at Landau area in central Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany" that was published by the authors in the Journal of Applied Geophysics 124 (2016) 117-129 One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  9. Present-day stress orientation in the Molasse Basin

    Reinecker, John; Tingay, Mark; Müller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver


    The present-day state of stress in Western Europe is considered to be controlled by forces acting at the plate boundaries. It is assumed that the Alpine orogen only influence the regional pattern of present-day stress in Western Europe within the Alps themselves. We examine the present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation in the Molasse Basin in the Alpine foreland in order to investigate the possible influence of the Alps on the far-field stress pattern of Western Europe. Four-arm caliper and image logs were analysed in 137 wells, in which a total of 1348 borehole breakouts and 59 drilling-induced fractures were observed in 98 wells in the German Molasse Basin. The borehole breakouts and drilling-induced fractures reveal that stress orientations are highly consistent within the Molasse Basin and that the present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation rotates from N-S in southeast Germany (002°N ± 19°) to approximately NNW-SSE in southwest Germany and the Swiss Molasse Basin (150°N ± 24°). The present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation in the Molasse Basin is broadly perpendicular to the strike of the Alpine front, indicating that the stress pattern is probably controlled by gravitational potential energy of Alpine topography rather than by plate boundary forces. The present-day maximum horizontal stress orientations determined herein have important implications for the production of hydrocarbons and geothermal energy in the German Molasse Basin, in particular that hydraulically-induced fractures are likely to propagate N-S and that wells deviated to the north or south may have reduced wellbore instability problems.

  10. Progress of interfacial shear stress in the gas-liquid stratified flow in horizontal pipes%水平管气液两相分层流界面剪切预测研究进展

    郑平; 赵梁


    The gas-liquid two-phase stratified flow has complex momentum and energy transmission phenomena at interface,although its pattern is simple. There are still no unified conclusions for interfacial shear stress in stratified flow. Current progress of interfacial shear stress in horizontal pipes were elaborated by theoretical models,experimental models and numerical simulations. As for theoretical models,closure models were established by models simplification and empirical correlations. Empirical correlations were corrected with closure relations in experiments. Due to simplifying assumptions and experimental conditions,there are some limitations in predicting the interfacial shear stress with theoretical and experimental ways. The detailed flow fields were studied by numerical simulations,but closure relations have been less obtained so far. Five existing models are compared according to liquid holdup and pressure drop. The future research trends of gas-liquid two-phase stratified flow interfacial shear stress in horizontal pipes were further discussed. More detailed local models are needed to be proposed and engineering practice should be taken into account. It is necessary to develop new methods of gas-liquid interface calculations and closure relations for numerical simulations.%水平管气液两相分层流虽流型简单,但由于界面存在复杂的动量和能量传递,分层流的界面剪切预测至今没有一致的结论。本文从理论模型、实验模型、数值计算3个角度出发,详细阐述水平管气液两相分层流界面剪切预测的研究现状,得出不同研究方法的优势和缺陷。针对3种研究方法,指出理论模型通过模型简化和经验关联式来建立封闭模型,实验模型则在封闭关系上修正经验关联式,但由于简化假设和实验条件的限制,使得这两种研究方法对界面剪切应力的预测具有一定的局限性;数值计算能够弥补机理模型在流场细

  11. Erosion characteristics and horizontal variability for small erosion depths in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Manning, Andrew J.; Work, Paul


    Erodibility of cohesive sediment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) was investigated with an erosion microcosm. Erosion depths in the Delta and in the microcosm were estimated to be about one floc diameter over a range of shear stresses and times comparable to half of a typical tidal cycle. Using the conventional assumption of horizontally homogeneous bed sediment, data from 27 of 34 microcosm experiments indicate that the erosion rate coefficient increased as eroded mass increased, contrary to theory. We believe that small erosion depths, erosion rate coefficient deviation from theory, and visual observation of horizontally varying biota and texture at the sediment surface indicate that erosion cannot solely be a function of depth but must also vary horizontally. We test this hypothesis by developing a simple numerical model that includes horizontal heterogeneity, use it to develop an artificial time series of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in an erosion microcosm, then analyze that time series assuming horizontal homogeneity. A shear vane was used to estimate that the horizontal standard deviation of critical shear stress was about 30% of the mean value at a site in the Delta. The numerical model of the erosion microcosm included a normal distribution of initial critical shear stress, a linear increase in critical shear stress with eroded mass, an exponential decrease of erosion rate coefficient with eroded mass, and a stepped increase in applied shear stress. The maximum SSC for each step increased gradually, thus confounding identification of a single well-defined critical shear stress as encountered with the empirical data. Analysis of the artificial SSC time series with the assumption of a homogeneous bed reproduced the original profile of critical shear stress, but the erosion rate coefficient increased with eroded mass, similar to the empirical data. Thus, the numerical experiment confirms the small-depth erosion hypothesis. A linear

  12. Horizontal Connection and Horizontal Mean Curvature in Carnot Groups

    Kang Hai TAN; Xiao Ping YANG


    In this paper we give a geometric interpretation of the notion of the horizontal mean curvature which is introduced by Danielli-Garofalo-Nhieu and Pauls who recently introduced sub-Riemannian minimal surfaces in Carnot groups. This will be done by introducing a natural nonholonomic connection which is the restriction (projection) of the natural Riemannian connection on the horizontal bundle. For this nonholonomic connection and (intrinsic) regular hypersurfaces we introduce the notions of the horizontal second fundamental form and the horizontal shape operator. It turns out that the horizontal mean curvature is the trace of the horizontal shape operator.

  13. Horizontal roof gap of backfill hydraulic support

    张强; 张吉雄; 邰阳; 方坤; 殷伟


    For the backfill hydraulic support as the key equipment for achieving integration of backfilling and coal mining simultaneously in the practical process, its characteristics will directly influence the backfill body’s compression ratio. Horizontal roof gap, as a key parameter of backfilling characteristics, may impact the backfilling effect from the aspects of control of roof subsidence in advance, support stress, backfilling process and the support design. Firstly, the reason why horizontal roof gap exists was analyzed and its definition, causes and connotation were introduced, then adopting the Pro/E 3D simulation software, three typical 3D entity models of backfill hydraulic supports were built, based on the influence of horizontal roof gap on backfilling effect, and influence rules of four factors, i.e. support height, suspension height, suspension angle and tamping angle, were emphatically analyzed on horizontal roof gap. The results indicate that, the four factors all have significant impacts on horizontal roof gap, but show differences in influence trend and degree, showing negative linear correlation, positive linear correlation, positive semi-parabolic correlation and negative semi-parabolic correlation, respectively. Four legs type is the most adaptive to the four factors, while six legs (II) type has the poorest adaptability, and the horizontal roof gap is small under large support height, small suspension height, small suspension angle and large tamping angle situation. By means of optimizing structure components and their positional relation and suspension height of backfill scrape conveyor in the process of support design and through controlling working face deployment, roof subsidence in advance, mining height and backfilling during engineering application, the horizontal roof gap is optimized. The research results can be served as theoretical basis for support design and guidance for backfill support to have better performance in backfilling.

  14. Horizontally mounted solar collector

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)


    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.

  15. Horizontal drilling activity in Manitoba

    Fox, J.


    An update of horizontal well drilling in Manitoba was provided. Manitoba`s productive formations are: (1) the Bakken Formation, (2) the Lodgepole Formation, (3) the Mission Canyon Formation, (4) the Amaranth Formation, and (5) the Melita Formation. A total of 28 exploratory wells and 29 development wells, including 11 horizontal wells were drilled in 1996. The 11 horizontal wells accounted for 30 per cent of the drilling meterage. The leading drillers for horizontal wells in Manitoba are Tundra Oil and Gas, Chevron, Anderson and HCO. Production from horizontal wells in 1996 totaled 310 cubic meter per day. To date, no horizontal wells have been drilled in the Bakken Formation. The least successful horizontal well application has been in the Lodgepole Formation. A summary of horizontal well production was provided for each Formation. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Determination of in-situ rock stresses related to petroleum activities on the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Fejerskov, Morten


    In-situ rock stresses have proved to be important for exploration and production of hydrocarbons. This thesis uses various stress determination techniques to characterize the in-situ stress field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Leak off tests and borehole breakouts have been used to determine the in-situ stress in deep well bores. Overcoring and earthquake focal mechanisms data have also been compiled and evaluated together with stress information from petroleum wells. A new test procedure is suggested to improve the quality of leak off tests that emphasises the importance of accurate pressure determination, longer test periods and digital data sampling. Four-arm calliper logs are used to identify borehole breakouts on the Tampen Spur and Horda Platform. However, it proved difficult to distinguish borehole breakouts from other drilling processes since the elongations of the borehole consistently appeared in the direction of hole azimuth; drilling-induced key seats are here observed in vertical wells. This behaviour is discussed but not fully understood. This reduces the number of reliable stress data and their quality enormously and even casts some doubt about the quality of previous breakout studies from the North Sea. A highly compressive horizontal stress field seems to be present onshore and offshore Norway. Different stress determination techniques yield very consistent stress orientation, regional and internal variation. A 1. order stress direction is identified, where the maximum horizontal stress direction is rotating from N-S in the Barents Sea to NW-SE in the Norwegian Sea and WNW-ESE in the northern North Sea. At Tampen Spur, a dominant WNW-ESE maximum horizontal stress direction, normal to the major tectonic structures is identified as well as a minimum stress close to the vertical stress, the latter indicating high horizontal stresses. 250 refs., 91 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Stress

    ... diabetes. Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble.html Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent ...

  18. Stress

    ... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  19. Preliminary stress characterization for an in-situ stimulation experiment at the Grimsel Underground Laboratory

    Krietsch, Hannes; Doetsch, Joseph; Gischig, Valentin; Amann, Florian; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Madonna, Claudio; Evans, Keith; Valley, Benoit; Giardini, Domenico; Wiemer, Stefan; Maurer, Hansruedi; Loew, Simon


    the maximum horizontal stress strikes EW, the minimum horizontal stress strikes NS and sigma2 stress direction is sub-vertical dipping towards south. One sub-horizontal borehole dedicated to stress characterization penetrates one of the fault zones targeted for a future fault-slip experiment. Results reveal a significant drop in the minimum stress component towards the fault zone. This stress information will be critical for the planning of the stimulation phase of the project.

  20. Influence of Abutment Material on the Stress of Implant-supported All-ceramic Single Crown

    GAO Shaohuai; DUAN Haiying; LI Zhiyong


    In order to investigate the influence of abutment material on the stress of implant-supported all-ceramic single crown,a 3D finite element model of implant-supported mandibular first premolar was computed by COSMOS/M 2.85 software.Alumina,zirconia,and titanium were used as abutment materials respectively.Vertical 600 N and horizontal 225 N load was applied on the occlusal surface.The results show that the stress distribution of implant-supported single crown was similar for different abutment materials.Maximum stresses within the crown were higher when titanium abutment was used.Maximum stress of titanium abutment was lower than that of ceramic abutment.Within the screw and fixture,maximum stresses had no difference under vertical loading but higher as titanium abutment was used under horizontal loading.There was no difference of maximum stress within the bone when different abutment materials were used.The present findings indicate that the abutment material had no influence on the stress distribution of implant-supported allceramic single crown but maximum stress when the titanium abutment was lower than that of ceramic abument.

  1. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.


    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...

  2. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Maryam Raoof


    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  3. Ground stress and its impact on the stability of the surrounding rock in the Lüliang mining area

    Wang Lianguo; Lu Yinlong


    Ground stress is the fundamental cause of deformation and failure during underground structural engineering.Field stress measurements in the main coal bed in the Lüliang mining area were made by the bore hole,stress relief method.From these data the ground stress distribution of the mining area was obtained.The relationship between the horizontal principal stress and the deformation and failure of a roadway is discussed with an engineering example.The results indicate that horizontal stress dominates in the shallow crust in the Lüliang mining area.Roadways at different angles to the maximum principal stress have different levels of stress concentration.This leads to a significant difference in stability of the corresponding roadways.These research results provide an important criterion for determining roadway position and direction,stope layout,and roadway support design.

  4. Interpretation of the Haestholmen in situ state of stress based on core damage observations

    Hakala, M. [Gridpoint Finland Oy, (Finland)


    At the Haestholmen investigation site, direct in situ stress measurements, overcoring and hydraulic fracturing have been unsuccessful because of ring disking and horizontal hydraulic fracturing. Prior to this study, a detailed study on both core disking and ring disking was made, and based on those results an in situ state of stress interpretation method was developed. In this work this method is applied to the Haestholmen site. The interpretation is based on disk fracture type, spacing and shape. Also, the Hoek-Brown strength envelope and Poisson's ratio of intact rock are needed. The interpretation result is most reliable if both core disking and ring disking information at the same depth levels is available. A detailed core logging showed that ring disking is systematic below the -365 m level in the vertical overcoring stress measurement hole, HH-KR6. On the other hand, no representative core disking exists except for two points in two differently oriented subvertical boreholes HH-KR2 and HHKR7. Because the interpretation has to be based on ring disking only, upper and lower estimates for the vertical stress were set. These were gravitational and 67% of gravitational. Furthermore, the in situ stress state was assumed to be in horizontal and vertical planes, because the disking in vertical borehole HH-KR6 was not inclined. The interpretation resulted in a good estimate for the major horizontal stress but none of the horizontal stress rations ( 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ) or vertical stress assumptions studied are clearly more probable the others. At the 500 m level the resulting maximum horizontal stress is 41 MPa. If a linear fit through the zero depth and zero stress point is applied, the maximum horizontal stress gradient is 0.0818 z MPa/m with a standard deviation between 5 and 12 per cent. The orientation of the major horizontal stress is 108 with standard deviation of 21 degrees. The interpreted major horizontal stress state also indicated that


    Stjepan Antolović


    Full Text Available The interest and performance of horizontal drilling and completions has increased during the last two decades. Horizontal wells are advantageous compared to vertical wells in thin reservoirs, reservoirs with favorable vertical permeability and reservoirs with water and gas coning problems. In many reservoirs, the ratio of horizontal permeability to the vertical permeability is substantially larger than one and often is close to 10. Thus, these reservoirs are very good candidates for hydraulic fracturing. By hydraulic fracturing one or more fractures are created, which can be longitudinal or orthogonal. By that, flow is altered and it mostly conducts horizontally through reservoir toward horizontal wellbore. With this altered flow, fluid is produced faster, with less pressure loss by fluid unit of produced fluid. Some of the existing mathematical models to determine the productivity of multifractured horizontal wells are presented in this work (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Rate limits in silicon sheet growth - The connections between vertical and horizontal methods

    Thomas, Paul D.; Brown, Robert A.


    Meniscus-defined techniques for the growth of thin silicon sheets fall into two categories: vertical and horizontal growth. The interactions of the temperature field and the crystal shape are analyzed for both methods using two-dimensional finite-element models which include heat transfer and capillarity. Heat transfer in vertical growth systems is dominated by conduction in the melt and the crystal, with almost flat melt/crystal interfaces that are perpendicular to the direction of growth. The high axial temperature gradients characteristic of vertical growth lead to high thermal stresses. The maximum growth rate is also limited by capillarity which can restrict the conduction of heat from the melt into the crystal. In horizontal growth the melt/crystal interface stretches across the surface of the melt pool many times the crystal thickness, and low growth rates are achievable with careful temperature control. With a moderate axial temperature gradient in the sheet a substantial portion of the latent heat conducts along the sheet and the surface of the melt pool becomes supercooled, leading to dendritic growth. The thermal supercooling is surpressed by lowering the axial gradient in the crystal; this configuration is the most desirable for the growth of high quality crystals. An expression derived from scaling analysis relating the growth rate and the crucible temperature is shown to be reliable for horizontal growth.

  7. Present-day stress field of Southeast Asia

    Tingay, Mark; Morley, Chris; King, Rosalind; Hillis, Richard; Coblentz, David; Hall, Robert


    It is now well established that ridge push forces provide a major control on the plate-scale stress field in most of the Earth's tectonic plates. However, the Sunda plate that comprises much of Southeast Asia is one of only two plates not bounded by a major spreading centre and thus provides an opportunity to evaluate other forces that control the intraplate stress field. The Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Sunda plate is usually considered to be controlled by escape tectonics associated with India-Eurasia collision. However, the Sunda plate is bounded by a poorly understood and complex range of convergent and strike-slip zones and little is known about the effect of these other plate boundaries on the intraplate stress field in the region. We compile the first extensive stress dataset for Southeast Asia, containing 275 A-D quality (177 A-C) horizontal stress orientations, consisting of 72 stress indicators from earthquakes (located mostly on the periphery of the plate), 202 stress indicators from breakouts and drilling-induced fractures and one hydraulic fracture test within 14 provinces in the plate interior. This data reveals that a variable stress pattern exists throughout Southeast Asia that is largely inconsistent with the Sunda plate's approximately ESE absolute motion direction. The present-day maximum horizontal stress in Thailand, Vietnam and the Malay Basin is predominately north-south, consistent with the radiating stress patterns arising from the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, the present-day maximum horizontal stress is primarily oriented NW-SE in Borneo, a direction that may reflect plate-boundary forces or topographic stresses exerted by the central Borneo highlands. Furthermore, the South and Central Sumatra Basins exhibit a NE-SW maximum horizontal stress direction that is perpendicular to the Indo-Australian subduction front. Hence, the plate-scale stress field in Southeast Asia appears to be controlled by a combination of Himalayan

  8. Quantifying in situ stress magnitudes and orientations for Forsmark. Forsmark stage 2.2

    Martin, C. Derek (Univ. of Alberta (Canada))


    Stephansson et al. concluded that in the Fennoscandia shield: (1) there is a large horizontal stress component in the uppermost 1,000 m of bedrock, and (2) the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses exceed the vertical stress assuming the vertical stress is estimated from the weight of the overburden. Several stress campaigns involving both overcoring and hydraulic fracturing, including the hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures (HTPF), have been carried out at Forsmark to establish the in situ stress state. The results from the initial campaigns were summarised by Sjoeberg et al. which formed the bases for the stresses provided in the Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. Since then additional stress measurement campaigns have been completed. The results from these stress measurement campaigns support the conclusions from Stephansson et al. In addition to these in situ stress measurements the following additional studies were undertaken to aid in assessing the stress state at Forsmark. 1. A detailed televiewer survey of approximately 6,900 m of borehole walls to depths of 1,000 m was carried out to assess borehole wall damage, i.e. borehole breakouts. 2. Evaluation of nonlinear strains in laboratory samples to depths of approximately 800 m to assess if stress magnitudes were sufficient to create stress-induced microcracking. 3. Assessment of the magnitudes required to cause core disking and survey of core disking observed at Forsmark. The magnitudes and orientations from the stress measurement campaigns were analysed to establish the most likely stress magnitudes and orientations for Design Step D2 within the Target Area of the Complete Site Investigations. The maximum and minimum horizontal stress components are essentially the same as the maximum and intermediate principal stresses, sigma1 and sigma2, respectively. The minimum principal stress (sigma3) is synonymous with the vertical stress. The most likely range in values to be used in the design is also

  9. Stress

    Keller, Hanne Dauer


    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  10. Stress

    Keller, Hanne Dauer


    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  11. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete


    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...

  12. Optimizing for Large Planar Fractures in Multistage Horizontal Wells in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Using a Coupled Fluid and Geomechanics Simulator

    Hu, Xiexiaomen; Tutuncu, Azra; Eustes, Alfred; Augustine, Chad


    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) could potentially use technological advancements in coupled implementation of horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing techniques in tight oil and shale gas reservoirs along with improvements in reservoir simulation techniques to design and create EGS reservoirs. In this study, a commercial hydraulic fracture simulation package, Mangrove by Schlumberger, was used in an EGS model with largely distributed pre-existing natural fractures to model fracture propagation during the creation of a complex fracture network. The main goal of this study is to investigate optimum treatment parameters in creating multiple large, planar fractures to hydraulically connect a horizontal injection well and a horizontal production well that are 10,000 ft. deep and spaced 500 ft. apart from each other. A matrix of simulations for this study was carried out to determine the influence of reservoir and treatment parameters on preventing (or aiding) the creation of large planar fractures. The reservoir parameters investigated during the matrix simulations include the in-situ stress state and properties of the natural fracture set such as the primary and secondary fracture orientation, average fracture length, and average fracture spacing. The treatment parameters investigated during the simulations were fluid viscosity, proppant concentration, pump rate, and pump volume. A final simulation with optimized design parameters was performed. The optimized design simulation indicated that high fluid viscosity, high proppant concentration, large pump volume and pump rate tend to minimize the complexity of the created fracture network. Additionally, a reservoir with 'friendly' formation characteristics such as large stress anisotropy, natural fractures set parallel to the maximum horizontal principal stress (SHmax), and large natural fracture spacing also promote the creation of large planar fractures while minimizing fracture complexity.

  13. Stress

    Jensen, Line Skov; Lova, Lotte; Hansen, Zandra Kulikovsky; Schønemann, Emilie; Larsen, Line Lyngby; Colberg Olsen, Maria Sophia; Juhl, Nadja; Magnussen, Bogi Roin


    Stress er en tilstand som er meget omdiskuteret i samfundet, og dette besværliggør i en vis grad konkretiseringen af mulige løsningsforslag i bestræbelsen på at forebygge den såkaldte folkesygdom. Hovedkonklusionen er, at selv om der bliver gjort meget for at forebygge, er der ikke meget der aktivt kan sættes i værk for at reducere antallet af stressramte, før en fælles forståelse af stressårsager og effektiv stresshåndtering er fremlagt. Problemformuleringen er besvaret gennem en undersø...

  14. Study on in-situ stress measurement around coastal marginal land in Fujian

    LI Hong; AN Qi-mei; XIE Fu-ren


    The in-situ hydraulic fracturing stress measurements have been carried out around the coastal marginal land in Fujian Province. And the characteristics of magnitude, direction and distribution of tectonic stress have been obtained.Based on the observed stress data, the characteristics and activities of fault zones are analyzed and studied in the paper according to the Coulomb friction criteria. ① The maximum horizontal principal compressive stress is in the NW-WNW direction from the north to the south along the coastline verge, which is parallel to the strike of the NW-trending fault zone, consistent with the direction of principal compressive stress obtained from geological structure and across-fault deformation data, and different from that reflected by focal mechanism solution by about 20°. ② The horizontal principal stress increases with depth, the relation among three stresses is SH>Sv>Sh or SH≈Sv>Sh, and the stress state is liable to normal fault and strike-slip fault activities. ③ According to Coulomb friction criteria and taking the friction strength μ as 0.6~1.0 for analysis, the stress state reaching or exceeding the threshold for normal-fault frictional sliding near the fault implies that the current tectonic activity in the measuring area is mainly normal faulting. ④ The force source of current tectonic stress field comes mainly from the westward and northwestward horizontal extrusions from the Pacific and Philippine Plates respectively to the Eurasian Plate.

  15. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.

    Johns, Pat


    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  16. Experimental investigation of horizontal convection

    Muñoz Córdoba, Lucía


    Fluid circulation driven by buoyancy forces due to a thermal gradient on a horizontal boundary, known as horizontal convection, is experimentally studied. For that purpose, a methacrylate box with inner dimensions 300x150x150 mm3 (LxWxH) whose bottom is composed by a heat exchanger and a printed circuit board is lled with water. The heat exchanger provides a uniform temperature boundary condition while the printed circuit board provides a boundary condition of uniform heat ...

  17. Maximum likely scale estimation

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo


    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  18. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Paweł Kowalik


    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  19. Maximum information photoelectron metrology

    Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T


    Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...

  20. Challenges in reservoir engineering from prospects for horizontal wells

    Fayers, F.J.; Arbabi, S.; Aziz, K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering


    In this review paper, a variety of reservoir applications are illustrated where horizontal wells can have advantages over the use of conventional vertical wells. It is stressed that one of the key advantages relates to the opportunities to optimize the orientation and position of horizontal wells with respect to the principal directions for the reservoir depositional environment, but this may interact with natural fracture or fault directions, and the principal stress direction if hydraulic fracturing is to be considered. Analytical methods for calculating critical coning rates in homogeneous reservoirs are reviewed, and shown to give a very large range of results for horizontal wells. The potential significance of two-phase pressure drop within the wellbore on GOR performance is discussed, and a range of uncertainty by a factor of six is indicated between the use of various correlations for calculating the well pressure drop. In the final section studies are summarized for a gas coning application using ECLIPSE, a commercial simulator. The simulation results indicated an apparently invariant behaviour on GOR history with respect to the effects of wellbore two-phase pressure drop when the horizontal well was produced at constant rate in a homogeneous reservoir. However, when the controlling conditions on the horizontal well were made more representative, and reservoir non-uniformity was introduced, it was then found that the two-phase pressure drop became very significant. Some areas for further research are indicated. (Author)

  1. Horizontal distribution of mixed cloud type scene

    Guillaume, A.; Kahn, B. H.; Yue, Q.; Wong, S.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Wilson, B. D.; Wang, T.; Fetzer, E. J.


    We describe a novel method to uniquely characterize and quantify the scale dependence of mixed cloud scene geometry using cloud type classification reported with the 94GHz CloudSat radar. Only a fraction of all possible combinations of cloud types are observed at any along-track length scale considered. Cloud scenes most frequently contain only one or two cloud types. We show how cloud occurrence depends on the grid cell spatial resolution used to define cloud scenes. A maximum number of observed cloud scenes occur near 100 km with fewer cloud type combinations at smaller and larger scales. We then quantify the cloud lengths along the CloudSat track using both the cloud top classification and the vertical structure of cloud classification separately for each of the nine cloud types defined by CloudSat and for all clouds considered independent of cloud type. While the individual cloud types do not follow a clear power law behavior as a function of horizontal or vertical scale, a robust power law scaling of cloud geometry is observed when cloud type is not considered. The power law scaling exponent of horizontal length is approximated by β ≈ -5/3 over two to three orders of magnitude. The power law scaling exponent of vertical length is approximated by β ≈ -7/3 over two orders of magnitude. These exponents are in agreement with previous studies using numerical models, satellite, and in situ aircraft observations. In particular, the anisotropy in the horizontal and vertical scaling are nearly identical to recent aircraft observations of wind kinetic energy spectra, suggesting the underlying three-dimensional cloud geometry is strongly related to kinetic energy spectra.


    Paolo Macini


    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of the correct drill bit application in horizontal wells. Afler the analysis of the peculiarities of horizontal wells and drainholes drilling techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the application of both roller cone and fixed cutters drill bits have been discussed. Also, a review of the potential specific featuries useful for a correct drill bit selection in horizontal small diameter holes has been highlighted. Drill bits for these special applications, whose importance is quickly increasing nowadays, should be characterised by a design capable to deliver a good penetration rate low WOB, and, at the same time, be able to withstand high RPM without premature cutting structure failure and undergauge. Formation properties will also determine the cutting structure type and the eventual specific features for additional gauge and shoulder protection.

  3. Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories

    Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael


    Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...

  4. Maximum likely scale estimation

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo


    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....

  5. Explicit Dynamic FEM Analysis of Multipass Vertical-Horizontal Rolling

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; ZHAO Xian-ming; WU Di; Y.Kusaba


    Three passes of plate rolling during vertical-horizontal rolling process are simulated with explicit dynamic finite element method and updating geometric method. The equivalent strain and stress fields, and shape change at the head and tail of slab during rolling are obtained. The calculated result of the shape at the head and tail of slab is in good agreement with the measured one. The explicit dynamic finite element method and updating geometric method can be used effectively to analyze the multipass vertical-horizontal (V-H) rolling process.

  6. Information on stress conditions in the oceanic crust from oval fractures in a deep borehole

    Morin, R.H.


    Oval images etched into the wall of a deep borehole were detected in DSDP Hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, from analysis of an acoustic televiewer log. A systematic inspection of these ovals has identified intriguing consistencies in appearance that cannot be explained satisfactorily by a random, coincidental distribution of pillow lavas. As an alternative hypothesis, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to account for the generation and orientation of similarly curved, stress-induced fractures. Consequently, these oval features can be interpreted as fractures and related directly to stress conditions in the oceanic crust at this site. The azimuth of the oval center corresponds to the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress (SH), and the oval width, which spans approximately 180?? of the borehole, is aligned with the azimuth of minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh). The oval height is controlled by the fracture angle and thus is a function of the coefficient of internal friction of the rock. -from Author

  7. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso


    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  8. The effect of preparation height and taper on cement lute stress: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Jacobsen, P H; Wakefieldt, A J; O'Doherty, D M; Rees, J S


    Three dimensional finite element models of an upper second premolar and molar with full veneer gold crown preparations were developed from extracted samples. The cement lute width was kept constant at 40 microm, but the height and preparation taper were varied. For both models the preparation height was either 1.5 mm (short preparation) or 3 mm (long preparation). The preparation taper was either 10 degree or 30 degree, giving a total of eight models. Each model was loaded with a 10 N horizontal load, a 10 N vertical load or a 10 N load distributed across the occlusal surface. The maximum shear stress and the maximum Von Mises' stress in the cement lute of each model were recorded. For the premolar, the maximum shear stresses ranged from 0.3-5.43 MPa and the maximum Von Mises' stress ranged from 1.44-14.98 MPa. For the molar, the maximum shear stresses ranged from 0.15-5.22 MPa and the maximum Von Mises' stress ranged from 0.3 7-15.02 MPa. The stress fields were consistently higher in the premolar with a 30 degree preparation taper compared to the 10 degree taper. The attainment of a cavity taper of 100 is still important to minimise stress in the cement lute and is particularly important in teeth with a lower preparation surface area such as a premolar

  9. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    F. Topsøe


    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  10. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  11. Oriented cluster perforating technology and its application in horizontal wells

    Huabin Chen


    Full Text Available An oriented cluster perforating technology, which integrates both advantages of cluster and oriented perforating, will help solve a series of technical complexities in horizontal well drilling. For realizing its better application in oil and gas development, a series of technologies were developed including perforator self-weight eccentricity, matching of the electronic selective module codes with the surface program control, axial centralized contact signal transmission, and post-perforation intercluster sealing insulation. In this way, the following functions could be realized, such as cable-transmission horizontal well perforator self-weight orientation, dynamic signal transmission, reliable addressing & selective perforation and post-perforation intercluster sealing. The combined perforation and bridge plug or the multi-cluster perforation can be fulfilled in one trip of perforation string. As a result, the horizontal-well oriented cluster perforating technology based on cable conveying was developed. This technology was successfully applied in unconventional gas reservoir exploitation, such as shale gas and coalbed methane, with accurate orientation, reliable selective perforation and satisfactory inter-cluster sealing. The horizontal-well oriented cluster perforating technology benefits the orientation of horizontal well drilling with a definite target and direction, which provides a powerful support for the subsequent reservoir stimulation. It also promotes the fracturing fluid to sweep the principal pay zones to the maximum extent. Moreover, it is conductive to the formation of complex fracture networks in the reservoirs, making quality and efficient development of unconventional gas reservoirs possible.

  12. Film condensation of steam on externally finned horizontal tubes.

    Flook, Frederick A.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Filmwise condensation measurements of steam were made on horizontal finned tubes under vacuum and near-atmospheric conditions. Data were obtained for copper tubes with fins of rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, and parabolic cross sections, and for a commercially-available finned tube. A stainless steel finned tube was also tested to investigate the effect of thermal conductivity. Maximum enhancements of about 4.8 were obtained...

  13. Equalized near maximum likelihood detector


    This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.

  14. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John


    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  15. Partial Horizontal Laryngectomy and Epiglottiplasty


    In order to evaluate the availability of the lateral horizontal laryngectomy and anaplasty of epiglottis to treat somepatients with specific supraglottic carcinomas and hypopharyngeal carcinomas, 17 cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas were retrospectively analyzed, whose tumors were located at the lateral margin of epiglottis, aryepiglottic fold, medial wall of piriformfossa and were treated by the lateral horizontal laryngectomy and anaplasty of epiglottis. The results showed that all cases took food by mouth in postoperative 9-14 days and subjected to decannulation in postoperative 9-15 days. Three cases had postoperative hoarse voice. The free-disease survival rate of 3 years was 71.4 % in 14 cases followed up after the first surgical therapy, and the overall free-disease survival rate of 3 years was 85.7 % after the second surgical therapy. It was concluded that the manipulations of the lateral horizontal laryngectomy and epiglottiplasty were simple. It could alleviate the postoperative symptoms of aspiration and bucking remarkably and shorten their postoperative recovery time, yet does not lower the survival rate of patients if laryngocarcinoma or hypopharyngeal carcinoma cases were properly selected.

  16. Horizontal Flux of Biogenic Elements through PN Section in April 1994


    The horizontal flux of biogenic elements through PN section in April 1994 was calculated in the present paper using output of the OPYC model, which is a very general global model solving the full primitive equations forced by the atmospheric wind stress, observed heat flux, freshwater flux and cloudiness including a sea ice model both poles with rheology. However, since it is a global model, its resolution is rather coarse, less than 1°×1° horizontally and only 1 layer on continental shelf and 7 layers in the Okinawa Trough. We reconstructed the velocity profiles by ocean current modes evaluated from the hydrographic data along PN section and then used it to determine the flux of biogenic elements with the data collected during the Japanese cruise K94-04.   The results shown that the volume transport was about 33×1012cm3/s consistent with the OPYC model output, the maximum nitrate and phosphate flux densities were right on the shelf margin at the depth of about 300 m with the total fluxes 1.95×105 and 0.15×105 mol/s, respectively, the maximum dissolved oxygen and total carbon dioxide flux densities were on the surface layer near western side of the shelf margin and in the thermocline near the eastern side of the shelf margin with the total fluxes 1.43×108 L/s and 0.69×108 mol/s,respectively, through PN section in April 1994.

  17. Stress, strain rate and anisotropy in Kyushu, Japan

    Savage, M. K.; Aoki, Y.; Unglert, K.; Ohkura, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Shimizu, H.; Iguchi, M.; Tameguri, T.; Ohminato, T.; Mori, J.


    Seismic anisotropy, the directional dependence of wave speeds, may be caused by stress-oriented cracks or by strain-oriented minerals, yet few studies have quantitatively compared anisotropy to stress and strain over large regions. Here we compare crustal stress and strain rates on the Island of Kyushu, Japan, as measured from inversions of focal mechanisms, GPS and shear wave splitting. Over 85,000 shear wave splitting measurements from local and regional earthquakes are obtained from the NIED network between 2004 and 2012, and on Aso, Sakurajima, Kirishima and Unzen volcano networks. Strain rate measurements are made from the Japanese Geonet stations. JMA-determined S arrival times processed with the MFAST shear wave splitting code measure fast polarisations (Φ), related to the orientation of the anisotropic medium and time delays (dt), related to the path length and the percent anisotropy. We apply the TESSA 2-D delay time tomography and spatial averaging code to the highest quality events, which have nearly vertical incidence angles, separating the 3455 shallow (depth = 40 km) earthquakes. Using square grids with 30 km sides for all the inversions, the best correlations are observed between splitting from shallow earthquakes and stress. Axes of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) and Φ correlate with a coefficient c of 0.56, significant at the 99% confidence level. Their mean difference is 31.9°. Axes of maximum compressional strain rate and SHmax are also well aligned, with an average difference of 28°, but they do not correlate with each other, meaning that where they differ, the difference is not systematic. Anisotropy strength is negatively correlated with the stress ratio parameter determined from focal mechanism inversion (c = - 0.64; significant at the 99% confidence level). The anisotropy and stress results are consistent with stress-aligned microcracks in the crust in a dominantly strike-slip regime. Eigenvalues of maximum horizontal strain rate

  18. The stress regime in a Rotliegend reservoir of the Northeast German Basin

    Moeck, Inga; Schandelmeier, Heinz; Holl, Heinz-Gerd


    In-situ stresses have significant impact, either positive or negative, on the short and long term behaviour of fractured reservoirs. The knowledge of the stress conditions are therefore important for planning and utilization of man-made geothermal reservoirs. The geothermal field Groß Schönebeck (40 km north of Berlin/Germany) belongs to the key sites in the northeastern German Basin. We present a stress state determination for this Lower Permian (Rotliegend) reservoir by an integrated approach of 3D structural modelling, 3D fault mapping, stress ratio definition based on frictional constraints, and slip-tendency analysis. The results indicate stress ratios of the minimum horizontal stress S hmin being equal or increasing 0.55 times the amount of the vertical stress S V ( S hmin ≥ 0.55 S V ) and of the maximum horizontal stress S Hmax ≤ 0.78-1.00 S V in stress regimes from normal to strike slip faulting. Thus, acting stresses in the 4,100-m deep reservoir are S V = 100 MPa, S hmin = 55 MPa and S Hmax = 78-100 MPa. Values from hydraulic fracturing support these results. Various fault sets of the reservoir are characterized in terms of their potential to conduct geothermal fluids based on their slip and dilatation tendency. This combined approach can be adopted to any other geothermal site investigation.

  19. In-situ stress measurements and stress change monitoring to monitor overburden caving behaviour and hydraulic fracture pre-conditioning

    Puller Jesse W.; Mills Ken W.; Jeffrey Rob G.; Walker Rick J.


    A coal mine in New South Wales is longwall mining 300 m wide panels at a depth of 160–180 m directly below a 16–20 m thick conglomerate strata. As part of a strategy to use hydraulic fracturing to manage potential windblast and periodic caving hazards associated with these conglomerate strata, the in-situ stresses in the conglomerate were measured using ANZI strain cells and the overcoring method of stress relief. Changes in stress associated with abutment loading and placement of hydraulic fractures were also measured using ANZI strain cells installed from the surface and from underground. Overcore stress mea-surements have indicated that the vertical stress is the lowest principal stress so that hydraulic fractures placed ahead of mining form horizontally and so provide effective pre-conditioning to promote caving of the conglomerate strata. Monitoring of stress changes in the overburden strata during longwall retreat was undertaken at two different locations at the mine. The monitoring indicated stress changes were evi-dent 150 m ahead of the longwall face and abutment loading reached a maximum increase of about 7.5 MPa. The stresses ahead of mining change gradually with distance to the approaching longwall and in a direction consistent with the horizontal in-situ stresses. There was no evidence in the stress change monitoring results to indicate significant cyclical forward abutment loading ahead of the face. The for-ward abutment load determined from the stress change monitoring is consistent with the weight of over-burden strata overhanging the goaf indicated by subsidence monitoring.

  20. Panspermia and horizontal gene transfer

    Klyce, Brig


    Evidence that extremophiles are hardy and ubiquitous is helping to make panspermia a respectable theory. But even if life on Earth originally came from space, biologists assume that the subsequent evolution of life is still governed by the darwinian paradigm. In this review we show how panspermia could amend darwinism and point to a cosmic source for, not only extremophiles but, all of life. This version of panspermia can be called "strong panspermia." To support this theory we will discuss recent evidence pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, viruses, genes apparently older than the Earthly evolution of the features they encode, and primate-specific genes without identifiable precursors.

  1. Geopotential Stress

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral...

  2. Characteristics of in situ stress field at Qingshui coal mine

    Yang Xiaojie; Pang Jiewen; Lou Haopeng; Fan Lipeng


    In this study, the characteristics of geological structure at Qingshui coal mine were analyzed. And the hollow inclusion strain cell overcoring method was used to obtain the in situ stress. The effect of in situ stress on the stability of soft rock roadway was analyzed. The results show that the maximum principal stress is in the horizontal direction with a northeast orientation and has a value of about 1.2–1.9 times larger than gravity; the right side of roadway roof and floor is easily subject to serious deformation and failure, and the in situ stress is found to be a major factor. This paper presents important information for developing countermeasures against the large deformation of the soft rock roadway at Qingshui coal mine.

  3. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Bhattacharya Debashish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  4. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    M. Cuffaro


    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  5. Quasispecies theory for horizontal gene transfer and recombination

    Muñoz, Enrique; Park, Jeong-Man; Deem, Michael W.


    We introduce a generalization of the parallel, or Crow-Kimura, and Eigen models of molecular evolution to represent the exchange of genetic information between individuals in a population. We study the effect of different schemes of genetic recombination on the steady-state mean fitness and distribution of individuals in the population, through an analytic field theoretic mapping. We investigate both horizontal gene transfer from a population and recombination between pairs of individuals. Somewhat surprisingly, these nonlinear generalizations of quasispecies theory to modern biology are analytically solvable. For two-parent recombination, we find two selected phases, one of which is spectrally rigid. We present exact analytical formulas for the equilibrium mean fitness of the population, in terms of a maximum principle, which are generally applicable to any permutation invariant replication rate function. For smooth fitness landscapes, we show that when positive epistatic interactions are present, recombination or horizontal gene transfer introduces a mild load against selection. Conversely, if the fitness landscape exhibits negative epistasis, horizontal gene transfer or recombination introduces an advantage by enhancing selection towards the fittest genotypes. These results prove that the mutational deterministic hypothesis holds for quasispecies models. For the discontinuous single sharp peak fitness landscape, we show that horizontal gene transfer has no effect on the fitness, while recombination decreases the fitness, for both the parallel and the Eigen models. We present numerical and analytical results as well as phase diagrams for the different cases.

  6. Healed microcrack orientations in granite from Illinois borehole UPH-3 and their relationship to the rock's stress history

    Kowallis, Bart J.; Wang, Herbert F.; Jang, Bo-An


    Oriented granite cores from the Illinois borehole UPH-3 contain planes of secondary fluid inclusions, which represent healed microcracks. They record the orientation of a paleostress field, with the maximum stress in the horizontal plane oriented to the NNW about 90° from the present stress field orientation. These bubble planes probably formed while the granite was still quite warm (> 400° C) during initial cooling, uplift, and unroofing of the granite prior to deposition of younger overlying Cambrian sediments. The bubble planes have a much more uniform orientation than the open microcracks, which formed by stress-relief when the core was removed from the borehole.

  7. First-order estimate of the Canary Islands plate-scale stress field: Implications for volcanic hazard assessment

    Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Villaseñor, A.


    In volcanic areas, the existing stress field is a key parameter controlling magma generation, location and geometry of the magmatic plumbing systems and the distribution of the resulting volcanism at surface. Therefore, knowing the stress configuration in the lithosphere at any scale (i.e. local, regional and plate-scale) is fundamental to understand the distribution of volcanism and, subsequently, to interpret volcanic unrest and potential tectonic controls of future eruptions. The objective of the present work is to provide a first-order estimate of the plate-scale tectonic stresses acting on the Canary Islands, one of the largest active intraplate volcanic regions of the World. In order to obtain the orientation of the minimum and maximum horizontal compressive stresses, we perform a series of 2D finite element models of plate scale kinematics assuming plane stress approximation. Results obtained are used to develop a regional model, which takes into account recognized archipelago-scale structural discontinuities. Maximum horizontal compressive stress directions obtained are compared with available stress, geological and geodynamic data. The methodology used may be easily applied to other active volcanic regions, where a first order approach of their plate/regional stresses can be essential information to be used as input data for volcanic hazard assessment models.

  8. Horizontal gene transfer in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Li Bin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the model insect for the order Lepidoptera, has economically important values, and has gained some representative behavioral characteristics compared to its wild ancestor. The genome of B. mori has been fully sequenced while function analysis of BmChi-h and BmSuc1 genes revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT maybe bestow a clear selective advantage to B. mori. However, the role of HGT in the evolutionary history of B. mori is largely unexplored. In this study, we compare the whole genome of B. mori with those of 382 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species to investigate the potential HGTs. Results Ten candidate HGT events were defined in B. mori by comprehensive sequence analysis using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian method combining with EST checking. Phylogenetic analysis of the candidate HGT genes suggested that one HGT was plant-to- B. mori transfer while nine were bacteria-to- B. mori transfer. Furthermore, functional analysis based on expression, coexpression and related literature searching revealed that several HGT candidate genes have added important characters, such as resistance to pathogen, to B. mori. Conclusions Results from this study clearly demonstrated that HGTs play an important role in the evolution of B. mori although the number of HGT events in B. mori is in general smaller than those of microbes and other insects. In particular, interdomain HGTs in B. mori may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes.

  9. Effect of Preparation Taper, Height and Marginal Design Under Varying Occlusal Loading Conditions on Cement Lute Stress: A Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    Tripathi, Siddhi; Amarnath, Gowdagere Shamanna; Muddugangadhar, Byrasandra Channapa; Sharma, Ashish; Choudhary, Suchismita


    To assess the effect of preparation taper, height and margin design under different loading conditions on cement lute stress. A 3-D FE model of an upper second premolar and molar was developed from CT scan of human skull using software programmes (MIMICS, Hypermesh and ANSYS). 10° and 30° taper, 3 and 5 mm preparation height and shoulder and chamfer finish lines were used. Type 1 Glass ionomer cement with 24 μm lute width was taken and the model was loaded under 100 N horizontal point load, vertical point load distributed axial load. The maximum shear stress and Von Mises stress within the cement lute were recorded. The maximum shear stresses ranged from 1.70 to 3.93 MPa (horizontal point loading), 0.66 to 3.04 MPa (vertical point loading), 0.38 to 0.87 MPa (distributed loading). The maximum Von Mises stresses ranged from 3.39 to 10.62 MPa (horizontal point loading), 1.93 to 8.58 MPa (vertical point loading) and 1.49 to 3.57 MPa (distributed loading). The combination of 10° taper and 5 mm height had the lowest stress field while the combination of 30° taper and 5 mm height had the highest stress field. Distributed axial loading shows least stress, better stress homogenization and gives a favorable prognosis for the fixed prostheses. Smaller preparation taper of 10° is biomechanically more acceptable than a 30° taper. It is desirable to decrease taper as height increases. The chamfer margin design is associated with greater local cement stresses toward the margins that could place the cement at greater risk for microfracture and failure.

  10. Explorando nuevos horizontes en NASA

    Villanueva, G. L.

    A pesar de la incesante expansión del Universo iniciada con el Big Bang 14 mil millones de años atrás, nuestro Universo se siente cada día más cercano. La inquebrantable vocación de la humanidad por descubrir nuevos horizontes ha permitido el acercamiento de civilizaciones en nuestro planeta y nos ha permitido conocer nuestro lugar en el Universo como nunca antes. En este artículo presento una breve sinopsis de nuestro trabajo que se relaciona con diversas investigaciones con implicaciones astrobiológicas, desde el origen de los ingredientes de la "sopa de la vida", hasta la evolución y composición de la atmósfera de Marte.

  11. Uplift Pressure of Waves on A Horizontal Plate

    周益人; 陈国平; 黄海龙; 王登婷


    Uplift pressures of waves acting on horizontal plates are the important basis for design of maritime hollow-trussed structures. In this paper, an experimental study on the uplift pressures of waves on a horizontal plate is conducted by use of a series of model tests. Detailed analysis has been given to the formation mechanism of uplift pressures of waves. It is considered that the impact pressure intensity is mainly affected by geometrical factors (tangential angle of waves), dynamic factors (wave height, wave velocity, etc.) and air cushion. Based on the test results, an equation for calculation of the maximum uplift pressure intensity of waves on a plate is presented. A large quantity of test data shows good agreement of the present equation with the test results.

  12. Overall bolt stress optimization

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  13. In-situ stresses in the Southern Perth Basin at the GSWA Harvey-1 well site

    Rasouli, Vamegh 14Pervukhina, Marina 2Müller, Tobias M. 2Pevzner, Roman


    Knowledge of orientations and magnitudes of present-day stresses is important for different applications including fault reactivation, borehole stability and CO2 injection studies. As part of the West Hub Carbon Capture and Storage project, the GSWA Harvey-1 well was drilled in early 2012. It is located ~115km south of Perth and is used to assess the suitability for CO2 underground storage. The aim of this study is to estimate the mechanical properties and state of stress fields in the Southern Perth Basin. The analysis is based on the newly acquired log and VSP data and results of a rock mechanical model including vertical profiles of elastic and strength properties as well as identified breakout zones. The results indicate that the stress regime in the region is dominantly strike-slip. It changes to a reverse faulting system at shallow depths of below ~900m. Stress field orientation is obtained from borehole breakout analysis. The average azimuth of the maximum horizontal stress is 106° and the standard deviation is 10°. This direction of the maximum horizontal stress is broadly consistent with the east-west direction earlier reported for the Perth Basin.

  14. Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package

    A.K. Scheider


    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for that design only. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 11) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.


    Jin, C. L.; Wang, J. X., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)


    The ubiquitousness of the solar inter-network horizontal magnetic field has been revealed by space-borne observations with high spatial resolution and polarization sensitivity. However, no consensus has been achieved on the origin of the horizontal field among solar physicists. For a better understanding, in this study, we analyze the cyclic variation of the inter-network horizontal field by using the spectro-polarimeter observations provided by the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode, covering the interval from 2008 April to 2015 February. The method of wavelength integration is adopted to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is found that from 2008 to 2015 the inter-network horizontal field does not vary when solar activity increases, and the average flux density of the inter-network horizontal field is 87 ± 1 G, In addition, the imbalance between horizontal and vertical fields also keeps invariant within the scope of deviation, i.e., 8.7 ± 0.5, from the solar minimum to maximum of solar cycle 24. This result confirms that the inter-network horizontal field is independent of the sunspot cycle. The revelation favors the idea that a local dynamo is creating and maintaining the solar inter-network horizontal field.

  16. Optimization of horizontal well staggered patterns

    Zhao Chunsen; Li Peijing; Guan Dan; Liu Qingjuan


    Staggered line-drive patterns are widely used in oilfields. In this paper, to optimize a staggered pattern of horizontal wells, a 3D problem was divided into two 2D (x-y plane and y-z plane) problems with the pseudo-3D method, conformal transformation and superposition principle. A productivity equation for a horizontal well was deduced, which can be used to optimize the well pattern. A relationship between the length of horizontal wells and the shape factor of well patterns was established. The result shows that optimized well patterns can improve oil production from horizontal wells. This provides a theoretical basis for horizontal well applications to the development of oilfieids, especially for overall development of oilfields by horizontal wells.

  17. Evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer from the draft genome of a tardigrade

    Boothby, Thomas C; Tenlen, Jennifer R.; Smith, Frank W.; Wang, Jeremy R; Patanella, Kiera A.; Osborne Nishimura, Erin; Tintori, Sophia C.; Li, Qing; Jones, Corbin D.; Yandell, Mark; Messina, David N.; Glasscock, Jarret; Goldstein, Bob


    Despite fascinating scientists for over 200 years, little at the molecular level is known about tardigrades, microscopic animals resistant to extreme stresses. We present the genome of a tardigrade. Approximately one-sixth of the genes in the tardigrade genome were found to have been acquired through horizontal transfer, a proportion nearly double the proportion of previous known cases of extreme horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in animals. Foreign genes have impacted the composition of the tar...

  18. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for broiler chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 2. Effects on meat quality, oxidative stress, residues and histological traits.

    Pozzo, L; Cavallarin, L; Antoniazzi, S; Guerre, P; Biasibetti, E; Capucchio, M T; Schiavone, A


    The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC indicates that the maximum tolerable level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds is 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six 1-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups, a control (basal diet) and an OTA (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The OTA concentration was quantified in serum, liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were evaluated in the liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The glutathione (GSH) content, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in the liver and kidney samples. Histopathological traits were evaluated for the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver samples. Moreover, the chemical composition of the meat was analysed in breast and thigh samples. In the OTA diet-fed animals, a serum OTA concentration of 1.15 ± 0.35 ng/ml was found, and OTA was also detected in kidney and liver at 3.58 ± 0.85 ng OTA/g f.w. and 1.92 ± 0.21 ng OTA/g f.w., respectively. The TBARS content was higher in the kidney of the ochratoxin A group (1.53 ± 0.18 nmol/mg protein vs. 0.91 ± 0.25 nmol/mg protein). Feeding OTA at 0.1 mg OTA/kg also resulted in degenerative lesions in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver. The maximum tolerable level of 0.1 mg OTA/kg, established for poultry feeds by the EU, represents a safe limit for the final consumer, because no OTA residues were found in breast and thigh meat. Even though no clinical signs were noticed in the birds fed the OTA-contaminated diet, moderate histological lesions were observed in the liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius.

  19. Lithospheric flexure under the Hawaiian volcanic load: Internal stresses and a broken plate revealed by earthquakes

    Klein, Fred W.


    Several lines of earthquake evidence indicate that the lithospheric plate is broken under the load of the island of Hawai`i, where the geometry of the lithosphere is circular with a central depression. The plate bends concave downward surrounding a stress-free hole, rather than bending concave upward as with past assumptions. Earthquake focal mechanisms show that the center of load stress and the weak hole is between the summits of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea where the load is greatest. The earthquake gap at 21 km depth coincides with the predicted neutral plane of flexure where horizontal stress changes sign. Focal mechanism P axes below the neutral plane display a striking radial pattern pointing to the stress center. Earthquakes above the neutral plane in the north part of the island have opposite stress patterns; T axes tend to be radial. The M6.2 Honomu and M6.7 Kiholo main shocks (both at 39 km depth) are below the neutral plane and show radial compression, and the M6.0 Kiholo aftershock above the neutral plane has tangential compression. Earthquakes deeper than 20 km define a donut of seismicity around the stress center where flexural bending is a maximum. The hole is interpreted as the soft center where the lithospheric plate is broken. Kilauea's deep conduit is seismically active because it is in the ring of maximum bending. A simplified two-dimensional stress model for a bending slab with a load at one end yields stress orientations that agree with earthquake stress axes and radial P axes below the neutral plane. A previous inversion of deep Hawaiian focal mechanisms found a circular solution around the stress center that agrees with the model. For horizontal faults, the shear stress within the bending slab matches the slip in the deep Kilauea seismic zone and enhances outward slip of active flanks.

  20. Fingerprinting stress: stylolite and calcite twinning paleopiezometry reveal the complexity of stress distribution during the growth of the Monte Nero anticline (Apennines, Italy).

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Koehn, Daniel; Lacombe, Olivier; Lecouty, Alexandre; Billi, Andrea; Aharonov, Einat; Parlangeau, Camille


    This contribution presents for the first time how quantitative stress estimates can be derived by combining calcite twinning and stylolite roughness stress fingerprinting techniques in a structure part of a complex fold and thrust belts. We report a high-resolution deformation and stress history that was experienced by Meso-Cenozoic limestone strata in the overturned Monte Nero Anticline during its late Miocene-Pliocene growth in the Umbria-Marche Arcuate Ridge (northern Apennines, Italy). New methodological development enables an easier use for the inversion technique of sedimentary and tectonic stylolite roughness. A stylolite-fracture network developed during layer-parallel shortening (LPS), as well as syn- and post-folding. Stress fingerprinting shows how stress builds up in the sedimentary strata during LPS with variations of differential stress before folding around a value of 50 MPa. The stress regime oscillated between strike-slip and compressional during LPS and became transiently extensional in limbs of developing fold due to a coeval increase of vertical stress related to local burial and decrease of maximum horizontal stress related to hinge development, before ultimately becoming strike-slip again during late stage fold tightening. Our case study shows that stress fingerprinting is possible and that this novel method can be used to unravel complex temporal relationships that relate to local variations within evolving regional orogenic stresses. Beyond regional implication, this study validates our approach as a new exciting toolbox to high-resolution stress fingerprinting in basins and orogens.

  1. Widespread horizontal transfer of retrotransposons.

    Walsh, Ali Morton; Kortschak, R Daniel; Gardner, Michael G; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L


    In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element (LINE) about 3.2 kb long, that has been found in ruminants, marsupials, squamates, monotremes, and African mammals. BovB sequences are a major component of some of these genomes. Here we show that HT of BovB is significantly more widespread than believed, and we demonstrate the existence of two plausible arthropod vectors, specifically reptile ticks. A phylogenetic tree built from BovB sequences from species in all of these groups does not conform to expected evolutionary relationships of the species, and our analysis indicates that at least nine HT events are required to explain the observed topology. Our results provide compelling evidence for HT of genetic material that has transformed vertebrate genomes.

  2. On the Hydraulics of Flowing Horizontal Wells

    Bian, A.; Zhan, H.


    A flowing horizontal well is a special type of horizontal well that does not have pumping/injecting facility. The discharge rate of a flowing horizontal well is controlled by the hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the well and it generally varies with time if the hydraulic head of the aquifer is transient. This type of well has been used in landslide control, mining dewatering, water table control, underground water transportation through a horizontal tunnel, agricultural water drainage, and other applications. Flowing horizontal wells have quite different hydrodynamic characteristics from horizontal wells with fixed pumping or injecting rates because their discharge rates are functions of the aquifer hydraulic heads (Zhan et al, 2001; Zhan and Zlotnik, 2002). Hydraulics of flowing horizontal wells have rarely been studied although the hydraulics of flowing vertical wells have been extensively investigated before. The purpose of this paper is to obtain analytical solutions of groundwater flow to a flowing horizontal-well in a confined aquifer, in a water table aquifer without precipitation, and in a water table aquifer with precipitation. The functions of the flowing horizontal well discharge rates versus time will be obtained under above mentioned different aquifer conditions. The relationships of the aquifer hydraulic heads versus the discharge rates of the well will be investigated. The rate of water table decline due to the dewatering of the well will also be computed, and this solution is particularly useful for landslide control and mining dewatering. The theoretical solutions will be compared with results of experiments that will be conducted in the hydrological laboratory at Texas A&M University. Reference: Zhan, H., Wang, L.V., and Park, E, On the horizontal well pumping tests in the anisotropic confined aquifers, J. hydrol., 252, 37-50, 2001. Zhan, H., and Zlotnik, V. A., Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

  3. Fatigue Life Prediction of Horizontal Press Frame Based on Statistical Probability and Its Redesign

    WeiWei Zhang; XiaoSon Wang; Bo Yang; Shi-Jian Yuan


    Horizontal press as an important part of hydro-forming machine is used to output the horizontal force to keep the high internal pressure during tube hydro-forming. However, the horizontal press frame is usually mounted on the press bed and not pre-stressed. Meanwhile it will be subjected to the reaction force caused by liquid pressure. Stresses are concentrated severely on the assemble region due to deformation, and total fatigue life will decrease. In order to predict the total fatigue life of the frame, the simulations are used firstly to determine to stress concentration region, and then strain gauge measurements are carried out under different loads. Next, the methods of statistical probability are conducted to calculate the fatigue life based on long-term load history. Finally a structure with the considerable longer fatigue life is redesigned.

  4. EFFECTS OF THE STRESS OF SELENIUM OR TELLURIUM ON THE GROWTH OF Spirulina platensis and S. maximum%硒碲胁迫对两种螺旋藻生长的影响

    郑文杰; 贺鸿志; 黄峙; 杨芳; 郭宝江


    研究了硒(Na 2SeO3)和碲(Na 2TeO 3)胁迫对钝顶螺旋藻(Spirulina platensis)和极大螺旋藻(Spirulina maximum)生长的影响.结果表明,两种藻对硒、碲表现出不同的耐性.对于S.platenis,CSe≤200mg/L促进生长,CTe<100mg/L影响不大,CTe≥100mg/L抑制生长,CSa≥800mg/L或CTe=400mg/L藻死亡;而对于S.maiximum,CSe=25 mg/L时促进生长,CTe≤25mg/L无影响,CTe≥50 mg/L明显抑制生长,Cse≥800mg/L或CTe≥600 mg/L则死亡.而在培养周期内分次添加硒、碲,当累计达到CSe(CTe)=800mg/L,两种藻仍能正常生长.表明硒、碲添加方式不同,产生明显不同的效应.

  5. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Technology and Applications

    J. G. Cai; X. N. Wang


    @@ 1 What is Horizontal Directional Drilling? Horizontal Directional Drilling, accurately steered drilling, has become state -of- the -art drilling technique in the world. Specially- designed directionsteerable corebarrel and accurate direction measurement tool are available for the use together with wire line core drilling machine. That makes it feasible to extract cores and to measure the drill travel line &length while drilling in a curve.

  6. Possible mechanism of horizontal overpressure generation of the Khibiny, Lovozero, and Kovdor ore clusters on the Kola Peninsula

    Rebetsky, Yu. L.; Sim, L. A.; Kozyrev, A. A.


    The paper discusses questions related to the generation of increasing crustal horizontal compressive stresses compared to the idea of the standard gravitational state at the elastic stage or even from the prevalence of horizontal compression over vertical stress equal to the lithostatic pressure. We consider a variant of superfluous horizontal compression related to internal lithospheric processes occurrin in the crust of orogens, shields, and plates. The vertical ascending movements caused by these motions at the sole of the crust or the lithosphere pertain to these and the concomitant exogenic processes giving rise to denudation and, in particular, to erosion of the surfaces of forming rises. The residual stresses of the gravitational stressed state at the upper crust of the Kola Peninsula have been estimated for the first time. These calculations are based on the volume of sediments that have been deposited in Arctic seas beginning from the Mesozoic. The data speak to the possible level of residual horizontal compressive stresses up to 90 MPa in near-surface crustal units. This estimate is consistent with the results of in situ measurements that have been carried out at the Mining Institute of the Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), for over 40 years. It is possible to forecast the horizontal stress gradient based on depth using our concept on the genesis of horizontal overpressure, and this forecasting is important for studying the formation of endogenic deposits.

  7. Horizontal and vertical changes in anchor molars after extractions in bimaxillary protrusion cases

    Pratik Chandra


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate changes in the anchor molar position (horizontal, vertical after retraction in bimaxillary protrusion maximum anchorage cases. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients requiring maximum anchorage after extraction of the first premolars were selected for this study. The second molars were banded in both arches along with trans-palatal arch in the maxillary arch and lingual arch in the mandibular arch. En mass retraction was done using sliding mechanics. Horizontal and vertical positions of the anchor first molars were evaluated cephalometrically before and after orthodontic retraction. Results: In the horizontal plane, maxillary first molars showed net mesial movement of 1.72 mm, and there was a statistical difference between the pre- and post-values (P < 0.001. The mandibular molars showed a net horizontal movement of 2.26 mm, and there was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-values (P < 0.001. In the vertical plane, there was vertical movement of the maxillary anchor molars by a net value of 0.95 mm which was statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mandibular anchor molars moved vertically by a net value of 0.45 mm. This difference was statistically not significant. Conclusion: There was anchorage loss seen in both the planes (horizontal, vertical of the maxillary anchor molars. In the mandibular anchor molars, there was anchorage loss seen only in the horizontal plane. No anchorage loss was seen in the vertical plane.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Spatial Lag Between Wave Breaking Point and Location of Maximum Wave-Induced Current

    ZHENG Jin-hai; TANG Yu


    A quasi three-dimensional numerical model of wave-driven coastal currents with the effects of surface rollers is developed for the study of the spatial lag between the location of the maximum wave-induced current and the wave breaking point.The governing equations are derived from Navier-Stokes equations and solved by the hybrid method combining the fractional step finite different method in the horizontal plane with a Galerkin finite element method in the vertical direction.The surface rollers effects are considered through incorporating the creation and evolution of the roller area into the free surface shear stress.An energy equation facilitates the computation process which transfers the wave breaking energy dissipation to the surface roller energy.The wave driver model is a phase-averaged wave model based on the wave action balance equation.Two sets of laboratory experiments producing breaking waves that generated longshore currents on a planar beach are used to evaluate the model's performance.The present wave-driven coastal current model with the roller effect in the surface shear stress term can produce satisfactory results by increasing the wave-induced nearshore current velocity inside the surf zone and shifting the location of the maximum longshore current velocity landward.

  9. Intra-firm Horizontal Knowledge Transfer Management

    WANG Yaowu; WANG Yanhang


    Knowledge transfer is widely emphasized as a strategic issue for firm competition. A model for intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer is proposed to model horizontal knowledge transfer to solve some demerits in current knowledge transfer researches. The concept model of intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer was described and a framework was provided to define the main components of thetransfer process. Horizontal knowledge transfer is that knowledge is transferred from the source to the same hierarchical level recipients as the target. Horizontal knowledge transfer constitutes a strategic area of knowledge management research. However, little is known about the circumstances under which one particular mechanism is the most appropriate. To address these issues, some significant conclusions are drawn concerning knowledge transfer mechanisms in a real-world setting.

  10. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Mohtaram Najafi


    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  11. Prediction Model of Mechanical Extending Limits in Horizontal Drilling and Design Methods of Tubular Strings to Improve Limits

    Wenjun Huang


    Full Text Available Mechanical extending limit in horizontal drilling means the maximum horizontal extending length of a horizontal well under certain ground and down-hole mechanical constraint conditions. Around this concept, the constrained optimization model of mechanical extending limits is built and simplified analytical results for pick-up and slack-off operations are deduced. The horizontal extending limits for kinds of tubular strings under different drilling parameters are calculated and drawn. To improve extending limits, an optimal design model of drill strings is built and applied to a case study. The results indicate that horizontal extending limits are underestimated a lot when the effects of friction force on critical helical buckling loads are neglected. Horizontal extending limits firstly increase and tend to stable values with vertical depths. Horizontal extending limits increase faster but finally become smaller with the increase of horizontal pushing forces for tubular strings of smaller modulus-weight ratio. Sliding slack-off is the main limit operation and high axial friction is the main constraint factor constraining horizontal extending limits. A sophisticated installation of multiple tubular strings can greatly inhibit helical buckling and increase horizontal extending limits. The optimal design model is called only once to obtain design results, which greatly increases the calculation efficiency.

  12. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  13. The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images

    Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.


    There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.

  14. Application of aqueous nanofluids in a horizontal mesh heat pipe

    ZhenHua Liu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); QunZhi Zhu [School of Energy Sources and Environment Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China)


    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of aqueous CuO nanofluids on thermal performance of a horizontal mesh heat pipe working at steady sub-atmospheric pressures. The nanofluid was composed of deionized water and CuO nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50 nm. The experimental results show that adding CuO nanoparticles into deionized water can significantly enhance heat transfer coefficients of both evaporator and condenser, and the maximum heat flux of the heat pipe. There is an optimal mass concentration of nanoparticles corresponding to the maximum heat transfer enhancement. The operating pressure has an apparent impact on both the evaporating and condensing heat transfer enhancements. The heat transfer enhancement effects increase distinctly with the decrease of the pressure. The present investigation discovers that the thermal performance of a mesh heat pipe can be evidently strengthened by substituting CuO nanofluids for deionized water under sub-atmospheric pressures. (author)

  15. Application of aqueous nanofluids in a horizontal mesh heat pipe

    Liu Zhenhua, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Qunzhi [School of Energy Sources and Environment Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China)


    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of aqueous CuO nanofluids on thermal performance of a horizontal mesh heat pipe working at steady sub-atmospheric pressures. The nanofluid was composed of deionized water and CuO nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50 nm. The experimental results show that adding CuO nanoparticles into deionized water can significantly enhance heat transfer coefficients of both evaporator and condenser, and the maximum heat flux of the heat pipe. There is an optimal mass concentration of nanoparticles corresponding to the maximum heat transfer enhancement. The operating pressure has an apparent impact on both the evaporating and condensing heat transfer enhancements. The heat transfer enhancement effects increase distinctly with the decrease of the pressure. The present investigation discovers that the thermal performance of a mesh heat pipe can be evidently strengthened by substituting CuO nanofluids for deionized water under sub-atmospheric pressures.

  16. Laboratory Determination of Horizontal Stress in Cohesionless Soil.


    of Cornell University in Partial Fulfillment for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Steven Craig Boyce January 1983 a 0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would...40 I I’ w 3 -, .0 II -mI lSlIE 2 1 " lIIL.. , 51. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS A963-A V 82 properties of the filter




    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stress analysis of bicycle frame by using Finite Element Method. The analysis is carried out in Ansys, The F.E.A. results are compared with theoretical results. In theoretical analysis the frame is treated as truss like structure and the stresses in various members of frame like top tube, down tube, seat tube, chain stay and seat stay are determined, considering various condition like, static start up, steady state paddling, vertical impact, horizontal impact, rear wheel braking. Also Finite Element Analysis is done considering the above conditions. From the analysis it is found that there is a good agreement between analytical and F.E.A. results. Result of all the cases reveals that maximum stress is found in top tube of the bicycle frame as compared to other frame members and is equal to 24.84 MPa which is less than yield strength in tension (i.e.Syt = 290 MPa for the material (aluminum T 6061 selected.

  18. Simulations and scaling of horizontal convection

    Mehmet ILIcak


    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the results of various numerical simulations of sideways or horizontal convection. Specifically, a two-dimensional Boussinesq fluid is both heated and cooled from its upper surface, but the walls and the bottom of the tank are insulating and have no flux of heat through them. We perform experiments with a range of Rayleigh numbers up to 1011, obtained by systematically reducing the diffusivity. We also explore the effects of a nonlinear equation of state and of a mechanical force imposed on the top surface at a fixed Rayleigh number. We find that, when there is no mechanical forcing, both the energy dissipation and the strength of the circulation itself monotonically fall with decreasing diffusivity. At Rayleigh numbers greater than 1010 the flow is unsteady; however, the eddying flow is still much weaker than the steady flow at smaller Rayleigh numbers. At high Rayleigh numbers, the stratification and the mean circulation are increasingly confined to a thin layer at the upper surface, with the layer thickness decreasing according to Ra−1/5. There is no evidence that the flow ever enters a regime that is independent of Rayleigh number. Using a nonlinear equation of state makes little difference to the flow phenomenology at a moderate Rayleigh number. The addition of an imposed stress at the upper surface makes a significant difference in the flow. A strong, energy-dissipating circulation can be maintained even at Ra = 109, and the stratification extends more deeply into the fluid than in the unstressed case. Overall, our results are consistent with the notion that in the absence of mechanical forcing a fluid that is heated and cooled from above cannot maintain a deep stratification or a strong sustained flow at high Rayleigh numbers, even if the interior flow is unsteady.

  19. Determining fault structure using first horizontal derivative (FHD) and horizontal vertical diagonal maxima (HVDM) method: A comparative study

    Rosid, M. S.; Siregar, H.


    Fault is an important parameter in both hydrocarbon and geothermal exploration. It could be able as a secondary permeability that controlee and improve fluid flow within a reservoir. Fault zone is usually related to high permeability zone as well as indicated by any high-density contrast. There is a relatively new HVDM method that could be applied to determine and indicate a subsurface normal or reverse fault. This study is comparing the method with the conventional ones, the FHD method. Both methods are principally working based on the existing of lateral density contrast of gravity data. The FHD value is obtained from root sum square of horizontal X first derivative and horizontal Y first derivative of gravity data, meanwhile the HVDM value is obtained by horizontal, vertical and diagonal coefficient root sum square of 2-Dimensional DWT. The comparison of both, FHD and HVDM, methods are applied toward synthetic model and real gravity data. Identification of fault structure on FHD and HVDM are shown by maximum value. Based on the result of synthetic model gravity data, the FHD could determine fault structure in a better way than HVDM whereas on gravity real data FHD and HVDM have a slightly similar response. As we do not have supported proven geology and geophysical data, the study could not verify and justify yet the real gravity data.

  20. Study on Scattering Wave Force of Horizontal and Vertical Plate Type Breakwaters

    WANG Ke; ZHANG Xi; GAO Xin


    The interaction between wave and horizontal and vertical plates is investigated by the boundary element method,and the relations of wave exciting force with plate thickness,submergence and length are obtained.It is found that:1)The efficient wave exciting force exists while plate submergence is less than 0.5 m,and the plate is very thin with order O(0.005 m).2) The maximum heave wave exciting force exists,and it is the main factor for surface and submerged horizontal plate while the roll force can be ignored.3) The maximum sway wave exciting force exists,it is the main factor for surface or submerged vertical plate,and the roll force is about 20 times of horizontal plate.

  1. Dynamics of an oscillating semi-infinite bubble in a horizontal channel

    Williams, Harvey; Zimmer, Maximillian, IV; Halpern, David; Gaver, Donald P., III


    In premature neonates who have respiratory distress syndrome it is frequently necessary to artificially ventilate the lungs. This involves driving air cyclically into airways occluded with lining fluid. Herein, we present a computational study of the oscillatory motion of a semi-infinite gas bubble in a horizontal channel of width 2a filled with a Newtonian liquid of viscosity μ and constant surface tension γ assuming small inertia. The unsteady bubble motion is generated by prescribing a volume flux Q(t) with non-zero mean and an oscillatory component of frequency ω. The Stokes equations are solved using a mixed boundary element and lubrication technique, and are integrated to a converged periodic state. The bulk and interfacial flow dynamics, as characterized by a capillary number Ca=μ Q/(2aγ) and non-dimensional frequency Ω=ωμ a/ γ, are presented in the frame of reference of the bubble tip. We report a frequency dependent increase in the cycle-averaged thin film height and a decrease in the minimum film height compared to the equivalent steady-state result. In this limit, we also observe an increase in maximum shear stress on the channel wall. We discuss the cycle-averaged effect of oscillation on interfacial and bulk transport processes.

  2. Tectonic stress within the New Madrid seismic zone

    Grana, Jeffrey P.; Richardson, Randall M.


    Refraction data indicate a significant high-density rift pillow beneath the New Madrid seismic zone. We present results of linear and nonlinear viscoelastic finite element modeling to determine whether support of the rift pillow may contribute significantly to the total present-day stress field, and we consider the implications for intraplate seismicity. These models were run for a loading time of 100 m.y. to account for relaxation and transfer of stress since the last reactivation of the rift in the mid-Mesozoic. Results indicate that the nonlinear viscoelastic model with rheological stratification based on composition and temperature agrees well with the observed deformation within the seismic zone and with estimates of regional stress magnitudes. The model predicts a maximum compression of 30-40 MPa above the rift pillow in the center of the rift axis. If the magnitude of local compression predicted by the nonlinear model produces the inferred clockwise rotation of the order of 10°-30° in the direction of SHmax (maximum horizontal compression) near the rift axis, the magnitude of regional compression is a factor of 1 to 2 times the magnitude of local compression and consistent with an origin due to ridge push forces. The addition of the local stress associated with the rift pillow, however, results in an approximately 30% reduction in the resolved maximum horizontal shear stress. Thus, while the stress associated with the rift pillow can rotate the stress field into an orientation favorable for failure, reduction in the resolved shear stress requires a separate mechanism for strength reduction. Results of the modeling indicate that stresses from the load of the rift pillow may still be present in the upper crust even after 100 m.y. and may still play a role in present-day deformation and seismicity of the New Madrid seismic zone. Local stress fields of significant tectonic magnitudes may also occur around other ancient rift pillows and help explain the

  3. Effect of Horizontal Nonuniformity of Diabatic Heating on Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Structure

    YU Hui; DUAN Yihong; LIANG Xudong


    The effect of the horizontal variation of diabatic heating on the tropical cyclone intensity and structure is studied in this paper. According to the potential vorticity (PV) equation in axis-symmetric cylindrical coordinates, PV disturbance caused by the radial difference of diabatic heating is positive (negative) inside (outside) the maximum heating radius, implying that the radial nonuniformity of diabatic heating should contribute positively to the intensity of a tropical cyclone while negatively to its size.A primitive equation model is then used to get some quantitative ideas on the problem. Results show that the modeled tropical cyclone weakens by about 20% but is larger in size if the effect of horizontal variety of convective heating is excluded in thermodynamic and dynamic equations. The PV disturbance originated from the horizontal nonuniformity of diabatic heating is positive inside the maximum heating radius and negative outside, in consistent with the PV equation analyses. The maximum disturbance (both negative and positive) appears around the maximum heating level and their magnitude is comparable to that generated by vertical variance of heating. It is concluded that the effect of the horizontal heat nonuniformity on the intensity and structure of TC cannot be neglected.

  4. Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.

    Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian


    We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.

  5. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Chih-Yuan Tseng


    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  6. Optimizing of Culture Conditionin Horizontal Rotating Bioreactor


    1 IntroductionBioreactor is the most important equipment in tissue engineering. It can mimic the micro-environment of cell growth in vitro. At present, horizontal rotating bioreactor is the most advanced equipment for cell culture in the world. 2 Rotating bioreactors2.1 Working principleThere are two kinds of horizontal rotating bioreactor: HARV(high aspect ratio vessel) and RCCS (rotary cell culture system). It is drived by step motor with horizontal rotation, the culture medium and cell is filled between ...

  7. Horizontal gene transfer and bacterial diversity

    Chitra Dutta; Archana Pan


    Bacterial genomes are extremely dynamic and mosaic in nature. A substantial amount of genetic information is inserted into or deleted from such genomes through the process of horizontal transfer. Through the introduction of novel physiological traits from distantly related organisms, horizontal gene transfer often causes drastic changes in the ecological and pathogenic character of bacterial species and thereby promotes microbial diversification and speciation. This review discusses how the recent influx of complete chromosomal sequences of various microorganisms has allowed for a quantitative assessment of the scope, rate and impact of horizontally transmitted information on microbial evolution.

  8. Neotectonic stresses in Fennoscandia: field observations and modelling

    Pascal, Christophe


    present-day stress magnitudes are far to be uniform in Scandinavia. For example the modelling predicts that the topography of the southern Norwegian Mountains creates Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) levels higher than the ones characterising the surrounding regions. This results in significant buoyancy forces competing locally with the regional ridge-push. GPE decreases almost gradually towards the Gulf of Bothnia where strong compressive stresses are predicted. A local departure from the regional NW-SE trend for the maximum horizontal stress axes is simulated in Trøndelag, Norway. This local stress deviation is supported by stress-relief observations and in situ stress measurements. Our modelling suggests that it results from the combined effects of the weak rheology of the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex and topographic stresses associated with the southern Norwegian Scandes mountains.

  9. Improved parameterized complexity of the maximum agreement subtree and maximum compatible tree problems.

    Berry, Vincent; Nicolas, François


    Given a set of evolutionary trees on a same set of taxa, the maximum agreement subtree problem (MAST), respectively, maximum compatible tree problem (MCT), consists of finding a largest subset of taxa such that all input trees restricted to these taxa are isomorphic, respectively compatible. These problems have several applications in phylogenetics such as the computation of a consensus of phylogenies obtained from different data sets, the identification of species subjected to horizontal gene transfers and, more recently, the inference of supertrees, e.g., Trees Of Life. We provide two linear time algorithms to check the isomorphism, respectively, compatibility, of a set of trees or otherwise identify a conflict between the trees with respect to the relative location of a small subset of taxa. Then, we use these algorithms as subroutines to solve MAST and MCT on rooted or unrooted trees of unbounded degree. More precisely, we give exact fixed-parameter tractable algorithms, whose running time is uniformly polynomial when the number of taxa on which the trees disagree is bounded. The improves on a known result for MAST and proves fixed-parameter tractability for MCT.

  10. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    Style, Robert W.


    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.


    This thesis deals with horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics. It contains a comprehensive discussion of the available academic literature on this topic, many practical examples, and an empirical investigation of opportunities and impediments. Furthermore, three enabling concepts for

  12. The Maximum Density of Water.

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.


    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  13. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P


    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  14. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    Mariusz P. Da̧browski


    Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  15. Evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site. Preliminary site investigation Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Sjoeberg, Jonny; Lindfors, Ulf; Perman, Fredrik; Ask, Daniel [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    This report presents an evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site, based on all conducted stress measurements to date at the site, indirect stress estimates, geological and tectonic description of the site, and regional stress data from nearby locations. The work included (i) compilation of measurement results from Forsmark, as well as from nearby (regional) sites/locations, (ii) analysis of confidence intervals for each group of measurement, (iii) assessment of the stress state for the Forsmark site accounting for geological/tectonic evolution at the site, (iv) assessment of stress state for selected nearby (regional) sites/locations, and (v) comparison and combined interpretation of similarities and/or differences in stress state from a regional perspective. The combined assessment of the local (site-scale) and regional stress data for Forsmark showed that the major stress is orientated sub-horizontally and trending NW-SE; however, with significant local variation. A thrust faulting ({sigma}H > {sigma}h > {sigma}v) or possibly strike-slip faulting ({sigma}H > {sigma}v > {sigma}h) stress regime is evident at the Forsmark site. The maximum horizontal stress tends to be higher at the site compared to nearby sites and regional conditions. The site and regional data indicate that the vertical stress seems to be solely due to the overburden pressure. The lack of solid core discing for large portions of the boreholes at Forsmark was used to estimate an upper limit of the maximum horizontal stress magnitude. However, such an estimation is highly uncertain due to e.g. partly unknown mechanism for core discing failure, and unknown effects of the simplifying assumptions made in the analysis. The possible effects of shallow-dipping deformation zones on the stress state, could not be verified from the currently available data. However, the possibility of different stress regimes above and below deformation zones must be considered in future work. Slightly lower

  16. Evaluation of extremely small horizontal emittance

    T. Okugi


    Full Text Available The KEK Accelerator Test Facility (KEK-ATF was constructed to develop technologies for producing a low-emittance beam which will be required by future linear colliders. The KEK-ATF consists of an injector linac, a damping ring, and a beam extraction line. The basic optical structure of the damping ring is a FOBO lattice, which reduces the horizontal dispersion at the center of the bending magnets and, as a consequence, can produce an extremely small emittance beam. To verify the performance of such a unique, low-emittance lattice, it is crucial to measure the horizontal emittance. The horizontal emittance was measured using wire scanners in the beam extraction line. Since the horizontal beam position was not stable, we established a method to correct the measured beam size for position fluctuation (“jitter” and we succeeded in the observation of the so far smallest horizontal emittance in any accelerator. The measured horizontal emittance was 1.37±0.03nm at a beam energy of 1.285 GeV and a bunch population of \\(3–5\\×10^{9}, in agreement with the design value of 1.27–1.34 nm at the beam energy and the bunch population.

  17. Microcrack porosity and in situ stress in Illinois Borehole UPH 3

    Carlson, S. R.; Wang, H. F.


    Differential strain analysis was used to study microcracks in granite core taken from 0.7 to 1.6 km depth from Illinois Deep Hole UPH 3. The majority of the microcracks are believed to have been generated by stress relief upon removal of the core from depth. Volumetric microcrack porosity was found to vary by an order of magnitude. Low values of microcrack porosity were found in highly fractured intervals, where large, open fractures have relaxed a portion of the in situ stress. Plotting microcrack porosity against mean in situ stress reveals a strong positive correlation over a range of 25 MPa. Large, subvertical fractures may locally influence the orientation of stress relief microcracks. The direction of maximum horizontal crack strain was found to be subparallel to the strike of the nearest large fracture in 7 of 8 fine-grained samples.

  18. The Interplay of In Situ Stress Ratio and Transverse Isotropy in the Rock Mass on Prestressed Concrete-Lined Pressure Tunnels

    Simanjuntak, T. D. Y. F.; Marence, M.; Schleiss, A. J.; Mynett, A. E.


    This paper presents the mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of passively prestressed concrete-lined pressure tunnels embedded in elastic transversely isotropic rocks subjected to non-uniform in situ stresses. Two cases are distinguished based on whether the in situ vertical stress in the rock mass is higher, or lower than the in situ horizontal stress. A two-dimensional finite element model was used to study the influence of dip angle, α, and horizontal-to-vertical stress ratio, k, on the bearing capacity of prestressed concrete-lined pressure tunnels. The study reveals that the in situ stress ratio and the orientation of stratifications in the rock mass significantly affect the load sharing between the rock mass and the lining. The distribution of stresses and deformations as a result of tunnel construction processes exhibits a symmetrical pattern for tunnels embedded in a rock mass with either horizontal or vertical stratification planes, whereas it demonstrates an unsymmetrical pattern for tunnels embedded in a rock mass with inclined stratification planes. The results obtained for a specific value α with coefficient k are identical to that for α + 90° with coefficient 1/ k by rotating the tunnel axis by 90°. The maximum internal water pressure was determined by offsetting the prestress-induced hoop strains at the final lining intrados against the seepage-induced hoop strains. As well as assessing the internal water pressure, this approach is capable of identifying potential locations where longitudinal cracks may occur in the final lining.

  19. In-situ Stresses, Pore-fluid Pressures and Uplift Erosion in Relation to Active Thrust Faulting in western Taiwan

    Hung, J.; Yen, P.; Wang, L.


    We have studied the in-situ stresses, pore-fluid pressures and amounts of uplift erosion (UE) from petroleum wells drilled in the Hsinchu-Taichung area of western Taiwan Fold-thrust Belt. The average gradient of regional vertical stress (Sv) calculated from formation density logs is about 23 MPa/km. The magnitude of pore pressure (Pp) is estimated from mud pressure, gas cut and repeat formation test (RFT) in reservoir sandstone, and sonic logs. P-wave travel time in shale (STT) is used to determine the fluid-retention depth (ZFRD) which defines current fully compacted sediments with hydrostatic pressures above and undercompacted, overpressured zones below. Regional ZFRD is ~ 3 km except in the Chuhuangkeng anticline, where ZFRD is at shallower depth (~ 2.2 km) and extremely high pore pressure (λ=0.8) is also observed.. Calculated amounts of UE increase from 0.6 to 4.6 km eastward from outer to inner Foothills belt and correspond to stratigraphy downward and depth upward migration of the ZFRD. Along-strike variation of UE is insignificant. Hydraulic fracturing data including leak-off tests (LOTs) and mini-fracs, as well as qualitative data such as mud loss, are used to constrain the minimum horizontal stress (Shmin). The linear gradient of Shmin is about 17~19 MPa/km, relatively less than that of Sv (~23.60 MPa/km). This implies the in-situ stresses are at strike-slip (SHmax>SV>Shmin) to reverse fault considering focal mechanisms of seismicity are dominant by these two stress regimes in the study area. An upper-bound value of the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) constrained by frictional limits and the coefficient of friction (μ=0.6) can be estimated from Anderson (1951) faulting criterion. Caliper logs from 8 wells are used to calculate the orientations of the maximum horizontal stresses following the definitions of borehole breakout in World Stress Map. The maximum horizontal stress axis is oriented in NW-SE but local variations occur when passing through

  20. Effect of ground stress on hydraulic fracturing of methane well

    DU Chun-zhi; MAO Xian-biao; MIAO Xie-xing; WANG Peng


    Most of the coal reservoirs in China are of low-permeability, so hydraulic fracturing is widely used to improve the permeability in the extraction of gas by ground drilling. The ground stress around the well was analyzed by using theory of elasticity. The pressure when the well fractured is formulated and the effect of ground stress on pressure is discussed. The effect of ground-stress-differences on hydraulic fracturing was analyzed by using the numerical software RFPA2D-Flow in reference to the tectonic stress in Jincheng coal area. The results show that: 1) the position where initial fracture appears is random and fracture branches emerge when the fractures expand if ground stresses in any two directions within a horizontal plane are equal; 2) otherwise, the fractures expand in general along the direction of maximum ground stress and the critical pressure decreases with increasing ground-stress-differences and 3) the preferred well-disposition pattern is diamond shaped. The preferred well spacing is 250 m×300 m. This study can provide a reference for the design of wells.

  1. The Stress Pattern of Iceland

    Ziegler, Moritz; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Heidbach, Oliver; Páll Hersir, Gylfi; Ágústsson, Kristján; Árnadóttir, Sigurveig; Zang, Arno


    Iceland is one of the few places on earth where an active spreading can be observed onshore, yet the contemporary crustal stress state has not been investigated intesively. We compiled the first comprehensive stress map of Iceland from different stress indicators and analysed data from 57 Icelandic geothermal boreholes. In total we interpreted appox. 37 km of acoustic image logs for stress indicators, i.e. borehole breakouts and drilling induced tensile fractures. Furthermore we revised the 38 data records for Iceland from the World Stress Map 2008 and conducted an extensive literature research to compile all available focal mechanism solutions and geological stress indicators. The new stress compilation consists of 495 data records for the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) in and around Iceland with 318 data records of A-D qualities according to the World Stress Map ranking scheme. Most of the data records are derived from focal mechanism solutions (35%) and geological fault inversions (26%). Borehole related indicators (breakouts, drilling induced fractures, hydro-fractures) have a share of 20%. Minor contributions to the dataset are provided by the alignment of volcanic vents and fissures and overcoring measurements. The mean orientation of SHmax is 17° ± 39° for all A-D quality data. A closer look at subregions reveals four different provinces with fairly consistent SHmax orientation. They are in the Capital area and Southern Lowlands (mean SHmax = 38° ± 29°), the eastern Highlands and Eastfjords (mean SHmax = 8° ± 25°), the Tjörnes Fracture Zone and Akureyri (mean SHmax = 151° ± 21°), and the Westfjords (mean SHmax = 137° ± 17°). This distribution of SHmax orientations is in agreement with the prevailing tectonic structure. At the spreading ridges Reykjanes and Kolbeinsey in the South and North respectively an orientation of SHmax parallel to the plate boundary is observed. The same is observed in the Northern and Eastern

  2. Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings

    Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren


    The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.

  3. D(Maximum)=P(Argmaximum)

    Remizov, Ivan D


    In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.

  4. The Testability of Maximum Magnitude

    Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.


    Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.

  5. Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.

    Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang


    Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.

  6. Numerical Investigation on Stress Shadowing in Fluid Injection-Induced Fracture Propagation in Naturally Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs

    Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Zimmermann, Günter; Zang, Arno


    In low permeability shale reservoirs, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing is largely used to increase the productivity by enlarging the stimulated rock volume. Hydraulic fracture created alters the stress field around it, and affects the subsequent fractures by the change of the stress field, in particular, mostly increased minimum principal stress at the area of subsequent fracturing. This is called stress shadow which accumulates as the fracturing stages advance from toe to heel. Hydraulic fractures generated in such altered stress field are shorter and compact with orientation deviating significantly from the far-field maximum horizontal stress orientation. This paper presents 2D discrete element-based numerical modeling of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in a naturally fractured reservoir and investigates stress shadowing. The stress shadowing is tested with two different injection scenarios: constant and cyclic rate injections. The results show that cyclic injection tends to lower the effect of stress shadow as well as mitigates the magnitude of the induced seismicity. Another modeling case is presented to show how the stress shadow can be utilized to optimize a hydraulic fracture network in application to Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir, rather than being mitigated. The modeling demonstrated that the stress shadow is successfully utilized for optimizing the geothermal heat exchanger by altering the initial in situ stress field from highly anisotropic to less or even to isotropic.

  7. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Jayakumar A


    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  8. Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index

    Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng


    The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...

  9. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo


    The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....

  10. Diffuser Augmented Horizontal Axis Tidal Current Turbines

    Nasir Mehmood


    Full Text Available The renewal energy technologies are increasingly popular to ensure future energy sustenance and address environmental issues. The tides are enormous and consistent untapped resource of renewable energy. The growing interest in exploring tidal energy has compelling reasons such as security and diversity of supply, intermittent but predictable and limited social and environmental impacts. The tidal energy industry is undergoing an increasing shift towards diffuser augmented turbines. The reason is the higher power output of diffuser augmented turbines compared to conventional open turbines. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines. The components, relative advantages, limitations and design parameters of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are presented in detail. CFD simulation of NACA 0016 airfoil is carried out to explore its potential for designing a diffuser. The core issues associated with diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are also discussed.


    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec


    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  12. Horizontal stirring in the global ocean

    Hernández-Carrasco, I; Hernández-García, E; Turiel, A


    Horizontal mixing and the distribution of coherent structures in the global ocean are analyzed using Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE), computed for the surface velocity field derived from the Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES). FSLEs measure horizontal stirring and dispersion; additionally, the transport barriers which organize the oceanic flow can roughly be identified with the ridges of the FSLE field. We have performed a detailed statistical study, particularizing for the behaviour of the two hemispheres and different ocean basins. The computed Probability Distributions Functions (PDFs) of FSLE are broad and asymmetric. Horizontal mixing is generally more active in the northern hemisphere than in the southern one. Nevertheless the Southern Ocean is the most active ocean, and the Pacific the less active one. A striking result is that the main currents can be classified in two 'activity classes': Western Boundary Currents, which have broad PDFs with large FSLE values, and Eas...

  13. Utility Independent Privacy Preserving Data Mining - Horizontally Partitioned Data

    E Poovammal


    Full Text Available Micro data is a valuable source of information for research. However, publishing data about individuals for research purposes, without revealing sensitive information, is an important problem. The main objective of privacy preserving data mining algorithms is to obtain accurate results/rules by analyzing the maximum possible amount of data without unintended information disclosure. Data sets for analysis may be in a centralized server or in a distributed environment. In a distributed environment, the data may be horizontally or vertically partitioned. We have developed a simple technique by which horizontally partitioned data can be used for any type of mining task without information loss. The partitioned sensitive data at 'm' different sites are transformed using a mapping table or graded grouping technique, depending on the data type. This transformed data set is given to a third party for analysis. This may not be a trusted party, but it is still allowed to perform mining operations on the data set and to release the results to all the 'm' parties. The results are interpreted among the 'm' parties involved in the data sharing. The experiments conducted on real data sets prove that our proposed simple transformation procedure preserves one hundred percent of the performance of any data mining algorithm as compared to the original data set while preserving privacy.

  14. Horizontal spacing, depletion, and infill potential in the Austin chalk

    Kyte, D.G.; Meehan, D.N.


    Estimated ultimate recoveries on a barrels per acre basis for Austin chalk wells were discussed. The study showed that the maximum six months consecutive production through the life of the well can be used to estimate ultimate recovery in horizontally drilled reservoirs. A statistical approach was used to help identify where the Austin chalk has been overdrilled and areas where infill potential exists. The barrels per acre data were analyzed by a method known as `moving domain`. This procedure involves stepping through the reservoir well by well and looking at it with respect to its nearest neighbors. To analyze for depletion, barrels per acre is compared to date of first production for groups of wells in an area, looking for declining values with time. Areas showing no evidence of depletion and having good recoveries are further studied for infill potential. By comparing effective densities in areas which are not yet being fully drained, an optimum spacing between wells can be determined for horizontal wells in a fractured chalk reservoir. An artificial neural network can also be used to provide qualitative predictions of well performance in developed reservoirs. 6 refs., 15 figs.

  15. El horizonte estético

    Perniola, Mario


    La existencia de un horizonte estético depende de la coexistencia de múltiples factores de distinta naturaleza que interactúan entre ellos. No bastan las reflexiones en torno a lo bello y al arte para crear un horizonte estético. La palabra “estética” es introducida en el Settecento por la filosofía para indicar una articulación disciplinar propia que pudiera ubicarse cerca de la lógica; esta circunstancia histórica, sin embargo, no debe hacernos olvidar que la filosofía es desde su nacimient...

  16. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  17. Horizontal Roll Vortices and Crown Fires.

    Haines, Donald A.


    Observational evidence from nine crown fires suggests that horizontal roll vortices are a major mechanism in crown-fire spread. Post-burn aerial photography indicates that unburned tree-crown streets are common with crown fire. Investigation of the understory of these crown streets after two fires showed uncharred tree trunks along a center line. This evidence supports a hypothesis of vortex action causing strong downward motion of air along the streets. Additionally, photographs of two ongoing crown fires show apparent horizontal roll vortices. Discussion also includes laboratory and numerical studies in fluid dynamics that may apply to crown fires.

  18. Economics and Maximum Entropy Production

    Lorenz, R. D.


    Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.

  19. Optimization model for rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines

    LIU Xiong; CHEN Yan; YE Zhiquan


    This paper presents an optimization model for rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines. The model refers to the wind speed distribution function on the specific wind site, with an objective to satisfy the maximum annual energy output. To speed up the search process and guarantee a global optimal result, the extended compact genetic algorithm (ECGA) is used to carry out the search process.Compared with the simple genetic algorithm, ECGA runs much faster and can get more accurate results with a much smaller population size and fewer function evaluations. Using the developed optimization program, blades of a 1.3 MW stall-regulated wind turbine are designed. Compared with the existing blades, the designed blades have obviously better aerodynamic performance.

  20. Origin of the regional stress field along the Liquine-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ), Southern Chilean Andes by means of FE Simulation

    Md. Rafiqul Islam


    The Liquine-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) of southern Chilean Andes is one of the largest active strike-slip fault zones. There is an ongoing debate regarding the origin of the stress field along the LOFZ due to its complex geometry. This paper represents a study of the origins of the LOFZ regional stress field. Stress fields are calculated by finite element (FE) analysis. The two possible stress origins, i.e., oblique plate convergence and ridge collision/indenter tectonics of Chile ridge against Peru-Chile trench, have been emphasized in the present study. Three types of boundary conditions for the three particular models have been applied to calculate stress fields. Models are assumed to be elastic and plane stress condition. Modeling results are presented in terms of four parameters, i. e., orientation of maximum horizontal stress (σHmax), displacement vector, strain distribution, and maximum shear stress (τmax) contour line within the model. The results of the first model with oblique plate convergence show inconsistency between the geometric shape of the LOFZ and the distribution of the four parameters. Although more realistic results are obtained from the second model with normal ridge collision, there are few coincident in the LOFZ geometry and regional stress field. The third model with normal and oblique ridge collision is reasonable in understanding the origin of stress field and geometrical condition in the lithosphere of the LOFZ.

  1. Semiactive Vibration Control for Horizontal Axis Washing Machine

    Barış Can Yalçın


    Full Text Available A semiactive vibration control method is developed to cope with the dynamic stability problem of a horizontal axis washing machine. This method is based on adjusting the maximum force values produced by the semiactive suspension elements considering a washing machine’s vibration data (three axis angular position and three axis angular acceleration values in time. Before actuation signals are received by the step motors of the friction dampers, vibration data are evaluated, and then, the step motors start to narrow or expand the radius of bracelets located on the dampers. This changes the damping properties of the damper in the suspension system, and thus, the semiactive suspension system absorbs unwanted vibrations and contributes to the dynamic stability of the washing machine. To evaluate the vibration data, the angular position and angular acceleration values in three axes are defined in a function, and the maximum forces produced by semiactive suspension elements are calculated according to the gradient of this function. The relation between the dynamic stability and the walking stability is also investigated. A motion (gyroscope and accelerometer sensor is installed on the top-front panel of the washing machine because a mathematical model of a horizontal axis washing machine suggests that the walking behavior starts around this location under some assumptions, and therefore, calculating the vibrations occurring there is crucial. Semiactive damping elements are located under the left and right sides of the tub. The proposed method is tested during the spinning cycle of washing machine operation, increasing gradually from 200 rpm to 900 rpm, which produces the most challenging vibration patterns for dynamic stability. Moreover, the sound power levels produced by the washing machine are measured to evaluate the noise performance of the washing machine while the semiactive suspension system is controlled. The effectiveness of the

  2. CASMI—A visualization tool for the World Stress Map database

    Heidbach, Oliver; Höhne, Jens


    The World Stress Map (WSM) project has compiled a global database of quality-ranked data records on the contemporary tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust. The WSM 2005 database release contains approximately 16 000 data records from different types of stress indicators such as earthquake focal mechanisms solutions, well bore breakouts, hydraulic fracturing and overcoring measurements, as well as quaternary fault-slip data and volcanic alignments. To provide a software tool for database visualization, analysis and interpretation of stress data as well its integration with other data records, we developed the program CASMI. This public domain software tool for Unix-like operating systems enables the selection of stress data records from the WSM database according to location, data quality, type of stress indicator, and depth. Each selected data record is visualized by a symbol that represents the type of stress indicator and the orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress. Symbol size is proportional to the quality of the data record, and the colour indicates different tectonic regimes. Stress maps can be produced in different geographical projections and high-quality output formats. CASMI also allows the integration of user-defined stress data sets and a wide range of other data such as topography, Harvard centroid moment tensors, polygons, text data, and plate motion trajectories. CASMI, including the WSM 2005 database release, can be requested free of charge from the project's website at We present two stress map examples generated with CASMI ranging from plate-wide to regional scale: (1) A stress map of central Europe, that reveals the correlation of stress field orientation and relative plate motion. (2) The fan-shape stress pattern in North Germany.

  3. The Relationship between Fractures and Tectonic Stress Field in the Extra Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir at the South of Western Sichuan Depression

    Zeng Lianbo; Qi Jiafu; Li Yuegang


    The formation and distribution of fractures are controlled by paleotectonic stress field, and their preservative status and effects on development are dominated by the modern stress field. Since Triassic, it has experienced four tectonic movements and developed four sets of tectonic fractures in the extra low-permeability sandstone reservoir at the south of western Sichuan depression. The strikes of fractures are in the S-N, NE-SW, E-W, and NW-SE directions respectively. At the end of Triassic, under the horizontal compression tectonic stress field, for which the maximum principal stress direction was NW-SE,the fractures were well developed near the S-N faults and at the end of NE-SW faults, because of their stress concentration. At the end of Cretaceous, in the horizontal compression stress fields of the NE-SW direction,the stress was obviously lower near the NE-SW faults, thus, fractures mainly developed near the S-N faults.At the end of Neogene-Early Pleistocene, under the horizontal compression tectonic stress fields of E-W direction, stress concentrated near the NE-SW faults and fractures developed at these places, especially at the end of the NE-SE faults, the cross positions of NE-SW, and S-N faults. Therefore, fractures developed mostly near S-N faults and NE-SW faults. At the cross positions of the above two sets of faults, the degree of development of the fractures was the highest. Under the modern stress field of the NW-SE direction, the NW-SE fractures were mainly the seepage ones with tensional state, the best connectivity, the widest aperture, the highest permeability, and the minimum opening pressure.

  4. Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan


    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.

  5. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  6. The strong maximum principle revisited

    Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James

    In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.

  7. A Case Study of Horizontal Teacher Evaluation.

    Johnson, Trav D.

    Horizontal teacher evaluation increases understanding of teaching through the critical examination of educational goals and classroom practices. This examination includes teachers' classroom observations of one another coupled with in-depth teacher conversations or dialogue about teaching aims and practices. A qualitative case study of a…

  8. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators



    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  9. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  10. Fermion mass hierarchy and global horizontal symmetries

    Gelmini, G.B.; Gerard, J.M.; Yanagida, T.; Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))


    We present a mechanism for quark mass generation in zeroth order using induced representations rather than the minimization of the horizontal potential. Using a simplicity criterion, we derive a realistic mass matrix. We also discuss a possible application of the mechanism to various models.

  11. Horizontal gene transfer in the phytosphere

    Elsas, van J.D.; Turner, S.; Bailey, M.J.


    Here, the ecological aspects of gene transfer processes between bacteria in the phytosphere are examined in the context of emerging evidence for the dominant role that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played in the evolutionary shaping of bacterial communities. Moreover, the impact of the putative

  12. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  13. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    Heiselberg, Per


    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...

  14. Teaching Activities on Horizontal Nuclear Proliferation.

    Zola, John


    Provides learning activities concerning the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. Includes step-by-step directions for four activities: (1) the life cycle of nuclear weapons; (2) nuclear nonproliferation: pros and cons; (3) the nuclear power/nuclear weapons connection; and (4) managing nuclear proliferation. (NL)

  15. Mud and cement for horizontal wells

    Zurdo, C.; Georges, C.; Martin, M.


    High-angle and horizontal well bores raise many questions concerning the characteristics of mud and cement. This paper is a summary of the authors' knowledge and work on these two subjects. For all research carried out, large or full-scale laboratory test plants were used. Cutting transport is not only a problem in horizontal conditions but hole angles of 25 to 65/sup 0/ can be even more critical when parameters such as mud rheological properties and velocities are not optimized. Drilling a long horizontal drain creates a dynamic annulus pressure unbalance. This can lead to a loss and kick situation. Two test benches were thus used to obtain a good understanding of the inefficiency of conventional plugging methods and of the difficulties of gas migration control in subhorizontal well bores. High concentrations of LCM, high rheological properties of fluids and low flow rates increase the changes of solving the first problem. The results of the second bench demonstrate the difficulties of annulus gas evacution for angles varying from 90 to 100 degrees, or from over-gauged sections in horizontal holes.

  16. Aircraft with outboard horizontal stabilizers, history, current status, development potential

    Kentfield, John A. C.


    The potential of using outboard horizontal stabilizers (OHS) to reduce aircraft drag, and hence improve fuel economy, was investigated historically, experimentally and theoretically. The feasibility of OHS configurations on the basis of the structural stress levels expected was also studied. The findings of the work showed that from simple, low Reynolds number, wind-tunnel tests, at a wing-chord-based Reynolds number of approximately 6×10 4 and also from theoretical analyses for a higher Reynolds number of 9×10 6, lift/drag ( L/ D) value increases in the region of 40-50% for wing and tail surfaces can be expected relative to corresponding values for conventional aircraft. When account is taken of fuselage and tail-support boom drag, the expected overall L/ D increase is in the region of 30-35%. The analytical stress-level work showed that contrary to what, on a first thought basis, might be expected, there were no major stress problems. Flight tests at the University of Calgary, and by others elsewhere, employing radio-controlled, powered, model aircraft (i.e. UAVs) showed that aircraft of the OHS type were easily controlled in flight and were stable. An examination was made of additional areas that may contribute yet further to the development of the OHS concept.

  17. A Comparison between Deep and Shallow Stress Fields in Korea Using Earthquake Focal Mechanism Inversions and Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements

    Lee, Rayeon; Chang, Chandong; Hong, Tae-kyung; Lee, Junhyung; Bae, Seong-Ho; Park, Eui-Seob; Park, Chan


    . In this region, the average σ1orientation based on the entire B-C quality stress data is calculated to be 77±37° ; however, the average orientation is somewhat meaningless because of the high standard deviation. The southeastern part of Korea consists mainly of Cretaceous sedimentary basin, geologically younger than the rest of the country, where regional scale faults are intensely populated. The highly scattered stress directions in this region may represent the effect of the geologic structures on shallow stress field. Second, shallow σ1 directions in the northeastern part of Korea strike consistently to 135±12° , which is deviated by as much as 56° from the deep tectonic stress direction. This region is characterized by high altitude mountainous topography (an elevation of an order of 1 km) with its major ridge axis in the NW-SE direction. We interpret, as a rule of thumb, that the ridge-perpendicular shallow horizontal stress components may be weak, leading to the ridge-parallel components to be the maximum. Overall, there are similarity and also difference between shallow and deep stress fields. Thus, it will be necessary to differentiate the strategy to tackle the stress-related problems based on their natures.

  18. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  19. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  20. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Gemma Rutten

    Full Text Available In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866-4550 m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies.

  1. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Rutten, Gemma; Ensslin, Andreas; Hemp, Andreas; Fischer, Markus


    In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866-4550 m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human)-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies.

  2. Poro-thermoelastic borehole stress analysis for determination of the in situ stress and rock strength

    Tao, Qingfeng; Ghassemi, Ahmad [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)


    The in situ stress state and rock strength are key parameters in a number of problems concerning petroleum and geothermal reservoir development, particularly in well stimulation and optimum wellbore trajectory analyses. Inversion techniques utilized to determine the in situ stress and rock strength based on the observation of borehole failure and its analysis often assume elastic rock behavior. However, when drilling through high-pressure and high-temperature rocks, coupled poro-thermo-mechanical processes result in a time-dependent stress and pore pressure distribution around the borehole. In this work, the poro-thermoelastic effects on borehole failure are studied and their impact on wellbore stability and the estimations of the in situ maximum horizontal stress and rock strength using wellbore failure data are investigated. It is shown that coupled poro-thermo-mechanical effects influence both failure mode and potential. Also, when considering shear failure, neglecting heating and cooling effects will underestimate and overestimate rock strength, respectively. Therefore, for accurate assessment of wellbore stability and inversion of wellbore failure data, poroelastic and thermal factors should be considered. (author)

  3. Stress pattern in Portugal mainland and the adjacent Atlantic region, West Iberia

    Ribeiro, A.; Cabral, J.; Baptista, R.; Matias, L.


    The Portuguese mainland territory is located close to the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary, in a tectonic setting responsible for significant neotectonic and seismic activities. However, few data concerning the present regional lithospheric stress field were available, as testified by recently published maps of stress indicators for the Europe and Mediterranean regions. One of the authors already presented a synthesis on this subject [Cabral, 1993], where geological and geophysical stress indicators were considered. In this paper we introduce new information, mainly a considerable amount of borehole breakout data. The updated data set comprises 32 reliable stress indicators showing a mean azimuth of 145° (standard deviation 21°) for the maximum horizontal stress direction (SHmax). On the average, the geological data are rotated clockwise and the focal mechanism data deviated anticlockwise to that azimuth, while the borehole elongation results are consistent with the mean SHmax trend. These differences in stress trend suggest a regional progressive rotation of the SHmax direction from NNW-SSE to WNW-ESE since the upper Pliocene. To estimate stress trajectories, new and published stress indicators in the adjacent Atlantic area and northern Africa were also investigated, showing a very uniform NW-SE SHmax trend in west Iberia. A high level of horizontal compressive stress acting oblique to the western Portuguese continental margin is inferred and interpreted in view of a proposed regional geodynamical model, of activation of this passive margin, with the nucleation of a subduction zone in the Atlantic SW of Iberia, at the Gorringe submarine bank, which is propagating northward along the base of the continental slope, at the transition between thinned and normal continental crust.

  4. Effects of reverse waves on the hydrodynamic pressure acting on a dual porous horizontal plate

    Kweon Hyuck-Min


    Full Text Available The seaward reverse wave, occurring on the submerged dual porous horizontal plate, can contribute to the reduction of the transmitted wave as it reflects the propagating wave. However, the collision between the propa¬gating and seaward reverse waves increases the water level and acts as a weight on the horizontal plate. This study investigated the characteristics of the wave pressure created by the seaward reverse wave through the analysis of expe¬rimental data. The analysis confirmed the following results: 1 the time series of the wave pressure showed reverse phase phenomena due to the collision, and the wave pressures acted simultaneously on both upper and lower surfaces of the horizontal plate; 2 the horizontal plate became repeatedly compressed and tensile before and after the occur¬rence of the seaward reverse wave; and 3 the seaward reverse wave created the total wave pressure to the maximum towards the direction of gravity, primarily on the upper plate. It was also confirmed that the wave distributions showed a similar trend to the wave steepness. Such outcome of the analysis will provide basic information to the structural analysis of the horizontal plate as a wave dissipater of the steel-type breakwater (STB.

  5. New and Modified Equations for Planning Two-Buildup Directional and Horizontal Wells

    Sun Tengfei


    Full Text Available Two-buildup directional and horizontal well is usually used for the type trajectory that the target zone is accurate but build rate is not. In the past and at present, the petroleum engineers use the Karlsson method and equations to design the two-buildup directional and horizontal well. But through rigid derivation and analysis, we have found some places that need to be improved. This study has put forward new and modified equations on the basis of Karlsson method. The new method considers the maximum and minimum build rates expected in the first and second curves and supposes that the upper and lower bound trajectory are all two-build up trajectory type. This study also has considered the difference of the maximum and minimum build rates expected in the second curve and the first curve. The new and modified method and equations are tested through two examples.

  6. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.


    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  7. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    F W Giacobbe


    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.

  8. Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics

    Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish


    In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...

  9. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...


    ...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...

  10. A maximum in the strength of nanocrystalline copper

    Schiøtz, Jakob; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    We used molecular dynamics simulations with system sizes up to 100 million atoms to simulate plastic deformation of nanocrystalline copper. By varying the grain size between 5 and 50 nanometers, we show that the flow stress and thus the strength exhibit a maximum at a grain size of 10 to 15...... nanometers. This maximum is because of a shift in the microscopic deformation mechanism from dislocation-mediated plasticity in the coarse-grained material to grain boundary sliding in the nanocrystalline region. The simulations allow us to observe the mechanisms behind the grain-size dependence...

  11. Alternativa estructural de refuerzo horizontal en muros de mampostería Structural alternative of horizontal reinforcement in masonry walls

    Diego Fernando Páez Moreno


    Full Text Available La implementación de refuerzo horizontal en muros de mampostería con ladrillo macizo de arcilla cocida es una técnica empleada en varios países. En este trabajo se propone un análisis para muros de mampostería representativos de la ciudad de Tunja con la implementación de grafiles de acero como alternativa de refuerzo horizontal. Este estudio involucra la definición de los tipos de materiales a emplear, las características de los muros a ensayar y las variables que se deben aplicar, tanto en los muros como en la ejecución del ensayo de compresión diagonal, que define tipos de muros con características propias de refuerzo. Los resultados del proceso de análisis del comportamiento individual y general de los muros de mampostería sometidos al ensayo de compresión diagonal permiten identificar la variación del esfuerzo cortante representativo para cada tipo de muro, en relación con el refuerzo empleado en los diferentes modelos y la tipología de falla.Implementation of horizontal reinforcement in masonry walls with solid cooked clay bricks is a commonly used technique in several countries. This article is intended to analyze masonry walls representatives of Tunja City, with implementation of small steel bars as an alternative of horizontal reinforcement. This study involves definition of types of materials to be used, characteristics of walls to be tested, and variables which should be applied in both walls and during the execution of the diagonal compression test which defines the types of walls with own characteristics of reinforcement. Results from individual and general behavior analysis process of masonry walls subject to diagonal compression tests allow identifying variation of shear stress for each kind of wall, in relation to reinforcement used in several models and failure typology.

  12. The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator

    Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.


    A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.

  13. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    Maxwell Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational

  14. Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Northrop, D.A.


    This project is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Harvey E. Yates Company being conducted under the auspices of the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project seeks to apply perspectives related to the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology to the simulation and production of low-permeability gas reservoirs to low-permeability oil reservoirs as typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Permian Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report presents the results and analysis obtained in 1989 from 233 ft of oriented core, comprehensive suite of logs, various in situ stress measurements, and detailed well tests conducted in conjunction with the drilling of two development wells. Natural fractures were observed in core and logs in the interbed carbonates, but there was no direct evidence of fractures in the sandstones. However, production tests of the sandstones indicated permeabilities and behavior typical of a dual porosity reservoir. A general northeast trend for the maximum principal horizontal stress was observed in an elastic strain recovery measurements and in strikes of drilling-induced fractures; this direction is subparallel to the principal fracture trend observed in the interbed carbonates. Many of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Characteristics of Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    Li, Zhigang

    and smoke. Air flow through vertical openings has been widely investigated but little is known about the flow in the horizontal openings, especially when they are driven by buoyancy. A literature survey shows that the brine-water system and the scale model are normally used forthe research work of air flow...... through horizontal openings. Two cases of full-scale measurements of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings are performed: one horizontal opening and one horizontal opening combined with one vertical opening. For the case of one horizontal opening, the measurements are made...

  16. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs


    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... of scoliosis. The approach used is simple. These results are sufficient for a first visual analysis furnishing significant clinical information in all three anatomical planes. This visualization represents a reasonable compromise between mathematical purity and practical use....

  17. Kinematics of horizontal and vertical caterpillar crawling.

    van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Trimmer, Barry A


    Unlike horizontal crawling, vertical crawling involves two counteracting forces: torque rotating the body around its center of mass and gravity resisting forward movement. The influence of these forces on kinematics has been examined in the soft-bodied larval stage of Manduca sexta. We found that crawling and climbing are accomplished using the same movements, with both segment timing and proleg lift indistinguishable in horizontal and vertical locomotion. Minor differences were detected in stride length and in the delay between crawls, which led to a lower crawling speed in the vertical orientation. Although these differences were statistically significant, they were much smaller than the variation in kinematic parameters between animals. The ability of Manduca to crawl and climb using the same movements is best explained by Manduca's relatively small size, slow speed and strong, controlled, passive grip made possible by its proleg/crochets.

  18. Detecting series periodicity with horizontal visibility graphs

    Núñez, Angel M; Valero, Eusebio; Gómez, Jose Patricio; Luque, Bartolo


    The horizontal visibility algorithm has been recently introduced as a mapping between time series and networks. The challenge lies in characterizing the structure of time series (and the processes that generated those series) using the powerful tools of graph theory. Recent works have shown that the visibility graphs inherit several degrees of correlations from their associated series, and therefore such graph theoretical characterization is in principle possible. However, both the mathematical grounding of this promising theory and its applications are on its infancy. Following this line, here we address the question of detecting hidden periodicity in series polluted with a certain amount of noise. We first put forward some generic properties of horizontal visibility graphs which allow us to define a (graph theoretical) noise reduction filter. Accordingly, we evaluate its performance for the task of calculating the period of noisy periodic signals, and compare our results with standard time domain (autocorre...

  19. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang


    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... injection tracer gas technique. Smoke visualizations showed that the airflow patterns are highly transient and unstable, and that the airflow rate oscillates with time. Correlations between the Froude (Archimedes) number Fr (Ar) and the L/D ratio are presented. In some cases the measured airflow rates fit...

  20. Horizontal Bilayer for Electrical and Optical Recordings

    Alf Honigmann


    Full Text Available Artificial bilayer containing reconstituted ion channels, transporters and pumps serve as a well-defined model system for electrophysiological investigations of membrane protein structure–function relationship. Appropriately constructed microchips containing horizontally oriented bilayers with easy solution access to both sides provide, in addition, the possibility to investigate these model bilayer membranes and the membrane proteins therein with high resolution fluorescence techniques up to the single-molecule level. Here, we describe a bilayer microchip system in which long-term stable horizontal free-standing and hydrogel-supported bilayers can be formed and demonstrate its prospects particularly for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and high resolution fluorescence microscopy in probing the physicochemical properties like phase behavior of the bilayer-forming lipids, as well as in functional studies of membrane proteins.

  1. Mechanical and mathematical models of multi-stage horizontal fracturing strings and their application

    Zhanghua Lian


    Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.

  2. Horizontal alternating steam drive process for the Orinoco heavy oil belt in eastern Venezuela

    Edgar A. Fernandez R.; Bashbush, J.L. [Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (United States)


    Horizontal alternating steam drive (HASD) processes use single horizontal wells that cyclically switch between injection and production phases. The steam chambers generated by the wells are laterally driven by the pressure differentials created by adjacent producers to form a sweeping front between the wells. This feasibility study assessed the use of HASD processes at a heavy oil reservoir in Venezuela. The study used numerical simulations from a representative reservoir with a 5-horizontal well array to asses the HASD recovery technique under various scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to consider the positioning of the horizontal well placement in the reservoir column; different injection sequences; variations in the duration of injection cycles; injection rates; and the lengths of the horizontal reach of the wells. Results of the study suggested that HASD is a suitable alternative for reservoirs with sands in the 20 foot to 50 foot thickness range. HASD achieved average recovery factors of above 20 per cent over a 15 year period, and required fewer wells than steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. It was concluded that the wells must be designed to consider the additional thermal stresses resulting the repeated injection and production cycles associated with HASD processes. The 6 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  3. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Li Gao


    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  4. Horizontal Symmetry: Bottom Up and Top Down

    Lam, C S


    A group-theoretical connection between horizontal symmetry $\\G$ and fermion mixing is established, and applied to neutrino mixing. The group-theoretical approach is consistent with a dynamical theory based on $U(1)\\times \\G$, but the dynamical theory can be used to pick out the most stable mixing that purely group-theoretical considerations cannot. A symmetry common to leptons and quarks is also discussed. This higher symmetry picks $A_4$ over $S_4$ to be the preferred symmetry for leptons.

  5. Convection in horizontally shaken granular material

    Saluena, Clara; Poeschel, Thorsten


    In horizontally shaken granular material different types of pattern formation have been reported. We want to deal with the convection instability which has been observed in experiments and which recently has been investigated numerically. Using two dimensional molecular dynamics we show that the convection pattern depends crucial on the inelastic properties of the material. The concept of restitution coefficient provides arguments for the change of the behaviour with variing inelasticity.

  6. R&D investments fostering horizontal mergers

    Cabolis, C.; Manasakis, C.; MORENO, Diego; Petrakis, Emmanuel


    We study a homogenous good triopoly in which firms first choose their cost-reducing R&D investments and consider alternative merger proposals, and then compete à la Cournot in the ensuing industry. We identify conditions under which both horizontal mergers and non integration are sustained by Coalition-Proof Nash equilibria (CPNE). These conditions involve the effectiveness of the R&D technology, as well as the distribution of the bargaining power between the acquirer and the acquiree, which ...

  7. Re-evaluation of the regional tectonic stress fields and faulting regimes in central Kyushu, Japan, behind the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto Earthquake

    Yoshida, Masaki


    To re-evaluate the regional tectonic stress fields in central Kyushu, Japan, the region in which the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes occurred on 14 April 2016 (Mw 6.2) and 16 April (Mw 7.0), the faulting regimes in central Kyushu were analyzed using the focal mechanisms of this earthquake sequence. Results show that almost all of the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes occurring along the active Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone fall into two spatial faulting regimes: a strike-slip (SS) regime along this fault zone and a pure normal faulting (NF) regime without or with minor strike-slip component in the northern part of this fault zone. In terms of the relationship between the two horizontal principal stresses acting on Kyushu Island, these two regimes are regarded as a set of tectonics stress fields. The highly accumulated strain energy along this fault zone and asymmetrically unbalanced stress condition for the maximum horizontal principal stress acting on the east-west sides of the crustal blocks in this area expected from a pair of these two regimes might explain the relatively large number of aftershocks following the Kumamoto Earthquake as compared to other recent inland earthquakes in the Japanese Islands. From the results of the present analyses, it is considered that the regional stress field of Honshu Island could be extended to Kyushu Island and that the kinematics of the Philippine Sea Plate may have been affecting the stress field in Kyushu since the late Miocene.

  8. A mechanistic determination of horizontal flow regime bound using void wave celerity

    Park, J.W. [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The two-phase flow regime boundaries in a horizontal channel has been investigated by using the behavior of the second order void wave celerities. The average two-fluid model has been constituted with closure relations for horizontally stratified and bubbly flows. A vapor phase turbulent stress model for a smooth interface geometry has been included. It is found that the second order waves (i.e., eigenvalues) propagate in opposite direction with almost the same speed when the liquid phase is stationary. Using the well-posedness limit of the two-phase system, the dispersed-stratified flow regime boundary has been modeled. Two-phase Froude number has been theoretically found to be a convenient parameter in quantifying the flow regime boundary as a function of the void fraction. It is found that interaction between void wave celerities become stronger as the two-phase Froude number is reduced. This result should be interpreted as that gravity and the relative velocity are key parameters in determining flow regime boundaries in a horizontal flow. The influence of the vapor phase turbulent stress found to stabilize the flow stratification. This study clearly shows that the average two-fluid model is very effective for a mechanistic determination of horizontal flow regimes if appropriate closure relations are developed.

  9. Thermal transient analysis applied to horizontal wells

    Duong, A.N. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery process used to recover bitumen and heavy oil. This paper presented a newly developed model to estimate cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using a thermal transient analysis along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating process. This radial conduction heating model provides information on the heat influx distribution along a horizontal wellbore or elongated steam chamber, and is therefore important for determining the effectiveness of the heating process in the start-up phase in SAGD. Net heat flux estimation in the target formation during start-up can be difficult to measure because of uncertainties regarding heat loss in the vertical section; steam quality along the horizontal segment; distribution of steam along the wellbore; operational conditions; and additional effects of convection heating. The newly presented model can be considered analogous to pressure transient analysis of a buildup after a constant pressure drawdown. The model is based on an assumption of an infinite-acting system. This paper also proposed a new concept of a heating ring to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Field observations were used to demonstrate how the model can be used to save heat energy, conserve steam and enhance bitumen recovery. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 appendices.

  10. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.


    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  11. Transmission of vertical stress in a real soil profile. Part III

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per


    of stresses. We quantified the effect of soil water content of topsoil/subsoil layers (wet/wet, wet/dry, and dry/dry) on stress transmission. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under a towed wheel (800/50R34) were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol. The tyre was loaded with 60 kN, and we used...... the recommended tyre inflation pressure for traffic in the field (100 kPa). Seven stress transducers were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil at each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m) and covering the width of the wheeled area. The vertical stresses at the tyre–soil contact area...... were measured in separate tests. Increase of water content in the topsoil by 114% increased the contact area by 149%, decreased the vertical stresses at the tyre–soil interface by 50%, and decreased the maximum vertical stress at 0.3 and 0.6 m depth by 46 and 63%, respectively. Stress attenuation...

  12. An analysis on short-wave components of the global stress field

    黄玺瑛; 魏东平; 陈棋福; 陈虹


    The 10 920 stress indicators collected so far by the WSM (World Stress Map) project represent the observed orientations of the maximum horizontal principal stress ((Hmax) in a certain region. Assuming that the long-wave component of (Hmax is expressed by the absolute direction of plate motions, we can get the relative orientation and the magnitude of the short-wave component resulted from the local tectonic process or other factors with vector analytical technique. The global surface was divided into basic element bins by 2.5((2.5( dimensions and the WSM indicators were statistically analyzed for each element by weight coefficient method in order to determine the mean orientation of the stress. We calculated the long-wave component of the global stress field using HS2-NUVEL1 model. The relative magnitude or the direction limitation of short-wave component, which reflect the local contribution to the observed stresses, was determined by the angle between the mean (Hmax and the orientation of the long-wave component. The results of this paper show that the contribution of either the long-wave component or the short-wave component is approximately equal to most of the global plates on the basis of the mean effect of the observed stresses. For some of continental regions, the local active tectonics plays an important role in the observed stresses and controls the generation and occurrence of earthquakes.

  13. Contemporary tectonic stress pattern of the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    Rajabi, Mojtaba; Ziegler, Moritz; Tingay, Mark; Heidbach, Oliver; Reynolds, Scott


    The present-day stress state is a key parameter in numerous geoscientific research fields including geodynamics, seismic hazard assessment, and geomechanics of georeservoirs. The Taranaki Basin of New Zealand is located on the Australian Plate and forms the western boundary of tectonic deformation due to Pacific Plate subduction along the Hikurangi margin. This paper presents the first comprehensive wellbore-derived basin-scale in situ stress analysis in New Zealand. We analyze borehole image and oriented caliper data from 129 petroleum wells in the Taranaki Basin to interpret the shape of boreholes and determine the orientation of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax). We combine these data (151 SHmax data records) with 40 stress data records derived from individual earthquake focal mechanism solutions, 6 from stress inversions of focal mechanisms, and 1 data record using the average of several focal mechanism solutions. The resulting data set has 198 data records for the Taranaki Basin and suggests a regional SHmax orientation of N068°E (±22°), which is in agreement with NW-SE extension suggested by geological data. Furthermore, this ENE-WSW average SHmax orientation is subparallel to the subduction trench and strike of the subducting slab (N50°E) beneath the central western North Island. Hence, we suggest that the slab geometry and the associated forces due to slab rollback are the key control of crustal stress in the Taranaki Basin. In addition, we find stress perturbations with depth in the vicinity of faults in some of the studied wells, which highlight the impact of local stress sources on the present-day stress rotation.

  14. Temporal and spatial variation of local stress fields before and after the 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak vent, Mount Spurr volcano, Alaska

    Roman, D.C.; Moran, S.C.; Power, J.A.; Cashman, K.V.


    We searched for changes in local stress-field orientation at Mount Spurr volcano, Alaska, between August 1991 and December 2001. This study focuses on the stress-field orientation beneath Crater Peak vent, the site of three eruptions in 1992, and beneath the summit of Mount Spurr. Local stress tensors were calculated by inverting subsets of 140 fault-plane solutions for earthquakes beneath Crater Peak and 96 fault-plane solutions for earthquakes beneath Mount Spurr. We also calculated an upper-crustal regional stress tensor by inverting fault-plane solutions for 66 intraplate earthquakes located near Mount Spurr during 1991-2001. Prior to the 1992 eruptions, and for 11 months beginning with a posteruption seismic swarm, the axis of maximum compressive stress beneath Crater Peak was subhorizontal and oriented N67-76??E, approximately perpendicular to the regional axis of maximum compressive stress (N43??W). The strong temporal correlation between this horizontal stress-field rotation (change in position of the ??1/ ??3 axes relative to regional stress) and magmatic activity indicates that the rotation was related to magmatic activity, and we suggest that the Crater Peak stress-field rotation resulted from pressurization of a network of dikes. During the entire study period, the stress field beneath the summit of Mount Spurr also differed from the regional stress tensor and was characterized by a vertical axis of maximum compressive stress. We suggest that slip beneath Mount Spurr's summit occurs primarily on a major normal fault in response to a combination of gravitational loading, hydrothermal circulation, and magmatic processes beneath Crater Peak. Online material: Regional and local fault-plane solutions.

  15. Analysis of the D0 Crane Rail as a Support for a Horizontal Lifeline

    Cease, H.; /Fermilab


    The D-Zero crane rail is analyzed for use as an anchor support for a one person Horizon{trademark} Horizontal Lifeline system that will span the pit area at D-Zero assembly hall. The lifeline will span 75 ft across the pit area, will be located out of the travel of the crane and above the concrete lentil wall. The crane rail is a suitable anchor for a one person Horizon TM Horizontal Lifeline system. The expected stress on the rail is 1,995 psi which has a factor of safety of 5.5 on the allowable stress. The anchor position is located 18 feet away from the concrete lentil wall and out of the travel of the overhead crane.

  16. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Joaquim Azevedo


    Full Text Available It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of the time the wind speed is very low, especially at urban areas. Therefore, this work includes a study on the wind speed distribution in an urban environment and proposes a controller to maximize the energy transfer to the storage systems. The generated power is evaluated by simulation and experimentally for different load and wind conditions. The results demonstrate the increase in efficiency of wind generators that use maximum power transfer tracking, even at low wind speeds.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

    ... Health Conditions HGPPS horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis ( HGPPS ) is a disorder that affects vision and ...

  18. 1 Reevaluation of the integrated horizontal flux approach

    Neftel, Albrecht; Häni, Christoph; Hensen, Arjan


    The integrated horizontal flux (IHF) method is a simplified mass balance approach frequently used to determine emissions from confined source areas, e.g. NH3 emissions from slurry spread to a circular plot (Denmead, 2008). With a mast in the center of the circle with radius R, the total flux F of the upwind emitted NH3 is approximated from the measured vertical (z) profiles of concentration (c) and horizontal wind speed (u) as (Denmead 1983): F = 1/R\\intz=zplz=0\\overline{u(c - cbgd)}dz where cbgd is the ``background'' concentration upwind of the emitting area and zpl is the maximum height of the emission plume (where the concentration c equals cbgd).The IHF method is a robust approach, as it is independent of surface characteristics and the state of atmospheric diffusion (Denmead, 2008; Laubach,2010). Ryden and McNeill (1984) published guidelines on how to evaluate IHF measurements, which have been used in many investigations that followed. In the following we analyze systematic biases that might occur by applying different recipes to both modelled concentration profiles as well as measured profiles from a recent field experiment in the Netherlands. Typical differencs using the approach by Ryden et al. (1984) are in the order +10% to +30% compared to the reference values from the model or alternative determination of the emissions based on the experimental values. The positive biases consist of several contributions: horizontal diffusion, logarithmic fit of the concentration profile, displacement height. References Denmead, O. T., 1983. Micrometeorological methods for measuring gaseous losses of nitrogen in the field. In: Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plum-Soil Systems (Freney, J. R.; Simpson, J. R., Eds) Martinus Nijhof/Dr W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 133-157. Denmead, O. T., 2008. Approaches to measuring fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide between landscapes and the atmosphere. Plant Soil 309 (1-2), 5a\\euro 24.Laubach, J., 2010. Testing of a lagrangian model of

  19. Skin friction and heat transfer of liquid jet over a continuous moving horizontal hot plate


    The skin friction and heat transfer occurring in the laminarboundary layer which caused by a vertical liquid jet impinging on a continuously moving horizontal plate were studied. Similarity solutionsfor shear stress and heat distribution were obtained by using the shooting technique. The results shows that the skin friction decreases with an increase of velocity parameter, the evolving of thermal boundarydecrease with increasing in Prandtl number, but increase with increasing of velocity parameter.

  20. The behaviour of the power transmission tower subjected to horizontal support’s movements

    Shu, Q.; Yuan, G.; Z. Huang; Ye, S.


    In this paper, two half-scaled test tower models for a typical 110 kV single-circuit power transmission tower were designed and fabricated. The scaled test tower models were tested under the horizontal support’s stretching (tensile) and compressive movements with the normal working loading conditions. The deformations of the tested tower models and stresses within the different bracing members were fully measured. A large amount of comprehensive test data was generated. Also a finite element ...

  1. Liquid mean velocity and turbulence in a horizontal air-water bubbly flow


    The liquid phase turbulent structure of an air-water bubbly horizontal flow in a circular pipe has been investigated experimentally. Three-dimensional measurements were implemented with two "X" type probes oriented in different planes, and local liquid-phase velocities and turbulent stresses were simultaneously obtained. Systematic measurements were conducted covering a range of local void fraction from 0 to 11.7%. The important experiment results and parametric trends are summarized and discussed.

  2. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    Ros, Rosa M.


    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  3. Horizontal routes: current paths of literary criticism in Latin America

    Ariadne Costa da Mata


    Full Text Available In the last decades, the tendency towards horizontality became visible, particularly (but not only in social movements. Horizontality implies a new architecture in human organizations and pushes for changes in the way knowledge is produced and organized. More than a simple erosion of frontiers between fields, horizontality means the decentralization and dissemination of power.

  4. Application of Horizontal Well Technology to Liaohe Oilfield



    @@ Horizontal well technology has become one of the main technologies enabling Liaohe Oilfield to realize stable development. By the end of 2006, 296 horizontal wells of various kinds had been completed in Liaohe Oil Field,273 wells had been put into production, Among uhich 237 were horizontal wells (see Table 1).

  5. YPF uses horizontal reentry to aid thin bed production

    Acosta, M.R.; Leiro, F.A.; Sesano, G.S. [Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, La Paz (Bolivia); Hill, D.


    Reentry and horizontal drilling/completion techniques have proven themselves useful in exploiting thin beds. A pilot horizontal reentry contracted by Yacimiento Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) for a marginal well in its Lomita Sur field resulted in decreased water coning and production rates four times greater than expected. Further horizontal reentries in this thin-bed field are planned.

  6. A mathematical model and numerical simulation of pressure wave in horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow

    HUANG Fei; BAI Bofeng; GUO Liejin


    By using an ensemble-averaged two-fluid model,with valid closure conditions of interfacial momentum exchange due to virtual mass force,viscous shear stress and drag force,a model for pressure wave propagation in a horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow is proposed.According to the small perturbation theory and solvable condition of one-order linear uniform equations,a dispersion equation of pressure wave is induced.The pressure wave speed calculated from the model is compared and in good agreement with existing data.According to the dispersion equation,the propagation and attenuation of pressure wave are investigated systemically.The factors affecting pressure wave,such as void fraction,pressure,wall shear stress,perturbation frequency,virtual mass force and drag force,are analyzed.The result shows that the decrease in system pressure,the increase in void fraction and the existence of wall shear stress,will cause a decrease in pressure wave speed and an increase in the attenuation coefficient in the horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow.The effects of perturbation frequency,virtual mass and drag force on pressure wave in the horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow at low perturbation frequency are different from that at high perturbation frequency.

  7. Gravitational stresses in anisotropic rock masses

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.; Swolfs, H.S.


    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained and are modelled as a homogeneous, orthotropic or transversely isotropic, linearly elastic material. The analysis, constrained by the thermodynamic requirement that strain energy be positive definite, gives the following important result: inclusion of anisotropy broadens the range of permissible values of gravity-induced horizontal stresses. In fact, for some ranges of anisotropic rock properties, it is thermodynamically admissible for gravity-induced horizontal stresses to exceed the vertical stress component; this is not possible for the classical isotropic solution. Specific examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity-induced stress field in anisotropic rocks and its dependence on the type, degree and orientation of anisotropy with respect to the horizontal ground surface. ?? 1987.

  8. Variation in terminology: capoeira in Belo Horizonte

    César Nardelli Cambraia


    Full Text Available In this pilot study we analyzed the variation in the terminology of capoeira in Belo Horizonte. The terms referring to 69 videotaped movements of capoeira were collected from 10 informants (5 men and 5 women, aged between 25 and 32 years, capoeira teachers. As a result we obtained 294 different terms whose patterns of variation are distributed among 15 types. We tested the hypothesis that the figurative terms tend to be replaced by non-figurative ones, and it was confirmed by the collected data. This trend was the result of a search for transparency in terminology, making the terms more descriptive in relation to capoeira’s movements.

  9. Impulse absorption by horizontal magnetic granular chain

    Dingxin Leng


    Full Text Available The granular medium is known as a protecting material for shock mitigation. We study the impulse absorption of an alignment of magnetic spheres placed horizontally under a non-uniform magnetic field. The phenomenon of the wave dispersion is presented. This system can absorb 85% ∼ 95% (88% ∼ 98% of the incident peak force (energy under the applied magnetic field strength in 0.1 T ∼ 1.0 T. The shock attenuation capacities are enhanced by the increment of field strength. With an intelligent control system, it is conceivable that the magnetic granular chain may offer possibilities in developing adaptive shock protectors.

  10. Does horizontal transmission invalidate cultural phylogenies?

    Greenhill, Simon J; Currie, Thomas E; Gray, Russell D


    Phylogenetic methods have recently been applied to studies of cultural evolution. However, it has been claimed that the large amount of horizontal transmission that sometimes occurs between cultural groups invalidates the use of these methods. Here, we use a natural model of linguistic evolution to simulate borrowing between languages. The results show that tree topologies constructed with Bayesian phylogenetic methods are robust to realistic levels of borrowing. Inferences about divergence dates are slightly less robust and show a tendency to underestimate dates. Our results demonstrate that realistic levels of reticulation between cultures do not invalidate a phylogenetic approach to cultural and linguistic evolution.

  11. Fluidization of a horizontally driven granular monolayer.

    Heckel, Michael; Sack, Achim; Kollmer, Jonathan E; Pöschel, Thorsten


    We consider the transition of a horizontally vibrated monodisperse granular monolayer between its condensed state and its three-dimensional gaseous state as a function of the vibration parameters, amplitude, and frequency as well as particle number density. The transition is characterized by an abrupt change of the dynamical state which leaves its fingerprints in several measurable quantities including dissipation rate, sound emission, and a gap size which characterizes the sloshing motion of the material. The transition and its pronounced hysteresis is explained through the energy due to the collective motion of the particles relative to the container.

  12. Horizontal stability of a bouncing ball

    McBennett, Brendan G.; Harris, Daniel M.


    We present an investigation of a partially elastic ball bouncing on a vertically vibrated concave parabolic surface in two dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that simple vertical motion, wherein the ball bounces periodically at the parabola's vertex, is unstable to horizontal perturbations when the parabolic coefficient defining the surface shape exceeds a critical value. The result is a new periodic solution where the ball bounces laterally over the vertex. As the parabola is further steepened, this new solution also becomes unstable which gives rise to other complex periodic and chaotic bouncing states, all characterized by persistent lateral motion.

  13. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生


    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.


    Yu. L. Rebetsky


    Full Text Available The article presents results of tectonophysical methods applied to reconstruct tectonic stress field of the north-western flank of the Pacific Ocean seismic focal zone in the region wherein the 2011 Tohoku earthquake was prepared. The reconstructions are based on earthquake foci data for the time period before the catastrophic seismic event. The field of stresses, wherein the Tohoku earthquake focus was formed, had a high gradient along the dip of the seismic focal zone. It is revealed that the focus developed in the junction area of the crust segments with high and low levels of effective pressure. A wide area of lower effective pressure was located at depths close to 30 km, and it was the most susceptible to brittle fracture. In our opinion, the area impacted by the Tohoku earthquake is large due to a large length of the crustal segments with the high gradient of stresses, which are located along the eastern part of the crust of the Honshu Island.The stress reconstruction also shows that the axis of the Japan oceanic trough divides the seismic focal zone into areas of horizontal compression (westward and horizontal extension (eastwards. According to our calculations, lateral compression is the highest at the crustal depths up to 20 km westward of the trough’s axis, where maximum lateral compression axes are oriented orthogonally to the trough’s strike. Eastward of the trough’s axis, minimum horizontal compression axes are oriented orthogonally to the trough’s strike. At the crossing point of the Japan trough, a sharp changing of stress is by a factor of 5 to 8 of internal cohesion of rocks, τf. This sharp changing of stress is lower for the Izu-Bonin trough and varies from 3 to 5 τf. 

  15. Lithospheric flexure under the Hawaiian volcanic load: Internal stresses and a broken plate revealed by earthquakes

    Klein, Fred W.


    Several lines of earthquake evidence indicate that the lithospheric plate is broken under the load of the island of Hawai`i, where the geometry of the lithosphere is circular with a central depression. The plate bends concave downward surrounding a stress-free hole, rather than bending concave upward as with past assumptions. Earthquake focal mechanisms show that the center of load stress and the weak hole is between the summits of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea where the load is greatest. The earthquake gap at 21 km depth coincides with the predicted neutral plane of flexure where horizontal stress changes sign. Focal mechanism P axes below the neutral plane display a striking radial pattern pointing to the stress center. Earthquakes above the neutral plane in the north part of the island have opposite stress patterns; T axes tend to be radial. The M6.2 Honomu and M6.7 Kiholo main shocks (both at 39 km depth) are below the neutral plane and show radial compression, and the M6.0 Kiholo aftershock above the neutral plane has tangential compression. Earthquakes deeper than 20 km define a donut of seismicity around the stress center where flexural bending is a maximum. The hole is interpreted as the soft center where the lithospheric plate is broken. Kilauea's deep conduit is seismically active because it is in the ring of maximum bending. A simplified two-dimensional stress model for a bending slab with a load at one end yields stress orientations that agree with earthquake stress axes and radial P axes below the neutral plane. A previous inversion of deep Hawaiian focal mechanisms found a circular solution around the stress center that agrees with the model. For horizontal faults, the shear stress within the bending slab matches the slip in the deep Kilauea seismic zone and enhances outward slip of active flanks.

  16. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Michael Miller


    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  17. Stratigraphic control and formation evaluation of horizontal wells with MWD

    Hammons, L.R.B. (Eastman Teleco (United States)); Sellers, D.H.; Fisher, E.K. (Texaco Inc. (United States))


    Sandstone reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico typically do not form horizontal planes, and a predetermined course for a horizontal well cannot ensure that the well path will remain within the producing interval throughout the horizontal section. Detecting approaching bed boundaries and fluid contacts early enough to make the changes necessary to keep the well path in the producing interval is an important technical issue during the planning and drilling of horizontal wells. This paper reports that the first two horizontal wells drilled in the Gulf of Mexico achieved this objective with measurement-while-drilling (MWD) resistivity measurements and with supporting computer modeling for bed boundary detection.

  18. Generation of large-scale winds in horizontally anisotropic convection

    von Hardenberg, J; Provenzale, A; Spiegel, E A


    We simulate three-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection between free-slip horizontal plates, rotating about a horizontal axis. When both the temperature difference between the plates and the rotation rate are sufficiently large, a strong horizontal wind is generated that is perpendicular to both the rotation vector and the gravity vector. The wind is turbulent, large-scale, and vertically sheared. Horizontal anisotropy, engendered here by rotation, appears necessary for such wind generation. Most of the kinetic energy of the flow resides in the wind, and the vertical turbulent heat flux is much lower on average than when there is no wind.

  19. 估计三种常用疲劳应力-寿命模型P-S-N曲线的 统一经典极大似然法%A Unified Classical Maximum Likelihood Approach for Estimating P-S-N Curves of Three Commonly Used Fatigue Stress-Life Relations

    赵永翔; 王金诺; 高庆


    拓展经典极大似然法到Langer模型,提出了估计三参数、Langer和Basquin三种常用疲劳应力-寿命模型P-S-N曲线及其置信限的统一方法。方法用于处理极大似然法疲劳试验得到的S-N数据。该试验在特别关注的参考载荷试验一组试样,其余试样在不同载荷下试验。以参考载荷试验数据的统计参量为基础,按照每个模型中材料常数协同处于相同概率水平原则,将曲线表示为对数疲劳寿命均值和均方差线的广义形式,至多4个材料常数。曲线中的材料常数按极大似然原理采用数学规划法求出。45#碳钢缺口试样(kt=20)对称循环加载试验数据的分析说明了方法的有效性。分析还揭示合理模型有必要通过比较拟合效果、预计误差和应用安全性来确定。三参数模型的拟合效果最好,Langer模型稍差,Basquin模型较差。从拟合效果、预计误差和应用安全性角度,Basquin模型不适于描述该套数据。此外,经典极大似然法估计结果可能因受局部统计参量影响而给出非安全估计,有必要发展改进的可以最大限度减小这种影响的方法。%A unified classical maximum likelihood approach for estimating P-S-N curves of the three commonly used fatigue stress-life relations, namely three parameter, Langer and Basquin, is presented by extrapolating the classical maximum likelihood method to the Langer relation. This approach is applied to deal with the S-N data obtained from a so-called maximum likelihood method-fatigue test. In the test, a group of specimens are tested at a so-called reference load, which is specially taken care of by practice, and residual specimens are individually fatigued at different loads. The approach takes a basis of the local statistical parameters of the logarithms of fatigue lives at the reference load. According to an assumption that the material constants in each relation are concurrently in

  20. Crustal stress and structure at Kīlauea Volcano inferred from seismic anisotropy

    Johnson, Jessica H.; Swanson, Donald; Roman, Diana C.; Poland, Michael P.; Thelen, Weston A.


    Seismic anisotropy, measured through shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis, can be indicative of the state of stress in Earth's crust. Changes in SWS at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, associated with the onset of summit eruptive activity in 2008 hint at the potential of the technique for tracking volcanic activity. To use SWS observations as a monitoring tool, however, it is important to understand the cause of seismic anisotropy at the volcano throughout the eruptive cycle. To address this need, we analyzed SWS results from across Kīlauea in combination with macroscopic surface structures (mapped fractures, faults, and fissures) and stress orientations inferred from fault plane solutions. Seismic anisotropy seems to be due to pervasive aligned structures in most regions of the volcano. The upper East and Southwest Rift Zones, however, show a bimodality in stress and SWS, suggesting a stress discontinuity with depth, perhaps related to magma conduits that trend obliquely to the dominant structure. Other areas in and around Kīlauea Caldera display principal stresses of similar magnitudes, indicating that small stress perturbations can rotate the maximum horizontal compressive stress direction by up to 90°. In these locations, static structures generally control SWS, but dynamic conditions due to magmatic activity can override the structural control. Monitoring of SWS may therefore provide important signs of impending volcanism.

  1. Kinematics of the forefoot in the horizontal plane during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on a treadmill after aerobic exercise load.

    Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; An, Xiangde; Li, Yong; Onoda, Ko; Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Chen, De; Yin, Lu; Maruyama, Hitoshi


    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure the changes in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on a treadmill after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load (a fatigue protocol). [Subjects] Eleven junior racewalking men participated in this study. [Methods] To identify changes in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane after physically demanding aerobic exercise load, an 8 ch wireless Motion Recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) was utilized. [Results] Forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane was significantly associated with increased paces during progressive pace treadmill racewalking. Significant increases in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation were observed during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on the instrumented treadmill at 8 km/h and 10 km/h after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicated that forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation increased during progressive pace barefoot racewalking in the fatigue state after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load, which implies that the kinematic features of the forefoot are changed in the fatigue state.

  2. Horizontal Air Bearing Experiment Number 1

    Clauson, T.L.


    The Horizontal Air Bearing Experiment No.1 is a series of tests intended to further the understanding of rotational dynamics. A simple experimental assembly is rotated using the Horizontal Air Bearing and allowed to spin freely as the internal rotational damping is measured. The low friction of the bearing effectively isolates the test assembly, allowing the internal damping of the test object to be evaluated. The experimental assembly is composed of an aluminum ball within a spherical cavity. A flanged pipe section and an auxiliary adapter plate secure the assembly to the Air Bearing interface plate. Three aluminum balls are interchanged to vary test parameters. The aluminum balls are free to move independently as the entire assembly rotates. The aluminum balls vary in diameter and/or surface finish. While the diameter and surface finish is varied, the space between the ball and socket is dry. To examine the effect of viscosity, the space is filled with a lubricant while the ball diameter and surface finish is held constant.

  3. The origin of extreme horizontal branch stars

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R W; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T; O'Connell, Robert W


    Strong mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) can result in the formation of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars. The EHB stars spend most of their He core and shell burning phase at high temperatures and produce copious ultraviolet flux. They have very small hydrogen envelopes and occupy a small range in mass. We have computed evolutionary RGB models with mass loss for stars with a range of metallicities at initial masses < 1.1 Msun corresponding to populations ages between 12.5 and 14.5 Gyr. We used the Reimers formula to characterize mass loss, but investigated a larger range of the mass loss efficiency parameter, eta, than is common. To understand how the number of EHB stars varies with metallicity in a stellar population we considered how the zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) is populated. The range in eta producing EHB stars is comparable to that producing `mid-HB' stars. Somewhat surprisingly, neither the range nor magnitude of eta producing EHB stars varies much metallicity. In contrast, the ran...

  4. Applying GPS to check horizontal control quality

    Jakub Vincent


    Full Text Available GPS technologies can also be used for check quality in available horizontal point set with coordinates CJ of the frame S-JTSK. When survey and setting-out tasks should be performed in certain area, one can found in it allways some points of the fundamental and detail state controls. To use these points for some actual aims, it is necessary to investigate their compatibility (among the point mark positions and the point coordinate of control points. This can be done using GPS surveying that may be at the same time employed to determine the new point in the relevant area.Principle of quality investigatingf an existing control is founded on determination of point coordinates CJt from GPS measurements. Then, based on discrepancies among the "official" netpoint coordinates CJ and coordinates CJt "given by GPS", it can be estimated the degree and the real compatibility dislocations in the network structure of the existing points.Realisation procedure for the introduced investigation is demonstrated on GPS checking (by SOKKIA STRATUS receivers horizontal control for reconstruction of a railway bridge on river Bodrog in East Slovakia.It can be shown from the results in Table 3, that points P3 and P7 are useless due to their incompatibility (inconsistency in the inspected point set. For other 7 points (Table 7 the average measure of incompatibility reads 9.8 mm that make possible applying these points for precise setting-out

  5. Pattern selection in a horizontally vibrated container

    Porter, J; Tinao, I; Laveron-Simavilla, A; Lopez, C A, E-mail: [E.T.S.I. Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    We present results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the patterns realized by surface waves within an open rectangular container subjected to horizontal vibrations at frequencies of 40-100 Hz. The first instability exhibited by the primary harmonic wave field is subharmonic, and may be identified with the cross-wave instability often seen in wave tank experiments. We show that, contrary to common theoretical and experimental assumptions, and despite their name, these subharmonic waves are not oriented crosswise, but at an intermediate angle with respect to the axis of vibration. Hence, the pattern selection problem for horizontally forced Faraday waves is more complex than has previously been assumed. We establish the robustness of this obliquely oriented surface wave pattern by varying the forcing frequency and amplitude, the fluid viscosity, the fluid depth, and the boundary conditions. Previous work on cross-waves is reviewed and discussed in relation to the current results. Finally, numerical simulations using a reduced model with an appropriate forcing term are used to support the generality of the experimental observations. (paper)

  6. InSAR derived horizontal subsidence gradient as a tool for hazard assessment in urban areas.

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Dixon, T.; Diaz-Molina, O.


    Mexico City's subsidence has been recognized for over a century, after the first well battery was drilled to supply water to the rapidly growing city at the end of the XIX century. Consequences of the subsidence process are costly but the economic consequences of subsidence in urban areas is hard to assess due to the fact that their costs are generally factored into yearly maintenance budgets rather than accounting for them as a unique natural disaster. It has thus become increasingly important to assess the extent and magnitude of damage due to ground subsidence in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Periodic InSAR and GPS measurements including data from an 8 site permanent GPS network in Mexico City has enabled us to derive an integrated composite displacement map for Mexico City. This image was used to calculate the horizontal subsidence gradient for areas smaller than 100x100m throughout the city by computing the observed displacement difference divided by the respective pixel to pixel horizontal distance and comparing similarly calculated values from all adjacent pixels in order to select the maximum gradient. Both empiric and analytical approaches can been used to correlate the potential for surface faulting in high horizontal subsidence gradient zones and show that the principal factor for constraining these areas can be successfully determined using a combined Differential InSAR and GPS approach. We present surface faulting risk maps for several cities in central Mexico derived from the horizontal subsidence gradient approach as an example of this technique.

  7. Role of Vibrio cholerae exochitinase ChiA2 in horizontal gene transfer.

    Mondal, Moumita; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar


    Vibrio cholerae exochitinase ChiA2 plays a key role in acquisition of nutrients by chitin hydrolysis in the natural environment as well as in pathogenesis in the intestinal milieu. In this study we demonstrate the importance of ChiA2 in horizontal gene transfer in the natural environment. We found that the expression of ChiA2 and TfoX, the central regulator of V. cholerae horizontal gene transfer, varied with changes in environmental conditions. The activity of ChiA2 was also dependent on these conditions. In 3 different environmental conditions tested here, we observed that the supporting environmental condition for maximum expression and activity of ChiA2 was 20 °C, pH 5.5, and 100 mmol/L salinity in the presence of chitin. The same condition also induced TfoX expression and was favorable for horizontal gene transfer in V. cholerae. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that ChiA2 released a significant amount of (GlcNAc)2 from chitin hydrolysis under the favorable condition. We hypothesized that under the favorable environmental condition, ChiA2 was upregulated and maximally active to produce a significant amount of (GlcNAc)2 from chitin. The same environmental condition also induced tfoX expression, followed by its translational activation by the (GlcNAc)2 produced, leading to efficient horizontal gene transfer.

  8. Particle image velocimetry measurements of vortex structures in stilling basin of multi-horizontal submerged jets

    CHEN Jian-gang; ZHANG Jian-min; XU Wei-lin; LI Shuai; HE Xiao-long


    Measurements of turbulent flow fields in a stilling basin of multi-horizontal submerged jets were made with the singlecamera Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).The particle images were captured,processed,and subsequently used to characterize the flow in terms of the 2-D velocity and vorticity distributions.This study shows that the maximum close-to-bed velocity in the stilling basin is approximately reduced by 60%,comparing to the jet velocity at the outlet of orifices.The jet velocity is distributed evenly at the latter half of the stilling basin and the time-averaged velocity of the cross section is reduced by 77%-85%,comparing to the jet velocity at the outlet of orifices.These results show that the vortices with horizontal axes are continuously repeated during the form-merge-split-disappear process.The vertical vortices are continuously formed and disappeared,they appear randomly near the slab and intermittently reach the slab of the stilling basin.The range of these vortices is small.Vortices with horizontal axes and vertical vortices do not coincide in space and the vortices with horizontal axes only affect the position of the tail of the vertical vortices attached to the slab of the stilling basin.

  9. Hurricanes in an Aquaplanet World: Implications of the Impacts of External Forcing and Model Horizontal Resolution

    Li, Fuyu; Collins, William D.; Wehner, Michael F.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.


    High-resolution climate models have been shown to improve the statistics of tropical storms and hurricanes compared to low-resolution models. The impact of increasing horizontal resolution in the tropical storm simulation is investigated exclusively using a series of Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) runs with idealized aquaplanet steady-state boundary conditions and a fixed operational storm-tracking algorithm. The results show that increasing horizontal resolution helps to detect more hurricanes, simulate stronger extreme rainfall, and emulate better storm structures in the models. However, increasing model resolution does not necessarily produce stronger hurricanes in terms of maximum wind speed, minimum sea level pressure, and mean precipitation, as the increased number of storms simulated by high-resolution models is mainly associated with weaker storms. The spatial scale at which the analyses are conducted appears to have more important control on these meteorological statistics compared to horizontal resolution of the model grid. When the simulations are analyzed on common low-resolution grids, the statistics of the hurricanes, particularly the hurricane counts, show reduced sensitivity to the horizontal grid resolution and signs of scale invariant.

  10. Current regional stress field and the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea and their tectonic implication

    Kim, M. C.; Cho, H.; Son, M.


    To determine current regional stress field and to characterize the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea, Quaternary fault, focal mechanism, and geotechnical in-situ stress data were synthetically analyzed. The Quaternary faults are extensively observed along major inherited fault zones and show compatible orientations with general trends of the inherited faults. Most of the Quaternary faults have a top-to-the-west thrust geometry and kinematics and show a tendency of upward-decreasing dip angle and upward-narrowing gouge zone. Slip-sense indicators and paleo-stress field reconstructions indicate that the faults resulted from reverse or transpressional faulting under an E-W compression. All the magnetic fabrics (AMS) of the fault gouges also indicate the prevailing reverse-slip faulting under an ENE-WNW compression. The dominant oblate magnetic fabrics parallel to fault plane and the degrees of anisotropy increasing in proportion to their oblatenesses indicate that the fabrics have formed by a progressive deformation due to continuous simple shear during the last reactivation stage as reverse faulting. The focal mechanism study in and around the Korean Peninsula show the horizontally clustered P-axes in ENE-WSW direction and the girdle-distributed T-axes in NNW trend. The geotechnical in-situ stress data in south Korea also show NE- or ENE-trending maximum horizontal stress. The current crustal deformation in Korea thus can be characterized by contractional structures produced under a regional E-W or ENE-WSW compression stress field, and most of the Quaternary faults resulted from the local re-activation of appropriately oriented inherited major faults. Considering the tectonic setting and structural features in Asia during the Neogene, the current stress regime is interpreted to have been caused by the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of Pacific Plate and collision of Indian and Eurasian continents since about 5-3.5 Ma.

  11. Mechanism of production increasing of coalbed gas for the pinnate horizontal well and sensitivity effect of parameters on gas production

    ZHANG Dongli; WANG Xinhai


    The mechanism of production increasing for the pinnate horizontal well is analyzed with the simulation technique. It is pointed out that the whole horizontal wellbore spreading widely and evenly in coal layers makes the stratum pressure drop evenly and fast, which increases the chance of desorption and diffusion and area controlled. This is the basic reason that the pinnate horizontal well can increase production. How such stratum parameters as permeability, Langmuir constants and adsorption time constant affect the gas production for the pinnate horizontal well is also studied with numerical simulations. Either for the vertical well or the pinnate horizontal well, bigger stratum permeability, steeper relative permeability curve, smaller residual gas saturation, higher gas content and stratum pressure are more favorable for gas production increasing. Langmuir constants decide the change of desorption quantity and influence the gas production through changing the extent of steep of isothermal adsorption curves in the pressure dropping area. The adsorption time constant only influences the time that gas production arrives at the maximum value for the vertical well, but it almost has no influence on the gas production for the pinnate horizontal well because the equivalent adsorption time constant is reduced.


    ZHOU Yi-ren; CHEN Guo-ping; WANG Deng-ting


    The total uplift forces of waves acting on hori zontal plates are the important basis for the design of maritime hollow-trussed structures. In this paper, an experimental study on the total uplift forces of waves on horizontal plates was conducted by a series of model tests. The results show that the maximum total uplift forces do not necessarily occur with the maximum impact pressure intensity synchronously.On the basis of the test results, formation mechanism of the total uplift forces of waves as well as its influencing factors were analyzed in detail, and an equation for calculation of the maximum total uplift forces of waves on plates was put forward. Lots of test data shows the present equation is in good agreement with the test results.

  13. Lassa serology in natural populations of rodents and horizontal transmission.

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan


    Lassa virus causes hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. Previously, we demonstrated by PCR screening that only the multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, hosts Lassa virus in Guinea. In the present study, we used the same specimen collection from 17 villages in Coastal, Upper, and Forest Guinea to investigate the Lassa virus serology in the rodent population. The aim was to determine the dynamics of antibody development in M. natalensis and to detect potential spillover infections in other rodent species. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody screening was performed using the indirect immunofluorescence assay with the Guinean Lassa virus strain Bantou 289 as antigen. The overall seroprevalence was 8% (129/1551) with the following rodents testing positive: 109 M. natalensis, seven Mastomys erythroleucus, four Lemniscomys striatus, four Praomys daltoni, three Mus minutoides, and two Praomys rostratus. Nearly all of them (122/129) originated from Bantou, Tanganya, and Gbetaya, where Lassa virus is highly endemic in M. natalensis. The antibody seroprevalence in M. natalensis from this high-endemic area (27%; 108/396) depended on the village, habitat, host age, and host abundance. A main positive factor was age; the maximum seroprevalence reached 50% in older animals. Our data fit with a model implicating that most M. natalensis rodents become horizontally infected, clear the virus within a period significantly shorter than their life span, and develop antibodies. In addition, the detection of antibodies in other species trapped in the habitats of M. natalensis suggests spillover infections.

  14. The World Stress Map Database Release 2016 - Global Crustal Stress Pattern vs. Absolute Plate Motion

    Heidbach, Oliver; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Ziegler, Moritz; Reiter, Karsten


    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile the global information on the contemporary crustal stress state. The data come from a wide range of stress indicators such as borehole data (e.g. hydraulic fracturing, borehole breakouts), earthquake focal mechanism solutions, engineering methods (e.g. overcoring), and geological data (e.g. inversion of fault slip measurements). To guarantee the comparability of the different data sources each data record is assessed with the WSM quality ranking scheme. For the 30th anniversary we compiled a new WSM database with 42,410 data records which is an increase by >20,000 data records compared to the WSM 2008 database. In particular we added new data from more than 3,500 deep boreholes and put special emphasis on regions which previously had sparse or no published stress data such as China, Australia, Brazil, Southern Africa, Middle East and Iceland. Furthermore, we fully integrated the Chinese stress database and the Australian stress database. The resulting data increase reveals several areas with regional and local variability of the stress pattern. In particular we re-visited the question whether the plate boundary forces are the key control of the plate-wide stress pattern as indicated by the first release of the WSM in 1989 [Zoback et al, 1989]. As the WSM has now more than 10 times data records and thus a better spatial coverage we first filter the long-wave length stress pattern on a regular grid. We determine at these grid points the difference between absolute plate motion azimuth using the global plate model HS3-NUVEL1A [Gripp and Gordon, 2002] and the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. The preliminary results show that the earlier findings are still valid in principal. However, all plates show in some parts significant deviations from this general trend; some plates such as the Australian Plate show hardly any


    M. M. Biliaiev


    Full Text Available Purpose.Horizontal settlers are one of the most important elements in the technological scheme of water purification. Their use is associated with the possibility to pass a sufficiently large volume of water. The important task at the stage of their designing is evaluating of their effectiveness. Calculation of the efficiency of the settler can be made by mathematical modeling. Empirical, analytical models and techniques that are currently used to solve the problem, do not allow to take into account the shape of the sump and various design features that significantly affects the loyalty to a decision on the choice of the size of the settling tank and its design features. The use of analytical models is limited only to one-dimensional solutions, does not allow accounting for nonuniform velocity field of the flow in the settler. The use of advanced turbulence models for the calculation of the hydrodynamics in the settler complex forms now requires very powerful computers. In addition, the calculation of one variant of the settler may last for dozens of hours. The aim of the paper is to build a numerical model to evaluate the effectiveness of horizontal settling tank modified design. Methodology. Numerical models are based on: 1 equation of potential flow; 2 equation of inviscid fluid vortex flow; 3 equation of viscous fluid dynamics; 4 mass transfer equation. For numerical simulation the finite difference schemes are used. The numerical calculation is carried out on a rectangular grid. For the formation of the computational domain markers are used. Findings.The models allow calculating the clarification process in the settler with different form and different configuration of baffles. Originality. A new approach to investigate the mass transfer process in horizontal settler was proposed. This approach is based on the developed CFD models. Three fluid dynamics models were used for the numerical investigation of flows and waste waters purification

  16. The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem

    BAGHERIAN; Mehri


    We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.

  17. Multiple phenotypic changes associated with large-scale horizontal gene transfer.

    Kevin Dougherty

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer often leads to phenotypic changes within recipient organisms independent of any immediate evolutionary benefits. While secondary phenotypic effects of horizontal transfer (i.e., changes in growth rates have been demonstrated and studied across a variety of systems using relatively small plasmids and phage, little is known about the magnitude or number of such costs after the transfer of larger regions. Here we describe numerous phenotypic changes that occur after a large-scale horizontal transfer event (∼1 Mb megaplasmid within Pseudomonas stutzeri including sensitization to various stresses as well as changes in bacterial behavior. These results highlight the power of horizontal transfer to shift pleiotropic relationships and cellular networks within bacterial genomes. They also provide an important context for how secondary effects of transfer can bias evolutionary trajectories and interactions between species. Lastly, these results and system provide a foundation to investigate evolutionary consequences in real time as newly acquired regions are ameliorated and integrated into new genomic contexts.

  18. Multiple phenotypic changes associated with large-scale horizontal gene transfer.

    Dougherty, Kevin; Smith, Brian A; Moore, Autumn F; Maitland, Shannon; Fanger, Chris; Murillo, Rachel; Baltrus, David A


    Horizontal gene transfer often leads to phenotypic changes within recipient organisms independent of any immediate evolutionary benefits. While secondary phenotypic effects of horizontal transfer (i.e., changes in growth rates) have been demonstrated and studied across a variety of systems using relatively small plasmids and phage, little is known about the magnitude or number of such costs after the transfer of larger regions. Here we describe numerous phenotypic changes that occur after a large-scale horizontal transfer event (∼1 Mb megaplasmid) within Pseudomonas stutzeri including sensitization to various stresses as well as changes in bacterial behavior. These results highlight the power of horizontal transfer to shift pleiotropic relationships and cellular networks within bacterial genomes. They also provide an important context for how secondary effects of transfer can bias evolutionary trajectories and interactions between species. Lastly, these results and system provide a foundation to investigate evolutionary consequences in real time as newly acquired regions are ameliorated and integrated into new genomic contexts.

  19. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)


    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  20. Distribution of stress state in the Nankai subduction zone, southwest Japan and a comparison with Japan Trench

    Lin, Weiren; Byrne, Timothy B.; Kinoshita, Masataka; McNeill, Lisa C.; Chang, Chandong; Lewis, Jonathan C.; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Saffer, Demian M.; Casey Moore, J.; Wu, Hung-Yu; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Conin, Marianne; Saito, Saneatsu; Ito, Takatoshi; Tobin, Harold J.; Kimura, Gaku; Kanagawa, Kyuichi; Ashi, Juichiro; Underwood, Michael B.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya


    To better understand the distribution of three dimensional stress states in the Nankai subduction zone, southwest Japan, we review various stress-related investigations carried out in the first and second stage expeditions of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and compile the stress data. Overall, the maximum principal stress σ1 in the shallower levels ( 1 km below seafloor or in underlying accretionary prism) with σ1 becoming horizontal is also suggested at all deeper drilling sites. We also make a comparison of the stress state in the hanging wall of the frontal plate-interface between Site C0006 in the Nankai and Site C0019 in the Japan Trench subduction zone drilled after the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In the Japan Trench, a comparison between stress state before and after the 2011 mega-earthquake shows that the stress changed from compression before the earthquake to extension after the earthquake. As a result of the comparison between the Nankai Trough and Japan Trench, a similar current stress state with trench parallel extension was recognized at both C0006 and C0019 sites. Hypothetically, this may indicate that in Nankai Trough it is still in an early stage of the interseismic cycle of a great earthquake which occurs on the décollement and propagates to the toe (around site C0006).

  1. High atmospheric horizontal resolution eliminates the wind-driven coastal warm bias in the southeastern tropical Atlantic

    Milinski, Sebastian; Bader, Jürgen; Haak, Helmuth; Siongco, Angela Cheska; Jungclaus, Johann H.


    We investigate the strong warm bias in sea surface temperatures (SST) of the southeastern tropical Atlantic that occurs in most of the current global climate models. We analyze this bias in the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model at different horizontal resolutions ranging from 0.1° to 0.4° in the ocean and 0.5° to 1.8° in the atmosphere. High atmospheric horizontal resolution eliminates the SST bias close to the African coast, due to an improved representation of surface wind stress near the coast. This improvement affects coastal upwelling and horizontal ocean circulation, as confirmed with dedicated sensitivity experiments. The wind stress improvements are partly caused by the better represented orography at higher horizontal resolution in the spectral atmospheric model. The reductions of the coastal SST bias obtained through higher horizontal resolution do not, however, translate to a reduction of the large-scale bias extending westward from the African coast into the southeastern tropical Atlantic.

  2. Horizon-T Experiment Calibrations - Cables

    Beznosko, D; Iakovlev, A; Makhataeva, Z; Vildanova, M I; Yelshibekov, K; Zhukov, V V


    An innovative detector system called Horizon-T is constructed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) in the energy range above 1016 eV coming from a wide range of zenith angles (0o - 85o). The system is located at Tien Shan high-altitude Science Station of Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences at approximately 3340 meters above the sea level. The detector consists of eight charged particle detection points separated by the distance up to one kilometer as well as optical detector to view the Vavilov-\\v{C}erenkov light from the EAS. Each detector connects to the Data Acquisition system via cables. The calibration of the time delay for each cable and the signal attenuation is provided in this article.

  3. Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS

    Ylijoki, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C.; Porkholm, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)


    In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  4. Horizontal gene exchange in environmental microbiota

    Rustam I Aminov


    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT plays an important role in the evolution of life on the Earth. This view is supported by numerous occasions of HGT that are recorded in the genomes of all three domains of living organisms. HGT-mediated rapid evolution is especially noticeable among the Bacteria, which demonstrate formidable adaptability in the face of recent environmental changes imposed by human activities, such as the use of antibiotics, industrial contamination, and intensive agriculture. At the heart of the HGT-driven bacterial evolution and adaptation are highly sophisticated natural genetic engineering tools in the form of a variety of mobile genetic elements (MGEs. The main aim of this review is to give a brief account of the occurrence and diversity of MGEs in natural ecosystems and of the environmental factors that may affect MGE-mediated HGT.

  5. Multimodal Distributions along the Horizontal Branch

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.


    We report on HST/WFPC2 U,V and far-ultraviolet observations of two Galactic Globular Clusters (GGCs), NGC 6205 = M13 and NGC 6093 = M80. Both of these clusters have horizontal-branch (HB) tails that extend to the helium-burning main sequence, with the hottest stars reaching theoretical effective temperatures above 35,000 K. In both clusters, groups of stars are found to be separated by narrow gaps along the blue HB sequence. These gaps appear at similar locations in the color-magnitude diagrams of the two clusters. While stochastic effects may give rise to variations in the color distribution along the HB, the coincidence of gaps in different clusters effectively rules this out as the primary cause. The comparison among the clusters strongly suggests that there are separate physical processes operating during the earlier red-giant phase of evolution to produce mass loss.

  6. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    Post, Richard F.


    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  7. Numerical Investigation on Submerged Horizontal Plate

    康海贵; 王科


    Hydrodynamic characters on a horizontal, thin, rigid plate located beneath the free surface are numerically investigated. Assuming a linear, time-harmonic potential flow and utilizing Green identity, the governing Laplace equation can be simplified into Fredholm integral equation ofthe second kind. Supposing linear-order discontinuous elements along intersecting vertical boundaries, and by use of the boundary element method, numerical solution about source strength distribution on the plate can be changed into a series of algebraic equations. The 3D Green function is introduced to set up the integral equations, and the GMRES solver is performed for solving the large dense linear system of equations. The added-mass, damping force and exciting force are evaluated directly from the equations. It is found that the added-mass coefficient becomes negative for a range of frequencies when the plate is sufficiently close to the free surface.

  8. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation

    R. Thane Papke


    Full Text Available The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria.

  9. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation

    Papke, R. Thane; Corral, Paulina; Ram-Mohan, Nikhil; de la Haba, Rafael R.; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Makkay, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio


    The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation) are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria. PMID:25997110

  10. Effect and mechanism of stresses on rock permeability at different scales

    YIN; Shangxian; WANG; Shangxu


    The effect of geo-stress fields on macroscopic hydro-geological conditions or microcosmic permeability of water-bearing media should follow some laws or principles. Cases study and tests show that: (1) At macro-geologic large scale, deformed and crashed rocks which were induced by geo-stress fields changing provided space for groundwater storage and flow. Groundwater adjusts water-bearing space and dilatants fractures by flowing and press transferring. Coupling of liquid and solid can be implemented for rocks and groundwater. Although tectonic fields witness several times of change and build-up in geological time, stress fields forming regional tectonic framework are coherent with seepage fields, orientation of the maximum horizontal stress demonstrates main seepage directions. (2) At macro-geologic middle scale, zones of stresses changing sharply, quite low stresses,stress or shear concentration can be used to show locations and types of main fractures, zones of geo-stresses changing equably can be acted as normal base media zones of tri-porosity media. (3) At micro-geologic small scale, tri-porosity media include fractured rocks, porous rocks and capillary rocks. Investigations indicate that porosity or permeability is functions of effective stresses, and porosity or permeability changing rules of porous rocks with variation of effective stresses can be described as the index model, the model of power exponent functions is suitable for those of fractured rocks, the model of the second power parabola for capillary rocks. The porosity and permeability loss in fractured rocks, which are greater than that in porous rocks, are shown by calculation of effective compressive coefficient and closing pressure in cracks. The calculations can also explain themechanism why porosity changes are always larger than permeability changes. It is proved by the thick wall cylinder theory that the second power parabola relation between porosity or permeability loss and effective

  11. Parallel Evolution and Horizontal Gene Transfer of the pst Operon in Firmicutes from Oligotrophic Environments

    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier


    Full Text Available The high affinity phosphate transport system (pst is crucial for phosphate uptake in oligotrophic environments. Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB has extremely low P levels and its endemic Bacillus are closely related to oligotrophic marine Firmicutes. Thus, we expected the pst operon of CCB to share the same evolutionary history and protein similarity to marine Firmicutes. Orthologs of the pst operon were searched in 55 genomes of Firmicutes and 13 outgroups. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed for the pst operon and 14 concatenated housekeeping genes using maximum likelihood methods. Conserved domains and 3D structures of the phosphate-binding protein (PstS were also analyzed. The pst operon of Firmicutes shows two highly divergent clades with no correlation to the type of habitat nor a phylogenetic congruence, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Despite sequence divergence, the PstS protein had a similar 3D structure, which could be due to parallel evolution after horizontal gene transfer events.

  12. novos elementos e horizontes para o cuidado

    Rosa Lúcia Rocha Ribeiro


    Full Text Available La condición crónica ha sido un tema de importancia extrema para la reflexión del proceso de vivir humano. En el artículo se presenta la síntesis de una investigación realizada con la finalidad de comprender cómo los niños con Síndrome Nefrótico son cuidados, buscando identificar nuevos elementos y horizontes para reconstruir el cuidado de enfermería, teniendo como foco la familia. Para la presente investigación, se realizó un estudio cualitativo que utilizó como referente teórico metodológico, la hermenéutica basada en Gadamer y Ricouer. De la investigación realizada en 2004, participaron 42 personas pertenecientes a las familias de niños y adolescentes con Síndrome Nefrótico, usuarias del Servicio de Nefrología Pediátrica del Hospital Universitario Júlio Müller, en Cuiabá, Brasil. En la discusión son presentadas: una síntesis de las familias, sus proyectos, personajes y contexto; la trayectoria de la enfermedad del niño en la familia, y el cuidado del niño nefrótico en la familia. Se muestran también los horizontes de los cuidadores, familiares y profesionales de salud, y el cuidado posible a partir de los arreglos de la familia. Se puede concluir que el diálogo es la primera condición para la comprensión y también para el cuidado.

  13. Strength criterion for rocks under compressive-tensile stresses and its application

    Mingqing You


    Full Text Available Estimating in-situ stress with hydraulic borehole fracturing involves tensile strength of rock. Several strength criteria with three parameters result in tensile strengths with great differences, although they may describe the relation between strength of rock and confining pressure with low misfits. The exponential criterion provides acceptable magnitudes of tensile strengths for granites and over-estimates that for other rocks, but the criterion with tension cut-off is applicable to all rocks. The breakdown pressure will be lower than the shut-in pressure during hydraulic borehole fracturing, when the maximum horizontal principal stress is 2 times larger than the minor one; and it is not the peak value in the first cycle, but the point where the slope of pressure-time curve begins to decline.

  14. Characterization of interfacial waves in horizontal core-annular flow

    Tripathi, Sumit; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Singh, Ramesh; Tabor, Rico F.


    In this work, we characterize interfacial waves in horizontal core annular flow (CAF) of fuel-oil and water. Experimental studies on CAF were performed in an acrylic pipe of 15.5mm internal diameter, and the time evolution of the oil-water interface shape was recorded with a high speed camera for a range of different flow-rates of oil (Qo) and water (Qw). The power spectrum of the interface shape shows a range of notable features. First, there is negligible energy in wavenumbers larger than 2 π / a , where a is the thickness of the annulus. Second, for high Qo /Qw , there is no single dominant wavelength, as the flow in the confined annulus does not allow formation of a preferred mode. Third, for lower Qo /Qw , a dominant mode arises at a wavenumber of 2 π / a . We also observe that the power spectrum of the interface shape depends weakly on Qw, and strongly on Qo, perhaps because the net shear rate in the annulus appears to depend weakly on Qw as well. We also attempt to build a general empirical model for CAF by relating the interfacial stress (calculated via the mean pressure gradient) to the flow rate in the annulus, the annular thickness and the core velocity. Authors are thankful to Orica Mining Services (Australia) for the financial support.

  15. The mechanics of granitoid systems and maximum entropy production rates.

    Hobbs, Bruce E; Ord, Alison


    A model for the formation of granitoid systems is developed involving melt production spatially below a rising isotherm that defines melt initiation. Production of the melt volumes necessary to form granitoid complexes within 10(4)-10(7) years demands control of the isotherm velocity by melt advection. This velocity is one control on the melt flux generated spatially just above the melt isotherm, which is the control valve for the behaviour of the complete granitoid system. Melt transport occurs in conduits initiated as sheets or tubes comprising melt inclusions arising from Gurson-Tvergaard constitutive behaviour. Such conduits appear as leucosomes parallel to lineations and foliations, and ductile and brittle dykes. The melt flux generated at the melt isotherm controls the position of the melt solidus isotherm and hence the physical height of the Transport/Emplacement Zone. A conduit width-selection process, driven by changes in melt viscosity and constitutive behaviour, operates within the Transport Zone to progressively increase the width of apertures upwards. Melt can also be driven horizontally by gradients in topography; these horizontal fluxes can be similar in magnitude to vertical fluxes. Fluxes induced by deformation can compete with both buoyancy and topographic-driven flow over all length scales and results locally in transient 'ponds' of melt. Pluton emplacement is controlled by the transition in constitutive behaviour of the melt/magma from elastic-viscous at high temperatures to elastic-plastic-viscous approaching the melt solidus enabling finite thickness plutons to develop. The system involves coupled feedback processes that grow at the expense of heat supplied to the system and compete with melt advection. The result is that limits are placed on the size and time scale of the system. Optimal characteristics of the system coincide with a state of maximum entropy production rate.

  16. Stress Distribution Near the Seismic Gap Between Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes

    Yang, Yihai; Liang, Chuntao; Li, Zhongquan; Su, Jinrong; Zhou, Lu; He, Fujun


    The Wenchuan M S 8.0 earthquake and Lushan M S 7.0 earthquake unilaterally fractured northeastward and southwestward, respectively, along the Longmenshan fault belt. The aftershock areas of the two earthquakes were separated by a gap with a length of nearly 60 km. We have determined the focal mechanisms of 471 earthquakes with magnitude M ≥ 3 from Jan 2008 to July 2014 near the seismic gap using a full waveform inversion method. Normal, thrust and strike-slip focal mechanisms can be found in northern segment. But in a significant contrast, focal mechanisms of the earthquakes in the southern segment are dominated by thrust faulting. Based on the determined source parameters, we further apply a damped linear inversion method to derive the regional stress field. The southern segment is characterized by an obvious thrust faulting stress regime with a nearly horizontal maximum compression that orients in SE-NW direction. The stress environment in the northern segment is a lot more complicated. The maximum compressional stresses appear to rotate around the "asperity" near west of the Dujiangyan city. Stress field also shows strong variation with time and depth. Before 2009, the seismic activities are more concentrated on the Pengxian-Guanxian fault and Yingxiu-Beichuan fault with dominant strike-slip faulting and normal faulting, while after 2009, the seismic activities are dominated by thrust faulting from north to south, while the activities are more concentrated on the Wenchuan-Maoxian fault in northern segment and Pengxian-Guanxian fault in southern segment. The maximum compressional stresses vary in different depths from north to south, thus may imply the decoupled movement in shallow and in depth.

  17. Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.


    Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam

  18. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.


    ... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...

  19. The maximum rotation of a galactic disc

    Bottema, R


    The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously

  20. Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence

    Shinto Eguchi


    Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.

  1. Preliminary Stress Analysis of an IHX Tube Support Plate in Prototype SFR

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Koo, Gyeong Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, the structural integrity about the conceptual design of IHX tube support plate was reviewed and the design should be changed because of its high stress concentration at the outer rim area. For reducing its maximum stress, two alternatives were proposed and reviewed for the structural integrity point of view. In both proposing support designs, the maximum stress decreases up to the stress design limit. Tube support plates (TSPs) of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in Prototype GenIV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) act to horizontally support IHX tubes against hydraulic loadings and they have numerous flow holes where a primary sodium flows downward and secondary sodium flows upward. Due to its many penetrations, its geometric shape is quite complex and structurally its integrity is quite weaker than other parts. In this study, we investigated the structural integrity of the conceptually designed IHX tube support plate. In addition, TSP's supporting concepts were proposed to increase its structural integrity, and confirmed its integrity by using a finite element analysis.

  2. Characterizing local variability in long‐period horizontal tilt noise

    Rohde, M.D.; Ringler, Adam; Hutt, Charles R.; Wilson, David; Holland, Austin; Sandoval, L.D; Storm, Tyler


    Horizontal seismic data are dominated by atmospherically induced tilt noise at long periods (i.e., 30 s and greater). Tilt noise limits our ability to use horizontal data for sensitive seismological studies such as observing free earth modes. To better understand the local spatial variability of long‐period horizontal noise, we observe horizontal noise during quiet time periods in the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) underground vault using four small‐aperture array configurations. Each array comprises eight Streckeisen STS‐2 broadband seismometers. We analyze the spectral content of the data using power spectral density and magnitude‐squared coherence (γ2‐coherence). Our results show a high degree of spatial variability and frequency dependence in the long‐period horizontal wavefield. The variable nature of long‐period horizontal noise in the ASL vault suggests that it might be highly local in nature and not easily characterized by simple physical models when overall noise levels are low, making it difficult to identify locations in the vault with lower horizontal noise. This variability could be limiting our ability to apply coherence analysis for estimating horizontal sensor self‐noise and could also complicate various indirect methods for removing long‐period horizontal noise (e.g., collocated rotational sensor or microbarograph).

  3. Cuttings Transport Models and Experimental Visualization of Underbalanced Horizontal Drilling

    Na Wei


    Full Text Available Aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling technology has become the focus of the drilling industry at home and abroad, and one of the engineering core issues is the horizontal borehole cleaning. Therefore, calculating the minimum injection volume of gas and liquid accurately is essential for the construction in aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling. This paper establishes a physical model of carrying cuttings and borehole cleaning in wellbore of horizontal well and a critical transport mathematical model according to gas-liquid-solid flow mechanism and large plane dunes particle transport theory.

  4. A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow

    Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others


    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%.

  5. Productivity Prediction Research of Fractured Horizontal Wells for Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs

    Songting Zhang


    Full Text Available In order to effectually resolve the problems as embarrassing solving and cumbersome calculation in design and simulation of hydraulic fracturing in coal petrography, the productivity prediction analysis software of horizontal wells has been developed in this study based on the object-oriented visual programming environment. The analysis software can determine the rock mechanics parameters, the distribution of crustal stress and the coalbed methane production, which can greatly improve the work efficiency of the engineering staff. The software has better applicability and can provide a foundation for the analysis of CBM productivity prediction. The results show that: simulation analysis is of high precision, can satisfy the actual engineering needs. Fracture number and half-length have a greater impact on fracturing horizontal well production; moreover, crack width almost has no influence on production.

  6. Reconstruction of orientation of stresses acting in infinity within the Kovdor ore body based on field determinations

    Rybin V. V.


    Full Text Available Mining Institute KSC RAS has conducted research which aim is to study the possibilities of increasing the tilt angles of pit walls in massifs of solid rock. One of the problems the solution of which will contribute to achieving this goal is to determine the direction of the maximum component of principal stresses in intact massif on the "infinity" necessary to work out mathematical models of rock massif including quarry recess. To solve this problem it has been proposed to use the results of parameters' measurement of stress state by the unloading method in near-wall rock massif. The basic research of near-wall rock massif has been conducted on mine quarry "Zhelezny" (JSC "Kovdor ore processing plant". The measurements have been performed by the discharge method in option of end measurements directly from the quarry ledges on special observation stations using horizontal wells. The direction of maximum compression acting in sub-meridional course in the Kovdor apatiteshtafelyte-baddeleite deposit (the Kovdor ore cluster has been determined by the conformal mapping method on the basis of experimental estimations of stress parameters in the rock massif. The results obtained are of great importance for assessing a level of stresses acting directly in a near open-pit zone. They are applied to set boundary conditions when modeling stress-strain state of near-wall rock massif and assess slope stability.

  7. Extended Horizontal Jet Drilling for EGS applications in Petrothermal Environments

    Hahn, Simon; Duda, Mandy; Stoeckhert, Ferdinand; Wittig, Volker; Bracke, Rolf


    Extended Horizontal Jet Drilling for EGS applications in Petrothermal Environments S. Hahn, M. Duda, F. Stoeckhert, V. Wittig, R. Bracke International Geothermal Centre Bochum High pressure water jet drilling technologies are widely used in the drilling industry. Especially in geothermal and hard rock applications, horizontal (radial) jet drilling is, however, confronted with several limitations like lateral length, hole size and steerability. In order to serve as a serious alternative to conventional stimulation techniques these high pressure jetting techniques are experimentally investigated to gain fundamental knowledge about the fluid-structure interaction, to enhance the rock failing process and to identify the governing drilling parameters. The experimental program is divided into three levels. In a first step jetting experiments are performed under free surface conditions while logging fluid pressures, flow speeds and extracted rock volume. All process parameters are quantified with a self-developed jet-ability index and compared to the rock properties (density, porosity, permeability, etc.). In a second step experiments will be performed under pressure-controlled conditions. A test bench is currently under construction offering the possibility to assign an in-situ stress field to the specimen while penetrating the rock sample with a high pressure water jet or a radial jet drilling device. The experimental results from levels 1 and 2 allow to identify the governing rock failure mechanisms and to correlate them with physical rock properties and limited reservoir conditions. Results of the initial tests do show a clear dependency of achievable penetration depth on the interaction of jetting and rock parameters and an individual threshold of the nozzle outlet velocity can be noticed in order to successfully penetrate different formation types. At level 3 jetting experiments will be performed at simulated reservoir conditions corresponding to 5.000 m depth (e

  8. Focal mechanism and stress analyses for main tectonic zones in Albania

    Dushi, Edmond; Koçi, Rexhep; Begu, Enkela; Bozo, Rrezart


    /620 (μ = 0.4) for AI zone; σ1830/90, σ22040/730and σ33500/140 (μ = 0.4) for LED zone and σ13060/430, σ21860/280 and σ3750/340 (μ = 0.65) for OK zone. Based on final results, according to Zoback (1992), the Adriatic-Ionian (AI) zone is characterized mainly by thrust (TF) faulting, although normal and oblique ones take place as well. This outer zone is under a compressive stress regime, where the maximum horizontal stress lies in the direction of P axes. Meanwhile, the Lushnja-Elbasani-Dibra (LED) transversal zone, is characterized by normal-oblique faulting (NF-NS), undergoing an oblique transform to extensional stress regime, where the maximum horizontal stress extends at the (T + 900) direction. The Ohrid-Korça (OK) zone is characterized by oblique-normal faults, undergoing and extensional stress regime, where the maximum horizontal stress lies in the of T axes direction. Keywords: moderate earthquakes, focal mechanism, stress

  9. The blind faith deep water horizontal pipeline tie-in project

    Charalambides, John Nicos [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    This presentation will concentrate on the design challenges, experience and learning from the SIT and offshore installation of two deepwater pipeline tie-ins using first-of-its-kind subsea technology and installation methodologies on the 'Blind Faith' project. The Blind Faith Subsea Tie-Ins join the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines with the Canyon Chief gas pipeline and the Mountaineer oil pipeline in 5100 feet of water. Both of the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines are terminated with conventional PLEMs providing a horizontal connector for the tie-in and a vertical connector for a future tie-in connection point. The connectors are ROV operable/installable clamp style connectors. The method of joining to the Canyon Chief oil and gas pipelines and the type of jumper employed are unique to the tie-in. An ROV operable / installable mechanical pipe end connector connects the bare ends of the Canyon Chief and Mountaineer pipelines. The mechanical pipe end connector is fitted with an integral clamp connector hub and rests on an ROV installed mud mat. After installation of the mechanical connector, metrology was performed to create a neutral state horizontal jumper for joining the mechanical connector hub and the Blind Faith PLEM. The neutral state horizontal jumper is a compliant 'Z-Bend' design. During installation the jumper was elastically pre-deformed using a bowstring system. Pre-deformation of the jumper provided installation clearances and facilitated the neutral stress state after installation. Once landed the jumper bowstring was relaxed, allowing the jumper to expand to fit between the hubs. After expansion and make-up, the clamp connectors were tightened via an ROV operated hydraulic torque wrench. A seal test verified the integrity of the connections. After installation the jumper remains in a minimal residual stress state atypical of most horizontal jumpers. The horizontal jumper was chosen over the vertical jumper because it provides a

  10. Magneto-convective instabilities in horizontal cavities

    Mistrangelo, Chiara; Bühler, Leo


    A linear stability analysis is performed to investigate the onset of convective motions in a flat cavity filled with liquid metal. A volumetric heat source is uniformly distributed in the fluid and a horizontal magnetic field is imposed. Walls perpendicular to the magnetic field are thermally insulating, and the top wall is isothermal and the bottom adiabatic. When a magnetic field is applied, electromagnetic forces tend to transform 3D convective flow structures into quasi-2D rolls aligned to the magnetic field. By integrating 3D equations along magnetic field lines, a quasi-2D mathematical model has been derived. A dissipation term in the 2D equations accounts for 3D viscous effects in boundary layers at Hartmann walls perpendicular to the magnetic field. The influence of various parameters on flow stability is investigated. The flow is stabilized by increasing the magnetic field intensity or the electric conductance of Hartmann walls and by reducing the aspect ratio of the cavity. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the analytical results and to describe the main convective flow patterns in the non-linear regime.

  11. Analysis of Near Horizontal Muons at HAWC

    Barber, Ahron; HAWC Collaboration


    The HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) gamma ray observatory observes muons with nearly horizontal trajectories. HAWC is located at an altitude of 4100 meters a.s.l. on Sierra Negra in Mexico. The Gamma and Cosmic Ray detector is composed of 300 water tanks, 7.3 m in diameter and 4.5 m tall, spread over a physical area of 22,000 m2. Due to its thickness of 4.5 m, HAWC acts as a hodoscope capable of observing muons with trajectories at zenith angles greater than 75 degrees to just over 90 degrees. These muon trajectories have a unique signal in that they are linear and travel at nearly the speed of light. CORSIKA simulations indicate that these muons originate from high zenith angle cosmic ray events, where the air shower core is located at great distance from HAWC. I will present the angular distribution and rate at which HAWC observes these muon events. High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory.

  12. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))


    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  13. Horizontal plane head stabilization during locomotor tasks.

    Cromwell, R L; Newton, R A; Carlton, L G


    Frequency characteristics of head stabilization were examined during locomotor tasks in healthy young adults(N = 8) who performed normal walking and 3 walking tasks designed to produce perturbations primarily in the horizontal plane. In the 3 walking tasks, the arms moved in phase with leg movement, with abnormally large amplitude, and at twice the frequency of leg movement. Head-in-space angular velocity was examined at the predominant frequencies of trunk motion. Head movements in space occurred at low frequencies ( 4.0 Hz) when the arms moved at twice the frequency of the legs. Head stabilization strategies were determined from head-on-trunk with respect to trunk frequency profiles derived from angular velocity data. During natural walking at low frequencies (head-on-trunk movement was less than trunk movement. At frequencies 3.0 Hz or greater, equal and opposite compensatory movement ensured head stability. When arm swing was altered, compensatory movement guaranteed head stability at all frequencies. Head stabilization was successful for frequencies up to 10.0 Hz during locomotor tasks. Maintaining head stability at high frequencies during voluntary tasks suggests that participants used feedforward mechanisms to coordinate head and trunk movements. Maintenance of head stability during dynamic tasks allows optimal conditions for vestibulo-ocular reflex function.

  14. Horizontal visibility graphs from integer sequences

    Lacasa, Lucas


    The horizontal visibility graph (HVG) is a graph-theoretical representation of a time series and builds a bridge between dynamical systems and graph theory. In recent years this representation has been used to describe and theoretically compare different types of dynamics and has been applied to characterize empirical signals, by extracting topological features from the associated HVGs which have shown to be informative on the class of dynamics. Among some other measures, it has been shown that the degree distribution of these graphs is a very informative feature that encapsulates nontrivial information of the series's generative dynamics. In particular, the HVG associated to a bi-infinite real-valued series of independent and identically distributed random variables is a universal exponential law P(k)=(1/3){(2/3)}k-2, independent of the series marginal distribution. Most of the current applications have however only addressed real-valued time series, as no exact results are known for the topological properties of HVGs associated to integer-valued series. In this paper we explore this latter situation and address univariate time series where each variable can only take a finite number n of consecutive integer values. We are able to construct an explicit formula for the parametric degree distribution {P}n(k), which we prove to converge to the continuous case for large n and deviates otherwise. A few applications are then considered.

  15. The peculiar Horizontal Branch of NGC 2808

    Dalessandro, E; Ferraro, F R; Cassisi, S; Lanzoni, B; Rood, R T; Pecci, F Fusi; Sabbi, E


    We present an accurate analysis of the peculiar Horizontal Branch (HB) of the massive Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808, based on high-resolution far-UV and optical images of the central region of the cluster obtained with HST. We confirm the multimodal distribution of stars along the HB: 4 sub-populations separated by gaps are distinguishable. The detailed comparison with suitable theoretical models showed that (i) it is not possible to reproduce the luminosity of the entire HB with a single helium abundance, while an appropriate modeling is possible for three HB groups by assuming different helium abundances in the range 0.24 < Y < 0.4 that are consistent with the multiple populations observed in the Main Sequence; (ii) canonical HB models are not able to properly match the observational properties of the stars populating the hottest end of the observed HB distribution, the so called "blue-hook region". These objects are probably "hot-flashers" , stars that peel off the red giant branch before reachi...

  16. Shallow water model for horizontal centrifugal casting

    Boháček, J.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wu, M.


    A numerical model was proposed to simulate the solidification process of an outer shell of work roll made by the horizontal centrifugal casting technique. Shallow water model was adopted to solve the 2D average flow dynamics of melt spreading and the average temperature distribution inside the centrifugal casting mould by considering the centrifugal force, Coriolis force, viscous force due to zero velocity on the mould wall, gravity, and energy transport by the flow. Additionally, a 1D sub-model was implemented to consider the heat transfer in the radial direction from the solidifying shell to the mould. The solidification front was tracked by fulfilling the Stefan condition. Radiative and convective heat losses were included from both, the free liquid surface and the outer wall of the mould. Several cases were simulated with the following assumed initial conditions: constant height of the liquid metal (10, 20, and 30 mm), uniform temperature of the free liquid surface (1755 K). The simulation results have shown that while the solidification front remained rather flat, the free surface was disturbed by waves. The amplitude of waves increased with the liquid height. Free surface waves diminished as the solidification proceeded.

  17. Speech disorders in students in Belo Horizonte.

    Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Alves, Claudia Regina Lindgren; Goulart, Lúcia Maria H Figueiredo; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Campos, Fernanda Rodrigues; Friche, Clarice Passos


    To describe speech disorders in students from 1st to 4th grades, and to investigate possible associations between these disorders and stomatognathic system and auditory processing disorders. Cross-sectional study with stratified random sample composed of 288 students, calculated based on an universe of 1,189 children enrolled in public schools from the area covered by a health center in Belo Horizonte. The median age was 8.9 years, and 49.7% were male. Assessment used a stomatognathic system protocol adapted from the Myofunctional Evaluation Guidelines, the Phonology task of the ABFW - Child Language Test, and a simplified auditory processing evaluation. Data were statistically analyzed. From the subjects studied, 31.9% had speech disorder. From these, 18% presented phonetic deviation, 9.7% phonological deviation, and 4.2% phonetic and phonological deviation. Linguistic variation was observed in 38.5% of the children. There was a higher proportion of children with phonetic deviation in 1st grade, and a higher proportion of children younger than 8 years old with both phonetic and phonological deviations. Phonetic deviation was associated to stomatognathic system disorder, and phonological deviation was associated to auditory processing disorder. The prevalence of speech disorders in 1st to 4th grade students is considered high. Moreover, these disorders are associated to other Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology alterations, which suggest that one disorder may be a consequence of the other, indicating the need for early diagnosis and intervention.

  18. State of stress in exhumed basins and implications for fluid flow: insights from the Illizi Basin, Algeria

    English, Joseph M.


    The petroleum prospectivity of an exhumed basin is largely dependent on the ability of pre-existing traps to retain oil and gas volumes during and after the exhumation event. Although faults may act as lateral seals in petroleum traps, they may start to become hydraulically conductive again and enable fluid flow and hydrocarbon leakage during fault reactivation. We constrain the present day in situ stresses of the exhumed Illizi Basin in Algeria and demonstrate that the primary north–south and NW–SE (vertical strike-slip) fault systems in the study area are close to critical stress (i.e. an incipient state of shear failure). By contrast, the overpressured and unexhumed Berkine Basin and Hassi Messaoud areas to the north do not appear to be characterized by critical stress conditions. We present conceptual models of stress evolution and demonstrate that a sedimentary basin with benign in situ stresses at maximum burial may change to being characterized by critical stress conditions on existing fault systems during exhumation. These models are supportive of the idea that the breaching of a closed, overpressured system during exhumation of the Illizi Basin may have been a driving mechanism for the regional updip flow of high-salinity formation water within the Ordovician reservoirs during Eocene–Miocene time. This work also has implications for petroleum exploration in exhumed basins. Fault-bounded traps with faults oriented at a high angle to the maximum principal horizontal stress direction in strike-slip or normal faulting stress regimes are more likely to have retained hydrocarbons in exhumed basins than fault-bounded traps with faults that are more optimally oriented for shear failure and therefore have a greater propensity to become critically stressed during exhumation.

  19. Stress estimation around the survey wells in Hanshin-Awaji area by means of AE/DR and DSCA experiments; AE/DR ho to DSCA ho ni yoru Hanshin Awaji chiiki chosa kui shuhen no chikaku oryoku sokutei

    Ito, H.; Kuwahara, Y.; Nishizawa, O. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sano, O. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokoyama, T.; Kudo, R. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Xue, Z. [Kiso-Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A total of 5 wells were excavated in the Hanshin-Awaji area (Ikeda, Takarazuka, Tarumi, Hirabayashi and Ikunami) to collect the core samples, which were analyzed by the AE/DR and DSCA methods to determine crustal stresses. For the AE/DR analysis, the core sample was cut in the vertical direction, and in the horizontal direction at intervals of 45{degree}. The sample of unknown orientation was provided with a datum line common for both methods, to compare the results by these methods. A load was applied to the sample, provided with an AE sensor and strain gauge on the sides, in the longitudinal direction. For the DSCA analysis, the core sample was cut into a cube having a side length of 33mm, with a pair of planes directed in parallel to the datum line. A total of 18 strain gauges, 10mm in gauge length, were attached to the cube. The AE/DR analysis gave the maximum and minimum principal stresses in the horizontal plane and stresses in the vertical direction, whereas the DSCA the maximum, intermediate and minimum principal stresses. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  20. A dual method for maximum entropy restoration

    Smith, C. B.


    A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

  1. Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems

    Zamani, Mahdi


    The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...

  2. Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin

    Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))


    We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).

  3. Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation

    Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F


    The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.

  4. Mode-I-crack compression modeling and numerical simulation for evaluation of in-situ stress around advancing coal workfaces

    LIU Wei-qun; ZHU Li


    The relatively high stress probably leads to generation of a fractured or even instable area around a working coalface. Also, the generated weak area often evolves into an easy-infiltrating field of water/gas to greatly increase probability of accident occurrence. To reveal the distribution of high stress around working faces, we put forward the mode-I-crack compression model. In this model, the goaf following a working face is regarded as a mode-I crack in an infinite plate, and the self-gravity of overlaying strata is transformed into an uniform pressure applied normal to the upper edge of the model crack. Solving this problem is based on the Westergaard complex stress function. For comparison, the software RFPA-2D is also employed to simulate the same mining problem, and furthermore extendedly to calculate the stress interference induced by the simultaneous advances of two different working faces. The results show that, the area close to a working face or the goaf tail has the maximum stress, and the stress is distributed directly proportional to the square root of the advance and inversely proportional to the square root of the distance to the working face. The simultaneous advances of two neighboring working faces in different horizontals can lead to extremely high resultant stress in an interference area.

  5. The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description

    Belashev, B Z


    The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered

  6. 19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...

  7. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.


    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  8. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...


    Pandya A M


    Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70

  10. Continuous Data Assimilation for a 2D Bénard Convection System Through Horizontal Velocity Measurements Alone

    Farhat, Aseel; Lunasin, Evelyn; Titi, Edriss S.


    In this paper we propose a continuous data assimilation (downscaling) algorithm for a two-dimensional Bénard convection problem. Specifically we consider the two-dimensional Boussinesq system of a layer of incompressible fluid between two solid horizontal walls, with no-normal flow and stress-free boundary conditions on the walls, and the fluid is heated from the bottom and cooled from the top. In this algorithm, we incorporate the observables as a feedback (nudging) term in the evolution equation of the horizontal velocity. We show that under an appropriate choice of the nudging parameter and the size of the spatial coarse mesh observables, and under the assumption that the observed data are error free, the solution of the proposed algorithm converges at an exponential rate, asymptotically in time, to the unique exact unknown reference solution of the original system, associated with the observed data on the horizontal component of the velocity.

  11. Continuous Data Assimilation for a 2D Bénard Convection System Through Horizontal Velocity Measurements Alone

    Farhat, Aseel; Lunasin, Evelyn; Titi, Edriss S.


    In this paper we propose a continuous data assimilation (downscaling) algorithm for a two-dimensional Bénard convection problem. Specifically we consider the two-dimensional Boussinesq system of a layer of incompressible fluid between two solid horizontal walls, with no-normal flow and stress-free boundary conditions on the walls, and the fluid is heated from the bottom and cooled from the top. In this algorithm, we incorporate the observables as a feedback (nudging) term in the evolution equation of the horizontal velocity. We show that under an appropriate choice of the nudging parameter and the size of the spatial coarse mesh observables, and under the assumption that the observed data are error free, the solution of the proposed algorithm converges at an exponential rate, asymptotically in time, to the unique exact unknown reference solution of the original system, associated with the observed data on the horizontal component of the velocity.

  12. Stress at work? Build resilience, renew your mind, be transformed.

    Mace, Karen


    Workplace stress, including bullying and horizontal violence, is a common problem in nursing. Christians have unique resources to build resilience, renew the mind, and be transformed in dealing with these problems.

  13. Plate Kinematic model of the NW Indian Ocean and derived regional stress history of the East African Margin

    Tuck-Martin, Amy; Adam, Jürgen; Eagles, Graeme


    Starting with the break up of Gondwana, the northwest Indian Ocean and its continental margins in Madagascar, East Africa and western India formed by divergence of the African and Indian plates and were shaped by a complicated sequence of plate boundary relocations, ridge propagation events, and the independent movement of the Seychelles microplate. As a result, attempts to reconcile the different plate-tectonic components and processes into a coherent kinematic model have so far been unsatisfactory. A new high-resolution plate kinematic model has been produced in an attempt to solve these problems, using seafloor spreading data and rotation parameters generated by a mixture of visual fitting of magnetic isochron data and iterative joint inversion of magnetic isochron and fracture zone data. Using plate motion vectors and plate boundary geometries derived from this model, the first-order regional stress pattern was modelled for distinct phases of margin formation. The stress pattern is correlated with the tectono-stratigraphic history of related sedimentary basins. The plate kinematic model identifies three phases of spreading, from the Jurassic to the Paleogene, which resulted in the formation of three main oceanic basins. Prior to these phases, intracontinental 'Karoo' rifting episodes in the late Carboniferous to late Triassic had failed to break up Gondwana, but initiated the formation of sedimentary basins along the East African and West Madagascan margins. At the start of the first phase of spreading (183 to 133 Ma) predominantly NW - SE extension caused continental rifting that separated Madagascar/India/Antarctica from Africa. Maximum horizontal stresses trended perpendicular to the local plate-kinematic vector, and parallel to the rift axes. During and after continental break-up and subsequent spreading, the regional stress regime changed drastically. The extensional stress regime became restricted to the active spreading ridges that in turn adopted trends

  14. Ratio between vertical and horizontal mandibular range of motion

    Dijkstra, P.U.; Kropmans, T.J.B.; Stegenga, B; de Bont, L.G.M.


    Mandibular range of motion (ROM), vertical and horizontal, is often measured as a part of a diagnostic assessment of temporomandibular joint disorders. Ln the literature, a fixed ratio between the vertical and the horizontal ROM has been suggested, i.e. 4:1. The ratio is frequently used to predict t

  15. Horizontal drilling methods proven in three test wells

    Dorel, M.


    The practice of drilling horizontally through a reservoir by deviating the wellbore 90/sup 0/ from vertical requires precise planning and sound engineering practices. This article takes a look at the operational, engineering and planning aspects of three successfully drilled drainholes. It also presents a field-tested horizontal well logging procedure that may help extend and improve this technology.

  16. Horizontal Coherence of Wave Forces on Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    Archetti, R.; Frigaard, Peter; Lamberti, A.


    of breaking waves for increasing wave height are estimated and compared with existing empirical formulae. The horizontal dimension of the breaker is investigated using two different methodologies: the first analyses the decreasing of the highest 1/250 force with increasing horizontal dimension of the caisson...

  17. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.


    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  18. A horizontal well analysis from a view of its productivity

    Lucia Sciranková


    Full Text Available The 1990s may become known in the oil field as the decade of the horizontal well. Horizontal wells can increase the production rate and the ultimate recovery, and can reduce the number of platforms on wells required to develop a reservoir.An empirical equation to calculate the inflow performance of two-phase flow for a vertical and a horizontal well in regime of dissolved gas presented by Vogel in 1968. His equation was based on the results of reservoir simulation. The created model whore result (output is the ratio of the productivity of a horizontal well to the productivity of a vertical well for a given area expressed by anumber of vertical wells the replaced by one horizontal well. The model is applied for a concrete ideological model.

  19. Horizontal crustal movement in Chinese mainland from 1999 to 2001

    顾国华; 符养; 王武星


    The paper introduces the horizontal crustal movement obtained from GPS observations in the regional networks(including the basic network and the fiducial network) of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China(CMONOC) carried out in 1999 and 2001. This paper is characterized by the acquisition of the horizontal dis-placement velocities during the period from 1999 to 2001 at the observation stations in the regional networks withdatum definition of a group of stable stations with small mutual displacements in east China. Based on the mostdetailed map of horizontal crustal movement in Chinese mainland, the division of blocks, their displacements anddeformations are studied. An approach to analysis of the intensity of the horizontal crustal deformation is proposed.The general characteristics of the recent horizontal crustal movement in Chinese mainland and that before theKunlunshan earthquake of M=8.1 on November 14, 2001 are analyzed.

  20. Childhood Stress

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  1. Steam Flooding after Steam Soak in Heavy Oil Reservoirs through Extended-reach Horizontal Wells

    Ning Zhengfu; Liu Huiqing; Zhang Hongling


    This paper presents a new development scheme of simultaneous injection and production in a single horizontal well drilled for developing small block reservoirs or offshore reservoirs.It is possible to set special packers within the long completion horizontal interval to establish an injection zone and a production zone.This method can also be used in steam flooding after steam soak through a horizontal well.Simulation results showed that it was desirable to start steam flooding after six steam soaking cycles and at this time the oil/steam ratio was 0.25 and oil recovery efficiency was 23.48%.Steam flooding performance was affected by separation interval and steam injection rate.Reservoir numerical simulation indicated that maximum oil recovery would be achieved at a separation section of 40-50 m at steam injection rate of 100-180 t/d; and the larger the steam injection rate,the greater the water cut and pressure difference between injection zone and production zone.A steam injection rate of 120 t/d was suitable for steam flooding under practical injection-production conditions.All the results could be useful for the guidance of steam flooding projects.

  2. Use of an adjustable hand plate in studying the perceived horizontal plane during simulated flight.

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola; Lemming, Dag; Levin, Britta


    Quantitative data on spatial orientation would be valuable not only in assessing the fidelity of flight simulators, but also in evaluation of spatial orientation training. In this study a manual indicator was used for recording the subjective horizontal plane during simulated flight. In a six-degrees-of-freedom hexapod hydraulic motion platform simulator, simulating an F-16 aircraft, seven fixed-wing student pilots were passively exposed to two flight sequences. The first consisted in a number of coordinated turns with visual contact with the landscape below. The visually presented roll tilt was up to a maximum 670. The second was a takeoff with a cabin pitch up of 100, whereupon external visual references were lost. The subjects continuously indicated, with the left hand on an adjustable plate, what they perceived as horizontal in roll and pitch. There were two test occasions separated by a 3-d course on spatial disorientation. Responses to changes in simulated roll were, in general, instantaneous. The indicated roll tilt was approximately 30% of the visually presented roll. There was a considerable interindividual variability. However, for the roll response there was a correlation between the two occasions. The amplitude of the response to the pitch up of the cabin was approximately 75%; the response decayed much more slowly than the stimulus. With a manual indicator for recording the subjective horizontal plane, individual characteristics in the response to visual tilt stimuli may be detected, suggesting a potential for evaluation of simulation algorithms or training programs.


    Mahmood Husain Ali


    Full Text Available In this paper, numerical solution is presented for the steady state, two dimensional natural convection heat transfer from two parallel horizontal cylinders enclosed by circular cylinder. The inner cylinders are heated and maintained at constant surface temperature, while the outer cylinder is cooled at constant surface temperature. Boundary fitted coordinate system is used to solve governing equations. The vorticity-stream function and energy equations is solved using explicit finite deference method and stream function equation solved by successive iteration method. (20Deferent cases are studied cover rang of Rayleigh number from (1,000 to (25,000 based on the inner cylinder diameter. These cases study the effect of the  varying inner cylinders position horizontally and vertically within outer cylinder on the heat transfer and buoyancy that causes the flow. Outputs are displayed in terms of streamline, isothermal contours and local and average Nusselt number. The results showed that the position of the inner cylinders highly affects the heat transfer and flow movements in the gap. At low Rayleigh numbers the average Nusselt number increases with increase of horizontal distance between inner cylinders but the state is reversed at high Rayleigh numbers, while the average Nusselt number is increases with inner cylinder moving down at all Rayleigh numbers. The optimal position of inner cylinders for maximum and minimum heat transfer is located at each Rayleigh number so can be employed in isolation process or cooling process.

  4. Gaussian beam propagation in anisotropic turbulence along horizontal links: theory, simulation, and laboratory implementation.

    Xiao, Xifeng; Voelz, David G; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga


    Experimental and theoretical work has shown that atmospheric turbulence can exhibit "non-Kolmogorov" behavior including anisotropy and modifications of the classically accepted spatial power spectral slope, -11/3. In typical horizontal scenarios, atmospheric anisotropy implies that the variations in the refractive index are more spatially correlated in both horizontal directions than in the vertical. In this work, we extend Gaussian beam theory for propagation through Kolmogorov turbulence to the case of anisotropic turbulence along the horizontal direction. We also study the effects of different spatial power spectral slopes on the beam propagation. A description is developed for the average beam intensity profile, and the results for a range of scenarios are demonstrated for the first time with a wave optics simulation and a spatial light modulator-based laboratory benchtop counterpart. The theoretical, simulation, and benchtop intensity profiles show good agreement and illustrate that an elliptically shaped beam profile can develop upon propagation. For stronger turbulent fluctuation regimes and larger anisotropies, the theory predicts a slightly more elliptical form of the beam than is generated by the simulation or benchtop setup. The theory also predicts that without an outer scale limit, the beam width becomes unbounded as the power spectral slope index α approaches a maximum value of 4. This behavior is not seen in the simulation or benchtop results because the numerical phase screens used for these studies do not model the unbounded wavefront tilt component implied in the analytic theory.

  5. Relative azimuth inversion by way of damped maximum correlation estimates

    Ringler, A.T.; Edwards, J.D.; Hutt, C.R.; Shelly, F.


    Horizontal seismic data are utilized in a large number of Earth studies. Such work depends on the published orientations of the sensitive axes of seismic sensors relative to true North. These orientations can be estimated using a number of different techniques: SensOrLoc (Sensitivity, Orientation and Location), comparison to synthetics (Ekstrom and Busby, 2008), or by way of magnetic compass. Current methods for finding relative station azimuths are unable to do so with arbitrary precision quickly because of limitations in the algorithms (e.g. grid search methods). Furthermore, in order to determine instrument orientations during station visits, it is critical that any analysis software be easily run on a large number of different computer platforms and the results be obtained quickly while on site. We developed a new technique for estimating relative sensor azimuths by inverting for the orientation with the maximum correlation to a reference instrument, using a non-linear parameter estimation routine. By making use of overlapping windows, we are able to make multiple azimuth estimates, which helps to identify the confidence of our azimuth estimate, even when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, our algorithm has been written as a stand-alone, platform independent, Java software package with a graphical user interface for reading and selecting data segments to be analyzed.

  6. Effect of Horizontal Vibration on the Interfacial Instability in a Horizontal Hele-Shaw Cell

    Souhar M.


    Full Text Available The effect of periodic oscillations on the interfacial instability of two immiscible fluids, confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell, is investigated. A linear stability analysis of the basic state leads to a periodic Mathieu oscillator corresponding to the amplitude of the interface. Then, the threshold of parametric instability of the interface is characterized by harmonic or subharmonic periodic solutions. We show that the relevant parameters that control the interface are the Bond number, density ratio, Weber number and amplitude and frequency of oscillations.

  7. Convection flow study within a horizontal fluid layer under the action of gas flow

    Kreta Aleksei


    Full Text Available Experimental investigation of convective processes within horizontal evaporating liquid layer under shear–stress of gas flow is presented. It is found the structures of the convection, which move in opposite direction relative to each other. First convective structure moves in reverse direction with the flow of gas, and the second convective structure moves towards the gas flow. Convection flow within the liquid layer is registered with help of PIV technique. Average evaporation flow rate of Ethanol liquid layer under Air gas flow is measured. Influence of the gas velocity, at a constant temperature of 20 °C, on the evaporation flow rate has been studied.


    陶昉敏; 汤任基


    Using the basic solutions of a single crack and a single inclusion, and making use of the principle of linear superposition of elastic mechanics, the interaction problem between a planar crack and a flat inclusion in an elastic solid is studied. The problem is reduced to solve a set of standard Cauchy-type singular equations. And the stress intensity factors at points of crack and inclusion were obtained. Besides, the singularity for the horizontal contact of crack and inclusion was analyzed. The calculating model put forward can be regarded as a new technique for studying the crack and its expanding caused by inclusion tip. Then several numerical examples are given.

  9. The maximum rotation of a galactic disc

    Bottema, R


    The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...

  10. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.


    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  11. Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees

    van Iersel, Leo


    A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.

  12. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    McGarr, Arthur F.


    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  13. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    McGarr, A.


    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.


    郭天魁; 张士诚; 潘林华


    initiation pressure and location was studied. The results show that the initiation pressure of open hole perforation is far below that of the casing perforation. The fracture initiation pressure increases with the increasing of the minimum horizontal stress,but the influence degree is controlled by the ratio of vertical stress to the minimum stress. The effects of the maximum horizontal stress and vertical stress on the initiation pressure is very weak. The initiation pressure decreases roughly with the wellbore azimuth increases,when the natural fracture is presented,the initiation pressure does not show any linear law. The shear slip for natural fracture easily appears in the shear stress zone. Initiation pressure firstly decreases and then increases with the perforation azimuth increases. The change of perforation azimuth can seriously affect the fracture initiation morphology. The fracture initiation location is closely related to the minimum and maximum horizontal stress,wellbore azimuth and the cementing strength and azimuth of natural fractures. The internal perforations bear the additional stress along the wellbore direction generated by both sides of the perforations,the closure stress is increased,thus these perforations initiate more difficult,resulting in that fracture initiation sequence is from the endmost perforations to the middle perforations. When the stress difference is higher(>7 MPa),the additional stress interference becomes significant. To achieve a multi-fractures initiation from multi-perforations,the injection pressure needs to be improved. The change of initiation location in perforation tunnel is a competitive result between the strength of stress concentration on perforation root and the interference degree of additional stress on the distal end of perforation. Due to the great perforation cluster spacing,the effect of stress interference between perforation clusters on fracture initiation is very weak,the pressure distributions of every

  15. Stress evolution and fault stability during the Weichselian glacial cycle

    Lund, Bjoern; Schmidt, Peter; Hieronymus, Christoph (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))


    glaciation while in a reverse faulting background stress field our models show unstable conditions at the end of the glaciation, in general agreement with the observations. The assumed background stress field, with the direction of maximum horizontal stress in the direction of local plate motion, predicts a fault orientation in general agreement with the overall strike of the Paervie fault. Our simulations of fault stability show a very strong dependence of fault stability on the glacially induced excess pore pressure. Increasing the pressure head to 90% of the local ice weight will cause wide-spread instability during ice covered conditions in a strike-slip background field, while in a reverse field instability is promoted earlier in the glacial cycle. Our approach to estimating the induced pore pressure in this study has been one of very simple static conditions and high permeability, implying an immediate propagation of pressures at the base of the ice sheet to the studied depth.

  16. Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding

    Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao


    In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.

  17. Horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants

    Tatiana V. Matveeva


    Full Text Available Most genetic engineering of plants uses Agrobacterium mediated transformation to introduce novel gene content. In nature, insertion of T-DNA in the plant genome and its subsequent transfer via sexual reproduction has been shown in several species in the genera Nicotiana and Linaria. In these natural examples of horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants, the T-DNA donor is assumed to be a mikimopine strain of A.rhizogenes. A sequence homologous to the T-DNA of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes was found in the genome of untransformed Nicotiana glauca about 30 years ago, and was named cellular T-DNA (cT-DNA. It represents an imperfect inverted repeat and contains homologues of several T-DNA oncogenes (NgrolB, NgrolC, NgORF13, NgORF14 and an opine synthesis gene (Ngmis. A similar cT-DNA has also been found in other species of the genus Nicotiana. These presumably ancient homologues of T-DNA genes are still expressed, indicating that they may play a role in the evolution of these plants. Recently T-DNA has been detected and characterized in Linaria vulgaris and L. dalmatica. In Linaria vulgaris the cT-DNA is present in two copies and organized as a tandem imperfect direct repeat, containing LvORF2, LvORF3, LvORF8, LvrolA, LvrolB, LvrolC, LvORF13, LvORF14, and the Lvmis genes. All L. vulgaris and L. dalmatica plants screened contained the same T-DNA oncogenes and the mis gene. Evidence suggests that there were several independent T-DNA integration events into the genomes of these plant genera. We speculate that ancient plants transformed by A. rhizogenes might have acquired a selective advantage in competition with the parental species. Thus, the events of T-DNA insertion in the plant genome might have affected their evolution, resulting in the creation of new plant species. In this review we focus on the structure and functions of cT-DNA in Linaria and Nicotiana and discuss their possible evolutionary role.

  18. Horizontal versus familial transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    Sandra Schwarz


    Full Text Available Transmission of Helicobacter pylori is thought to occur mainly during childhood, and predominantly within families. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining H. pylori isolates from large population samples and to the extensive genetic diversity between isolates, the transmission and spread of H. pylori remain poorly understood. We studied the genetic relationships of H. pylori isolated from 52 individuals of two large families living in a rural community in South Africa and from 43 individuals of 11 families living in urban settings in the United Kingdom, the United States, Korea, and Colombia. A 3,406 bp multilocus sequence haplotype was determined for a total of 142 H. pylori isolates. Isolates were assigned to biogeographic populations, and recent transmission was measured as the occurrence of non-unique isolates, i.e., isolates whose sequences were identical to those of other isolates. Members of urban families were almost always infected with isolates from the biogeographic population that is common in their location. Non-unique isolates were frequent in urban families, consistent with familial transmission between parents and children or between siblings. In contrast, the diversity of H. pylori in the South African families was much more extensive, and four distinct biogeographic populations circulated in this area. Non-unique isolates were less frequent in South African families, and there was no significant correlation between kinship and similarity of H. pylori sequences. However, individuals who lived in the same household did have an increased probability of carrying the same non-unique isolates of H. pylori, independent of kinship. We conclude that patterns of spread of H. pylori under conditions of high prevalence, such as the rural South African families, differ from those in developed countries. Horizontal transmission occurs frequently between persons who do not belong to a core family, blurring the pattern of familial

  19. Analysis of Three Dimensional Horizontal Reinforced Concrete Curved Beam Using Ansys

    T. Subramani


    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete horizontally curved beams are extensively used in many fields, such as in the construction of modern highway intersections, elevated freeways, the rounded corners of buildings, circular balconies,….etc. In some of these cases, large depths are needed for curved beams in order to resist high loads or to fulfill some aesthetic purposes. The analytical analysis of such members is very complex due to the fact that those members are subjected to combined action of bending, shear and torsion. Furthermore, non homogeneous nature of the materials involved contributes to the complexity of the problem. Therefore, it becomes necessary to employ numerical analysis procedures, such as the finite element method, to satisfy the safety and the economy requirements.A horizontally curved beam, loaded transversely to its plane, is subjected to torsion in addition to bending and shear. Furthermore, in deep beam the plane section does not remain plane after bending because of high stresses and warping occurs. Therefore, special features of analysis and design for horizontally curved deep beams is necessary to include the effect of above mentioned factors. Several methods of collapse analysis (Khalifa 1972, Jordaan et al. 1974, Badawy et al. 1977, Hsu et al.

  20. Experimental Study of Pore Pressure and Deformation of Suction Bucket Foundations Under Horizontal Dynamic Loading

    LU Xiao-bing; WANG Shu-yun; ZHANG Jian-hong; SUN Guo-liang; SHI Zhong-min


    Centrifuge experiments are carried out to investigate the responses of suction bucket foundations under horizontal dynamic loading. The effects of loading amplitude, the size of the bucket and the structural weight on the dynamic responses are investigated. It is shown that, when the loading amplitude is over a critical value, the sand at the upper part around the bucket softens or even liquefies. The liquefaction index (excess pore pressure divided by initial effective stress. In this paper, the developmental degree of excess pore pressure is described by liquefaction index) decreases from the upper part to the lower part of the sand foundation in the vertical direction and decreases from near to far away from the bucket′s side wall in the horizontal direction. Large settlements of the bucket and the sand around the bucket are induced by the horizontal dynamic loading. The dynamic responses of the bucket of a smaller height (when the diameter is the same) are heavier. A cyclic crack some distance near the bucket occurs in the sand.

  1. How can horizontal wells help in naturally fractured reservoir characterization?

    Mazouzi, A.; Deghmoum, A.; Azzouguen, A. [Sonatrach Inc., Hydra (Algeria); Oudjida, A. [Anadarko Inc., (Algeria)


    Two successfully drilled horizontal gas wells in the Tin Fouye Tabankort (TFT) fractured reservoir in Algeria were described. The productivity index of horizontal wells compared to vertical wells depends on the pay zone height, vertical anisotropy, lateral anisotropy, the length of the horizontal drain and the amplitude of the damaged zone. Transient tests in horizontal wells can solve the problem of quantifying the vertical and lateral anisotropies. Horizontal wells also minimize the turbulence effects in the vicinity of the wellbore, particularly in gas wells. The two horizontal wells in the TFT reservoir provide an important gas flow rate. The productivity index for each well is triple that of a vertical well. The permeability tensor on the TFT reservoir is established on the basis of transient test reconstitution using numerical simulation. The vertical permeability yields the best match for pressure response. It can be shown as a translation effect in time at the beginning of the linear flow regime. The horizontal anisotropy reacts to the translation of pressure and its derivative in the vertical direction. The configuration of the reservoir shows a high lateral anisotropy with regards to permeability. The vertical permeability can be considered as the composite permeability of both the matrix and fractures. Numerical and laboratory studies show that low permeability is due to fracture opening. Therefore, fracture doesn't necessarily enhance permeability. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs.

  2. L'intérêt du forage horizontal pour l'exploitation de gisements d'hydrocarbures Advantages of Horizontal Drilling for Production from Hydrocarbon Fields

    Giger F.


    fields with very heterogeneous permeability, such as karstic reservoirs, a horizontal well has a very good chance of encountering highly productive zones (case of Rospo Mare in Italy where a productivity increase of 10 and more was found in comparison with neighboring vertical wells. A study of overall productivity on the scale of the field confirms that, if vertical wells are to be replaced by horizontal wells, their number may be divided by a factor of about 4 to obtain the sa:e production under equivalent conditions. To prevent water (or gas influxes during multiphase flow, a horizontal well has two advantages. It can be drilled near the top of the reservoir so as to obtain as much clearance as possible. Likewise, even with greater total production, production per unit length is less, thus locally causing more moderate stress on the oil/water or oil/gas interface. The shape of this interface is thus smoother, and calculations show that vertical sweep is more efficient, and hence recovery is greater. Generally speaking, in multiphase flow, horizontal wells reveal all the more superiority as the mobility ratio is unfavorable, e. g. heavy oil driven by water. The phenomenon to be prevented is indeed the breakthrough of fronts, which occurs all the sonner as flow is more unstable. The steadiness of drainage among horizontal wells provides more homogeneous progression to fronts, which is especially advantageous at the beginning of production. Nonetheless, since reservoirs are more or less heterogeneous, full benefit can be drawn from such favorable effects only if selective completions can be implemented in horizontal wells. For partly similar reasons, horizontal wells are advantageous for thermal recovery. The exact positioning of a perforated injection casing at a specific depth in a reservoir should enable steam to be fed in easily so that the zone it invades expands steadily, while decreasing heat losses into the surrounding formations. Lastly, it should be added that

  3. Physics-based estimates of maximum magnitude of induced earthquakes

    Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin


    In this study, we present new findings when integrating earthquake physics and rupture dynamics into estimates of maximum magnitude of induced seismicity (Mmax). Existing empirical relations for Mmax lack a physics-based relation between earthquake size and the characteristics of the triggering stress perturbation. To fill this gap, we extend our recent work on the nucleation and arrest of dynamic ruptures derived from fracture mechanics theory. There, we derived theoretical relations between the area and overstress of overstressed asperity and the ability of ruptures to either stop spontaneously (sub-critical ruptures) or runaway (super-critical ruptures). These relations were verified by comparison with simulation and laboratory results, namely 3D dynamic rupture simulations on faults governed by slip-weakening friction, and laboratory experiments of frictional sliding nucleated by localized stresses. Here, we apply and extend these results to situations that are representative for the induced seismicity environment. We present physics-based predictions of Mmax on a fault intersecting cylindrical reservoir. We investigate Mmax dependence on pore-pressure variations (by varying reservoir parameters), frictional parameters and stress conditions of the fault. We also derive Mmax as a function of injected volume. Our approach provides results that are consistent with observations but suggests different scaling with injected volume than that of empirical relation by McGarr, 2014.

  4. Experimental investigation on free convection from a horizontal cylinder located above an adiabatic surface

    Yazdani, S.; Ashjaee, M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yousefi, T. [Razi Univ., Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal isothermal cylinder located above an adiabatic surface is encountered in many technological applications, including heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems. Therefore, an understanding of how a ceiling can influence free convection heat transfer from a heated cylinder is important. This study investigated the local and average free convection heat transfer from a horizontal surface at different cylinder-to-surface spacing (L/D) and Rayleigh number experimentally using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Experiments were carried out using Mach-Zehnder interferometer at Rayleigh numbers in the range between 500 and 15000. The effect of the Rayleigh number and spacing from the adiabatic bottom surface on both local and the average Nusselt numbers around the cylinder were investigated. The experimental data showed that the average Nusselt number decreased to a minimum and then increased to a maximum as L/D increased. The maximum in average Nusselt number moved closer to the cylinder's surface as the Rayleigh number increased. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Numerical investigation of flow and heat transfer performances of horizontal spiral-coil pipes

    季家东; 葛培琪; 毕文波


    The flow and heat transfer performances of horizontal spiral-coil pipes of circular and elliptical cross-sections are studied. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data, to verify the numerical method. The effects of the inlet water mass flow rate, the structural parameters, the helical pitch and the radius ratio on the heat transfer performances are investigated. Perfor- mances of the secondary fluid flow with different radius ratios are also investigated. Numerical results demonstrate that the heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt number increase with the increase of the water mass flow rate or the helical pitch. The maximum heat transfer coefficient and the maximum Nusselt number are obtained when the radius ratio isequal to 1.00. In addition, the fluid particle moves spirally along the pipe and the velocity changes periodically. The particle flow intensity and the spiral movement frequency decrease significantly with the increase of the radius ratio. Besides, the secondary flow profile in the horizontal spiral-coil pipe contains two oppositely rotating eddies, and the eddy intensity decreases significantly along the pipe owing to the change of curvature. The decreasing tendency of the eddy intensity along the pipe increases with the increase of the radius ratio.

  6. Simulation of Rock Mass Horizontal Displacements with Usage of Cellular Automata Theory.

    Sikora, Paweł


    In the article there was presented two dimensional rock mass model as a deterministic finite cellular automata. Used to describe the distribution of subsidence of rock mass inside and on its surface the theory of automata makes it relatively simple way to get a subsidence trough profile consistent with the profile observed by geodetic measurements on the land surface. As a development of an existing concept of the rock mass model, as a finite cellular automaton, there was described distribution function that allows, simultaneously with the simulation of subsidence, to simulate horizontal displacements inside the rock mass model and on its surface in accordance with real observations. On the basis of the results of numerous computer simulations there was presented fundamental mathematical relationship that determines the ratio of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum subsidence, in case of full subsidence trough, in relation to the basic parameters of the rock mass model. The possibilities of presented model were shown on the example of simulation results of deformation distribution caused by extraction of abstract coal panel. Obtained results were consistent with results obtained by geometric-integral theory.

  7. The Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem

    Cela, Eranda; Woeginger, Gerhard J


    We investigate a special case of the maximum quadratic assignment problem where one matrix is a product matrix and the other matrix is the distance matrix of a one-dimensional point set. We show that this special case, which we call the Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem, is NP-hard in the ordinary sense and solvable in pseudo-polynomial time. Our approach also yields a polynomial time solution for the following problem from chemical graph theory: Find a tree that maximizes the Wiener index among all trees with a prescribed degree sequence. This settles an open problem from the literature.

  8. Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning

    Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu


    Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.

  9. Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States

    Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.


    Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.

  10. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu


    The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  11. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.


    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  12. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.


    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  13. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu


    The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  14. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas


    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...

  15. The development and psychometric testing of the horizontal violence scale.

    Longo, Joy; Newman, David


    Inappropriate behaviors of healthcare workers can threaten the delivery of safe, quality care. The purpose of this research was to develop a research instrument specific to the construct of horizontal violence and conduct foundational psychometric testing of the newly developed instrument. The overall findings on the fit indices suggest that this model does adequately measure the underlying construct of horizontal violence. The instrument can be used as a way to determine the existence and extent of horizontal violence in practice settings and used to augment the study of the work environment, particularly in relation to healthy work environments.

  16. MWD resistivity tool guides bit horizontally in thin bed

    Fagin, R.A. (Teleco Oilfield Services, Inc., Houston, TX (US))


    This paper reports on the MWD dual processing resistivity (DPR) measurements and modelling which helped steer a horizontal well through a thin oil zone to avoid a nearby oil/water contact. The horizontal well came on-line flowing 380 bo/d with no water production. Offset vertical wells produce an average of 33 bo/d with an 83% saltwater cut. Until recently, horizontal drilling efforts have been focused on thick reservoirs in which the stratigraphic position of the well bore within the target formation was not critical. Navigation through much thinner reservoirs is now possible with a technique that uses an electromagnetic propagation resistivity tool.

  17. A selection method of the horizontal wells completion

    Ivica Ristović


    Full Text Available The completion of horizontal wells can be done by different ways and depends on production constraints and the reservoir characteristics.The selection of a completon method is directly influenced by the degree of rock consolidation, the need for water or gas shut off,the anticipated flow rate, the completion longevity, the shale reactivity and the stability, the degree of grain sorting and the lamination.In this article, the possible methods for the horizontal well completion are shown. Also, it is presented the horizontal well completion selection flowchart. This algorithm is made on the basis of a large number of wells’ analysis considering reservoir characteristics and production constraints.

  18. Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Horizontal Stability of Landing Mats


    1974. A rmathematical 11aodel tio silluatet the buckling response oif thte tria’i to th;: hora /ttntal ltAds way, atso elp. 1 h reuls o th...NO. 19R-20-0 MAT XU19, 4-FT X 4*PT ZERO ECCENTRICITY WIT420T EJGH48F NOTE NUMBERS SL LINES .RE HORIZONTAL FORC~E (LEFT) AND HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT ,RIGH...connector bars 14- TEST NO. 19-20-0 MAT XM19, 4-FT X 4-FT WIDTH 20-FT, LENGTH 48-FT ZERO ECCENTRICITY S-NG NUMBERS BYLINES ARE HORIZONTAL FORCE (LEFT) AND

  19. Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers

    Veerachary, Mummadi

    The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.

  20. On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs

    Peter Recht


    Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.

  1. Hard graphs for the maximum clique problem

    Hoede, Cornelis


    The maximum clique problem is one of the NP-complete problems. There are graphs for which a reduction technique exists that transforms the problem for these graphs into one for graphs with specific properties in polynomial time. The resulting graphs do not grow exponentially in order and number. Gra

  2. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)


    textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p

  3. Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu


    The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

  4. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu


    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  5. Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal Maximum

    Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.


    We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the i

  6. Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy

    L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson


    In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e

  7. Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.

    Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W


    The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.

  8. Maximum Phonation Time: Variability and Reliability

    R. Speyer; H.C.A. Bogaardt; V.L. Passos; N.P.H.D. Roodenburg; A. Zumach; M.A.M. Heijnen; L.W.J. Baijens; S.J.H.M. Fleskens; J.W. Brunings


    The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia v

  9. Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems

    Lasak, Katarzyna

    In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment...

  10. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...

  11. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.


    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  12. Stressing of the New Madrid Seismic Zone by a lower crust detachment fault

    Stuart, William D.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Simpson, Robert W.


    A new mechanical model for the cause of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central United States is analyzed. The model contains a subhorizontal detachment fault which is assumed to be near the domed top surface of locally thickened anomalous lower crust ("rift pillow"). Regional horizontal compression induces slip on the fault, and the slip creates a stress concentration in the upper crust above the rift pillow dome. In the coseismic stage of the model earthquake cycle, where the three largest magnitude 7-8 earthquakes in 1811-1812 are represented by a single model mainshock on a vertical northeast trending fault, the model mainshock has a moment equivalent to a magnitude 8 event. During the interseismic stage, corresponding to the present time, slip on the detachment fault exerts a right-lateral shear stress on the locked vertical fault whose failure produces the model mainshock. The sense of shear is generally consistent with the overall sense of slip of 1811-1812 and later earthquakes. Predicted rates of horizontal strain at the ground surface are about 10-7 year-1 and are comparable to some observed rates. The model implies that rift pillow geometry is a significant influence on the maximum possible earthquake magnitude.

  13. Tectonic "short circuit" of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies as a possible mechanism of the earthquake

    Nechayev, Andrei


    An alternative earthquake mechanism is proposed. The traditional stress mechanism of fracture formation assigned a support role. As a proximate cause of the earthquake the destruction of the roofs of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies (SHFB) is considered. This collapse may occur due to redistribution of fluid pressure within the system of SHFB connected by cracks (tectonic or other nature). It can cause both shifts of rock blocks contributing to seismic shocks and various effects characteristic of foreshocks and aftershocks.

  14. Character and distribution of borehole breakouts and their relationship to in situ stresses in Deep Columbia River Basalts

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Kim, Kunsoo


    The character and distribution of borehole breakouts in deeply buried basalts at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State are examined in light of stress indicator data and hydraulic-fracturing stress data by means of acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform logging systems. A series of boreholes penetrating the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group were logged to examine the extent of breakouts at depths near 1000 m. Breakouts occur discontinuously throughout the interiors of most flows. In some boreholes the distribution of borehole wall breakouts closely correlates with the incidence of core disking. Differences in the distribution of breakouts and disking are attributed to differences in failure mechanisms. A thin interval of breakout-free basalt occurs near the upper and lower limits of flow interiors, with many intervals of breakouts terminating at the intersection of oblique fractures with the borehole. Hydraulic-fracturing stress measurement results obtained from four deep boreholes indicate anisotropic horizontal principal stresses, with maximum principal stress along an approximate north trending axis, consistent with the east trending orientation of breakouts. Acoustic waveform logs indicate that there is no measurable difference between the seismic properties of breakout-free flow tops and flow interiors. The highly coherent waveforms obtained in almost all flow interiors indicate that damage to the borehole wall associated with breakout formation remains confined to the thin annulus of stress concentration.

  15. Sustainable Horizontal Bioventing and Vertical Biosparging Implementation (Invited)

    Leu, J.; Lin, J.; Ferris, S.


    A former natural gas processing site with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) impacts in both soil and groundwater was partially excavated to remove 2,400 cubic yards of impacted soil. However, due to active natural gas pipelines within the impacted footprint, excavation was discontinued and an area of impacted soil containing maximum concentrations of 5,000 mg/kg gasoline-range organics (GRO), 8,600 mg/kg diesel-range organics (DRO), and 130 mg/kg motor oil-range organics (ORO). Groundwater was impacted with concentrations up to 2,300 μg/L GRO and 4,200 μg/L DRO remained in place. Taking advantage of the open excavation, horizontal-screened piping was placed in the backfill to deliver air for bioventing, which resulted in successful remediation of soil in a physically inaccessible area. The combined use of excavation of the source area, bioventing of surrounding inaccessible soil, and biosparging of the groundwater and smear zone resulted in nearing a no-further-action status at the site. The sustainable bioventing system consisted of one 3-HP blower and eight horizontal air injection wells. Five dual-depth nested vapor monitoring points (VMPs) were installed at 5 feet and 10 feet below ground surface as part of the monitoring system for human health and system performance. The bioventing system operated for one year followed by a three-month rebound test. During the one-year operation, air flow was periodically adjusted to maximize removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the vent wells with elevated photo-ionization detector readings. After the bioventing successfully remediated the inaccessible impacted soil, the biosparging system incorporated the pre-existing bioventing unit with an upgraded 5-HP blower and three vertical biosparging wells to biodegrade dissolved phase impacts in the groundwater. The subsequent monitoring system includes the VMPs, the air injection wells, and four groundwater

  16. Heat transfer to near-critical helium in horizontal channels

    Dolgoy, M.L.; Kirichenko, Y.A.; Sklovsky, Y.B.; Troyanov, A.M.; Chernyakov, P.S. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur)


    Experimental results on heat transfer and pressure losses during a forced motion of helium of near-critical state parameters in a horizontal channel are reported. A method of calculation of temperature and pressure distributions along the channel is proposed.

  17. Vertical Array in Space for Horizontal Air-Showers

    Fargion, D


    We consider the guaranteed physics of horizontal (hadron) air-showers, HAS, developing at high (tens km) altitudes. Their morphology and information traces are different from vertical ones. Hundreds of km long HAS are often split by geomagnetic fields in a long (fan-like) showering with a twin spiral tail. The horizontal fan-like airshowers are really tangent and horizontal only at North and South poles. At different latitude these showering plane are turned and inclined by geomagnetic fields. In particular at magnetic equator such tangent horizontal East-West airshowers are bent and developed into a vertical fan air-shower, easily detectable by a vertical array detector (hanging elements by gravity). Such "medusa" arrays maybe composed by inflated floating balloons chains. The light gas float and it acts as an calorimeter for the particles, while it partially sustains the detector weight. Vertically hanging chains as well as rubber doughnut balloons (whose interior may record Cherenkov lights) reveal bundles...

  18. Determination of Elastic Twist in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)

    Stoddard, F.; Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Andrews, B.


    This report presents the results of a project at the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) which measured and calculated the elastic twist of three representative composite horizontal-axis blades: Carter 300, Gougeon ESI 54, and UTRC 8 kW.

  19. Horizontal Bulk Material Pressure in Silo Subjected to Impulsive Load

    Radosław Tatko


    Full Text Available This paper describes laboratory tests carried out in the steel flat-bottomed silo model filled with sand, subjected to external dynamic loads. The model was placed on a system of springs, which represent subsoil. The loads in the form of horizontal impulses were applied to the bottom plate of the silo. Horizontal pressure-time courses were used to analyze the influence of subsoil vibrations on the distribution changes of these pressures. Basic conclusion: (1 the subsoil vibrations cause two types of changes of the horizontal pressures: stable changes which are observed when the model vibrations finish and cyclic of short duration (brief changes; (2 the subsoil vibrations either generate stable increase or stable decrease of the pressures from before vibrations or do not generate any essential stable change; (3 the cyclic dynamic changes of the horizontal pressures depend on the direction of the silo wall displacements and they are the function of the values of these displacements.

  20. Nurse Against Nurse: Horizontal Bullying in the Nursing Profession.

    Granstra, Katherine


    Healthcare professionals are not immune to bullying; in fact, they experience bullying at an alarming rate. Sometimes the bullying is passed down from superiors, but frequently bullying occurs between coworkers. This is known as "horizontal bullying," and it has become a serious issue within the nursing profession. Horizontal bullying between nurses can cause negative consequences for everyone involved, in particular the nurses, patients, and the entire organization. To fully address and resolve horizontal bullying in the nursing profession, we must consider many factors. The first step is to establish what constitutes bullying and to develop a clear process for dealing with it when it occurs. Before it is possible to eliminate the problem, we need to understand why bullying takes place. To be effective, solutions to the problem of horizontal bullying in the nursing profession must include the entire healthcare industry.

  1. Optimizing of Culture Condition in Horizontal Rotating Bioreactor

    Yan-Fang ZHANG; Huai-Qing CHEN; Hua HUANG


    @@ 1 Introduction Bioreactor is the most important equipment in tissue engineering. It can mimic the micro-environment of cell growth in vitro. At present, horizontal rotating bioreactor is the most advanced equipment for cell culture in the world.

  2. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    Michaud, G


    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  3. Regulation of mammalian horizontal gene transfer by apoptotic DNA fragmentation

    Yan, B; Wang, H; Li, F; Li, C-Y


    Previously it was shown that horizontal DNA transfer between mammalian cells can occur through the uptake of apoptotic bodies, where genes from the apoptotic cells were transferred to neighbouring cells phagocytosing the apoptotic bodies. The regulation of this process is poorly understood. It was shown that the ability of cells as recipient of horizontally transferred DNA was enhanced by deficiency of p53 or p21. However, little is known with regard to the regulation of DNA from donor apoptotic cells. Here we report that the DNA fragmentation factor/caspase-activated DNase (DFF/CAD), which is the endonuclease responsible for DNA fragmentation during apoptosis, plays a significant role in regulation of horizontal DNA transfer. Cells with inhibited DFF/CAD function are poor donors for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) while their ability of being recipients of HGT is not affected. PMID:17146478

  4. Maximum speeds and alpha angles of flowing avalanches

    McClung, David; Gauer, Peter


    um/√H0--; um/√S0- are greater than 2.0 and 1.3 respectively. In addition, to: um/√H0--; um/√S0--, we collected 105 companion values of the αangle for runout positions defined by tanα = H0/X0where X0is horizontal reach calculated from start position to stop position of the tip of the avalanches. The αangle is a very simple measure of runout introduced by Scheidegger (1973) for rock avalanches. McClung and Mears (1991) collected αangles from more than 500 paths with maximum runout estimated for return periods on the order of 100 years and the range of values was: 18o - 42owhich is close to that here: (20o - 45o). The results showed that runout increases(α decreases) with maximum speed but there is considerable scatter in the relationship. The Spearman rank correlation is -0.54 (p < 0.005).Rank correlations of α vs. um/√S0-;um/√H0- are - 0.44;.- 0.56 (both with p < 0.005

  5. Horizontal Bulk Material Pressure in Silo Subjected to Impulsive Load

    Radosław Tatko; Sylwester Kobielak


    This paper describes laboratory tests carried out in the steel flat-bottomed silo model filled with sand, subjected to external dynamic loads. The model was placed on a system of springs, which represent subsoil. The loads in the form of horizontal impulses were applied to the bottom plate of the silo. Horizontal pressure-time courses were used to analyze the influence of subsoil vibrations on the distribution changes of these pressures. Basic conclusion: (1) the subsoil vibrations cause two ...

  6. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis: CT and MR findings

    Bomfim, Rodrigo C.; Tavora, Daniel G.F.; Nakayama, Mauro; Gama, Romulo L. [Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Ceara (Brazil)


    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. We present a child with clinical and neuroimaging findings typical of HGPPS. CT and MRI of the brain demonstrated pons hypoplasia, absence of the facial colliculi, butterfly configuration of the medulla and a deep midline pontine cleft. We briefly discuss the imaging aspects of this rare entity in light of the current literature. (orig.)

  7. Equilibrium type of competition with horizontal product innovation

    Negriu, A.


    Singh and Vives (1984) consider a game where duopolists first commit to a strategic variable quantity or pice, and then compete in selling horizontally differentiated products. Here product substitutability is endogenized by allowing firms to undertake R&D investments to increase differentitation. Whereas in the original model Cournot competition always ensued in equilibrium, horizontal product innovation allows all types of market competition to be an equilibrium, depending on model paramete...

  8. Mapping Proprioception across a 2D Horizontal Workspace


    Relatively few studies have been reported that document how proprioception varies across the workspace of the human arm. Here we examined proprioceptive function across a horizontal planar workspace, using a new method that avoids active movement and interactions with other sensory modalities. We systematically mapped both proprioceptive acuity (sensitivity to hand position change) and bias (perceived location of the hand), across a horizontal-plane 2D workspace. Proprioception of both the le...

  9. Manage Stress

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  10. Stress Incontinence

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  11. Energetic dynamics of a rotating horizontal convection model of an ocean basin with wind forcing

    Zemskova, Varvara; White, Brian; Scotti, Alberto


    We analyze the energetic dynamics in a rotating horizontal convection model, where flow is driven by a differential buoyancy forcing along a horizontal surface. This model is used to quantify the influence of surface heating and cooling and surface wind stress on the Meridional Overturning Circulation. We study a model of the Southern Ocean in a rectangular basin with surface cooling on one end (the South pole) and surface warming on the other end (mid-latitudes). Free-slip boundary conditions are imposed in the closed box, while zonally periodic boundary conditions are enforced in the reentrant channel. Wind stress and differential buoyancy forcing are applied at the top boundary. The problem is solved numerically using a 3D DNS model based on a finite-volume AMR solver for the Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations with rotation. The overall dynamics, including large-scale overturning, baroclinic eddying, turbulent mixing, and resulting energy cascades are investigated using the local Available Potential Energy framework introduced in. We study the relative contributions of surface buoyancy and wind forcing along with the effects of bottom topography to the energetic balance of this dynamic model. This research is part of the Blue Waters sustained-petascale computing project, supported by the NSF (awards OCI-0725070, ACI-1238993 and ACI-14-44747) and the state of Illinois.

  12. International transferability of accident modification functions for horizontal curves.

    Elvik, Rune


    Studies of the relationship between characteristics of horizontal curves and accident rate have been reported in several countries. The characteristic most often studied is the radius of a horizontal curve. Functions describing the relationship between the radius of horizontal curves and accident rate have been developed in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the United States. Other characteristics of horizontal curves that have been studied include deflection angle, curve length, the presence of transition curves, super-elevation in curves and distance to adjacent curves. This paper assesses the international transferability of mathematical functions (accident modification functions) that have been developed to relate the radius of horizontal curves to their accident rate. The main research problem is whether these functions are similar, which enhances international transferability, or dissimilar, which reduces international transferability. Accident modification functions for horizontal curve radius developed in the countries listed above are synthesised. The sensitivity of the functions to other characteristics of curves than radius is examined. Accident modification functions developed in different countries have important similarities. The functions diverge with respect to accident rate in the sharpest curves.

  13. Horizontal high-pressure air injection well construction and operation

    Hume, J. [Continental Resources Inc., ND (United States)


    This paper discussed the design and operational challenges of a horizontal high-pressure air injection well currently in use at the Cedar Hill Red River B field in North Dakota. The field was developed in 1994, using horizontal wells oriented from the northeast to the southwest corners of each section on 640 acre spacing. In March of 2001, the field was unitized resulting in a horizontal waterflood project and a 320 acre horizontal high pressure air injection project. Extreme temperatures and pressures occurring in the reservoir from the combustion processes associated with high pressure air injection have resulted in several challenges. Reservoir and fluid properties of the field were presented, as well as a type log. Details of the Buffalo and Cedar Hills field were also provided, with a comparison of horizontal and vertical patterns. A light oil displacement process was reviewed, with details of tubing leak corrosion, packer seal and detonation failures. Burn front exposure to casing was discussed, and a wellbore diagram was provided. Various horizontal conversions were discussed. A description of the Cedar Hills Compressor Station and compression trains was provided. It was concluded that knowledge gained from 25 years of vertical high pressure air injection experience has been successfully incorporated to create a safe and durable design. 1 tab., 16 figs.

  14. Should sex-ratio distorting parasites abandon horizontal transmission?

    Ironside Joseph E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex-ratio distorting parasites are of interest due to their effects upon host population dynamics and their potential to influence the evolution of host sex determination systems. In theory, the ability to distort host sex-ratios allows a parasite with efficient vertical (hereditary transmission to dispense completely with horizontal (infectious transmission. However, recent empirical studies indicate that some sex-ratio distorting parasites have retained the capability for horizontal transmission. Results Numerical simulations using biologically realistic parameters suggest that a feminising parasite is only likely to lose the capability for horizontal transmission if its host occurs at low density and/or has a male-biased primary sex ratio. It is also demonstrated that even a small amount of horizontal transmission can allow multiple feminising parasites to coexist within a single host population. Finally it is shown that, by boosting its host's rate of population growth, a feminising parasite can increase its own horizontal transmission and allow the invasion of other, more virulent parasites. Conclusions The prediction that sex-ratio distorting parasites are likely to retain a degree of horizontal transmission has important implications for the epidemiology and host-parasite interactions of these organisms. It may also explain the frequent co-occurrence of several sex-ratio distorting parasite species in nature.

  15. Present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone from inversion of focal mechanism solutions: A successful trial

    Audemard M., Franck A.; Castilla, Raymi


    This paper presents a compilation of 16 present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone (PBZ), and particularly in western and along northern Venezuela. As a trial, these new stress tensors along PBZ have been calculated from inversion of 125 focal mechanism solutions (FMS) by applying the Angelier & Mechler's dihedral method, which were originally gathered by the first author and published in 2005. These new tensors are compared to those 59 tensors inverted from fault-slip data measured only in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks, compiled in Audemard et al. (2005), which were originally calculated by several researchers through the inversion methods developed by Angelier and Mechler or Etchecopar et al. The two sets of stress tensors, one derived from geological data and the other one from seismological data, compare very well throughout the PBZ in terms of both stress orientation and shape of the stress tensor. This region is characterized by a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato), occasionally compressional, regime from the southern Mérida Andes on the southwest to the gulf of Paria in the east. Significant changes in direction of the maximum horizontal stress (σH = σ1) can be established along it though. The σ1 direction varies progressively from nearly east-west in the southern Andes (SW Venezuela) to between NW-SE and NNW-SSE in northwestern Venezuela; this direction remaining constant across northern Venezuela, from Colombia to Trinidad. In addition, the σV defined by inversion of focal mechanisms or by the shape of the stress ellipsoid derived from the Etchecopar et al.'s method better characterize whether the stress regime is transpressional or compressional, or even very rarely trantensional at local scale. The orientation and space variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the addition of the two major neighbouring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (

  16. Stress spatial evolution law and rockburst danger induced by coal mining in fault zone

    Li Teng; Mu Zonglong; Liu Guangjian; Du Junliu; Lu Hao


    In order to explore the influence of coal mining disturbance on the rockburst occurring in fault zone, this research constructed a mechanical model for the evolution of fault stress, and analyzed the influence of the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress on the stability of fault, and the spatial distribution of the stress in fault zone as well as its evolution rule. Furthermore, the rockburst danger at different spatial areas of fault zone was predicated. Results show that: when both sides of the working face are mined out, the fault zone in the working face presents greater horizontal and vertical stresses at its boundaries but exhibits smaller stresses in its middle section;however, the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress is found to be greater at middle section and smaller at boundaries. As the working face advances towards the fault, the horizontal and vertical stresses of the fault firstly increases and then decreases;conversely, the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress keeps decreasing all the time. Therefore, if the fault zones are closer to the goaf and the coal wall, the stress ratio will be smaller, and the fault slip will be more prone to occur, therefore rockburst danger will be greater. This research results provide guidance for the rockburst prevention and hazard control of the coal mining in fault zone.

  17. Spatial variations of current tectonic stress field and its relationship to the structure and rheology of lithosphere around the Bohai Sea, North China

    Li, Xianrui; Wang, Jie; Zeng, Zuoxun; Dai, Qingqin


    The tectonic stress field in the middle-upper crust is closely related to the structure and rheology of the lithosphere. To determine the stress field in the deep crust, we inversed the focal mechanism solutions (FMSs) of 62 earthquakes that occurred between 2009 and 2015 in the Bohai Sea and its surrounding areas using broadband seismic waveforms collected from 140 stations. We then derived the tectonic stress field using the software SATSI (Spatial And Temporal Stress Inversion) based on the damped linear inversion method. The inversion results show that both the maximum (σ1) and minimum (σ3) principle stress axes throughout the entire region are nearly horizontal except in the Tangshan and Haicheng areas, suggesting that the study area is predominantly under a strike-slip faulting stress regime. The σ1 and σ3 axes are found to be oriented in the NEE-SWW or nearly E-W and NNW-SSE or nearly S-N directions, respectively. These results indicate that the stress field in the North China Craton is controlled by the combined effects of the Pacific Plate westward subduction and the India-Eurasia Plate collision. However, localized normal faulting stress regimes (where the vertical stress σv ≈ σ1) are observed in the Tangshan and Haicheng areas, where low viscosity bodies (LVBs) were identified using geophysical data. Based on the analysis of focal mechanism solutions, active faults and lithosphere rheology characteristics in the Tangshan and Haicheng areas, we speculate that the anomalous stress regime is caused by the local extension resulting from the movement of strike-slip faults under the action of the regional stress field. The existence of LVB may indicate weakness in the crust that favors the accumulation of tectonic stress and triggers large earthquakes.

  18. Model Selection Through Sparse Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    Banerjee, Onureena; D'Aspremont, Alexandre


    We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added l_1-norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memory requirements and complexity of existing interior point methods are prohibitive for problems with more than tens of nodes. We present two new algorithms for solving problems with at least a thousand nodes in the Gaussian case. Our first algorithm uses block coordinate descent, and can be interpreted as recursive l_1-norm penalized regression. Our second algorithm, based on Nesterov's first order method, yields a complexity estimate with a better dependence on problem size than existing interior point methods. Using a log determinant relaxation of the log partition function (Wainwright & Jordan (2006)), we show that these same algorithms can be used to solve an approximate sparse maximum likelihood problem for...

  19. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M


    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  20. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano


    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  1. Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation

    Lei Luo


    item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.

  2. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.


    algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....

  3. Nonparametric Maximum Entropy Estimation on Information Diagrams

    Martin, Elliot A; Meinke, Alexander; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Davidsen, Jörn


    Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many different disciplines. In this work, we significantly extend a technique we previously introduced for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies. Specifically, we show how to apply the concept to continuous random variables and vastly expand the types of information-theoretic quantities one can condition on. This allows us to establish a number of significant advantages of our approach over existing ones. Not only does our method perform favorably in the undersampled regime, where existing methods fail, but it also can be dramatically less computationally expensive as the cardinality of the variables increases. In addition, we propose a nonparametric formulation of connected informations and give an illustrative example showing how this agrees with the existing parametric formulation in cases of interest. We furthe...

  4. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Visser, Matt


    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  5. Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy

    Visser, Matt


    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  6. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability

    Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.


    This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.

  7. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Alibert, Yann


    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  8. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Yiran Chen


    An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m)] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by t...

  9. A stochastic maximum principle via Malliavin calculus

    Øksendal, Bernt; Zhou, Xun Yu; Meyer-Brandis, Thilo


    This paper considers a controlled It\\^o-L\\'evy process where the information available to the controller is possibly less than the overall information. All the system coefficients and the objective performance functional are allowed to be random, possibly non-Markovian. Malliavin calculus is employed to derive a maximum principle for the optimal control of such a system where the adjoint process is explicitly expressed.

  10. Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.

    Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar


    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  11. Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    Wang, Long; Wang, Yi


    Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.

  12. Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error

    Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun


    We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.

  13. Directional Amplification of Horizontal Motion at Rock Sites

    Pischiutta, M.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.; Rovelli, A.


    Directional amplifications of horizontal ground motion along site-dependent azimuths are often unexpectedly found in rocky environments and in stiff-rock conditions. Directional amplification has been studied by several authors at sites with fractured rocks across fault damage zones (e.g. Pischiutta et al., 2013), or close to gravitational instabilities (e.g. Burjanek et al, 2012). In the majority of the cases, a transversal relation between the maximum amplification and the orientation of the predominant fracture field is recognized, interpreted as the effect of the stiffness anisotropy. Cracks in fault damage zones also cause the reduction of rock velocity (especially near-surface Vs). Studies performed on high number of rocky sites revealed that directional amplification effects are much more diffuse than expected. A systematic study involving 258 seismological stations of the Italian Seismic Network points out that 56 of stations (20%) are clearly affected by directional site amplification effects. This station sample was studied by analyzing the surface topography in order to unravel the role of topographic irregularities on ground motion amplifications. Models proposed in literature predict amplification at wavelengths comparable to the mountain width (e.g. Géli et al, 1988) and the scatter of wavefield that is polarized in the direction orthogonal to the relief elongation (e.g. Spudich et al., 1996). Since some bias exists in the objective quantification morphological parameters, we use an original methodology that combines morphometric analysis of digital elevation models and principal component analysis to define the dimension and elongation orientation of pronounced ridges. This study showed that the expected relations between the shape/dimension of relief and ground motion were found only at 5 stations (out of 56) , suggesting a major of local morphology, geological complexities and subsurface properties on directional amplification, consistently with

  14. Preliminary Results of In-situ Stress Measurements along the Longmenshan Fault Zone after the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake

    WU Manlu; ZHANG Yueqiao; LIAO Chunting; CHEN Qunce; MA Yinsheng; WU Jinsheng; YAN Junfeng; OU Mingyi


    Four months after the Wenchuan Ms 8 earthquake in western Sichuan, China, in situ stress measurements were carried out along the Longmenshan fault zone with the purpose of obtaining stress parameters for earthquake hazard assessment. In-situ stresses were measured in three new boreholes by using overcoring with the piezomagnetic stress gauges for shallow depths and hydraulic fracturing for lower depths. The maximum horizontal stress in shallow depths (~20 m) is about 4.3 MPa, oriented NI9°E, in the epicenter area at Yingxiu Town, about 9.7 MPa, oriented N51°W, at Baoxing County in the southwestern Longmenshan range, and about 2.6 MPa, oriented N39°E, near Kangding in the southernmost zone of the Longmenshan range. Hydraulic fracturing at borehole depths from 100 to 400 m shows a tendency towards increasing stress with depth. A comparison with the results measured before the Wenchuan earthquake along the Longmenshan zone and in the Tibetan Plateau demonstrates that the stress level remains relatively high in the southwestern segment of the Longmenshan range, and is still moderate in the epicenter zone. These results provide a key appraisal for future assessment of earthquake hazards of the Longmenshan fault zone and the aftershock occurrences of the Wenchuan earthquake.

  15. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR.

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W; Gryk, Michael R; Hoch, Jeffrey C


    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system.

  16. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana


    We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...

  17. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Zhang Heping


    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  18. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.


    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  19. Minimal Length, Friedmann Equations and Maximum Density

    Awad, Adel


    Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach[gr-qc/9504004], Cai et al [hep-th/0501055,hep-th/0609128] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar--Cai derivation [hep-th/0609128] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure $p(\\rho,a)$ leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature $k$. As an example w...

  20. Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion

    Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles


    Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.

  1. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.


    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  2. Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.

    Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei


    Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C.

  3. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D


    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  4. Variation in Sitting Pressure Distribution and Location of the Points of Maximum Pressure with Rotation of the Pelvis, Gender and Body Characteristics

    Moes, C.C.M.


    The pressure distribution and the location of the points of maximum pressure, usually below the ischial tuberosities, was measured for subjects sitting on a flat, hard and horizontal support, and varying angle of the rotation of the pelvis. The pressure data were analyzed for force- and pressure-rel

  5. Variation in Sitting Pressure Distribution and Location of the Points of Maximum Pressure with Rotation of the Pelvis, Gender and Body Characteristics

    Moes, C.C.M.


    The pressure distribution and the location of the points of maximum pressure, usually below the ischial tuberosities, was measured for subjects sitting on a flat, hard and horizontal support, and varying angle of the rotation of the pelvis. The pressure data were analyzed for force- and

  6. Should tsunami simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.


    Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by ocean acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the tsunami. We also compare tsunami propagation in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves from ocean acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami waves to their initial state by solving the

  7. System Finds Horizontal Location of Center of Gravity

    Johnston, Albert S.; Howard, Richard T.; Brewster, Linda L.


    An instrumentation system rapidly and repeatedly determines the horizontal location of the center of gravity of a laboratory vehicle that slides horizontally on three air bearings (see Figure 1). Typically, knowledge of the horizontal center-of-mass location of such a vehicle is needed in order to balance the vehicle properly for an experiment and/or to assess the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The system includes a load cell above each air bearing, electronic circuits that generate digital readings of the weight on each load cell, and a computer equipped with software that processes the readings. The total weight and, hence, the mass of the vehicle are computed from the sum of the load-cell weight readings. Then the horizontal position of the center of gravity is calculated straightforwardly as the weighted sum of the known position vectors of the air bearings, the contribution of each bearing being proportional to the weight on that bearing. In the initial application for which this system was devised, the center- of-mass calculation is particularly simple because the air bearings are located at corners of an equilateral triangle. However, the system is not restricted to this simple geometry. The system acquires and processes weight readings at a rate of 800 Hz for each load cell. The total weight and the horizontal location of the center of gravity are updated at a rate of 800/3 approx. equals 267 Hz. In a typical application, a technician would use the center-of-mass output of this instrumentation system as a guide to the manual placement of small weights on the vehicle to shift the center of gravity to a desired horizontal position. Usually, the desired horizontal position is that of the geometric center. Alternatively, this instrumentation system could be used to provide position feedback for a control system that would cause weights to be shifted automatically (see Figure 2) in an effort to keep the center of gravity at the geometric center.

  8. Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes

    Savage, W.Z.


    An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.

  9. Transmission of vertical stress in a real soil profile. Part II

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per


    cereals. The tests took place in the spring at field capacity when the topsoil had not been tilled for 1 1/2 years. Two Nokian ELS Radial-ply tyres (800/50R34 and 560/45R22.5) were loaded with two specific loads (30 kN and 60 kN), leading to four treatments labelled 800-30, 800-60, 560-30 and 560-60. We...... used rated tyre inflation pressures for traffic in the field (≤10 km h−1 driving speed). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil at each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative...... to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near the tyre–soil interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The level of maximum stress at 0.3 m depth was related to the surface-related stress expressions like the mean...

  10. Deformation and Failure Mechanism of Roadway Sensitive to Stress Disturbance and Its Zonal Support Technology

    Qiangling Yao


    Full Text Available The 6163 haulage roadway in the Qidong coal mine passes through a fault zone, which causes severe deformation in the surrounding rock, requiring repeated roadway repairs. Based on geological features in the fault area, we analyze the factors affecting roadway deformation and failure and propose the concept of roadway sensitive to stress disturbance (RSSD. We investigate the deformation and failure mechanism of the surrounding rocks of RSSD using field monitoring, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulation. The deformation of the surrounding rocks involves dilatation of shallow rocks and separation of deep rocks. Horizontal and longitudinal fissures evolve to bed separation and fracture zones; alternatively, fissures can evolve into fracture zones with new fissures extending to deeper rock. The fault affects the stress field of the surrounding rock to ~27 m radius. Its maximum impact is on the vertical stress of the rib rock mass and its minimum impact is on the vertical stress of the floor rock mass. Based on our results, we propose a zonal support system for a roadway passing through a fault. Engineering practice shows that the deformation of the surrounding rocks of the roadway can be effectively controlled to ensure normal and safe production in the mine.

  11. Present-day stress of the central Persian Gulf: Implications for drilling and well performance

    Haghi, A. H.; Kharrat, R.; Asef, M. R.; Rezazadegan, H.


    The present-day state of stress in the Persian Gulf is poorly understood but has significant impacts on well drilling and performance. The upper Permian to lower Triassic formation of Kangan/Dalan, Persian Gulf, exhibits a complex structural context in the neighborhood of the Oman Mountains and the Zagros orogenies. This formation is divided into four reservoir layers (K1 to K4) where three main lithologies (limestone, dolomite and anhydrite) are alternating. We conduct an analysis of the present-day stress and natural fractures at the wellbore using full-bore FMI logs, leak off test and density logs. For this purpose, borehole breakout and tensile fracture data are used to determine orientation of SH. Furthermore, density log, leak-off test and Kirsch equation for tensile fracture formation in the wellbores are used to calculate the magnitude of Sv, Sh and SH, respectively. Vertical stress (Sv) gradient at 3100 m depth approximates 20 MPa/km (2.9 psi/m), indicating a bulk density of 2.04 g/cm3. A total of 131 drilling induced tensile fractures and 21 breakouts with an overall length of 262 m are observed in two wells, indicating a mean maximum horizontal stress (SH) orientation of N53° (± 18.45°) for drilling-induced tensile fracture (DITF) data and N50° (± 10.79°) for breakout data. The mean orientation of SH rotates counterclockwise with depth from K2 (N70° ± 4.2°) to K4 (N40° ± 5.1°) reservoirs. Noticed correlation between these data and stress orientations from earthquake focal mechanism solution, first of all, indicates that the stresses are linked to the resistance forces generated by the Arabia-Eurasia collision at the Zagros orogeny and secondly confirms the reliability of focal mechanism solution data near continental collision zones. In the Kangan/Dalan Formation, the NW-SE main open fracture direction is found as a common regional direction which is sub-perpendicular to the present-day maximum horizontal stress. Minimum horizontal stress (Sh

  12. Test with different stress measurement methods in two orthogonal bore holes in Aespoe HRL

    Janson, Thomas; Stigsson, Martin [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    conclusions have been drawn, based on the stress measurements and deeper investigations: The following stress state is obtained at the target volume at about -455 m. The minimum horizontal stress is between 10 and 13 MPa, which is lower than the theoretical vertical stress. The maximum horizontal stress is 24 {+-}5 MPa, most likely within the upper range. The vertical stress is between 15 and 20 MPa, most probably is this value only local due to the presence of a nearby fracture. The local disturbance of the stress field in the rock mass, due to discontinuities has been demonstrated. This also indicates one of the problems with stress measurements in boreholes. In the area with significant anisotropic stress conditions all the tested methods were able to determine the orientation of the principal major horizontal stress within {+-} 10 deg. The microscopy investigations confirm two sets of microcracks in the overcored core. One set was parallel and near the bore hole bottom and one set was perpendicular to the bottom and located a bit away from the hole bottom. The results from the overcoring may be influenced by microcracks, causing additional non-elastic strains. Only the results from the DDGS seem to have been influenced, indicating that the hollow cylinder of a 3D stress cell may be less sensitive for stress induced sample disturbance than core samples from the 2D Door stopper cell. The determination of Young's modulus in a medium grained crystalline rock with heterogeneity may not be trivial using core samples. The results from the determination influence the calculated stresses. Hydraulic fracturing most likely measures the most correct value of the minimum horizontal stress, provided that the induced fracture is aligned with the borehole. If the rock behaves reasonable elastic the overcoring methods provide stress magnitudes with an uncertainty of 15-20%. It seems likely that the overcoring methods may overestimate the stress magnitudes at large depth, due to the

  13. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto


    We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors......, as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics....

  14. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)


    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  15. Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering

    JIANG Wei; QU Jiao; LI Benxi


    With the development of Support Vector Machine (SVM),the "kernel method" has been studied in a general way.In this paper,we present a novel Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering algorithm (KMEC).By using mercer kernel functions,the proposed algorithm is firstly map the data from their original space to high dimensional space where the data are expected to be more separable,then perform MEC clustering in the feature space.The experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance in the non-hyperspherical and complex data structure.

  16. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.

    Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M


    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

  17. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Bastea, S


    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  18. Maximum entropy signal restoration with linear programming

    Mastin, G.A.; Hanson, R.J.


    Dantzig's bounded-variable method is used to express the maximum entropy restoration problem as a linear programming problem. This is done by approximating the nonlinear objective function with piecewise linear segments, then bounding the variables as a function of the number of segments used. The use of a linear programming approach allows equality constraints found in the traditional Lagrange multiplier method to be relaxed. A robust revised simplex algorithm is used to implement the restoration. Experimental results from 128- and 512-point signal restorations are presented.




    Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.

  20. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...