Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity
Panes, Boris
2011-01-01
We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.
Minimum length-maximum velocity
Panes, Boris
2012-03-01
We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.
Hubble expansion is not a velocity
Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Shuang-Nan
2016-11-01
In this paper, we clarify the difference between the Hubble expansion and the Doppler shift pedagogically and illustrate both physically and mathematically why the Hubble expansion cannot be regarded as a velocity. Therefore, we suggest to replace the misleading word ‘recession velocity’ to be ‘Hubble recession’ to describe the cosmic expansion. We further derive how the peculiar velocity of a galaxy is related to its observed redshift and proper distance, which has practical use in the galaxy redshift and distance surveys.
Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials
Manz, Jörn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schild, Axel [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.schmidt@fu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Yang, Yonggang, E-mail: ygyang@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China)
2014-10-17
Highlights: • Coherent tunneling in one-dimensional symmetric double well potentials. • Potentials for analytical estimates in the deep tunneling regime. • Maximum velocities scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass. • In chemical physics maximum tunneling velocities are in the order of a few km/s. - Abstract: We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to several prototypical molecular models of non-cyclic and cyclic tunneling, including ammonia inversion, Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, torsions of molecular fragments, and rotational tunneling in strong laser fields. Typical maximum velocities and angular velocities are in the order of a few km/s and from 10 to 100 THz for our non-cyclic and cyclic systems, respectively, much faster than time-averaged velocities. Even for the more extreme case of an electron tunneling through a barrier of height of one Hartree, the velocity is only about one percent of the speed of light. Estimates of the corresponding time scales for
Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials
Manz, Jörn; Schmidt, Burkhard; Yang, Yonggang
2014-01-01
We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to ...
Maximum Velocities in Flexion and Extension Actions for Sport
Jessop David M.
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Speed of movement is fundamental to the outcome of many human actions. A variety of techniques can be implemented in order to maximise movement speed depending on the goal of the movement, constraints, and the time available. Knowing maximum movement velocities is therefore useful for developing movement strategies but also as input into muscle models. The aim of this study was to determine maximum flexion and extension velocities about the major joints in upper and lower limbs. Seven university to international level male competitors performed flexion/extension at each of the major joints in the upper and lower limbs under three conditions: isolated; isolated with a countermovement; involvement of proximal segments. 500 Hz planar high speed video was used to calculate velocities. The highest angular velocities in the upper and lower limb were 50.0 rad·s-1 and 28.4 rad·s-1, at the wrist and knee, respectively. As was true for most joints, these were achieved with the involvement of proximal segments, however, ANOVA analysis showed few significant differences (p<0.05 between conditions. Different segment masses, structures and locations produced differing results, in the upper and lower limbs, highlighting the requirement of segment specific strategies for maximal movements.
Expansion Velocity Investigation of the Elliptical Planetary Nebula NGC 6803
Choi, Younsu Choi; Lee, Seong-Jae; Hyung, Siek
2008-12-01
Using the spectral data in the 3700 to 10050 Å wavelength range secured with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph (HES) at the Lick observatory, we have investigated the expansion velocities and the physical conditions of the elliptical planetary nebula NGC 6803. Various forbidden and permitted lines, e.g. HI, HeI, HeII, [OIII], [NII], [ArIII], and [SII], indicate complicated but systematic physical conditions variation: electron temperatures T_{ɛ} ˜ 9000 - 11,000 K and electron number densities N_{ɛ} ˜ 2000 - 9000 cm^{-3}. The line profile analysis of these ions also indicates the systematic change or the acceleration of the expansion velocities in the range of 10 - 22 kms. We show that the velocity gradient and physical condition found in various ions are closely related to the prolate ellipsoidal structure of NGC 6803. The expansion velocity and the ionic abundance of O^{2+} were derived based on the OII and [OIII] lines. In spite of the discrepancy of ionic abundances derived by the two cases and their line profiles, the expansion velocities of them agree well. We find that the ratios of the red to blue line component of the HeII & OII lines are different from those of the [OIII] or other forbidden lines that indicates a possible involvement of emission of HeII & OII lines. This subtle difference and the different physical condition of the lines are likely to be caused by the elongated geometry and the latitude dependence of the emission zone.
Cometary water expansion velocity from OH line shapes
Tseng, W L; Crovisier, J; Colom, P; Ip, W H
2007-01-01
We retrieve the H_2O expansion velocity in a number of comets, using the 18-cm line shapes of the OH radical observed with the Nan\\c{c}ay radio telescope. The H_2O velocity is derived from the large base of a trapezium fitted to the observed spectra. This method, which was previously applied to 9 comets, is now extended to 30 further comets. This allows us to study the evolution of their water molecule outflow velocity over a large range of heliocentric distances and gas production rates. Our analysis confirms and extends previous analyses. The retrieved expansion velocities increases with increasing gas production rates and decreasing heliocentric distances. Heuristic laws are proposed, which could be used for the interpretation of observations of cometary molecules and as a touchstone for hydrodynamical models. The expansion velocities retrieved from 18 cm line shapes are larger than those obtained from millimetric observations of parent molecules with smaller fields of view, which demonstrates the accelera...
An approximate, maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a point
Eisler, G. Richard; Hull, David G.
A neighboring extremal control problem is formulated for a hypersonic glider to execute a maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a stationary target in a vertical plane. The resulting two-part, feedback control scheme initially solves a nonlinear algebraic problem to generate a nominal trajectory to the target altitude. Secondly, quadrature about the nominal provides the lift perturbation necessary to achieve the target downrange. On-line feedback simulations are run for the proposed scheme and a form of proportional navigation and compared with an off-line parameter optimization method. The neighboring extremal terminal velocity compares very well with the parameter optimization solution and is far superior to proportional navigation. However, the update rate is degraded, though the proposed method can be executed in real time.
An approximate, maximum terminal velocity descent to a point
Eisler, G.R.; Hull, D.G.
1987-01-01
No closed form control solution exists for maximizing the terminal velocity of a hypersonic glider at an arbitrary point. As an alternative, this study uses neighboring extremal theory to provide a sampled data feedback law to guide the vehicle to a constrained ground range and altitude. The guidance algorithm is divided into two parts: 1) computation of a nominal, approximate, maximum terminal velocity trajectory to a constrained final altitude and computation of the resulting unconstrained groundrange, and 2) computation of the neighboring extremal control perturbation at the sample value of flight path angle to compensate for changes in the approximate physical model and enable the vehicle to reach the on-board computed groundrange. The trajectories are characterized by glide and dive flight to the target to minimize the time spent in the denser parts of the atmosphere. The proposed on-line scheme successfully brings the final altitude and range constraints together, as well as compensates for differences in flight model, atmosphere, and aerodynamics at the expense of guidance update computation time. Comparison with an independent, parameter optimization solution for the terminal velocity is excellent. 6 refs., 3 figs.
Maximum Likelihood Blood Velocity Estimator Incorporating Properties of Flow Physics
Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2004-01-01
The aspect of correlation among the blood velocities in time and space has not received much attention in previous blood velocity estimators. The theory of fluid mechanics predicts this property of the blood flow. Additionally, most estimators based on a cross-correlation analysis are limited...... of simulated and in vivo data from the carotid artery. The estimator is meant for two-dimensional (2-D) color flow imaging. The resulting mathematical relation for the estimator consists of two terms. The first term performs a cross-correlation analysis on the signal segment in the radio frequency (RF......)-data under investigation. The flow physic properties are exploited in the second term, as the range of velocity values investigated in the cross-correlation analysis are compared to the velocity estimates in the temporal and spatial neighborhood of the signal segment under investigation. The new estimator...
Maximum velocity of self-propulsion for an active segment
Recho, Pierre
2015-01-01
The motor part of a crawling eukaryotic cell can be represented schematically as an active continuum layer. The main active processes in this layer are protrusion, originating from non-equilibrium polymerization of actin fibers, contraction, induced by myosin molecular motors and attachment due to active bonding of trans-membrane proteins to a substrate. All three active mechanisms are regulated by complex signaling pathways involving chemical and mechanical feedback loops whose microscopic functioning is still poorly understood. In this situation, it is instructive to take a reverse engineering approach and study a problem of finding the spatial organization of standard active elements inside a crawling layer ensuring an optimal cost-performance trade-off. In this paper we assume that (in the range of interest) the energetic cost of self-propulsion is velocity independent and adopt, as an optimality criterion, the maximization of the overall velocity. We then choose a prototypical setting, formulate the corr...
Relative ion expansion velocity in laser-produced plasmas
Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J. C.; Griem, H. R.; Cohen, Leonard; Richardson, M. C.
1988-01-01
The spectra of highly ionized titanium, Ti XIII through Ti XXI, and C VI Lyman lines were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was produced by uniformly irradiating spherical glass microballoons coated with thin layers of titanium and parylene. The 24-beam Omega laser system produced short, 0.6 ns, and high-intensity, 4 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm, laser pulses at a wavelength of 351 nm. The measured wavelength for the 2p-3s Ti XIII resonance lines had an average shift of + 0.023 A relative to the C VI and Ti XX spectral lines. No shift was found between the C VI, Ti XIX, and Ti XX lines. The shift is attributed to a Doppler effect, resulting from a difference of (2.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the 7th cm/s in the expansion velocities of Ti XIX and Ti XX ions compared to Ti XIII ions.
Bishop, Kristin L; Wainwright, Peter C; Holzman, Roi
2008-11-01
In fishes that employ suction feeding, coordinating the timing of peak flow velocity with mouth opening is likely to be an important feature of prey capture success because this will allow the highest forces to be exerted on prey items when the jaws are fully extended and the flow field is at its largest. Although it has long been known that kinematics of buccal expansion in feeding fishes are characterized by an anterior-to-posterior wave of expansion, this pattern has not been incorporated in most previous computational models of suction feeding. As a consequence, these models have failed to correctly predict the timing of peak flow velocity, which according to the currently available empirical data should occur around the time of peak gape. In this study, we use a simple fluid dynamic model to demonstrate that the inclusion of an anterior-to-posterior wave of buccal expansion can correctly reproduce the empirically determined flow velocity profile, although only under very constrained conditions, whereas models that do not allow this wave of expansion inevitably predict peak velocity earlier in the strike, when the gape is less than half of its maximum. The conditions that are required to produce a realistic velocity profile are as follows: (i) a relatively long time lag between mouth opening and expansion of the more posterior parts of the mouth, (ii) a short anterior portion of the mouth relative to more posterior sections, and (iii) a pattern of movement that begins slowly and then rapidly accelerates. Greater maximum velocities were generated in simulations without the anterior-to-posterior wave of expansion, suggesting a trade-off between maximizing fluid speed and coordination of peak fluid speed with peak gape.
Measuring of the maximum measurable velocity for dual-frequency laser interferometer
Zhiping Zhang; Zhaogu Cheng; Zhaoyu Qin; Jianqiang Zhu
2007-01-01
There is an increasing demand on the measurable velocity of laser interferometer in manufacturing technologies. The maximum measurable velocity is limited by frequency difference of laser source, optical configuration, and electronics bandwidth. An experimental setup based on free falling movement has been demonstrated to measure the maximum easurable velocity for interferometers. Measurement results show that the maximum measurable velocity is less than its theoretical value. Moreover, the effect of kinds of factors upon the measurement results is analyzed, and the results can offer a reference for industrial applications.
The NFL Combine 40-Yard Dash: How Important is Maximum Velocity?
Clark, Kenneth P; Rieger, Randall H; Bruno, Richard F; Stearne, David J
2017-06-22
This investigation analyzed the sprint velocity profiles for athletes who completed the 40-yard (36.6m) dash at the 2016 NFL Combine. The purpose was to evaluate the relationship between maximum velocity and sprint performance, and to compare acceleration patterns for fast and slow athletes. Using freely available online sources, data were collected for body mass and sprint performance (36.6m time with split intervals at 9.1 and 18.3m). For each athlete, split times were utilized to generate modeled curves of distance vs. time, velocity vs. time, and velocity vs. distance using a mono-exponential equation. Model parameters were used to quantify acceleration patterns as the ratio of maximum velocity to maximum acceleration (vmax / amax, or τ). Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between maximum velocity and sprint performance for the entire sample. Additionally, athletes were categorized into fast and slow groups based on maximum velocity, with independent t-tests and effect size statistics used to evaluate between-group differences in sprint performance and acceleration patterns. Results indicated that maximum velocity was strongly correlated with sprint performance across 9.1m, 18.3m, and 36.6m (r of 0.72, 0.83, and 0.94, respectively). However, both fast and slow groups accelerated in a similar pattern relative to maximum velocity (τ = 0.768 ± 0.068s for the fast group and τ = 0.773 ± 0.070s for the slow group). We conclude that maximum velocity is of critical importance to 36.6m time, and inclusion of more maximum velocity training may be warranted for athletes preparing for the NFL Combine.
Modelling the maximum voluntary joint torque/angular velocity relationship in human movement.
Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; Wilson, Cassie
2006-01-01
The force exerted by a muscle is a function of the activation level and the maximum (tetanic) muscle force. In "maximum" voluntary knee extensions muscle activation is lower for eccentric muscle velocities than for concentric velocities. The aim of this study was to model this "differential activation" in order to calculate the maximum voluntary knee extensor torque as a function of knee angular velocity. Torque data were collected on two subjects during maximal eccentric-concentric knee extensions using an isovelocity dynamometer with crank angular velocities ranging from 50 to 450 degrees s(-1). The theoretical tetanic torque/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a four parameter function comprising two rectangular hyperbolas while the activation/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a three parameter function that rose from submaximal activation for eccentric velocities to full activation for high concentric velocities. The product of these two functions gave a seven parameter function which was fitted to the joint torque/angular velocity data, giving unbiased root mean square differences of 1.9% and 3.3% of the maximum torques achieved. Differential activation accounts for the non-hyperbolic behaviour of the torque/angular velocity data for low concentric velocities. The maximum voluntary knee extensor torque that can be exerted may be modelled accurately as the product of functions defining the maximum torque and the maximum voluntary activation level. Failure to include differential activation considerations when modelling maximal movements will lead to errors in the estimation of joint torque in the eccentric phase and low velocity concentric phase.
The Relationship Between Maximum Isometric Strength and Ball Velocity in the Tennis Serve
Corbi, Francisco; Fuentes, Juan Pedro; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime
2016-01-01
Abstract The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg) were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation). Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p elbow and shoulder flexion – extension, leg and back extension and shoulder external rotation (r = 0.36 – 0.53; p = 0.377 – 0.054). Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting serve velocity were developed, with shoulder flexion and internal rotation explaining 55% of the variance in serve velocity (r = 0.74; p < 0.001). The maximum isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion. PMID:28149411
The Silicon and Calcium High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from Early to Maximum Phases
Zhao, Xulin; Maeda, Keiichi; Sai, Hanna; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming; Zhou, Qi; Mo, Jun
2015-01-01
The high-velocity features (HVFs) in optical spectra of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are examined with a large sample including very early-time spectra (e.g., t < -7 days). Multiple Gaussian fits are applied to examine the HVFs and their evolutions, using constraints on expansion velocities for the same species (i.e., SiII 5972 and SiII 6355). We find that strong HVFs tend to appear in SNe Ia with smaller decline rates (e.g., dm15(B)<1.4 mag), clarifying that the finding by Childress et al. (2014) for the Ca-HVFs in near-maximum-light spectra applies both to the Si-HVFs and Ca-HVFs in the earlier phase. The Si-HVFs seem to be more common in fast-expanding SNe Ia, which is different from the earlier result that the Ca-HVFs are associated with SNe Ia having slower SiII 6355 velocities at maximum light (i.e., Vsi). This difference can be due to that the HVFs in fast-expanding SNe Ia usually disappear more rapidly and are easily blended with the photospheric components when approaching the maximum light. Mor...
Maximum Velocity of a Boulder Ejected From an Impact Crater Formed on a Regolith Covered Surface
Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.
2007-12-01
We investigate the effect of regolith depth on boulder ejection velocity. A "boulder" refers to an apparently intact rock or rock fragment lying on a planetary surface, regardless of emplacement mechanism. Boulders appear in planetary images as positive relief features --- bright, sun-facing pixels adjacent to dark, shadowed pixels. We studied 12 lunar craters in high resolution (1~m) photographs from Lunar Orbiter III and V. Local regolith depth was measured using the method of small crater morphology. Ejection velocities of boulders were calculated assuming a ballistic trajectory to the final boulder location. A plot of regolith depth/crater diameter vs. maximum boulder ejection velocity shows that craters formed in deeper regolith (with respect to crater size) eject boulders at lower velocities. When ejection velocity (EjV) is in m/s, and regolith depth (Dr) and crater diameter (Dc) are in meters, the data fit the relation Dr / Dc = 1053 × EjVmax-2.823. To explain the data, we turn to impact cratering theory. An ejected particle will follow a streamline from its place of origin to its ejection point (the Z-model), and then follow a ballistic trajectory. Material ejected along more shallow streamlines is ejected at greater velocities. If shallow regolith covers the surface, the most shallow (greatest velocity) streamlines will travel only through the regolith. Boulders, however, must be ejected from the bedrock below the regolith. Thus, the boulder ejected with the greatest velocity originates just below the regolith, along the most shallow streamline through the bedrock. If the regolith is deeper, the most shallow streamline through the bedrock will be deeper, and the maximum velocity of an ejected boulder will be lower. Hence, the regolith depth and maximum ejection velocity of a boulder are correlated: greater boulder ejection velocities correspond to thinner regolith. We observe this correlation in the data.
Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H
2010-12-01
The maximum velocity of shortening of a muscle is an important parameter in musculoskeletal models. The most commonly used values are derived from animal studies; however, these values are well above the values that have been reported for human muscle. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity of simulations of maximum vertical jumping performance to the parameters describing the force-velocity properties of muscle. Simulations performed with parameters derived from animal studies were similar to measured jump heights from previous experimental studies. While simulations performed with parameters derived from human muscle were much lower than previously measured jump heights. If current measurements of maximum shortening velocity in human muscle are correct, a compensating error must exist. Of the possible compensating errors that could produce this discrepancy, it was concluded that reduced muscle fibre excursion is the most likely candidate.
R. van Mastrigt (Ron)
1990-01-01
textabstractThe contractility of the urinary bladder can be adequately described in terms of the parameters P0 (isometric pressure) and Vmax (maximum contraction velocity). In about 12% of urodynamic evaluations of patients these clinically relevant parameters can be calculated from pressure and flo
Crandall, Eric D; Sbrocco, Elizabeth J; Deboer, Timery S; Barber, Paul H; Carpenter, Kent E
2012-02-01
The rate of change in DNA is an important parameter for understanding molecular evolution and hence for inferences drawn from studies of phylogeography and phylogenetics. Most rate calibrations for mitochondrial coding regions in marine species have been made from divergence dating for fossils and vicariant events older than 1-2 My and are typically 0.5-2% per lineage per million years. Recently, calibrations made with ancient DNA (aDNA) from younger dates have yielded faster rates, suggesting that estimates of the molecular rate of change depend on the time of calibration, decaying from the instantaneous mutation rate to the phylogenetic substitution rate. aDNA methods for recent calibrations are not available for most marine taxa so instead we use radiometric dates for sea-level rise onto the Sunda Shelf following the Last Glacial Maximum (starting ∼18,000 years ago), which led to massive population expansions for marine species. Instead of divergence dating, we use a two-epoch coalescent model of logistic population growth preceded by a constant population size to infer a time in mutational units for the beginning of these expansion events. This model compares favorably to simpler coalescent models of constant population size, and exponential or logistic growth, and is far more precise than estimates from the mismatch distribution. Mean rates estimated with this method for mitochondrial coding genes in three invertebrate species are elevated in comparison to older calibration points (2.3-6.6% per lineage per million years), lending additional support to the hypothesis of calibration time dependency for molecular rates.
Solar wind velocity at solar maximum: A search for latitudinal effects
B. Bavassano
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Observations by Ulysses during its second out-of-ecliptic orbit have shown that near the solar activity maximum the solar wind appears as a highly variable flow at all heliolatitudes. In the present study Ulysses data from polar latitudes are compared to contemporary ACE data in the ecliptic plane to search for the presence of latitudinal effects in the large-scale structure of the solar wind velocity. The investigated period roughly covers the Sun's magnetic polarity reversal. The Ulysses-ACE comparison is performed through a multi-scale statistical analysis of the velocity fluctuations at scales from 1 to 64 days. The results indicate that, from a statistical point of view, the character of the wind velocity structure does not appear to change remarkably with latitude. It is likely that this result is characteristic of the particular phase of the solar magnetic cycle.
Wang, Yong Tai; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos Dino; Xu, Dali
2008-08-01
The purposes of this study were to examine the consistency of wheelchair athletes' upper-limb kinematics in consecutive propulsive cycles and to investigate the relationship between the maximum angular velocities of the upper arm and forearm and the consistency of the upper-limb kinematical pattern. Eleven elite international wheelchair racers propelled their own chairs on a roller while performing maximum speeds during wheelchair propulsion. A Qualisys motion analysis system was used to film the wheelchair propulsive cycles. Six reflective markers placed on the right shoulder, elbow, wrist joints, metacarpal, wheel axis, and wheel were automatically digitized. The deviations in cycle time, upper-arm and forearm angles, and angular velocities among these propulsive cycles were analyzed. The results demonstrated that in the consecutive cycles of wheelchair propulsion the increased maximum angular velocity may lead to increased variability in the upper-limb angular kinematics. It is speculated that this increased variability may be important for the distribution of load on different upper-extremity muscles to avoid the fatigue during wheelchair racing.
EFFECTS OF A SAND RUNNING SURFACE ON THE KINEMATICS OF SPRINTING AT MAXIMUM VELOCITY
P E Alcaraz
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Performing sprints on a sand surface is a common training method for improving sprint-specific strength. For maximum specificity of training the athlete’s movement patterns during the training exercise should closely resemble those used when performing the sport. The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics of sprinting at maximum velocity on a dry sand surface to the kinematics of sprinting on an athletics track. Five men and five women participated in the study, and flying sprints over 30 m were recorded by video and digitized using biomechanical analysis software. We found that sprinting on a sand surface was substantially different to sprinting on an athletics track. When sprinting on sand the athletes tended to ‘sit’ during the ground contact phase of the stride. This action was characterized by a lower centre of mass, a greater forward lean in the trunk, and an incomplete extension of the hip joint at take-off. We conclude that sprinting on a dry sand surface may not be an appropriate method for training the maximum velocity phase in sprinting. Although this training method exerts a substantial overload on the athlete, as indicated by reductions in running velocity and stride length, it also induces detrimental changes to the athlete’s running technique which may transfer to competition sprinting.
Fiber type composition and maximum shortening velocity of muscles crossing the human shoulder.
Srinivasan, R C; Lungren, M P; Langenderfer, J E; Hughes, R E
2007-03-01
A study of the fiber type composition of fourteen muscles spanning the human glenohumeral joint was carried out with the purpose of determining the contribution of fiber types to overall muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and to estimate the maximum shortening velocity (V(max)) of those muscles. Muscle biopsies were procured from 4 male cadavers (mean age 50) within 24 hr of death, snap frozen, mounted, and transversely sectioned (10 microm). Slides were stained for myofibrillar ATPase after alkaline preincubation. Photoimages were taken of defined areas (100 fibers) using the Bioquant system, and fiber type and CSA were measured from these images. Staining for mATPase produced three different fiber types: slow-oxidative (SO), fast-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), and fast-glycolytic (FG). On average, the muscle fiber type composition ranged from 22 to 40% of FG, from 17 to 51% of FOG, and from 23 to 56% of SO. Twelve out of the 14 muscles had average SO proportions ranging from 35 to 50%. V(max) was calculated from the fiber type contribution relative to CSA and shortening velocity values taken from the literature. The maximum velocities of shortening presented here provide a physiological basis for the development of human shoulder musculoskeletal models suitable for predicting muscle forces for functionally relevant tasks encompassing conditions of muscle shortening and lengthening.
H.S. Yadav
2002-10-01
Full Text Available "The reduction in the penetration power of the jet due to its interaction with an obliquely moving plate of explosive reactive armour (ERA sandwich has been studied. It has been assumed that the length of the jet, which gets disturbed due to its interaction with the edge of the hole made by the impact of the tip of the jet when the plate was stationary, does not contribute to penetration in the target. The jet length, which comes out of the hole undisturbed, penetrates the target. This length of the jet has been calculated considering the variation in plate velocity and rate of expansion of the crater in the plate with time. The time taken by the jet to shift its position from the centre to the wall of the hole has been determined for different velocities of the sandwich plate and varying expansion rates of the hole produced by the jet in the plate, corresponding to a constant velocity of the jet. This analysis has been used to obtain the length of undisturbed jet coming out of the hole and its penetration in the target. The present study establishes the effect of the plate velocity and rate of crater expansion on the performance of the ERA. It has been found that both these parameters affect the performance of the ERA, and the metal plates of lower density and higher strength make the ERA more effective.
Mass variation governed by the universe expansion velocity and the cosmic acceleration
Moraes, Pedro H R S
2015-01-01
Much effort has been made in trying to solve, or at least evade, the inconsistencies that emerge from general relativity as the framework for a cosmological model. The extradimensional models rise as superb possibilities on this regard. In this work I present Wesson's Space-Time-Matter theory of gravity cosmological solutions. A relation between mass variation at cosmological scales and the expansion velocity of the universe is obtained. Such a novelty on Space-Time-Matter theory of gravity predicts a transition from a decelerated to an accelerated phase of the universe expansion.
Jiang, Yulin; Li, Bin; Chen, Jie
2016-01-01
The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values.
Sound velocity of high-strength polymer with negative thermal expansion coefficient
Nomura, R.; Ueno, M.; Okuda, Y.; Burmistrov, S.; Yamanaka, A
2003-05-01
Sound velocities of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) were measured along the fiber axis at temperatures between 360 and 77 K. We used two kinds of the high-strength crystalline polymer fibers, polyethylene (Dyneema) and polybenzobisoxazole (Zylon), which have negative thermal expansion coefficients. They also have high thermal conductivities and high resistances for flash over voltage, and are expected as new materials for coil bobbins or spacers at cryogenic temperatures. They have very large sound velocities of about 9000 (m/s) at 77 K, which are 4.5 times larger than that of the ordinary polyethylene fiber.
Huang, Y X; Zhou, Q; Qiu, X; Shang, X D; Lu, Z M; Liu, and Y L
2014-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new way to estimate the scaling parameter of a self-similar process by considering the maximum probability density function (pdf) of tis increments. We prove this for $H$-self-similar processes in general and experimentally investigate it for turbulent velocity and temperature increments. We consider turbulent velocity database from an experimental homogeneous and nearly isotropic turbulent channel flow, and temperature data set obtained near the sidewall of a Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection cell, where the turbulent flow is driven by buoyancy. For the former database, it is found that the maximum value of increment pdf $p_{\\max}(\\tau)$ is in a good agreement with lognormal distribution. We also obtain a scaling exponent $\\alpha\\simeq 0.37$, which is consistent with the scaling exponent for the first-order structure function reported in other studies. For the latter one, we obtain a scaling exponent $\\alpha_{\\theta}\\simeq0.33$. This index value is consistent with the Kolmogorov-Ob...
Kai Yan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A predictive model for droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer has been proposed based on the maximum entropy formalism (MEF. The constraint conditions of the MEF model include the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The effects of liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio on the droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer are investigated. Results show that model based on maximum entropy formalism works well to predict droplet size and velocity distributions under different spray conditions. Liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio have different effects on droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer.
Maximum shortening velocity of lymphatic muscle approaches that of striated muscle.
Zhang, Rongzhen; Taucer, Anne I; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Muthuchamy, Mariappan; Zawieja, David C; Davis, Michael J
2013-11-15
Lymphatic muscle (LM) is widely considered to be a type of vascular smooth muscle, even though LM cells uniquely express contractile proteins from both smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. We tested the hypothesis that LM exhibits an unloaded maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) intermediate between that of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Single lymphatic vessels were dissected from the rat mesentery, mounted in a servo-controlled wire myograph, and subjected to isotonic quick release protocols during spontaneous or agonist-evoked contractions. After maximal activation, isotonic quick releases were performed at both the peak and plateau phases of contraction. Vmax was 0.48 ± 0.04 lengths (L)/s at the peak: 2.3 times higher than that of mesenteric arteries and 11.4 times higher than mesenteric veins. In cannulated, pressurized lymphatic vessels, shortening velocity was determined from the maximal rate of constriction [rate of change in internal diameter (-dD/dt)] during spontaneous contractions at optimal preload and minimal afterload; peak -dD/dt exceeded that obtained during any of the isotonic quick release protocols (2.14 ± 0.30 L/s). Peak -dD/dt declined with pressure elevation or activation using substance P. Thus, isotonic methods yielded Vmax values for LM in the mid to high end (0.48 L/s) of those the recorded for phasic smooth muscle (0.05-0.5 L/s), whereas isobaric measurements yielded values (>2.0 L/s) that overlapped the midrange of values for cardiac muscle (0.6-3.3 L/s). Our results challenge the dogma that LM is classical vascular smooth muscle, and its unusually high Vmax is consistent with the expression of cardiac muscle contractile proteins in the lymphatic vessel wall.
Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers
Richard Billich
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers In today’s world of strength training there are many myths surrounding effective exercising with the least possible negative effect on one’s health. In this experiment we focus on the finding of a relationship between maximum output, used load and the velocity with which the exercise is performed. The main objective is to find the optimal speed of the exercise motion which would allow us to reach the maximum mechanic muscle output during a bench press exercise. This information could be beneficial to sporting coaches and recreational sportsmen alike in helping them improve the effectiveness of fast strength training. Fifteen football players of the FK Třinec football club participated in the experiment. The measurements were made with the use of 3D cinematic and dynamic analysis, both experimental methods. The research subjects participated in a strength test, in which the mechanic muscle output of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90% and one repetition maximum (1RM was measured. The acquired result values and other required data were modified using Qualisys Track Manager and Visual 3D software (C-motion, Rockville, MD, USA. During the bench press exercise the maximum mechanic muscle output of the set of research subjects was reached at 75% of maximum exercise motion velocity. Optimální rychlost pohybu pro dosažení maxima výstupního výkonu – bench press u trénovaných fotbalistů Dnešní svět silového tréninku přináší řadu mýtů o tom, jak cvičit efektivně a zároveň s co nejmenším negativním vlivem na zdraví člověka. V tomto experimentu se zabýváme nalezením vztahu mezi maximálním výkonem, použitou zátěží a rychlostí. Hlavním úkolem je nalezení optimální rychlosti pohybu pro dosažení maximálního mechanického svalového výkonu při cvičení bench press, což pomůže nejenom trenérům, ale i rekreačním sportovc
Weld, F M; Coromilas, J; Rottman, J N; Bigger, J T
1982-03-01
A major advance in understanding how quinidine depresses maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax) is the Hondeghem-Katzung mathematical model which incorporates voltage-independent rate constants for binding to and unbinding from resting, open, and inactive Na channels, and a voltage shift of -40 mV for the Hodgkin-Huxley h-kinetics of quinidine-associated Na channels. Using a double microelectrode voltage clamp technique to control transmembrane voltage and apply conditioning pulses, we found that quinidine blockade increased as transmembrane voltage became more positive in the range -60 to +40 mV, and that the rate of quinidine dissociation increased as transmembrane voltage became more negative in the range -60 to -140 mV. The relationship of Vmax to transmembrane voltage obtained at drive cycles from 500 msec to 20 seconds conformed to the model modified to include voltage-dependent rate constants without the postulated -40-mV shift for quinidine-associated channels. Thus binding of quinidine to inactive Na channels and unbinding from resting channels are both voltage-dependent and can explain frequency and voltage dependent actions of quinidine on Vmax without any voltage shift for quinidine-associated channels.
A GLOBAL MODEL OF THE LIGHT CURVES AND EXPANSION VELOCITIES OF TYPE II-PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE
Pejcha, Ondřej [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Prieto, Jose L., E-mail: pejcha@astro.princeton.edu [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441 Santiago (Chile)
2015-02-01
We present a new self-consistent and versatile method that derives photospheric radius and temperature variations of Type II-Plateau supernovae based on their expansion velocities and photometric measurements. We apply the method to a sample of 26 well-observed, nearby supernovae with published light curves and velocities. We simultaneously fit ∼230 velocity and ∼6800 mag measurements distributed over 21 photometric passbands spanning wavelengths from 0.19 to 2.2 μm. The light-curve differences among the Type II-Plateau supernovae are well modeled by assuming different rates of photospheric radius expansion, which we explain as different density profiles of the ejecta, and we argue that steeper density profiles result in flatter plateaus, if everything else remains unchanged. The steep luminosity decline of Type II-Linear supernovae is due to fast evolution of the photospheric temperature, which we verify with a successful fit of SN 1980K. Eliminating the need for theoretical supernova atmosphere models, we obtain self-consistent relative distances, reddenings, and nickel masses fully accounting for all internal model uncertainties and covariances. We use our global fit to estimate the time evolution of any missing band tailored specifically for each supernova, and we construct spectral energy distributions and bolometric light curves. We produce bolometric corrections for all filter combinations in our sample. We compare our model to the theoretical dilution factors and find good agreement for the B and V filters. Our results differ from the theory when the I, J, H, or K bands are included. We investigate the reddening law toward our supernovae and find reasonable agreement with standard R{sub V}∼3.1 reddening law in UBVRI bands. Results for other bands are inconclusive. We make our fitting code publicly available.
Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus
2016-04-01
is seismic moment density (Mo/m3) and V stim is stimulated rock volume (m3). Mopossible = D ∗ V stim(1) We applied this conceptual model to real microseismic data set from Basel EGS project where several induced seismicity with large magnitude occurred and brought constructive damage. Using the hypocenter location determined by the researcher of Tohoku Univ., Japan and moment magnitude estimated from Geothermal Explorers Ltd., operating company, we were able to estimate reasonable seismic moment density meaning that one representative parameter exists and can characterize seismic activity at Basel at each time step. With stimulated rock volume which was also inferred from microseismic information, we estimated possible seismic moment and assess the difference with observed value. Possible seismic moment significantly increased after shut-in when the seismic cloud (stimulated zone) mostly progressed, resulting that the difference with the observed cumulative seismic moment automatically became larger. This suggests that there is moderate seismic moment which will be released in near future. In next few hours, the largest event actually occurred. Therefore, our proposed model was successfully able to forecast occurrence of the large events. Furthermore, best forecast of maximum magnitude was Mw 3 level and the largest event was Mw 3.41, showing reasonable performance in terms of quantitative forecast in magnitude. Our attempt to assess the seismic activity from microseismic information was successful and it also suggested magnitude release can be correlate with the expansion of seismic cloud as the definition of possible seismic moment model indicates. This relationship has been observed in microseismic observational study and several previous study also suggested their correlation with stress released rock volume. Our model showed harmonic results with these studies and provide practical method having clear physical meaning to assess the seismic activity in real
Li-Xing Zhou; Yang Liu; Yi Xu
2011-01-01
In this paper the present authors measured the gas-particle two-phase velocity correlation in sudden expansion gas-particle flows with a phase Doppler particle anemometer(PDPA) and simulated the system behavior by using both a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS)model and a large-eddy simulation(LES). The results of the measurements yield the axial and radial time-averaged velocities as well as the fluctuation velocities of gas and three particle-size groups(30μm,50μm,and 95μm) and the gasparticle velocity correlation for 30μm and 50μm particles.From the measurements,theoretical analysis,and simulation,it is found that the two-phase velocity correlation of sudden-expansion flows,like that of jet flows,is less than the gas and particle Reynolds stresses. What distinguishes the two-phase velocity correlations of sudden-expansion flow from those of jet and channel flows is the absence of a clear relationship between the two-phase velocity correlation and particle size in sudden-expansion flows. The measurements,theoretical analysis,and numerical simulation all lead to the above-stated conclusions. Quantitatively,the results of the LES are better than those of the RANS model.
A new maximum likelihood blood velocity estimator incorporating spatial and temporal correlation
Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2001-01-01
The blood flow in the human cardiovascular system obeys the laws of fluid mechanics. Investigation of the flow properties reveals that a correlation exists between the velocity in time and space. The possible changes in velocity are limited, since the blood velocity has a continuous profile in time...... of the observations gives a probability measure of the correlation between the velocities. Both the MLE and the STC-MLE have been evaluated on simulated and in-vivo RF-data obtained from the carotid artery. Using the MLE 4.1% of the estimates deviate significantly from the true velocities, when the performance...
An X-ray and Radio Study of the Varying Expansion Velocities in Tycho's Supernova Remnant
Williams, Brian J; Hewitt, John W; Blondin, John M; Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Ghavamian, Parviz; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P
2016-01-01
We present newly obtained X-ray and radio observations of Tycho's supernova remnant using {\\it Chandra} and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in 2015 and 2013/14, respectively. When combined with earlier epoch observations by these instruments, we now have time baselines for expansion measurements of the remnant of 12-15 year in the X-rays and 30 year in the radio. The remnant's large angular size allows for proper motion measurements at many locations around the periphery of the blast wave. We find, consistent with earlier measurements, a clear gradient in the expansion velocity of the remnant, despite its round shape. The proper motions on the western and southwestern sides of the remnant are about a factor of two higher than those in the east and northeast. We showed in an earlier work that this is related to an offset of the explosion site from the geometric center of the remnant due to a density gradient in the ISM, and using our refined measurements reported here, we find that this offset is $\\sim 23"...
Mo, Yongpeng; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Wang, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Bai, Zhibin [State Grid Yulin Electric Power Supply Company, Shaanxi 719000 (China)
2016-05-15
The residual plasma in the inter-contact region of a vacuum circuit breaker moves towards the post-arc cathode at current zero, because the residual plasma mainly comes from the cathode spots during the arc burning process. In the most previous theoretical researches on the post-arc sheath expansion process of vacuum circuit breakers, only the thermal motion of residual plasma was taken into consideration. Alternately, the residual plasma was even assumed to be static at the moment of current zero in some simplified models. However, the influence of residual plasma drift velocity at current zero on the post-arc sheath expansion process was rarely investigated. In this paper, this effect is investigated by a one-dimensional particle-in-cell model. Simulation results indicate that the sheath expands slower with higher residual plasma drift velocity in the initial sheath expansion stage. However, with the increase of residual plasma drift velocity, the overall plasma density in the inter-contact region decreases faster, and the sheath expansion velocity increases earlier. Consequently, as a whole, it needs shorter time to expel the residual plasma from the inter-contact region. Furthermore, if the residual plasma drift velocity is high enough, the sheath expansion process ceases before it develops to the post-arc anode. Besides, the influence of the collisions between charges and neutrals is investigated as well in terms of the density of metal vapor. It shows that the residual plasma drift velocity takes remarkable effect only if the density of the metal vapor is relatively low, which corresponds to the circumstance of low-current interruptions.
Mo, Yongpeng; Shi, Zongqian; Bai, Zhibin; Jia, Shenli; Wang, Lijun
2016-05-01
The residual plasma in the inter-contact region of a vacuum circuit breaker moves towards the post-arc cathode at current zero, because the residual plasma mainly comes from the cathode spots during the arc burning process. In the most previous theoretical researches on the post-arc sheath expansion process of vacuum circuit breakers, only the thermal motion of residual plasma was taken into consideration. Alternately, the residual plasma was even assumed to be static at the moment of current zero in some simplified models. However, the influence of residual plasma drift velocity at current zero on the post-arc sheath expansion process was rarely investigated. In this paper, this effect is investigated by a one-dimensional particle-in-cell model. Simulation results indicate that the sheath expands slower with higher residual plasma drift velocity in the initial sheath expansion stage. However, with the increase of residual plasma drift velocity, the overall plasma density in the inter-contact region decreases faster, and the sheath expansion velocity increases earlier. Consequently, as a whole, it needs shorter time to expel the residual plasma from the inter-contact region. Furthermore, if the residual plasma drift velocity is high enough, the sheath expansion process ceases before it develops to the post-arc anode. Besides, the influence of the collisions between charges and neutrals is investigated as well in terms of the density of metal vapor. It shows that the residual plasma drift velocity takes remarkable effect only if the density of the metal vapor is relatively low, which corresponds to the circumstance of low-current interruptions.
VLBI observations of 10 CSO candidates: expansion velocities of hot spots
An, Tao; Yang, Jun; Taylor, Gregory B; Hong, Xiaoyu; Baan, Willem A; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Min; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Xi; Cui, Lang; Hao, Longfei; Zhu, Xinying
2011-01-01
Observations of ten Compact Symmetric Objects ({\\rm CSO}) candidates have been made with the Very Long Baseline Array at 8.4 GHz in 2005 and with a combined Chinese and European VLBI array at 8.4 GHz in 2009. The 2009 observations incorporate for the first time the two new Chinese telescopes at Miyun and Kunming for international astrophysical observations. The observational data, in combination with archival VLBA data from previous epochs, have been used to derive the proper motions of the VLBI components. Because of the long time baseline of $\\sim$16 years of the VLBI data sets, the expansion velocities of the hot spots can be measured at an accuracy as high as $\\sim$1.3 $\\mu$as yr$^{-1}$. Six of the ten sources are identified as CSOs with a typical double or triple morphology on the basis of both spectral index maps and their mirror-symmetry of proper motions of the terminal hot spots. The compact double source J1324+4048 is also identified as a CSO candidate. Among the three remaining sources, J1756+5748 ...
Sandel, Brody Steven; Arge, Lars Allan; Svenning, J.-C.
Contemporary patterns of species distributions are influenced by both current and historical conditions. Historically unstable climates can lead to reductions in species richness, when species go extinct because they cannot track climate changes, when dispersal limitation causes species to fail...... to fully occupy suitable habitat, or when local diversification rates are depressed by local population extinctions and changing selective regimes. Locations with long-term climate instability should therefore show reduced species richness with small-ranged species particularly missing from the community....... We used a novel measure of climate stability, climate change velocity, which combines information on temporal and spatial gradients in climate to describe the rate at which a particular climate condition is moving over the surface of the Earth. Climate change velocity since the Last Glacial Maximum...
Alcaraz, Pedro E; Palao, José M; Elvira, José L L; Linthorne, Nicholas P
2008-05-01
Resisted sprint running is a common training method for improving sprint-specific strength. For maximum specificity of training, the athlete's movement patterns during the training exercise should closely resemble those used when performing the sport. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of sprinting at maximum velocity to the kinematics of sprinting when using three of types of resisted sprint training devices (sled, parachute, and weight belt). Eleven men and 7 women participated in the study. Flying sprints greater than 30 m were recorded by video and digitized with the use of biomechanical analysis software. The test conditions were compared using a 2-way analysis of variance with a post-hoc Tukey test of honestly significant differences. We found that the 3 types of resisted sprint training devices are appropriate devices for training the maximum velocity phase in sprinting. These devices exerted a substantial overload on the athlete, as indicated by reductions in stride length and running velocity, but induced only minor changes in the athlete's running technique. When training with resisted sprint training devices, the coach should use a high resistance so that the athlete experiences a large training stimulus, but not so high that the device induces substantial changes in sprinting technique. We recommend using a video overlay system to visually compare the movement patterns of the athlete in unloaded sprinting to sprinting with the training device. In particular, the coach should look for changes in the athlete's forward lean and changes in the angles of the support leg during the ground contact phase of the stride.
H0, q0 and the local velocity field. [Hubble and deceleration constants in Big Bang expansion
Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A.
1982-01-01
An attempt is made to find a systematic deviation from linearity for distances that are under the control of the Virgo cluster, and to determine the value of the mean random motion about the systematic flow, in order to improve the measurement of the Hubble and the deceleration constants. The velocity-distance relation for large and intermediate distances is studied, and type I supernovae are calibrated relatively as distance indicators and absolutely to obtain a new value for the Hubble constant. Methods of determining the deceleration constant are assessed, including determination from direct measurement, mean luminosity density, virgocentric motion, and the time scale test. The very local velocity field is investigated, and a solution is preferred with a random peculiar radial velocity of very nearby field galaxies of 90-100 km/s, and a Virgocentric motion of the local group of 220 km/s, leading to an underlying expansion rate of 55, in satisfactory agreement with the global value.
Lombardi, V; Menchetti, G
1984-10-01
The maximum velocity of shortening (Vmax) was determined at preset times during the development and the plateau of isometric tetani in single fibres isolated from the tibialis anterior muscle of the frog. Experiments were performed at low temperature (3.6-6 degrees C) and at about 2.25 micron sarcomere length. The controlled velocity release method was used. Vmax was measured by determining the lowest velocity of release required to keep the tension at zero. Extreme care was taken in dissection and mounting of the fibres in order to make the passive series compliance very small. The value of Vmax at the end of the latent period for the development of isometric tension (at 4.5 degrees C about 10 ms after the beginning of the stimulus volley) was already the same as later during either the tension rise or at the plateau of isometric tetani. These results show that the value of Vmax of intact fibres is independent of time and activation subsequent to the latent period, and suggest that the cycling rate of the crossbridges may thus attain its steady-state value just at the end of the isometric latent period.
Sugiura, Yoshito; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko; Arai, Tomoaki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo
2016-04-01
We aimed to investigate whether a linear regression formula based on the relationship between joint torque and angular velocity measured using a high-speed video camera and image measurement software is effective for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric peak torque in knee extension. Subjects comprised 20 healthy men (mean ± SD; age, 27.4 ± 4.9 years; height, 170.3 ± 4.4 cm; and body weight, 66.1 ± 10.9 kg). The exercise load ranged from 40% to 150% 1RM. Peak angular velocity (PAV) and peak torque were used to estimate 1RM and isometric peak torque. To elucidate the relationship between force and velocity in knee extension, the relationship between the relative proportion of 1RM (% 1RM) and PAV was examined using simple regression analysis. The concordance rate between the estimated value and actual measurement of 1RM and isometric peak torque was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Reliability of the regression line of PAV and % 1RM was 0.95. The concordance rate between the actual measurement and estimated value of 1RM resulted in an ICC(2,1) of 0.93 and that of isometric peak torque had an ICC(2,1) of 0.87 and 0.86 for 6 and 3 levels of load, respectively. Our method for estimating 1RM was effective for decreasing the measurement time and reducing patients' burden. Additionally, isometric peak torque can be estimated using 3 levels of load, as we obtained the same results as those reported previously. We plan to expand the range of subjects and examine the generalizability of our results.
Altavilla, G; Balastegui, A; Méndez, J; Irwin, M; Espana-Bonet, C; Schamaneche, K; Balland, C; Ellis, Richard S; Fabbro, S; Folatelli, G; Goobar, A; Hillebrandt, W; McMahon, R M; Mouchet, M; Mourao, A; Nobili, S; Pain, R; Stanishev, V; Walton, N A
2006-01-01
We study intermediate--z SNe Ia using the empirical physical diagrams which enable to learn about those SNe explosions. This information can be very useful to reduce systematic uncertainties of the Hubble diagram of SNe Ia up to high z. The study of the expansion velocities and the measurement of the ratio $\\mathcal{R}$(\\SiII) allow to subtype those SNe Ia as done for nearby samples. The evolution of this ratio as seen in the diagram $\\mathcal{R}$(\\SiII)--(t) together with $\\mathcal{R}$(\\SiII)$_{max}$ versus (B-V)$_{0}$ indicate consistency of the properties at intermediate z compared with local SNe. At intermediate--z, the expansion velocities of Ca II and Si II are similar to the nearby counterparts. This is found in a sample of 6 SNe Ia in the range 0.033$\\leq z \\leq$0.329 discovered within the {\\it International Time Programme} (ITP) of {\\it Cosmology and Physics with SNe Ia} during the spring of 2002. Those supernovae were identified using the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. Two SNe Ia at intermediate z...
Kojima, M; Ichiyama, M; Ban, T
1986-07-01
Phenytoin, at 50 to 200 micrograms reduced the maximum upstroke velocity of action potentials (Vmax) with increases in frequency from 0.25 to 5 Hz and in the external potassium concentration [( K+]0) from 2.7 to 8.1 mM. The drug-induced shortening of action potential duration was evident at 0.25 to 2 Hz but little at 3 to 5 Hz. Time courses of recovery of Vmax was studied by applying premature responses between the conditioning responses at 1 Hz both in control and in drug-treated preparations. Concerning the time courses of the difference between the Vmax values before and after drug treatments at the same diastolic interval, with increases in drug concentrations the intercepts at APD90 were increased but the time constants were not changed or slightly decreased in 8.1 to 5.4 mM [K+]0, whereas they were increased in 2.7 mM [K+]0. To understand the kinetic behavior of this drug on sodium channels, rate constants for the interaction of phenytoin with three states of channels in terms of Hondeghem-Katzung model were estimated from the above experiments of Vmax. The model most consistent with the present experiments was that with an affinity for inactivated channels 20 times greater than that for resting channels and with a minor affinity for open channels. Phenytoin produced a delay in the time course of recovery of overshoot and action potential duration at 0 mV (APD0), suggesting an additional inhibition of the slow channel by this drug.
Rezende, L. C.; Arenque, B.; von Randow, C.; Moura, M. S.; Aidar, S. D.; Buckeridge, M. S.; Menezes, R.; Souza, L. S.; Ometto, J. P.
2013-12-01
The Caatinga biome in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil is extremely important due to its biodiversity and endemism. This biome, which is under high anthropogenic influences, presents high levels of environmental degradation, land use being among the main causes of such degradation. The simulations of land cover and the vegetation dynamic under different climate scenarios are important features for prediction of environmental risks and determination of sustainable pathways for the planet in the future. Modeling of the vegetation can be performed by use of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). The DGVMs simulate the surface processes (e.g. transfer of energy, water, CO2 and momentum); plant physiology (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance) phenology; gross and net primary productivity, respiration, plant species classified by functional traits; competition for light, water and nutrients, soil characteristics and processes (e.g. nutrients, heterotrophic respiration). Currently, most of the parameters used in DGVMs are static pre-defined values, and the lack of observational information to aid choosing the most adequate values for these parameters is particularly critical for the semi-arid regions in the world. Through historical meteorological data and measurements of carbon assimilation we aim to calibrate the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vcmax), for the native species Poincianella microphylla, abundant in the Caatinga region. The field data (collected at Lat: 90 2' S, Lon: 40019' W) displayed two contrasting meteorological conditions, with precipitations of 16 mm and 104 mm prior to the sampling campaigns (April 9-13, 2012 and February 4-8, 2013; respectively). Calibration (obtaining values of Vcmax more suitable for vegetation of Caatinga) has been performed through an algorithm of pattern recognition: Classification And Regression Tree (CART) and calculation of the vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which was used as attribute for discrimination
Chamoux, A; Berthon, P; Laubignat, J F
1996-01-01
Field measurement of the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) is closely linked to effort-duration then to the used protocol. We construct the relationship between running speed and running-duration logarithm from running world records. It appears a noteworthy point at 4.97 minutes, to be suggested as MAV duration point. By agreement, MAV could be measured on field by a five minute test whatever the sport may be.
Cerný, Viktor; Mulligan, Connie J; Fernandes, Verónica; Silva, Nuno M; Alshamali, Farida; Non, Amy; Harich, Nourdin; Cherni, Lotfi; El Gaaied, Amel Ben Ammar; Al-Meeri, Ali; Pereira, Luísa
2011-01-01
Widespread interest in the first successful Out of Africa dispersal of modern humans ∼60-80 thousand years ago via a southern migration route has overshadowed the study of later periods of South Arabian prehistory. In this work, we show that the post-Last Glacial Maximum period of the past 20,000 years, during which climatic conditions were becoming more hospitable, has been a significant time in the formation of the extant genetic composition and population structure of this region. This conclusion is supported by the internal diversification displayed in the highly resolved phylogenetic tree of 89 whole mitochondrial genomes (71 being newly presented here) for haplogroup R0a-the most frequent and widespread haplogroup in Arabia. Additionally, two geographically specific clades (R0a1a1a and R0a2f1) have been identified in non-Arabic speaking peoples such as the Soqotri and Mahri living in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula where a past refugium was identified by independent archaeological studies. Estimates of time to the most recent common ancestor of these lineages match the earliest archaeological evidence for seafaring activity in the peninsula in the sixth millennium BC.
Furbish, David J.; Schmeeckle, Mark; Schumer, Rina; Fathel, Siobhan L.
2016-01-01
We describe the most likely forms of the probability distributions of bed load particle velocities, accelerations, hop distances, and travel times, in a manner that formally appeals to inferential statistics while honoring mechanical and kinematic constraints imposed by equilibrium transport conditions. The analysis is based on E. Jaynes's elaboration of the implications of the similarity between the Gibbs entropy in statistical mechanics and the Shannon entropy in information theory. By maximizing the information entropy of a distribution subject to known constraints on its moments, our choice of the form of the distribution is unbiased. The analysis suggests that particle velocities and travel times are exponentially distributed and that particle accelerations follow a Laplace distribution with zero mean. Particle hop distances, viewed alone, ought to be distributed exponentially. However, the covariance between hop distances and travel times precludes this result. Instead, the covariance structure suggests that hop distances follow a Weibull distribution. These distributions are consistent with high-resolution measurements obtained from high-speed imaging of bed load particle motions. The analysis brings us closer to choosing distributions based on our mechanical insight.
Kaganovich, Igor D., E-mail: ikaganov@pppl.gov [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Massidda, Scott; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Vay, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2012-06-21
Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam pulse compression and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear longitudinal velocity tilt (head-to-tail gradient) is applied to the non-relativistic beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the focusing section. The beam current can increase by more than a factor of 100 in the longitudinal direction. We have performed an analytical study of how errors in the velocity tilt acquired by the beam in the induction bunching module limit the maximum longitudinal compression. It is found that the compression ratio is determined by the relative errors in the velocity tilt. That is, one-percent errors may limit the compression to a factor of one hundred. However, a part of the beam pulse where the errors are small may compress to much higher values, which are determined by the initial thermal spread of the beam pulse. It is also shown that sharp jumps in the compressed current density profile can be produced due to overlaying of different parts of the pulse near the focal plane. Examples of slowly varying and rapidly varying errors compared to the beam pulse duration are studied. For beam velocity errors given by a cubic function, the compression ratio can be described analytically. In this limit, a significant portion of the beam pulse is located in the broad wings of the pulse and is poorly compressed. The central part of the compressed pulse is determined by the thermal spread. The scaling law for maximum compression ratio is derived. In addition to a smooth variation in the velocity tilt, fast-changing errors during the pulse may appear in the induction bunching module if the voltage pulse is formed by several pulsed elements. Different parts of the pulse compress nearly simultaneously at the target and the compressed profile may have many peaks. The maximum compression is a function of both thermal spread and the velocity errors. The effects of the
Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.
2016-11-01
Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.
Larecki, Wieslaw; Banach, Zbigniew
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes the propagation of the waves of weak discontinuity in a phonon gas described by the four-moment maximum entropy phonon hydrodynamics involving a nonlinear isotropic phonon dispersion relation. For the considered hyperbolic equations of phonon gas hydrodynamics, the eigenvalue problem is analyzed and the condition of genuine nonlinearity is discussed. The speed of the wave front propagating into the region in thermal equilibrium is first determined in terms of the integral formula dependent on the phonon dispersion relation and subsequently explicitly calculated for the Dubey dispersion-relation model: |k|=ωc-1(1+bω2). The specification of the parameters c and b for sodium fluoride (NaF) and semimetallic bismuth (Bi) then makes it possible to compare the calculated dependence of the wave-front speed on the sample’s temperature with the empirical relations of Coleman and Newman (1988) describing for NaF and Bi the variation of the second-sound speed with temperature. It is demonstrated that the calculated temperature dependence of the wave-front speed resembles the empirical relation and that the parameters c and b obtained from fitting respectively the empirical relation and the original material parameters of Dubey (1973) are of the same order of magnitude, the difference being in the values of the numerical factors. It is also shown that the calculated temperature dependence is in good agreement with the predictions of Hardy and Jaswal’s theory (Hardy and Jaswal, 1971) on second-sound propagation. This suggests that the nonlinearity of a phonon dispersion relation should be taken into account in the theories aiming at the description of the wave-type phonon heat transport and that the Dubey nonlinear isotropic dispersion-relation model can be very useful for this purpose.
Harning, David J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Anderson, Leif
2016-11-01
Non-linear climate change is often linked to rapid changes in ocean circulation, especially around the North Atlantic. As the Polar Front fluctuated its latitudinal position during the Holocene, Iceland's climate was influenced by both the warm Atlantic currents and cool, sea ice-bearing Arctic currents. Drangajökull is Iceland's fifth largest ice cap. Climate proxies in lake sediment cores, dead vegetation emerging from beneath the ice cap, and moraine segments identified in a new DEM constrain the episodic expansion of the ice cap over the past 3 ka. Collectively, our data show that Drangajökull was advancing at ∼320 BCE, 180 CE, 560 CE, 950 CE and 1400 CE and in a state of recession at ∼450 CE, 1250 CE and after 1850 CE. The Late Holocene maximum extent of Drangajökull occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), occupying 262 km2, almost twice its area in 2011 CE and ∼20% larger than recent estimates of its LIA dimensions. Biological proxies from the sediment fill in a high- and low-elevation lake suggest limited vegetation and soil cover at high elevations proximal to the ice cap, whereas thick soil cover persisted until ∼750 CE at lower elevations near the coast. As Drangajökull expanded into the catchment of the high-elevation lake beginning at ∼950 CE, aquatic productivity diminished, following a trend of regional cooling supported by proxy records elsewhere in Iceland. Correlations between episodes of Drangajökull's advance and the documented occurrence of drift ice on the North Icelandic Shelf suggest export and local production of sea ice influenced the evolution of NW Iceland's Late Holocene climate.
Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun
2012-01-01
A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.
Ogawa, Akira; Anzou, Hideki; Yamamoto, So; Shimagaki, Mituru
2015-11-01
In order to control the maximum tangential velocity Vθm(m/s) of the turbulent rotational air flow and the collection efficiency ηc (%) using the fly ash of the mean diameter XR50=5.57 µm, two secondary jet nozzles were installed to the body of the axial flow cyclone dust collector with the body diameter D1=99mm. Then in order to estimate Vθm (m/s), the conservation theory of the angular momentum flux with Ogawa combined vortex model was applied. The comparisons of the estimated results of Vθm(m/s) with the measured results by the cylindrical Pitot-tube were shown in good agreement. And also the estimated collection efficiencies ηcth (%) basing upon the cut-size Xc (µm) which was calculated by using the estimated Vθ m(m/s) and also the particle size distribution R(Xp) were shown a little higher values than the experimental results due to the re-entrainment of the collected dust. The best method for adjustment of ηc (%) related to the contribution of the secondary jet flow is principally to apply the centrifugal effect Φc (1). Above stated results are described in detail.
Massidda, Scott; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter; Friedman, Alex
2012-06-01
Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam focusing and current amplification with applications to heavy ion fusion. In the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment-I (NDCX-I), a non-relativistic ion beam pulse is passed through an inductive bunching module that produces a longitudinal velocity modulation. Due to the applied velocity tilt, the beam pulse compresses during neutralized drift. The ion beam pulse can be compressed by a factor of more than 100; however, errors in the velocity modulation affect the compression ratio in complex ways. We have performed a study of how the longitudinal compression of a typical NDCX-I ion beam pulse is affected by the initial errors in the acquired velocity modulation. Without any voltage errors, an ideal compression is limited only by the initial energy spread of the ion beam, ΔΕb. In the presence of large voltage errors, δU≫ΔEb, the maximum compression ratio is found to be inversely proportional to the geometric mean of the relative error in velocity modulation and the relative intrinsic energy spread of the beam ions. Although small parts of a beam pulse can achieve high local values of compression ratio, the acquired velocity errors cause these parts to compress at different times, limiting the overall compression of the ion beam pulse.
Massidda, Scott [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kaganovich, Igor D., E-mail: ikaganov@pppl.gov [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2012-06-21
Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam focusing and current amplification with applications to heavy ion fusion. In the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment-I (NDCX-I), a non-relativistic ion beam pulse is passed through an inductive bunching module that produces a longitudinal velocity modulation. Due to the applied velocity tilt, the beam pulse compresses during neutralized drift. The ion beam pulse can be compressed by a factor of more than 100; however, errors in the velocity modulation affect the compression ratio in complex ways. We have performed a study of how the longitudinal compression of a typical NDCX-I ion beam pulse is affected by the initial errors in the acquired velocity modulation. Without any voltage errors, an ideal compression is limited only by the initial energy spread of the ion beam, {Delta}{Epsilon}{sub b}. In the presence of large voltage errors, {delta}U Double-Nested-Greater-Than {Delta}E{sub b}, the maximum compression ratio is found to be inversely proportional to the geometric mean of the relative error in velocity modulation and the relative intrinsic energy spread of the beam ions. Although small parts of a beam pulse can achieve high local values of compression ratio, the acquired velocity errors cause these parts to compress at different times, limiting the overall compression of the ion beam pulse.
Radiation Pressure Acceleration: the factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy
Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Leemans, W P
2016-01-01
Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it trans...
Naka, T. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Natsume, M. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: natsume@flab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Niwa, K.; Hoshino, K.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Sato, O. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)
2007-11-01
We succeeded to observe tracks of low-velocity Kr ions, having originally ranges below optical resolution, in a fine grain nuclear emulsion with an optical microscope after expanding the emulsion along the incident direction. This opens up the possibility of tracking low-velocity nuclear recoils from massive dark matter particles using optical microscope scanning systems.
Mary Hokazono
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Transcranial Doppler (TCD detects stroke risk among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Our aim was to evaluate TCD findings in patients with different sickle cell disease (SCD genotypes and correlate the time-averaged maximum mean (TAMM velocity with hematological characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study in the Pediatric Hematology sector, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: 85 SCD patients of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, were evaluated, divided into: group I (62 patients with SCA/Sß0 thalassemia; and group II (23 patients with SC hemoglobinopathy/Sß+ thalassemia. TCD was performed and reviewed by a single investigator using Doppler ultrasonography with a 2 MHz transducer, in accordance with the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP protocol. The hematological parameters evaluated were: hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocytes, leukocytes, platelets and fetal hemoglobin. Univariate analysis was performed and Pearson's coefficient was calculated for hematological parameters and TAMM velocities (P < 0.05. RESULTS: TAMM velocities were 137 ± 28 and 103 ± 19 cm/s in groups I and II, respectively, and correlated negatively with hematocrit and hemoglobin in group I. There was one abnormal result (1.6% and five conditional results (8.1% in group I. All results were normal in group II. Middle cerebral arteries were the only vessels affected. CONCLUSION: There was a low prevalence of abnormal Doppler results in patients with sickle-cell disease. Time-average maximum mean velocity was significantly different between the genotypes and correlated with hematological characteristics.
Estimation of the Radial Distribution of the Tangential Velocity in a Vortex Chamber
Akira OGAWA; Tsuyoshi IKARI; Hiroyuki MURAKAMI; Kouhei SATHO
2009-01-01
The estimation of maximum tangential velocity becomes a very important factor for the estimation of performances of the vortex chamber. In this paper, a proposed flow model of how to estimate the maximum tangential velocity in the special form of the vortex chamber is described in detail. The pressure drop basing upon the rapid expansion by flowing from the inlet pipe into the cyclone body is estimated as half of the dynamic pressure in the inlet pipe.
Keown, Jared; Schnee, Scott; Bourke, Tyler L.; Di Francesco, James; Friesen, Rachel; Caselli, Paola; Myers, Philip; Williger, Gerard; Tafalla, Mario
2016-12-01
Although surveys of infall motions in dense cores have been carried out for years, few surveys have focused on mapping infall across cores using multiple spectral-line observations. To fill this gap, we present IRAM 30 m telescope maps of N2H+(1-0), DCO+(2-1), DCO+(3-2), and HCO+(3-2) emission toward two prestellar cores (L492 and L694-2) and one protostellar core (L1521F). We find that the measured infall velocity varies with position across each core and choice of molecular line, likely as a result of radial variations in core chemistry and dynamics. Line-of-sight infall speeds estimated from DCO+(2-1) line profiles can decrease by 40-50 m s-1 when observing at a radial offset ≥slant 0.04 pc from the core's dust continuum emission peak. Median infall speeds calculated from all observed positions across a core can also vary by as much as 65 m s-1, depending on the transition. These results show that while single-pointing, single-transition surveys of core infall velocities may be good indicators of whether a core is either contracting or expanding, the magnitude of the velocities they measure are significantly impacted by the choice of molecular line, proximity to the core center, and core evolutionary state.
Keown, Jared; Bourke, Tyler L; Di Francesco, James; Friesen, Rachel; Caselli, Paola; Myers, Philip; Williger, Gerard; Tafalla, Mario
2016-01-01
Although surveys of infall motions in dense cores have been carried out for years, few surveys have focused on mapping infall across cores using multiple spectral line observations. To fill this gap, we present IRAM 30-m Telescope maps of N2H+(1-0), DCO+(2-1), DCO+(3-2), and HCO+(3-2) emission towards two prestellar cores (L492 and L694-2) and one protostellar core (L1521F). We find that the measured infall velocity varies with position across each core and choice of molecular line, likely as a result of radial variations in core chemistry and dynamics. Line-of-sight infall speeds estimated from DCO+(2-1) line profiles can decrease by 40-50 m/s when observing at a radial offset >= 0.04 pc from the core's dust continuum emission peak. Median infall speeds calculated from all observed positions across a core can also vary by as much as 65 m/s depending on the transition. These results show that while single-pointing, single-transition surveys of core infall velocities may be good indicators of whether a core is...
Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. II. Parameter study
Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.
2016-01-01
The plasma parameter dependencies of the dynamics during the expansion of plasma are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation tailored to a plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 055207 (2014); Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The plasma expansion into a low-density ambient plasma features a propagating ion front that is preceding a density plateau. It has been shown that the front formation is entangled with a wave-breaking mechanism, i.e., an ion collapse [Sack and Schamel, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 717 (1985); Sack and Schamel, Phys. Lett. A 110, 206 (1985)], and the launch of an ion burst [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The systematic parameter study presented in this paper focuses on the influence on this mechanism its effect on the maximum velocity of the ion front and burst. It is shown that, apart from the well known dependency of the front propagation on the ion sound velocity, it also depends sensitively on the density ratio between main and ambient plasma density. The maximum ion velocity depends further on the initial potential gradient, being mostly influenced by the plasma density ratio in the source and expansion regions. The results of the study are compared with independent numerical studies.
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
Energy velocity and group velocity
陈宇
1995-01-01
A new Lagrangian method for studying the relationship between the energy velocity and the group velocity is described. It is proved that under the usual quasistatic electric field, the energy velocity is identical to the group velocity for acoustic waves in anisotropic piezoelectric (or non-piezoelectric) media.
Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels;
2015-01-01
fairly well in the far wake but lacks accuracy in the outer region of the near wake. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Furthermore, a new empirical model for single-wake......In the present paper, single-wake dynamics have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The use of pulsed lidar measurements allows for validation of basic dynamic wake meandering modeling assumptions. Wake center tracking is used to estimate the wake advection velocity experimentally...... and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison shows good agreement between the measured average expansion and the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) large eddy simulation–actuator line computations. Frandsen’s expansion model seems to predict the wake expansion...
Constraining the Anisotropic Expansion of Universe
Cai, Rong-Gen; Tang, Bo; Tuo, Zhong-Liang
2013-01-01
We study the possibly existing anisotropy in the accelerating expansion Universe with the Union2 Type Ia supernovae data and Gamma-ray burst data. We construct a direction-dependent dark energy model and constrain the anisotropy direction and strength of modulation. We find that the maximum anisotropic deviation direction is $(l,\\,b)=(126^{\\circ},\\,13^{\\circ})$ (or equivalently $(l,\\,b)=(306^{\\circ},\\,-13^{\\circ})$), and the anisotropy level is $g_0=0.030_{+0.010}^{-0.030}$ (obtained using Union2 data, at $1\\sigma$ confidence level). Our results do not show strong evidence for the anisotropic dark energy model. We also discuss potential methods that may distinguish the peculiar velocity field from the anisotropic dark energy model.
Acoustic and streaming velocity components in a resonant waveguide at high acoustic levels.
Daru, Virginie; Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana
2017-01-01
Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations. The evolution of axial and radial velocity components for both acoustic and streaming velocities is studied from low to high acoustic amplitudes. Two streaming flow regimes are pointed out, the axial streaming dependency on acoustics going from quadratic to linear. The evolution of streaming flow is different for outer cells and for inner cells. Also, the hypothesis of radial streaming velocity being of second order in a Mach number expansion, is not valid at high amplitudes. The change of regime occurs when the radial streaming velocity amplitude becomes larger than the radial acoustic velocity amplitude, high levels being therefore characterized by nonlinear interaction of the different velocity components.
1970-10-01
sale: is disributici is unlimited = F’)RIWRD Seior Ignacio Soto, Rrecutive President, Instituto Mexicano del Cementc y Concreto , invited Mr. Bryant... Concreto , a.c., Kwidco, D. F., Mexico. Based on info.mation largely obtained from ACT Committee 223, Expansive ’ement. Concretes, ACI Journal, August 1Q70
THE TERMINAL VELOCITY OF THE DEEP IMPACT DUST EJECTA
M. Rengel
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The collision of the projectile released from NASA Deep Impact spacecraft on the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1 generated a hot plume. Afterwards ejecta were created, and material moved slowly in a form of a dust cloud, which dissipated during several days after the impact. Here we report a study about the distribution of terminal velocities of the particles ejected by the impact. This is performed by the development and application of an illconditioned inverse problem approach. We model the light-curves as seen by the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC of OSIRIS onboard the ESA spacecraft Rosetta, and we compare them with the OSIRIS observations. Terminal velocities are derived using a maximum likelihood estimator. The dust velocity distribution is well constrained, and peaks at around 220 m s-1, which is in good agreement with published estimates of the expansion velocities of the dust cloud. Measured and modeled velocity of the dust cloud suggests that the impact ejecta were quickly accelerated by the gas in the cometary coma. This analysis provides a more thorough understanding of the properties (velocity and mass of dust of the Deep Impact dust cloud.
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
ENTRAINMENT AND EXPANSION CONTROLLED FIREBALL RISE
This paper reports on a detailed analysis of the buoyant rise of fireballs in the earth’s atmosphere. Formulae for the rise velocity and height, and...the density, mass, radius and expansion velocity of the fireball are given. The computation of fireball temperature is discussed in detail; no
Density Models for Velocity Analysis of Jet Impinged CEDM Missile
Jo, Won Ho; Kang, Tae Kyo; Cho, Yeon Ho; Chang, Sang Gyoon; Lee, Dae Hee [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
A control element drive mechanism (CEDM) can be a potential missile in the reactor head area during one of the postulated accidents. The CEDM is propelled by the high speed water jet discharged from a broken upper head nozzle. The jet expansion models to predict the missile velocity have been investigated by Kang et al. The previous work of Kang et al. showed a continuous increase in missile velocity as the CEDM missile travels. But it is not natural in that two phase flow from the nozzle break exit tends to disperse and the thrust force on the missile decreases along the distance of the travel. The jet flow also interacts with the air surrounding itself. Therefore, the density change has to be included in the estimation of the missile velocity. In this paper, two density change models of the water jet are introduced for the jet expansion models along with the distance from the nozzle break location. The first one is the direct approximation model. Two density approximation models are introduced to predict the CEDM missile velocity. For each model, the effects of the expanded jet area were included as the area ratio to the exit nozzle area. In direct approximation model, the results have showed rapid decrease in both density and missile velocity. In pressure approach model, the density change is assumed perfectly proportional to the pressure change, and the results showed relatively smooth change in both density and missile velocity comparing to the direct approximation model. Using the model developed by Kang et al.., the maximum missile velocity is about 4 times greater comparing to the pressure approach model since the density is constant as the jet density at the nozzle exit in their model. Pressure approach model has benefits in that this model adopted neither curve fitting nor extrapolation unlike the direct approximation model, and included the effects of density change which are not considered in the model developed by Kang et al. So, this model is
Yang, S. J.; Hu, L.; Wang, L.; Wei, B.
2017-05-01
The dendritic growth and thermal expansion of isomorphous refractory Nb-5%Zr, Nb-10%Zr, and Nb-15%Zr alloys were studied by electrostatic levitation technique. The obtained maximum undercoolings for the three alloys were 534 (0.2 T L), 498 (0.19 T L), and 483 K (0.18 T L), respectively. Within these undercooling ranges, the dendritic growth velocities of the three alloys all exhibited power laws, and achieved 38.5, 34.0, and 27.1 m s-1 at each maximum undercooling. The microstructures were characterized by coarse dendrites at small undercooling, while they transformed into refined dendrites under large undercooling condition. In addition, the measured thermal expansion coefficients of solid Nb-Zr alloys increased linearly with temperature. The values at liquid state were more than double of those at solid state, which also displayed linear dependence on temperature.
Projectile Velocity and Crater Formation in Water
Pravitra Chaikulngamdee
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the velocity of impact and maximum crater diameter was found for two steel balls dropped into water using 300 fps video. The maximum diameter of the crater was found to be proportional to the impact velocity and independent of the diameter of the ball.
Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.
Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean
2000-04-01
Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Velocity Measurement Based on Laser Doppler Effect
ZHANG Yan-Yan; HUO Yu-Jing; HE Shu-Fang; GONG Ke
2010-01-01
@@ A novel method for velocity measurement is presented.In this scheme,a parallel-linear-polarization dualfrequency laser is incident on the target and senses the target velocity with both the frequencies,which can increase the maximum measurable velocity significantly.The theoretical analysis and verification experiment of the novel method are presented,which show that high-velocity measurement can be achieved with high precision using this method.
Magnetic Clouds: Global and local expansion
Gulisano, Adriana; Demoulin, Pascal; Soledad Nakwacki, Ms Maria; Dasso, Sergio; Emilia Ruiz, Maria
Magnetic clouds (MCs) are magnetized objects forming flux ropes, which are expelled from the Sun and travel through the heliosphere, transporting important amounts of energy, mass, magnetic flux, and magnetic helicity from the Sun to the interplanetary medium. To know the detailed dynamical evolution of MCs is very useful to improve the knowledge of solar processes, for instance from linking a transient solar source with its interplanetary manifestation. During its travel, and mainly due to the decrease of the total (magnetic plus thermal) pressure in the surrounding solar wind, MCs are objects in expansion. However, the detailed magnetic structure and the dynamical evolution of MCs is still not fully known. Even the identification of their boundaries is an open question in some cases. In a previous work we have shown that from onepoint observations of the bulk velocity profile, it is possible to infer the 'local' expansion rate for a given MC, i.e., the expansion rate while the MC is observed by the spacecraft. By the another hand, and from the comparison of sizes for different MCs observed at different heliodistances, it is possible to quantify an 'average' expansion law (i.e., a global expansion). In this work, in order to study the variability of the 'local' expansion with respect to the 'average' expansion of MCs during their travel, we present results and a comparison between both approaches. We make a detailed study of one-point observations (magnetic and bulk velocity) using a set of MCs and we get the 'local' expansion rate for each studied event. We compare the obtained 'local' expansion rates with the 'average' expansion law, and also with the expansion rates for the stationary solar wind.
Reed's Conjecture on hole expansions
Fouquet, Jean-Luc
2012-01-01
In 1998, Reed conjectured that for any graph $G$, $\\chi(G) \\leq \\lceil \\frac{\\omega(G) + \\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil$, where $\\chi(G)$, $\\omega(G)$, and $\\Delta(G)$ respectively denote the chromatic number, the clique number and the maximum degree of $G$. In this paper, we study this conjecture for some {\\em expansions} of graphs, that is graphs obtained with the well known operation {\\em composition} of graphs. We prove that Reed's Conjecture holds for expansions of bipartite graphs, for expansions of odd holes where the minimum chromatic number of the components is even, when some component of the expansion has chromatic number 1 or when a component induces a bipartite graph. Moreover, Reed's Conjecture holds if all components have the same chromatic number, if the components have chromatic number at most 4 and when the odd hole has length 5. Finally, when $G$ is an odd hole expansion, we prove $\\chi(G)\\leq\\lceil\\frac{\\omega(G)+\\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil+1$.
Angular distribution of isothermal expansions of non-quasi-neutral plasmas into a vacuum
Yongsheng, Huang; Xiaojiao, Duan; Yijin, Shi; Xiaofei, Lan; Zhixin, Tan; Naiyan, Wang; Xiuzhang, Tang; Yexi, He
2008-04-01
A two dimensional planar model is developed for self-similar isothermal expansions of non-quasi-neutral plasmas into a vacuum of solid targets heated by ultraintense laser pulses. The angular ion distribution and the dependence of the maximum ion velocity on laser parameters and target thicknesses are predicted. Considering the self-generated magnetic field of plasma beams as a perturbation, the ion energy on edge at the ion opening angle has an increase of 2% relative to that on the front center. Therefore, the self-generated magnetic field of plasma beams is not large enough to interpret for the ring structures.
Šimek, Milan; Pongrác, Branislav; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin; Lukeš, Petr
2017-07-01
We employed the techniques of time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) microscopy and spectroscopy to register basic morphologic and emission fingerprints of micro-discharges produced in deionized water. Fast rise-time positive high-voltage pulses (full width at half maximum of ˜7 ns and amplitude of ˜100 kV) in a point-to-plane electrode geometry produced micro-discharges, either periodically or in a single-pulse regime with the energy of ˜0.1 J dissipated during a single discharge event. Time resolved ICCD images evidence typical streamer-like branched filamentary morphology. Luminous discharge filaments show very fast and approximately linear initial expansion of the length with propagation velocity of ˜2 × 105 m s-1. When the HV pulse reaches its maximum value, the length of the primary luminous filaments reaches ˜1.3 mm. After initial expansion, the length of luminous filaments collapses and can be characterised by velocity of ˜1.9 × 104 m s-1. The first collapse is followed by a second slightly slower expansion, which is driven by the arrival of a reflected HV pulse, and which can be roughly approximated by propagation velocity of ˜1.5 × 105 m s-1. The second collapse (occurring after second expansion) proceeds at a nearly identical velocity compared with the first one. By combining two ICCD based techniques, we have been able to associate, for the first time ever, characteristic emission spectra with the most important phases of the micro-discharge development. The UV-vis-NIR emission spectra show a broad-band continuum evolving during the first expansion and collapse, followed by the well-known HI/OI atomic lines occurring together with continuum emission during the second expansion and collapse. We conclude that bound-free and free-free radiative transitions are basic emission characteristics of the nanosecond discharge initiation mechanism in liquid water which does not involve the formation of vapour bubbles.
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CAVITATION IN A SUDDEN EXPANSION PIPE
ZHANG Jian-min; YANG Qing; WANG Yu-rong; XU Wei-lin; CHEN Jian-gang
2011-01-01
For sudden expansion pipes, experiments were carried out to study the cavitation inception for various enlargement ratios in high speed flows.The flow velocity of the prototype reaches 50 m/s in laboratory.The relationship between the expansion ratio and the incipient cavitation number is obtained.The scale and velocity effects are revealed.It is shown that Keller's revised formula should be modified to calculate the incipient cavitation number when the forecasted velocity of the flows in the prototype exceeds the experimental velocity.
Design of materials with extreme thermal expansion using a three-phase topology optimization method
Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.
1997-01-01
Composites with extremal or unusual thermal expansion coefficients are designed using a three-phase topology optimization method. The composites are made of two different material phases and a void phase. The topology optimization method consists in finding the distribution of material phases...... materials having maximum directional thermal expansion (thermal actuators), zero isotropic thermal expansion, and negative isotropic thermal expansion. It is shown that materials with effective negative thermal expansion coefficients can be obtained by mixing two phases with positive thermal expansion...
Design of materials with extreme thermal expansion using a three-phase topology optimization method
Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.
1997-01-01
We show how composites with extremal or unusual thermal expansion coefficients can be designed using a numerical topology optimization method. The composites are composed of two different material phases and void. The optimization method is illustrated by designing materials having maximum thermal...... expansion, zero thermal expansion, and negative thermal expansion. Assuming linear elasticity, it is shown that materials with effective negative thermal expansion coefficients can be obtained by mixing two phases with positive thermal expansion coefficients and void. We also show...
EFFECT OF VELOCITY ON DUCTILITY UNDER HIGH VELOCITY FORMING
LI Zhong; LI Chunfeng
2007-01-01
The ring expansion procedures over various forming velocities are calculated with ANSYS software in order to show the effect of forming velocity on ductility of rate insensitive materials. Ring expansion procedures are simplified to one-dimensional tension by constraining the radial deformation, with element birth and death method, fracture problem of circular ring are considered. The calculated results show that for insensitive materials of 1060 aluminum and 3A21 aluminum alloy, fracture strain increases corresponding to the increase of forming velocity. This trend agrees well with experimental results, and indicates inertia is the key factor to affect ductility; With element birth and death methods, fracture problems can be solved effectively. Experimental studies on formability of tubular workpieces are also conducted, experimental results show that the formability of 1060 aluminum and 3A21 aluminum alloy under electromagnetic forming is higher than that under quasistatic forming, according to the characteristics of electromagnetic forming, the forming limit diagrams of the two materials tube are also built respectively, this is very important to promote the development of electromagnetic forming and guide the engineering practices.
Anode Plasma Expansion in Pinch-Reflex Diodes.
1983-08-16
the expansion. Prono et a12 have studied a charge-exchange mechanism to account for the large expansion velocity but this mechanism does not explain...1978). 2. D. S. Prono , H. Ishizuka, E. P. Lee, B. W. Stallard and W. C. Turner, J. App. Phys. 52, 3004 (1981). 3. S. A. Goldstein, D. W. Swain, G. R
Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: kmandel@cfa.harvard.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)
2014-12-20
We investigate the statistical dependence of the peak intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on their expansion velocities at maximum light, measured from the Si II λ6355 spectral feature. We construct a new hierarchical Bayesian regression model, accounting for the random effects of intrinsic scatter, measurement error, and reddening by host galaxy dust, and implement a Gibbs sampler and deviance information criteria to estimate the correlation. The method is applied to the apparent colors from BVRI light curves and Si II velocity data for 79 nearby SNe Ia. The apparent color distributions of high-velocity (HV) and normal velocity (NV) supernovae exhibit significant discrepancies for B – V and B – R, but not other colors. Hence, they are likely due to intrinsic color differences originating in the B band, rather than dust reddening. The mean intrinsic B – V and B – R color differences between HV and NV groups are 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, respectively. A linear model finds significant slopes of –0.021 ± 0.006 and –0.030 ± 0.009 mag (10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}){sup –1} for intrinsic B – V and B – R colors versus velocity, respectively. Because the ejecta velocity distribution is skewed toward high velocities, these effects imply non-Gaussian intrinsic color distributions with skewness up to +0.3. Accounting for the intrinsic-color-velocity correlation results in corrections to A{sub V} extinction estimates as large as –0.12 mag for HV SNe Ia and +0.06 mag for NV events. Velocity measurements from SN Ia spectra have the potential to diminish systematic errors from the confounding of intrinsic colors and dust reddening affecting supernova distances.
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N
2014-01-01
This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion.
Spatial Linkage and Urban Expansion: AN Urban Agglomeration View
Jiao, L. M.; Tang, X.; Liu, X. P.
2017-09-01
Urban expansion displays different characteristics in each period. From the perspective of the urban agglomeration, studying the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban expansion plays an important role in understanding the complex relationship between urban expansion and network structure of urban agglomeration. We analyze urban expansion in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRD) through accessibility to and spatial interaction intensity from core cities as well as accessibility of road network. Results show that: (1) Correlation between urban expansion intensity and spatial indicators such as location and space syntax variables is remarkable and positive, while it decreases after rapid expansion. (2) Urban expansion velocity displays a positive correlation with spatial indicators mentioned above in the first (1980-1990) and second (1990-2000) period. However, it exhibits a negative relationship in the third period (2000-2010), i.e., cities located in the periphery of urban agglomeration developing more quickly. Consequently, the hypothesis of convergence of urban expansion in rapid expansion stage is put forward. (3) Results of Zipf's law and Gibrat's law show urban expansion in YRD displays a convergent trend in rapid expansion stage, small and medium-sized cities growing faster. This study shows that spatial linkage plays an important but evolving role in urban expansion within the urban agglomeration. In addition, it serves as a reference to the planning of Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration and regulation of urban expansion of other urban agglomerations.
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
Expansion of a plasma cloud in a uniform magnetic field
Gorbachev, L.P.
1984-10-01
The last stage of the expansion of a plasma in vacuum in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is investigated. The velocity of plasma expansion and the electrical conductivity of the plasma are such that the Reynolds number is considered to be small; under these conditions the induced magnetic field is neglected. By assuming that the density of the plasma and its electrical conductivity are functions of time alone, the expansion velocity of the plasma, the shape of the boundary, and the magnetic moment of the plasma cloud are determined from equations of magnetogasdynamics. 8 references.
The Prediction of Maximum Amplitudes of Solar Cycles and the Maximum Amplitude of Solar Cycle 24
无
2002-01-01
We present a brief review of predictions of solar cycle maximum ampli-tude with a lead time of 2 years or more. It is pointed out that a precise predictionof the maximum amplitude with such a lead-time is still an open question despiteprogress made since the 1960s. A method of prediction using statistical character-istics of solar cycles is developed: the solar cycles are divided into two groups, ahigh rising velocity (HRV) group and a low rising velocity (LRV) group, dependingon the rising velocity in the ascending phase for a given duration of the ascendingphase. The amplitude of Solar Cycle 24 can be predicted after the start of thecycle using the formula derived in this paper. Now, about 5 years before the startof the cycle, we can make a preliminary prediction of 83.2-119.4 for its maximumamplitude.
Multilogarithmic velocity renormalization in graphene
Sharma, Anand; Kopietz, Peter
2016-06-01
We reexamine the effect of long-range Coulomb interactions on the quasiparticle velocity in graphene. Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach with partial bosonization in the forward scattering channel and momentum transfer cutoff scheme, we calculate the quasiparticle velocity, v (k ) , and the quasiparticle residue, Z , with frequency-dependent polarization. One of our most striking results is that v (k ) ∝ln[Ck(α ) /k ] where the momentum- and interaction-dependent cutoff scale Ck(α ) vanishes logarithmically for k →0 . Here k is measured with respect to one of the charge neutrality (Dirac) points and α =2.2 is the strength of dimensionless bare interaction. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the so-obtained multilogarithmic singularity is reconcilable with the perturbative expansion of v (k ) in powers of the bare interaction.
Causes and consequences of magnetic cloud expansion
Démoulin, P.; Dasso, S.
2009-05-01
Context: A magnetic cloud (MC) is a magnetic flux rope in the solar wind (SW), which, at 1 AU, is observed ~2-5 days after its expulsion from the Sun. The associated solar eruption is observed as a coronal mass ejection (CME). Aims: Both the in situ observations of plasma velocity distribution and the increase in their size with solar distance demonstrate that MCs are strongly expanding structures. The aim of this work is to find the main causes of this expansion and to derive a model to explain the plasma velocity profiles typically observed inside MCs. Methods: We model the flux rope evolution as a series of force-free field states with two extreme limits: (a) ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) and (b) minimization of the magnetic energy with conserved magnetic helicity. We consider cylindrical flux ropes to reduce the problem to the integration of ordinary differential equations. This allows us to explore a wide variety of magnetic fields at a broad range of distances to the Sun. Results: We demonstrate that the rapid decrease in the total SW pressure with solar distance is the main driver of the flux-rope radial expansion. Other effects, such as the internal over-pressure, the radial distribution, and the amount of twist within the flux rope have a much weaker influence on the expansion. We demonstrate that any force-free flux rope will have a self-similar expansion if its total boundary pressure evolves as the inverse of its length to the fourth power. With the total pressure gradient observed in the SW, the radial expansion of flux ropes is close to self-similar with a nearly linear radial velocity profile across the flux rope, as observed. Moreover, we show that the expansion rate is proportional to the radius and to the global velocity away from the Sun. Conclusions: The simple and universal law found for the radial expansion of flux ropes in the SW predicts the typical size, magnetic structure, and radial velocity of MCs at various solar distances.
Mandel, Kaisey S; Kirshner, Robert P
2014-01-01
We investigate the correlations between the peak intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) and their expansion velocities at maximum light, measured from the Si II 6355 A spectral feature. We construct a new hierarchical Bayesian regression model and Gibbs sampler to estimate the dependence of the intrinsic colors of a SN Ia on its ejecta velocity, while accounting for the random effects of intrinsic scatter, measurement error, and reddening by host galaxy dust. The method is applied to the apparent color data from BVRI light curves and Si II velocity data for 79 nearby SN Ia. Comparison of the apparent color distributions of high velocity (HV) and normal velocity (NV) supernovae reveals significant discrepancies in B-V and B-R, but not other colors. Hence, they are likely due to intrinsic color differences originating in the B-band, rather than dust reddening. The mean intrinsic B-V and B-R color differences between HV and NV groups are 0.06 +/- 0.02 and 0.09 +/- 0.02 mag, respectively. Under a linear m...
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
Velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model
DONG Li-yun; WENG Xu-dan; LI Qing-ding
2009-01-01
In this paper,the velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model (OVM) is investigated.The driver adjusts the velocity of his vehicle by the desired headway,which depends on both instantaneous headway and relative velocity.The effect of relative velocity is measured by a sensitivity function.A specific form of the sensitivity function is supposed and the involved parameters are determined by the both numerical simulation and empirical data.It is shown that inclusion of velocity anticipation enhances the stability of traffic flow.Numerical simulations show a good agreement with empirical data.This model provides a better description of real traffic,including the acceleration process from standing states and the deceleration process approaching a stopped car.
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
The velocity field induced by a helical vortex tube
Fukumoto, Y.; Okulov, Valery
2005-01-01
The influence of finite-core thickness on the velocity field around a vortex tube is addressed. An asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart law is made to a higher order in a small parameter, the ratio of core radius to curvature radius, which consists of the velocity field due to lines of monopoles...
VELOCITY PROFILES OF TURBULENT OPEN CHANNEL FLOWS
WANG Dianchang; WANG Xingkui; YU Mingzhong; LI Danxun
2001-01-01
The log-law and the wake law of velocity profile for open channel flows are discussed and compared in this paper. Experimental data from eight sources are used to verify the velocity distribution models.The effect of bed level on the velocity profile is analyzed. A formula to calculate the maximum velocity is proposed. In the region of y ＜δm , the velocity profile approximately follows the log-law. For the region of y ＞δm , the effect of the aspect ratio is considered. A new velocity profile model on the basis of log-law that can unify all of the hydraulic bed roughness is presented.
Local wavefield velocity imaging for damage evaluation
Chia, Chen Ciang; Gan, Chia Sheng; Mustapha, F.
2017-02-01
Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging or Acoustic Wavefield Imaging has been widely used to evaluate structural damages and internal features. Inspecting complete wavefield time history for damage identification is tedious and error-prone. A more effective way is by extracting damage-related information into a single image. A wavefield velocity imaging method that maps the local estimates of group or phase velocity is proposed. Actual velocity values rather than arbitrarily-scaled intensities are mapped, enabling damage sizing without the need of supervised training or inspecting wavefield propagation video. Performance of the proposed method was tested by inspecting a 100 mm by 100 mm area of a 2 mm thick stainless steel specimen. Local phase velocity maps of A0 mode showed a half-thickness hole of 2 mm diameter as significant change in local phase velocity from the nominal 2 m/ms. Full width at half maximum of relevant velocity profiles proved the accuracy and consistency of the damage sizing.
Homentcovschi, Dorel; Miles, Ronald N.
2012-01-01
The paper applies the re-expansion method for analyzing planar discontinuities at the junction of two axi-symmetrical circular waveguides. The normal modes in the two waveguides are expanded at the junction plane into a system of functions accounting for velocity singularities at the corner points. As the new expansion has a high convergence order, only a few terms have to be considered for obtaining the solution of most practical problems. This paper gives the equivalent impedance accounting for nonplanar waves into a plane-wave analysis and also the scattering matrix describing the coupling of arbitrary modes at each side of the discontinuity valid in the case of many propagating modes in both sides of the duct. The last section applies the re-expansion technique to some concentric expansion chambers providing an explicit formula for the transmission loss coefficient. PMID:22352491
Munari, U; Dallaporta, S; Cherini, G; Valisa, P; Tomasella, L
2010-01-01
The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the He/N and very fast Nova Cyg 2008 N2 (V2491 Cyg) is studied in detail. A primary maximum was reached at V=7.45 +/-0.05 on April 11.37 (+/-0.1) 2008 UT, followed by a smooth decline characterized by t2(V)=4.8 days, and then a second maximum was attained at V=9.49 +/-0.03, 14.5 days after the primary one. This is the only third nova to have displayed a secondary maximum, after V2362 Cyg and V1493 Aql. The development and energetics of the secondary maximum is studied in detail. The smooth decline that followed was accurately monitored until day +144 when the nova was 8.6 mag fainter than maximum brightness, well into its nebular phase, with its line and continuum emissivity declining as t-3. The reddening affecting the nova was E(B-V)=0.23 +/-0.01, and the distance of 14 kpc places the nova at a height above the galactic plane of 1.1 kpc, larger than typical for He/N novae. The expansion velocity of the bulk of ejecta was 2000 km/sec, with complex emission profi...
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Barrera, G D [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia SJB, Ciudad Universitaria, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Bruno, J A O [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de QuImica Inorganica, AnalItica y QuImica FIsica, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Barron, T H K [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Allan, N L [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)
2005-02-02
There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)
Two dimensional velocity distribution in open channels using Renyi entropy
Kumbhakar, Manotosh; Ghoshal, Koeli
2016-05-01
In this study, the entropy concept is employed for describing the two-dimensional velocity distribution in an open channel. Using the principle of maximum entropy, the velocity distribution is derived by maximizing the Renyi entropy by assuming dimensionless velocity as a random variable. The derived velocity equation is capable of describing the variation of velocity along both the vertical and transverse directions with maximum velocity occurring on or below the water surface. The developed model of velocity distribution is tested with field and laboratory observations and is also compared with existing entropy-based velocity distributions. The present model has shown good agreement with the observed data and its prediction accuracy is comparable with the other existing models.
A Bayesian approach to image expansion for improved definition.
Schultz, R R; Stevenson, R L
1994-01-01
Accurate image expansion is important in many areas of image analysis. Common methods of expansion, such as linear and spline techniques, tend to smooth the image data at edge regions. This paper introduces a method for nonlinear image expansion which preserves the discontinuities of the original image, producing an expanded image with improved definition. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation techniques that are proposed for noise-free and noisy images result in the optimization of convex functionals. The expanded images produced from these methods will be shown to be aesthetically and quantitatively superior to images expanded by the standard methods of replication, linear interpolation, and cubic B-spline expansion.
Fakhruddin, Hasan
1993-01-01
Describes a paradox in the equation for thermal expansion. If the calculations for heating a rod and subsequently cooling a rod are determined, the new length of the cool rod is shorter than expected. (PR)
Tachoastrometry: astrometry with radial velocities
Pasquini, L; Lombardi, M; Monaco, L; Leão, I C; Delabre, B
2014-01-01
Spectra of composite systems (e.g., spectroscopic binaries) contain spatial information that can be retrieved by measuring the radial velocities (i.e., Doppler shifts) of the components in four observations with the slit rotated by 90 degrees in the sky. By using basic concepts of slit spectroscopy we show that the geometry of composite systems can be reliably retrieved by measuring only radial velocity differences taken with different slit angles. The spatial resolution is determined by the precision with which differential radial velocities can be measured. We use the UVES spectrograph at the VLT to observe the known spectroscopic binary star HD 188088 (HIP 97944), which has a maximum expected separation of 23 milli-arcseconds. We measure an astrometric signal in radial velocity of 276 \\ms, which corresponds to a separation between the two components at the time of the observations of 18 $\\pm2$ milli-arcseconds. The stars were aligned east-west. We describe a simple optical device to simultaneously record p...
Transferability between Isolated Joint Torques and a Maximum Polyarticular Task: A Preliminary Study
Costes Antony
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine if isolated maximum joint torques and joint torques during a maximum polyarticular task (i.e. cycling at maximum power are correlated despite joint angle and velocity discrepancies, and to assess if an isolated joint-specific torque production capability at slow angular velocity is related to cycling power. Nine cyclists completed two different evaluations of their lower limb maximum joint torques. Maximum Isolated Torques were assessed on isolated joint movements using an isokinetic ergometer and Maximum Pedalling Torques were calculated at the ankle, knee and hip for flexion and extension by inverse dynamics during cycling at maximum power. A correlation analysis was made between Maximum Isolated Torques and respective Maximum Pedalling Torques [3 joints x (flexion + extension], showing no significant relationship. Only one significant relationship was found between cycling maximum power and knee extension Maximum Isolated Torque (r=0.68, p<0.05. Lack of correlations between isolated joint torques measured at slow angular velocity and the same joint torques involved in a polyarticular task shows that transfers between both are not direct due to differences in joint angular velocities and in mono-articular versus poly articular joint torque production capabilities. However, this study confirms that maximum power in cycling is correlated with slow angular velocity mono-articular maximum knee extension torque.
MOTION VELOCITY SMOOTH LINK IN HIGH SPEED MACHINING
REN Kun; FU Jianzhong; CHEN Zichen
2007-01-01
To deal with over-shooting and gouging in high speed machining, a novel approach for velocity smooth link is proposed. Considering discrete tool path, cubic spline curve fitting is used to find dangerous points, and according to spatial geometric properties of tool path and the kinematics theory, maximum optimal velocities at dangerous points are obtained. Based on method of velocity control characteristics stored in control system, a fast algorithm for velocity smooth link is analyzed and formulated. On-line implementation results show that the proposed approach makes velocity changing more smoothly compared with traditional velocity control methods and improves productivity greatly.
Wakker, BP; vanWoerden, H
1997-01-01
High-velocity clouds (HVCs) consist of neutral hydrogen (HI) at velocities incompatible with a simple model of differential galactic rotation; in practice one uses \\v(LSR)\\ greater than or equal to 90 km/s to define HVCs. This review describes the main features of the sky and velocity distributions,
Transverse Spectral Velocity Estimation
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2014-01-01
A transverse oscillation (TO)-based method for calculating the velocity spectrum for fully transverse flow is described. Current methods yield the mean velocity at one position, whereas the new method reveals the transverse velocity spectrum as a function of time at one spatial location. A convex...
The Peak Luminosity of Type Ia Supernovae and its Implications for the Cosmic Expansion Rate
无
2001-01-01
Supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia) are confirmed to be the best distance indicators to derive the cosmic expansion rate. The dispersion of their peak lumi nosity at optical bands (BVI) is approximate to 0.13 mag, after taking into account the effects of the second parameters (i,e., the initial decline rate △m15(B) and (B - V) color at maximum light). The local calibrations from HST indicate an absolute magnitude of 19.48 ± 0.08 mag (in V band) for SNe Ia in spiral galaxies. The current expansion rate, H0, is found to be 63.6 ± 1.8 (random) ±5.7 (system-atic) kms-1 Mpc-1. This value will decrease by 3% when the metallicity effect on the cepheid distances is considered. In addition, a marginal local outward flow of 4.0 ± 4.5% within the velocity-distance of 7 000 km s-1 can be inferred from SNe Ia for the Einstein-de Sitter universe; however, this outward flow is only 2.2 ± 4.4% for an accelerating expansion universe (which is supported by high-z SNe Ia).
A method to deconvolve stellar rotational velocities
Cure, Michel; Cassetti, Julia; Christen, Alejandra
2014-01-01
Rotational speed is an important physical parameter of stars and knowing the distribution of stellar rotational velocities is essential for the understanding stellar evolution. However, it cannot be measured directly but the convolution of the rotational speed and the sine of the inclination angle, $v \\sin i$. We developed a method to deconvolve this inverse problem and obtain the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for stellar rotational velocities extending the work of Chandrasekhar & M\\"unch (1950). This method is applied a) to theoretical synthetic data recovering the original velocity distribution with very small error; b) to a sample of about 12.000 field main--sequence stars, corroborating that the velocity distribution function is non--Maxwellian, but is better described by distributions based on the concept of maximum entropy, such as Tsallis or Kaniadakis distribution functions. This is a very robust and novel method that deconvolve the rotational velocity cumulative distribution function fro...
Radial velocity moments of dark matter haloes
Wojtak, R; Gottlöber, S; Mamon, G A; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Mamon, Gary A.
2005-01-01
Using cosmological N-body simulations we study the radial velocity distribution in dark matter haloes focusing on the lowest-order even moments, dispersion and kurtosis. We determine the properties of ten massive haloes in the simulation box approximating their density distribution by the NFW formula characterized by the virial mass and concentration. We also calculate the velocity anisotropy parameter of the haloes and find it mildly radial and increasing with distance from the halo centre. The radial velocity dispersion of the haloes shows a characteristic profile with a maximum, while the radial kurtosis profile decreases with distance starting from a value close to Gaussian near the centre. We therefore confirm that dark matter haloes possess intrinsically non-Gaussian, flat-topped velocity distributions. We find that the radial velocity moments of the simulated haloes are very well reproduced by the solutions of the Jeans equations obtained for the halo parameters with the anisotropy measured in the simu...
Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner
Cho, Soo-Yong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ReCAPT), Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Cho, Chong-Hyun [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Kim, Chaesil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea)
2008-09-15
An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)
Composite asymptotic expansions
Fruchard, Augustin
2013-01-01
The purpose of these lecture notes is to develop a theory of asymptotic expansions for functions involving two variables, while at the same time using functions involving one variable and functions of the quotient of these two variables. Such composite asymptotic expansions (CAsEs) are particularly well-suited to describing solutions of singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations near turning points. CAsEs imply inner and outer expansions near turning points. Thus our approach is closely related to the method of matched asymptotic expansions. CAsEs offer two unique advantages, however. First, they provide uniform expansions near a turning point and away from it. Second, a Gevrey version of CAsEs is available and detailed in the lecture notes. Three problems are presented in which CAsEs are useful. The first application concerns canard solutions near a multiple turning point. The second application concerns so-called non-smooth or angular canard solutions. Finally an Ackerberg-O’Malley resonance pro...
Berkeley Supernova Ia Program II: Initial Analysis of Spectra Obtained Near Maximum Brightness
Silverman, Jeffrey M; Filippenko, Alexei V
2012-01-01
In this second paper in a series we present measurements of spectral features of 432 low-redshift (z < 0.1) optical spectra of 261 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) within 20 d of maximum brightness. The data were obtained from 1989 through the end of 2008 as part of the Berkeley SN Ia Program (BSNIP) and are presented in BSNIP I (Silverman et al., submitted). We describe in detail our method of automated, robust spectral feature definition and measurement which expands upon similar previous studies. Using this procedure, we attempt to measure expansion velocities, pseudo-equivalent widths (pEW), spectral feature depths, and fluxes at the centre and endpoints of each of nine major spectral feature complexes. A sanity check of the consistency of our measurements is performed using our data (as well as a separate spectral dataset). We investigate how velocity and pEW evolve with time and how they correlate with each other. Various spectral classification schemes are employed and quantitative spectral differences a...
Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique
Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer
2016-01-01
The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460
Steppe expansion in Patagonia?
Veblen, Thomas T.; Markgraf, Vera
1988-11-01
Westward expansion of the Patagonian steppe and retrocession of Andean forests due to increasing aridity over the past one or two millennia has been a persistent theme in the ecological and paleoecological literature for at least half a century. New evidence from pollen profiles, tree-ring analysis, vegetation structure, and photographic and documentary historical sources does not show the expansion of the steppe. Instead, over the past century trees have invaded the steppe as a consequence mainly of human-induced changes in the fire regime, and trees have regenerated in forest areas that were heavily burnt at the onset of European colonization.
Massimo Giovannini
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
Giovannini, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.giovannini@cern.ch [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Section of Milan-Bicocca, 20126 Milan (Italy)
2015-06-30
Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
Wang, Zhen; Kato, Teruyuki; Zhou, Xin; Fukuda, Jun'ichi
2016-11-01
A rupture model with varying rupture front expansion velocity for the March 11, 2011, Tohoku-Oki earthquake was obtained by the joint inversion of high-rate Global Positioning System (GPS) data and ocean bottom GPS/acoustic (OB-GPS) data. The inverted rupture velocity with a complex distribution gradually increases near the hypocenter and shows rapid rupture expansion at the shallowest part of the fault. The entire rupture process, which lasted 160 s, can be divided into three energy release stages, based on the moment rate function. The preferred slip model, showing a compatible relationship with aftershocks, has a primary asperity concentrated from the hypocenter to the trench and a small asperity located on the southern fault. Source time functions for subfaults and temporal rupture images suggest that repeated slips occurred in the primary rupture, which is consistent with that from seismic waveforms. Our estimated maximum slip and total seismic moment are 65 m and 4.2 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.0), respectively. The large slip, stress drop, and rupture velocity are all concentrated at shallow depths, which indicates that the shallow part of the fault radiated high-frequency as well as low-frequency seismic waves.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Radar velocity tomography in anisotropic media
Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Seong Jun; Yi Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1996-12-01
Radar tomography inversion method was developed in the elliptic anisotropic environment with the parametrization of maximum, minimum velocity, and the direction of symmetry axis. Nonlinear least-square method with smoothness constraint was adopted as inversion scheme. Newly developed algorithm was successfully tested with the 2-D numerical cross-borehole data in isotropic environment. Seismic data from physical modelling in partially anisotropic environment was also inverted and compared with the reconstruction technique assuming isotropic media. We could confirm the effectiveness of our algorithm, even though the tested data were generated from isotropic or partially anisotropic media. Cross-hole radar field data in limestone area in Korea was analyzed that the limestone bedrock is systematically anisotropic in the sense of radar application. The data set was inverted with the new anisotropy algorithm. The anisotropic effect in the data was corrected and also inverted for the comparison through the algorithm with isotropic assumption. Applying two different algorithm and comparing the various images, the tomographic image of maximum velocity from anisotropic inversion could give the most excellent way to visualize underground. An addition to the high resolution image, we could grasp some information on the material type from the feature of maximum velocity distribution the degree of anisotropy which can be inferred from the ratio of maximum and minimum velocity. The newly developed algorithm will be expected to provide a good way to image underground, especially in sedimentary or metamorphosed bedrock. (author). 9 refs., 21 figs.
Thermal expansion properties of metallic and cermet coatings
Ilavsky, J.; Berndt, C.C. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Center for Thermal Spray Res.
1998-04-01
Free-standing deposits of NiCrAl, stainless steel, and 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia were prepared using atmospheric plasma spraying and high velocity oxygen fuel processing. Feedstock powders were blended, yielding mixtures (by weight) of 100%, 75%, and 50% of the metallic material. Porosity and composition (i.e. metal or ceramic constituents) of these deposits were measured by image analysis. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was measured in the 200-950 C interval for four thermal cycles. The first runs of these CTE measurements were not linear and differentiation of this curve established the CTE dependence with respect to temperature. Maximums in CTE behavior suggest that stress relaxation and/or oxidation may be occurring. Measurements of CTE from thermal cycles after the first cycle were constant and obeyed the law of mixtures in the measured temperature region, suggesting that stress relaxation and/or oxidation, evident in the first cycle, are no longer dominant. Microstructural analysis and microhardness measurements were used to confirm the findings from CTE measurements. (orig.) 13 refs.
Improved Determination of the Location of the Temperature Maximum in the Corona
Lemaire, J. F.; Stegen, K.
2016-12-01
The most used method to calculate the coronal electron temperature [Te (r)] from a coronal density distribution [ne (r)] is the scale-height method (SHM). We introduce a novel method that is a generalization of a method introduced by Alfvén ( Ark. Mat. Astron. Fys. 27, 1, 1941) to calculate Te(r) for a corona in hydrostatic equilibrium: the "HST" method. All of the methods discussed here require given electron-density distributions [ne (r)] which can be derived from white-light (WL) eclipse observations. The new "DYN" method determines the unique solution of Te(r) for which Te(r → ∞) → 0 when the solar corona expands radially as realized in hydrodynamical solar-wind models. The applications of the SHM method and DYN method give comparable distributions for Te(r). Both have a maximum [T_{max}] whose value ranges between 1 - 3 MK. However, the peak of temperature is located at a different altitude in both cases. Close to the Sun where the expansion velocity is subsonic (r < 1.3 R_{⊙}) the DYN method gives the same results as the HST method. The effects of the other free parameters on the DYN temperature distribution are presented in the last part of this study. Our DYN method is a new tool to evaluate the range of altitudes where the heating rate is maximum in the solar corona when the electron-density distribution is obtained from WL coronal observations.
Velocity selective optical pumping
Aminoff, C. G.; Pinard, M.
1982-01-01
We consider optical pumping with a quasi monochromatic tunable light beam, in the low intensity limit where a rate equation regime is obtained The velocity selective optical pumping (V.S.O.P.) introduces a correlation between atomic velocity and internal variables in the ground (or metastable) state. The aim of this article is to evaluate these atomic observables (orientation, alignment, population) as a function of velocity, using a phenomenological description of the relaxation effect of co...
For the Long Island, New Jersey, and southern New England region, one facet of marsh drowning as a result of accelerated sea level rise is the expansion of salt marsh ponds and pannes. Over the past century, marsh ponds and pannes have formed and expanded in areas of poor drainag...
Kowalski, Emmanuel
2010-01-01
This is a survey report for the Bourbaki Seminar (Exp. no. 1028, November 2010) concerning sieve and expanders, in particular the recent works of Bourgain, Gamburd and Sarnak introducing "sieve in orbits", and the related developments concerning expansion properties of Cayley graphs of finite linear groups.
Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...
Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization
Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui
2014-11-01
The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.
2000-01-01
Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...
2000-01-01
Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...
Bigravity from gradient expansion
Yamashita, Yasuho [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Tanaka, Takahiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan)
2016-05-04
We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.
Operator product expansion algebra
Holland, Jan [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris-Palaiseau (France)
2014-07-01
The Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is a theoretical tool for studying the short distance behaviour of products of local quantum fields. Over the past 40 years, the OPE has not only found widespread computational application in high-energy physics, but, on a more conceptual level, it also encodes fundamental information on algebraic structures underlying quantum field theories. I review new insights into the status and properties of the OPE within Euclidean perturbation theory, addressing in particular the topics of convergence and ''factorisation'' of the expansion. Further, I present a formula for the ''deformation'' of the OPE algebra caused by a quartic interaction. This formula can be used to set up a novel iterative scheme for the perturbative computation of OPE coefficients, based solely on the zeroth order coefficients (and renormalisation conditions) as initial input.
Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.
Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis
2014-02-01
Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.
Experimental study on prediction model for maximum rebound ratio
LEI Wei-dong; TENG Jun; A.HEFNY; ZHAO Jian; GUAN Jiong
2007-01-01
The proposed prediction model for estimating the maximum rebound ratio was applied to a field explosion test, Mandai test in Singapore.The estimated possible maximum Deak particle velocities(PPVs)were compared with the field records.Three of the four available field-recorded PPVs lie exactly below the estimated possible maximum values as expected.while the fourth available field-recorded PPV lies close to and a bit higher than the estimated maximum possible PPV The comparison results show that the predicted PPVs from the proposed prediction model for the maximum rebound ratio match the field.recorded PPVs better than those from two empirical formulae.The very good agreement between the estimated and field-recorded values validates the proposed prediction model for estimating PPV in a rock mass with a set of ipints due to application of a two dimensional compressional wave at the boundary of a tunnel or a borehole.
Video Measurement of the Muzzle Velocity of a Potato Gun
Jasperson, Christopher; Pollman, Anthony
2011-01-01
Using first principles, a theoretical equation for the maximum and actual muzzle velocities for a pneumatic cannon was recently derived. For a fixed barrel length, this equation suggests that the muzzle velocity can be enhanced by maximizing the product of the initial pressure and the volume of the propellant gas and decreasing the projectile…
Video Measurement of the Muzzle Velocity of a Potato Gun
Jasperson, Christopher; Pollman, Anthony
2011-01-01
Using first principles, a theoretical equation for the maximum and actual muzzle velocities for a pneumatic cannon was recently derived. For a fixed barrel length, this equation suggests that the muzzle velocity can be enhanced by maximizing the product of the initial pressure and the volume of the propellant gas and decreasing the projectile…
Thermal expansion of glassy polymers.
Davy, K W; Braden, M
1992-01-01
The thermal expansion of a number of glassy polymers of interest in dentistry has been studied using a quartz dilatometer. In some cases, the expansion was linear and therefore the coefficient of thermal expansion readily determined. Other polymers exhibited non-linear behaviour and values appropriate to different temperature ranges are quoted. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion was, to a first approximation, a function of both the molar volume and van der Waal's volume of the repeating unit.
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
Maximum-entropy principle as Galerkin modelling paradigm
Noack, Bernd R.; Niven, Robert K.; Rowley, Clarence W.
2012-11-01
We show how the empirical Galerkin method, leading e.g. to POD models, can be derived from maximum-entropy principles building on Noack & Niven 2012 JFM. In particular, principles are proposed (1) for the Galerkin expansion, (2) for the Galerkin system identification, and (3) for the probability distribution of the attractor. Examples will illustrate the advantages of the entropic modelling paradigm. Partially supported by the ANR Chair of Excellence TUCOROM and an ADFA/UNSW Visiting Fellowship.
Superluminal Recession Velocities
Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.
2000-01-01
Hubble's Law, v=HD (recession velocity is proportional to distance), is a theoretical result derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. v=HD applies at least as far as the particle horizon and in principle for all distances. Thus, galaxies with distances greater than D=c/H are receding from us with velocities greater than the speed of light and superluminal recession is a fundamental part of the general relativistic description of the expanding universe. This apparent contradiction of special relativity (SR) is often mistakenly remedied by converting redshift to velocity using SR. Here we show that galaxies with recession velocities faster than the speed of light are observable and that in all viable cosmological models, galaxies above a redshift of three are receding superluminally.
Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.
Operator product expansion algebra
Holland, Jan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Hollands, Stefan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, Leipzig, D-04103 (Germany)
2013-07-15
We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean φ{sup 4}-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE,
Testing Machine for Expansive Mortar
Silva, Romulo Augusto Ventura
2011-01-01
The correct evaluation of a material property is fundamental to, on their application; they met all expectations that were designed for. In development of an expansive cement for ornamental rocks purpose, was denoted the absence of methodologies and equipments to evaluate the expansive pressure and temperature of expansive cement during their expansive process, having that data collected in a static state of the specimen. In that paper, is described equipment designed for evaluation of pressure and temperature of expansive cements applied to ornamental rocks.
Engineering Properties of Expansive Soil
DAI Shaobin; SONG Minghai; HUANG Jun
2005-01-01
The components of expansive soil were analyzed with EDAX, and it is shown that the main contents of expansive soil in the northern Hubei have some significant effects on engineering properties of expansive soil. Furthermore, the soil modified by lime has an obvious increase of Ca2+ and an improvement of connections between granules so as to reduce the expansibility and contractility of soil. And it also has a better effect on the modified expansive soil than the one modified by pulverized fuel ash.
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D. [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-03-27
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Anisotropic matching principle for the hydrodynamic expansion
Tinti, Leonardo
2016-10-01
Following the recent success of anisotropic hydrodynamics, I propose here a new, general prescription for the hydrodynamic expansion around an anisotropic background. The anisotropic distribution fixes exactly the complete energy-momentum tensor, just like the effective temperature fixes the proper energy density in the ordinary expansion around local equilibrium. This means that momentum anisotropies are already included at the leading order, allowing for large pressure anisotropies without the need of a next-to-leading-order treatment. The first moment of the Boltzmann equation (local four-momentum conservation) provides the time evolution of the proper energy density and the four-velocity. Differently from previous prescriptions, the dynamic equations for the pressure corrections are not derived from the zeroth or second moment of the Boltzmann equation, but they are taken directly from the exact evolution given by the Boltzmann equation. As known in the literature, the exact evolution of the pressure corrections involves higher moments of the Boltzmann distribution, which cannot be fixed by the anisotropic distribution alone. Neglecting the next-to-leading-order contributions corresponds to an approximation, which depends on the chosen form of the anisotropic distribution. I check the the effectiveness of the leading-order expansion around the generalized Romatschke-Stricklad distribution, comparing with the exact solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Bjorken limit with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation-time approximation, finding an unprecedented agreement.
Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Keil, S. L.; Smaldone, L. A.
1996-05-01
We investigate the three dimensional structure of solar pores and their surroundings using high spatial and spectral resolution data. We present evidence that surface velocities decrease around pores with a corresponding increase in the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. LOS velocities in pores increase with the strength of the magnetic field. Surface velocities show convergence toward a weak downflow which appear to trace boundaries resembling meso-granular and super granular flows. The observed magnetic fields in the pores appear near these boundaries. We analyze the vertical velocity structure in pores and show that they generally have downflows decreasing exponentially with height, with a scale height of about 90 km. Evidence is also presented for the expanding nature of flux tubes. Finally we describe a phenomenological model for pores. This work was supported by AFOSR Task 2311G3. LAS was partially supported by the Progetto Nazionale Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica of MURST and Scambi Internazionali of the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II. National Solar Observatory, NOAO, is operated for the National Science Foundation by AURA, Inc.
Modeling the Maximum Spreading of Liquid Droplets Impacting Wetting and Nonwetting Surfaces.
Lee, Jae Bong; Derome, Dominique; Guyer, Robert; Carmeliet, Jan
2016-02-09
Droplet impact has been imaged on different rigid, smooth, and rough substrates for three liquids with different viscosity and surface tension, with special attention to the lower impact velocity range. Of all studied parameters, only surface tension and viscosity, thus the liquid properties, clearly play a role in terms of the attained maximum spreading ratio of the impacting droplet. Surface roughness and type of surface (steel, aluminum, and parafilm) slightly affect the dynamic wettability and maximum spreading at low impact velocity. The dynamic contact angle at maximum spreading has been identified to properly characterize this dynamic spreading process, especially at low impact velocity where dynamic wetting plays an important role. The dynamic contact angle is found to be generally higher than the equilibrium contact angle, showing that statically wetting surfaces can become less wetting or even nonwetting under dynamic droplet impact. An improved energy balance model for maximum spreading ratio is proposed based on a correct analytical modeling of the time at maximum spreading, which determines the viscous dissipation. Experiments show that the time at maximum spreading decreases with impact velocity depending on the surface tension of the liquid, and a scaling with maximum spreading diameter and surface tension is proposed. A second improvement is based on the use of the dynamic contact angle at maximum spreading, instead of quasi-static contact angles, to describe the dynamic wetting process at low impact velocity. This improved model showed good agreement compared to experiments for the maximum spreading ratio versus impact velocity for different liquids, and a better prediction compared to other models in literature. In particular, scaling according to We(1/2) is found invalid for low velocities, since the curves bend over to higher maximum spreading ratios due to the dynamic wetting process.
Slipher, galaxies, and cosmological velocity fields
Peacock, John A
2013-01-01
By 1917, V.M. Slipher had singlehandedly established a tendency for 'spiral nebulae' to be redshifted (21 out of 25 cases). From a modern perspective, it could seem surprising that the expansion of the universe was not announced at this point. Examination of Slipher's papers shows that he reached a more subtle conclusion: the identification of cosmological peculiar velocities, including the bulk motion of the Milky Way, leading to a beautiful argument in favour of nebulae as distant stellar systems. Nevertheless, Slipher's data actually contain evidence at >8sigma for a positive mean velocity, even after subtracting the dipole owing to the motion of the observer. In 1929, Hubble estimated distances for a sample of no greater depth, using redshifts due almost entirely to Slipher. Hubble's distances were flawed in two distinct ways: in addition to an incorrect absolute calibration, the largest distances were systematically under-estimated. Nevertheless, he claimed the detection of a linear distance-redshift rel...
Dynamics of plasma expansion in the pulsed laser material interaction
N Kumar; S Dash; A K Tyagi; Baldev Raj
2010-08-01
A pulse Nd: YAG laser with pulse duration 5–10 ns, beam radius at focal point 0·2–0·4 mm, wavelengths 1064 nm, 532 nm and 238 nm with linearly polarized radiation and Gaussian beam proﬁle, was impacted on a thin foil of titanium metal for generating plasma plume. Numerically, the above parameters were linked with average kinetic energy of the electrons and ions in the laser-induced plasma. In the present model, electrons having higher velocities are assumed to escape from plasma, that forms a negatively charged sheath around the plasma. It is seen from present computations that the forward directed nature of the laser evaporation process results from the anisotropic expansion velocities associated with different species. These velocities are mainly controlled by the initial dimension of the expanding plasma. An attempt was undertaken to estimate the length of the plume at different ambient gas pressures using an adiabatic expansion model. The rate of the plasma expansion for various Ar+ ion energies was derived from numerical calculations. A numerical deﬁnition of this plasma includes events like collisional/radiative, excitation/de-excitation and ionization/recombination processes involving multiples of energy levels with several ionization stages. Finally, based on a kinetic model, the plasma expansion rate across the laser beam axis was investigated.
Simulated effects of cropland expansion on seasonal temperatures over China
Xiong, Zhe
Human activities result in deforestation, expansion of cropland, grassland degradation, urbanization and other large-scale land use/cover change; among these, cropland expansion is one of the most important processes. To understand the effects of cropland expansion on seasonal temperatures over China, two 21-year simulations (spanning January 1, 1980-December 31, 2000), using the Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS 2.0), were performed. The two simulations comprised current realistic land use/cover patterns and the previous vegetation cover without crop expansion, to investigate the impact of crop expansion on seasonal temperatures over China. The results showed that due to cropland expansion: (1) the most obvious changes occurred in the maximum temperatures, followed by the mean surface air temperatures, and the minimum temperatures were the least affected; (2) the summer mean maximum temperatures decreased in most parts of eastern China, and the temperatures changed significantly in most parts of northeast China, north China and central China (p crops, in both summer and winter seasons, and the converse occurred when irrigated crops were replaced by dry land crops. In addition, the net radiation flux and sensible heat flux decreased, and the latent heat flux increased when short grass and tall grass were replaced dry land crops, as well as when dry land crops were replaced by irrigated crops.
Effects of running velocity on running kinetics and kinematics.
Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John; Chaouachi, Anis
2011-04-01
Sixteen semiprofessional Australian football players performed running bouts at incremental velocities of 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximum velocity on a Woodway nonmotorized force treadmill. As running velocity increased from 40 to 60%, peak vertical and peak horizontal forces increased by 14.3% (effect size [ES] = 1.0) and 34.4% (ES = 4.2), respectively. The changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 60 to 80% were 1.0% (ES = 0.05) and 21.0% (ES = 2.9), respectively. Finally, the changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 80% to maximum were 2.0% (ES = 0.1) and 24.3% (ES = 3.4). In addition, both stride frequency and stride length significantly increased with each incremental velocity (p velocity (p velocity (r = 0.47). For the kinematic variables, only stride length was found to have a significant positive correlation with maximum running velocity (r = 0.66). It would seem that increasing maximal sprint velocity may be more dependent on horizontal force production as opposed to vertical force production.
Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy
Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.
2016-05-01
Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Conformal expansions and renormalons
Gardi, E; Gardi, Einan; Grunberg, Georges
2001-01-01
The large-order behaviour of QCD is dominated by renormalons. On the other hand renormalons do not occur in conformal theories, such as the one describing the infrared fixed-point of QCD at small beta_0 (the Banks--Zaks limit). Since the fixed-point has a perturbative realization, all-order perturbative relations exist between the conformal coefficients, which are renormalon-free, and the standard perturbative coefficients, which contain renormalons. Therefore, an explicit cancellation of renormalons should occur in these relations. The absence of renormalons in the conformal limit can thus be seen as a constraint on the structure of the QCD perturbative expansion. We show that the conformal constraint is non-trivial: a generic model for the large-order behaviour violates it. We also analyse a specific example, based on a renormalon-type integral over the two-loop running-coupling, where the required cancellation does occur.
Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy.
Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Boyden, Edward S
2015-01-30
In optical microscopy, fine structural details are resolved by using refraction to magnify images of a specimen. We discovered that by synthesizing a swellable polymer network within a specimen, it can be physically expanded, resulting in physical magnification. By covalently anchoring specific labels located within the specimen directly to the polymer network, labels spaced closer than the optical diffraction limit can be isotropically separated and optically resolved, a process we call expansion microscopy (ExM). Thus, this process can be used to perform scalable superresolution microscopy with diffraction-limited microscopes. We demonstrate ExM with apparent ~70-nanometer lateral resolution in both cultured cells and brain tissue, performing three-color superresolution imaging of ~10(7) cubic micrometers of the mouse hippocampus with a conventional confocal microscope.
Kick velocity induced by magnetic dipole and quadrupole radiation
Kojima, Yasufumi
2010-01-01
We examine the recoil velocity induced by the superposition of the magnetic dipole and quadrupole radiation from a pulsar/magnetar born with rapid rotation. The resultant velocity depends on not the magnitude, but rather the ratio of the two moments and their geometrical configuration. The model does not necessarily lead to high spatial velocity for a magnetar with a strong magnetic field, which is consistent with the recent observational upper bound. The maximum velocity predicted with this model is slightly smaller than that of observed fast-moving pulsars.
Paintball velocity as a function of distance traveled
Pat Chiarawongse
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the distance a paintball travels through air and its velocity is investigated by firing a paintball into a ballistic pendulum from a range of distances. The motion of the pendulum was filmed and analyzed by using video analysis software. The velocity of the paintball on impact was calculated from the maximum horizontal displacement of the pendulum. It is shown that the velocity of a paintball decreases exponentially with distance traveled, as expected. The average muzzle velocity of the paint balls is found with an estimate of the drag coefficient
Paintball velocity as a function of distance traveled
Pat Chiarawongse
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the distance a paintball travels through air and its velocity is investigated by firing a paintball into a ballistic pendulum from a range of distances. The motion of the pendulum was filmed and analyzed by using video analysis software. The velocity of the paintball on impact was calculated from the maximum horizontal displacement of the pendulum. It is shown that the velocity of a paintball decreases exponentially with distance traveled, as expected. The average muzzle velocity of the paint balls is found with an estimate of the drag coefficient.
Note: A helical velocity selector for continuous molecular beams.
Szewc, Carola; Collier, James D; Ulbricht, Hendrik
2010-10-01
We report on a modern realization of the classic helical velocity selector for gas phase particle beams. The device operates stably under high vacuum conditions at rotational frequencies limited only by commercial dc motor capabilities. Tuning the rotational frequency allows selective scanning over a broad velocity band. The width of the selected velocity distributions at full-width-half-maximum is as narrow as a few percent of the selected mean velocity and independent of the rotational speed of the selector. The selector generates low vibrational noise amplitudes comparable to mechanically damped state-of-the-art turbo-molecular pumps and is therefore compatible with vibration sensitive experiments like molecule interferometry.
The Prescribed Velocity Method
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Prescribed Velocity Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points close to the opening and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....
Right tail expansion of Tracy-Widom beta laws
Borot, Gaëtan
2011-01-01
Using loop equations, we compute the large deviation function of the maximum eigenvalue to the right of the spectrum in the Gaussian beta matrix ensembles, to all orders in 1/N. We then give a physical derivation of the all order asymptotic expansion of the right tail Tracy-Widom beta laws, for all positive beta, by studying the double scaling limit.
Numerical simulation of stratified shear flow using a higher order Taylor series expansion method
Iwashige, Kengo; Ikeda, Takashi [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)
1995-09-01
A higher order Taylor series expansion method is applied to two-dimensional numerical simulation of stratified shear flow. In the present study, central difference scheme-like method is adopted for an even expansion order, and upwind difference scheme-like method is adopted for an odd order, and the expansion order is variable. To evaluate the effects of expansion order upon the numerical results, a stratified shear flow test in a rectangular channel (Reynolds number = 1.7x10{sup 4}) is carried out, and the numerical velocity and temperature fields are compared with experimental results measured by laser Doppler velocimetry thermocouples. The results confirm that the higher and odd order methods can simulate mean velocity distributions, root-mean-square velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stress, temperature distributions, and root-mean-square temperature fluctuations.
Improved Determination of the Location of the Temperature Maximum in the Corona
Lemaire, J. F.; Stegen, K.
2016-10-01
The most used method to calculate the coronal electron temperature [ Te (r)] from a coronal density distribution [ ne (r)] is the scale-height method (SHM). We introduce a novel method that is a generalization of a method introduced by Alfvén (Ark. Mat. Astron. Fys. 27, 1, 1941) to calculate Te(r) for a corona in hydrostatic equilibrium: the "HST" method. All of the methods discussed here require given electron-density distributions [ ne (r)] which can be derived from white-light (WL) eclipse observations. The new "DYN" method determines the unique solution of Te(r) for which Te(r → ∞) → 0 when the solar corona expands radially as realized in hydrodynamical solar-wind models. The applications of the SHM method and DYN method give comparable distributions for Te(r). Both have a maximum [ T_{max}] whose value ranges between 1 - 3 MK. However, the peak of temperature is located at a different altitude in both cases. Close to the Sun where the expansion velocity is subsonic ( r corona when the electron-density distribution is obtained from WL coronal observations.
Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.
2013-01-01
Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…
Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization
Gaughan , T.F.
1999-02-26
Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Ackerman, Margareta; Lopez-Ortiz, Alejandro
2011-01-01
Over the last fifteen years, web searching has seen tremendous improvements. Starting from a nearly random collection of matching pages in 1995, today, search engines tend to satisfy the user's informational need on well-formulated queries. One of the main remaining challenges is to satisfy the users' needs when they provide a poorly formulated query. When the pages matching the user's original keywords are judged to be unsatisfactory, query expansion techniques are used to alter the result set. These techniques find keywords that are similar to the keywords given by the user, which are then appended to the original query leading to a perturbation of the result set. However, when the original query is sufficiently ill-posed, the user's informational need is best met using entirely different keywords, and a small perturbation of the original result set is bound to fail. We propose a novel approach that is not based on the keywords of the original query. We intentionally seek out orthogonal queries, which are r...
Lattice harmonics expansion revisited
Kontrym-Sznajd, G.; Holas, A.
2017-04-01
The main subject of the work is to provide the most effective way of determining the expansion of some quantities into orthogonal polynomials, when these quantities are known only along some limited number of sampling directions. By comparing the commonly used Houston method with the method based on the orthogonality relation, some relationships, which define the applicability and correctness of these methods, are demonstrated. They are verified for various sets of sampling directions applicable for expanding quantities having the full symmetry of the Brillouin zone of cubic and non-cubic lattices. All results clearly show that the Houston method is always better than the orthogonality-relation one. For the cubic symmetry we present a few sets of special directions (SDs) showing how their construction and, next, a proper application depend on the choice of various sets of lattice harmonics. SDs are important mainly for experimentalists who want to reconstruct anisotropic quantities from their measurements, performed at a limited number of sampling directions.
Wave propagation and group velocity
Brillouin, Léon
1960-01-01
Wave Propagation and Group Velocity contains papers on group velocity which were published during the First World War and are missing in many libraries. It introduces three different definitions of velocities: the group velocity of Lord Rayleigh, the signal velocity of Sommerfeld, and the velocity of energy transfer, which yields the rate of energy flow through a continuous wave and is strongly related to the characteristic impedance. These three velocities are identical for nonabsorbing media, but they differ considerably in an absorption band. Some examples are discussed in the last chapter
Growing Pains at Hospitals: Opportunities and Issues of Service Expansion in Maximum Care.
Hinkelmann, Juergen; Hasebrook, Joachim Paul; Volkert, Thomas; Hahnenkamp, Klaus
2017-01-01
Due to the demographic change morbidity raises the demand for medical hospital services as well as a need for medical specialization, while economic and human resources are diminishing. Unlike other industries hospitals do not have sufficient data and adequate models to relate growing demands and increasing performance to growth in staff capacity and to increase in staff competences. Based on huge medical data sample covering the years from 2010 to 2014 with more than 150,000 operations of the Department for Anesthesiology at the University Hospital Muenster, Germany, comparisons are drawn between the development of medical services and the development of personnel capacity and expertise. The numbers of surgical operations increased by 21% and "skin incision to closure" time by 17%. Simultaneously, personnel capacity grew by 16% largely resting upon recruiting first-time employees. Expertise measured as "years of professional experience" dwindled from 10 years to 5.4 years on average and staff turnover accelerated. Static benchmark data collected at fixed reference dates do not sufficiently reflect the nexus between capacity and competence and do not reflect the dynamic changes in a hospital's requirements for expertise and specialization, at all. Staff turnover leads to a loss of experience, which jeopardizes patient safety and hampers medical specialization. In consequence of the dramatic shortage of medical specialists, drop-off rates must be reduced and retention rates must be increased. To that end, working conditions need to be fundamentally converted for a multigeneration, multicultural, and increasingly female workforce.
Growing Pains at Hospitals: Opportunities and Issues of Service Expansion in Maximum Care
Juergen Hinkelmann
2017-06-01
Full Text Available PurposeDue to the demographic change morbidity raises the demand for medical hospital services as well as a need for medical specialization, while economic and human resources are diminishing. Unlike other industries hospitals do not have sufficient data and adequate models to relate growing demands and increasing performance to growth in staff capacity and to increase in staff competences.MethodBased on huge medical data sample covering the years from 2010 to 2014 with more than 150,000 operations of the Department for Anesthesiology at the University Hospital Muenster, Germany, comparisons are drawn between the development of medical services and the development of personnel capacity and expertise.ResultsThe numbers of surgical operations increased by 21% and “skin incision to closure” time by 17%. Simultaneously, personnel capacity grew by 16% largely resting upon recruiting first-time employees. Expertise measured as “years of professional experience” dwindled from 10 years to 5.4 years on average and staff turnover accelerated.ConclusionStatic benchmark data collected at fixed reference dates do not sufficiently reflect the nexus between capacity and competence and do not reflect the dynamic changes in a hospital’s requirements for expertise and specialization, at all. Staff turnover leads to a loss of experience, which jeopardizes patient safety and hampers medical specialization. In consequence of the dramatic shortage of medical specialists, drop-off rates must be reduced and retention rates must be increased. To that end, working conditions need to be fundamentally converted for a multigeneration, multicultural, and increasingly female workforce.
Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.
Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji
2016-07-13
Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.
High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from a Compact Circumstellar Shell
Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig
2017-05-01
High-velocity features (HVF) of Ca prior to B-band maximum light are a ubiquitous property of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), but the origin of this high-velocity material is unknown. It may result from ejection of material during the explosion, detonation of material on the surface prior to the supernova or interaction with a companion or material in the nearby environment. Here, we introduce the methods we use to simulate the interaction of SN Ia ejecta with a shell of material surrounding the progenitor at a distance of less than 1 R⊙. Assuming free expansion, constant ion state and excitation temperature, we generate synthetic spectra from the data showing the effect of equation of state, explosion model, and the width, initial density profile and mass of the shell on the appearance and temporal evolution of the Ca ii near-infrared triplet (CaNIR). The Ca abundance of the shell is taken to be a free parameter. We compare the evolution of the pseudo-equivalent width (pEW) of the CaNIR feature resulting from these models to observational results from Silverman et al. We find that the mass of the shell must be less than 0.012 ± 0.004 M⊙. We discuss potential ambiguities in observational methods of determining the pEW of the HVF.
High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from a Compact Circumstellar Shell
Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig
2017-01-01
High-velocity features (HVF) of Ca prior to B-band maximum light are a ubiquitous property of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), but the origin of this high-velocity material is unknown. It may result from ejection of material during the explosion, detonation of material on the surface prior to the supernova, or interaction with a companion or material in the nearby environment. Here we introduce the methods we use to simulate the interaction of SN Ia ejecta with a shell of material surrounding the progenitor at a distance of less than 1 R⊙. Assuming free expansion, constant ion state and excitation temperature, we generate synthetic spectra from the data showing the effect of equation of state, explosion model, and the width, initial density profile, and mass of the shell on the appearance and temporal evolution of the Ca II near-infrared triplet (CaNIR). The Ca abundance of the shell is taken to be a free parameter. We compare the evolution of the pseudo-equivalent width (pEW) of the CaNIR feature resulting from these models to observational results. We find that the mass of the shell must be less than 0.012 ± 0.004 M⊙. We discuss potential ambiguities in observational methods of determining the pEW of the HVF.
On genus expansion of superpolynomials
Mironov, A; Sleptsov, A; Smirnov, A
2013-01-01
Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present letter we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis:the Casimir operators are beta-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is rather straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond this family additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpol...
Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.
2010-01-01
The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
M. Mihelich
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We derive rigorous results on the link between the principle of maximum entropy production and the principle of maximum Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy using a Markov model of the passive scalar diffusion called the Zero Range Process. We show analytically that both the entropy production and the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy seen as functions of f admit a unique maximum denoted fmaxEP and fmaxKS. The behavior of these two maxima is explored as a function of the system disequilibrium and the system resolution N. The main result of this article is that fmaxEP and fmaxKS have the same Taylor expansion at first order in the deviation of equilibrium. We find that fmaxEP hardly depends on N whereas fmaxKS depends strongly on N. In particular, for a fixed difference of potential between the reservoirs, fmaxEP(N tends towards a non-zero value, while fmaxKS(N tends to 0 when N goes to infinity. For values of N typical of that adopted by Paltridge and climatologists (N ≈ 10 ~ 100, we show that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide even far from equilibrium. Finally, we show that one can find an optimal resolution N* such that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide, at least up to a second order parameter proportional to the non-equilibrium fluxes imposed to the boundaries. We find that the optimal resolution N* depends on the non equilibrium fluxes, so that deeper convection should be represented on finer grids. This result points to the inadequacy of using a single grid for representing convection in climate and weather models. Moreover, the application of this principle to passive scalar transport parametrization is therefore expected to provide both the value of the optimal flux, and of the optimal number of degrees of freedom (resolution to describe the system.
A collisionless plasma thruster plume expansion model
Merino, Mario; Cichocki, Filippo; Ahedo, Eduardo
2015-06-01
A two-fluid model of the unmagnetized, collisionless far region expansion of the plasma plume for gridded ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters is presented. The model is integrated into two semi-analytical solutions valid in the hypersonic case. These solutions are discussed and compared against the results from the (exact) method of characteristics; the relative errors in density and velocity increase slowly axially and radially and are of the order of 10-2-10-3 in the cases studied. The plasma density, ion flux and ambipolar electric field are investigated. A sensitivity analysis of the problem parameters and initial conditions is carried out in order to characterize the far plume divergence angle in the range of interest for space electric propulsion. A qualitative discussion of the physics of the secondary plasma plume is also provided.
Aeroacoustic sound generation in simple expansion chambers.
English, Emmet J; Holland, Keith R
2010-11-01
A method is presented for measuring the aeroacoustic source strength in ducts with flow at frequencies at which the wave motion can be considered substantially one-dimensional. The method is based on coherent power flux measurements using pairs of microphones positioned both upstream and downstream of the source region. The method is applied to a flow excited expansion chamber with aeroacoustic source measurements presented for chambers with a range of flow velocities and chamber lengths. The results indicate locked-on flow tones are generated in the chamber. The frequency of these locked-on flow tones is compared with that predicted using describing function theory applied to resonators with a grazing flow as well as that of other literature.
Characterization of a seeded pulsed molecular beam using the velocity map imaging technique
Lietard, Aude; Poisson, Lionel; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Gaveau, Marc-André
2016-11-01
An experimental study has been performed to characterize the density and the velocity distribution in a pulsed molecular beam generated by a source associating a pulsed valve and an oven placed just downstream. In its operating mode, the flow is alternatively in a supersonic and effusive regime. The Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) technique associated with laser ionization allows measuring the velocity distribution and the density of molecules as a function of time during the expansion. It gives us a very precise insight into the structure of the molecule bunch, and therefore into the nature of the expansion from which the molecular beam is extracted.
Mode Conversion Losses in Expansion Units for ITER ECH Transmission Lines
Schaub, S. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Hanson, G. R.
2016-01-01
The ITER electron cyclotron heating transmission lines will consist of 63.5-mm-diameter corrugated waveguides, each carrying 1 MW of 170 GHz microwaves. These transmission lines must include expansion units to accommodate expansion and contraction along the path from the gyrotron microwave sources to the tokamak. A numerical mode matching code has been developed to calculate power losses due to mode conversion of the operating mode, HE11, to higher order modes as a result of the radial discontinuities in a sliding joint. Two expansion unit designs were evaluated, a simple gap expansion unit and a more complex tapered expansion unit. The gap expansion unit demonstrated loss that oscillated rapidly with expansion length, due to trapped modes within the unit. The tapered expansion unit has been shown to effectively suppress these trapped modes at the expense of increased fabrication complexity. In a gap expansion unit, for a waveguide step size of 2.5 mm, loss can be kept below 0.1 % to a maximum expansion length of 17 mm. Expansion units without corrugation on interior walls were also evaluated. Expansion units that lack corrugations are found to increase mode trapping within the units, though not beyond useful application. The mode matching code developed in this paper was also used to estimate mode conversion loss in vacuum pumpouts for the ECH lines; the estimated loss was found to be negligibly small.
Accelerating cosmological expansion from shear and bulk viscosity
Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2015-01-01
The dissipation of energy from local velocity perturbations in the cosmological fluid affects the time evolution of spatially averaged fluid dynamic fields and the cosmological solution of Einstein's field equations. We show how this backreaction effect depends on shear and bulk viscosity and other material properties of the dark sector, as well as the spectrum of perturbations. If sufficiently large, this effect could account for the acceleration of the cosmological expansion.
Accelerating Cosmological Expansion from Shear and Bulk Viscosity
Floerchinger, Stefan; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2015-03-01
The dissipation of energy from local velocity perturbations in the cosmological fluid affects the time evolution of spatially averaged fluid dynamic fields and the cosmological solution of Einstein's field equations. We show how this backreaction effect depends on shear and bulk viscosity and other material properties of the dark sector, as well as the spectrum of perturbations. If sufficiently large, this effect could account for the acceleration of the cosmological expansion.
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Recovery of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer after an expansion corner
Sun, Ming-bo; Hu, Zhiwei; Sandham, Neil D.
2017-07-01
Supersonic turbulent flows at Mach 2.7 over expansion corners with deflection angles of 0° (flat plate), 2°, and 4° have been studied using direct numerical simulation. Distributions of skin friction, pressure, velocity, and boundary layer growth show that the turbulent boundary layer experiences a recovery from a non-equilibrium to an equilibrium state downstream of the expansion corner. Analysis of velocity profiles indicates that the streamwise velocity undergoes a reduction in the near-wall region even though the velocity in the core part of the boundary layer is accelerated after the expansion corner. Growth of the boundary layer was evaluated and a higher shape factor was found in the expansion cases. Turbulence was found to be mostly suppressed downstream of the corner, and throughout the recovery region, even though turbulence is regenerated in the near-wall region. The expansion ramp increases the near-wall streak spacing compared to a flat plate, and turbulent kinetic energy profiles and budgets exhibit a characteristic two-layer structure. Near-wall turbulence recovers to a balance between the local production and dissipation equilibrium more quickly in the inner layer than in the outer layer. The two-layer structure is due to a history effect of turbulence decay in the outer part of the boundary layer downstream of the expansion corner, with limited momentum and energy exchange between the inner layer and the main stream.
Applying the maximum information principle to cell transmission model of tra-ffic flow
刘喜敏; 卢守峰
2013-01-01
This paper integrates the maximum information principle with the Cell Transmission Model (CTM) to formulate the velo-city distribution evolution of vehicle traffic flow. The proposed discrete traffic kinetic model uses the cell transmission model to cal-culate the macroscopic variables of the vehicle transmission, and the maximum information principle to examine the velocity distri-bution in each cell. The velocity distribution based on maximum information principle is solved by the Lagrange multiplier method. The advantage of the proposed model is that it can simultaneously calculate the hydrodynamic variables and velocity distribution at the cell level. An example shows how the proposed model works. The proposed model is a hybrid traffic simulation model, which can be used to understand the self-organization phenomena in traffic flows and predict the traffic evolution.
Giovanni Corato
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Flow velocity measurements using point-velocity meters are normally obtained by sampling one, two or three velocity points per vertical profile. During high floods their use is inhibited due to the difficulty of sampling in lower portions of the flow area. Nevertheless, the application of standard methods allows estimation of a parameter, α, which depends on the energy slope and the Manning roughness coefficient. During high floods, monitoring of velocity can be accomplished by sampling the maximum velocity, umax, only, which can be used to estimate the mean flow velocity, um, by applying the linear entropy relationship depending on the parameter, M, estimated on the basis of historical observed pairs (um, umax. In this context, this work attempts to analyze if a correlation between α and M holds, so that the monitoring for high flows can be addressed by exploiting information from standard methods. A methodology is proposed to estimate M from α, by coupling the “historical” information derived by standard methods, and “new” information from the measurement of umax surmised at later times. Results from four gauged river sites of different hydraulic and geometric characteristics have shown the robust estimation of M based on α.
Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing
Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wech, Tobias; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Comprehensive Heart Failure Center (CHFC)
2014-10-01
Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity
Transverse velocity shifts in protostellar jets: rotation or velocity asymmetries?
De Colle, Fabio; Riera, Angels
2016-01-01
Observations of several protostellar jets show systematic differences in radial velocity transverse to the jet propagation direction, which have been interpreted as evidence of rotation in the jets. In this paper we discuss the origin of these velocity shifts, and show that they could be originated by rotation in the flow, or by side to side asymmetries in the shock velocity, which could be due to asymmetries in the jet ejection velocity/density or in the ambient medium. For typical poloidal jet velocities (~ 100-200 km/s), an asymmetry >~ 10% can produce velocity shifts comparable to those observed. We also present three dimensional numerical simulations of rotating, precessing and asymmetric jets, and show that, even though for a given jet there is a clear degeneracy between these effects, a statistical analysis of jets with different inclination angles can help to distinguish between the alternative origins of transverse velocity shifts. Our analysis indicate that side to side velocities asymmetries could ...
Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam
Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.
2006-01-01
Closed cell foams are often used for thermal insulation. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the External Tank uses several thermal protection systems to maintain the temperature of the cryogenic fuels. A few of these systems are polyurethane, closed cell foams. In an attempt to better understand the foam behavior on the tank, we are in the process of developing and improving thermal-mechanical models for the foams. These models will start at the microstructural level and progress to the overall structural behavior of the foams on the tank. One of the key properties for model characterization and verification is thermal expansion. Since the foam is not a material, but a structure, the modeling of the expansion is complex. It is also exacerbated by the anisoptropy of the material. During the spraying and foaming process, the cells become elongated in the rise direction and this imparts different properties in the rise direction than in the transverse directions. Our approach is to treat the foam as a two part structure consisting of the polymeric cell structure and the gas inside the cells. The polymeric skeleton has a thermal expansion of its own which is derived from the basic polymer chemistry. However, a major contributor to the thermal expansion is the volume change associated with the gas inside of the closed cells. As this gas expands it exerts pressure on the cell walls and changes the shape and size of the cells. The amount that this occurs depends on the elastic and viscoplastic properties of the polymer skeleton. The more compliant the polymeric skeleton, the more influence the gas pressure has on the expansion. An additional influence on the expansion process is that the polymeric skeleton begins to breakdown at elevated temperatures and releases additional gas species into the cell interiors, adding to the gas pressure. The fact that this is such a complex process makes thermal expansion ideal for testing the models. This report focuses on the thermal
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy.
Speckhard, Eric G; Ng, Kenny C Y; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan
2016-01-22
Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce linelike spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will have the precision needed. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.
Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy
Speckhard, Eric G; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan
2016-01-01
Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce line-like spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming and proposed experiments will make significant improvements. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.
The velocity-depth ambiguity in seismic traveltime data
Ross, W.S. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))
1994-05-01
An observed disturbance in seismic traveltimes to a reflector can be caused either by an anomalous velocity zone between the surface and the reflector or by a structural variation in the reflector itself. This velocity-depth ambiguity is formulated in terms of linear estimation theory. Such a formulation allows integration of various published results in velocity-depth ambiguity and suggests improved methods of stabilizing the solution of a depth-conversion problem. By solving a relatively simple problem that is amenable to analysis -- a single reflector beneath an overburden with a variable velocity -- the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The velocity-depth ambiguity is caused by traveltime errors and can be quantitatively related to those errors by closed-form expressions if the velocities do not vary laterally. Among other things, those expressions show that for small spread lengths (shorter than half the depth) the errors in velocity and depth are inversely proportional to the square of the spread length. Errors can thus be reduced more effectively at small spread lengths by increasing the maximum offset rather than by including more offsets. Laterally varying velocities can be estimated accurately at all but isolated points in their spatial frequency spectrum, called ''wavelengths of maximum ambiguity.'' If these ambiguous wavelengths are stabilized by damping them rather than by more traditional lateral smoothing techniques, structural or velocity features smaller than a spread length need not be smeared laterally. (3) A deep velocity anomaly is estimated with lower accuracy than is a shallow one. The theory presented here is a complement to more general methods of velocity inversion, such as tomography, which can be used to solve very complex problems beyond the scope of this analysis.
The effect of rapid maxillary expansion on nasal airway resistance.
White, B C; Woodside, D G; Cole, P
1989-06-01
The purpose of this investigation was to provide quantitative data describing the effects of rapid palatal expansion on nasal airway resistance. Rapid palatal expansion is an orthodontic procedure which is commonly used to widen the maxilla to correct maxillary narrowing resulting in the orthodontic abnormality of crossbite and to provide more space for alignment of crowded teeth. Recordings of nasal airway resistance were taken prior to expansion, immediately after expansion (approximately one month), after a retention period of approximately 4 months and approximately one year after initiation of treatment. Findings indicate an average reduction in nasal airway resistance of 48.7 per cent which was statistically significant at the 0.005 level. The reduction also appeared stable throughout the post treatment observation period (maximum one year) as each series of readings was statistically significantly lower than the initial reading, but not significantly different from each other. Reduction of nasal airway resistance was highly correlated to the initial nasal resistance level prior to rapid maxillary expansion. Those individuals with the greater initial resistance tended to have greater reductions in airway resistance following the expansion.
Stabilization of Expansive Soil by Lime and Fly Ash
ZHANG Ji-ru; CAO Xing
2002-01-01
An experimental program was undertaken to study the individual and admixed effects of lime and fly ash on the geotechnical characteristics of expansive soil. Lime and fly ash were added to the expansive soil at 4% -6% and 40% - 50% by dry weight of soil, respectively. Testing specimens were determined and examined in chemical composition, grain size distribution, consistency limits, compaction, CBR ,free swell and swell capacity. The effect of lime and fly ash addition on reducing the swelling potential of an expansive soil is presented.It is revealed that a change of expansive soil texture takes place when lime and fly ash are mixed with expansive soil. Plastic limit increases by mixing lime and liquid limit decreases by mixing fly ash, which decreases plasticity index. As the amount of lime and fly ash is increased, there are an apparent reduction in maximum dry density,free swell and swelling capacity under 50 kPa pressure, and a corresponding increase in the percentage of coarse particles, optimum moisture content and CBR value. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the expansive soil can be successfully stabilized by lime and fly ash.
The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation
Wu, Zedong
2013-01-01
Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wave-field extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media, because of its dispersion and artifact free, as well as highly accurate, solutions of the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number of inverse FFT required per time extrapolation step, and thus, a lower rank admits faster extrapolations. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its low rank representation.Thus,we obtain more accurate wave-fields using lower rank representation, and thus cheaper extrapolations. The optimization operation to define the low rank representation depends only on the velocity model, and this is done only once, and valid for a full reverse time migration (many shots) or one iteration of full waveform inversion. Applications on the BP model yielded superior results than those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, the solutions were free of the shear wave artifacts, and does not require that eta>0.
Force-velocity properties of two avian hindlimb muscles.
Nelson, Frank E; Gabaldón, Annette M; Roberts, Thomas J
2004-04-01
Recent work has provided measurements of power output in avian skeletal muscles during running and flying, but little is known about the contractile properties of avian skeletal muscle. We used an in situ preparation to characterize the force-velocity properties of two hind limb muscles, the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and peroneus longus (PL), in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A servomotor measured shortening velocity for at least six different loads over the plateau region of the length-tension curve. The Hill equation was fit to the data to determine maximum shortening velocity and peak instantaneous power. Maximum unloaded shortening velocity was 13.0+/-1.6 L s(-1) for the LG muscle and 14.8+/-1.0 L s(-1) for the PL muscle (mean+/-S.E.M.). These velocities are within the range of values published for reptilian and mammalian muscles. Values recorded for maximum isometric force per cross-sectional area, 271+/-28 kPa for the LG and 257+/-30.5 kPa for the PL, and peak instantaneous power output, 341.7+/-36.4 W kg(-1) for the LG and 319.4+/-42.5 W kg(-1) for the PL, were also within the range of published values for vertebrate muscle. The force-velocity properties of turkey LG and PL muscle do not reveal any extreme differences in the mechanical potential between avian and other vertebrate muscle.
Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics
Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Spaliński, Michał
2016-12-01
We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of nonhydrodynamic modes.
Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics
Florkowski, Wojciech; Spaliński, Michał
2016-01-01
We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes.
Optical flow based velocity estimation for mobile robots
Li, Xiuzhi; Zhao, Guanrong; Jia, Songmin; Qin, Baoling; Yang, Ailin
2015-02-01
This paper presents an optical flow based novel technique to perceive the instant motion velocity of mobile robots. The primary focus of this study is to determine the robot's ego-motion using displacement field in temporally consecutive image pairs. In contrast to most previous approaches for estimating velocity, we employ a polynomial expansion based dense optical flow approach and propose a quadratic model based RANSAC refinement of flow fields to render our method more robust with respect to noise and outliers. Accordingly, techniques for geometrical transformation and interpretation of the inter-frame motion are presented. Advantages of our proposal are validated by real experimental results conducted on Pioneer robot.
Equivalence of the velocity and length gauge perturbation series
Faisal, F H M
2008-01-01
We derive a "master" perturbation expansion for the quantum transition amplitude in a light field between the field-free initial and final atomic states in the minimal-coupling (MC) "velocity" gauge. The result is used to prove that the traditional "velocity" and "length" gauge perturbation series are equivalent infinite series representations or branches of the same amplitude function, that are equal but in a common domain of convergence (if it exists). More generally, we show that they constitute only two members of a one-parameter family of infinitely many branches of the given transition amplitude.
Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion
Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....
Expansion of magnetic clouds in the outer heliosphere
Gulisano, A. M.; Démoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Rodriguez, L.
2012-07-01
Context. A large amount of magnetized plasma is frequently ejected from the Sun as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Some of these ejections are detected in the solar wind as magnetic clouds (MCs) that have flux rope signatures. Aims: Magnetic clouds are structures that typically expand in the inner heliosphere. We derive the expansion properties of MCs in the outer heliosphere from one to five astronomical units to compare them with those in the inner heliosphere. Methods: We analyze MCs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft using in situ magnetic field and plasma measurements. The MC boundaries are defined in the MC frame after defining the MC axis with a minimum variance method applied only to the flux rope structure. As in the inner heliosphere, a large fraction of the velocity profile within MCs is close to a linear function of time. This is indicative of a self-similar expansion and a MC size that locally follows a power-law of the solar distance with an exponent called ζ. We derive the value of ζ from the in situ velocity data. Results: We analyze separately the non-perturbed MCs (cases showing a linear velocity profile almost for the full event), and perturbed MCs (cases showing a strongly distorted velocity profile). We find that non-perturbed MCs expand with a similar non-dimensional expansion rate (ζ = 1.05 ± 0.34), i.e. slightly faster than at the solar distance and in the inner heliosphere (ζ = 0.91 ± 0.23). The subset of perturbed MCs expands, as in the inner heliosphere, at a significantly lower rate and with a larger dispersion (ζ = 0.28 ± 0.52) as expected from the temporal evolution found in numerical simulations. This local measure of the expansion also agrees with the distribution with distance of MC size, mean magnetic field, and plasma parameters. The MCs interacting with a strong field region, e.g. another MC, have the most variable expansion rate (ranging from compression to over-expansion).
Hu, Kainan; Geng, Shaojuan
2016-01-01
A decoupled scheme based on the Hermite expansion to construct lattice Boltzmann models for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary specific heat ratio is proposed. The local equilibrium distribution function including the rotational velocity of particle is decoupled into two parts, i.e. the local equilibrium distribution function of the translational velocity of particle and that of the rotational velocity of particle. From these two local equilibrium functions, two lattice Boltzmann models are derived via the Hermite expansion, namely one is in relation to the translational velocity and the other is connected with the rotational velocity. Accordingly, the distribution function is also decoupled. After this, the evolution equation is decoupled into the evolution equation of the translational velocity and that of the rotational velocity. The two evolution equations evolve separately. The lattice Boltzmann models used in the scheme proposed by this work are constructed via the Hermite expansion...
Velocity centroids as tracers of the turbulent velocity statistics
Lazarian, A E A
2004-01-01
We use the results of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to emulate spectroscopic observations, and produce maps of variations of velocity centroids to study their scaling properties. We compare them with those of the underlying velocity field, and analytic predictions presented in a previous paper (Lazarian & Esquivel 2003). We tested, with success, a criteria for recovering velocity statistics from velocity centroids derived in our previous work. That is, if >> (where S is a 2D map of ``unnormalized'', v velocity, and I integrated intensity map -column density-), then the structure function of the centroids is dominated by the structure function of velocity. We show that it is possible to extract the velocity statistics using centroids for subsonic and mildly supersonic turbulence (e.g. Mach numbers ~2.5). While, towards higher Mach numbers other effects could affect significantly the statistics of centroids.
Statistics of Velocity from Spectral Data Modified Velocity Centroids
Lazarian, A
2003-01-01
We address the problem of studying interstellar (ISM) turbulence using spectral line data. We construct a measure that we term modified velocity centroids (MVCs) and derive an analytical solution that relates the 2D spectra of the modified centroids with the underlying 3D velocity spectrum. We test our results using synthetic maps constructed with data obtained through simulations of compressible MHD turbulence. We prove that the MVCs are able to restore the underlying spectrum of turbulent velocity. We show that the modified velocity centroids (MVCs) are complementary to the the Velocity Channel Analysis (VCA) technique that we introduced earlier. Employed together they make determining of the velocity spectral index more reliable. At the same time we show that MVCs allow to determine velocity spectra when the underlying statistics is not a power law and/or the turbulence is subsonic.
Gandhi, Saurabh; Yurtsev, Eugene; Korolev, Kirill; Gore, Jeff
Range expansions are becoming more frequent due to environmental changes and rare long distance dispersal, often facilitated by anthropogenic activities. Simple models in theoretical ecology explain many emergent properties of range expansions, such as a constant expansion velocity, in terms of organism-level properties such as growth and dispersal rates. Testing these quantitative predictions in natural populations is difficult because of large environmental variability. Here, we used a controlled microbial model system to study range expansions of populations with and without intra-specific cooperativity. For non-cooperative growth, the expansion dynamics were dominated by population growth at the low-density front, which pulled the expansion forward. We found these expansions to be in close quantitative agreement with the classical theory of pulled waves by Fisher and Skellam, suitably adapted to our experimental system. However, as cooperativity increased, the expansions transitioned to being pushed, i.e. controlled by growth in the bulk as well as in the front. Although both pulled and pushed waves expand at a constant velocity and appear otherwise similar, their distinct dynamics leads to very different evolutionary consequences. Given the prevalence of cooperative growth in nature, understanding the effects of cooperativity is essential to managing invading species and understanding their evolution.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
Multicomponent plasma expansion into vacuum with non-Maxwellian electrons
Elkamash, Ibrahem; Kourakis, Ioannis
2016-10-01
The expansion of a collisionless plasma into vacuum has been widely studied since the early works of Gurevich et al and Allen and coworkers. It has received momentum in recent years, in particular in the context of ultraintense laser pulse interaction with a solid target, in an effort to elucidate the generation of high energy ion beams. In most present day experiments, laser produced plasmas contain several ion species, due to increasingly complicated composite targets. Anderson et al have studied the isothermal expansion of a two-ion-species plasma. As in most earlier works, the electrons were assumed to be isothermal throughout the expansion. However, in more realistic situations, the evolution of laser produced plasmas into vacuum is mainly governed by nonthermal electrons. These electrons are characterized by particle distribution functions with high energy tails, which may significantly deviate from the Maxwellian distribution. In this paper, we present a theoretical model for plasma expansion of two component plasma with nonthermal electrons, modelled by a kappa-type distribution. The superthermal effect on the ion density, velocity and the electric field is investigated. It is shown that energetic electrons have a significant effecton the expansion dynamics of the plasma. This work was supported from CPP/QUB funding. One of us (I.S. Elkamash) acknowledges financial support by an Egyptian Government fellowship.
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
Algorithm of capacity expansion on networks optimization
无
2003-01-01
The paper points out the relationship between the bottleneck and the minimum cutset of the network, and presents a capacity expansion algorithm of network optimization to solve the network bottleneck problem. The complexity of the algorithm is also analyzed. As required by the algorithm, some virtual sources are imported through the whole positive direction subsection in the network, in which a certain capacity value is given. Simultaneously, a corresponding capacity-expanded network is constructed to search all minimum cutsets. For a given maximum flow value of the network, the authors found an adjustment value of each minimum cutset arc's group with gradually reverse calculation and marked out the feasible flow on the capacity-extended networks again with the adjustment value increasing. All this has been done repeatedly until the original topology structure is resumed. So the algorithm can increase the capacity of networks effectively and solve the bottleneck problem of networks.
Direct Ejecta Velocity Measurements of Tycho's Supernova Remnant
Sato, Toshiki
2016-01-01
We present the first direct ejecta velocity measurements of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR). Chandra's high angular resolution images reveal a patchy structure of radial velocities in the ejecta that can be separated into distinct redshifted, blueshifted, and low velocity ejecta clumps or blobs. The typical velocities of the redshifted and blueshifted blobs are <~ 7,800 km/s and <~ 5,000 km/s, respectively. The highest velocity blobs are located near the center, while the low velocity ones appear near the edge as expected for a generally spherical expansion. Systematic uncertainty on the velocity measurements from gain calibration was assessed by carrying out joint fits of individual blobs with both the ACIS-I and ACIS-S detectors. We identified an annular region (~3.3'-3.5'), where the surface brightness in the Si, S, and Fe K lines reaches a peak while the line width reaches a minimum value. These minimum line widths correspond to ion temperatures of ~1 MeV for each of the three species, in excellent ...
Gustavsson, K
2013-01-01
We calculate the Lyapunov exponents describing spatial clustering of particles advected in one- and two-dimensional random velocity fields at finite Kubo number Ku (a dimensionless parameter characterising the correlation time of the velocity field). In one dimension we obtain accurate results up to Ku ~ 1 by resummation of a perturbation expansion in Ku. At large Kubo numbers we compute the Lyapunov exponent by taking into account the fact that the particles follow the minima of the potential function corresponding to the velocity field. In two dimensions we compute the first four non-vanishing terms in the small-Ku expansion of the Lyapunov exponents. For large Kubo numbers we estimate the Lyapunov exponents by assuming that the particles sample stagnation points of the velocity field with det A > 0 and Tr A < 0 where A is the matrix of flow-velocity gradients.
On $2k$-Variable Symmetric Boolean Functions with Maximum Algebraic Immunity $k$
Wang, Hui; Li, Yuan; Kan, Haibin
2011-01-01
Given a positive even integer $n$, it is found that the weight distribution of any $n$-variable symmetric Boolean function with maximum algebraic immunity $\\frac{n}{2}$ is determined by the binary expansion of $n$. Based on that, all $n$-variable symmetric Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity are constructed. The amount is $(2\\wt(n)+1)2^{\\lfloor \\log_2 n \\rfloor}$.
Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Han, Ruoyu [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2015-12-28
Experimental investigations on the electrical explosion of aluminum wire using negative polarity current in vacuum are presented. Current pulses with rise rates of 40 A/ns, 80 A/ns, and 120 A/ns are generated for investigating the influence of current rise rate on energy deposition. Experimental results show a significant increase of energy deposition into the wire before the voltage breakdown with the increase of current rise rate. The influence of wire dimension on energy deposition is investigated as well. Decreasing the wire length allows more energy to be deposited into the wire. The energy deposition of a 0.5 cm-long wire explosion is ∼2.5 times higher than the energy deposition of a 2 cm-long wire explosion. The dependence of the energy deposition on wire diameter demonstrates a maximum energy deposition of 2.7 eV/atom with a diameter of ∼18 μm. Substantial increase in energy deposition is observed in the electrical explosion of aluminum wire with polyimide coating. A laser probe is applied to construct the shadowgraphy, schlieren, and interferometry diagnostics. The morphology and expansion trajectory of exploding products are analyzed based on the shadowgram. The interference phase shift is reconstructed from the interferogram. Parallel dual wires are exploded to estimate the expansion velocity of the plasma shell.
Minimal information in velocity space
Evrard, Guillaume
1995-01-01
Jaynes' transformation group principle is used to derive the objective prior for the velocity of a non-zero rest-mass particle. In the case of classical mechanics, invariance under the classical law of addition of velocities, leads to an improper constant prior over the unbounded velocity space of classical mechanics. The application of the relativistic law of addition of velocities leads to a less simple prior. It can however be rewritten as a uniform volumetric distribution if the relativistic velocity space is given a non-trivial metric.
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Consideration of wear rates at high velocity
Hale, Chad S.
The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models
Visual control of walking velocity.
François, Matthieu; Morice, Antoine H P; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Montagne, Gilles
2011-06-01
Even if optical correlates of self-motion velocity have already been identified, their contribution to the control of displacement velocity remains to be established. In this study, we used a virtual reality set-up coupled to a treadmill to test the role of both Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) and Edge Rate (ER) in the regulation of walking velocity. Participants were required to walk at a constant velocity, corresponding to their preferred walking velocity, while eye height and texture density were manipulated. This manipulation perturbed the natural relationship between the actual walking velocity and its optical specification by GOFR and ER, respectively. Results revealed that both these sources of information are indeed used by participants to control walking speed, as demonstrated by a slowing down of actual walking velocity when the optical specification of velocity by either GOFR or ER gives rise to an overestimation of actual velocity, and vice versa. Gait analyses showed that these walking velocity adjustments result from simultaneous adaptations in both step length and step duration. The role of visual information in the control of self-motion velocity is discussed in relation with other factors.
Etemadsaeed, Leila; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef; Ansari, Anooshiravan; Kristekova, Miriam
2016-10-01
We investigate the problem of finite-difference approximations of the velocity-stress formulation of the equation of motion and constitutive law on the staggered grid (SG) and collocated grid (CG). For approximating the first spatial and temporal derivatives, we use three approaches: Taylor expansion (TE), dispersion-relation preserving (DRP), and combined TE-DRP. The TE and DRP approaches represent two fundamental extremes. We derive useful formulae for DRP and TE-DRP approximations. We compare accuracy of the numerical wavenumbers and numerical frequencies of the basic TE, DRP and TE-DRP approximations. Based on the developed approximations, we construct and numerically investigate 14 basic TE, DRP and TE-DRP finite-difference schemes on SG and CG. We find that (1) the TE second-order in time, TE fourth-order in space, 2-point in time, 4-point in space SG scheme (that is the standard (2,4) VS SG scheme, say TE-2-4-2-4-SG) is the best scheme (of the 14 investigated) for large fractions of the maximum possible time step, or, in other words, in a homogeneous medium; (2) the TE second-order in time, combined TE-DRP second-order in space, 2-point in time, 4-point in space SG scheme (say TE-DRP-2-2-2-4-SG) is the best scheme for small fractions of the maximum possible time step, or, in other words, in models with large velocity contrasts if uniform spatial grid spacing and time step are used. The practical conclusion is that in computer codes based on standard TE-2-4-2-4-SG, it is enough to redefine the values of the approximation coefficients by those of TE-DRP-2-2-2-4-SG for increasing accuracy of modelling in models with large velocity contrast between rock and sediments.
ON THE BOTTLENECK CAPACITY EXPANSION PROBLEMS ON NETWORKS
Yang Chao; Zhang Jianzhong
2006-01-01
This article considers a class of bottleneck capacity expansion problems. Such problems aim to enhance bottleneck capacity to a certain level with minimum cost. Given a network G(V, A,(-C)) consisting of a set of nodes V = {v1, v2,………, vn}, a set of arcs A(∪-){(vi, vj) | i = 1, 2,………, n; j = 1, 2,………, n} and a capacity vector (-C). The component (-C)ij of (-C) is the capacity of arc (vi, vj). Define the capacity of a subset A' of A as the minimum capacity of the arcs in A, the capacity of a family F of subsets of A is the maximum capacity of its members. There axe two types of expanding models. In the arc-expanding model, the unit cost to increase the capacity of arc (vi, vj) is wij. In the node-expanding model, it is assumed that the capacities of all arcs (vi, vi) which start at the same node vi should be increased by the same amount and that the unit cost to make such expansion is wi. This article considers three kinds of bottleneck capacity expansion problems (path,spanning arborescence and maximum flow) in both expanding models. For each kind of expansion problems, this article discusses the characteristics of the problems and presents several results on the complexity of the problems.
Expansion Nets and Expansion Processes of Elementary Net Systems
曹存根
1995-01-01
Occurrence nets are insufficient to precisely describe executions of elementary net systems with contacts.Traditionally,S-complementation is used for removal of contacts from the systems.Although the main behavior and properties of the original elementary net systems are preserved during S-complementation,their topologies may be changed greatly.This paper introduces a new kind of nets-expansion nets-for representing behavior of elementary net systems.As shown in the paper,expansion nets are natural as well as sufficient for describing the precise behavior of elementary net systems with or without contactks.
Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi
2008-11-01
This study aimed to examine the relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and eccentric maximum strength under elbow flexion. Eighteen young adult males pulled up a constant light load (2 kg) by ballistic elbow flexion under the following two preliminary conditions: 1) the static relaxed muscle state (SR condition), and 2) using the SSC with countermovement (SSC condition).Muscle power was determined from the product of the pulling velocity and the load mass by a power measurement instrument that adopted the weight-loading method. We assumed the pulling velocity to be the subject's muscle power parameters as a matter of convenience, because we used a constant load. The following two parameters were selected in reference to a previous study: 1) peak velocity (m x s(-1)) (peak power) and 2) 0.1-second velocity during concentric contraction (m x s(-1)) (initial power). Eccentric maximum strength by elbow flexion was measured by a handheld dynamometer.Initial power produced in the SSC condition was significantly larger than that in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed a significant and high correlation (r = 0.70) with peak power in the SSC condition but not in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed insignificant correlations with initial power in both conditions. In conclusion, it was suggested that eccentric maximum strength is associated with peak power in the SSC condition, but the contribution of the eccentric maximum strength to the SSC potentiation (initial power) may be low.
Kiviet, J.F.; Phillips, G.D.A.
2014-01-01
In dynamic regression models conditional maximum likelihood (least-squares) coefficient and variance estimators are biased. Using expansion techniques an approximation is obtained to the bias in variance estimation yielding a bias corrected variance estimator. This is achieved for both the standard
The tail of the maximum of Brownian motion minus a parabola
P. Groeneboom; N.M. Temme (Nico)
2011-01-01
textabstractWe analyze the tail behavior of the maximum $N$ of $\\{W(t)-t^2:t\\ge0\\}$, where $W$ is standard Brownian motion on $[0,\\infty)$ and give an asymptotic expansion for $\\mathbb P\\{N\\ge x\\}$, as $x\\to\\infty$. This extends a first order result on the tail behavior, which can be deduced from H\\
The tail of the maximum of Brownian motion minus a parabola
P. Groeneboom; N.M. Temme (Nico)
2011-01-01
textabstractWe analyze the tail behavior of the maximum $N$ of $\\{W(t)-t^2:t\\ge0\\}$, where $W$ is standard Brownian motion on $[0,\\infty)$ and give an asymptotic expansion for $\\mathbb P\\{N\\ge x\\}$, as $x\\to\\infty$. This extends a first order result on the tail behavior, which can be deduced from
Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle
Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.
Thermal Expansion of Hafnium Carbide
Grisaffe, Salvatore J.
1960-01-01
Since hafnium carbide (HfC) has a melting point of 7029 deg. F, it may have many high-temperature applications. A literature search uncovered very little information about the properties of HfC, and so a program was initiated at the Lewis Research Center to determine some of the physical properties of this material. This note presents the results of the thermal expansion investigation. The thermal-expansion measurements were made with a Gaertner dilatation interferometer calibrated to an accuracy of +/- 1 deg. F. This device indicates expansion by the movement of fringes produced by the cancellation and reinforcement of fixed wave-length light rays which are reflected from the surfaces of two parallel quartz glass disks. The test specimens which separate these disks are three small cones, each approximately 0.20 in. high.
Low thermal expansion glass ceramics
1995-01-01
This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...
Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics
Bach, Hans
2005-01-01
This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...
Velocity dependant splash behaviour
Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.
2012-04-01
Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.
The Expansion Asymmetry and Age of the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant
Fesen, R A; Morse, J; Chevalier, R A; Borkowski, K J; Dopita, M A; Gerardy, C L; Lawrence, S S; Raymond, J C; Van den Bergh, S
2006-01-01
HST ACS images of the young SN remnant Cas A are used to explore the expansion and spatial distribution of its highest velocity debris. Proper motions of over 1800 outlying ejecta knots are reported. The distribution of transverse expansion velocities for these knots shows a striking bipolar asymmetry with the highest velocity knots confined to nearly opposing northeast and southwest `jets'. The jets appear kinematically and chemically distinct with respect to the remnant's highest velocity debris seen in other directions. Significant gaps in the spatial distribution of outlying ejecta lie in directions which are approximately perpendicular to the jets. Extrapolations of 9 month proper motions for all outer ejecta knots and a subsample of 72 bright and compact knots suggest explosion dates (assuming no knot deceleration) of 1662 +/- 27 and 1672 +/- 18, respectively. We find some evidence for non-uniform deceleration in different directions with knots located along the northwestern limb among the least deceler...
Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.
Resor, Brian Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richards, Phillip William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-05-01
A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.
Energy efficient perlite expansion process
Jenkins, K.L.
1982-08-31
A thermally efficient process for the expansion of perlite ore is described. The inlet port and burner of a perlite expansion chamber (Preferably a vertical expander) are enclosed such that no ambient air can enter the chamber. Air and fuel are metered to the burner with the amount of air being controlled such that the fuel/air premix contains at least enough air to start and maintain minimum combustion, but not enough to provide stoichiometric combustion. At a point immediately above the burner, additional air is metered into an insulated enclosure surrounding the expansion chamber where it is preheated by the heat passing through the chamber walls. This preheated additional air is then circulated back to the burner where it provides the remainder of the air needed for combustion, normally full combustion. Flow of the burner fuel/air premix and the preheated additional air is controlled so as to maintain a long luminous flame throughout a substantial portion of the expansion chamber and also to form a moving laminar layer of air on the inner surface of the expansion chamber. Preferably the burner is a delayed mixing gas burner which materially aids in the generation of the long luminous flame. The long luminous flame and the laminar layer of air at the chamber wall eliminate hot spots in the expansion chamber, result in relatively low and uniform temperature gradients across the chamber, significantly reduce the amount of fuel consumed per unit of perlite expanded, increase the yield of expanded perlite and prevent the formation of a layer of perlite sinter on the walls of the chamber.
Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion
Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.
1995-01-01
Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.
Properties of Ettringite Type Expansive Agent
无
2001-01-01
By employing different forms and amounts of materials,many kinds of ettringite type expansive agents had been prepared.The relationship between the compositions and properties of expansive agents was analyzed.The design methods of expansive agent have been put forward according to the property requirement of expansive concrete.
18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.
2010-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... incremental facilities to be rolled-in to the pipeline's rates. For every expansion that has an at-risk...
Caloric Curves and Nuclear Expansion
Natowitz, J B; Ma, Y; Murray, M; Qin, L; Shlomo, S; Wada, R; Wang, J
2002-01-01
Nuclear caloric curves have been analyzed using an expanding Fermi gas hypothesis to extract average nuclear densities. In this approach the observed flattening of the caloric curves reflects progressively increasing expansion with increasing excitation energy. This expansion results in a corresponding decrease in the density and Fermi energy of the excited system. For nuclei of medium to heavy mass apparent densities $~0.3\\rho_0$ are reached at the higher excitation energies. The average densities derived in this manner are in good agreement with those derived using other, more complicated, techniques.
Multipole Expansion in Generalized Electrodynamics
Bonin, C A; Ortega, P H
2016-01-01
In this article we study some classical aspects of Podolsky Electrodynamics in the static regime. We develop the multipole expansion for the theory in both the electrostatic and the magnetostatic cases. We also address the problem of consistently truncating the infinite series associated with the several kinds of multipoles, yielding approximations for the static Podolskian electromagnetic field to any degree of precision required. Moreover, we apply the general theory of multipole expansion to some specific physical problems. In those problems we identify the first terms of the series with the monopole, dipole and quadrupole terms in the generalized theory. We also propose a situation in which Podolsky theory can be experimentally tested.
Thermal Expansion of Irradiated Polytetrafluoroethylene
Subrahmanyam, HN; Subramanyam, SV
1987-01-01
The thermal expansion coefficient of gamma-irradiated Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been measured in the temperature range 80-340 K by using a three-terminal capacitance technique. The samples are irradiated in air at room temperature with gamma rays from a $Co^{60}$ source at a dose rate of 0.26 Mrad/h. The change in crystallinity is measured by an x-ray technique. The expansion coefficient is found to increase with radiation dose below 140 K owing to the predominant effect of degradati...
Removable Type Expansion Bolt Innovative Design
Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo
2016-05-01
Expansion bolt is a kind of the most common things in our daily life. Currently, there are many kinds of expansion bolts in the market. However, they have some shortcomings that mainly contain underuse and unremovement but our innovation of design makes up for these shortcomings very well. Principle of working follows this: expansion tube is fixed outside of bolt, steel balls and expansion covers are fixed inside. Meanwhile, the steel balls have 120° with each other. When using it ,expansion cover is moved in the direction of its internal part. So the front part of expansion bolt cover is increasingly becoming big and steel halls is moved outside. Only in this way can it be fixed that steel balls make expansion tube expand. When removing them, expansion bolt is moved outside. So the front part of expansion bolt cover is gradually becoming small and steel balls moves inside, after expansion tube shrinks, we can detach them.
Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging
Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.
2011-01-01
To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...... with a 90° angle on the vessel. Moreover secondary flow in the abdominal aorta is illustrated by scanning on the transversal axis....
The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars
Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.
2009-12-01
Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of α as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show α-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among α, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in
Carbon film deposition from high velocity rarefied flow
Rebrov, A.K., E-mail: rebrov@itp.nsc.ru; Emelyanov, A.A.; Yudin, I.B.
2015-01-30
The presented study is based on the idea of the activation of a gas-precursor high velocity flow by hot wire. The wire forms the channel for flow before expansion to substrate. The construction allows change of the specific flow rate, velocity, composition and temperature of a gas mixture by studying the film synthesis in conditions from free molecular to continuum flow at velocities from hundreds to thousands of m/s. At a high pressure, the film has typical and unusual hexagonal incorporations for diamond tetragonal particles. Raman spectrum with the pronounced diamond peak is typical for diamond-like film. X-ray diffraction points in the presence of lonsdaleite. Conditions of deposition were simulated by Monte Carlo method. Collisions with hot surfaces and chemical transformations were taken into consideration as well.
A neural circuit for angular velocity computation
Samuel B Snider
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly-tunable wing-steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuro-mechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob.
Normalized velocity profiles of field-measured turbidity currents
Xu, Jingping
2010-01-01
Multiple turbidity currents were recorded in two submarine canyons with maximum speed as high as 280 cm/s. For each individual turbidity current measured at a fixed station, its depth-averaged velocity typically decreased over time while its thickness increased. Some turbidity currents gained in speed as they traveled downcanyon, suggesting a possible self-accelerating process. The measured velocity profiles, first in this high resolution, allowed normalizations with various schemes. Empirical functions, obtained from laboratory experiments whose spatial and time scales are two to three orders of magnitude smaller, were found to represent the field data fairly well. The best similarity collapse of the velocity profiles was achieved when the streamwise velocity and the elevation were normalized respectively by the depth-averaged velocity and the turbidity current thickness. This normalization scheme can be generalized to an empirical function Y = exp(–αXβ) for the jet region above the velocity maximum. Confirming theoretical arguments and laboratory results of other studies, the field turbidity currents are Froude-supercritical.
Understanding redshift space distortions in density-weighted peculiar velocity
Sugiyama, Naonori S; Spergel, David N
2015-01-01
Observations of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect measure the density-weighted velocity field, a potentially powerful cosmological probe. This paper presents an analytical method to predict the power spectrum and two-point correlation function of the density-weighted velocity in redshift space, the direct observables in kSZ surveys. We show a simple relation between the density power spectrum and the density-weighted velocity power spectrum that holds for both dark matter and halos. Using this relation, we can then extend familiar perturbation expansion techniques to the kSZ power spectrum. One of the most important features of the density-weighted velocity is the change of the sign of infall velocity at small scales due to the nonlinear redshift space distortion. Our model can explain this characteristic feature without any free parameters. As a result, our results can precisely predict the non-linear behavior of the density-weighted velocity field in redshift space up to $\\sim10\\ h^{-1} {\\rm Mpc}$...
Sakoda, M; Hiromi, K
1976-09-01
The best-fit values of the Michaelis constant (Km) and the maximum velocity (V) in the Michaelis-Menten equation can be obtained by the method of least squares with the Taylor expansion for the sum of squares of the absolute residual, i.e., the difference between the observed velocity and the corresponding velocity by calculation. This method makes it possible to determine the values of Km and V not in a trial-and-error manner but in a deductive and unique manner after some iterative procedures starting from arbitrary approximate values of Km and V. These values can be said to be uniquely determined for a set of data as the finally converged values are no longer dependent upon the initial approximate values of Km and V. It is also very important to obtain initial approximate values of parameters for the application of the method described above. A simple method is proposed to estimate the approximate values of parameters involved in fractional functions. The method of rearrangement after canceling of denominator of a fractional function can be utilized to obtain approximate values, not only for cases of two unknown parameters such as the Michaelis-Menten equation, but also for cases with more than two unknowns.
Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.
Kim Debacker
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.
Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion
De Joode, J.
2012-01-01
The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities – such as gas storag
On persistently positively expansive maps
Alexander Arbieto
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.
Liflyand, E.
2012-01-01
We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.
Large N Expansion. Vector Models
Nissimov, E; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana
2006-01-01
Preliminary version of a contribution to the "Quantum Field Theory. Non-Perturbative QFT" topical area of "Modern Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics" (SELECTA), eds. Aref'eva I, and Sternheimer D, Springer (2007). Consists of two parts - "main article" (Large N Expansion. Vector Models) and a "brief article" (BPHZL Renormalization).
Kolmogorov turbulence by matched asymptotic expansions
Lundgren, Thomas S.
2003-04-01
The Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 30, 299 (1941), hereafter K41] inertial range theory is derived from first principles by analysis of the Navier-Stokes equation using the method of matched asymptotic expansions without assuming isotropy or homogeneity and the Kolmogorov (K62) [J. Fluid Mech. 13, 82 (1962)] refined theory is analyzed. This paper is an extension of Lundgren [Phys. Fluids 14, 638 (2002)], in which the second- and third-order structure functions were determined from the isotropic Karman-Howarth [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 164, 192 (1938)] equation. The starting point for the present analysis is an equation for the difference in velocity between two points, one of which is a Lagrangian fluid point and the second, slaved to the first by a fixed separation r, is not Lagrangian. The velocity difference, so defined, satisfies the Navier-Stokes equation with spatial variable r. The analysis is carried out in two parts. In the first part the physical hypothesis is made that the mean dissipation is independent of viscosity as viscosity tends to zero, as assumed in K41. This means that the mean dissipation is finite as Reynolds number tends to infinity and leads to the K41 inertial range results. In the second part this dissipation assumption is relaxed in an attempt to duplicate the K62 theory. While the K62 structure is obtained, there are restrictions, resulting from the analysis which shows that there can be no inertial range intermittency as Reynolds number tends to infinity, and therefore the mean dissipation has to be finite as Reynolds number tends to infinity, as assumed in part one. Reynolds number-dependent corrections to the K41 results are obtained in the form of compensating functions of r/λ, which tend to zero slowly like Rλ-2/3 as Rλ→∞.
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Effective Expansion: Balance between Shrinkage and Hygroscopic Expansion.
Suiter, E A; Watson, L E; Tantbirojn, D; Lou, J S B; Versluis, A
2016-05-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hygroscopic expansion and polymerization shrinkage for compensation of polymerization shrinkage stresses in a restored tooth. One resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) (Ketac Nano, 3M ESPE), 2 compomers (Dyract, Dentsply; Compoglass, Ivoclar), and a universal resin-based composite (Esthet•X HD, Dentsply) were tested. Volumetric change after polymerization ("total shrinkage") and during 4 wk of water storage at 37°C was measured using an optical method (n= 10). Post-gel shrinkage was measured during polymerization using a strain gauge method (n= 10). Extracted human molars with large mesio-occluso-distal slot preparations were restored with the tested restorative materials. Tooth surfaces at baseline (preparation), after restoration, and during 4 wk of 37°C water storage were scanned with an optical scanner to determine cuspal flexure (n= 8). Occlusal interface integrity was measured using dye penetration. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and post hoc tests (significance level 0.05). All tested materials shrunk after polymerization. RMGI had the highest total shrinkage (4.65%) but lowest post-gel shrinkage (0.35%). Shrinkage values dropped significantly during storage in water but had not completely compensated polymerization shrinkage after 4 wk. All restored teeth initially exhibited inward (negative) cuspal flexure due to polymerization shrinkage. Cuspal flexure with the RMGI restoration was significantly less (-6.4 µm) than with the other materials (-12.1 to -14.1 µm). After 1 d, cuspal flexure reversed to +5.0 µm cuspal expansion with the RMGI and increased to +9.3 µm at 4 wk. After 4 wk, hygroscopic expansion compensated cuspal flexure in a compomer (Compoglass) and reduced flexure with Dyract and resin-based composite. Marginal integrity (93.7% intact restoration wall) was best for the Compoglass restorations and lowest (73.1%) for the RMGI restorations. Hygroscopic
Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury
Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.
2011-01-01
The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
The acceptable air velocity range for local air movement in the Tropics
Gong, Nan; Tham, K.W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;
2006-01-01
and high velocity values. Most dissatisfaction with air movement is caused by thermal sensation, with air movement perception accounting for a smaller proportion. The subjects preferred air movement to be between "just right" and "slightly breezy" and preferred their thermal sensation to be between...... "neutral" and "slightly cool. The study also identified an acceptable air velocity range from 0.3 up to 0.9 m/s under the experimental conditions. This velocity range is relevant for the design of personalized ventilation in practice. This preferred velocity range is higher than the maximum velocity...
Introduction to vector velocity imaging
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov;
Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making...
Instantaneous Velocity Using Photogate Timers
Wolbeck, John
2010-01-01
Photogate timers are commonly used in physics laboratories to determine the velocity of a passing object. In this application a card attached to a moving object breaks the beam of the photogate timer providing the time for the card to pass. The length L of the passing card can then be divided by this time to yield the average velocity (or speed)…
Kriging Interpolating Cosmic Velocity Field
Yu, Yu; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie
2015-01-01
[abridge] Volume-weighted statistics of large scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in mass-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number $n_k$ of the nearby particles to interpolate and the density $n_P$ of the observed sample are investigated. (1) We find that Kriging induces $1\\%$ and $3\\%$ systematics at $k\\sim 0.1h{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ when $n_P\\sim 6\\times 10^{-2} ({\\rm Mpc}/h)^{-3}$ and $n_P\\sim 6\\times 10^{-3} ({\\rm Mpc...
THE HIGHLY ENERGETIC EXPANSION OF SN 2010bh ASSOCIATED WITH GRB 100316D
Bufano, Filomena [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Pian, Elena; Turatto, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Sollerman, Jesper [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Benetti, Stefano; Valenti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico; Mazzali, Paolo A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Covino, Stefano; D' Avanzo, Paolo; Vergani, Susanna D. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, Merate I-23807 (Italy); Malesani, Daniele; Fynbo, Johan; Hjorth, Jens [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16, I-8013 Napoli (Italy); Reichart, Daniel E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Starling, Rhaana L. C.; Wiersema, Klass [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Amati, Lorenzo [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); and others
2012-07-01
We present the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the nearby (z = 0.059) spectroscopically confirmed Type Ic supernova, SN 2010bh, associated with the soft, long-duration gamma-ray burst (X-ray flash) GRB 100316D. Intensive follow-up observations of SN 2010bh were performed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the X-shooter and FORS2 instruments. Thanks to the detailed temporal coverage and the extended wavelength range (3000-24800 A), we obtained an unprecedentedly rich spectral sequence among the hypernovae, making SN 2010bh one of the best studied representatives of this SN class. We find that SN 2010bh has a more rapid rise to maximum brightness (8.0 {+-} 1.0 rest-frame days) and a fainter absolute peak luminosity (L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}) than previously observed SN events associated with GRBs. Our estimate of the ejected {sup 56}Ni mass is 0.12 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Sun }. From the broad spectral features, we measure expansion velocities up to 47,000 km s{sup -1}, higher than those of SNe 1998bw (GRB 980425) and 2006aj (GRB 060218). Helium absorption lines He I {lambda}5876 and He I 1.083 {mu}m, blueshifted by {approx}20,000-30,000 km s{sup -1} and {approx}28,000-38,000 km s{sup -1}, respectively, may be present in the optical spectra. However, the lack of coverage of the He I 2.058 {mu}m line prevents us from confirming such identifications. The nebular spectrum, taken at {approx}186 days after the explosion, shows a broad but faint [O I] emission at 6340 A. The light curve shape and photospheric expansion velocities of SN 2010bh suggest that we witnessed a highly energetic explosion with a small ejected mass (E{sub k} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 52} erg and M{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 3 M{sub Sun }). The observed properties of SN 2010bh further extend the heterogeneity of the class of GRB SNe.
Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation
Decker, Luke
2014-08-05
We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.
Study on the Velocity of Partially Submerged Landslide
Wang Yang
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic resistance is one of the most important factors which affect the velocity of the partially submerged landslide when it moves into river at a high speed. In this paper, an experiment system was designed including a water tank, a moving frame fixed over the tank with liquid level sensors, blocks, and velocity control apparatus. Six blocks with different areas were used for experiments and each block moved at five different velocities in water tank. Test results showed that the increment of the pressure head was proportional to the square velocity of submerged block. Based on that, the total water pressure and corresponding hydraulic resistance of the moving block in water tank were obtained, and the latter was used to analyze hydraulic resistance acting on partially submerged landslide. Method of slice was applied to calculate the forces of landslide with curved slip surface. The dynamics and kinematics equation of landslide were used to calculate the velocity. Taking the Dayantang landslide as an example, velocities with different travel distance were obtained. The results showed that the maximum velocity of Dayantang landslide considering hydraulic resistance was 18.6% less than that without considering hydraulic resistance.
Investigation of direct expansion in ground source heat pumps
Kalman, M. D.
A fully instrumented subscale ground coupled heat pump system was developed, and built, and used to test and obtain data on three different earth heat exchanger configurations under heating conditions (ground cooling). Various refrigerant flow control and compressor protection devices were tested for their applicability to the direct expansion system. Undistributed Earth temperature data were acquired at various depths. The problem of oil return at low evaporator temperatures and low refrigerant velocities was addressed. An analysis was performed to theoretically determine what evaporator temperature can be expected with an isolated ground pipe configuration with given length, pipe size, soil conditions and constant heat load. Technical accomplishments to data are summarized.
Flow estimation for the Persian Gulf using a Kelvin wave expansion
Badri, M.A.; Wilders, P.; Azimian, A.R.
2010-01-01
Hydrodynamic simulations of tidal currents in the Persian Gulf are presented. Water surface level and velocity have been determined by a Kelvin wave expansion as a new hydrodynamic calibration tool for estimating the dynamical field and flow patterns. In the procedure, leading to the Kelvin wave exp
Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics
Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue
2013-01-01
concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...... of Thomas Kuhn’s notion of scientific paradigms and criteria for a good theory (1977, 1996). The paper thus aims to augment and assimilate the fragmented and scattered body of concepts presently residing within the field of evolutionary economics, by presenting an intuitive framework, applicable within...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...
PECULIAR VELOCITIES OF GALAXIES IN THE LEO SPUR
Karachentsev, Igor D.; Makarova, Lidia N.; Makarov, Dmitry I. [Special Astrophysical Observatory, the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic, 369167 (Russian Federation); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Rizzi, Luca, E-mail: ikar@sao.ru [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy., Kamuela, HI 9 6743 (United States)
2015-06-01
The Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys has been used to determine accurate distances for the spiral galaxy NGC 2683 and 12 other galaxies in a zone of the “local velocity anomaly” from luminosity measurements of the brightest red giant branch stars. These galaxies lie in the Leo Spur, the nearest filament beyond our Local Sheet. The new accurate distance measurements confirm that galaxies along the Leo Spur are more distant than expected from uniform cosmic expansion, and hence have large and peculiar velocities toward us. The motions are generally explained by a previously published model that posits that the Local Sheet is descending at 259 km s{sup −1} toward the south supergalactic pole due to expansion of the Local Void and is being attracted toward the Virgo Cluster at 185 km s{sup −1}. With the standard ΛCDM cosmology, an empty void expands at 16 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}, so a motion of 259 km s{sup −1} requires the Local Void to be impressively large and empty. Small residuals from the published model can be attributed to an upward push toward the north supergalactic pole by the expansion of the Gemini–Leo Void below the Leo Spur. The Leo Spur is sparsely populated, but among its constituents there are two associations that contain only dwarf galaxies.
Multiscale expansions in discrete world
Ömer Ünsal; Filiz Taşcan; Mehmet Naci Özer
2014-07-01
In this paper, we show the attainability of KdV equation from some types of nonlinear Schrödinger equation by using multiscale expansions discretely. The power of this manageable method is confirmed by applying it to two selected nonlinear Schrödinger evolution equations. This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear discrete evolution equations. All the computations have been made with Maple computer packet program.
College Expansion and Curriculum Choice
Kaganovich, Michael; Su, Xuejuan
2012-01-01
This paper analyzes the impact of college enrollment expansion on student academic achievements and labor market outcomes in the context of competition among colleges. When public policies promote “access” to college education, colleges adjust their curricula: Less selective public colleges adopt a less demanding curriculum in order to accommodate the influx of less able students. As we argue in the paper, this adjustment benefits low-ability college students at the expense of those of medium...
RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS
Gabriel BURLACU,
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator
Topological expansion and boundary conditions
Eynard, Bertrand
2008-01-01
In this article, we compute the topological expansion of all possible mixed-traces in a hermitian two matrix model. In other words we give a recipe to compute the number of discrete surfaces of given genus, carrying an Ising model, and with all possible given boundary conditions. The method is recursive, and amounts to recursively cutting surfaces along interfaces. The result is best represented in a diagrammatic way, and is thus rather simple to use.
Direct Determination of Expansion History Using Redshift Distortions
Song, Yong-Seon
2012-01-01
We investigate direct determination of expansion history using redshift distortions without plugging into detailed cosmological parameters. The observed spectra in redshift space include a mixture of information: fluctuations of density-density and velocity-velocity spectra, and distance measures of perpendicular and parallel components to the line of sight. Unfortunately it is hard to measure all the components simultaneously without any specific prior assumption. Common prior assumptions include a linear/quasi-linear model of redshift distortions or a model for the shape of the power spectra, which eventually breaks down on small scales at later epochs where nonlinear structure formation disturbs coherent growth. The degeneracy breaking between the effect of cosmic distances and redshift distortions for example depends on the prior we assume. As an alternative approach is to utilize the cosmological principle inscribed in the heart of the Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (hereafter FLRW) universe, that...
Maximum caliber inference and the stochastic Ising model
Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan
2016-11-01
We investigate the maximum caliber variational principle as an inference algorithm used to predict dynamical properties of complex nonequilibrium, stationary, statistical systems in the presence of incomplete information. Specifically, we maximize the path entropy over discrete time step trajectories subject to normalization, stationarity, and detailed balance constraints together with a path-dependent dynamical information constraint reflecting a given average global behavior of the complex system. A general expression for the transition probability values associated with the stationary random Markov processes describing the nonequilibrium stationary system is computed. By virtue of our analysis, we uncover that a convenient choice of the dynamical information constraint together with a perturbative asymptotic expansion with respect to its corresponding Lagrange multiplier of the general expression for the transition probability leads to a formal overlap with the well-known Glauber hyperbolic tangent rule for the transition probability for the stochastic Ising model in the limit of very high temperatures of the heat reservoir.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
Multiple scattering expansion with distortion
Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.
1980-12-01
A multiple scattering description of elastic scattering is formulated in terms of impulsive scatterings from single target nucleons and pairs of target nucleons. In this description, distortion effects on the projectile from the residual medium are also described by multiple scattering in terms of the same single and pair amplitudes. At the level of single scattering, this procedure yields the first order optical potential result of Kerman, McManus, and Thaler. When scattering from both single nucleons and pairs of nucleons is included, the method leads to a one-body integral equation which requires the physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. This input is similar, but not exactly equivalent to that required by the spectator expansion for the optical potential truncated at second order. A principal advantage of the present formulation is that there need be no explicit dependence upon the projection operator Q which projects off the target ground state. This feature introduces a scaling which appears to be a direct extension of the first order Kerman, McManus, and Thaler type of scaling. We follow up suggestions arising in the foregoing to show that the exact optical potential to second order in the spectator expansion can also be cast into a form having no explicit dependence upon Q, and requiring physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Multiple scattering from single nucleons, pairs of nucleons in nucleus. Distortion from residual medium. Optical potential. spectator expansion.
Urban underground network expansion planning
Bozic, Z. [Sinclair Knight Merz Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); Hobson, E. [HI Consulting Services Pty Ltd., Adelaide (Australia)
1997-03-01
The authors describe a three step approach to expansion planning of high voltage (HV) urban underground distribution networks. Although the techniques are specifically oriented to underground systems, they are equally applicable to overhead system design. The fundamental engineering problem is how to connect individual high voltage to low voltage substations (HV/LV SS) and zone HV SS into a future urban underground network. The problem is to rearrange the HV network to minimise the cost of expansion subject to provision of an alternative supply, specified load transfer among the neighbouring zone SS, and other general planning constraints such as feeder capacity, voltage regulation, operational requirements and losses. A review of the current state of the art of distribution expansion planning is provided. The normal manual approach is discussed together with more recent research into computer methods. Three lines of computer research are identified and classified as radially constrained, security constrained and utilisation of travelling salesman/vehicle routing problem algorithms (TSP/VRP). The TSP/VRP line of research has been extended here to produce practical techniques for the assistance of network planners. (Author)
Spatial assortment of mixed propagules explains the acceleration of range expansion.
Ramanantoanina, Andriamihaja; Ouhinou, Aziz; Hui, Cang
2014-01-01
Range expansion of spreading organisms has been found to follow three types: (i) linear expansion with a constant rate of spread; (ii) bi-phase expansion with a faster linear expansion following a slower linear expansion; and (iii) accelerating expansion with a continuously increasing rate of spread. To date, no overarching formula exists that can be applied to all three types of range expansion. We investigated how propagule pressure, i.e., the initial number of individuals and their composition in terms of dispersal ability, affects the spread of a population. A system of integrodifference equations was then used to model the spatiotemporal dynamics of the population. We studied the dynamics of dispersal ability as well as the instantaneous and asymptotic rate of spread. We found that individuals with different dispersal abilities were spatially sorted with the stronger dispersers situated at the expanding range front, causing the velocity of expansion to accelerate. The instantaneous rate of spread was found to be fully determined by the growth and dispersal abilities of the population at the advancing edge of the invasion. We derived a formula for the asymptotic rate of spread under different scenarios of propagule pressure. The results suggest that data collected from the core of the invasion may underestimate the spreading rate of the population. Aside from better managing of invasive species, the derived formula could conceivably also be applied to conservation management of relocated, endangered or extra-limital species.
Spatial assortment of mixed propagules explains the acceleration of range expansion.
Andriamihaja Ramanantoanina
Full Text Available Range expansion of spreading organisms has been found to follow three types: (i linear expansion with a constant rate of spread; (ii bi-phase expansion with a faster linear expansion following a slower linear expansion; and (iii accelerating expansion with a continuously increasing rate of spread. To date, no overarching formula exists that can be applied to all three types of range expansion. We investigated how propagule pressure, i.e., the initial number of individuals and their composition in terms of dispersal ability, affects the spread of a population. A system of integrodifference equations was then used to model the spatiotemporal dynamics of the population. We studied the dynamics of dispersal ability as well as the instantaneous and asymptotic rate of spread. We found that individuals with different dispersal abilities were spatially sorted with the stronger dispersers situated at the expanding range front, causing the velocity of expansion to accelerate. The instantaneous rate of spread was found to be fully determined by the growth and dispersal abilities of the population at the advancing edge of the invasion. We derived a formula for the asymptotic rate of spread under different scenarios of propagule pressure. The results suggest that data collected from the core of the invasion may underestimate the spreading rate of the population. Aside from better managing of invasive species, the derived formula could conceivably also be applied to conservation management of relocated, endangered or extra-limital species.
Inversion methods for fast-ion velocity-space tomography in fusion plasmas
Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Stagner, L.; Salewski, Mirko
2016-01-01
Velocity-space tomography has been used to infer 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions. Here we compare the performance of five different tomographic inversion methods: truncated singular value decomposition, maximum entropy, minimum Fisher information and zeroth and first-order Tikhonov re...
K. van der Mooren (K.); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); Th. Stijnen (Theo)
1992-01-01
textabstractMaximum flow velocity waveforms at atrioventricular and outflow tract level were studied cross‐sectionally in 19 human fetuses with conducted and/or blocked supraventricular extrasystoles ranging from 25 to 38 weeks of gestation. At outflow tract level, peak systolic velocity and acceler
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
2013-06-17
... Federal Register (77 FR 43047, 07/23/12) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 104; (Expansion of Service Area and Expansion of Zone); Under Alternative Site Framework, Savannah, Georgia Pursuant to its...
Hadronic Expansion Dynamics in Central Pb+Pb Collisions at 158 GeV per Nucleon
Appelshäuser, H; Bailey, S J; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Bock, R; Bormann, C; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferguson, M I; Ferenc, D; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Petridis, A; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Semenov, A Yu; Schäfer, E; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Xu, N; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R
1998-01-01
Two-particle correlation functions of negative hadrons over wide phase space, and transverse mass spectra of negative hadrons and deuterons near mid-rapidity have been measured in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon by the NA49 experiment at the CERN SPS. A novel Coulomb correction procedure for the negative two-particle correlations is employed making use of the measured oppositely charged particle correlation. Within an expanding source scenario these results are used to extract the dynamic characteristics of the hadronic source, resolving the ambiguities between the temperature and transverse expansion velocity of the source, that are unavoidable when single and two particle spectra are analysed separately. The source shape, the total duration of the source expansion, the duration of particle emission, the freeze-out temperature and the longitudinal and transverse expansion velocities are deduced.
Astrometric radial velocities. I. Non-spectroscopic methods for measuring stellar radial velocity
Dravins, Dainis; Lindegren, Lennart; Madsen, Søren
1999-08-01
High-accuracy astrometry permits the determination of not only stellar tangential motion, but also the component along the line-of-sight. Such non-spectroscopic (i.e. astrometric) radial velocities are independent of stellar atmospheric dynamics, spectral complexity and variability, as well as of gravitational redshift. Three methods are analysed: (1) changing annual parallax, (2) changing proper motion and (3) changing angular extent of a moving group of stars. All three have significant potential in planned astrometric projects. Current accuracies are still inadequate for the first method, while the second is marginally feasible and is here applied to 16 stars. The third method reaches high accuracy (accuracy limit is set by uncertainties in the cluster expansion rate. Based (in part) on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite
Astrometric radial velocities; 1, Non-spectroscopic methods for measuring stellar radial velocity
Dravins, D; Madsen, S; Dravins, Dainis; Lindegren, Lennart; Madsen, Soren
1999-01-01
High-accuracy astrometry permits the determination of not only stellar tangential motion, but also the component along the line-of-sight. Such non-spectroscopic (i.e. astrometric) radial velocities are independent of stellar atmospheric dynamics, spectral complexity and variability, as well as of gravitational redshift. Three methods are analysed: (1) changing annual parallax, (2) changing proper motion and (3) changing angular extent of a moving group of stars. All three have significant potential in planned astrometric projects. Current accuracies are still inadequate for the first method, while the second is marginally feasible and is here applied to 16 stars. The third method reaches high accuracy (<1 km/s) already with present data, although for some clusters an accuracy limit is set by uncertainties in the cluster expansion rate.
Global and local expansion of magnetic clouds in the inner heliosphere
Gulisano, Adriana Maria; Dasso, Sergio; Ruiz, Maria Emilia; Marsh, E; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912375
2012-01-01
Observations of magnetic clouds (MCs) are consistent with the presence of flux ropes detected in the solar wind (SW) a few days after their expulsion from the Sun as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Both the \\textit{in situ} observations of plasma velocity profiles and the increase of their size with solar distance show that MCs are typically expanding structures. The aim of this work is to derive the expansion properties of MCs in the inner heliosphere from 0.3 to 1 AU.We analyze MCs observed by the two Helios spacecraft using \\textit{in situ} magnetic field and velocity measurements. We split the sample in two subsets: those MCs with a velocity profile that is significantly perturbed from the expected linear profile and those that are not. From the slope of the \\textit{in situ} measured bulk velocity along the Sun-Earth direction, we compute an expansion speed with respect to the cloud center for each of the analyzed MCs. We analyze how the expansion speed depends on the MC size, the translation velocity, and...
Thermal expansion of ceramics around room temperature
橋本, 忍; 安達, 信泰; 太田, 敏孝; 宮崎, 英敏; ハシモト, シノブ; アダチ, ノブヤス; オオタ, トシタカ; Hashimoto, Shinobu; Adachi, Nobuyasu; Ota, Toshitaka
2010-01-01
Thermal expansion of some ceramics, polymers and metals was measured by dilatometer around room temperature (from -140℃to +200℃), and compared with thermal expansion in the high temperature region. The CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion)of almost ceramics changed drastically between room temperature and high temperature region. On the other hand, the CTE ofmetals did not change between room temperature and high temperature region. The difference on thermal expansion betweenceramics and met...
Neutrino Velocity and Neutrino Oscillations
Minakata, H
2012-01-01
We study distances of propagation and the group velocities of the muon neutrinos in the presence of mixing and oscillations assuming that Lorentz invariance holds. Oscillations lead to distortion of the $\
Statistics of Centroids of Velocity
Esquivel, A
2009-01-01
We review the use of velocity centroids statistics to recover information of interstellar turbulence from observations. Velocity centroids have been used for a long time now to retrieve information about the scaling properties of the turbulent velocity field in the interstellar medium. We show that, while they are useful to study subsonic turbulence, they do not trace the statistics of velocity in supersonic turbulence, because they are highly influenced by fluctuations of density. We show also that for sub-Alfv\\'enic turbulence (both supersonic and subsonic) two-point statistics (e.g. correlation functions or power-spectra) are anisotropic. This anisotropy can be used to determine the direction of the mean magnetic field projected in the plane of the sky.
Maximum orbit plane change with heat-transfer-rate considerations
Lee, J. Y.; Hull, D. G.
1990-01-01
Two aerodynamic maneuvers are considered for maximizing the plane change of a circular orbit: gliding flight with a maximum thrust segment to regain lost energy (aeroglide) and constant altitude cruise with the thrust being used to cancel the drag and maintain a high energy level (aerocruise). In both cases, the stagnation heating rate is limited. For aeroglide, the controls are the angle of attack, the bank angle, the time at which the burn begins, and the length of the burn. For aerocruise, the maneuver is divided into three segments: descent, cruise, and ascent. During descent the thrust is zero, and the controls are the angle of attack and the bank angle. During cruise, the only control is the assumed-constant angle of attack. During ascent, a maximum thrust segment is used to restore lost energy, and the controls are the angle of attack and bank angle. The optimization problems are solved with a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. Numerical results for the Maneuverable Re-entry Research Vehicle with a heating-rate limit of 100 Btu/ft(2)-s show that aerocruise gives a maximum plane change of 2 deg, which is only 1 deg larger than that of aeroglide. On the other hand, even though aerocruise requires two thrust levels, the cruise characteristics of constant altitude, velocity, thrust, and angle of attack are easy to control.
Soil Properties from Low-Velocity Probe Penetration
Jerome B. Johnson
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A physical model of low-velocity probe penetration is developed to characterize soil by type, strength, maximum compaction, and initial density using Newton's second law to describe the processes controlling probe momentum loss. The probe loses momentum by causing soil failure (strength, accelerating and compacting soil around the probe (inertia, and through frictional sliding at the probe/soil interface (friction. Probe geometry, mass, and impact velocity influences are incorporated into the model. Model predictions of probe deceleration history and depth of penetration agree well with experiments, without the need for free variables or complex numerical simulations.
Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field
Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie
2015-10-01
Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.
Event Detection by Velocity Pyramid
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose velocity pyramid for multimediaevent detection. Recently, spatial pyramid matching is proposed to in-troduce coarse geometric information into Bag of Features framework,and is eective for static image recognition and detection. In video, notonly spatial information but also temporal information, which repre-sents its dynamic nature, is important. In order to fully utilize it, wepropose velocity pyramid where video frames are divided into motionalsub-regions. Our meth...
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
Bobev, Svilen; Williams, Darrick J.; Thompson, J.D.; Sarrao, J L
2004-01-01
Thermal expansion and magnetic susceptibility measurements as a function of temperature are reported for YbGaGe. Despite the fact that this material has been claimed to show zero thermal expansion over a wide temperature range, we observe thermal expansion typical of metals and Pauli paramagnetic behavior, which perhaps indicates strong sample dependence in this system.
Multiplier theorems for special Hermite expansions on
张震球; 郑维行
2000-01-01
The weak type (1,1) estimate for special Hermite expansions on Cn is proved by using the Calderon-Zygmund decomposition. Then the multiplier theorem in Lp(1 < p < ω ) is obtained. The special Hermite expansions in twisted Hardy space are also considered. As an application, the multipli-ers for a certain kind of Laguerre expansions are given in Lp space.
An All-Orders Derivative Expansion
Dunne, Gerald(Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, U.S.A.)
1996-01-01
We evaluate the exact $QED_{2+1}$ effective action for fermions in the presence of a family of static but spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field profiles. This exact result yields an all-orders derivative expansion of the effective action, and indicates that the derivative expansion is an asymptotic, rather than a convergent, expansion.
Quantum fields and "Big Rip" expansion singularities
Calderon, H; Calderon, Hector; Hiscock, William A.
2005-01-01
The effects of quantized conformally invariant massless fields on the evolution of cosmological models containing a ``Big Rip'' future expansion singularity are examined. Quantized scalar, spinor, and vector fields are found to strengthen the accelerating expansion of such models as they approach the expansion singularity.
Speed Estimation in Geared Wind Turbines Using the Maximum Correlation Coefficient
Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Marhadi, Kun S.; Jensen, Bogi Bech;
2015-01-01
to overcome the above mentioned issues. The high speed stage shaft angular velocity is calculated based on the maximum correlation coefficient between the 1 st gear mesh frequency of the last gearbox stage and a pure sinus tone of known frequency and phase. The proposed algorithm utilizes vibration signals...
Critical velocity and lactate threshold in young swimmers.
Toubekis, A G; Tsami, A P; Tokmakidis, S P
2006-02-01
The purpose of the present study was to compare the critical swimming velocity (CV) in children, with the lactate threshold (LT) and the velocity corresponding to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x l(-1) (V4). Twenty swimmers (ten females and ten males, mean +/- SD age: 12.9 +/- 1.1 years, body weight: 51.2 +/- 10.0 kg, height: 157.1 +/- 9.7 cm) performed four repetitions of 200 m swimming with increasing intensity (80, 85, 90 and 100% of their 200 m maximum velocity), interspersed with 15 minutes of passive rest. Blood lactate concentration was determined after each repetition. From the speed-lactate curve, the velocity corresponding to LT and V4 was calculated. In order to calculate CV, all swimmers were timed exerting maximum effort, on distances of 50, 100, 200 and 400 m. CV was expressed as the slope of the linear relationship of time versus distance and was calculated from combinations of four (CV4) three or two timed distances. Velocity on LT (1.079 +/- 0.114 m x s(-1)) and V4 (1.106 +/- 0.112 m x s(-1)) was comparable to CV4 (1.085 +/- 0.121 m x s(-1)). CV calculated from a combination including distances of 50, 100 or 200 m were higher compared to LT (p velocities (p critical velocity seems to be a valid, practical and time-saving, non-invasive alternative method which can be applied in the swimming pool by a coach for the evaluation of the endurance capacity of young swimmers. For practical reasons, combinations of less than four distances can be used (i.e. 50-400 m, or 50-100-400 m).
Spatiotemporal variations in the surface velocities of Antarctic Peninsula glaciers
J. Chen
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Velocity is an important parameter for the estimation of glacier mass balance, which directly signals the response of glaciers to climate change. Antarctic ice sheet movement and the associated spatiotemporal velocity variations are of great significance to global sea level rise. In this study, we estimate Antarctic Peninsula glacier velocities using the co-registration of optically sensed images and correlation (hereafter referred to as COSI-Corr based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer Level 1B data (hereafter referred to as MODIS L1B. The results show that the glaciers of Graham Land and the Larsen Ice Shelf have substantially different velocity features. The Graham Land glaciers primarily flow from the peninsula ridge towards the Weddell Sea and Bellingshausen Sea on the east and west sides, respectively. There are very large velocity variations among the different ice streams, with a minimum of −1 and a maximum of 1500 m a−1 (with an average of 100–150 m a−1. Over the period 2000–2012, the glaciers of Graham Land accelerated in the south but slowed down in the north. In contrast, the Larsen Ice Shelf flows in a relatively uniform direction, mainly towards the northeast into the Weddell Sea. Its average velocity is 750–800 m a−1 and the maximum is > 1500 m a−1. During the period 2000–2012, the Larsen Ice Shelf experienced significant acceleration. The use of COSI-Corr based on MODIS L1B data is suitable for glacier velocity monitoring on the Antarctic Peninsula over long time series and large spatial scales. This method is clearly advantageous for analysing macro-scale spatiotemporal variations in glacier movement.
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Plasma expansion into vacuum assuming a steplike electron energy distribution.
Kiefer, Thomas; Schlegel, Theodor; Kaluza, Malte C
2013-04-01
The expansion of a semi-infinite plasma slab into vacuum is analyzed with a hydrodynamic model implying a steplike electron energy distribution function. Analytic expressions for the maximum ion energy and the related ion distribution function are derived and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The choice of the specific non-Maxwellian initial electron energy distribution automatically ensures the conservation of the total energy of the system. The estimated ion energies may differ by an order of magnitude from the values obtained with an adiabatic expansion model supposing a Maxwellian electron distribution. Furthermore, good agreement with data from experiments using laser pulses of ultrashort durations τ(L)Maxwellian electron distribution is assumed.
Black carbon aerosol-induced Northern Hemisphere tropical expansion
Kovilakam, Mahesh; Mahajan, Salil
2015-06-01
Global climate models (GCMs) underestimate the observed trend in tropical expansion. Recent studies partly attribute it to black carbon (BC) aerosols, which are poorly represented in GCMs. We conduct a suite of idealized experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 coupled to a slab ocean model forced with increasing BC concentrations covering a large swath of the estimated range of current BC radiative forcing while maintaining their spatial distribution. The Northern Hemisphere (NH) tropics expand poleward nearly linearly as BC radiative forcing increases (0.7° W-1 m2), indicating that a realistic representation of BC could reduce GCM biases. We find support for the mechanism where BC-induced midlatitude tropospheric heating shifts the maximum meridional tropospheric temperature gradient poleward resulting in tropical expansion. We also find that the NH poleward tropical edge is nearly linearly correlated with the location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which shifts northward in response to increasing BC.
The exit velocity of a compressed air cannon
Rohrbach, Z J; Madsen, M J
2011-01-01
The use of compressed air cannons in an undergraduate lab provides a way to illustrate the cooperation of diverse physics concepts, such as conservation of momentum, the work-kinetic energy theorem, expansion of gas, air drag, and elementary Newtonian mechanics. However, recent proposals have disagreed as to whether the expansion of the gas in the cannon should be modeled as an adiabatic or an isothermal process. We built an air cannon that utilized a diaphragm valve to release our pressurized gas and found that neither model accurately predicted the exit velocity of our projectile. We present a new model, based on the flow of air through the valve, that is in much better agreement with our data.
Expansion of protein domain repeats.
Asa K Björklund
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.
Late Quaternary temperature change velocity in Mesoamerica
Correa-Metrio, A.; Lozano, S.; Sosa-Nájera, S.; Bush, M. B.
2013-05-01
Quaternary climate has been highly variable, and yet few quantitative continental reconstructions are available for tropical areas. Quantitative records of temperature change during the Quaternary are especially relevant for putting modern climate change into a historic context. Within this perspective, two aspects are of singular relevance: i) Identifying and quantifying past climatic variability, and ii) Providing a means to estimate the seed at which climate change happened in the past. Here we show temperature reconstructions and temperature change velocity calculations for two locations in northern tropical America. Temperature reconstruction was based on two sedimentary records form Lake Chalco (30,000 years), central Mexican highlands, and Lake Petén-Itzá, Guatemalan lowlands (86,000 years). Temperature reconstruction was based on the analysis of fossil pollen on the light of pollen-temperature transfer functions. These functions were calibrated through an extensive survey of modern pollen samples covering an elevational gradient from 0 to 4,218 m asl. Derived temperature profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling of approximately 5 oC during the Last Glacial Maximum in the lowlands and highlands of Mexico and Guatemala. Using a digital elevation model, we ere able to reconstruct the velocity at which isotherms displaced to produce the observed temperature anomalies. Spatial velocities of temperature change in the studied areas were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. This study demonstrates that modern temperature change has no precedent within the last 86,000 years, but also that tropical climate has been more variable than it has been assumed to date.
Advanced Ice Velocity Mapping Using Landsat 8
Klinger, M. J.; Scambos, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Haran, T. M.
2014-12-01
Improved image-to-image cross correlation software is applied to pairs of sequential Landsat 8 satellite imagery to accurately measure ice surface velocity over ice sheets and glaciers (±0.1 pixel displacement, 15 meter pixels). The high radiometric fidelity of Landsat 8's panchromatic band (12-bit), and exceptional geolocation accuracy (typically ±5 m) supports the generation of ice velocity fields over very short time intervals (e.g., 16-, 32-, or 48-day repeat images of the same scene location). The high radiometry supports velocity mapping in areas with very subtle topographic detail, including un-crevassed sastrugi regions on ice dome flanks or the ice sheet interior. New Python-based software presently under development (named PyCorr), takes two sequential Landsat 8 OLI scenes (or suitably processed ETM+ or TM scenes) and matches small sub-scenes ('chips') between the images based on similarity in their gray-scale value patterns, using an image correlation algorithm. Peak fitting in the region of maximum correlation for a chip pair yields sub-pixel fits to the feature offset vector. Vector editing after the image correlation runs seeks to eliminate spurious and cloud-impacted vectors, and correct residual geo-location error. This processing is based on plausible values of ice strain rates and known areas of near-zero ice flow (rock outcrops, ice dome areas, etc.). In preliminary processing, we have examined ~800 Landsat 8 image pairs having <20% cloud cover spanning the near-coastal Antarctic ice sheet during the 2013-14 summer season.
Gravitational entropy of cosmic expansion
Sussman, Roberto A
2014-01-01
We apply a recent proposal to define "gravitational entropy" to the expansion of cosmic voids within the framework of non-perturbative General Relativity. By considering CDM void configurations compatible with basic observational constraints, we show that this entropy grows from post-inflationary conditions towards a final asymptotic value in a late time fully non-linear regime described by the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models. A qualitatively analogous behavior occurs if we assume a positive cosmological constant consistent with a $\\Lambda$-CDM background model. However, the $\\Lambda$ term introduces a significant suppression of entropy growth with the terminal equilibrium value reached at a much faster rate.
Contribution of thermal expansion and
O.I.Pursky
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A theoretical model is developed to describe the experimental results obtained for the isobaric thermal conductivity of rare gas solids (RGS. The isobaric thermal conductivity of RGS has been analysed within Debye approximation with regard to the effect of thermal expansion. The suggested model takes into consideration the fact that thermal conductivity is determined by U-processes while above the phonon mobility edge it is determined by "diffusive" modes migrating randomly from site to site. The mobility edge ω0 is determined from the condition that the phonon mean-free path restricted by the U-processes cannot be smaller than half of the phonon wavelength.
Cosmic Growth and Expansion Conjoined
Linder, Eric V
2016-01-01
Cosmological measurements of both the expansion history and growth history have matured, and the two together provide an important test of general relativity. We consider their joint evolutionary track, showing that this has advantages in distinguishing cosmologies relative to considering them individually or at isolated redshifts. In particular, the joint comparison relaxes the shape degeneracy that makes $f\\sigma_8(z)$ curves difficult to separate from the overall growth amplitude. The conjoined method further helps visualization of which combinations of redshift ranges provide the clearest discrimination. We examine standard dark energy cosmologies, modified gravity, and "stuttering" growth, each showing distinct signatures.
Digital expansions with negative real bases
Steiner, Wolfgang
2011-01-01
Similarly to Parry's characterization of $\\beta$-expansions of real numbers in real bases $\\beta > 1$, Ito and Sadahiro characterized digital expansions in negative bases, by the expansions of the endpoints of the fundamental interval. Parry also described the possible expansions of 1 in base $\\beta > 1$. In the same vein, we characterize the sequences that occur as $(-\\beta)$-expansion of $\\frac{-\\beta}{\\beta+1}$ for some $\\beta > 1$. These sequences also describe the itineraries of 1 by linear mod one transformations with negative slope.
Xu, Y; Sun, H J; Lv, Y; Zou, J C; Lin, B L; Hua, T C
2013-01-01
The intact articular cartilage has not yet been successfully preserved at low temperature most likely due to the volume expansion from water to ice during freezing. The objective of this current study focuses on examining thermal expansion behavior of articular cartilage (AC) during freezing from 0 degree C to -100 degree C. Thermo Mechanical Analysis (TMA) was used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (0%, 10%, 30% and 60% v/v) and different freezing rates (1 C/min, 3 C/min and 5 C/min). The results showed that: (1) the inhomogeneous thermal expansion (or contraction) presents due to inhomogeneous water distributions in articular cartilage during freezing, which also may be the most likely reason that the matrix has been damaged in cryopreserved intact articular cartilage; (2) at the phase transition temperature range, the maximum thermal strain change value for 5C/min is approximately 1.45 times than that for 1 C/min, but the maximum thermal expansion coefficient of the later is about six times than that of the former; (3) the thermal expansion coefficient decreases with increasing cooling rate at the unfrozen temperature region, but some opposite results are obtained at the frozen temperature region; (4) the higher the DMSO concentration is, at the phase change temperature region, the smaller the thermal strain change as well as the maximum thermal expansion coefficient are, but DMSO concentration exhibits little effect on the thermal expansion coefficient at both unfrozen and frozen region. Once the DMSO concentration increasing enough, e.g. 60% v/v, the thermal strain decreases linearly and smoothly without any abrupt change due to little or no ice crystal forms (i.e. vitrification) in frozen articular cartilage. This study may improve our understanding of the thermal expansion (or contraction) behavior of cryopreserved articular cartilage and it may be useful for the future study on cryopreservation of intact
Expansion of magnetic clouds in the outer heliosphere
Gulisano, Adriana Maria; Dasso, Sergio; Rodriguez, Luciano
2012-01-01
A large amount of magnetized plasma is frequently ejected from the Sun as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Some of these ejections are detected in the solar wind as magnetic clouds (MCs) that have flux rope signatures. Magnetic clouds are structures that typically expand in the inner heliosphere. We derive the expansion properties of MCs in the outer heliosphere from one to five astronomical units to compare them with those in the inner heliosphere. We analyze MCs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft using insitu magnetic field and plasma measurements. The MC boundaries are defined in the MC frame after defining the MC axis with a minimum variance method applied only to the flux rope structure. As in the inner heliosphere, a large fraction of the velocity profile within MCs is close to a linear function of time. This is indicative of} a self-similar expansion and a MC size that locally follows a power-law of the solar distance with an exponent called zeta. We derive the value of zeta from the insitu velocity data...
Childress, M J; Sim, S A; Tucker, B E; Yuan, F; Schmidt, B P; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Contreras, C; Hsiao, E Y; Phillips, M; Morrell, N; Jha, S W; McCully, C; Filippenko, A V; Anderson, J P; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; de Jaeger, T; Forster, F; Gal-Yam, A; Guillou, L Le; Maguire, K; Maund, J; Mazzali, P A; Pignata, G; Smartt, S; Spyromilio, J; Sullivan, M; Taddia, F; Valenti, S; Bayliss, D D R; Bessell, M; Blanc, G A; Carson, D J; Clubb, K I; de Burgh-Day, C; Desjardins, T D; Fang, J J; Fox, O D; Gates, E L; Ho, I-T; Keller, S; Kelly, P L; Lidman, C; Loaring, N S; Mould, J R; Owers, M; Ozbilgen, S; Pei, L; Pickering, T; Pracy, M B; Rich, J A; Schaefer, B E; Scott, N; Stritzinger, M; Vogt, F P A; Zhou, G
2013-01-01
We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN 2012fr, of which 33 were obtained before maximum light. At early times SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II 6355 line which can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity "photospheric" component. This Si II 6355 HVF fades by phase -5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of v~12,000 km/s until at least 5 weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared (IR) triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v~12,000 km/s with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as a high-velocity component beginning at v~31,000 km/s two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the "shallow silicon" and "core-normal" subclasses in the Branch et al. (2009) classification scheme, and on the border between normal and "high-velocity" SNe Ia in the Wang et al. (2009a) system. Though it is a ...
Gait phase varies over velocities.
Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan
2014-02-01
We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification.
Velocity envelope of vector flow estimation with spatial quadrature
Kerr, Richard F.; Anderson, Martin E.
2003-05-01
We present the results of two studies investigating the optimal aperture configuration for maximized lateral blood flow velocity estimation using Heterodyned Spatial Quadrature. Our objective was to determine the maximum velocities that can be estimated at Doppler angles of 90 degrees and 60 degrees with a bias of less than 5% for both uniform scatterer motion in a tissue-mimicking phantom and blood-mimicking fluid circulated through a wall-less vessel flow phantom. Constant flow rates ranging from 3.0 to 18.0 ml/sec were applied in the flow phantom, producing expected peak velocities of 15.0 to 89.8 cm/sec under laminar flow conditions. Velocity estimates were obtained at each flow rate using 256 trials, with each trial consisting of an ensemble of 32 vectors. For an f/1 receive geometry with bi-lobed Hamming apodization, all peak flow velocities tested were estimated to within 5% of their expected values for both 90 degree and 60 degree Doppler angles. An f/2 receive geometry featuring bi-lobed Blackman apodization generally provided accurate lateral velocity estimates up to 71.9 cm/sec for a Doppler angle of 90 degrees, and accurate lateral component estimates up to 50.1 cm/sec for a 60 degree Doppler angle. The implications of these findings will be discussed.
Comparing dynamic surface tilt with velocity using an LDV
Bruce, Robert A.
2004-06-01
If a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) probe beam is normally incident on a resonating metal strip with a mirror-finish, the retro-reflected beam has corresponding dynamic deflections. These lateral beam offsets are proportional to the dynamic surface tilt and can be measured along with the LDV velocity using a separating beam-splitter and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (PSD). On a thin unbound strip resonating with 'pure mode' deformation, these derivative motions, velocity and tilt, are completely complementary. On a thin unbound plate resonating with 'hybrid mode' deformation, velocity and now two orthogonal tilts are nearly complementary. Maximal tilt has zero velocity, and maximum deformation or velocity has zero tilt. Intermediate values range in complementary fashion except near 'cross-nodes' zones. Here both motion types drop to zero at these cross-node locations. Both velocity and tilt signals are compared simultaneously using a special test fixture. This fixture consists of a stainless steel strip supported on its edges in the center, which can be excited by small speakers at the ends. Two comparison/calibration approaches are demonstrated with a pure 3-0 mode. Significant modal details are also demonstrated by analyzing multiple modes from pulsed excitation, and mapping a 3-1 mode-shape using the combined sensing approaches.
Velocity and directionality of the electrohysterographic signal propagation.
Lasse Lange
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The initiation of treatment for women with threatening preterm labor requires effective distinction between true and false labor. The electrohysterogram (EHG has shown great promise in estimating and classifying uterine activity. However, key issues remain unresolved and no clinically usable method has yet been presented using EHG. Recent studies have focused on the propagation velocity of the EHG signals as a potential discriminator between true and false labor. These studies have estimated the propagation velocity of individual spikes of the EHG signals. We therefore focus on estimating the propagation velocity of the entire EHG burst recorded during a contraction in two dimensions. STUDY DESIGN: EHG measurements were performed on six women in active labor at term, and a total of 35 contractions were used for the estimation of propagation velocity. The measurements were performed using a 16-channel two-dimensional electrode grid. The estimates were calculated with a maximum-likelihood approach. RESULTS: The estimated average propagation velocity was 2.18 (±0.68 cm/s. No single preferred direction of propagation was found. CONCLUSION: The propagation velocities estimated in this study are similar to those reported in other studies but with a smaller intra- and inter-patient variation. Thus a potential tool has been established for further studies on true and false labor contractions.
Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance.
Methenitis, Spyridon; Terzis, Gerasimos; Zaras, Nikolaos; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas, Nikolaos
2016-06-01
Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fifteen moderately-trained young females performed countermovement jumps as well as an isometric leg press test in order to determine the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Vastus lateralis MFCV was measured with intramuscular microelectrodes at rest on a different occasion. Maximum MFCV was significantly correlated with maximum isometric force (r = 0.66, p rate of force development at 100 ms, 150 ms, 200 ms, and 250 ms (r = 0.85, r = 0.89, r = 0.91, r = 0.92, respectively, p rate of force development than with maximum isometric leg press force. Lower, but significant correlations were found between mean MFCV and countermovement jump power (r = 0.65, p rate of force development than with isometric force, perhaps because conduction velocity is higher in the larger and fastest muscle fibers which are recognized to contribute to explosive actions.
Effects of aging on maximal and rapid velocity capacities of the leg extensors.
Thompson, Brennan J; Conchola, Eric C; Palmer, Ty B; Stock, Matt S
2014-10-01
Declines in muscle strength and power are commonly reported as a consequence of aging; however, few studies have investigated the influence of aging on maximal and rapid velocity characteristics. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of aging on maximal and rapid velocity characteristics of the leg extensor muscles. Twenty-three young (age=25±3yrs) and twenty-one old (72±4yrs) men performed three leg extension maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) at 240°·s(-1) and at maximum unloaded velocity (Vmax). Vmax was calculated as the highest velocity attained during the unloaded MVC and RVD was the linear slope of the velocity-time curve for the 240deg·s(-1) (RVD240) and maximum unloaded velocity (RVD-Vmax) contractions. The old men exhibited lower (Pmuscle to generate velocity rapidly versus the ability to generate maximal velocity. Such findings highlight the importance of time-dependent velocity measures when assessing the effects of aging on rapid velocity capacities.
Scaling of low-velocity impact for symmetric composite laminates
Sankar, Bhavani V.
1992-01-01
The equations governing the problem of low-velocity impact of a simply supported rectangular midplane-symmetric laminated plate are nondimensionalized such that the problem is defined in terms of five dimensionless parameters. A parametric study using the Graeco-Latin Factorial Plan is performed. Semi-empirical formulas for maximum impact force, impact duration, and maximum back surface strains are obtained. It is found that some of the simple impact models provide the bounds for the case of impact on a finite extent plate. A one parameter model is derived for impacts of short duration.
Velocity potential formulations of highly accurate Boussinesq-type models
Bingham, Harry B.; Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2009-01-01
processes on the weather side of reflective structures. Coast. Eng. 53, 929-945). An exact infinite series solution for the potential is obtained via a Taylor expansion about an arbitrary vertical position z=(z) over cap. For practical implementation however, the solution is expanded based on a slow...... variation of (z) over cap and terms are retained to first-order. With shoaling enhancement, the new models obtain a comparable accuracy in linear shoaling to the original velocity formulation. General consistency relations are also derived which are convenient for verifying that the differential operators...
Small velocity and finite temperature variations in kinetic relaxation models
Markowich, Peter
2010-01-01
A small Knuden number analysis of a kinetic equation in the diffusive scaling is performed. The collision kernel is of BGK type with a general local Gibbs state. Assuming that the flow velocity is of the order of the Knudsen number, a Hilbert expansion yields a macroscopic model with finite temperature variations, whose complexity lies in between the hydrodynamic and the energy-transport equations. Its mathematical structure is explored and macroscopic models for specific examples of the global Gibbs state are presented. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion
Tallinen, Tuomas; Biggins, John S; Mahadevan, L
2015-01-01
The exterior of the mammalian brain - the cerebral cortex - has a conserved layered structure whose thickness varies little across species. However, selection pressures over evolutionary time scales have led to cortices that have a large surface area to volume ratio in some organisms, with the result that the brain is strongly convoluted into sulci and gyri. Here we show that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter. A physical mimic of the process using a layered swelling gel captures the essence of the mechanism, and numerical simulations of the brain treated as a soft solid lead to the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri similar to those in the brain. The resulting gyrification patterns are a function of relative cortical expansion and relative thickness (compared with brain size), and are consistent with observations of a wide range of brains, ranging from smooth to highl...
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo; Rezaei, Zahra
2012-02-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the ΛCDM paradigm, the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the order of 10-37 G over the typical comoving scales ranging between 1 and 10 Mpc. While the obtained results seem to be irrelevant for seeding a reasonable galactic dynamo action, they demonstrate how the proposed fully inhomogeneous treatment can be used for the systematic scrutiny of pre-decoupling plasmas beyond the conventional perturbative expansions.
Imagination as expansion of experience.
Zittoun, Tania; Cerchia, Frédéric
2013-09-01
This paper proposes a developmental view on imagination: from this perspective, imagination can be seen as triggered by some disrupting event, which generates a disjunction from the person's unfolding experience of the "real" world, and as unfolding as a loop, which eventually comes back to the actual experience. Examining recent and classical theorization of imagination in psychology, the paper opposes a deficitary view of imagination to an expansive notion of imagination. The paper explores Piaget, Vygotsky, Harris and Pelaprat & Cole consider: 1) What does provoke a "rupture" or disjunction? 2) What are the psychological processes involved in the imaginary loop? 3) What nourishes such processes? 4) What are the consequences of such imaginary loop, or what does it enable doing? The paper proposes to adopt an expansive view of imagination, as Vygotsky proposed-a perspective that has been under-explored empirically since his seminal work. To stimulate such sociocultural psychology of imagination, two empirical examples are provided, one showing how children make sense of metaphor in an experimental setting, the other showing a young person using a novel met at school as symbolic resource.
Evolutionary expansion of the Monogenea.
Kearn, G C
1994-12-01
The evolutionary expansion of the monogeneans has taken place in parallel with the diversification of the fish-like vertebrates. In this article the main trends in monogenean evolution are traced from a hypothetical skin-parasitic ancestor on early vertebrates. Special consideration is given to the following topics: early divergence between skin feeders and blood feeders; diversification and specialization of the haptor for attachment to skin; transfer from host to host, viviparity and the success of the gyrodactylids; predation on skin parasites and camouflage; colonization of the buccal and branchial cavities; diversification and specialization of the haptor for attachment to the gills; phoresy in gill parasites; the development of endoparasitism and the origin of the cestodes; the success of dactylogyroidean gill parasites; the uniqueness of the polyopisthocotyleans; ovoviviparity and the colonization of the tetrapods. Host specificity has been the guiding force of coevolution between monogeneans and their vertebrate hosts, but the establishment of monogeneans on unrelated hosts sharing the same environment (host-switching) may have been underestimated. Host-switching has provided significant opportunities for evolutionary change of direction and is probably responsible for the establishment of monogeneans on cephalopod molluscs, on the hippopotamus and possibly on chelonians. There are indications that host-switching may be more common in monogeneans that spread by direct transfer of adults/juveniles from host to host. A limitation on the further expansion of monogeneans is the need for water for the dispersal of the infective larva (oncomiracidium).
Anisotropic thermal expansion in a metal-organic framework.
Madsen, Solveig Røgild; Lock, Nina; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt
2014-06-01
Ionothermal reaction between Mn(II)(acetate)2·4H2O and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) in either of the two ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (EMIMBr) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate (EMIMOTs) resulted in the formation of the new metal-organic framework (MOF) EMIM[Mn(II)BTC] (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate). The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with unit-cell parameters of a = 14.66658 (12), b = 12.39497 (9), c = 16.63509 (14) Å at 100 K. Multi-temperature single-crystal (15-340 K) and powder X-ray diffraction studies (100-400 K) reveal strongly anisotropic thermal expansion properties. The linear thermal expansion coefficients, αL(l), attain maximum values at 400 K along the a- and b-axis, with αL(a) = 115 × 10(-6) K(-1) and αL(b) = 75 × 10(-6) K(-1). At 400 K a negative thermal expansion coefficient of -40 × 10(-6) K(-1) is observed along the c-axis. The thermal expansion is coupled to a continuous deformation of the framework, which causes the structure to expand in two directions. Due to the rigidity of the linker, the expansion in the ab plane causes the network to contract along the c-axis. Hirshfeld surface analysis has been used to describe the interaction between the framework structure and the EMIM cation that resides within the channel. This reveals a number of rather weak interactions and one governing hydrogen-bonding interactions.
Zero expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® roadmap for advanced lithography
Westerhoff, Thomas; Jedamzik, Ralf; Hartmann, Peter
2013-04-01
The zero expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in microlithography in critical components as wafer- and reticle-stages, mirrors and frames in the stepper positioning and alignment system. The very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and its extremely high CTE homogeneity are key properties to achieve the tight overlay requirements of advanced lithography processes. SCHOTT is continuously improving critical material properties of ZERODUR® essential for microlithography applications according to a roadmap driven by the ever tighter material specifications broken down from the customer roadmaps. This paper will present the SCHOTT Roadmap for ZERODUR® material property development. In the recent years SCHOTT established a physical model based on structural relaxation to describe the coefficient of thermal expansion's temperature dependence. The model is successfully applied for the new expansion grade ZERODUR® TAILORED introduced to the market in 2012. ZERODUR® TAILORED delivers the lowest thermal expansion of ZERODUR® products at microlithography tool application temperature allowing for higher thermal stability for tighter overlay control in IC production. Data will be reported demonstrating the unique CTE homogeneity of ZERODUR® and its very high reproducibility, a necessary precondition for serial production for microlithography equipment components. New data on the bending strength of ZERODUR® proves its capability to withstand much higher mechanical loads than previously reported. Utilizing a three parameter Weibull distribution it is possible to derive minimum strength values for a given ZERODUR® surface treatment. Consequently the statistical uncertainties of the earlier approach based on a two parameter Weibull distribution have been eliminated. Mechanical fatigue due to stress corrosion was included in a straightforward way. The derived formulae allows calculating life time of ZERODUR® components for a given stress
Genetic mixture of multiple source populations accelerates invasive range expansion.
Wagner, Natalie K; Ochocki, Brad M; Crawford, Kerri M; Compagnoni, Aldo; Miller, Tom E X
2017-01-01
A wealth of population genetic studies have documented that many successful biological invasions stem from multiple introductions from genetically distinct source populations. Yet, mechanistic understanding of whether and how genetic mixture promotes invasiveness has lagged behind documentation that such mixture commonly occurs. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test the influence of genetic mixture on the velocity of invasive range expansion. The mechanistic basis for effects of genetic mixture could include evolutionary responses (mixed invasions may harbour greater genetic diversity and thus elevated evolutionary potential) and/or fitness advantages of between-population mating (heterosis). If driven by evolution, positive effects of source population mixture should increase through time, as selection sculpts genetic variation. If driven by heterosis, effects of mixture should peak following first reproductive contact and then dissipate. Using a laboratory model system (beetles spreading through artificial landscapes), we quantified the velocity of range expansion for invasions initiated with one, two, four or six genetic sources over six generations. Our experiment was designed to test predictions corresponding to the evolutionary and heterosis mechanisms, asking whether any effects of genetic mixture occurred in early or later generations of range expansion. We also quantified demography and dispersal for each experimental treatment, since any effects of mixture should be manifest in one or both of these traits. Over six generations, invasions with any amount of genetic mixture (two, four and six sources) spread farther than single-source invasions. Our data suggest that heterosis provided a 'catapult effect', leaving a lasting signature on range expansion even though the benefits of outcrossing were transient. Individual-level trait data indicated that genetic mixture had positive effects on local demography (reduced extinction risk and enhanced
The problem of the maximum volumes and particle horizon in the Friedmann universe model
Gong, S. M.
1989-08-01
The maximum volume of the closed Friedmann universe is further investigated and is shown to be 2 x pi squared x R cubed (t), instead of pi squared x R cubed (t) as found previously. This discrepancy comes from the incomplete use of the volume formula of 3-dimensional spherical space in the astronomical literature. Mathematically, the maximum volume exists at any cosmic time t in a 3-dimensional spherical case. However, the Friedmann closed universe in expansion reaches its maximum volume only at the time of the maximum scale factor. The particle horizon has no limitation for the farthest objects in the closed Friedmann universe if the proper distance of objects is compared with the particle horizon as is should be. This leads to absurdity if the luminosity distance of objects is compared with the proper distance of the particle horizon.
Measuring In-Situ Mdf Velocity Of Detonation
Horine, Frank M.; James, Jr., Forrest B.
2005-10-25
A system for determining the velocity of detonation of a mild detonation fuse mounted on the surface of a device includes placing the device in a predetermined position with respect to an apparatus that carries a couple of sensors that sense the passage of a detonation wave at first and second spaced locations along the fuse. The sensors operate a timer and the time and distance between the locations is used to determine the velocity of detonation. The sensors are preferably electrical contacts that are held spaced from but close to the fuse such that expansion of the fuse caused by detonation causes the fuse to touch the contact, causing an electrical signal to actuate the timer.
Fast algorithms for Quadrature by Expansion I: Globally valid expansions
Rachh, Manas; Klöckner, Andreas; O'Neil, Michael
2017-09-01
The use of integral equation methods for the efficient numerical solution of PDE boundary value problems requires two main tools: quadrature rules for the evaluation of layer potential integral operators with singular kernels, and fast algorithms for solving the resulting dense linear systems. Classically, these tools were developed separately. In this work, we present a unified numerical scheme based on coupling Quadrature by Expansion, a recent quadrature method, to a customized Fast Multipole Method (FMM) for the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. The method allows the evaluation of layer potentials in linear-time complexity, anywhere in space, with a uniform, user-chosen level of accuracy as a black-box computational method. Providing this capability requires geometric and algorithmic considerations beyond the needs of standard FMMs as well as careful consideration of the accuracy of multipole translations. We illustrate the speed and accuracy of our method with various numerical examples.
Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-05-01
Introduced herein is a reflection wave velocity analysis method using model scanning as a method for velocity estimation across a section, the estimation being useful in the construction of a velocity structure model in seismic exploration. In this method, a stripping type analysis is carried out, wherein optimum structure parameters are determined for reflection waves one after the other beginning with those from shallower parts. During this process, the velocity structures previously determined for the shallower parts are fixed and only the lowest of the layers undergoing analysis at the time is subjected to model scanning. To consider the bending of ray paths at each velocity boundaries involving shallower parts, the ray path tracing method is utilized for the calculation of the reflection travel time curve for the reflection surface being analyzed. Out of the reflection wave travel time curves calculated using various velocity structure models, one that suits best the actual reflection travel time is detected. The degree of matching between the calculated result and actual result is measured by use of data semblance in a time window provided centering about the calculated reflective wave travel time. The structure parameter is estimated on the basis of conditions for the maximum semblance. 1 ref., 4 figs.
A dual method for maximum entropy restoration
Smith, C. B.
1979-01-01
A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin
Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-06-01
We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
Bennaceur-Doumaz Djamila
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The expansion of semi-infinite laser produced plasma into vacuum is analyzed with a hydrodynamic model for cold ions assuming electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. Self-similar analytic expressions for the potential, velocity, and density of the plasma have been derived. It is shown that nonthermal energetic electrons have the role of accelerating the self-similar expansion.
The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description
Belashev, B Z
2002-01-01
The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered
19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance
Methenitis Spyridon; Terzis Gerasimos; Zaras Nikolaos; Stasinaki Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas Nikolaos
2016-01-01
Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fifteen moder...
Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance
Methenitis, Spyridon; Terzis, Gerasimos; Zaras, Nikolaos; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas, Nikolaos
2016-01-01
Abstract Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fift...
Velocity requirements for causality violation
Modanese, Giovanni
2013-01-01
It is known that the hypothetical existence of superluminal signals would imply the logical possibility of active causal violation: an observer in relative motion with respect to a primary source could in principle emit secondary superluminal signals (triggered by the primary ones) which go back in time and deactivate the primary source before the initial emission. This is a direct consequence of the structure of the Lorentz transformations, sometimes called "Regge-Tolman paradox". It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity of the moving observer required to produce the causality violation. When applied to some recent claims of slight superluminal propagation, this formula yields a required velocity very close to the speed of light; this raises some doubts about the real physical observability of such violations. We re-compute this velocity requirement introducing a realistic delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that for -any- delay it...
Signal velocity in oscillator arrays
Cantos, C. E.; Veerman, J. J. P.; Hammond, D. K.
2016-09-01
We investigate a system of coupled oscillators on the circle, which arises from a simple model for behavior of large numbers of autonomous vehicles where the acceleration of each vehicle depends on the relative positions and velocities between itself and a set of local neighbors. After describing necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, we derive expressions for the phase velocity of propagation of disturbances in velocity through this system. We show that the high frequencies exhibit damping, which implies existence of well-defined signal velocitiesc+ > 0 and c- < 0 such that low frequency disturbances travel through the flock as f+(x - c+t) in the direction of increasing agent numbers and f-(x - c-t) in the other.
Estimation of velocity vectors in synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Oddershede, Niels
2006-01-01
A method for determining both velocity magnitude and angle in a synthetic aperture ultrasound system is described. The approach uses directional beamforming along the flow direction and cross-correlation to determine velocity magnitude. The angle of the flow is determined from the maximum...... of the visually determined flow angle. The standard deviation of these estimates was below 2.7 deg. Full color flow maps from different parts of the cardiac cycle are presented, including vector arrows indicating both estimated flow direction and velocity magnitude....... normalized correlation calculated as a function of angle. This assumes the flow direction is within the imaging plane. Simulations of the angle estimation method show both biases and standard deviations of the flow angle estimates below 3 deg for flow angles from 20 deg to 90 deg (transverse flow...
Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets
Saha, Abhishek [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Basu, Saptarshi [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kumar, Ranganathan, E-mail: ranganathan.kumar@ucf.edu [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)
2012-10-01
The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters. -- Highlights: ► Demonstrates the importance of rotation in a levitated droplet that leads to controlled morphology. ► Provides detailed measurements of Particle Image Velocimetry inside levitated droplets. ► Shows variation of vortex strength with the droplet diameter and viscosity of the liquid.
The effect of dark matter velocity profile on directional detection of dark matter
Laha, Ranjan
2016-01-01
Directional detection is an important way to detect dark matter. An input to these experiments is the dark matter velocity distribution. Recent hydrodynamical simulations have shown that the dark matter velocity distribution differs substantially from the Standard Halo Model. We study the impact of some of these updated velocity distribution in dark matter directional detection experiments. We calculate the ratio of events required to confirm the forward-backward asymmetry and the existence of the ring of maximum recoil rate using different dark matter velocity distributions for $^{19}$F and Xe targets. We show that with the use of updated dark matter velocity profiles, the forward-backward asymmetry and the ring of maximum recoil rate can be confirmed using a factor of $\\sim$2 -- 3 less events when compared to that using the Standard Halo Model.
Velocity centroids and the structure of interstellar turbulence: I. Analytical study
Levrier, F
2004-01-01
We present an analytical study of the statistical properties of integrated emission and velocity centroids for a slightly compressible turbulent slab model, to retrieve the underlying statistics of three-dimensional density and velocity fluctuations. Under the assumptions that the density and velocity fields are homogeneous and isotropic, we derive the expressions of the antenna temperature for an optically thin spectral line observation, and of its successive moments with respect to the line of sight velocity component, focusing on the zeroth (intensity or integrated emission I) and first (non-normalized velocity centroid C) moments. The ratio of the latter to the former is the normalized centroid C_0, whose expression can be linearized for small density fluctuations. To describe the statistics of I, C and C_0, we derive expansions of their autocorrelation functions in powers of density fluctuations and perform a lowest-order real-space calculation of their scaling behaviour, assuming that the density and ve...
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH
Pandya A M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70
On Global Magnetic ``Monopoly'' Near Solar Cycle Maximums
Kryvodubskyj, V.
During last maximums of the solar activity the both poles of the polar magnetic field had the same polarity. Since in the turbulent α Ω -dynamo model the excitation thresholds of the periodic dipole and quadrupole modes of the poloidal madnetic field (PMF) are rather close [Parker E. N.: 1971, Ap.J. V. 164, p. 491] then it is possible that the quadrupole mode may be excited due to variations of physical parameters in a some regions of the solar convection zone (SCZ). The pattern of the excited modes (dipole, quadrupole, octupole, etc.) is determined by the values of wave number of the Parker's dynamo-wave. We calculated these values for the SCZ model by Stix (1989) [Stix M.: 1989, The Sun. Berlin, p. 200] in the vicinity of solar tachocline (a region of strong shear of angular velocity at the base of the SCZ) with using our estimation of the helical turbulence parameter [Krivodubskij V. N.: 1998, Astron. Reports V. 42, No 1, p. 122] and values of the radial gradient of the angular velocity obtained from the newer helioseismic measurements (during rising phase of 23th solar cycle: 1995-1999) [Howe R.,Christensen-Dalsgaard J., Hill F. et al.: 2000, Science. V. 287, p. 2456]. It is found out that at low latitudes dynamo mechanism produces rather the dipole (wave number ≈ -7), the main antisymmetric, relatively to equatorial plane, mode of the PMF; while at the latitudes higher than 50o the conditions are more favourable for exciting of the quadrupole (wave number ≈ +8), the lowest symmetric mode. Arised north-south magnetic structure asymmetry gives an opportunity to explain the space magnetic anomaly of the PMF (``monopoly'') observed near solar cycle maximums.
FU Xudong; WANG Guangqian; KANG Zhicheng; FEI Xiangjun
2007-01-01
Characteristics of planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flow were analyzed using the measured data at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China. The velocity data were measured through using two radar velocimeters. The cross-sectional mean velocities were calculated and used to examine Kang et al's (2004) relationship, which was established for converting the flow velocity at river centerline measured by a radar velocimeter into the mean velocity based on the stop-watch method. The velocity coefficient, K, defined by the ratio of the mean velocity to the maximum velocity, ranges from 0.2 to 0.6. Kang et al's (2004) relationship was found being inapplicable to flows with K smaller than 0.43. This paper contributes to show the complexity of the planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flows and the applicability of Kang et al's relationship.
Short-term and long-term stability of surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion revisited
Chamberland, Sylvain; Proffit, William R.
2014-01-01
Introduction The purpose of this article is to present further longitudinal data for short-term and long-term stability, following up our previous article in the surgery literature with a larger sample and 2 years of stability data. Methods Data from 38 patients enrolled in this prospective study were collected before treatment, at maximum expansion, at removal of the expander 6 months later, before any second surgical phase, at the end of orthodontic treatment, and at the 2-year follow-up, by using posteroanterior cephalograms and dental casts. Results With surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE), the mean maximum expansion at the first molar was 7.60 ± 1.57 mm, and the mean relapse was 1.83 ± 1.83 mm (24%). Modest relapse after completion of treatment was not statistically significant for all teeth except for the maxillary first molar (0.99 ± 1.1 mm). A significant relationship (P <0.0001) was observed between the amount of relapse after SARPE and the posttreatment observation. At maximum, a skeletal expansion of 3.58 ± 1.63 mm was obtained, and this was stable. Conclusions Skeletal changes with SARPE were modest but stable. Relapse in dental expansion was almost totally attributed to lingual movement of the posterior teeth; 64% of the patients had more than 2 mm of dental changes. Phase 2 surgery did not affect dental relapse. PMID:21640889
Angle independent velocity spectrum determination
2014-01-01
An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....
Discretization of the velocity space in solution of the Boltzmann equation
Shan, X; Shan, Xiaowen; He, Xiaoyi
1998-01-01
We point out an equivalence between the discrete velocity method of solving the Boltzmann equation, of which the lattice Boltzmann equation method is a special example, and the approximations to the Boltzmann equation by a Hermite polynomial expansion. Discretizing the Boltzmann equation with a BGK collision term at the velocities that correspond to the nodes of a Hermite quadrature is shown to be equivalent to truncating the Hermite expansion of the distribution function to the corresponding order. The truncated part of the distribution has no contribution to the moments of low orders and is negligible at small Mach numbers. Higher order approximations to the Boltzmann equation can be achieved by using more velocities in the quadrature.
Velocity of lordosis angle during spinal flexion and extension.
Tobias Consmüller
Full Text Available The importance of functional parameters for evaluating the severity of low back pain is gaining clinical recognition, with evidence suggesting that the angular velocity of lordosis is critical for identification of musculoskeletal deficits. However, there is a lack of data regarding the range of functional kinematics (RoKs, particularly which include the changing shape and curvature of the spine. We address this deficit by characterising the angular velocity of lordosis throughout the thoracolumbar spine according to age and gender. The velocity of lumbar back shape changes was measured using Epionics SPINE during maximum flexion and extension activities in 429 asymptomatic volunteers. The difference between maximum positive and negative velocities represented the RoKs. The mean RoKs for flexion decreased with age; 114°/s (20-35 years, 100°/s (36-50 years and 83°/s (51-75 years. For extension, the corresponding mean RoKs were 73°/s, 57°/s and 47°/s. ANCOVA analyses revealed that age and gender had the largest influence on the RoKs (p<0.05. The Epionics SPINE system allows the rapid assessment of functional kinematics in the lumbar spine. The results of this study now serve as normative data for comparison to patients with spinal pathology or after surgical treatment.
Relativistic Stars in Starobinsky gravity matched asymptotic expansion
Arapoğlu, Savaş; Ekşi, K Yavuz
2016-01-01
We study the structure of relativistic stars in $\\mathcal{R}+\\alpha \\mathcal{R}^{2}$ theory using the method of matched asymptotic expansion to handle the higher order derivatives in field equations arising from the higher order curvature term. We find solutions, parametrized by $\\alpha$, for uniform density stars matching to the Schwarzschild solution outside the star. We obtain the mass-radius relations and study the dependence of maximum mass on $\\alpha$. We find that $M_{\\max} \\propto \\alpha^{-3/2}$ for values of $\\alpha$ larger than $10~{\\rm km^2}$. For each $\\alpha$ the maximum mass configuration has the biggest compactness parameter ($\\eta = GM/Rc^2$) and we argue that the general relativistic stellar configuration corresponding to $\\alpha=0$ is the most compact among these.
A CAPACITY EXPANSION PROBLEM WITHBUDGET CONSTRAINT AND BOTTLENECK LIMITATION
无
2001-01-01
This paper considers a capacity expansion problem with budget constraint.Suppose each edge in the network has two attributes: capacity and the degree of difficulty.The difficulty degree of a tree T is the maximum degree of difficulty of all edges in the tree and the cost for coping with the difficulty in a tree is a nondecreasing function about the difficulty degree of the tree. The authors need to increase capacities of some edges so that there is a spanning tree whose capacity can be increased to the maximum extent.meanwhile the total cost for increasing capacity as well as overcoming the difficulty in the spanning tree does not exceed a given budget D*. Suppose the cost for increasing capacity on each edge is a linear function about the increment of capacity, they transform this problem into solving some hybrid parametric spanning tree problems[1] and propose a strongly polynomial algorithm.
On the Equisummability of Hermite and Fourier Expansions
E K Narayanan; S Thangavelu
2001-02-01
We prove an equisummability result for the Fourier expansions and Hermite expansions as well as special Hermite expansions. We also prove the uniform boundedness of the Bochner-Riesz means associated to the Hermite expansions for polyradial functions.
Shrub expansion in SW Greenland
Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan
to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...... of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer......Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic...
Bilinear Expansion For Redistribution Functions
Harutyunian, Haik; Alecian, Georges; Khachatryan, Knarik; Vardanyan, Ani
2016-11-01
We suggest here a method for construction of a bilinear expansion for an angle-averaged redistribution function. This function describes the elementary act of a photon scattering by a model two-level atom with the upper level broadened due to radiation damping. An eigenvalue and eigenvector determination problem is formulated and the relevant matrices are found analytically. Numerical procedures for their computations are elaborated as well. A simple method for the numerical calculations accuracy evaluation is suggested. It is shown that a family of redistribution functions describing the light scattering process within the spectral line frequencies can be constructed if the eigenvalue problem for the considered function is solved. It becomes possible if the eigenvalues and eigenvectors with the appropriate basic functions are used. The Voigt function and its derivatives used as basic functions are studied in detail as well.
Accelerating Expansion of the Universe
Chakraborty, Writambhara
2011-01-01
This thesis concentrates on the accelerated expansion of the Universe recently explored by measurements of redshift and luminosity-distance relations of type Ia Supernovae. We have considered a model of the universe filled with modified Chaplygin gas and barotropic fluid. The role of dynamical cosmological constant has been explored with Modified Chaplygin Gas as the background fluid. Various phenomenological models for \\Lambda have been studied in presence of the gravitational constant G to be constant or time dependent. A new form of the well known Chaplygin gas model has been presented by introducing inhomogeneity in the EOS. This model explains w=-1 crossing. An interaction of this model with the scalar field has also been investigated through a phenomenological coupling function. Tachyonic field has been depicted as dark energy model to represent the present acceleration of the Universe. A mixture of the tachyonic fluid has been considered with Generalized Chaplygin Gas to show the role of the later as a...
Asymptotic expansions in nonlinear rotordynamics
Day, William B.
1987-01-01
This paper is an examination of special nonlinearities of the Jeffcott equations in rotordynamics. The immediate application of this analysis is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the LOX pump of the SSME during hot-firing ground testing. Deadband, side force, and rubbing are three possible sources of inducing nonlinearity in the Jeffcott equations. The present analysis initially reduces these problems to the same mathematical description. A special frequency, named the nonlinear natural frequency, is defined and used to develop the solutions of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations as singular asymptotic expansions. This nonlinear natural frequency, which is the ratio of the cross-stiffness and the damping, plays a major role in determining response frequencies.
Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. I. Front formation
Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.
2016-01-01
The dynamics during plasma expansion are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation with a variable neutral gas density profile. The simulation is tailored to a radio frequency plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055207 (2014)]. The experiment has shown the existence of a propagating ion front. The ion front features a strong electric field and features a sharp plasma potential drop similar to a double layer. However, the presented results of a first principle simulation show that, in general, the ion front does not have to be entangled with an electric field. The propagating electric field reflects the downstream ions, which stream with velocities up to twice as high as that of the ion front propagation. The observed ion density peak forms due to the accumulation of the reflected ions. The simulation shows that the ion front formation strongly depends on the initial ion density profile and is subject to a wave-breaking phenomenon. Virtual diagnostics in the code allow for a direct comparison with experimental results. Using this technique, the plateau forming in the wake of the plasma front could be indirectly verified in the expansion experiment. Although the simulation considers profiles only in one spatial dimensional, its results are qualitatively in a very good agreement with the laboratory experiment. It can successfully reproduce findings obtained by independent numerical models and simulations. This indicates that the effects of magnetic field structures and tangential inhomogeneities are not essential for the general expansion dynamic. The presented simulation will be used for a detailed parameter study dealt with in Paper II [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasma 23, 013512 (2016)] of this series.
Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe
Miroslav Sukenik
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.
Discussion on origin of Pn velocity variation in China and adjacent region
裴顺平; 许忠淮; 汪素云
2004-01-01
Pn velocity lateral variation and anisotropy images were reconstructed by adding about 50 000 travel times from the regional seismic networks to the datum set of near 40 000 travel times from National Seismic Network of China used by WANG, et al. We discussed the relation of Pn velocity variation to Moho depth, Earth's heat flow, distribution of Cenozoic volcanic rock and the result of rock experiment under high pressure and high temperature. The result of quantitative analysis indicates that Pn velocity is positively correlated with the crust thickness and negatively correlated with the Earth's heat flow. Two linear regression equations, one between Pn velocity and crust thickness, and the other between Pn velocity and heat flow, were obtained. The rate of variation of Pn velocity vP with pressure P,()Vp/()P, estimated from the velocity variation with crust thickness()Vp/()His close to the result obtained from the rock experiment under high pressure and high temperature. If the effect of crust thickness on Pn velocity is deducted from the velocity variation, then the low Pn velocity beneath Qinghai-Xizang plateau is more notable. The low Pn velocity regions well agree with the Cenozoic volcanic rock. In the several regions with significant anisotropy, the direction of fast Pn velocity is consistent with the orientation of maximum principal crustal compressive stress, and also with the direction of present-day crustal movement. It indicates that the fast Pn velocity direction may be related to the deformation or flow of top mantle material along the direction of maximum pressure.
Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability
Bourgeois, Richard Scott
2015-07-14
The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.
Novel thermal expansion of lead titanate
XING Xianran; DENG Jinxia; CHEN Jun; LIU Guirong
2003-01-01
Lattice parameters of lead titanate were precisely re-determined in the ternperature range of-150-950℃ by high precision XRPD measurements. It was clarified that there was no any evidence for a new phase transition at low temperatures. Tetragonal distortion strain decreases with temperature increasing. A novel thermal expansion was observed, positive thermal expansion from-150℃ to room temperature (RT) and above 490℃, and the negative thermal expansion in the temperature range of RT-490℃. A big jump of thermal expansion coefficient is attributed to the tetragonal-cubic phase transition. A rationalization for the negative thermal expansion of PbTiO3 is due to the decrease of anion-anion repulsion as polyhedra become more regular at heating. The mechanisms of positive and negative thermal expansions were elucidated as the same nature in the homogenous tetragonal phase at present case.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees
van Iersel, Leo
2009-01-01
A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, Arthur F.
2014-01-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Modified uncertainty principle from the free expansion of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Castellanos, Elías; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present a theoretical and numerical analysis of the free expansion of a Bose-Einstein condensate, where we assume that the single particle energy spectrum is deformed due to a possible quantum structure of spacetime. Also, we consider the presence of interparticle interactions in order to study more realistic and specific scenarios. The modified free velocity expansion of the condensate leads in a natural way to a modification of the uncertainty principle, which allows us to investigate some possible features of the Planck scale regime in low-energy earth-based experiments.
Relativistic simulation of the Vlasov equation for plasma expansion into vacuum
H Abbasi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, relativistic Vlasov simulation of plasma for expansion of collisionless plasma for into vacuum is presented. The model is based on 1+1 dimensional phase space and electrostatic approximation. For this purpose, the electron dynamics is studied by the relativistic Vlasov equation. Regardless of the ions temperature, fluid equations are used for their dynamics. The initial electrons distribution function is the relativistic Maxwellian. The results show that due to the electrons relativistic temperature, the process of the plasma expansion takes place faster, the resulting electric field is stronger and the ions are accelerated to higher velocities, in comparison to the non-relativistic case.
Numerical Simulation on Expansion Process of Ablation Plasma Induced by Intense Pulsed Ion Beam
TAN Chang; LIU Yue; WANG Xiao-Gang; MA Teng-Cai
2006-01-01
We present a one-dimensional time-dependent numerical model for the expansion process of ablation plasmainduced by intense pulsed ion beam(IPIB).The evolutions of density,velocity,temperature,and pressure of theablation plasma of the aluminium target are obtained.The numerical results are well in agreement with therelative experimental data.It is shown that the expansion process of ablation plasma induced by IPIB includesstrongly nonlinear effects and that shock waves appear during the propagation of the ablation plasma.
Modified uncertainty principle from the free expansion of a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Castellanos, Elías
2015-01-01
We develop an analytical and numerical analysis of the free expansion of a Bose-Einstein condensate, in which we assume that the single particle energy spectrum is deformed due to a possible quantum structure of space time. Also we consider the presence of inter particle interactions in order to study more realistic and specific scenarios. The modified free velocity expansion of the condensate leads in a natural way to a modification of the uncertainty principle, which allows us to investigate some possible features of the Planck scale regime in low-energy earth-based experiments.
Anomalous thermal expansion in $\\alpha$-titanium
Souvatzis, P.; O. Eriksson; M. I. Katsnelson
2007-01-01
We provide a complete quantitative explanation for the anisotropic thermal expansion of hcp Ti at low temperature. The observed negative thermal expansion along the c-axis is reproduced theoretically by means of a parameter free theory which involves both the electron and phonon contributions to the free energy. The thermal expansion of titanium is calculated and found to be negative along the c-axis for temperatures below $\\sim$ 170 K, in good agreement with observations. We have identified ...
Hydration and Thermal Expansion in Anatase Nanoparticles.
Zhu, He; Li, Qiang; Ren, Yang; Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran
2016-08-01
A tunable thermal expansion is reported in nanosized anatase by taking advantage of surface hydration. The coefficient of thermal expansion of 4 nm TiO2 along a-axis is negative with a hydrated surface and is positive without a hydrated surface. High-energy synchrotron X-ray pair distribution function analysis combined with ab initio calculations on the specific hydrated surface are carried out to reveal the local structure distortion that is responsible for the unusual negative thermal expansion.
Hydration and Thermal Expansion in Anatase Nanoparticles
Zhu, He [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 China; Li, Qiang [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 China; Ren, Yang [Argonne National Laboratory, X-Ray Science Division, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Fan, Longlong [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 China; Chen, Jun [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 China; Deng, Jinxia [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 China; Xing, Xianran [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 China
2016-06-06
A tunable thermal expansion is reported in nanosized anatase by taking advantage of surface hydration. The coefficient of thermal expansion of 4 nm TiO2 along a-axis is negative with a hydrated surface and is positive without a hydrated surface. High-energy synchrotron X-ray pair distribution function analysis combined with ab initio calculations on the specific hydrated surface are carried out to reveal the local structure distortion that is responsible for the unusual negative thermal expansion.
GAUSSIAN WHITE NOISE CALCULUS OF GENERALIZED EXPANSION
陈泽乾
2002-01-01
A new framework of Gaussian white noise calculus is established, in line with generalized expansion in [3, 4, 7]. A suitable frame of Fock expansion is presented on Gaussian generalized expansion functionals being introduced here, which provides the integral kernel operator decomposition of the second quantization of Koopman operators for chaotic dynamical systems, in terms of annihilation operators (e)t and its dual, creation operators (e)*t.
A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic parameters
Ying, Z. G.; Ni, Y. Q.
2017-03-01
A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic distribution parameters is proposed. The vibration response of the beam with spatial periodic parameters under harmonic excitations is studied. The frequency response of the periodic beam is the function of parametric period and then can be expressed by the series with the product of periodic and non-periodic functions. The procedure of the double expansion method includes the following two main steps: first, the frequency response function and periodic parameters are expanded by using identical periodic functions based on the extension of the Floquet-Bloch theorem, and the period-parametric differential equation for the frequency response is converted into a series of linear differential equations with constant coefficients; second, the solutions to the linear differential equations are expanded by using modal functions which satisfy the boundary conditions, and the linear differential equations are converted into algebraic equations according to the Galerkin method. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving the algebraic equations and then the frequency response function is finally determined. The proposed double expansion method can uncouple the effects of the periodic expansion and modal expansion so that the expansion terms are determined respectively. The modal number considered in the second expansion can be reduced remarkably in comparison with the direct expansion method. The proposed double expansion method can be extended and applied to the other structures with periodic distribution parameters for dynamics analysis. Numerical results on the frequency response of the finite-length periodic beam with various parametric wave numbers and wave amplitude ratios are given to illustrate the effective application of the proposed method and the new frequency response characteristics, including the parameter-excited modal resonance, doubling-peak frequency response
Range expansion underlies historical introgressive hybridization in the Iberian hare
Marques, João P.; Farelo, Liliana; Vilela, Joana; Vanderpool, Dan; Alves, Paulo C.; Good, Jeffrey M.; Boursot, Pierre; Melo-Ferreira, José
2017-01-01
Introgressive hybridization is an important and widespread evolutionary process, but the relative roles of neutral demography and natural selection in promoting massive introgression are difficult to assess and an important matter of debate. Hares from the Iberian Peninsula provide an appropriate system to study this question. In its northern range, the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis, shows a northwards gradient of increasing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression from the arctic/boreal L. timidus, which it presumably replaced after the last glacial maximum. Here, we asked whether a south-north expansion wave of L. granatensis into L. timidus territory could underlie mtDNA introgression, and whether nuclear genes interacting with mitochondria (“mitonuc” genes) were affected. We extended previous RNA-sequencing and produced a comprehensive annotated transcriptome assembly for L. granatensis. We then genotyped 100 discovered nuclear SNPs in 317 specimens spanning the species range. The distribution of allele frequencies across populations suggests a northwards range expansion, particularly in the region of mtDNA introgression. We found no correlation between variants at 39 mitonuc genes and mtDNA introgression frequency. Whether the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes coevolved will need a thorough investigation of the hundreds of mitonuc genes, but range expansion and species replacement likely promoted massive mtDNA introgression. PMID:28120863
Spatiotemporal velocity-velocity correlation function in fully developed turbulence
Canet, Léonie; Wschebor, Nicolás; Balarac, Guillaume
2016-01-01
Turbulence is an ubiquitous phenomenon in natural and industrial flows. Since the celebrated work of Kolmogorov in 1941, understanding the statistical properties of fully developed turbulence has remained a major quest. In particular, deriving the properties of turbulent flows from a mesoscopic description, that is from Navier-Stokes equation, has eluded most theoretical attempts. Here, we provide a theoretical prediction for the {\\it space and time} dependent velocity-velocity correlation function of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence from the field theory associated to Navier-Stokes equation with stochastic forcing. This prediction is the analytical fixed-point solution of Non-Perturbative Renormalisation Group flow equations, which are exact in a certain large wave-number limit. This solution is compared to two-point two-times correlation functions computed in direct numerical simulations. We obtain a remarkable agreement both in the inertial and in the dissipative ranges.
Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding
Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao
2012-01-01
In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.
Structure and thermal expansion of liquid bismuth
Mudry S.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Experimental structural data for liquid Bi were used for estimation of the main structure parameters as well as the thermal expansion coefficient both in supercooled and superheated temperature ranges. It was shown that the equilibrium melt had a positive thermal expansion coefficient within a temperature range upon melting and a negative one at higher temperatures. The former was related to structure changes upon melting, whereas the latter with topologic disordering upon further heating. It was found that the superheated melt had a negative thermal expansion coefficient. The results obtained from structural data were compared with the thermal expansion coefficient calculated from the data of density for liquid Bi.
TAYLOR EXPANSION METHOD FOR NONLINEAR EVOLUTION EQUATIONS
HE Yin-nian
2005-01-01
A new numerical method of integrating the nonlinear evolution equations, namely the Taylor expansion method, was presented. The standard Galerkin method can be viewed as the 0-th order Taylor expansion method; while the nonlinear Galerkin method can be viewed as the 1-st order modified Taylor expansion method. Moreover, the existence of the numerical solution and its convergence rate were proven. Finally, a concrete example,namely, the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with a non slip boundary condition,was provided. The result is that the higher order Taylor expansion method is of the higher convergence rate under some assumptions about the regularity of the solution.
Exceptional Ground Accelerations and Velocities Caused by Earthquakes
Anderson, John
2008-01-17
This project aims to understand the characteristics of the free-field strong-motion records that have yielded the 100 largest peak accelerations and the 100 largest peak velocities recorded to date. The peak is defined as the maximum magnitude of the acceleration or velocity vector during the strong shaking. This compilation includes 35 records with peak acceleration greater than gravity, and 41 records with peak velocities greater than 100 cm/s. The results represent an estimated 150,000 instrument-years of strong-motion recordings. The mean horizontal acceleration or velocity, as used for the NGA ground motion models, is typically 0.76 times the magnitude of this vector peak. Accelerations in the top 100 come from earthquakes as small as magnitude 5, while velocities in the top 100 all come from earthquakes with magnitude 6 or larger. Records are dominated by crustal earthquakes with thrust, oblique-thrust, or strike-slip mechanisms. Normal faulting mechanisms in crustal earthquakes constitute under 5% of the records in the databases searched, and an even smaller percentage of the exceptional records. All NEHRP site categories have contributed exceptional records, in proportions similar to the extent that they are represented in the larger database.
Reconstructing gravity beyond the local universe with peculiar velocities
Johnston, Russell; Teodoro, Luis F A; Nichol, Robert C; Warren, Michael S; Cress, Catherine
2012-01-01
We study a maximum probability approach to reconstructing spatial maps of the Newtonian gravitational potential, \\Psi, from peculiar velocities of galaxies at redshifts beyond z~0.1, where peculiar velocities have been measured from distance indicators (DI) such as the Tully-Fisher relation. With the large statistical uncertainties associated with DIs (of the order ~20% in distance), our reconstruction method aims to recover the underlying true peculiar velocity field with sufficient precision to be used as a cosmological probe of gravity, by reducing these statistical errors with the use of two physically motivated filtering prior terms. The first constructs an estimate of the velocity field derived from the galaxy over-density, \\delta_g, and the second makes use of the matter linear density power spectrum P(k). Through the use of N-body simulations we demonstrate that, with measurements with a suitably high signal-to-noise, we can successfully reconstruct the velocity and gravitational potential field out t...
The Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem
Cela, Eranda; Woeginger, Gerhard J
2011-01-01
We investigate a special case of the maximum quadratic assignment problem where one matrix is a product matrix and the other matrix is the distance matrix of a one-dimensional point set. We show that this special case, which we call the Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem, is NP-hard in the ordinary sense and solvable in pseudo-polynomial time. Our approach also yields a polynomial time solution for the following problem from chemical graph theory: Find a tree that maximizes the Wiener index among all trees with a prescribed degree sequence. This settles an open problem from the literature.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States
Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.
1977-01-01
Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...
Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data
Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.
1997-01-01
EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea
Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2008-01-01
A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...
Impact on Nonlinear Vertical Variation of GNSS Reference Stations Caused by Thermal Expansion
JIANG Weiping
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Thermal expansion of GPS monuments and nearby bedrock could result in vertical changes in the coordinate time series of GNSS reference stations. In this paper, an improved method was developed to compute the magnitude of vertical variations caused by thermal expansion. Firstly, we calculated the effect on GPS monument and bedrock caused by thermal expansion based on land surface temperature data of GNSS reference stations and thermal expansion model. Secondly, we estimated the circular frequencies, amplitudes and phases using the method of least squares fitting instead of the current method which estimated only the amplitudes and phases information. Finally, we studied the periodic characteristics of the vertical variations caused by our modified thermal expansion model. Through analyzing the results of 9 representative IGS stations, we concluded that thermal expansion of GPS monuments and nearby bedrock could result in vertical variations of GNSS stations. The maximum variations could reach up to 0.57 mm and 1.85 mm at these stations respectively. The vertical variation caused by thermal expansion exhibited both annual and semiannual characteristics, which could explain 11.2% and 3.3% of the total annual and semi-annual variations in the up component of the coordinate time series respectively, and the magnitudes became larger with the increasing of their latitudes. Meanwhile, the amplitudes of the annual variations were much larger than that of the semi-annual variations. Meanwhile, some other small period (about 51 days was also detected at some of these stations. In addition, we chose 107 IGS reference stations and computed the annual amplitudes and phases caused by thermal expansion of all these stations based on the method aforesaid. The results show that the maximum annual amplitude can reach to 3.3 mm, and their magnitudes show positive correlation with their latitudes prominently.
Extension of migration velocity analysis to transmitted wavefields
Lameloise, Charles-Antoine; Chauris, Hervé
2016-10-01
Migration velocity analysis aims at automatically updating the large-scale components of the velocity model, called macromodel. Extended Common Image Gathers are panels used to evaluate focusing after imaging and are constructed as a function of a spatial shift introduced in the imaging condition. We investigate how transmitted waves can also be used in migration velocity analysis: instead of back-propagating the residuals associated with reflected waves, we propose to back-propagate the full wavefield. The image function, equivalent to the migrated section for reflected data, does not exhibit localized events in space along horizons but is still sensitive to the choice of the background velocity model and can thus be coupled to the same objective function defined in the image domain. In order to enhance the benefits of direct waves, we consider a cross-well configuration. Direct waves provide a large illumination between two vertical wells. Associated Common Image Gathers present different characteristics than the ones associated with reflected waves in surface acquisition. In particular, energy is spread over up to the maximum penetration depth. We invert cross-well seismic data along two lines. In the first case, the input data contain the full wavefield dominated by transmitted waves. It demonstrates the possibility to handle transmitted waves to determine the velocity model. It appears that the misfit in the data domain is largely reduced after inversion. In the second case, we use the same algorithm, but with reflected observed data only, as in a classical approach. Most of velocity updates are localized around the reflectivity, leading to an incorrect final model. This demonstrates the benefit of transmitted waves for migration velocity analysis in a cross-well configuration.
Zhang Yongjiu; Cheng Wanzheng
2008-01-01
The focal mechanism parameters of small earthquakes are determined by the maximum velocity and displacement amplitude ratio of the direct P-and S-waves recorded by digital stations. The displacement is obtained from the velocity by emulation, and the two results are compared and analyzed. Results of the oretical analysis and practical measurement indicate that the two results of velocity and displacement are consistent, and it is feasible that the maximum displacement amplitude ratio be replaced by the maximum velocity amplitude ratio of the direct P-and S-waves recorded by regional seismic networks when determining focal mechanism solutions of small earthquakes.
Ikari, Yohei; Hirata, Shinnosuke; Hachiya, Hiroyuki
2015-07-01
Pulse compression using a maximum-length sequence (M-sequence) can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflected echo in the pulse-echo method. In the case of a moving object, however, the echo is modulated owing to the Doppler effect. The Doppler-shifted M-sequence-modulated signal cannot be correlated with the reference signal that corresponds to the transmitted M-sequence-modulated signal. Therefore, Doppler velocity estimation by spectrum-pattern analysis of a cyclic M-sequence-modulated signal and cross correlations with Doppler-shifted reference signals that correspond to the estimated Doppler velocities has been proposed. In this paper, measurements of the position and velocity of a moving object by the proposed method are described. First, Doppler velocities of the object are estimated using a microphone array. Secondly, the received signal from each microphone is correlated with each Doppler-shifted reference signal. Then, the position of the object is determined from the B-mode image formed from all cross-correlation functions. After that, the velocity of the object is calculated from velocity components estimated from the Doppler velocities and the position. Finally, the estimated Doppler velocities, determined positions, and calculated velocities are evaluated.
Sharf Abdusalam M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig and computational (employing CFD software investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.
Signal velocity for anomalous dispersive waves
Mainardi, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))
1983-03-11
The concept of signal velocity for dispersive waves is usually identified with that of group velocity. When the dispersion is anomalous, this interpretation is not correct since the group velocity can assume nonphysical values. In this note, by using the steepest descent method first introduced by Brillouin, the phase velocity is shown to be the signal velocity when the dispersion is anomalous in the full range of frequencies.
Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers
Veerachary, Mummadi
The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.
On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs
Peter Recht
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.
Hard graphs for the maximum clique problem
Hoede, Cornelis
1988-01-01
The maximum clique problem is one of the NP-complete problems. There are graphs for which a reduction technique exists that transforms the problem for these graphs into one for graphs with specific properties in polynomial time. The resulting graphs do not grow exponentially in order and number. Gra
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs
J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)
2006-01-01
textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p
Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal Maximum
Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.
2012-01-01
We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the i
Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy
L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
Maximum Phonation Time: Variability and Reliability
R. Speyer; H.C.A. Bogaardt; V.L. Passos; N.P.H.D. Roodenburg; A. Zumach; M.A.M. Heijnen; L.W.J. Baijens; S.J.H.M. Fleskens; J.W. Brunings
2010-01-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia v
Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems
Lasak, Katarzyna
In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment...
Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes
Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael
EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...
Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays
Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.
1971-01-01
Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....
The integration of angular velocity
Boyle, Michael
2016-01-01
A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical problem of precessing black-hole binaries. It is shown that a straightforward solution directly using quaternions is most efficient and accurate, and that the norm of the quaternion is irrelevant. Integration of the generator of the rotation can also be made roughly as efficient as integration of the rotation. Both methods will typically be twice as efficient naive vector- or matrix-based methods. Implementation by means of standard general-purpose numerical integrators is stable and efficient, so that such problems can ...
The Pulsar Kick Velocity Distribution
Hansen, B M S; Hansen, Brad M. S.
1997-01-01
We analyse the sample of pulsar proper motions, taking detailed account of the selection effects of the original surveys. We treat censored data using survival statistics. From a comparison of our results with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the mean birth speed of a pulsar is 250-300 km/s, rather than the 450 km/s foundby Lyne & Lorimer (1994). The resultant distribution is consistent with a maxwellian with dispersion $ \\sigma_v = 190 km/s$. Despite the large birth velocities, we find that the pulsars with long characteristic ages show the asymmetric drift, indicating that they are dynamically old. These pulsars may result from the low velocity tail of the younger population, although modified by their origin in binaries and by evolution in the galactic potential.
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo
2012-01-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...
Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion
Koshi Takenaka
2012-01-01
Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining pra...
Understanding Peripheral Bat Populations Using Maximum-Entropy Suitability Modeling
Barnhart, Paul R.; Gillam, Erin H.
2016-01-01
Individuals along the periphery of a species distribution regularly encounter more challenging environmental and climatic conditions than conspecifics near the center of the distribution. Due to these potential constraints, individuals in peripheral margins are expected to change their habitat and behavioral characteristics. Managers typically rely on species distribution maps when developing adequate management practices. However, these range maps are often too simplistic and do not provide adequate information as to what fine-scale biotic and abiotic factors are driving a species occurrence. In the last decade, habitat suitability modelling has become widely used as a substitute for simplistic distribution mapping which allows regional managers the ability to fine-tune management resources. The objectives of this study were to use maximum-entropy modeling to produce habitat suitability models for seven species that have a peripheral margin intersecting the state of North Dakota, according to current IUCN distributions, and determine the vegetative and climatic characteristics driving these models. Mistnetting resulted in the documentation of five species outside the IUCN distribution in North Dakota, indicating that current range maps for North Dakota, and potentially the northern Great Plains, are in need of update. Maximum-entropy modeling showed that temperature and not precipitation were the variables most important for model production. This fine-scale result highlights the importance of habitat suitability modelling as this information cannot be extracted from distribution maps. Our results provide baseline information needed for future research about how and why individuals residing in the peripheral margins of a species’ distribution may show marked differences in habitat use as a result of urban expansion, habitat loss, and climate change compared to more centralized populations. PMID:27935936
Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy
Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.
1989-03-01
The technique of velocity-aligned Doppler spectrosocopy (VADS) is presented and discussed. For photolysis/probe experiments with pulsed initiation, VADS can yield Doppler profiles for nascent photofragments that allow detailed center-of-mass (c.m.) kinetic energy distributions to be extracted. When compared with traditional forms of Doppler spectroscopy, the improvement in kinetic energy resolution is dramatic. Changes in the measured profiles are a consequence of spatial discrimination (i.e., focused and overlapping photolysis and probe beams) and delayed observation. These factors result in the selective detection of species whose velocities are aligned with the wave vector of the probe radiation k/sub pr/, thus revealing the speed distribution along k/sub pr/ rather than the distribution of nascent velocity components projected upon this direction. Mathematical details of the procedure used to model VADS are given, and experimental illustrations for HI, H/sub 2/S, and NH/sub 3/ photodissociation are presented. In these examples, pulsed photodissociation produces H atoms that are detected by sequential two-photon, two-frequency ionization via Lyman-..cap alpha.. with a pulsed laser (121.6+364.7 nm), and measuring the Lyman-..cap alpha.. Doppler profile as a function of probe delay reveals both internal and c.m. kinetic energy distributions for the photofragments. Strengths and weaknesses of VADS as a tool for investigating photofragmentation phenomena are also discussed.
High velocity collisions of nanoparticles
Johnson, Donald F.; Mattson, William D.
2017-01-01
Nanoparticles (NPs) are a unique class of material with highly functionalizable surfaces and exciting applications. With a large surface-to-volume ratio and potentially high surface tension, shocked nanoparticles might display unique materials behavior. Using density functional theory, we have simulated high-velocity NP collisions under a variety of conditions. NPs composed of diamond-C, cubic-BN, and diamond-Si were considered with particle sizes up to 3.5 nm diameter. Additional simulations involved NPs that were destabilized by incorporating internal strain. The initial spherical NP structures were carved out of bulk crystals while the NPs with internal strain were constructed as a dense core (compressive strain) encompassed by a thin shell (tensile strain). Both on-axis and off-axis collisions were simulated at 10 km/s relative velocity. The amount of internal strain was artificially increased by creating a dense inner core with bond lengths compressed up to 8%. Collision dynamics, shock propagation, and fragmentation will be analyzed, but the simulation are ongoing and results are not finalized. The effect of material properties, internal strain, and collision velocity will be discussed.
The Expansion Postponement in Pure Type Systems
宋方敏
1997-01-01
The expansion postponement problem in Pure Type Systems is an open problem raised by R.Pollack in 1992.In this paper,the author presents a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for this problem and a set of sufficient conditions for it.The author also gives some properties for pure typ systems without the expansion rule.
Multipole expansion method for supernova neutrino oscillations
Duan, Huaiyu; Shalgar, Shashank, E-mail: duan@unm.edu, E-mail: shashankshalgar@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)
2014-10-01
We demonstrate a multipole expansion method to calculate collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the neutrino bulb model. We show that it is much more efficient to solve multi-angle neutrino oscillations in multipole basis than in angle basis. The multipole expansion method also provides interesting insights into multi-angle calculations that were accomplished previously in angle basis.
Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy
Saarivirta, Toni
2010-01-01
This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…
Flash Expansion Threshold in Whirligig Swarms.
William L Romey
Full Text Available In the selfish herd hypothesis, prey animals move toward each other to avoid the likelihood of being selected by a predator. However, many grouped animals move away from each other the moment before a predator attacks. Very little is known about this phenomenon, called flash expansion, such as whether it is triggered by one individual or a threshold and how information is transferred between group members. We performed a controlled experiment with whirligig beetles in which the ratio of sighted to unsighted individuals was systematically varied and emergent flash expansion was measured. Specifically, we examined: the percentage of individuals in a group that startled, the resulting group area, and the longevity of the flash expansion. We found that one or two sighted beetles in a group of 24 was not enough to cause a flash expansion after a predator stimulus, but four sighted beetles usually initiated a flash expansion. Also, the more beetles that were sighted the larger the resulting group area and the longer duration of the flash expansion. We conclude that flash expansion is best described as a threshold event whose adaptive value is to prevent energetically costly false alarms while quickly mobilizing an emergent predator avoidance response. This is one of the first controlled experiments of flash expansion, an important emergent property that has applications to understanding collective motion in swarms, schools, flocks, and human crowds. Also, our study is a convincing demonstration of social contagion, how the actions of one individual can pass through a group.
A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot
Hendricks, R. C.
1979-01-01
A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.
Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion
Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen
2011-01-01
We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…
The heavy quark expansion of QCD
Falk, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
1997-06-01
These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.
Expansion techniques for collisionless stellar dynamical simulations
Meiron, Yohai [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Spurzem, Rainer, E-mail: ymeiron@pku.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)
2014-09-10
We present graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of two fast force calculation methods based on series expansions of the Poisson equation. One method is the self-consistent field (SCF) method, which is a Fourier-like expansion of the density field in some basis set; the other method is the multipole expansion (MEX) method, which is a Taylor-like expansion of the Green's function. MEX, which has been advocated in the past, has not gained as much popularity as SCF. Both are particle-field methods and optimized for collisionless galactic dynamics, but while SCF is a 'pure' expansion, MEX is an expansion in just the angular part; thus, MEX is capable of capturing radial structure easily, while SCF needs a large number of radial terms. We show that despite the expansion bias, these methods are more accurate than direct techniques for the same number of particles. The performance of our GPU code, which we call ETICS, is profiled and compared to a CPU implementation. On the tested GPU hardware, a full force calculation for one million particles took ∼0.1 s (depending on expansion cutoff), making simulations with as many as 10{sup 8} particles fast for a comparatively small number of nodes.
CONCEPT OF TISSUE EXPANSION IN RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY
Sheeja Rajan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissue expansion is a unique reconstructive option in the armamentarium of a reconstructive surgeon whereby skin and soft tissues of our body can be stretched to large dimensions for wound coverage. The basis for such stretch ability lies in the inherent viscoelastic properties of skin. AIMS: This paper explores the prospects of using tissue expanders to reconstruct defects arising due to a kaleidoscope of pathological conditions including burns scars, post traumatic scars, congenital anomalies like hairy nevus, involutional scars in haemangioma as well as in post mastectomy breast reconstruction . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our experience with tissue expansion in 14 patients over 24 months is presented. Tissue expanders made of silicone in sizes from 100 - 250ml, of round, rectangular or croissant (crescent shapes have been used. Areas expanded include scalp, forehead, neck, abdomen and forearm. Multiple expanders have been used when possible. Average expansion time was 8 - 12 weeks and the expanded tissue was transferred as advancement flaps. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Tissue expansion was successfully completed in 13 patients. Expansion had to be aborted in 1 paediatric patient undergoing neck expansion due to infection. Implant failure occurred in 1 patient during serial expansion. Nevertheless, in our experience tissue expan sion is an invaluable reconstructive tool to give excellent donor tissue with colour and texture match in countless situations demanding aesthetic and functional reconstruction. KEYWORDS: Burns scars, Reconstruction, Tissue expansion .
Virial expansion coefficients in the harmonic approximation
R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.
2012-01-01
The virial expansion method is applied within a harmonic approximation to an interacting N-body system of identical fermions. We compute the canonical partition functions for two and three particles to get the two lowest orders in the expansion. The energy spectrum is carefully interpolated...
Perturbative expansion of Chern-Simons theory
SAWON, Justin
2005-01-01
An overview of the perturbative expansion of the Chern--Simons path integral is given. The main goal is to describe how trivalent graphs appear: as they already occur in the perturbative expansion of an analogous finite-dimensional integral, we discuss this case in detail.
Velocity locking and pulsed invasions of fragmented habitats with seasonal growth
Korolev, Kirill; Wang, Ching-Hao
From crystal growth to epidemics, spatial spreading is a common mechanism of change in nature. Typically, spreading results from two processes: growth and dispersal in ecology or chemical reactions and diffusion in physics. These two processes combine to produce a reaction-diffusion wave, an invasion front advancing at a constant velocity. We show that the properties of these waves are remarkably different depending whether space and time are continuous, as they are for a chemical reaction, or discrete, as they are for a pest invading a patchy habitat in seasonal climates. For discrete space and time, we report a new type of expansions with velocities that can lock into specific values and become insensitive to changes in dispersal and growth, i.e. the dependence of the velocity on model parameters exhibits plateaus or pauses. As a result, the evolution and response to perturbations in locked expansions can be markedly different compared to the expectations based on continuous models. The phenomenon of velocity locking requires cooperative growth and does not occur when per capita growth rate decline monotonically with population density. We obtain both numerical and analytical results describing highly non-analytic properties of locked expansions.
Gulf stream: velocity fluctuations during the late cenozoic.
Kaneps, A G
1979-04-20
Biostratigraphic analysis of seven piston cores from the southeastern Blake Plateau suggests that the upper Miocene to Recent sedimentary section at this location represents a history of deposition of calcareous ooze alternating with current-induced nondeposition or erosion. This record is primarily a result of long-term fluctuations in the velocity of the western boundary current or Gulf Stream, which sweeps the plateau. High-velocity phases of this current system, as signaled by hiatuses in the section, lie within the time limits 4.8 to 6.1, 3.9 to 4.4, 2.3 to 2.9, and 0 to 1.5 million years before present (B.P.). These time intervals are coeval with dated episodes of climatic decline and glaciation. The most intense acceleration of the Gulf Stream, as indicated by deep erosion of the Blake Plateau, occurred in the latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene (4.8 to 6.1 million years B.P.) in conjunction with a major expansion of the Antarctic ice cap. Subsequent accelerations of the Gulf Stream coincide with early Pliocene cooling in the Southern Hemisphere, worldwide expansion of high-altitude-high-latitude glaciers in the late Pliocene, and the classical glaciations of the Pleistocene. An additional, protracted increase in the average velocity of the Gulf Stream, which began in the late Miocene and culminated in the mid-Pliocene (about 3.8 million years B.P.), can be attributed to the gradual emergence of the Central American isthmus.
Water velocity and the nature of critical flow in large rapids on the Colorado River, Utah
Magirl, C.S.; Gartner, J.W.; Smart, G.M.; Webb, R.H.
2009-01-01
Rapids are an integral part of bedrock-controlled rivers, influencing aquatic ecology, geomorphology, and recreational value. Flow measurements in rapids and high-gradient rivers are uncommon because of technical difficulties associated with positioning and operating sufficiently robust instruments. In the current study, detailed velocity, water surface, and bathymetric data were collected within rapids on the Colorado River in eastern Utah. With the water surface survey, it was found that shoreline-based water surface surveys may misrepresent the water surface slope along the centerline of a rapid. Flow velocities were measured with an ADCP and an electronic pitot-static tube. Integrating multiple measurements, the ADCP returned velocity data from the entire water column, even in sections of high water velocity. The maximum mean velocity measured with the ADCP was 3.7 m/s. The pitot-static tube, while capable of only point measurements, quantified velocity 0.39 m below the surface. The maximum mean velocity measured with the pitot tube was 5.2 m/s, with instantaneous velocities up to 6.5 m/s. Analysis of the data showed that flow was subcritical throughout all measured rapids with a maximum measured Froude number of 0.7 in the largest measured rapids. Froude numbers were highest at the entrance of a given rapid, then decreased below the first breaking waves. In the absence of detailed bathymetric and velocity data, the Froude number in the fastest-flowing section of a rapid was estimated from near-surface velocity and depth soundings alone.
Development of Soda Residue Concrete Expansion Agent
WANG Bao-min; WANG Li-jiu; M F Mohd Zain; F C Lai
2003-01-01
A new type of concrete expansion agent has been successfully developed for the first time in the world by utilizing an industrial waste residue-soda residue and an industrial wasteliquor.Adding 3%-6% of the agent into Portland cement enables a shrinkage-compensating concrete to be prepared.Mortar and concrete containing this expansion agent have better shrinkage-compensating and mechanical properties.The raw materials component,production process,technical properties,micro-analysis of mortar made with this expansion agent,mechanism of expansion and research results are described in this article.The experimental results show that the new type of concrete expansion agent accords with the standard and its main mineral component is xCaO-ySO3-zAl2O3.
Business information query expansion through semantic network
Gong, Zhiguo; Muyeba, Maybin; Guo, Jingzhi
2010-02-01
In this article, we propose a method for business information query expansions. In our approach, hypernym/hyponymy and synonym relations in WordNet are used as the basic expansion rules. Then we use WordNet Lexical Chains and WordNet semantic similarity to assign terms in the same query into different groups with respect to their semantic similarities. For each group, we expand the highest terms in the WordNet hierarchies with hypernym and synonym, the lowest terms with hyponym and synonym and all other terms with only synonym. In this way, the contradictory caused by full expansion can be well controlled. Furthermore, we use collection-related term semantic network to further improve the expansion performance. And our experiment reveals that our solution for query expansion can improve the query performance dramatically.
Maxwell superalgebras and Abelian semigroup expansion
Concha, P.K.; Rodríguez, E.K. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)
2014-09-15
The Abelian semigroup expansion is a powerful and simple method to derive new Lie algebras from a given one. Recently it was shown that the S-expansion of so(3,2) leads us to the Maxwell algebra M. In this paper we extend this result to superalgebras, by proving that different choices of abelian semigroups S lead to interesting D=4 Maxwell Superalgebras. In particular, the minimal Maxwell superalgebra sM and the N-extended Maxwell superalgebra sM{sup (N)} recently found by the Maurer–Cartan expansion procedure, are derived alternatively as an S-expansion of osp(4|N). Moreover, we show that new minimal Maxwell superalgebras type sM{sub m+2} and their N-extended generalization can be obtained using the S-expansion procedure.
Maxwell superalgebras and Abelian semigroup expansion
P.K. Concha
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The Abelian semigroup expansion is a powerful and simple method to derive new Lie algebras from a given one. Recently it was shown that the S-expansion of so(3,2 leads us to the Maxwell algebra M. In this paper we extend this result to superalgebras, by proving that different choices of abelian semigroups S lead to interesting D=4 Maxwell Superalgebras. In particular, the minimal Maxwell superalgebra sM and the N-extended Maxwell superalgebra sM(N recently found by the Maurer–Cartan expansion procedure, are derived alternatively as an S-expansion of osp(4|N. Moreover, we show that new minimal Maxwell superalgebras type sMm+2 and their N-extended generalization can be obtained using the S-expansion procedure.
Anisotropy of Expansion Coefficient and Slag Resistance of Spinel Carbon Bricks
YANG Ding'ao; YUAN Shouqian; JIANG Mingxue; DONG Sunzhen; ZHAO Zijian
2006-01-01
Effects of the pressure direction on the thermal expansion and slag corrosion resistance were investigated and anisotropic microstructures of flaky graphite in spinel carbon bricks were examined. The experimental results show that slag corrosion velocities in the direction parallel to the pressure direction display a decrease of 34% compared to those in the vertical direction. Meantime, the linear expansion coefficient in the direction parallel to the pressure direction is 2.45 times as large as that in the vertical pressure direction. Slag corrosion velocities of spinel carbon bricks soaked in the AOD melting slag display a 46%-47% decrease compared to those of magnesia carbon bricks. The microstructure observation shows that spinel carbon bricks have a high degree of preferred orientation.
Velocity Correction and Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of Light Screen Velocity Measuring Method
ZHENG Bin; ZUO Zhao-lu; HOU Wen
2012-01-01
Light screen velocity measuring method with unique advantages has been widely used in the velocity measurement of various moving bodies.For large air resistance and friction force which the big moving bodies are subjected to during the light screen velocity measuring,the principle of velocity correction was proposed and a velocity correction equation was derived.A light screen velocity measuring method was used to measure the velocity of big moving bodies which have complex velocity attenuation,and the better results were gained in practical tests.The measuring uncertainty after the velocity correction was calculated.
Stienen, G J; Laarse, W. J. van der; Elzinga, G.
1988-01-01
MgATP binding to the actomyosin complex is followed by the dissociation of actin and myosin. The rate of this dissociation process was determined from the relationship between the maximum velocity of shortening and the MgATP concentration. It is shown here that the overall dissociation rate is rather similar in different types of muscle fibers. The relation between MgATP concentration and the maximum shortening velocity was investigated in fast and slow fibers and bundles of myofibrils of the...
Estimation of Velocity Profile Based on Chiu’s Equation in Width of Channels
Saman Nikmehr
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Distribution of velocity in channel is one of the most parameters for solution of hydraulic problems. Determination of energy coefficient, momentum and distribution of sediment concentration depend on distribution of velocity profile. The entropy parameter of a channel section can be determined from the relation between the mean and maximum velocities. A technique has been developed to determine a velocity profile on a single vertical passing through the point of maximum velocity in a channel cross section. This method is a way in order to quick and cheap estimating of velocity distribution with high accuracy in channels. So that in this research the power estimation of Chiu method base on entropy concept was determined. Also Chiu’s equation that is based on entropy concept and probability domain, has compared with logarithmic and exponential equations to estimation of velocity profile in width of channel in various depths. The results show that Chiu’s equation better than logarithmic and exponential equations to estimation of velocity profile in width of channel.
Embedded Fiber Optic Probes to Measure Detonation Velocities Using the Photonic Doppler Velocimeter
Hare, D E; Holtkamp, D B; Strand, O T
2010-03-02
Detonation velocities for high explosives can be in the 7 to 8 km/s range. Previous work has shown that these velocities may be measured by inserting an optical fiber probe into the explosive assembly and recording the velocity time history using a Fabry-Perot velocimeter. The measured velocity using this method, however, is the actual velocity multiplied times the refractive index of the fiber core, which is on the order of 1.5. This means that the velocimeter diagnostic must be capable of measuring velocities as high as 12 km/s. Until recently, a velocity of 12 km/s was beyond the maximum velocity limit of a homodyne-based velocimeter. The limiting component in a homodyne system is usually the digitizer. Recently, however, digitizers have come on the market with 20 GHz bandwidth and 50 GS/s sample rate. Such a digitizer coupled with high bandwidth detectors now have the total bandwidth required to make velocity measurements in the 12 km/s range. This paper describes measurements made of detonation velocities using a high bandwidth homodyne system.
Merrett, Craig G.
-partial differential equations. The spatial component of the governing equations is eliminated using a series expansion of basis functions and by applying Galerkin's method. The number of terms in the series expansion affects the convergence of the spatial component, and convergence is best determined by the von Koch rules that previously appeared for column buckling problems. After elimination of the spatial component, an ordinary integral-differential equation in time remains. The dynamic stability of elastic and viscoelastic problems is assessed using the determinant of the governing system of equations and the time component of the solution in the form exp (lambda t). The determinant is in terms of lambda where the values of lambda are the latent roots of the aero-servo-viscoelastic system. The real component of lambda dictates the stability of the system. If all the real components are negative, the system is stable. If at least one real component is zero and all others are negative, the system is neutrally stable. If one or more real components are positive, the system is unstable. In aero-servo-viscoelasticity, the neutrally stable condition is termed flutter. For an aero-servo-viscoelastic lifting surface, the unstable condition is historically termed torsional divergence. The more general aero-servo-viscoelastic theory has produced a number of important results, enumerated in the following list: 1. Subsonic panel flutter can occur before panel instability. This result overturned a long held assumption in aeroelasticity, and was produced by the novel application of the von Koch rules for convergence. Further, experimental results from the 1950s by the Air Force were retrieved to provide additional proof. 2. An expanded definition for flutter of a lifting surface. The legacy definition is that flutter is the first occurrence of simple harmonic motion of a structure, and the flight velocity at which this motion occurs is taken as the flutter speed. The expanded definition
Coherence expansion and polariton condensate formation in a semiconductor microcavity.
Belykh, V V; Sibeldin, N N; Kulakovskii, V D; Glazov, M M; Semina, M A; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Kamp, M; Forchel, A
2013-03-29
The dynamics of the expansion of the first order spatial coherence g(1) for a polariton system in a high-Q GaAs microcavity was investigated on the basis of Young's double slit experiment under 3 ps pulse excitation at the conditions of polariton Bose-Einstein condensation. It was found that in the process of condensate formation the coherence expands with a constant velocity of about 10(8) cm/s. The measured coherence is smaller than that in a thermal equilibrium system during the growth of condensate density and well exceeds it at the end of condensate decay. The onset of spatial coherence is governed by polariton relaxation while condensate amplitude and phase fluctuations are not suppressed.
Expansion of the Universe - Standard Big Bang Model
Roos, Matts
2008-01-01
After a brief introduction to the sixteenth and seventeenth century views of the Universe and the nineteenth century paradox of Olbers, we start the history of the cosmic expansion with Hubble's epochal discovery of the recession velocities of spiral galaxies. By then Einstein's theories of relativity were well known, but no suitable metric was known. Prior to introducing General Relativity we embark on a non-chronological derivation of the Robertson-Walker metric directly from Special Relativity and the Minkowski metric endowed with a Gaussian curvature. This permits the definition of all relativistic distance measures needed in observational astronomy. Only thereafter do we come to General Relativity, and describe some of its consequences: gravitational lensing, black holes, various tests, and the cornerstone of the standard Big Bang model, the Friedmann-Lemaitre equations. Going backwards in time towards Big Bang we first have to trace the thermal history, and then understand the needs for a cosmic inflati...
Model Selection Through Sparse Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Banerjee, Onureena; D'Aspremont, Alexandre
2007-01-01
We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added l_1-norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memory requirements and complexity of existing interior point methods are prohibitive for problems with more than tens of nodes. We present two new algorithms for solving problems with at least a thousand nodes in the Gaussian case. Our first algorithm uses block coordinate descent, and can be interpreted as recursive l_1-norm penalized regression. Our second algorithm, based on Nesterov's first order method, yields a complexity estimate with a better dependence on problem size than existing interior point methods. Using a log determinant relaxation of the log partition function (Wainwright & Jordan (2006)), we show that these same algorithms can be used to solve an approximate sparse maximum likelihood problem for...
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation
Lei Luo
2013-01-01
item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....
Nonparametric Maximum Entropy Estimation on Information Diagrams
Martin, Elliot A; Meinke, Alexander; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Davidsen, Jörn
2016-01-01
Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many different disciplines. In this work, we significantly extend a technique we previously introduced for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies. Specifically, we show how to apply the concept to continuous random variables and vastly expand the types of information-theoretic quantities one can condition on. This allows us to establish a number of significant advantages of our approach over existing ones. Not only does our method perform favorably in the undersampled regime, where existing methods fail, but it also can be dramatically less computationally expensive as the cardinality of the variables increases. In addition, we propose a nonparametric formulation of connected informations and give an illustrative example showing how this agrees with the existing parametric formulation in cases of interest. We furthe...
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability
Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.
1975-01-01
This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
Coupling impedances of small discontinuities: Dependence on beam velocity
Kurennoy, Sergey S.
2006-05-01
The beam coupling impedances of small discontinuities of an accelerator vacuum chamber have been calculated [e.g., Kurennoy, Gluckstern, and Stupakov, Phys. Rev. E 52, 4354 (1995)PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.52.4354] for ultrarelativistic beams using the Bethe diffraction theory. Here we extend the results to an arbitrary beam velocity. The vacuum chamber is assumed to have an arbitrary, but uniform along the beam path, cross section. The longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances are derived in terms of series over cross-section eigenfunctions, while the discontinuity shape enters via its polarizabilities. Simple explicit formulas for two important particular cases—circular and rectangular chamber cross sections—are presented. The impedance dependence on the beam velocity exhibits some unusual features: for example, the reactive impedance, which dominates in the ultrarelativistic limit, can vanish at a certain beam velocity, or its magnitude can exceed the ultrarelativistic value many times. In addition, we demonstrate that the same technique, the field expansion into a series of cross-section eigenfunctions, is convenient for calculating the space-charge impedance of uniform beam pipes with arbitrary cross section.
Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach.
Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu
2016-01-01
A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ε,δ)-expansion scheme is employed, where ε is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4/3.
A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence
Chevillard, Laurent; Pereira, Rodrigo; Garban, Christophe
2016-11-01
We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments, including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free parameter and derive analytically the spectrum of exponents of the structure functions in a simplified non dissipative case. A perturbative expansion shows that energy transfers indeed take place, justifying the dissipative nature of this random field.