International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akiyama, Shigeru; Amada, Shigeyasu.
1992-01-01
Structural ceramics are attracting attention in the development of space planes, aircraft and nuclear fusion reactors because they have excellent wear-resistant and heat-resistant characteristics. However, in some applications it is anticipated that they will be exposed to very-high-temperature environments of the order of thousands of degrees. Therefore, it is very important to investigate their thermal shock characteristics. In this report, the distributions of temperatures and thermal stresses of cylindrically shaped ceramics under irradiation by laser beams are discussed using the finite-element computer code (MARC) with arbitrary quadrilateral axisymmetric ring elements. The relationships between spot diameters of laser beams and maximum values of compressive thermal stresses are derived for various power densities. From these relationships, a critical fracture curve is obtained, and it is compared with the experimental results. (author)
Stress analysis of shear/compression test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Ueno, S.
1997-01-01
Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...
Sustainability of compressive residual stress by stress improvement processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishikawa, Satoru; Okita, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Atsunori
2013-01-01
Stress improvement processes are countermeasures against stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plant components. It is necessary to confirm whether compressive residual stress induced by stress improvement processes can be sustained under operation environment. In order to evaluate stability of the compressive residual stress in 60-year operating conditions, the 0.07% cyclic strains of 200 times at 593 K were applied to the welded specimens, then a thermal aging treatment for 1.66x10 6 s at 673 K was carried out. As the result, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stresses were sustained on both surfaces of the dissimilar welds of austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L) and nickel base alloy (NCF600 and alloy 182) processed by laser peening (LP), water jet peening (WJP), ultrasonic shot peening (USP), shot peening (SP) and polishing under 60-year operating conditions. (author)
A novel method for estimating soil precompression stress from uniaxial confined compression tests
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo
2017-01-01
. Stress-strain curves were obtained by performing uniaxial, confined compression tests on undisturbed soil cores for three soil types at three soil water potentials. The new method performed better than the Gompertz fitting method in estimating precompression stress. The values of precompression stress...... obtained from the new method were linearly related to the maximum stress experienced by the soil samples prior to the uniaxial, confined compression test at each soil condition with a slope close to 1. Precompression stress determined with the new method was not related to soil type or dry bulk density......The concept of precompression stress is used for estimating soil strength of relevance to fieldtraffic. It represents the maximum stress experienced by the soil. The most recently developed fitting method to estimate precompression stress (Gompertz) is based on the assumption of an S-shape stress...
Foam behavior of solid glass spheres – Zn22Al2Cu composites under compression stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aragon-Lezama, J.A.; Garcia-Borquez, A.; Torres-Villaseñor, G.
2015-01-01
Solid glass spheres – Zn22Al2Cu composites, having different densities and microstructures, were elaborated and studied under compression. Their elaboration process involves alloy melting, spheres submersion into the liquid alloy and finally air cooling. The achieved composites with densities 2.6884, 2.7936 and 3.1219 g/cm 3 were studied in casting and thermally induced, fine-grain matrix microstructures. Test samples of the composites were compressed at a 10 −3 s −1 strain rate, and their microstructure characterized before and after compression by using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Although they exhibit different compression behavior depending on their density and microstructure, all of them show an elastic region at low strains, reach their maximum stress (σ max ) at hundreds of MPa before the stress fall or collapse up to a lowest yield point (LYP), followed by an important plastic deformation at nearly constant stress (σ p ): beyond this plateau, an extra deformation can be limitedly reached only by a significant stress increase. This behavior under compression stresses is similar to that reported for metal foams, being the composites with fine microstructure which nearest behave to metal foams under this pattern. Nevertheless, the relative values of the elastic modulus, and maximum and plateau stresses do not follow the Ashby equations by changing the relative density. Generally, the studied composites behave as foams under compression, except for their peculiar parameters values (σ max , LYP, and σ p )
Soil Compressibility Models for a Wide Stress Range
Chong, Song-Hun; Santamarina, Carlos
2016-01-01
Soil compressibility models with physically correct asymptotic void ratios are required to analyze situations that involve a wide stress range. Previously suggested models and other functions are adapted to satisfy asymptotic void ratios at low
The maximum possible stress intensity factor for a crack in an unknown residual stress field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coules, H.E.; Smith, D.J.
2015-01-01
Residual and thermal stress fields in engineering components can act on cracks and structural flaws, promoting or inhibiting fracture. However, these stresses are limited in magnitude by the ability of materials to sustain them elastically. As a consequence, the stress intensity factor which can be applied to a given defect by a self-equilibrating stress field is also limited. We propose a simple weight function method for determining the maximum stress intensity factor which can occur for a given crack or defect in a one-dimensional self-equilibrating stress field, i.e. an upper bound for the residual stress contribution to K I . This can be used for analysing structures containing defects and subject to residual stress without any information about the actual stress field which exists in the structure being analysed. A number of examples are given, including long radial cracks and fully-circumferential cracks in thick-walled hollow cylinders containing self-equilibrating stresses. - Highlights: • An upper limit to the contribution of residual stress to stress intensity factor. • The maximum K I for self-equilibrating stresses in several geometries is calculated. • A weight function method can determine this maximum for 1-dimensional stress fields. • Simple MATLAB scripts for calculating maximum K I provided as supplementary material.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaganovich, Igor D.; Massidda, Scottt; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Friedman, Alex
2012-06-21
Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam pulse compression and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear longitudinal velocity tilt (head-to-tail gradient) is applied to the non-relativistic beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the focusing section. The beam current can increase by more than a factor of 100 in the longitudinal direction. We have performed an analytical study of how errors in the velocity tilt acquired by the beam in the induction bunching module limit the maximum longitudinal compression. It is found that the compression ratio is determined by the relative errors in the velocity tilt. That is, one-percent errors may limit the compression to a factor of one hundred. However, a part of the beam pulse where the errors are small may compress to much higher values, which are determined by the initial thermal spread of the beam pulse. It is also shown that sharp jumps in the compressed current density profile can be produced due to overlaying of different parts of the pulse near the focal plane. Examples of slowly varying and rapidly varying errors compared to the beam pulse duration are studied. For beam velocity errors given by a cubic function, the compression ratio can be described analytically. In this limit, a significant portion of the beam pulse is located in the broad wings of the pulse and is poorly compressed. The central part of the compressed pulse is determined by the thermal spread. The scaling law for maximum compression ratio is derived. In addition to a smooth variation in the velocity tilt, fast-changing errors during the pulse may appear in the induction bunching module if the voltage pulse is formed by several pulsed elements. Different parts of the pulse compress nearly simultaneously at the target and the compressed profile may have many peaks. The maximum compression is a function of both thermal spread and the velocity errors. The effects of the
Stress Distribution in Graded Cellular Materials Under Dynamic Compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Wang
Full Text Available Abstract Dynamic compression behaviors of density-homogeneous and density-graded irregular honeycombs are investigated using cell-based finite element models under a constant-velocity impact scenario. A method based on the cross-sectional engineering stress is developed to obtain the one-dimensional stress distribution along the loading direction in a cellular specimen. The cross-sectional engineering stress is contributed by two parts: the node-transitive stress and the contact-induced stress, which are caused by the nodal force and the contact of cell walls, respectively. It is found that the contact-induced stress is dominant for the significantly enhanced stress behind the shock front. The stress enhancement and the compaction wave propagation can be observed through the stress distributions in honeycombs under high-velocity compression. The single and double compaction wave modes are observed directly from the stress distributions. Theoretical analysis of the compaction wave propagation in the density-graded honeycombs based on the R-PH (rigid-plastic hardening idealization is carried out and verified by the numerical simulations. It is found that stress distribution in cellular materials and the compaction wave propagation characteristics under dynamic compression can be approximately predicted by the R-PH shock model.
Foam behavior of solid glass spheres – Zn22Al2Cu composites under compression stresses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aragon-Lezama, J.A., E-mail: alja@correo.azc.uam.mx [Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-A, Avenida San Pablo 180, Colonia Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 México, D.F., México (Mexico); Garcia-Borquez, A., E-mail: a.garciaborquez@yahoo.com.mx [Ciencia de Materiales, ESFM – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edif. 9, Unid. Prof. A. Lopez Mateos, Colonia Lindavista, 07738 México, D.F., México (Mexico); Torres-Villaseñor, G., E-mail: gtorres@unam.mx [Departamento de Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo., P 70-360, México, D.F., México (Mexico)
2015-06-25
Solid glass spheres – Zn22Al2Cu composites, having different densities and microstructures, were elaborated and studied under compression. Their elaboration process involves alloy melting, spheres submersion into the liquid alloy and finally air cooling. The achieved composites with densities 2.6884, 2.7936 and 3.1219 g/cm{sup 3} were studied in casting and thermally induced, fine-grain matrix microstructures. Test samples of the composites were compressed at a 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} strain rate, and their microstructure characterized before and after compression by using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Although they exhibit different compression behavior depending on their density and microstructure, all of them show an elastic region at low strains, reach their maximum stress (σ{sub max}) at hundreds of MPa before the stress fall or collapse up to a lowest yield point (LYP), followed by an important plastic deformation at nearly constant stress (σ{sub p}): beyond this plateau, an extra deformation can be limitedly reached only by a significant stress increase. This behavior under compression stresses is similar to that reported for metal foams, being the composites with fine microstructure which nearest behave to metal foams under this pattern. Nevertheless, the relative values of the elastic modulus, and maximum and plateau stresses do not follow the Ashby equations by changing the relative density. Generally, the studied composites behave as foams under compression, except for their peculiar parameters values (σ{sub max}, LYP, and σ{sub p})
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, C.; Ewald, J.; Fischer, K.; Gruendler, O.; Potthast, E.; Stuecker, E.; Winzen, G.
1987-01-01
Disk type low pressure turbine rotors have been designed for a large variety of power plant applications. Developing disk type rotors required a concerted effort to design a shaft/disk shrink fit with a minimum of tensile stress concentrations in order to aim for the lowest possible susceptibility to corrosive attack, i.e. stress corrosion cracking. As a result of stresses, the regions of greatest concern are the shrink fit boundaries and the keyways of turbine disks. These stresses are caused by service loading, i.e. centrifugal and shrinkage stresses and by manufacturing procedure, i.e. residual stresses. The compressive residual stresses partly compensate the tensile service stresses so that an increase of compressive residual stresses decreases the whole stress state of the component. Special manufacturing procedures, e.g. accelerated cooling after tempering can induce compressive residual stresses up to about 400 MPa in the hub bore region of turbine disk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onuma, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Yukio
1976-01-01
The purpose of this investigation was to study the ultimate strength failure mode and deformation behavior of concrete under short-term biaxial compressive stresses, as an aid to design and analyze the concrete structures subjected to multiaxial compression such as prestressed or reinforced concrete vessel structures. The experimental work on biaxial compression was carried out on the specimens of three mix proportions and different ages with 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cubic shape in a room controlled at 20 0 C. The results are summarized as follows. (1) To minimize the surface friction between specimens and loading platens, the pads of teflon sheets coated with silicone grease were used. The coefficient of friction was measured and was 3 percent on the average. (2) The test data showed that the strength of the concrete subjected to biaxial compression increased as compared to uniaxial compressive strength, and that the biaxial strength increase was mainly dependent on the ratio of principal stresses, and it was hardly affected by mix proportions and ages. (3) The maximum increase of strength, which occurred at the stress ratio of approximately sigma 2 /sigma 1 = 0.6, was about 27 percent higher than the uniaxial strength of concrete. (4) The ultimate strength in case of biaxial compression could be approximated by the parabolic equation. (Kako, I.)
Effect of applied stress on the compressive residual stress introduced by laser peening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sumiya, Rie; Tazawa, Toshiyuki; Narazaki, Chihiro; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kishimoto, Kikuo
2016-01-01
Peening is the process which is able to be generated compressive residual stress and is known to be effective for preventing SCC initiation and improvement of fatigue strength. Laser peening is used for the nuclear power plant components in order to prevent SCC initiation. Although it is reported that the compressive residual stress decreases due to applied stresses under general operating condition, the change of residual stress might be large under excessive loading such as an earthquake. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relaxation behavior of the compressive residual stress due to laser peening and to confirm the surface residual stress after loading. Therefore laser peened round bar test specimens of SUS316L which is used for the reactor internals of nuclear power plant were loaded at room temperature and elevated temperature and then surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction method. In the results of this test, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stress remained after applying uniform stress larger than 0.2% proof stress, and the effect of cyclic loading on the residual stress was small. The effect of applying compressive stress on the residual stress relaxation was confirmed to be less than that of applying tensile stress. Plastic deformation through a whole cross section causes the change in the residual stress distribution. As a result, the surface compressive residual stress is released. It was shown that the effect of specimen size on residual stress relaxation and the residual stress relaxation behavior in the stress concentration region can be explained by assumed stress relaxation mechanism. (author)
Choo, Hyunwook; Nam, Hongyeop; Lee, Woojin
2017-12-01
The composition of naturally cemented deposits is very complicated; thus, estimating the maximum shear modulus (Gmax, or shear modulus at very small strains) of cemented sands using the previous empirical formulas is very difficult. The purpose of this experimental investigation is to evaluate the effects of particle size and cement type on the Gmax and unconfined compressive strength (qucs) of cemented sands, with the ultimate goal of estimating Gmax of cemented sands using qucs. Two sands were artificially cemented using Portland cement or gypsum under varying cement contents (2%-9%) and relative densities (30%-80%). Unconfined compression tests and bender element tests were performed, and the results from previous studies of two cemented sands were incorporated in this study. The results of this study demonstrate that the effect of particle size on the qucs and Gmax of four cemented sands is insignificant, and the variation of qucs and Gmax can be captured by the ratio between volume of void and volume of cement. qucs and Gmax of sand cemented with Portland cement are greater than those of sand cemented with gypsum. However, the relationship between qucs and Gmax of the cemented sand is not affected by the void ratio, cement type and cement content, revealing that Gmax of the complex naturally cemented soils with unknown in-situ void ratio, cement type and cement content can be estimated using qucs.
Soil Compressibility Models for a Wide Stress Range
Chong, Song-Hun
2016-03-03
Soil compressibility models with physically correct asymptotic void ratios are required to analyze situations that involve a wide stress range. Previously suggested models and other functions are adapted to satisfy asymptotic void ratios at low and high stress levels; all updated models involve four parameters. Compiled consolidation data for remolded and natural clays are used to test the models and to develop correlations between model parameters and index properties. Models can adequately fit soil compression data for a wide range of stresses and soil types; in particular, models that involve the power of the stress σ\\'β display higher flexibility to capture the brittle response of some natural soils. The use of a single continuous function avoids numerical discontinuities or the need for ad hoc procedures to determine the yield stress. The tangent stiffness-readily computed for all models-should not be mistaken for the small-strain constant-fabric stiffness. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia R. Downing
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Fe-Ga (Galfenol and Fe-Al (Alfenol are rare-earth-free magnetostrictive alloys with mechanical robustness and strong magnetoelastic coupling. Since highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets along orientations have been developed with magnetostrictive performances of ∼270 ppm and ∼160 ppm, respectively, they have been of great interest in sensor and energy harvesting applications. In this work, we investigate stress-dependent magnetostrictive behaviors in highly textured rolled sheets of NbC-added Fe80Al20 and Fe81Ga19 alloys with a single (011 grain coverage of ∼90%. A compact fixture was designed and used to introduce a uniform compressive pre-stress to those thin sheet samples along a [100] direction. As compressive pre-stress was increased to above 100 MPa, the maximum observed magnetostriction increased 42% in parallel magnetostriction along the stress direction, λ//, in highly textured (011 Fe81Ga19 thin sheets for a compressive pre-stress of 60 MPa. The same phenomena were observed for (011 Fe80Al20 (maximum increase of 88% with a 49 MPa compressive stress. This trend is shown to be consistent with published results on the effect of pre-stress on magnetostriction in rods of single crystal and textured polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloy of similar compositions, and single crystal data gathered using our experimental set up. Interestingly, the saturating field (Hs does not vary with pre-stresses, while the saturating field in rod-shaped samples of Fe-Ga increases with an increase of pre-stress. This suggests that for a range of compressive pre-stresses, thin sheet samples have larger values of d33 transduction coefficients and susceptibility than rod-shaped samples of similar alloy compositions, and hence they should provide performance benefits when used in sensor and actuator device applications. Thus, we discuss potential reasons for the unexpected trends in Hs with pre-stress, and present preliminary results from tests conducted
Shen, Hua
2016-10-19
A maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is constructed to solve a reduced five-equation model coupled with the stiffened equation of state for compressible multifluids. We first derive a sufficient condition for CE/SE schemes to satisfy maximum-principle when solving a general conservation law. And then we introduce a slope limiter to ensure the sufficient condition which is applicative for both central and upwind CE/SE schemes. Finally, we implement the upwind maximum-principle-satisfying CE/SE scheme to solve the volume-fraction-based five-equation model for compressible multifluids. Several numerical examples are carried out to carefully examine the accuracy, efficiency, conservativeness and maximum-principle-satisfying property of the proposed approach.
Shen, Hua; Wen, Chih-Yung; Parsani, Matteo; Shu, Chi-Wang
2016-01-01
A maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is constructed to solve a reduced five-equation model coupled with the stiffened equation of state for compressible multifluids. We first derive a sufficient condition for CE/SE schemes to satisfy maximum-principle when solving a general conservation law. And then we introduce a slope limiter to ensure the sufficient condition which is applicative for both central and upwind CE/SE schemes. Finally, we implement the upwind maximum-principle-satisfying CE/SE scheme to solve the volume-fraction-based five-equation model for compressible multifluids. Several numerical examples are carried out to carefully examine the accuracy, efficiency, conservativeness and maximum-principle-satisfying property of the proposed approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massidda, Scott; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter; Friedman, Alex
2012-01-01
Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam focusing and current amplification with applications to heavy ion fusion. In the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment-I (NDCX-I), a non-relativistic ion beam pulse is passed through an inductive bunching module that produces a longitudinal velocity modulation. Due to the applied velocity tilt, the beam pulse compresses during neutralized drift. The ion beam pulse can be compressed by a factor of more than 100; however, errors in the velocity modulation affect the compression ratio in complex ways. We have performed a study of how the longitudinal compression of a typical NDCX-I ion beam pulse is affected by the initial errors in the acquired velocity modulation. Without any voltage errors, an ideal compression is limited only by the initial energy spread of the ion beam, ΔΕ b . In the presence of large voltage errors, δU⪢ΔE b , the maximum compression ratio is found to be inversely proportional to the geometric mean of the relative error in velocity modulation and the relative intrinsic energy spread of the beam ions. Although small parts of a beam pulse can achieve high local values of compression ratio, the acquired velocity errors cause these parts to compress at different times, limiting the overall compression of the ion beam pulse.
EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS DURING MAXIMUM INCREMENTAL EXERCISE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillermo J. Olcina
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine is an habitual substance present in a wide variety of beverages and in chocolate-based foods and it is also used as adjuvant in some drugs. The antioxidant ability of caffeine has been reported in contrast with its pro- oxidant effects derived from its action mechanism such as the systemic release of catecholamines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on exercise oxidative stress, measuring plasma vitamins A, E, C and malonaldehyde (MDA as markers of non enzymatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation respectively. Twenty young males participated in a double blind (caffeine 5mg·kg- 1 body weight or placebo cycling test until exhaustion. In the exercise test, where caffeine was ingested prior to the test, exercise time to exhaustion, maximum heart rate, and oxygen uptake significantly increased, whereas respiratory exchange ratio (RER decreased. Vitamins A and E decreased with exercise and vitamin C and MDA increased after both the caffeine and placebo tests but, regarding these particular variables, there were no significant differences between the two test conditions. The results obtained support the conclusion that this dose of caffeine enhances the ergospirometric response to cycling and has no effect on lipid peroxidation or on the antioxidant vitamins A, E and C
Stress transmission through Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel in impact compression test.
Yoneyama, T; Doi, H; Kobayashi, E; Hamanaka, H; Tanabe, Y; Bonfield, W
2000-06-01
Impact stress transmission of Ti-Ni alloy was evaluated for biomedical stress shielding. Transformation temperatures of the alloy were investigated by means of DSC. An impact compression test was carried out with use of split-Hopkinson pressure-bar technique with cylindrical specimens of Ti-Ni alloy, titanium and stainless steel. As a result, the transmitted pulse through Ti-Ni alloy was considerably depressed as compared with those through titanium and stainless steel. The initial stress reduction was large through Ti-Ni alloy and titanium, but the stress reduction through Ti-Ni alloy was more continuous than titanium. The maximum value in the stress difference between incident and transmitted pulses through Ti-Ni alloy or titanium was higher than that through stainless steel, while the stress reduction in the maximum stress through Ti-Ni alloy was statistically larger than that through titanium or stainless steel. Ti-Ni alloy transmitted less impact stress than titanium or stainless steel, which suggested that the loading stress to adjacent tissues could be decreased with use of Ti-Ni alloy as a component material in an implant system. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers
Magneto thermal convection in a compressible couple-stress fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mahinder [Lovely School of Science, Dept. of Mathematics, Lovely Professional Univ., Phagwara (India); Kumar, Pardeep [Dept. of Mathematics, ICDEOL, H.P. Univ., Shimla (India)
2010-03-15
The problem of thermal instability of compressible, electrically conducting couple-stress fluids in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the dispersion relation is obtained. For stationary convection, the compressibility, couple-stress, and magnetic field postpone the onset of convection. Graphs have been plotted by giving numerical values of the parameters to depict the stability characteristics. The principle of exchange of stabilities is found to be satisfied. The magnetic field introduces oscillatory modes in the system that were non-existent in its absence. The case of overstability is also studied wherein a sufficient condition for the non-existence of overstability is obtained. (orig.)
Discrete fracture in quasi-brittle materials under compressive and tensile stress states
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Klerck, PA
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A method for modelling discrete fracture in geomaterials under tensile and compressive stress fields has been developed based on a Mohr-Coulomb failure surface in compression and three independent anisotropic rotating crack models in tension...
Rotem, Assa
1990-01-01
Laminated composite materials tend to fail differently under tensile or compressive load. Under tension, the material accumulates cracks and fiber fractures, while under compression, the material delaminates and buckles. Tensile-compressive fatigue may cause either of these failure modes depending on the specific damage occurring in the laminate. This damage depends on the stress ratio of the fatigue loading. Analysis of the fatigue behavior of the composite laminate under tension-tension, compression-compression, and tension-compression had led to the development of a fatigue envelope presentation of the failure behavior. This envelope indicates the specific failure mode for any stress ratio and number of loading cycles. The construction of the fatigue envelope is based on the applied stress-cycles to failure (S-N) curves of both tensile-tensile and compressive-compressive fatigue. Test results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis.
Reconstruction algorithm in compressed sensing based on maximum a posteriori estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Koujin; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
2013-01-01
We propose a systematic method for constructing a sparse data reconstruction algorithm in compressed sensing at a relatively low computational cost for general observation matrix. It is known that the cost of ℓ 1 -norm minimization using a standard linear programming algorithm is O(N 3 ). We show that this cost can be reduced to O(N 2 ) by applying the approach of posterior maximization. Furthermore, in principle, the algorithm from our approach is expected to achieve the widest successful reconstruction region, which is evaluated from theoretical argument. We also discuss the relation between the belief propagation-based reconstruction algorithm introduced in preceding works and our approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chintala, Venkateswarlu; Subramanian, K.A.
2014-01-01
This work is aimed at study of maximum available work and irreversibility (mixing, combustion, unburned, and friction) of a dual-fuel diesel engine (H 2 (hydrogen)–diesel) using exergy analysis. The maximum available work increased with H 2 addition due to reduction in irreversibility of combustion because of less entropy generation. The irreversibility of unburned fuel with the H 2 fuel also decreased due to the engine combustion with high temperature whereas there is no effect of H 2 on mixing and friction irreversibility. The maximum available work of the diesel engine at rated load increased from 29% with conventional base mode (without H 2 ) to 31.7% with dual-fuel mode (18% H 2 energy share) whereas total irreversibility of the engine decreased drastically from 41.2% to 39.3%. The energy efficiency of the engine with H 2 increased about 10% with 36% reduction in CO 2 emission. The developed methodology could also be applicable to find the effect and scope of different technologies including exhaust gas recirculation and turbo charging on maximum available work and energy efficiency of diesel engines. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency of diesel engine increases with hydrogen under dual-fuel mode. • Maximum available work of the engine increases significantly with hydrogen. • Combustion and unburned fuel irreversibility decrease with hydrogen. • No significant effect of hydrogen on mixing and friction irreversibility. • Reduction in CO 2 emission along with HC, CO and smoke emissions
Alatawneh, Natheer; Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A.; Chromik, Richard
2017-06-01
Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alatawneh, Natheer, E-mail: natheer80@yahoo.com [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0E9 (Canada); Chromik, Richard [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • Develop a toroidal tester for magnetic measurements under compressive axial stress. • The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. • The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out. • Physical explanations for the core loss trend due to stress are provided. - Abstract: Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.
Stress-dislocation interaction mechanism in low-temperature thermo-compression sintering of Ag NPs
Wang, Fuliang; Tang, Zikai; He, Hu
2018-04-01
The sintering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has been widely studied in the field of nanotechnology, and low-temperature sintering has become the industry standard. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD) model was established to study the sintering behaviour of silver NPs during low-temperature thermo-compression. Primarily, we studied the sintering process, in which the ratio of neck radius to particle radius (x/r) changes. Under a uniaxial pressure, the maximum ratio in the temperature range 420-425 K was 1. According to the change of x/r, the process can be broken down into three stages: the neck-formation stage, neck-growth stage, and neck-stability stage. In addition, the relationship between potential energy, internal stress, and dislocation density during sintering is discussed. The results showed that cycling internal stress played an important role in sintering. Under the uniaxial pressure, the stress-dislocation interaction was found to be the major mechanism for thermo-compression sintering because the plastic deformation product dislocation intensified the diffusion of atoms. Also, the displacement vector, the mean square displacement, and the changing crystal structure during sintering were studied.
Stress-dislocation interaction mechanism in low-temperature thermo-compression sintering of Ag NPs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuliang Wang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The sintering of metal nanoparticles (NPs has been widely studied in the field of nanotechnology, and low-temperature sintering has become the industry standard. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD model was established to study the sintering behaviour of silver NPs during low-temperature thermo-compression. Primarily, we studied the sintering process, in which the ratio of neck radius to particle radius (x/r changes. Under a uniaxial pressure, the maximum ratio in the temperature range 420–425 K was 1. According to the change of x/r, the process can be broken down into three stages: the neck-formation stage, neck-growth stage, and neck-stability stage. In addition, the relationship between potential energy, internal stress, and dislocation density during sintering is discussed. The results showed that cycling internal stress played an important role in sintering. Under the uniaxial pressure, the stress-dislocation interaction was found to be the major mechanism for thermo-compression sintering because the plastic deformation product dislocation intensified the diffusion of atoms. Also, the displacement vector, the mean square displacement, and the changing crystal structure during sintering were studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oku, T.; Usui, T.; Ero, M.; Fukuda, Y.
1977-01-01
The Young's moduli of unirradiated and high temperature (800 to 1000 0 C) irradiated graphites for HTGR were measured by the ultrasonic method in the direction of applied compressive stress during and after stressing. The Young's moduli of all the tested graphites decreased with increasing compressive stress both during and after stressing. In order to investigate the reason for the decrease in Young's modulus by applying compressive stress, the mercury pore diameter distributions of a part of the unirradiated and irradiated specimens were measured. The change in pore distribution is believed to be associated with structural changes produced by irradiation and compressive stressing. The residual strain, after removing the compressive stress, showed a good correlation with the decrease in Young's modulus caused by the compressive stress. The decrease in Young's modulus by applying compressive stress was considered to be due to the increase in the mobile dislocation density and the growth or formation of cracks. The results suggest, however, that the mechanism giving the larger contribution depends on the brand of graphite, and in anisotropic graphite it depends on the direction of applied stress and the irradiation conditions. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cojocaru Vasile
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In the thread root area of the threaded bolts submitted to axial loading occur local stresses, higher that nominal stresses calculated for the bolts. These local stresses can generate failure and can reduce the fatigue life of the parts. The paper is focused on the study of the influence of the thread root radius on the maximum local stresses. A large diameter trapezoidal bolt was subjected to a static analysis (axial loading using finite element simulation.
Xu, Yongxiang; Wei, Yanyu; Zou, Jibin; Li, Jianjun; Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Yong
2014-01-01
Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM). The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongxiang Xu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM. The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress.
Analysis of Deformation and Equivalent Stress during Biomass Material Compression Molding
Xu, Guiying; Wei, Hetao; Zhang, Zhien; Yu, Shaohui; Wang, Congzhe; Huang, Guowen
2018-02-01
Ansys is adopted to analyze mold deformation and stress field distribution rule during the process of compressing biomass under pressure of 20Mpa. By means of unit selection, material property setting, mesh partition, contact pair establishment, load and constraint applying, and solver setting, the stress and strain of overall mold are analyzed. Deformation and equivalent Stress of compression structure, base, mold, and compression bar were analyzed. We can have conclusions: The distribution of stress forced on compressor is not completely uniform, where the stress at base is slightly decreased; the stress and strain of compression bar is the largest, and stress concentration my occur at top of compression bar, which goes against compression bar service life; the overall deformation of main mold is smaller; although there is slight difference between upper and lower part, the overall variation is not obvious, but the stress difference between upper and lower part of main mold is extremely large so that reaches to 10 times; the stress and strain in base decrease in circular shape, but there is still stress concentration in ledge, which goes against service life; contact stress does not distribute uniformly, there is increasing or decreasing trend in adjacent parts, which is very large in some parts. in constructing both.
Study of the stress-strain state of compressed concrete elements with composite reinforcement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bondarenko Yurii
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The efficiency analysis of the application of glass composite reinforcement in compressed concrete elements as a load-carrying component has been performed. The results of experimental studies of the deformation-strength characteristics of this reinforcement on compression and compressed concrete cylinders reinforced by this reinforcement are presented. The results of tests and mechanisms of sample destruction have been analyzed. The numerical analysis of the stress-strain state has been performed for axial compression of concrete elements with glasscomposite reinforcement. The influence of the reinforcement percentage on the stressed state of a concrete compressed element with the noted reinforcement is estimated. On the basis of the obtained results, it is established that the glass-composite reinforcement has positive effect on the strength of the compressed concrete elements. That is, when calculating the load-bearing capacity of such structures, the function of composite reinforcement on compression should not be neglected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazlan, S A; Ekreem, N B; Olabi, A G
2008-01-01
This paper presents an experimental investigation of two different magnetorheological (MR) fluids, namely, water-based and hydrocarbon-based MR fluids in compression mode under various applied currents. Finite element method magnetics was used to predict the magnetic field distribution inside the MR fluids generated by a coil. A test rig was constructed where the MR fluid was sandwiched between two flat surfaces. During the compression, the upper surface was moved towards the lower surface in a vertical direction. Stress-strain relationships were obtained for arrangements of equipment where each type of fluid was involved, using compression test equipment. The apparent compressive stress was found to be increased with the increase in magnetic field strength. In addition, the apparent compressive stress of the water-based MR fluid showed a response to the compressive strain of greater magnitude. However, during the compression process, the hydrocarbon-based MR fluid appeared to show a unique behaviour where an abrupt pressure drop was discovered in a region where the apparent compressive stress would be expected to increase steadily. The conclusion is drawn that the apparent compressive stress of MR fluids is influenced strongly by the nature of the carrier fluid and by the magnitude of the applied current
Compressive strength evolution of thermally-stressed Saint Maximin limestone.
Farquharson, J.; Griffiths, L.; Baud, P.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Heap, M. J.
2017-12-01
The Saint Maximin quarry (Oise, France) opened in the early 1600s, and its limestone has been used extensively as masonry stone, particularly during the classical era of Parisian architecture from the 17th century onwards. Its widespread use has been due to a combination of its regional availability, its high workability, and its aesthetic appeal. Notable buildings completed using this material include sections of the Place de la Concorde and the Louvre in Paris. More recently, however, it has seen increasing use in the construction of large private residences throughout the United States as well as extensions to private institutions such as Stanford University. For any large building, fire hazard can be a substantial concern, especially in tectonically active areas where catastrophic fires may arise following large-magnitude earthquakes. Typically, house fires burn at temperatures of around 600 °C ( 1000 F). Given the ubiquity of this geomaterial as a building stone, it is important to ascertain the influence of heating on the strength of Saint Maximin limestone (SML), and in turn the structural stability of the buildings it is used in. We performed a series of compressive tests and permeability measurements on samples of SML to determine its strength evolution in response to heating to incrementally higher temperatures. We observe that the uniaxial compressive strength of SML decreases from >12 MPa at room temperature to 400 °C). We anticipate that this substantial weakening is in part a result of thermal microcracking, whereby changes in temperature induce thermal stresses due to a mismatch in thermal expansion between the constituent grains. This mechanism is compounded by the volumetric increase of quartz through its alpha - beta transition at 573 °C, and by the thermal decomposition of calcite. To track the formation of thermal microcracks, we monitor acoustic emissions, a common proxy for microcracking, during the heating of an SML sample. The
Effects of tensile and compressive stresses on irradiation-induced swelling in AISI 316
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lauritzen, T.; Bell, W.L.; Konze, G.M.; Rosa, J.M.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Garner, F.A.
1985-05-01
The results of two recent experiments indicate that the current perception of stress-affected swelling needs revision. It appears that compressive stresses do not delay swelling as previously modeled but actually accelerate swelling at a rate comparable to that induced by tensile stresses
Influence of compressive stress in TGO layer on impedance spectroscopy from TBC coatings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, To; Zhang, Jianhai; Yuan, Maodan; Song, Sungjin; Kim, Hakjoon; Kim, Yongseok; Seok, Changsung [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-02-15
Impedance spectroscopy is a non destructive evaluation (NDE) method first proposed and developed for evaluating TGO layers with compressive stress inside thermally degraded plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (PS TBCs). A bode plot (phase angle ({Dirac_h}) vs. frequency (f)) was used to investigate the TGO layer on electrical responses. In our experimental study, the phase angle of Bode plots is sensitive for detecting TGO layers while applying compressive stress on thermal barrier coatings. It is difficult to detect TGO layers in samples isothermally aged for 100hrs and 200hrs without compressive stress, and substantial change of phase was observed these samples with compressive stress. Also, the frequency shift of the phase angle and change of the phase angle are observed in samples isothermally aged for more than 400hrs.
Influence of sequential room-temperature compressive creep on flow stress of TA2
Mengyuan, Zhang; Boqin, Gu; Jiahui, Tao
2018-03-01
This paper studied the sequential room temperature compressive creep and its effects on compressive properties of TA2 with stress-control loading pattern by using cylindrical compressive test specimen. The significant time-dependent deformation under constant load was observed in the TA2 at room temperature, and the deformation was dependent on the loading process under the same loading stress rate. It was also found that the occurrence of room temperature compressive creep obviously enhanced the subsequent yielding strength and flow stress of TA2 due to the increase of network dislocation density. And the effects of room temperature creep on the strain rate-stress behavior could be explained by the local mobile dislocation density model.
Grigioni, Mauro; Daniele, Carla; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Barbaro, Vincenzo
2002-05-01
Turbulent flow generated by prosthetic devices at the bloodstream level may cause mechanical stress on blood particles. Measurement of the Reynolds stress tensor and/or some of its components is a mandatory step to evaluate the mechanical load on blood components exerted by fluid stresses, as well as possible consequent blood damage (hemolysis or platelet activation). Because of the three-dimensional nature of turbulence, in general, a three-component anemometer should be used to measure all components of the Reynolds stress tensor, but this is difficult, especially in vivo. The present study aimed to derive the maximum Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in three commercially available prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) of wide diffusion, starting with monodimensional data provided in vivo by echo Doppler. Accurate measurement of PHV flow field was made using laser Doppler anemometry; this provided the principal turbulence quantities (mean velocity, root-mean-square value of velocity fluctuations, average value of cross-product of velocity fluctuations in orthogonal directions) needed to quantify the maximum turbulence-related shear stress. The recorded data enabled determination of the relationship, the Reynolds stresses ratio (RSR) between maximum RSS and Reynolds normal stress in the main flow direction. The RSR was found to be dependent upon the local structure of the flow field. The reported RSR profiles, which permit a simple calculation of maximum RSS, may prove valuable during the post-implantation phase, when an assessment of valve function is made echocardiographically. Hence, the risk of damage to blood constituents associated with bileaflet valve implantation may be accurately quantified in vivo.
In-shoe plantar tri-axial stress profiles during maximum-effort cutting maneuvers.
Cong, Yan; Lam, Wing Kai; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming
2014-12-18
Soft tissue injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ankle sprain and foot skin problems, frequently occur during cutting maneuvers. These injuries are often regarded as associated with abnormal joint torque and interfacial friction caused by excessive external and in-shoe shear forces. This study simultaneously investigated the dynamic in-shoe localized plantar pressure and shear stress during lateral shuffling and 45° sidestep cutting maneuvers. Tri-axial force transducers were affixed at the first and second metatarsal heads, lateral forefoot, and heel regions in the midsole of a basketball shoe. Seventeen basketball players executed both cutting maneuvers with maximum efforts. Lateral shuffling cutting had a larger mediolateral braking force than 45° sidestep cutting. This large braking force was concentrated at the first metatarsal head, as indicated by its maximum medial shear stress (312.2 ± 157.0 kPa). During propulsion phase, peak shear stress occurred at the second metatarsal head (271.3 ± 124.3 kPa). Compared with lateral shuffling cutting, 45° sidestep cutting produced larger peak propulsion shear stress (463.0 ± 272.6 kPa) but smaller peak braking shear stress (184.8 ± 181.7 kPa), of which both were found at the first metatarsal head. During both cutting maneuvers, maximum medial and posterior shear stress occurred at the first metatarsal head, whereas maximum pressure occurred at the second metatarsal head. The first and second metatarsal heads sustained relatively high pressure and shear stress and were expected to be susceptible to plantar tissue discomfort or injury. Due to different stress distribution, distinct pressure and shear cushioning mechanisms in basketball footwear might be considered over different foot regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
High Compressive Stresses Near the Surface of the Sierra Nevada, California
Martel, S. J.; Logan, J. M.; Stock, G. M.
2012-12-01
Observations and stress measurements in granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California reveal strong compressive stresses parallel to the surface of the range at shallow depths. New overcoring measurements show high compressive stresses at three locations along an east-west transect through Yosemite National Park. At the westernmost site (west end of Tenaya Lake), the mean compressive stress is 1.9. At the middle site (north shore of Tenaya Lake) the mean compressive stress is 6.8 MPa. At the easternmost site (south side of Lembert Dome) the mean compressive stress is 3.0 MPa. The trend of the most compressive stress at these sites is within ~30° of the strike of the local topographic surface. Previously published hydraulic fracturing measurements by others elsewhere in the Sierra Nevada indicate surface-parallel compressive stresses of several MPa within several tens of meters of the surface, with the stress magnitudes generally diminishing to the west. Both the new and the previously published compressive stress magnitudes are consistent with the presence of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints") in the Sierra Nevada, which require lateral compressive stresses of several MPa to form. These fractures are widespread: they are distributed in granitic rocks from the north end of the range to its southern tip and across the width of the range. Uplift along the normal faults of the eastern escarpment, recently measured by others at ~1-2 mm/yr, probably contributes to these stresses substantially. Geodetic surveys reveal that normal faulting flexes a range concave upwards in response to fault slip, and this flexure is predicted by elastic dislocation models. The topographic relief of the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada is 2-4 km, and since alluvial fill generally buries the bedrock east of the faults, the offset of granitic rocks is at least that much. Compressive stresses of several MPa are predicted by elastic dislocation models of the range front
Intrinsic Compressive Stress in Polycrystalline Films is Localized at Edges of the Grain Boundaries
Vasco, Enrique; Polop, Celia
2017-12-01
The intrinsic compression that arises in polycrystalline thin films under high atomic mobility conditions has been attributed to the insertion or trapping of adatoms inside grain boundaries. This compression is a consequence of the stress field resulting from imperfections in the solid and causes the thermomechanical fatigue that is estimated to be responsible for 90% of mechanical failures in current devices. We directly measure the local distribution of residual intrinsic stress in polycrystalline thin films on nanometer scales, using a pioneering method based on atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that, at odds with expectations, compression is not generated inside grain boundaries but at the edges of gaps where the boundaries intercept the surface. We describe a model wherein this compressive stress is caused by Mullins-type surface diffusion towards the boundaries, generating a kinetic surface profile different from the mechanical equilibrium profile by the Laplace-Young equation. Where the curvatures of both profiles differ, an intrinsic stress is generated in the form of Laplace pressure. The Srolovitz-type surface diffusion that results from the stress counters the Mullins-type diffusion and stabilizes the kinetic surface profile, giving rise to a steady compression regime. The proposed mechanism of competition between surface diffusions would explain the flux and time dependency of compressive stress in polycrystalline thin films.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okano, Shigetaka; Ihara, Ryohei; Kanamaru, Daisuke; Mochizuki, Masahito
2015-01-01
In this study, the effects of work-hardening and pre-existing stress in the machined surface layer of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel on the welding-induced residual stress were experimentally investigated through the use of weld specimens with three different surface layers; as-cutout, mechanically-polished and electrolytically-polished. The high tensile and compressive stresses exist in the work-hardened surface layer of the as-cutout and mechanically-polished specimens, respectively. Meanwhile, no stress and work-hardened surface layer exist in the electrolytically-polished specimen. TIG bead-on-plate welding under the same welding heat input conditions was performed to introduce the residual stress into these specimens. Using these welded specimens, the distributions of welding-induced residual stress were measured by the X-ray diffraction method. Similarly, the distributions of hardness in welds were estimated by the Vickers hardness test. And then, these distributions were compared with one another. Based on the results, the residual stress in the weld metal (WM) is completely unaffected by the machined surface layer because the work-hardened surface layer disappears through the processes of melting and solidification during welding. The local maximum longitudinal tensile residual stress in the heat affected zone (HAZ) depends on the work-hardening but not on the existing stress, regardless of whether tensile or compressive, in the machined surface layer before welding. At the base metal far from WM and HAZ, the residual stress is formed by the addition of the welding-induced residual stress to the pre-existing stress in the machined surface layer before welding. The features of the welding-induced residual stress in low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with the machined surface layer and their influential factors were thus clarified. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magnfält, D., E-mail: danma@ifm.liu.se; Sarakinos, K. [Nanoscale Engineering Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Fillon, A.; Abadias, G. [Institut P' , Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, SP2MI, Téléport 2, Bd M. et P. Curie, F-86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Boyd, R. D.; Helmersson, U. [Plasma and Coatings Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)
2016-02-07
Intrinsic stresses in vapor deposited thin films have been a topic of considerable scientific and technological interest owing to their importance for functionality and performance of thin film devices. The origin of compressive stresses typically observed during deposition of polycrystalline metal films at conditions that result in high atomic mobility has been under debate in the literature in the course of the past decades. In this study, we contribute towards resolving this debate by investigating the grain size dependence of compressive stress magnitude in dense polycrystalline Mo films grown by magnetron sputtering. Although Mo is a refractory metal and hence exhibits an intrinsically low mobility, low energy ion bombardment is used during growth to enhance atomic mobility and densify the grain boundaries. Concurrently, the lateral grain size is controlled by using appropriate seed layers on which Mo films are grown epitaxially. The combination of in situ stress monitoring with ex situ microstructural characterization reveals a strong, seemingly linear, increase of the compressive stress magnitude on the inverse grain size and thus provides evidence that compressive stress is generated in the grain boundaries of the film. These results are consistent with models suggesting that compressive stresses in metallic films deposited at high homologous temperatures are generated by atom incorporation into and densification of grain boundaries. However, the underlying mechanisms for grain boundary densification might be different from those in the present study where atomic mobility is intrinsically low.
Stress relaxation in vanadium under shock and shockless dynamic compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Garkushin, G. V.; Savinykh, A. S.; Zaretsky, E. B.
2015-01-01
Evolutions of elastic-plastic waves have been recorded in three series of plate impact experiments with annealed vanadium samples under conditions of shockless and combined ramp and shock dynamic compression. The shaping of incident wave profiles was realized using intermediate base plates made of different silicate glasses through which the compression waves were entered into the samples. Measurements of the free surface velocity histories revealed an apparent growth of the Hugoniot elastic limit with decreasing average rate of compression. The growth was explained by “freezing” of the elastic precursor decay in the area of interaction of the incident and reflected waves. A set of obtained data show that the current value of the Hugoniot elastic limit and plastic strain rate is rather associated with the rate of the elastic precursor decay than with the local rate of compression. The study has revealed the contributions of dislocation multiplications in elastic waves. It has been shown that independently of the compression history the material arrives at the minimum point between the elastic and plastic waves with the same density of mobile dislocations
Noise variation by compressive stress on the model core of power transformers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mizokami, Masato, E-mail: mizokami.g76.masato@jp.nssmc.com; Kurosaki, Yousuke
2015-05-01
The reduction of audible noise generated by cores for power transformers has been required due to environmental concern. It is known that compressive stress in the rolling direction of electrical steel affects magnetostriction and it can result in an increase in noise level. In this research, the effect of compressive stress to noise was investigated on a 3-phase 3-limb model core. Compressive stress was applied in the rolling direction of the limbs from the outside of the core. It increased the sound pressure levels and the slope of the rise was about 2 dBA/MPa. Magnetostriction on single sheet samples was also measured under compressive stress and the harmonic components of the magnetostriction were compared with those of noise. It revealed that the variation in magnetostriction with compressive stress did not entirely correspond to that in noise. In one of the experiments, localized bending happened on one limb during compressing the core. While deformation of the core had not been intended, the noise was measured. The deformation increased the noise by more than 10 dBA and it occurred on most of the harmonic components. - Highlights: • Audible noise was measured on a model core to which compressive stress was applied. • The stress in the rolling direction of the steel causes a rise in noise level. • The slope of the rise in sound pressure level up to 2.5 MPa is about 2 dBA/MPa. • Variation in magnetostriction by stress does not entirely agree with that in noise. • Bend arisen in the core causes an extreme increase in noise.
Noise variation by compressive stress on the model core of power transformers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizokami, Masato; Kurosaki, Yousuke
2015-01-01
The reduction of audible noise generated by cores for power transformers has been required due to environmental concern. It is known that compressive stress in the rolling direction of electrical steel affects magnetostriction and it can result in an increase in noise level. In this research, the effect of compressive stress to noise was investigated on a 3-phase 3-limb model core. Compressive stress was applied in the rolling direction of the limbs from the outside of the core. It increased the sound pressure levels and the slope of the rise was about 2 dBA/MPa. Magnetostriction on single sheet samples was also measured under compressive stress and the harmonic components of the magnetostriction were compared with those of noise. It revealed that the variation in magnetostriction with compressive stress did not entirely correspond to that in noise. In one of the experiments, localized bending happened on one limb during compressing the core. While deformation of the core had not been intended, the noise was measured. The deformation increased the noise by more than 10 dBA and it occurred on most of the harmonic components. - Highlights: • Audible noise was measured on a model core to which compressive stress was applied. • The stress in the rolling direction of the steel causes a rise in noise level. • The slope of the rise in sound pressure level up to 2.5 MPa is about 2 dBA/MPa. • Variation in magnetostriction by stress does not entirely agree with that in noise. • Bend arisen in the core causes an extreme increase in noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2016-01-01
The compressive strength of unidirectionally or layer-wise reinforced composite materials in direction parallel to their reinforcement is limited by micro-buckling instabilities. Although the inherent compressive strength of a given material micro-structure can easily be determined by assessing its...... compressive stress but also on spatial stress or strain gradients, rendering failure initiation size scale dependent. The present work demonstrates and investigates the aforementioned effect through numerical simulations of periodically layered structures withnotches and holes under bending and compressive...... loads, respectively. The presented results emphasize the importance of the reinforcing layer thickness on the load carrying capacity of the investigated structures, at a constant volumetric fraction of the reinforcement. The observed strengthening at higher values of the relative layer thickness...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara Nasiłowska
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This article presents shot-peening effect on the structure, microhardness, and compressive stresses of the austenitic steel 1.4539. The research shows strengthening of the top layer and the formation of compressive stresses in the subsurface layers of the shot-peening elements.[b]Keyword[/b]: austenitic steel 1.4539, residual stresses, Waisman-Phillips’a method
Superposition of Stress Fields in Diametrically Compressed Cylinders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João Augusto de Lima Rocha
Full Text Available Abstract The theoretical analysis for the Brazilian test is a classical plane stress problem of elasticity theory, where a vertical force is applied to a horizontal plane, the boundary of a semi-infinite medium. Hypothesizing a normal radial stress field, the results of that model are correct. Nevertheless, the superposition of three stress fields, with two being based on prior results and the third based on a hydrostatic stress field, is incorrect. Indeed, this work shows that the Cauchy vectors (tractions are non-vanishing in the parallel planes in which the two opposing vertical forces are applied. The aim of this work is to detail the process used in the construction of the theoretical model for the three stress fields used, with the objective being to demonstrate the inconsistency often stated in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setjo, Renaningsih
2000-01-01
Piping stress analysis for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines Nuclear Power Plant AV Unit I(PWR Type) has been carried out. The purpose of this analysis is to establish a maximum allowable load that is permitted at the time of need by placing lead shielding on the piping system on class 1 pipe, Pressurizer/Auxiliary Spray Lines (PZR/Aux.) Reactor Coolant Loop 1 and 4 for NPP AV Unit one in the mode 5 and 6 during outage. This analysis is intended to reduce the maximum amount of radiation dose for the operator during ISI ( In service Inspection) period.The result shown that the maximum allowable loads for 4 inches lines for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines is 123 lbs/feet
Optimal design of the gerotor (2-ellipses) for reducing maximum contact stress
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Hyo Seo; Li, Sheng Huan [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Technology, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul [School of Mechanical Design and Manufacturing, Busan Institute of Science and Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
The oil pump, which is used as lubricator of engines and auto transmission, supplies working oil to the rotating elements to prevent wear. The gerotor pump is used widely in the automobile industry. When wear occurs due to contact between an inner rotor and an outer rotor, the efficiency of the gerotor pump decreases rapidly, and elastic deformation from the contacts also causes vibration and noise. This paper reports the optimal design of a gerotor with a 2-ellipses combined lobe shape that reduces the maximum contact stress. An automatic program was developed to calculate Hertzian contact stress of the gerotor using the Matlab and the effect of the design parameter on the maximum contact stress was analyzed. In addition, the method of theoretical analysis for obtaining the contact stress was verified by performing the fluid-structural coupled analysis using the commercial software, Ansys, considering both the driving force of the inner rotor and the fluid pressure, which is generated by working oil.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Sarikhani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The insole shape and the resulting plantar stress distribution have a pivotal impact on overall health. In this paper, by Finite Element Method, maximum stress value and stress distribution of plantar were studied for different insoles designs, which are the flat surface and the custom-molded (conformal surface. Moreover, insole thickness, heel’s height, and different materials were used to minimize the maximum stress and achieve the most uniform stress distribution. The foot shape and its details used in this paper were imported from online CT-Scan images. Results show that the custom-molded insole reduced maximum stress 40% more than the flat surface insole. Upon increase of thickness in both insole types, stress distribution becomes more uniform and maximum stress value decreases up to 10%; however, increase of thickness becomes ineffective above a threshold of 1 cm. By increasing heel height (degree of insole, maximum stress moves from heel to toes and becomes more uniform. Therefore, this scenario is very helpful for control of stress in 0.2° to 0.4° degrees for custom-molded insole and over 1° for flat insole. By changing the material of the insole, the value of maximum stress remains nearly constant. The custom-molded (conformal insole which has 0.5 to 1 cm thickness and 0.2° to 0.4° degrees is found to be the most compatible form for foot.
Electrical response of relaxing dielectrics compressed by arbitrary stress pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysne, P.C.
1983-01-01
The theoretical problem of the electric response of biased dielectrics and piezoelectrics subjected to planar stress pulse loading is considered. The materials are taken to exhibit dielectric relaxation in the sense that changes in the polarization induced by electric fields do not occur instantaneously with changes in the fields. While this paper considers arbitrary stress pulse loading of the specimen, examples that are amenable to projectile impact techniques are considered in detail. They are shock reverberation, thin pulse, and ramp loading experiments. It is anticipated that these experiments will play a role in investigations of dielectric relaxation caused by shock induced damage in insulators
Mechanical Stresses Induced by Compression in Castings of the Load-carrying Grate
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Słowik J.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the compression-induced state of stress arising in castings of the guide grates during operation in pusher-type furnaces for heat treatment. The effect of grate compression is caused by its forced movement in the furnace. The introduction of flexible segments to the grate structure changes in a significant way the stress distribution, mainly by decreasing its value, and consequently considerably extends the lifetime of the grates. The stress distribution was examined in the grates with flexible segments arranged crosswise (normal to the direction of the grate compression and lengthwise (following the direction of force. A regression equation was derived to describe the relationship between the stress level in a row of ribs in the grate and the number of flexible segments of a lengthwise orientation placed in this row. It was found that, regardless of the distribution of the flexible segments in a row, the stress values were similar in all the ribs included in this row, and in a given row of the ribs/flexible segments a similar state of stress prevailed, irrespective of the position of this row in the whole structure of the grate and of the number of the ribs/flexible segments introduced therein. Parts of the grate responsible for the stress transfer were indicated and also parts which play the role of an element bonding the structure.
Poulin, Alexandre; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert
2014-03-01
We present a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) for in vitro analysis of mm2 biological samples under periodic compressive stress. Understanding how mechanical stimuli affect cell functions could lead to significant advances in diseases diagnosis and drugs development. We previously reported an array of 72 micro-DEAs on a chip to apply a periodic stretch to cells. To diversify our cell mechanotransduction toolkit we have developed an actuator for periodic compression of small cell populations. The device is based on a novel design which exploits the effects of non-equibiaxial pre-stretch and takes advantage of the stress induced in passive regions of DEAs. The device consists of two active regions separated by a 2mm x 2mm passive area. When connected to an AC high-voltage source, the two active regions periodically compress the passive region. Due to the non-equibiaxial pre-stretch it induces uniaxial compressive strain greater than 10%. Cells adsorbed on top of this passive gap would experience the same uniaxial compressive stain. The electrodes configuration confines the electric field and prevents it from reaching the biological sample. A thin layer of silicone is casted on top of the device to ensure a biocompatible environment. This design provides several advantages over alternative technologies such as high optical transparency of the area of interest (passive region under compression) and its potential for miniaturization and parallelization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, Hiroshi; Abe, Hirotoshi
1979-01-01
In order to design rationally the vessels made of prestressed concrete for nuclear power stations and to improve the accuracy of high temperature creep analysis, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry had carried out the proving experiments with scale models. In order to improve the accuracy of analysis, it is important to grasp the creep behavior of the concrete subjected to triaxial compressive stresses at high temperature as the basic property of concrete, because actual prestressed concrete vessels are in such conditions. In this paper, the triaxial compression creep test at 60 deg. C using the concrete specimens with same mixing ratio as the scale models is reported. The compressive strength of the concrete at the age of 28 days was 406 kg/cm 2 , and the age of the concrete at the time of loading was 63 days. Creep and creep recovery were measured for 5 months and 2 months, respectively. The creep of concrete due to uniaxial compression increased with temperature rise, and the creep strain at 60 deg. C was 2.54 times as much as that at 20 deg. C. The effective Poisson's ratio in triaxial compression creep was 0.15 on the average, based on the creep strain due to uniaxial compression at 60 deg. C. The creep recovery rate in high temperature, triaxial compression creep was 33% on the average. (Kako, I.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soyama, Hitoshi; Nagasaka, Kazuya; Takakuwa, Osamu; Naito, Akima
2011-01-01
In order to mitigate stress corrosion cracking of components used for nuclear power plants, introduction of compressive residual stress into sub-surface of the components is an effective maintenance method. The introduction of compressive residual stress using cavitation impact generated by injecting a high speed water jet into water was proposed. Water jet peening is now applying to reduce stress corrosion cracking of shrouds in the nuclear power plants. However, accidental troubles such as dropping off the components and cutting of the pipes by the jet occurred at the maintenance. In order to peen by the jet without damage, optimum injection pressure of the jet should be revealed. In the case of 'cavitation peening', cavitation is generated by injecting the high speed water jet into water. As working pressure at the cavitation peening is the pressure at cavitation bubble collapse, the injection pressure of the jet is not main parameter. The cavitation impact is increasing with the scale of the jet, i.e., scaling effect of the cavitation. It was revealed that the large scale jet at low injection pressure can introduce compressive residual stress into stainless steel comparing with the small scale jet at high injection pressure. As expected, a water jet at high injection pressure might make damage of the components. Namely, in order to avoid damage of the components, the jet at the low injection pressure will be suit for the introduction of compressive residual stress. In the present paper, in order to make clear optimum injection pressure of the cavitating jet for the introduction of compressive residual stress without damage, the residual stress of stainless steel treated by the jet at various injection pressure was measured by using an X-ray diffraction method. The injection pressure of the jet p 1 was varied from 5 MPa to 300 MPa. The diameter of the nozzle throat of the jet d was varied from 0.35 mm to 2.0 mm. The residual stress changing with depth was
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FU Ping
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The flow stress behavior of 5083 aluminum alloy was investigated under hot compression deformation at 523-723K,strain rates of 0.01-10s-1 and true strains of 0-0.7 with Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. Based on the heat transfer effect on alloy deformation heat effect, the flow stress curves were corrected. The results show that influence of heat conduction can not be neglected and becomes more obvious with the increase of true strain. The corrected flow stress has little influence on the peak stress, but the steady flow stress softening trends to be diminished to some degree. The flow stress can be predicted by the Zener-Hollomon parameters in the constitutive equation. The corrected measured value exhibits a good agreement with the flow stress predicted by the constitutive equation, and the average relative error is only 5.21%.
Compressive stress-electrical conductivity characteristics of multiwall carbon nanotube networks
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Lengálová, A.; Sáha, P.
2011-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 3186-3190 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : carbon nanotube network * compression * electrical conductivity * stress sensor Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2011
The effect of through-thickness compressive stress on mode II interlaminar fracture toughness
Catalanotti, G.; Furtado, C.; Scalici, T.; Pitarresi, G.; van der Meer, F.P.; Camanho, PP
2017-01-01
The effect of through-thickness compressive stress on mode II interlaminar fracture toughness is investigated experimentally and replicated numerically. The modified Transverse Crack Tensile specimen recently proposed by the authors is used, together with an experimental device designed to apply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishibashi, Ryo; Hato, Hisamitsu; Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Yoshikubo, Fujio
2016-01-01
Our goal for this study was to understand the cause of the differences in surface properties between surfaces processed using water jet peening (WJP) and shot peening (SP) and to examine the compressive residual stress introduction process with low plastic strain using SP. The dynamic behaviors of stress and strain in surfaces during these processes were analyzed through elasto-plastic calculations using a finite-element method program, and the calculated results were compared with measured results obtained through experiments. Media impacting a surface results in a difference in the hardness and microstructure of the processed surface. During SP, a shot deforms the surface locally with stress concentration in the early stages of the impact, while shock waves deform the surface evenly throughout the wave passage across the surface during WJP. A shot with a larger diameter creates a larger impact area on the surface during shot impact. Thus, SP with a large-diameter shot suppresses the stress concentration under the same kinetic energy condition. As the shot diameter increases, the equivalent plastic strain decreases. On the other hand, the shot is subject to size restriction since the calculated results indicate the compressive residual stress at the surface decreased and occasionally became almost zero as the shot diameter increased. Thus, compressive residual stress introduction with low plastic strain by using SP is considered achievable by using shots with a large diameter and choosing the appropriate peening conditions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wooldridge, A.B.
1980-01-01
The influence of compressive stress on the reflection and transmission of ultrasound has been investigated for fatigue cracks. An examination has been made of the shear wave corner echoes from surface breaking fatigue cracks which were grown at constant stress intensity factor to control the roughness of the faces. In this way a correlation has been established between the roughness of the surfaces and the ultrasonic response at both zero load and under stress. The effect of liquids in the cracks has also been studied and the results compared with theoretical predictions for a thin sided parallel gap. (author)
High Temperature Uniaxial Compression and Stress-Relaxation Behavior of India-Specific RAFM Steel
Shah, Naimish S.; Sunil, Saurav; Sarkar, Apu
2018-05-01
India-specific reduced activity ferritic martensitic steel (INRAFM), a modified 9Cr-1Mo grade, has been developed by India as its own structural material for fabrication of the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be installed in the International Thermonuclear Energy Reactor (ITER). The extensive study on mechanical and physical properties of this material has been currently going on for appraisal of this material before being put to use in the ITER. High temperature compression, stress-relaxation, and strain-rate change behavior of the INRAFM steel have been investigated. The optical microscopic and scanning electron microscopic characterizations were carried out to observe the microstructural changes that occur during uniaxial compressive deformation test. Comparable true plastic stress values at 300 °C and 500 °C and a high drop in true plastic stress at 600 °C were observed during the compression test. Stress-relaxation behaviors were investigated at 500 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1. The creep properties of the steel at different temperatures were predicted from the stress-relaxation test. The Norton's stress exponent (n) was found to decrease with the increasing temperature. Using Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn relationship, the temperature-compensated normalized strain rate vs stress was plotted. The stress exponent (n) value of 10.05 was obtained from the normalized plot. The increasing nature of the strain rate sensitivity (m) with the test temperature was found from strain-rate change test. The low plastic stability with m 0.06 was observed at 600 °C. The activation volume (V *) values were obtained in the range of 100 to 300 b3. By comparing the experimental values with the literature, the rate-controlling mechanisms at the thermally activated region of high temperature were found to be the nonconservative movement of jogged screw dislocations and thermal breaking of attractive junctions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Megata, Masao
1997-01-01
A specific heat treatment process that introduces hoop stress has been developed. This technique can produce zirconium alloy tubing with a residual compressive hoop stress near the inner surface by taking advantage of the mechanical anisotropy in hexagonal close-packed zirconium crystal. Since a crystal having its basal pole parallel to the tangential direction of the tubing is easier to exhibit plastic elongation under the hoop stress than that having its basal pole parallel to the radial direction, the plastic and elastic elongation can coexist under a certain set of temperature and hoop stress conditions. The mechanical anisotropy plays a role to extend the coexistent stress range. Thus, residual compressive hoop stress is formed at the inner surface where more plastic elongation occurs during the heat treatment. This process is referred to as expanded heat treatment. Since this is a fundamental crystallographic principle, it has various applications. The application to improve PCI/SCC (pellet cladding interaction/stress corrosion cracking) properties of water reactor fuel cladding is promising. Excellent results were obtained with laboratory-scale heat treatment and an out-reactor iodine SCC test. These results included an extension of the time to SCC failure. (author)
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Hui Zhang
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the dependence of both the electromechanical effect and the electrostriction on the compressive stress in PMN-30%PT single crystal on the basis of single domain polarization rotation model. In the model, the electroelastic energy induced by the compressive stress is taken into account. The results have demonstrated that the compressive stress can lead to a significant change in the initial polarization state in the crystal. The reason lies in the stress induced anisotropy which is the coupling between the compressive stress and the electrostrictive coefficients. Thus, the initial polarization state in single crystal is determined by the combination of both electrocrystalline anisotropy and the stress induced anisotropy. The compressive stress along the [100] axis can make the polarization in the crystal be perpendicular to the stress direction, and make it difficult to be polarized to the saturation. This model is useful for better understanding both the polarization rotation and electromechanical effect in ferroelectric crystals with the compressive stress present.
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Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This article employed the Hertz contact stress theory and the finite element method to evaluate the maximum contact pressure and the limit stresses of orange fruit under transportation and storage. The elastic properties of orange fruits subjected to axial and axial contact were measured such that elastic limit force, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and bioyield stress were obtained as 18 N, 0.691 MPa, 0.367, 0.009 MPa for axial compression and for radial loading were 15.69 N, 0.645 MPa, 0.123, 0.010 MPa. The Hertz maximum contact pressure was estimated for axial and radial contacts as 0.036 MPa. The estimated limiting yield stress estimated as von Mises stresses for the induced surface stresses of the orange topologies varied from 0.005 MPa–0.03 MPa. Based on the distortion energy theory (DET the yield strength of orange fruit is recommended as 0.03 MPa while based on the maximum shear stress theory (MSST is 0.01 MPa for the design of orange transportation and storage system.
Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.
Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean; Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon
2015-01-01
Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.
Zhao, Hong-Bao
2014-01-01
Taking the standard size coal block samples defined by ISRM as research objects, both properties of methane diffusion of coal block under triaxial compressive stress and characteristic influences caused by methane pressure were systematically studied with thermo-fluid-solid coupling with triaxial servocontrolled seepage equipment of methane-containing coal. The result shows the methane diffusion property of coal block under triaxial compressive stress was shown in four-stage as follow, first is sharply reduce stage, second is hyperbolic reduce stage, third is close to a fixed value stage, fourth stage is 0. There is a special point making the reduced rate of characteristic curve of methane diffusion speed become sharply small; the influences of shape of methane diffusion speed characteristic curve caused by methane pressure are not obvious, which only is shown in numerical size of methane diffusion speed. Test time was extended required by appear of the special point makes the reduce rate of methane diffusion speed become sharply small. The fitting four-phase relation of methane diffusion of coal block under triaxial compressive stress was obtained, and the idea is proposed that influences of the fitting four-phase relation caused by methane pressure were only shown in value of fitting parameters. PMID:25531000
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Thomas Jin-Chee Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the Joule heating effect and residual compressive stress near the crack tip under the electro-thermo-structural coupling state. For the crack tip field, the compressive condition is important for retarding or stopping the crack growth.
Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi
2003-01-01
The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)
2008-09-01
In recent years, several research projects have been conducted to study the feasibility of increasing the allowable : compressive stress in concrete at prestress transfer, currently defined as 0.60f'ci in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge : Design Specification...
Compressible Analysis of Bénard Convection of Magneto Rotatory Couple-Stress Fluid
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Mehta C.B.
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Thermal Instability (Benard’s Convection in the presence of uniform rotation and uniform magnetic field (separately is studied. Using the linearized stability theory and normal mode analyses the dispersion relation is obtained in each case. In the case of rotatory Benard’s stationary convection compressibility and rotation postpone the onset of convection whereas the couple-stress have duel character onset of convection depending on rotation parameter. While in the absence of rotation couple-stress always postpones the onset of convection. On the other hand, magnetic field on thermal instability problem on couple-stress fluid for stationary convection couple-stress parameter and magnetic field postpones the onset of convection. The effect of compressibility also postpones the onset of convection in both cases as rotation and magnetic field. Graphs have been plotted by giving numerical values to the parameters to depict the stationary characteristics. Further, the magnetic field and rotation are found to introduce oscillatory modes which were non-existent in their absence and then the principle of exchange of stability is valid. The sufficient conditions for non-existence of overstability are also obtained.
Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Byung Kwan; Park, Hyo Seon
2015-03-30
The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this paper, a maximum stress estimation model for a waler beam based on average strains measured from vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), the most frequently used sensors in construction field, is presented. The model is derived by defining the relationship between the maximum stress and the average strains measured from VWSGs. In addition to the maximum stress, support reactions, deflections at supports, and the magnitudes of distributed loads for the beam structure can be identified by the estimation model using the average strains. Using simulation tests on two multi-span beams, the performance of the model is evaluated by estimating maximum stress, deflections at supports, support reactions, and the magnitudes of distributed loads.
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Sung Woo Park
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this paper, a maximum stress estimation model for a waler beam based on average strains measured from vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs, the most frequently used sensors in construction field, is presented. The model is derived by defining the relationship between the maximum stress and the average strains measured from VWSGs. In addition to the maximum stress, support reactions, deflections at supports, and the magnitudes of distributed loads for the beam structure can be identified by the estimation model using the average strains. Using simulation tests on two multi-span beams, the performance of the model is evaluated by estimating maximum stress, deflections at supports, support reactions, and the magnitudes of distributed loads.
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PEREIRA ADRIANA VARGAS
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the fruit compression behavior aiming to develop new tomato packages. Deformations caused by compression forces were observed inside packages and in individual 'Santa Clara' tomato fruit. The forces applied by a transparent acrylic lever to the fruit surface caused pericarp deformation and the flattened area was proportional to the force magnitude. The deformation was associated to the reduction in the gas volume (Vg, caused by expulsion of the air from the loculus cavity and reduction in the intercellular air volume of the pericarp. As ripening advanced, smaller fractions of the Vg reduced by the compressive force were restored after the stress was relieved. The lack of complete Vg restoration was an indication of permanent plastic deformations of the stressed cells. Vg regeneration (elastic recovery was larger in green fruits than in the red ones. The ratio between the applied force and the flattened area (flattening pressure, which depends on cell turgidity, decreased during ripening. Fruit movements associated with its depth in the container were observed during storage in a transparent glass container (495 x 355 x 220 mm. The downward movement of the fruits was larger in the top layers because these movements seem to be driven by a summation of the deformation of many fruits in all layers.
Pattern formation under residual compressive stress in free sustained aluminum films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Senjiang; Ye Quanlin; Zhang Yongju; Cai Pinggen; Xu Xiaojun; Chen Jiangxing; Ye Gaoxiang
2005-01-01
A nearly free sustained aluminum (Al) film system has been successfully fabricated by vapor phase deposition of Al atoms on silicone oil surfaces and an unusual type of ordered patterns at the micrometer scale has been systematically studied. The ordered patterns are composed of a large number of parallel key-shaped domains and possess a sandwiched structure. The nucleation and growth of the patterns are very susceptible to the growth period, deposition rate, nominal film thickness and location of the film. The experiment shows that the ordered patterns are induced by the residual compressive stress in the film owing to contraction of the liquid surface after deposition. The appearance of these stress relief patterns generally represents the stress distribution in the nearly free sustained Al films, which mainly results from the characteristic boundary condition and the nearly zero adhesion of the solid-liquid interface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per
2013-01-01
to compressive stress, undisturbed soil cores were collected from a long-term fertilisation experiment in Bad Lauchstädt in Germany, including combinations of animal manure and mineral fertilisers. The cores were drained to -100 hPa matric potential and exposed to uniaxial confined compression (200k......Pa). Investigated indicators for compression resistance included compression index, precompression stress, and resistance and resilience indices based on measured soil physical properties (bulk density, air-filled porosity, air permeability, and void ratio). Soil resilience was assessed following exposure...... but the correlation was not significant. However, initial bulk density (ρbi) and initial gravimetric water content (wi) were significantly positively correlated to the indices of soil compression resistance, with the effect of ρbi being significantly stronger. Significant recovery of airfilled porosity and air...
Vishwakarma, R K; Shivhare, U S; Nanda, S K
2012-09-01
Hertz's theory of contact stresses was applied to predict the splitting of guar seeds during uni-axial compressive loading between 2 rigid parallel plates. The apparent modulus of elasticity of guar seeds varied between 296.18 and 116.19 MPa when force was applied normal to hilum joint (horizontal position), whereas it varied between 171.86 and 54.18 MPa when force was applied in the direction of hilum joint (vertical position) with in moisture content range of 5.16% to 15.28% (d.b.). At higher moisture contents, the seeds yielded after considerable deformation, thus showing ductile nature. Distribution of stresses below the point of contact were plotted to predict the location of critical point, which was found at 0.44 to 0.64 mm and 0.37 to 0.53 mm below the contact point in vertical and horizontal loading, respectively, depending upon moisture content. The separation of cotyledons from each other initiated before yielding of cotyledons and thus splitting of seed took place. The relationships between apparent modulus of elasticity, principal stresses with moisture content were described using second-order polynomial equations and validated experimentally. Manufacture of guar gum powder requires dehulling and splitting of guar seeds. This article describes splitting behavior of guar seeds under compressive loading. Results of this study may be used for design of dehulling and splitting systems of guar seeds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Analysis of internal stress and anelasticity in the shock-compressed state from unloading wave data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.N.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Wills, J.M.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on time resolved shock-wave measurements have often been used to infer microstructural behavior in crystalline solids. The authors apply this approach to an interpretation of the release-wave response of an aluminum alloy (6061-T6) as it is dynamically unloaded from a shock-compressed state of 20.7 GPa. The anelastic behavior in the initial portion of the unloading wave is attributed to the accumulation of internal stresses created by the shock process. Specific internal-stress models which are investigated are the double pile-up, the single pile-up, and single dislocation loops between pinning points. It is found that the essential characteristics of double and single pile-ups can be represented by a single dislocation between two pinned dislocations of like sing. Calculations of anelastic wave speeds at constant unloading strain rate are then compared with experimental data. The results suggest that the residual internal stress is due to pinned loops of density 10 15 M - 2 , and the viscous drag coefficient in the shock-compressed state is on the order of 10 - 7 MPa s (approximately two orders of magnitude greater than expected under ambient conditions)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okaro, Ikenna Anthony; Tao, Longbin
2016-01-01
This paper proposes an enhanced Weibull-Corrosion Covariate model for reliability assessment of a system facing operational stresses. The newly developed model is applied to a Subsea Gas Compression System planned for offshore West Africa to predict its reliability index. System technical failure was modelled by developing a Weibull failure model incorporating a physically tested corrosion profile as stress in order to quantify the survival rate of the system under additional operational covariates including marine pH, temperature and pressure. Using Reliability Block Diagrams and enhanced Fusell-Vesely formulations, the whole system was systematically decomposed to sub-systems to analyse the criticality of each component and optimise them. Human reliability was addressed using an enhanced barrier weighting method. A rapid degradation curve is obtained on a subsea system relative to the base case subjected to a time-dependent corrosion stress factor. It reveals that subsea system components failed faster than their Mean time to failure specifications from Offshore Reliability Database as a result of cumulative marine stresses exertion. The case study demonstrated that the reliability of a subsea system can be systematically optimised by modelling the system under higher technical and organisational stresses, prioritising the critical sub-systems and making befitting provisions for redundancy and tolerances. - Highlights: • Novel Weibull Corrosion-Covariate model for reliability analysis of subsea assets. • Predict the accelerated degradation profile of a subsea gas compression. • An enhanced optimisation method based on Fusell-Vesely decomposition process. • New optimisation approach for smoothening of over- and under-designed components. • Demonstrated a significant improvement in producing more realistic failure rate.
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Huang Yifan
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D finite element analyses (FEA are performed to simulate the local compression (LC technique on the clamped single-edge notched tension (SE(T specimens. The analysis includes three types of indenters, which are single pair of cylinder indenters (SPCI, double pairs of cylinder indenters (DPCI and single pair of ring indenters (SPRI. The distribution of the residual stress in the crack opening direction in the uncracked ligament of the specimen is evaluated. The outcome of this study can facilitate the use of LC technique on SE(T specimens.
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Suresh Mitthra
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Understanding the mechanical properties is important in predicting the clinical behavior of composites. Finite element analysis (FEA evaluates properties of materials replicating clinical scenario. Aim: This study evaluated polymerization shrinkage and stress, wear resistance (WR, and compressive strength (CS of silorane in comparison with two methacrylate resins. Settings and Design: This study design was a numerical study using FEA. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D models of maxillary premolar with Class I cavities (2 mm depth, 4 mm length, and 2.5 mm width created and restored with silorane, nanohybrid, and microhybrid; Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Loads of 200–600 N were applied. Polymerization shrinkage was first determined by displacement produced in the X, Y, and Z planes. Maximum stress distribution due to shrinkage was calculated using AN SYS software. 3D cube models of composite resins were simulated with varying filler particle size. Similar loads were applied. WR and compressive stress were calculated: K W L/H and load/cross-sectional area, respectively. Statistical analysis done using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P < 0.05. Results: Polymerization shrinkage (0.99% and shrinkage stress (233.21 Mpa of silorane were less compared to microhybrid (2.14% and 472.43 Mpa and nanohybrid (2.32% and 464.88 Mpa. Silorane (7.92×/1011 μm/mm3 and nanohybrid (7.79×/1011 showed superior WR than microhybrid (1.113×/1017. There was no significant difference in compressive stress among the groups. Conclusion: Silorane exhibited less polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress compared to methacrylates. Silorane and nanohybrid showed greater WR compared to microhybrid. CS of all groups was similar.
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Vasile Cojocaru
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Several methods can be used in the FEM studies to apply the loads on a plain bearing. The paper presents a comparative analysis of maximum stress obtained for three loading scenarios: resultant force applied on the shaft – bearing assembly, variable pressure with sinusoidal distribution applied on the bearing surface, variable pressure with parabolic distribution applied on the bearing surface.
Inhomogeneous Relaxation of a Molecular Layer on an Insulator due to Compressive Stress
Bocquet, F.; Nony, L.; Mannsfeld, S. C. B.; Oison, V.; Pawlak, R.; Porte, L.; Loppacher, Ch.
2012-05-01
We discuss the inhomogeneous stress relaxation of a monolayer of hexahydroxytriphenylene (HHTP) which adopts the rare line-on-line (LOL) coincidence on KCl(001) and forms moiré patterns. The fact that the hexagonal HHTP layer is uniaxially compressed along the LOL makes this system an ideal candidate to discuss the influence of inhomogeneous stress relaxation. Our work is a combination of noncontact atomic force microscopy experiments, density functional theory and potential energy calculations, and a thorough interpretation by means of the Frenkel-Kontorova model. We show that the assumption of a homogeneous molecular layer is not valid for this organic-inorganic heteroepitaxial system since the best calculated energy configuration correlates with the experimental data only if inhomogeneous relaxations of the layer are taken into account.
Influence of transverse compressive stress on Ic degradation of Ag alloy sheathed Bi-2223 tapes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, S S; Ha, D W; Ha, H S; Park, C; Kwon, Y K; Ryu, K S; Shin, H S
2004-01-01
In order to investigate the degradation of critical current (I c ) in the Ag alloy sheathed Bi-2223 tapes due to a transverse compressive stress introduced during manufacturing and operation of the HTS systems, a sample holder consisting of the upper block made of Ti alloy and the lower support plate made of glass fibre reinforced plastic was prepared. A shorter spacing of voltage taps caused large degradation of critical current with respect to compressive stress. It was found that the extent of the I c degradation is proportional to the initial critical current density of the tapes. Through the experiment optimizing the shape of voltage terminals and the pressing load for the continuous contact type 4-probe I c measurement system, it was found that the conical shape tip with large curvature radius was effective in suppressing the I c degradation in Bi-2223 tapes during the I c measurement. A hard alloy sheath of Ag-0.6wt%Mn was found to be quite tolerant to the I c degradation against the pressing load of voltage terminals
Bux, Shamin; Madaree, Anil
2012-03-01
Keloids are benign tumours composed of fibrous tissue produced during excessive tissue repair triggered by minor injury, trauma or surgical incision. Although it is recognized that keloids have a propensity to form in the upper torso of the body, the predisposing factors responsible for this have not been investigated. It is crucial that the aetiopathoical factors implicated in keloid formation be established to provide guidelines for well-informed more successful treatment. We compared keloid-prone and keloid-protected skin, identified pertinent morphological differences and explored how inherent structural characteristics and intrinsic factors may promote keloid formation. It was determined that keloid prone areas were covered with high tension skin that had low stretch and a low elastic modulus when compared with skin in keloid protected areas where the skin was lax with a high elastic modulus and low pre-stress level. Factors contributing to elevated internal stress in keloid susceptible skin were the protrusion of hard connective tissue such as bony prominences or cartilage into the dermis of skin as well as inherent skin characteristics such as the bundled arrangement of collagen in the reticular dermis, the existent high tension, the low elastic modulus, low stretch ability, contractile forces exerted by wound healing fibroblastic cells and external forces. Stress promotes keloid formation by causing dermal distortion and compression which subsequently stimulate proliferation and enhanced protein synthesis in wound healing fibroblastic cells. The strain caused by stress also compresses and occludes microvessels causing ischaemic effects and reperfusion injury which stimulate growth when blood rich in growth factors returns to the tissue. The growth promoting effects of increased internal stress, primarily, and growth factors released by reperfusing blood, manifest in keloid formation. Other inherent skin characteristics promoting keloid growth during the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blackwood, R. L.
1980-05-15
There are now available sufficient data from in-situ, pre-mining stress measurements to allow a first attempt at predicting the maximum stress magnitudes likely to occur in a given mining context. The sub-horizontal (lateral) stress generally dominates the stress field, becoming critical to stope stability in many cases. For cut-and-fill mining in particular, where developed fill pressures are influenced by lateral displacement of pillars or stope backs, extraction maximization planning by mathematical modelling techniques demands the best available estimate of pre-mining stresses. While field measurements are still essential for this purpose, in the present paper it is suggested that the worst stress case can be predicted for preliminary design or feasibility study purposes. In the Eurpoean continent the vertical component of pre-mining stress may be estimated by adding 2 MPa to the pressure due to overburden weight. The maximum lateral stress likely to be encountered is about 57 MPa at depths of some 800m to 1000m below the surface.
The mechanical behaviour of NBR/FEF under compressive cyclic stress strain
Mahmoud, W. E.; El-Eraki, M. H. I.; El-Lawindy, A. M. Y.; Hassan, H. H.
2006-06-01
Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled with different concentrations of fast extrusion furnace (FEF) carbon black were experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied, which suggest good filler-matrix adhesion. The large reinforcement effect of the filler followed the Guth model for non-spherical particles. The effect of FEF carbon black on the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis was also examined. The loading and unloading stress-strain relationships for any cycle were described by applying Ogden's model for rubber samples. The dissipation energy that indicates the vibration damping capacity for all samples was determined. A simple model was proposed, to investigate the relation between maximum stress and the number of cyclic fatigue.
The mechanical behaviour of NBR/FEF under compressive cyclic stress-strain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahmoud, W E [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Eraki, M H I [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Lawindy, A M Y [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Hassan, H H [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)
2006-06-07
Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled with different concentrations of fast extrusion furnace (FEF) carbon black were experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied, which suggest good filler-matrix adhesion. The large reinforcement effect of the filler followed the Guth model for non-spherical particles. The effect of FEF carbon black on the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis was also examined. The loading and unloading stress-strain relationships for any cycle were described by applying Ogden's model for rubber samples. The dissipation energy that indicates the vibration damping capacity for all samples was determined. A simple model was proposed, to investigate the relation between maximum stress and the number of cyclic fatigue.
The mechanical behaviour of NBR/FEF under compressive cyclic stress-strain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmoud, W E; El-Eraki, M H I; El-Lawindy, A M Y; Hassan, H H
2006-01-01
Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled with different concentrations of fast extrusion furnace (FEF) carbon black were experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied, which suggest good filler-matrix adhesion. The large reinforcement effect of the filler followed the Guth model for non-spherical particles. The effect of FEF carbon black on the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis was also examined. The loading and unloading stress-strain relationships for any cycle were described by applying Ogden's model for rubber samples. The dissipation energy that indicates the vibration damping capacity for all samples was determined. A simple model was proposed, to investigate the relation between maximum stress and the number of cyclic fatigue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiří Witzany
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The strengthening and stabilization of damaged compressed masonry columns with composites based on fabrics of high-strength fibers and epoxy resin, or polymer-modified cement mixtures, belongs to novel, partially non-invasive and reversible progressive methods. The stabilizing and reinforcing effect of these fabrics significantly applies to masonry structures under concentric compressive loading whose failure mechanism is characterized by the appearance and development of vertical tensile cracks accompanied by an increase in horizontal masonry strain. During the appearance of micro and hairline cracks (10−3 to 10−1 mm, the effect of non-pre-stressed wrapping composite is very small. The favorable effect of passive wrapping is only intensively manifested after the appearance of cracks (10−1 mm and bigger at higher loading levels. In the case of “optimum” reinforcement of a masonry column, the experimental research showed an increase in vertical displacements δy (up to 247%, horizontal displacements δx (up to 742% and ultimate load-bearing capacity (up to 136% compared to the values reached in unreinforced masonry columns. In the case of masonry structures in which no intensive “bed joint filler–masonry unit” interaction occurs, e.g., in regular coursed masonry with little differences in the mechanical characteristics of masonry units and the binder, the reinforcing effect of the fabric applies only partially.
Electrochemical behavior of single-walled carbon nanotube supercapacitors under compressive stress.
Li, Xin; Rong, Jiepeng; Wei, Bingqing
2010-10-26
The effect of compressive stress on the electrochemical behavior of flexible supercapacitors assembled with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) film electrodes and 1 M aqueous electrolytes with different anions and cations were thoroughly investigated. The under-pressed capacitive and resistive features of the supercapacitors were studied by means of cyclic voltammetry measurements and electrochemical impedance analysis. The results demonstrated that the specific capacitance increased first and saturated in corresponding decreases of the series resistance, the charge-transfer resistance, and the Warburg diffusion resistance under an increased pressure from 0 to 1723.96 kPa. Wettability as well as ion-size effect of different aqueous electrolytes played important roles to determine the pressure dependence behavior of the suerpcapacitors under an applied pressure. An improved high-frequency capacitive response with 1172 Hz knee frequency, which is significantly higher compared to reported values, was observed under the compressive pressure of 1723.96 kPa, indicating an improving and excellent high-power capability of the supercapacitors under the pressure. The experimental results and the thorough analysis described in this work not only provide fundamental insight of pressure effects on supercapacitors but also give an important guideline for future design of next generation flexible/stretchable supercapacitors for industrial and consumer applications.
Effect of compressive stress on stability of N-doped p-type ZnO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xingyou; Zhang Zhenzhong; Jiang Mingming; Wang Shuangpeng; Li Binghui; Shan Chongxin; Liu Lei; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Yao Bin
2011-01-01
Nitrogen-doped p-type zinc oxide (p-ZnO:N) thin films were fabricated on a-/c-plane sapphire (a-/c-Al 2 O 3 ) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Hall-effect measurements show that the p-type ZnO:N on c-Al 2 O 3 degenerated into n-type after a preservation time; however, the one grown on a-Al 2 O 3 showed good stability. The conversion of conductivity in the one grown on c-Al 2 O 3 ascribed to the faster disappearance of N O and the growing N 2(O) , which is demonstrated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compressive stress, caused by lattice misfit, was revealed by Raman spectra and optical absorption spectra, and it was regarded as the root of the instability in ZnO:N.
Microstructure Evolution and Flow Stress Model of a 20Mn5 Hollow Steel Ingot during Hot Compression.
Liu, Min; Ma, Qing-Xian; Luo, Jian-Bin
2018-03-21
20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft due to its good performance of strength, toughness and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under high temperature were not studied. In this study, the hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850-1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01/s-1/s are conducted using Gleeble thermal and mechanical simulation machine. And the flow stress curves and microstructure after hot compression are obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 hollow steel ingot.
Li, Xuan; Chu, Chenglin; Wei, Yalin; Qi, Chenxi; Bai, Jing; Guo, Chao; Xue, Feng; Lin, Pinghua; Chu, Paul K
2017-01-15
The effects of the immersion temperature and compression stress on the in vitro degradation behavior of pure poly-lactic acid (pure-PLA) and PLA-based composite unidirectionally reinforced with micro-arc oxidized magnesium alloy wires (Mg/PLA or MAO-MAWs/PLA) are investigated. The degradation kinetics of pure-PLA and the PLA matrix in MAO-MAWs/PLA exhibit an Arrhenius-type behavior. For the composite, the synergic degradation of MAO-MAWs maintains a steady pH and mitigates the degradation of PLA matrix during immersion. However, the external compression stress decreases the activation energy (E a ) and pre-exponential factor (k 0 ) consequently increasing the degradation rate of PLA. Under a compression stress of 1MPa, E a and k 0 of pure PLA are 57.54kJ/mol and 9.74×10 7 day -1 , respectively, but 65.5kJ/mol and 9.81×10 8 day -1 for the PLA matrix in the composite. Accelerated tests are conducted in rising immersion temperature in order to shorten the experimental time. Our analysis indicates there are well-defined relationships between the bending strength of the specimens and the PLA molecular weight during immersion, which are independent of the degradation temperature and external compression stress. Finally, a numerical model is established to elucidate the relationship of bending strength, the PLA molecular weight, activation energy, immersion time and temperature. We systematically evaluate the effects of compression stress and temperature on the degradation properties of two materials: (pure-PLA) and MAO-MAWs/PLA (or Mg/PLA). The initial in vitro degradation kinetics of the unstressed or stressed pure-PLA and MAO-MAWs/PLA composite is confirmed to be Arrhenius-like. MAO-MAWs and external compression stress would influence the degradation activation energy (E a ) and pre-exponential factor (k 0 ) of PLA, and we noticed there is a linear relationship between E a and ln k 0 . Thereafter, we noticed that Mg 2+ , not H + , plays a significant role on the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K Gellynck
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Static compressive stress can influence the matrix, which subsequently affects cell behaviour and the cell’s ability to further transform the matrix. This study aimed to assess response to static compressive stress at different stages of osteoblast differentiation and assess the cell cytoskeleton’s role as a conduit of matrix-derived stimuli. Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs (D1 ORL UVA, osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 and post-osteoblast/pre-osteocyte-like cells (MLO-A5 were seeded in hydrated and compressed collagen gels. Contraction was quantified macroscopically, and cell morphology, survival, differentiation and mineralisation assessed using confocal microscopy, alamarBlue® assay, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and histological stains, respectively. Confocal microscopy demonstrated cell shape changes and favourable microfilament organisation with static compressive stress of the collagen matrix; furthermore, cell survival was greater compared to the hydrated gels. The stage of osteoblast differentiation determined the degree of matrix contraction, with MSCs demonstrating the greatest amount. Introduction of microfilament disrupting inhibitors confirmed that pre-stress and tensegrity forces were under the influence of gel density, and there was increased survival and differentiation of the cells within the compressed collagen compared to the hydrated collagen. There was also relative stiffening and differentiation with time of the compressed cell-seeded collagen, allowing for greater manipulation. In conclusion, the combined collagen chemistry and increased density of the microenvironment can promote upregulation of osteogenic genes and mineralisation; MSCs can facilitate matrix contraction to form an engineered membrane with the potential to serve as a ‘pseudo-periosteum’ in the regeneration of bone defects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kammenzind, B.F.; Berquist, B.M.; Bajaj, R.; Kreyns, P.H.; Franklin, D.G.
1998-01-01
Zircaloy-4, which is used widely as a core structural material in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), picks up hydrogen during service. Hydrogen solubility in Zircaloy-4 is low and zirconium hydride phases precipitate after the Zircaloy-4 lattice becomes supersaturated with hydrogen. These hydrides embrittle the Zircaloy-4, degrading its mechanical performance as a structural material. Because hydrogen can move rapidly through the Zircaloy-4 lattice, the potential exists for large concentrations of hydride to accumulate in local regions of a Zircaloy component remote from its point of entry into the component. Much has been reported in the literature regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy under concentration gradients and temperature gradients. Relatively little has been reported, however, regarding the long range migration of hydrogen under stress gradients. This paper presents experimental results regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy in response to both tensile and compressive stress gradients. The importance of this driving force for hydrogen migration relative to concentration and thermal gradients is discussed
High level compressive residual stresses produced in aluminum alloys by laser shock processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Chi-Moreno, W.; Morales, M.
2005-01-01
Laser shock processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 1064 nm. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/cm 2 in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG, two laser spot diameters were used: 0.8 and 1.5 mm. Results using pulse densities of 2500 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 2024 aluminum samples are presented. High level of compressive residual stresses are produced -1600 MPa for 6061-T6 Al alloy, and -1400 MPa for 2024 Al alloy. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is higher than that achieved by conventional shot peening and with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products
Optimization of hip joint replacement location to decrease maximum von Mi ses Stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pourjamali, H.; Najarian, S.; Katoozian, H. R.
2001-01-01
Hip replacement is used for inoperable femur head injuries and femur fractures where internal fixation can not be used. This operation is one of the most common orthopedic operations that many research have been done about it. Among these we can mention implant and cement materials and composites optimization and also implant shape optimization. This study was designed to optimize artificial hip joint position (placement) to decrease maximal von mi sees stress. First, a model of femur and implant were made and then a computer program was written with the ability to change the position of implant through an acceptable range in the femur. In each of these positions, the program simulated femur and implant according to finite element method and made, applied forces were weight and muscle traction. Our findings show that a small deviation of the implant from femur bone center causes a considerable decrease in von mi sees stress that consequently results in longer maintenance of the implant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Thirion, Lynn M.; Youngman, Randall E.
chamber to compress bulk glass samples isostatically up to 1 GPa at elevated temperature before or after the ion exchange treatment of an industrial sodium-magnesium aluminosilicate glass. Compression of the samples prior to ion exchange leads to a decreased Na+-K+ inter-diffusivity, increased compressive...
Dolega, M E; Delarue, M; Ingremeau, F; Prost, J; Delon, A; Cappello, G
2017-01-27
The surrounding microenvironment limits tumour expansion, imposing a compressive stress on the tumour, but little is known how pressure propagates inside the tumour. Here we present non-destructive cell-like microsensors to locally quantify mechanical stress distribution in three-dimensional tissue. Our sensors are polyacrylamide microbeads of well-defined elasticity, size and surface coating to enable internalization within the cellular environment. By isotropically compressing multicellular spheroids (MCS), which are spherical aggregates of cells mimicking a tumour, we show that the pressure is transmitted in a non-trivial manner inside the MCS, with a pressure rise towards the core. This observed pressure profile is explained by the anisotropic arrangement of cells and our results suggest that such anisotropy alone is sufficient to explain the pressure rise inside MCS composed of a single cell type. Furthermore, such pressure distribution suggests a direct link between increased mechanical stress and previously observed lack of proliferation within the spheroids core.
Li, Juan; Zhao, Zhihe; Yang, Jingyuan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yurong
2009-12-01
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known to have the capability to form bone and cartilage, and chondrogenesis derived from MSCs is reported to be affected by mechanical stimuli. This research was aimed to study the effects of cyclic compressive stress on the chondrogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) which were encapsulated in alginate scaffolds and cultured with or without chondrogenic medium, and to investigate the role of p38 MAPK phospho-relay cascade in this process. The results show that the gene expression of chondrocyte-specific markers of Col2alpha1, aggrecan, Sox9, Runx2, and Ihh was upregulated by dynamic compressive stress introduced at the 8th day of chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. The p38 MAPK was activated by chondrogenic cytokines in a slow and lagged way, but activated by cyclic compressive stimulation in a rapid and transient manner. And inhibition of p38 activity with SB203580 suppressed gene expression of chondrocyte-specific genes stimulated by chondrogenic medium and (or) cyclic compressive stress. These findings suggest that p38 MAPK signal acts as an essential mediator in the mechano-biochemical transduction and subsequent transcriptional regulation in the process of chondrogenesis.
Effect of compressive stress on stability of N-doped p-type ZnO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Xingyou [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang Zhenzhong; Jiang Mingming; Wang Shuangpeng; Li Binghui; Shan Chongxin; Liu Lei; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China); Yao Bin [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)
2011-08-29
Nitrogen-doped p-type zinc oxide (p-ZnO:N) thin films were fabricated on a-/c-plane sapphire (a-/c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Hall-effect measurements show that the p-type ZnO:N on c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} degenerated into n-type after a preservation time; however, the one grown on a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed good stability. The conversion of conductivity in the one grown on c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ascribed to the faster disappearance of N{sub O} and the growing N{sub 2(O)}, which is demonstrated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compressive stress, caused by lattice misfit, was revealed by Raman spectra and optical absorption spectra, and it was regarded as the root of the instability in ZnO:N.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingshi An
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic compressive stress response of pavement-subgrade induced by moving heavy-duty trucks. In order to study the distribution characteristic of dynamic pressure of pavement-subgrade in more detail, truck loadings, truck speeds, and dynamic pressure distributions at different depths were monitored under twenty-five working conditions on the section of Qiqihar-Nenjiang Highway in Heilongjiang Province, China. The effects of truck loading, truck speed, and depth on dynamic compressive stress response can be concluded as follows: (1 increasing truck loading will increase the dynamic pressure amplitude of subgrade-pavement and dominant frequencies are close to the characteristic frequencies caused by heavy-duty trucks at the speed of 70 km/h; (2 as truck speed increases, the dynamic pressure amplitudes of measuring points have an increasing tendency; the dynamic pressure spectrums are also significantly influenced by truck speed: the higher the truck speed, the wider the spectrum and the higher the dominant frequencies; (3 as depth increases, the dynamic pressure amplitudes of measuring points decrease rapidly. The influence of the front axle decreases gradually until disappearing and the compressive stress superposition phenomenon caused by rear double axles can be found with increasing depth.
Asgharzadeh Shirazi, H; Ayatollahi, M R; Asnafi, A
2017-05-01
In a dental implant system, the value of stress and its distribution plays a pivotal role on the strength, durability and life of the implant-bone system. A typical implant consists of a Titanium core and a thin layer of biocompatible material such as the hydroxyapatite. This coating has a wide range of clinical applications in orthopedics and dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Low bonding strength and sudden variation of mechanical properties between the coating and the metallic layers are the main disadvantages of such common implants. To overcome these problems, a radial distributed functionally graded biomaterial (FGBM) was proposed in this paper and the effect of material property on the stress distribution around the dental implant-bone interface was studied. A three-dimensional finite element simulation was used to illustrate how the use of radial FGBM dental implant can reduce the maximum von Mises stress and, also the stress shielding effect in both the cortical and cancellous bones. The results, of course, give anybody an idea about optimized behaviors that can be achieved using such materials. The finite element solver was validated by familiar methods and the results were compared to previous works in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, D.P.; Hoppe, R.G.; James, B.A.
1993-01-01
A series of fatigue crack growth rate tests was conducted in order to study effects of negative stress ratio on fatigue crack growth rate of low-alloy steel in air. Four-point bend specimens were used to simulate linear stress distributions typical of pressure vessel applications. This type of testing adds to knowledge on negative stress ratio effects for low-alloy steels obtained in the past from uniform tension-compression tests. Applied bending stress range was varied over twice the yield strength. Load control was used for tests for which the stress range was less than twice the yield strength and deflection control was used for the higher stress range tests. Crack geometries were both short and long fatigue cracks started at notches and tight fatigue cracks for which crack closure could occur over the full crack face. Results are presented in terms of the stress intensity factor ratio R = K MIN /K MAX . The negative R-ratio test results were correlated to an equation of the form da/dN = C[ΔK/(A-R)] n , where A, C, and n are curve fitting parameters. It was found that effects of negative R-ratio on fatigue crack growth rates for even the high stress range tests could be bounded by correlating the above equation to only positive R-ratio test results and extending the resulting equation into the negative R-ratio regime
Barbaro, V; Grigioni, M; Daniele, C; D'Avenio, G; Boccanera, G
1997-11-01
The investigation of the flow field generated by cardiac valve prostheses is a necessary task to gain knowledge on the possible relationship between turbulence-derived stresses and the hemolytic and thrombogenic complications in patients after valve replacement. The study of turbulence flows downstream of cardiac prostheses, in literature, especially concerns large-sized prostheses with a variable flow regime from very low up to 6 L/min. The Food and Drug Administration draft guidance requires the study of the minimum prosthetic size at a high cardiac output to reach the maximum Reynolds number conditions. Within the framework of a national research project regarding the characterization of cardiovascular endoprostheses, an in-depth study of turbulence generated downstream of bileaflet cardiac valves is currently under way at the Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita. Four models of 19 mm bileaflet valve prostheses were used: St Jude Medical HP, Edwards Tekna, Sorin Bicarbon, and CarboMedics. The prostheses were selected for the nominal Tissue Annulus Diameter as reported by manufacturers without any assessment of valve sizing method, and were mounted in aortic position. The aortic geometry was scaled for 19 mm prostheses using angiographic data. The turbulence-derived shear stresses were investigated very close to the valve (0.35 D0), using a bidimensional Laser Doppler anemometry system and applying the Principal Stress Analysis. Results concern typical turbulence quantities during a 50 ms window at peak flow in the systolic phase. Conclusions are drawn regarding the turbulence associated to valve design features, as well as the possible damage to blood constituents.
Jiří Witzany; Radek Zigler
2016-01-01
The strengthening and stabilization of damaged compressed masonry columns with composites based on fabrics of high-strength fibers and epoxy resin, or polymer-modified cement mixtures, belongs to novel, partially non-invasive and reversible progressive methods. The stabilizing and reinforcing effect of these fabrics significantly applies to masonry structures under concentric compressive loading whose failure mechanism is characterized by the appearance and development of vertical tensile cra...
Hu, YanChao; Bi, WeiTao; Li, ShiYao; She, ZhenSu
2017-12-01
A challenge in the study of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) is to understand the non-equilibrium relaxation process after sep-aration and reattachment due to shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. The classical boundary layer theory cannot deal with the strong adverse pressure gradient, and hence, the computational modeling of this process remains inaccurate. Here, we report the direct numerical simulation results of the relaxation TBL behind a compression ramp, which reveal the presence of intense large-scale eddies, with significantly enhanced Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux. A crucial finding is that the wall-normal profiles of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux obey a β-distribution, which is a product of two power laws with respect to the wall-normal distances from the wall and from the boundary layer edge. In addition, the streamwise decays of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux also exhibit power laws with respect to the streamwise distance from the corner of the compression ramp. These results suggest that the relaxation TBL obeys the dilation symmetry, which is a specific form of self-organization in this complex non-equilibrium flow. The β-distribution yields important hints for the development of a turbulence model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben
1999-01-01
An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pone, J. Denis N.; Halleck, Phillip M.; Mathews, Jonathan P.
2010-01-01
Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is an option to combat climate change and an opportunity to enhance coalbed methane production. Prediction of sequestration potential in coal requires characterization of porosity, permeability, sorption capacity and the magnitude of swelling due to carbon dioxide uptake or shrinkage due to methane and water loss. Unfortunately, the majority of data characterizing coal-gas systems have been obtained from powdered, unconfined coal samples. Little is known about confined coal behavior during carbon dioxide uptake and methane desorption. The present work focuses on the characterization of lithotype specific deformation, and strain behavior during CO 2 uptake at simulated in-situ stress conditions. It includes the evaluation of three-dimensional strain induced by the confining stress, the sorption, and the desorption of carbon dioxide. X-ray computed tomography allowed three-dimensional characterization of the bituminous coal deformation samples under hydrostatic stress. The application of 6.9 MPa of confining stress contributes an average of - 0.34% volumetric strain. Normal strains due to confining stress were - 0.08%, - 0.15% and - 0.11% along the x, y and z axes respectively. Gas injection pressure was 3.1 MPa and the excess sorption was 0.85 mmol/g. Confined coal exposed to CO 2 for 26 days displays an average volumetric expansion of 0.4%. Normal strains due to CO 2 sorption were 0.11%, 0.22% and 0.11% along x, y and z axes. Drainage of the CO 2 induced an average of - 0.33% volumetric shrinkage. Normal strains due to CO 2 desorption were - 0.23%, - 0.08% and - 0.02% along x, y and z axes. Alternating positive and negative strain values observed along the sample length during compression, sorption and desorption respectively emphasized that both localized compression/compaction and expansion of coal will occur during CO 2 sequestration. (author)
Frieling, Joost; Gebhardt, Holger; Huber, Matthew; Adekeye, Olabisi A; Akande, Samuel O; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Middelburg, Jack J; Schouten, Stefan; Sluijs, Appy
2017-03-01
Global ocean temperatures rapidly warmed by ~5°C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 million years ago). Extratropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) met or exceeded modern subtropical values. With these warm extratropical temperatures, climate models predict tropical SSTs >35°C-near upper physiological temperature limits for many organisms. However, few data are available to test these projected extreme tropical temperatures or their potential lethality. We identify the PETM in a shallow marine sedimentary section deposited in Nigeria. On the basis of planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and oxygen isotope ratios and the molecular proxy [Formula: see text], latest Paleocene equatorial SSTs were ~33°C, and [Formula: see text] indicates that SSTs rose to >36°C during the PETM. This confirms model predictions on the magnitude of polar amplification and refutes the tropical thermostat theory. We attribute a massive drop in dinoflagellate abundance and diversity at peak warmth to thermal stress, showing that the base of tropical food webs is vulnerable to rapid warming.
Fujii, Naoto; Nikawa, Toshiya; Tsuji, Bun; Kondo, Narihiko; Kenny, Glen P; Nishiyasu, Takeshi
2017-05-01
We investigated whether graduated compression induced by stockings enhances cutaneous vasodilation in passively heated resting humans. Nine habitually active young men were heated at rest using water-perfusable suits, resulting in a 1.0 °C increase in body core temperature. Heating was repeated twice on separate occasions while wearing either (1) stockings that cause graduated compression (pressures of 26.4 ± 5.3, 17.5 ± 4.4, and 6.1 ± 2.0 mmHg at the ankle, calf, and thigh, respectively), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without causing compression (Control). Forearm vascular conductance during heating was evaluated by forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure to estimate heat-induced cutaneous vasodilation. Body core (esophageal), skin, and mean body temperatures were measured continuously. Compared to the Control, forearm vascular conductance during heating was higher with graduated compression stockings (e.g., 23.2 ± 5.5 vs. 28.6 ± 5.8 units at 45 min into heating, P = 0.001). In line with this, graduated compression stockings resulted in a greater sensitivity (27.5 ± 8.3 vs. 34.0 ± 9.4 units °C -1 , P = 0.02) and peak level (25.5 ± 5.8 vs. 29.7 ± 5.8 units, P = 0.004) of cutaneous vasodilation as evaluated from the relationship between forearm vascular conductance with mean body temperature. In contrast, the mean body temperature threshold for increases in forearm vascular conductance did not differ between the Control and graduated compression stockings (36.5 ± 0.1 vs. 36.5 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.85). Our results show that graduated compression associated with the use of stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation by modulating sensitivity and peak level of cutaneous vasodilation in relation to mean body temperature. However, the effect of these changes on whole-body heat loss remains unclear.
de Krijger, Joep; Rans, Calvin; Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Lietaert, Karel; Pouran, Behdad; Zadpoor, Amir A
2017-06-01
Additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials are considered promising candidates for bone substitution. In particular, AM porous titanium can be designed to exhibit mechanical properties similar to bone. There is some experimental data available in the literature regarding the fatigue behavior of AM porous titanium, but the effect of stress ratio on the fatigue behavior of those materials has not been studied before. In this paper, we study the effect of applied stress ratio on the compression-compression fatigue behavior of selective laser melted porous titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) based on the diamond unit cell. The porous titanium biomaterial is treated as a meta-material in the context of this work, meaning that R-ratios are calculated based on the applied stresses acting on a homogenized volume. After morphological characterization using micro computed tomography and quasi-static mechanical testing, the porous structures were tested under cyclic loading using five different stress ratios, i.e. R = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.8, to determine their S-N curves. Feature tracking algorithms were used for full-field deformation measurements during the fatigue tests. It was observed that the S-N curves of the porous structures shift upwards as the stress ratio increases. The stress amplitude was the most important factor determining the fatigue life. Constant fatigue life diagrams were constructed and compared with similar diagrams for bulk Ti-6Al-4V. Contrary to the bulk material, there was limited dependency of the constant life diagrams to mean stress. The notches present in the AM biomaterials were the sites of crack initiation. This observation and other evidence suggest that the notches created by the AM process cause the insensitivity of the fatigue life diagrams to mean stress. Feature tracking algorithms visualized the deformation during fatigue tests and demonstrated the root cause of inclined (45°) planes of specimen failure. In conclusion, the R
Jang, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Suhn-yeop; Oh, Duck-won
2015-04-01
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support (ECS) on the electromyography (EMG) activity of shoulder and scapular muscles and shoulder abductor strength during isometric shoulder abduction. Twenty-six women volunteered for the study. Surface EMG was used to monitor the activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and middle deltoid (MD), and shoulder abductor strength was measured using a dynamometer during three experimental conditions: (1) no external support (condition-1), (2) pelvic support (condition-2), and (3) pelvic and thoracic supports (condition-3) in an active therapeutic movement device. EMG activities were significantly lower for UT and higher for MD during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p strength was significantly higher during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p isometric shoulder abduction and increasing shoulder abductor strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel T. McMaster
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes.Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13–31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ, respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured.Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36. Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08 and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = −0.01. A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises.Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.
McMaster, Daniel T; Beaven, Christopher M; Mayo, Brad; Gill, Nicholas; Hébert-Losier, Kim
2017-01-01
Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG) use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes. Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13-31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured. Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36). Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08) and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = -0.01). A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises. Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Martin Felix; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2014-01-01
multiple planetary gears are not taken into account. Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations show that when the wind turbine runs close to the maximum wind speed, the maximum gear tooth stress is in the range of 500–700 MPa, which is considered to be realistic using a “worst-case” method. The presented...... for not only transferring torque but also for calculating the gear tooth and internal body reaction forces. The method is appropriate for predicting gear tooth stresses without considering all the complexity of gear tooth geometries. This means that, e.g. gear tooth load-sharing and load-distribution among...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salces Judit
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal, gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental
Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa; Andrews, Stephanie; Pecora, Jodi; Boyd, Sabra
2017-11-01
Mindfulness practices, including mindfulness meditation, show promise for decreasing stress among health care providers. This exploratory study investigates the feasibility of a two-day compressed mindfulness-based stress reduction (cMBSR) course provided in the hospital workplace with pediatric health care social workers. The standard course of Jon Kabat-Zinn's MBSR requires a participant commitment to eight weeks of instruction consisting of one 2.5-hour-per-week class, a single day retreat, and 45 minutes of practice for six of seven days each week. Commitments to family, work, caregiving, education, and so on, as well as limitations such as distance, may prevent health care providers from participating in a standard MBSR course. Using t tests, researchers measured the effect of cMBSR on (a) positive and negative experiences in pediatric social work, (b) perceived stress, (c) mindfulness, and (d) caring self-efficacy (as a component of patient- and family-centered care). Results included significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention outcome variables on the Professional Quality of Life Secondary Traumatic Stress subscale, the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, and the Caring Efficacy Scale. Findings found adequate evidence for the feasibility of cMBSR design and for a need of a more rigorous study of the effects of the cMBSR intervention. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pone, J. Denis N.; Halleck, Phillip M.; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2010-06-01
Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is an option to combat climate change and an opportunity to enhance coalbed methane production. Prediction of sequestration potential in coal requires characterization of porosity, permeability, sorption capacity and the magnitude of swelling due to carbon dioxide uptake or shrinkage due to methane and water loss. Unfortunately, the majority of data characterizing coal-gas systems have been obtained from powdered, unconfined coal samples. Little is known about confined coal behavior during carbon dioxide uptake and methane desorption. The present work focuses on the characterization of lithotype specific deformation, and strain behavior during CO{sub 2} uptake at simulated in-situ stress conditions. It includes the evaluation of three-dimensional strain induced by the confining stress, the sorption, and the desorption of carbon dioxide. X-ray computed tomography allowed three-dimensional characterization of the bituminous coal deformation samples under hydrostatic stress. The application of 6.9 MPa of confining stress contributes an average of - 0.34% volumetric strain. Normal strains due to confining stress were - 0.08%, - 0.15% and - 0.11% along the x, y and z axes respectively. Gas injection pressure was 3.1 MPa and the excess sorption was 0.85 mmol/g. Confined coal exposed to CO{sub 2} for 26 days displays an average volumetric expansion of 0.4%. Normal strains due to CO{sub 2} sorption were 0.11%, 0.22% and 0.11% along x, y and z axes. Drainage of the CO{sub 2} induced an average of - 0.33% volumetric shrinkage. Normal strains due to CO{sub 2} desorption were - 0.23%, - 0.08% and - 0.02% along x, y and z axes. Alternating positive and negative strain values observed along the sample length during compression, sorption and desorption respectively emphasized that both localized compression/compaction and expansion of coal will occur during CO{sub 2} sequestration. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Eckert
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The advanced tensor based concept of pore pressure-stress coupling is used to provide pre-injection analytical estimates of the maximum sustainable pore pressure change, ΔPc, for fluid injection scenarios into generic anticline geometries. The heterogeneous stress distribution for different prevailing stress regimes in combination with the Young's modulus (E contrast between the injection layer and the cap rock and the interbedding friction coefficient, μ, may result in large spatial and directional differences of ΔPc. A single value characterizing the cap rock as for horizontal layered injection scenarios is not obtained. It is observed that a higher Young's modulus in the cap rock and/or a weak mechanical coupling between layers amplifies the maximum and minimum ΔPc values in the valley and limb, respectively. These differences in ΔPc imposed by E and μ are further amplified by different stress regimes. The more compressional the stress regime is, the larger the differences between the maximum and minimum ΔPc values become. The results of this study show that, in general compressional stress regimes yield the largest magnitudes of ΔPc and extensional stress regimes provide the lowest values of ΔPc for anticline formations. Yet this conclusion has to be considered with care when folded anticline layers are characterized by flexural slip and the friction coefficient between layers is low, i.e. μ = 0.1. For such cases of weak mechanical coupling, ΔPc magnitudes may range from 0 MPa to 27 MPa, indicating imminent risk of fault reactivation in the cap rock.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sitarenios Panagiotis
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Modified Cam Clay model is extended to account for the behaviour of unsaturated soils using Bishop’s stress. To describe the Loading – Collapse behaviour, the model incorporates a compressibility framework with suction and degree of saturation dependent compression lines. For simplicity, the present paper describes the model in the triaxial stress space with characteristic simulations of constant suction compression and triaxial tests, as well as wetting tests. The model reproduces an evolving post yield compressibility under constant suction compression, and thus, can adequately describe a maximum of collapse.
Investigation on thermal oxidative aging of nitrile rubber (NBR) O-rings under compression stress
Liu, X. R.; Zhang, W. F.; Lou, W. T.; Huang, Y. X.; Dai, W.
2017-11-01
The degradation behaviors of nitrile rubber O-rings exposure to air under compression were investigated at three elevated temperatures. The physical and mechanical properties of the aging samples before and after exposure at selected time were studied by measuring weight loss, tensile strength and elongation at break. The Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and fracture morphology were used to reveal the microstructural changes of the aging samples. The results indicate that the weight decreased with exposure time and temperature. Based on the results of the crosslinking density, the crosslinking predominates during the most of aging process. The significant changes in tensile strength and elongation at break also indicate the severe degradation in air. The fracture morphology results show that the fracture surface after 64 days of exposure to air turns rough and present defects. The ATR-FTIR results demonstrate that the hydroxyl groups were formed for the samples aged in air.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějíček, Jiří; Brand, P. C.; Drews, A. R.; Krause, A.; Lowe-Ma, C.
2004-01-01
Roč. 367, 1-2 (2004), s. 306-311 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : residual stress, automotive springs, neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Perevertov, Oleksiy; Schäfer, R.
2012-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 13 (2012), "135001-1"-"135001-11" ISSN 0022-3727 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100100906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : hysteresis curve * magnetic domains * compressive stress * goss steel * effective field Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.528, year: 2012
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Ling; Si Xulan
2008-01-01
Objective: To study the effect of chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) in male rats under the stress of maximum intensive training. Methods: Wistar male rat models of stress under maximum intensity training were established (n=40) and half of them were treated with Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription twenty undisturbed rats served as controls. Testosterone and cortisol serum levels were determined with RIA at the end of the seven weeks' experiment. Results: Maximum intensive training would cause the level of the serum testosterone lowered, the concentration of the cortisol elevated and the ratio of T/C reduced. The serum T levels and T/C ratio were significantly lower and cortisol levels significantly higher in the untreated models than those in the treated models and controls (P<0.01). The levels of the two hormones were markedly corrected in the treated models with no significantly differences from those in the controls. However, the T/C ratio was still significantly lower than that in the controls (P <0.05) due to a relatively slightly greater degree of reduction of T levels. Conclusion: Anti-fatigue prescription can not only promote the recovery of fatigue after the maximum intensive training but also strengthen the anabolism of the rats. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scalerandi, M; Delsanto, P P; Johnson, P A
2003-01-01
Local interaction simulation approach simulations of the ultrasonic wave propagation in multi-grained materials have succeeded in reproducing most of the recently observed nonclassical nonlinear effects, such as stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasi-static experiments and a downwards shift of the resonance frequency and the generation of odd harmonics at specific amplitude rates in dynamics experiments. By including a simple mechanism of thermally activated random transitions, we can predict the occurrence of experimentally observed effects, such as the conditioning and relaxation of the specimen. Experiments are also suggested for a quantitative assessment of the validity of the model
Scalerandi, M; Johnson, P A
2003-01-01
Local interaction simulation approach simulations of the ultrasonic wave propagation in multi-grained materials have succeeded in reproducing most of the recently observed nonclassical nonlinear effects, such as stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasi-static experiments and a downwards shift of the resonance frequency and the generation of odd harmonics at specific amplitude rates in dynamics experiments. By including a simple mechanism of thermally activated random transitions, we can predict the occurrence of experimentally observed effects, such as the conditioning and relaxation of the specimen. Experiments are also suggested for a quantitative assessment of the validity of the model.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krepl, Ondřej; Klusák, Jan
2017-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 42 (2017), s. 66-73 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18702S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Generalized fracture mechanics * Sharp material inclusion * Singular and non-singular stress terms Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis
Beni, Yaghoub Tadi; Zeverdejani, M Karimi; Mehralian, Fahimeh
2017-10-01
Protein microtubules (MTs) are one of the important intercellular components and have a vital role in the stability and strength of the cells. Due to applied external loads, protein microtubules may be involved buckling phenomenon. Due to impact of protein microtubules in cell reactions, it is important to determine their critical buckling load. Considering nature of protein microtubules, various parameters are effective on microtubules buckling. The small size of microtubules and also lack of uniformity of MTs properties in different directions caused the necessity of accuracy in the analysis of these bio-structure. In fact, microtubules must be considered as a size dependent cylinder, which behave as an orthotropic material. Hence, in the present work using first-order shear deformation model (FSDT), the buckling equations of anisotropic MTs are derived based on new modified couple stress theory (NMCST). After solving the stability equations, the influences of various parameters are measured on the MTs critical buckling load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tensile and compressive behavior of Borsic/aluminum
Herakovich, C. T.; Davis, J. G., Jr.; Viswanathan, C. N.
1977-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of the mechanical behavior of Borsic/aluminum are presented. Composite laminates were tested in tension and compression for monotonically increasing load and also for variable loading cycles in which the maximum load was increased in each successive cycle. It is shown that significant strain-hardening, and corresponding increase in yield stress, is exhibited by the metal matrix laminates. For matrix dominated laminates, the current yield stress is essentially identical to the previous maximum stress, and unloading is essentially linear with large permanent strains after unloading. For laminates with fiber dominated behavior, the yield stress increases with increase in the previous maximum stress, but the increase in yield stress does not keep pace with the previous maximum stress. These fiber dominated laminates exhibit smaller nonlinear strains, reversed nonlinear behavior during unloading, and smaller permanent strains after unloading. Compression results from sandwich beams and flat coupons are shown to differ considerably. Results from beam specimens tend to exhibit higher values for modulus, yield stress, and strength.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshitaka Maeda
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In designing motors, one must grasp the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets considering actual conditions in motors. Especially important is grasping the stress dependence of magnetic power loss. This paper describes a newly developed apparatus to measure two-dimensional (2-D magnetic properties (properties under the arbitrary alternating and the rotating flux conditions of electrical steel sheets under compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. The apparatus has a 2-D magnetic excitation circuit to generate magnetic fields in arbitrary directions in the evaluation area. It also has a pressing unit to apply compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. During measurement, it is important to apply uniform stress throughout the evaluation area. Therefore, we have developed a new flux density sensor using needle probe method. It is composed of thin copper foils sputtered on electrical steel sheets. By using this sensor, the stress can be applied to the surface of the specimen without influence of this sensor. This paper described the details of newly developed apparatus with this sensor, and measurement results of iron loss by using are shown.
Maeda, Yoshitaka; Urata, Shinya; Nakai, Hideo; Takeuchi, Yuuya; Yun, Kyyoul; Yanase, Shunji; Okazaki, Yasuo
2017-05-01
In designing motors, one must grasp the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets considering actual conditions in motors. Especially important is grasping the stress dependence of magnetic power loss. This paper describes a newly developed apparatus to measure two-dimensional (2-D) magnetic properties (properties under the arbitrary alternating and the rotating flux conditions) of electrical steel sheets under compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. The apparatus has a 2-D magnetic excitation circuit to generate magnetic fields in arbitrary directions in the evaluation area. It also has a pressing unit to apply compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. During measurement, it is important to apply uniform stress throughout the evaluation area. Therefore, we have developed a new flux density sensor using needle probe method. It is composed of thin copper foils sputtered on electrical steel sheets. By using this sensor, the stress can be applied to the surface of the specimen without influence of this sensor. This paper described the details of newly developed apparatus with this sensor, and measurement results of iron loss by using are shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perevertov, O; Schäfer, R
2012-01-01
The influence of an applied compressive stress on the hysteresis curve and domain structure in conventional (1 1 0) [0 0 1] Fe-3%Si steel cut transverse to the rolling direction is studied. Quasistatic hysteresis loops under compressive stress up to 75 MPa were measured. The magnetic domains and magnetization processes were observed by longitudinal Kerr microscopy at different levels of stress. It is shown that the bulk hysteresis loop can be described with a good accuracy by the action of an effective field, which is the product of the stress and a function of magnetization. Domain observations have shown that the reasons for the effective field are demagnetizing fields due to the disappearance of supplementary domains along [0 1 0] and [1 0 0] at low fields and different domain systems in different grains at moderate fields. The latter are caused by differences in grain sensitivity to stress depending on the degree of misorientation. A decrease in the effective field above 1 T is connected with a transformation of all grains into the same domain system—the column pattern. (paper)
Xu, Xing-Wang; Peters, Stephen; Liang, Guang-He; Zhang, Bao-Lin
2016-01-01
We report on a new mechanical principle, which suggests that a confined liquid in the elastic lithosphere has the potential to transmit a maximum applied compressive stress. This stress can be transmitted to the internal contacts between rock and liquid and would then be transformed into a normal compressive stress with tangential tensile stress components. During this process, both effective compressive normal stress and tensile tangential stresses arise along the liquid–rock contact. The minimum effective tensile tangential stress causes the surrounding rock to rupture. Liquid-driven fracture initiates at the point along the rock–liquid boundary where the maximum compressive stress is applied and propagates along a plane that is perpendicular to the minimum effective tensile tangential stress and also is perpendicular to the minimum principal stress.
Hong, You-jia; Liu, Sheng; Jiang, Ning-yi; Jiang, Sen; Liang, Jiu-gen
2015-02-01
The therapeutic effects of vitamin K3 (VK3) on osteoporosis are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that VK3 possesses therapeutic effects on osteoporosis; to verify this hypothesis, the ovariectomized rat was used as an osteoporosis model. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley female rats aged 8 to 9 months were randomly assigned to 4 groups: sham surgery, ovariectomy with saline, ovariectomy with low-dose VK3, and ovariectomy with high-dose VK3. Intramuscular injection of VK3 was performed every other day beginning 1 month postoperatively. The therapeutic effects of VK3 on osteoporosis were evaluated by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), bone biochemical markers, biomechanical properties, and bone morphometric parameters. The overall average BMD in VK3-treated groups increased to a level between those of the ovariectomy group and the sham surgery group. The procollagen I N-terminal peptide level peaked at 2 months after surgery in all groups except in the group that had undergone ovariectomy with low-dose VK3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b level increased more slowly at 4 months after surgery than at 2 months after surgery in the VK3-treated groups. The ovariectomy with high-dose VK3 group had the highest maximum stress of the middle femur of all groups. With VK3 treatment, the trabecular bone area percentage increased. All morphometric indicators for the middle tibia in the VK3-treated groups reached the levels found in the sham surgery group. In summary, VK3 therapy increased BMD at 1 and 2 months postsurgery and the maximum stress of the middle femur. In addition, VK3 therapy slowed the increase in bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. Furthermore, VK3 can improve morphometric indicators for the middle tibia. Our preliminary study indicates that VK3 has a potential therapeutic effect on osteoporosis and is worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Doggett, T. C.; Grosfils, E. B.
2002-01-01
The stress history of a feature, identified as a previously uncataloged dike swarm, at 45N 191E is mapped as clockwise rotation of maximum horizontal compressive stress. It is intermediate between areas associated with compression, mantle upwelling and convection. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Álvarez, M. P.; del Corro, Elena; Morales-García, A.; Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbáč, Martin; Frank, Otakar
2015-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 5 (2015), s. 3139-3146 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S; GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Molybdenum disulfide * band gap engineering * out-of-plane compression Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.779, year: 2015
Maximum stellar iron core mass
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albertini, G.; Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pyzalla, A.; Quadrini, E.
1999-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Thermal austenitizing and tempering treatments are being developed in automotive industry to prevent crack initiation and avoid crack propagation, especially in components where stress intensity factors influence the stress field and then the fatigue life of the component itself. This is the case of crown gears, where the teeth root undergoes frequently to cracking when tensile residual stresses are present at the surface, as typical loads are impulsive and very high. The sign reversal of these stresses is the aim of austenitizing and tempering treatments. In this work residual stress measurements carried out at HMI-BENSC are presented, in a UNI55Cr3 steel crown gear submitted to such kind of treatments, performed with a new multi-frequency induction technique whose effectiveness is checked. (author)
DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.
Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam
2011-01-22
Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.
Call your health insurance or prescription plan: Find out if they pay for compression stockings. Ask if your durable medical equipment benefit pays for compression stockings. Get a prescription from your doctor. Find a medical equipment store where they can ...
Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yen, H.J.; Lin, M.C.C.; Chen, L.J.
1996-01-01
Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To understand the bulk residual stress distribution, the stress profile as a function of location within wall is examined. In this study the full destructive residual stress measurement technique -- a cutting and sectioning method -- is used to determine the residual stress distribution. The sample is type 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipe with an outside diameter of 267 mm. A pipe segment is cut from the circular pipe; then a thin layer is removed axially from the inner to the outer surfaces until further sectioning is impractical. The total residual stress is calculated by adding the stress relieved by cutting the section away to the stress relieved by axially sectioning. The axial and hoop residual stresses are compressive at the inner surface of the weld overlay pipe. Compressive stress exists not only at the surface but is also distributed over most of the pipe's cross section. On the one hand, the maximum compressive hoop residual stress appears at the pipe's inner surface. The thermal-mechanical induced crack closure from significant compressive residual stress is discussed. This crack closure can thus prevent IGSCC very effectively
Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed mango wood sections
Kumar, V.S Kishan; Sharma, C.M; Gupta, Sachin
2014-01-01
In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of finger jointing in utilising mango wood sections for various end uses like furniture. The study was based on the estimation of Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rupture under static bending and Maximum Crushing Stress and Modulus of elasticity under compression parallel to grain of finger jointed sections and comparing them with the values measured for clear wood sections from the same lot. For joining the sections, the Poly...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rust, D.M.
1984-01-01
The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references
Compression of Infrared images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren
2017-01-01
best for bits-per-pixel rates below 1.4 bpp, while HEVC obtains best performance in the range 1.4 to 6.5 bpp. The compression performance is also evaluated based on maximum errors. These results also show that HEVC can achieve a precision of 1°C with an average of 1.3 bpp....
Hosemann, P.; Swadener, J. G.; Kiener, D.; Was, G. S.; Maloy, S. A.; Li, N.
2008-03-01
The superior properties of ferritic/martensitic steels in a radiation environment (low swelling, low activation under irradiation and good corrosion resistance) make them good candidates for structural parts in future reactors and spallation sources. While it cannot substitute for true reactor experiments, irradiation by charged particles from accelerators can reduce the number of reactor experiments and support fundamental research for a better understanding of radiation effects in materials. Based on the nature of low energy accelerator experiments, only a small volume of material can be uniformly irradiated. Micro and nanoscale post irradiation tests thus have to be performed. We show here that nanoindentation and micro-compression testing on T91 and HT-9 stainless steel before and after ion irradiation are useful methods to evaluate the radiation induced hardening.
Behavior of quenched and tempered steels under high strain rate compression loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, L.W.; Seifert, K.; Abdel-Malek, S.
1997-01-01
Two quenched and tempered steels were tested under compression loading at strain rates of ε = 2.10 2 s -1 and ε = 2.10 3 s -1 . By applying the thermal activation theory, the flow stress at very high strain rates of 10 5 to 10 6 s -1 is derived from low temperature and high strain rate tests. Dynamic true stress - true strain behaviour presents, that stress increases with increasing strain until a maximum, then it decreases. Because of the adiabatic process under dynamic loading the maximum flow stress will occur at a lower strain if the strain rate is increased. Considering strain rate, strain hardening, strain rate hardening and strain softening, a constitutive equation with different additive terms is successfully used to describe the behaviour of material under dynamic compression loading. Results are compared with other models of constitutive equations. (orig.)
Compression Characteristics of Solid Wastes as Backfill Materials
Meng Li; Jixiong Zhang; Rui Gao
2016-01-01
A self-made large-diameter compression steel chamber and a SANS material testing machine were chosen to perform a series of compression tests in order to fully understand the compression characteristics of differently graded filling gangue samples. The relationship between the stress-deformation modulus and stress-compression degree was analyzed comparatively. The results showed that, during compression, the deformation modulus of gangue grew linearly with stress, the overall relationship bet...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong-ung Park
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A residual stress generated in the steel structure is broadly categorized into initial residual stress during manufacturing steel material, welding residual stress caused by welding, and heat treatment residual stress by heat treatment. Initial residual stresses induced during the manufacturing process is combined with welding residual stress or heat treatment residual stress, and remained as a final residual stress. Because such final residual stress affects the safety and strength of the structure, it is of utmost importance to measure or predict the magnitude of residual stress, and to apply this point on the design of the structure. In this study, the initial residual stress of steel structures having thicknesses of 25 mm and 70 mm during manufacturing was measured in order to investigate initial residual stress (hereinafter, referred to as initial stress. In addition, thermal elastic plastic FEM analysis was performed with this initial condition, and the effect of initial stress on the welding residual stress was investigated. Further, the reliability of the FE analysis result, considering the initial stress and welding residual stress for the steel structures having two thicknesses, was validated by comparing it with the measured results. In the vicinity of the weld joint, the initial stress is released and finally controlled by the weld residual stress. On the other hand, the farther away from the weld joint, the greater the influence of the initial stress. The range in which the initial stress affects the weld residual stress was not changed by the initial stress. However, in the region where the initial stress occurs in the compressive stress, the magnitude of the weld residual compressive stress varies with the compression or tension of the initial stress. The effect of initial stress on the maximum compression residual stress was far larger when initial stress was considered in case of a thickness of 25 mm with a value of 180
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frija, M.; Hassine, T.; Fathallah, R.; Bouraoui, C.; Dogui, A.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a numerical simulation of the shot peening process using finite element method. The majority of the controlling parameters of the process have been taken into account. The shot peening loading has been characterised by using energy equivalence between the dynamic impact and a static indentation of a peening shot in the treated surface. The behaviour of the subjected material is supposed to be elastic plastic with damage. An integrated law of the damage proposed by Lemaitre and Chaboche has been used. The proposed model leads to obtain the residual stress, the plastic deformation profiles and the surface damage. An application on a shot peened Ni-based super alloy Waspaloy has been carried out. The comparison of the residual stresses, obtained by X-ray diffraction method and by finite element calculation, shows a good correlation. The in-depth profile of the plastic deformations and the superficial damage values are in good agreement with the experimental observations
The fatigue behavior of composite laminates under various mean stresses
Rotem, A.
1991-01-01
A method is developed for predicting the S-N curve of a composite laminate which is subjected to an arbitrary stress ratio, R (minimum stress/maximum stress). The method is based on the measuring of the S-N behavior of two distinct cases, tension-tension and compression-compression fatigue loadings. Using these parameters, expressions are formulated that estimate the fatigue behavior under any stress ratio loading. Experimental results from the testing of graphite/epoxy laminates, with various structures, are compared with the predictions and show good agreement.
Compressive failure with interacting cracks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Guoping; Liu Xila
1993-01-01
The failure processes in concrete and other brittle materials are just the results of the propagation, coalescence and interaction of many preexisting microcracks or voids. To understand the real behaviour of the brittle materials, it is necessary to bridge the gap from the relatively matured one crack behaviour to the stochastically distributed imperfections, that is, to concern the crack propagation and interaction of microscopic mechanism with macroscopic parameters of brittle materials. Brittle failure in compression has been studied theoretically by Horii and Nemat-Nasser (1986), in which a closed solution was obtained for a preexisting flaw or some special regular flaws. Zaitsev and Wittmann (1981) published a paper on crack propagation in compression, which is so-called numerical concrete, but they did not take account of the interaction among the microcracks. As for the modelling of the influence of crack interaction on fracture parameters, many studies have also been reported. Up till now, some researcher are working on crack interaction considering the ratios of SIFs with and without consideration of the interaction influences, there exist amplifying or shielding effects of crack interaction which are depending on the relative positions of these microcracks. The present paper attempts to simulate the whole failure process of brittle specimen in compression, which includes the complicated coupling effects between the interaction and propagation of randomly distributed or other typical microcrack configurations step by step. The lengths, orientations and positions of microcracks are all taken as random variables. The crack interaction among many preexisting random microcracks is evaluated with the help of a simple interaction matrix (Yang and Liu, 1991). For the subcritically stable propagation of microcracks in mixed mode fracture, fairly known maximum hoop stress criterion is adopted to compute branching lengths and directions at each tip of the crack
Hamidi Ghaleh Jigh, Behrang; Farsi, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini Toudeshky, Hossein
2018-05-01
The prediction of the mechanical behavior of metallic foams with realistic microstructure and the effects of various boundary conditions on the mechanical behavior is an important and challenging issue in modeling representative volume elements (RVEs). A numerical investigation is conducted to determine the effects of various boundary conditions and cell wall cross sections on the compressive mechanical properties of aluminum foam, including the stiffness, plateau stress and onset strain of densification. The open-cell AA6101-T6 aluminum foam Duocel is used in the analyses in this study. Geometrical characteristics including the cell size, foam relative density, and cross-sectional shape and thickness of the cell walls are extracted from images of the foam. Then, the obtained foam microstructure is analyzed as a 2D model. The ligaments are modeled as shear deformable beams with elastic-plastic material behavior. To prevent interpenetration of the nodes and walls inside the cells with large deformations, self-contact-type frictionless interaction is stipulated between the internal surfaces. Sensitivity analyses are performed using several boundary conditions and cells wall cross-sectional shapes. The predicted results from the finite element analyses are compared with the experimental results. Finally, the most appropriate boundary conditions, leading to more consistent results with the experimental data, are introduced.
Hamidi Ghaleh Jigh, Behrang; Farsi, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini Toudeshky, Hossein
2018-04-01
The prediction of the mechanical behavior of metallic foams with realistic microstructure and the effects of various boundary conditions on the mechanical behavior is an important and challenging issue in modeling representative volume elements (RVEs). A numerical investigation is conducted to determine the effects of various boundary conditions and cell wall cross sections on the compressive mechanical properties of aluminum foam, including the stiffness, plateau stress and onset strain of densification. The open-cell AA6101-T6 aluminum foam Duocel is used in the analyses in this study. Geometrical characteristics including the cell size, foam relative density, and cross-sectional shape and thickness of the cell walls are extracted from images of the foam. Then, the obtained foam microstructure is analyzed as a 2D model. The ligaments are modeled as shear deformable beams with elastic-plastic material behavior. To prevent interpenetration of the nodes and walls inside the cells with large deformations, self-contact-type frictionless interaction is stipulated between the internal surfaces. Sensitivity analyses are performed using several boundary conditions and cells wall cross-sectional shapes. The predicted results from the finite element analyses are compared with the experimental results. Finally, the most appropriate boundary conditions, leading to more consistent results with the experimental data, are introduced.
Meserve, Justin
Cold drawn AISI 4140 beams were LASER surface hardened with a 2 kW CO2 LASER. Specimens were treated in the free state and while restrained in a bending fixture inducing surface tensile stresses of 94 and 230 MPa. Knoop hardness indentation was used to evaluate the through thickness hardness distribution, and a layer removal methodology was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution. Results showed the maximum surface hardness attained was not affected by pre-stress during hardening, and ranged from 513 to 676 kg/mm2. The depth of effective hardening varied at different magnitudes of pre-stress, but did not vary proportionately to the pre-stress. The surface residual stress, coinciding with the maximum compressive residual stress, increased as pre-stress was increased, from 1040 MPa for the nominally treated specimens to 1270 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. The maximum tensile residual stress observed in the specimens decreased from 1060 MPa in the nominally treated specimens to 760 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. Similarly, thickness of the compressive residual stress region increased and the depth at which maximum tensile residual stress occurred increased as the pre-stress during treatment was increased Overall, application of tensile elastic pre-stress during LASER hardening is beneficial to the development of compressive residual stress in AISI 4140, with minimal impact to the hardness attained from the treatment. The newly developed approach for LASER hardening may support efforts to increase both the wear and fatigue resistance of parts made from hardenable steels.
... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)
Intermittent pneumatic compression of legs increases microcirculation in distant skeletal muscle.
Liu, K; Chen, L E; Seaber, A V; Johnson, G W; Urbaniak, J R
1999-01-01
Intermittent pneumatic compression has been established as a method of clinically preventing deep vein thrombosis, but the mechanism has not been documented. This study observed the effects of intermittent pneumatic compression of legs on the microcirculation of distant skeletal muscle. The cremaster muscles of 80 male rats were exposed, a specially designed intermittent pneumatic-compression device was applied to both legs for 60 minutes, and the microcirculation of the muscles was assessed by measurement of the vessel diameter in three categories (10-20, 21-40, and 41-70 microm) for 120 minutes. The results showed significant vasodilation in arterial and venous vessels during the application of intermittent pneumatic compression, which disappeared after termination of the compression. The vasodilation reached a maximum 30 minutes after initiation of the compression and could be completely blocked by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (10 micromol/min). A 120-minute infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, beginning coincident with 60 minutes of intermittent pneumatic compression, resulted in a significant decrease in arterial diameter that remained at almost the same level after termination of the compression. The magnitude of the decrease in diameter in the group treated with intermittent pneumatic compression and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was comparable with that in the group treated with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine alone. The results imply that the production of nitric oxide is involved in the positive influence of intermittent pneumatic compression on circulation. It is postulated that the rapid increase in venous velocity induced by intermittent pneumatic compression produces strong shear stress on the vascular endothelium, which stimulates an increased release of nitric oxide and thereby causes systemic vasodilation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiang-Jun Zhou
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we developed and validated a refined three-dimensional finite element model of middle femoral comminuted fracture to compare the biomechanical stability after two kinds of plate fixation: a newly designed assembly locking compression plate (NALCP and a locking compression plate (LCP. CT data of a male volunteer was converted to middle femoral comminuted fracture finite element analysis model. The fracture was fixated by NALCP and LCP. Stress distributions were observed. Under slow walking load and torsion load, the stress distribution tendency of the two plates was roughly uniform. The anterolateral femur was the tension stress area, and the bone block shifted toward the anterolateral femur. Maximum stress was found on the lateral border of the number 5 countersink of the plate. Under a slow walking load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.160e+03 MPa and the LCP was 8.561e+02 MPa. Under torsion load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.260e+03 MPa and the LCP was 6.813e+02 MPa. Based on those results of finite element analysis, the NALCP can provide adequate mechanical stability for comminuted fractures, which would help fixate the bone block and promote bone healing.
Stress engineering for the design of morphotropic phase boundary in piezoelectric material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohno, Tomoya, E-mail: ohno@mail.kitami-it.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan); Yanagida, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Kentaroh [Department of Materials Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan); Arai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naonori; Wakiya, Naoki; Suzuki, Hisao [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Satoh, Shigeo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaragi University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa-cho, Hitachi, Ibaragi 316-0033 (Japan); Matsuda, Takeshi [Department of Materials Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)
2015-06-30
Alkoxide-derived lead zirconate titanate thin films having Zr/Ti = 50/50 to 60/40 compositions with different residual stress conditions were deposited on a Si wafer to clarify the effects of the residual stress on the morphotropic phase boundary shift. The residual stress condition was controlled to − 0.1 to − 0.9 GPa by the design of the buffer layer structure on the Si wafer. Results show that the maximum effective piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was obtained at 58/42 composition under − 0.9 GPa compressive residual stress condition. Moreover, the MPB composition shifted linearly to Zr-rich phase with increasing compressive residual stress. - Highlights: • The residual stress in lead zirconate titanate film on silicon was controlled. • The maximum residual stress in lead zirconate titanate film was − 0.9 GPa. • The morphotropic phase boundary shifted to zirconium rich phase by the strain.
Limiting density ratios in piston-driven compressions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.
1985-07-01
By using global energy and pressure balance applied to a shock model it is shown that for a piston-driven fast compression, the maximum compression ratio is not dependent on the absolute magnitude of the piston power, but rather on the power pulse shape. Specific cases are considered and a maximum density compression ratio of 27 is obtained for a square-pulse power compressing a spherical pellet with specific heat ratio of 5/3. Double pulsing enhances the density compression ratio to 1750 in the case of linearly rising compression pulses. Using this method further enhancement by multiple pulsing becomes obvious. (author)
Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Khuyagbaatar, Batbayar; Kim, Kyungsoo
2013-09-01
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) have been recognized as causes of myelopathy due to thickening of the ligaments resulting in narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of the spinal cord. However, few studies have focused on predicting stress distribution under conditions of OPLL and OLF based on clinical aspects such as the relationship between level of stress and severity of neurologic symptoms because direct in vivo measurement of stress is very restrictive. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the spinal cord in T12-L1 was developed based on MR images. The von-Mises stresses in the cord and the cross-sectional area of the cord were investigated for various grades and shapes of spinal cord compression in OPLL and OLF. Substantial increases in maximum stresses resulting in the manifestation of spinal cord symptoms occurred when the cross-sectional area was reduced by 30-40% at 60% compression of the antero-posterior diameter of the cord in OPLL and at 4mm compression in OLF. These results indicate that compression greater than these thresholds may induce spinal symptoms, which is consistent with clinical observations. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerry D. Gibson
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.
Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.
Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat
2010-01-01
We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1979-01-01
This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.
Compressive behavior of fine sand.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)
2010-04-01
The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Chang-Young; Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Kim, Choongnyun Paul; Lee, Sunghak
2010-01-01
Zr-based amorphous alloy matrix composites reinforced with tungsten continuous fibers or porous foams were fabricated without pores or defects by liquid pressing process, and their microstructures and compressive properties were investigated. About 65-70 vol.% of tungsten reinforcements were homogeneously distributed inside the amorphous matrix. The compressive test results indicated that the tungsten-reinforced composites showed considerable plastic strain as the compressive load was sustained by fibers or foams. Particularly in the tungsten porous foam-reinforced composite, the compressive stress continued to increase according to the work hardening after the yielding, thereby leading to the maximum strength of 2764 MPa and the plastic strain of 39.4%. This dramatic increase in strength and ductility was attributed to the simultaneous and homogeneous deformation at tungsten foams and amorphous matrix since tungsten foams did not show anisotropy and tungsten/matrix interfaces were excellent.
Dual compression is not an uncommon type of iliac vein compression syndrome.
Shi, Wan-Yin; Gu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Chang-Jian; Lou, Wen-Sheng; He, Xu
2017-09-01
Typical iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) is characterized by compression of left common iliac vein (LCIV) by the overlying right common iliac artery (RCIA). We described an underestimated type of IVCS with dual compression by right and left common iliac arteries (LCIA) simultaneously. Thirty-one patients with IVCS were retrospectively included. All patients received trans-catheter venography and computed tomography (CT) examinations for diagnosing and evaluating IVCS. Late venography and reconstructed CT were used for evaluating the anatomical relationship among LCIV, RCIA and LCIA. Imaging manifestations as well as demographic data were collected and evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Sole and dual compression were found in 32.3% (n = 10) and 67.7% (n = 21) of 31 patients respectively. No statistical differences existed between them in terms of age, gender, LCIV diameter at the maximum compression point, pressure gradient across stenosis, and the percentage of compression level. On CT and venography, sole compression was commonly presented with a longitudinal compression at the orifice of LCIV while dual compression was usually presented as two types: one had a lengthy stenosis along the upper side of LCIV and the other was manifested by a longitudinal compression near to the orifice of external iliac vein. The presence of dual compression seemed significantly correlated with the tortuous LCIA (p = 0.006). Left common iliac vein can be presented by dual compression. This type of compression has typical manifestations on late venography and CT.
... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...
Baumgartner, Walter; Schneider, Isabelle; Hess, Samuel C; Stark, Wendelin J; Märsmann, Sonja; Brunelli, Marzia; Calcagni, Maurizio; Cinelli, Paolo; Buschmann, Johanna
2018-04-05
Chemical supplementation of culture media to induce differentiation of adult stem cells seeded on a scaffold may mask other differentiation triggers such as scaffold stiffness, chemical composition or mechanical stimulation. However, stem cells can be differentiated towards osteoblasts without any supplementation given an appropriate osteogenic scaffold and an adequate mechanical stimulation. Electrospun meshes of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/aCaP) in a weight ratio of 60:40 were seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and cultured in DMEM. After two weeks of static cultivation, they were either further cultivated statically for another two weeks (group 1), or placed in a Bose® bioreactor with a flow rate per area of 0.16 mL cm -2 min 1 (group 2). Furthermore, group 3 was also cultivated under perfusion, however, with an additional uniaxial cyclic compression. Stiffness of the scaffolds was assessed as a function of time. After a total of four weeks, minimum stem cell criteria markers as well as typical markers for osteogenesis, endothelial cell differentiation, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, cell distribution within the scaffolds by histology and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Dynamic conditions (perfusion ± uniaxial cyclic compression) significantly upregulated gene and protein expression of PPAR-γ-2 compared to static cultivation, while osteogenic markers were slightly downregulated. However, the compression in the perfusion bioreactor favored osteogenesis compared to mere perfusion as indicated by upregulation of ALP, Runx2 and collagen I. This behavior was not only attributed to the compressive load, but also to the significant increase in stiffness of the scaffold. Furthermore, CD105 was significantly upregulated under compression. Although an osteogenic electrospun composite material with an organic (PLGA) and an inorganic phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Junfeng; Yu, Dunji; Zhao, Zizhen; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Gang; Chen, Xu, E-mail: xchen@tju.edu.cn
2016-06-14
A series of uniaxial strain-controlled fatigue and creep-fatigue tests of the bainitic 2.25Cr1Mo steel forging were performed at 455 °C in air. Three different hold periods (30 s, 120 s, 300 s) were employed at maximum tensile strain and compressive strain under fully reversed strain cycling. Both tensile and compressive holds significantly reduce the fatigue life. Fatigue life with tensile hold is shorter than that with compressive hold. A close relationship is found between the reduction of fatigue life and the amount of stress relaxation. Microstructural examination by scanning electron microscope reveals that strain hold introduces more crack sources, which can be probably ascribed to the intensified oxidation and the peeling-off of oxide layers. A modified plastic strain energy approach considering stress relaxation effect is proposed to predict the creep-fatigue life, and the predicted lives are in superior agreement with the experimental results.
Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moat, R.J.; Pinkerton, A.J.; Li, L.; Withers, P.J.; Preuss, M.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Neutron diffraction and the contour method show good agreement. → Tensile stresses found parallel to the surfaces. → Compressive stresses within the bulk of the structures. → Residual stress weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters. → Maximum tensile residual stress unaffected across range of pulse parameters used. - Abstract: This paper reports a study into the effect of laser pulse length and duty cycle on the residual stress distributions in multi-track laser direct metal deposits of Waspaloy onto an Inconel 718 substrate. The residual stresses have been evaluated using neutron diffraction and the contour method, while electron microscopy and micro hardness indentation have been used to map the concomitant microstructural variation. In all cases, near the tops of the deposited walls, the longitudinal stresses are tensile towards the mid-length of the wall, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are negligible. By contrast near the base of the walls, the stresses along the direction of deposition are small, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are compressive at the centre and tensile towards the ends. Consistent with previous observations, the stresses parallel to free surfaces are tensile, balanced by compressive stresses in the interior (an inverse quench stress profile). These profiles have been found to be weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters, most notably an increase in tensile stress gradient with increasing duty cycle, but the maximum residual stresses are largely unaffected. Furthermore, microstructural analysis has shown that the effect of laser pulse parameters on grain morphology in multi-track thick walls is less marked than previously reported for single-track wall structures.
Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moat, R.J., E-mail: richard.moat@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Pinkerton, A.J.; Li, L. [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J.; Preuss, M. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)
2011-03-15
Research highlights: {yields} Neutron diffraction and the contour method show good agreement. {yields} Tensile stresses found parallel to the surfaces. {yields} Compressive stresses within the bulk of the structures. {yields} Residual stress weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters. {yields} Maximum tensile residual stress unaffected across range of pulse parameters used. - Abstract: This paper reports a study into the effect of laser pulse length and duty cycle on the residual stress distributions in multi-track laser direct metal deposits of Waspaloy onto an Inconel 718 substrate. The residual stresses have been evaluated using neutron diffraction and the contour method, while electron microscopy and micro hardness indentation have been used to map the concomitant microstructural variation. In all cases, near the tops of the deposited walls, the longitudinal stresses are tensile towards the mid-length of the wall, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are negligible. By contrast near the base of the walls, the stresses along the direction of deposition are small, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are compressive at the centre and tensile towards the ends. Consistent with previous observations, the stresses parallel to free surfaces are tensile, balanced by compressive stresses in the interior (an inverse quench stress profile). These profiles have been found to be weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters, most notably an increase in tensile stress gradient with increasing duty cycle, but the maximum residual stresses are largely unaffected. Furthermore, microstructural analysis has shown that the effect of laser pulse parameters on grain morphology in multi-track thick walls is less marked than previously reported for single-track wall structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vullum, Per Erik; Mastin, Johann; Wright, Jonathan; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann; Holmestad, Randi; Grande, Tor
2006-01-01
Uniaxial compression of rhombohedral La 0.8 Ca 0.2 CoO 3 ceramics has been studied in situ using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The intensities of Bragg reflections parallel and perpendicular to the stress field were simultaneously detected as a function of the stress. Reorientation of ferroelastic domains due to the uniaxial stress was demonstrated. With increasing stress the volume fraction of domains with the hexagonal c-axis parallel to the stress axis increased at the expense of domains with the c-axis perpendicular to the stress axis. The strain in the polycrystalline materials evolved unevenly with increasing stress due to crystallographic anisotropy. In energetically favourable domains with the c-axis parallel to the stress axis, the rhombohedral distortion from cubic symmetry increased, while the crystal structure became closer to cubic in domains with the c-axis perpendicular to the stress. Successive compression/decompression cycles to higher maximum stress resulted in a higher volume fraction of reoriented domains both at maximum stress and after decompression
Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression
Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E.; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro
2016-01-01
This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s−1 (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hystere...
Relation Between Residual and Hoop Stresses and Rolling Bearing Fatigue Life
Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.
2015-01-01
Rolling-element bearings operated at high speed or high vibration may require a tight interference fit between the bore of the bearing and shaft to prevent rotation of the bearing bore around the shaft and fretting damage at the interfaces. Previous work showed that the hoop stresses resulting from tight interference fits can reduce bearing lives by as much as 65 percent. Where tight interference fits are required, case-carburized steel such as AISI 9310 or M50 NiL is often used because the compressive residual stresses inhibit subsurface crack formation and the ductile core inhibits inner-ring fracture. The presence of compressive residual stress and its combination with hoop stress also modifies the Hertz stress-life relation. This paper analyzes the beneficial effect of residual stresses on rolling-element bearing fatigue life in the presence of high hoop stresses for three bearing steels. These additional stresses were superimposed on Hertzian principal stresses to calculate the inner-race maximum shearing stress and the resulting fatigue life of the bearing. The load-life exponent p and Hertz stress-life exponent n increase in the presence of compressive residual stress, which yields increased life, particularly at lower stress levels. The Zaretsky life equation is described and is shown to predict longer bearing lives and greater load- and stress-life exponents, which better predicts observed life of bearings made from vacuum-processed steel.
Compression etiology in tendinopathy.
Almekinders, Louis C; Weinhold, Paul S; Maffulli, Nicola
2003-10-01
Recent studies have emphasized that the etiology of tendinopathy is not as simple as was once thought. The etiology is likely to be multifactorial. Etiologic factors may include some of the traditional factors such as overuse, inflexibility, and equipment problems; however, other factors need to be considered as well, such as age-related tendon degeneration and biomechanical considerations as outlined in this article. More research is needed to determine the significance of stress-shielding and compression in tendinopathy. If they are confirmed to play a role, this finding may significantly alter our approach in both prevention and in treatment through exercise therapy. The current biomechanical studies indicate that certain joint positions are more likely to place tensile stress on the area of the tendon commonly affected by tendinopathy. These joint positions seem to be different than the traditional positions for stretching exercises used for prevention and rehabilitation of tendinopathic conditions. Incorporation of different joint positions during stretching exercises may exert more uniform, controlled tensile stress on these affected areas of the tendon and avoid stresshielding. These exercises may be able to better maintain the mechanical strength of that region of the tendon and thereby avoid injury. Alternatively, they could more uniformly stress a healing area of the tendon in a controlled manner, and thereby stimulate healing once an injury has occurred. Additional work will have to prove if a change in rehabilitation exercises is more efficacious that current techniques.
DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm
Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam
2011-01-01
Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our ...
Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1995-01-01
Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.
Temperature and stress calculation for final disposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarandi, T.
1979-02-01
Temperature and stress distribution in and around the final storage facility has been calculated for three different arrangements of the tunnels: - 2 planes with 60 m vertical distance between them - 2 planes with 100 m distance and - 1 plane. The highest temperatures and stresses occur for the 2 plane alternative with distance 60 m between planes. The maximum compressive stress is in this case 24.0 MPa 140 years after the time of deposition, compared with 12.6 MPa in the 1 plane case. The maximum tensile stress exists at the surface and is in the 2 plane case 6.0 MPa 800 - 1,500 years after deposition, compared with 4.2 MPa for the 1 plane variant. An estimation of maximum tensile stresses between the tunnel planes yields a value of 1.5 MPa. The above-mentioned stresses are due to temperature distribution induced by the radioactive waste. To obtain the total stresses, initial stresses in the undisturbed rock, which vary according to location, are to be added to these stresses. (author)
DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm
Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam
2011-01-01
Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923
Residual stresses determination in an 8 mm Incoloy 800H weld via neutron diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Xizhang; Zhang, Shu Yan; Wang, Jingjun; Kelleher, Joe F.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Stress through thickness at 5 mm from weld centerline indicates a “U” distribution. • Declining of tensile stress through thickness occurred at weld centerline. • Residual stress between layers is the lowest. - Abstract: To investigate the distribution of residual stresses, the 8 mm 800H alloy was joined by multi-layer butt TIG process. Residual stresses in the longitudinal, transverse and normal directions were measured via neutron diffraction. These residual stress measurements were taken at a series of points 2 mm below the top surface, covering the fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal. In addition, two lines of longitudinal residual stress values at the weld centerline and 5 mm from weld centerline through thickness were measured. Results show that both the longitudinal and transverse stresses from the weld centerline to base metal are mainly tensile stresses. The longitudinal residual stress is the largest, with a maximum value of 330 MPa. As for the normal residual stress, the weld zone shows tensile stress, while the HAZ shows compressive stress. The middle of the thickness shows compressive residual stress along the thickness direction. The longitudinal stress at weld centerline through thickness reveals the interlayer heat treat effects leads to a declining of tensile stress. While the stress at 5 mm from weld centerline indicates a “U” distribution due to the mixed microstructure close to fusion line. With the increasing distance from weld seam, the residual stress decreases gradually
Maximum Quantum Entropy Method
Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon
2018-01-01
Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biondi, L.
1998-01-01
The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it
First wall thermal stress analysis for suddenly applied heat fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalessandro, J.A.
The failure criterion for a solid first wall of an inertial confinement reactor is investigated. Analytical expressions for induced thermal stresses in a plate are given. Two materials have been chosen for this investigation: grade H-451 graphite and chemically vapor deposited (CVD) β-silicon carbide. Structural failure can be related to either the maximum compressive stress produced on the surface or the maximum tensile stress developed in the interior of the plate; however, it is shown that compressive failure would predominate. A basis for the choice of the thermal shock figure of merit, k(1 - ν) sigma/E α kappa/sup 1/2/, is identified. The result is that graphite and silicon carbide rank comparably
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poblano-Salas, C.A.; Barceinas-Sanchez, J.D.O.
2009-01-01
Stress relaxation testing in compression at high temperature was performed on Cu-Cr-Zr alloys produced by consolidation of water atomized powders. Precipitation and recrystallization were monitored during stress relaxation experiments carried out at an ageing temperature of 723 K. Pre-straining imposed to the Cu-Cr-Zr samples prior to stress relaxation testing resulted in reduced hardness compared to that reported for conventionally-aged alloys; it also resulted in shorter times for achieving maximum strengthening on ageing.
Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu
2017-12-01
Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that uses compressed air to store surplus electricity generated from low power consumption time for use at peak times. This paper presents a thermo-mechanical modeling for the thermodynamic and mechanical responses of a lined rock cavern used for CAES. The simulation was accomplished in COMSOL Multiphysics and comparisons of the numerical simulation and some analytical solutions validated the thermo-mechanical modeling. Air pressure and temperatures in the sealing layer and concrete lining exhibited a similar trend of ‘up-down-down-up’ in one cycle. Significant temperature fluctuation occurred only in the concrete lining and sealing layer, and no strong fluctuation was observed in the host rock. In the case of steel sealing, principal stresses in the sealing layer were larger than those in the concrete and host rock. The maximum compressive stresses of the three layers and the displacement on the cavern surface increased with the increase of cycle number. However, the maximum tensile stresses exhibited the opposite trend. Polymer sealing achieved a relatively larger air temperature and pressure compared with steel and air-tight concrete sealing. For concrete layer thicknesses of 0 and 0.1 m and an initial air pressure of 4.5 MPa, the maximum rock temperature could reach 135 °C and 123 °C respectively in a 30 day simulation.
Stress in ion-implanted CVD Si3N4 films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
EerNisse, E.P.
1977-01-01
The compressive stress buildup caused in chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) Si 3 N 4 films by ion implantation is shown to be caused entirely by atomic collision effects, ionization effects being unimportant. The stress introduction rate is shown to be independent of CVD processing variables and O content of the film. The maximum attainable compressive stress change is 3.5 x 10 10 dyn/cm 2 , resulting in a maximum net compressive stress of 2 x 10 10 dyn/cm 2 for films on Si where the as-deposited films inherently have 1.5 x 10 10 dyn/cm 2 tensile stress before ion implantation. Results are presented which show that O in the films inhibits thermal annealing of the ion-implantation-induced compressive stress. Results for introduction rate and annealing effects are presented in normalized form so that workers can use the effects for intentional stress level adjustment in the films to reduce probability of cracking and detachment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keller, Hanne Dauer
2015-01-01
Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....
Fledderus, M.
2012-01-01
Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gupta Nishi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Seth's transition theory is applied to the problem of thermal creep transition stresses and strain rates in a thin rotating disc with shaft having variable density by finite deformation. Neither the yield criterion nor the associated flow rule is assumed here. The results obtained here are applicable to compressible materials. If the additional condition of incompressibility is imposed, then the expression for stresses corresponds to those arising from Tresca yield condition. Thermal effect decreased value of radial stress at the internal surface of the rotating isotropic disc made of compressible material as well as incompressible material and this value of radial stress further much increases with the increase in angular speed. With the introduction of thermal effects, the maximum value of strain rates further increases at the internal surface for compressible materials as compare to incompressible material.
Maximum likely scale estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Robust Maximum Association Estimators
A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)
2017-01-01
textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyung-Mok; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Synn, Joong-Ho; Song, Won-Kyong
2012-06-01
We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be
Effect of residual stresses induced by prestressing on rolling element fatigue life
Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.
1972-01-01
A mechanical prestress cycle suitable to induce compressive stress beneath the surface of the inner race of radially loaded 207-size bearings was determined. Compressive residual stress in excess 0.69 x 10 to the 9th power N/sq m (100,000 psi), as measured by X-ray diffraction, were induced at the depth of maximum shearing stress. The prestress cycle consisted of running the bearings for 25 hours at 2750 rpm at a radial load which produced a maximum Hertz stress of 3.3 x 10 to the 9th power N/sq m (480,000 psi) at the contact of the inner race and the heaviest loaded ball. Bearings subjected to this prestress cycle and subsequently fatigue tested gave a 10 percent fatigue life greater than twice that of a group of baseline bearings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.J. Mammarella
2002-12-01
Full Text Available The stress-strain of samples deformed until failure and the relaxation response after 50% deformation of the initial height under constant stress were obtained. Uniaxial compression and stress-relaxation tests enabled satisfactory differentiation of the mechanical resistance of gels with different alginate and carrageenan concentrations. Higher values for initial force at the beginning of the relaxation test were associated with higher calcium uptake by the gels. An increment of failure stress during the uniaxial compression tests for higher concentration of calcium in the gel structure was also observed. The maximum amount of cation uptake was higher than the theoretical value for saturation of all the carboxylic groups available in alginate molecules due to structural rearrangements. Stress-relaxation tests indicated that the residual stress of the gel increased with kappa-carrageenan concentration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enslin, J.H.R.
1990-01-01
A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control
Fledderus, M.
2012-01-01
Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.
Compressive Failure of Fibre Reinforced Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2003-01-01
Compressive failure of uni-directional fibre composites by the kink band mechanism is analysed taking into account effects of residual stresses. Two criteria for determining the strength of the composite material have been investigated: Kink band formation at a bifurcation stress in a composite...... with perfectly aligned fibres, and kink band formation at a peak stress in a composite with a band of imperfect material....
Stress relaxation damage in K9 glass plate irradiated by 1.06μm CW laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Fu; Sun Chengwei
2001-01-01
Based on the stress relaxation model in 1D planar geometry and the visco-elastic constitutive equation, the temperature and stress histories in the K9 glass samples irradiated by CW laser beams (λ = 1.06 μm) have been calculated. The results indicate that the residual tensile stress due to the stress relaxation effect during cooling after the laser radiation may be greater than the tensile fracture strength of samples, while the maximum compression stress during the laser heating is less than the requirement for compression damage. For a K9 glass window of 3 mm thickness, its damage due to the stress relaxation may be induced by a laser radiation of 0.946 MW/cm 2 for 0.2s . Therefore, the stress relaxation should be regarded as the main mechanism of damage in K9 glass windows while a CW laser beam (λ = 1.06 μm) irradiates it with large spot
Design Issues of the Pre-Compression Rings of Iter
Knaster, J.; Baker, W.; Bettinali, L.; Jong, C.; Mallick, K.; Nardi, C.; Rajainmaki, H.; Rossi, P.; Semeraro, L.
2010-04-01
The pre-compression system is the keystone of ITER. A centripetal force of ˜30 MN will be applied at cryogenic conditions on top and bottom of each TF coil. It will prevent the `breathing effect' caused by the bursting forces occurring during plasma operation that would affect the machine design life of 30000 cycles. Different alternatives have been studied throughout the years. There are two major design requirements limiting the engineering possibilities: 1) the limited available space and 2) the need to hamper eddy currents flowing in the structures. Six unidirectionally wound glass-fibre composite rings (˜5 m diameter and ˜300 mm cross section) are the final design choice. The rings will withstand the maximum hoop stresses machine operation. The present paper summarizes the pre-compression ring R&D carried out during several years. In particular, we will address the composite choice and mechanical characterization, assessment of creep or stress relaxation phenomena, sub-sized rings testing and the optimal ring fabrication processes that have led to the present final design.
Emittance Growth during Bunch Compression in the CTF-II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raubenheimer, Tor O
1999-02-26
Measurements of the beam emittance during bunch compression in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF-II) are described. The measurements were made with different beam charges and different energy correlations versus the bunch compressor settings which were varied from no compression through the point of full compression and to over-compression. Significant increases in the beam emittance were observed with the maximum emittance occurring near the point of full (maximal) compression. Finally, evaluation of possible emittance dilution mechanisms indicate that coherent synchrotron radiation was the most likely cause.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higgins, J.D.; Burger, P.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Yang, L.C. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)
1997-12-31
Study of the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires extraction of pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff bedrock. Two generations of compression cells have been designed and tested for extracting representative, unaltered pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff cores. The one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 552 MPa. Results from 86 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 14% for non welded tuff and about 61% for densely welded tuff. The high-pressure, one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 827 MPa. Results from 109 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 7.5% for non welded tuff and about 34% for densely welded tuff. Geochemical analyses show that, in general, there is a decrease in ion concentration of pore waters as extraction pressures increase. Only small changes in pore-water composition occur during the one-dimensional extraction test.
Computational stress and damage modelling for rolling contact fatigue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerullo, Michele
Rolling contact fatigue in radial roller bearings is studied by means of a 2D plane strain nite element program. The Dang Van multiaxial fatigue criterion is firstly used, in a macroscopic study modeling the bearing raceway, to investigate the region where fatigue cracks are more likely to nucleate...... and of compressive residual stresses are also analyzed. The stress history of a material point at the depth where the maximum Dang Van damage factor is reached is then recorded and used in a subsequent micro-mechanical analysis. The stress history is applied as periodic boundary conditions in a representative volume...
Hodge, Andrew J.; Nettles, Alan T.; Jackson, Justin R.
2011-01-01
Notched (open hole) composite laminates were tested in compression. The effect on strength of various sizes of through holes was examined. Results were compared to the average stress criterion model. Additionally, laminated sandwich structures were damaged from low-velocity impact with various impact energy levels and different impactor geometries. The compression strength relative to damage size was compared to the notched compression result strength. Open-hole compression strength was found to provide a reasonable bound on compression after impact.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponman, T.J.
1984-01-01
For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)
A Compressive Superresolution Display
Heide, Felix; Gregson, James; Wetzstein, Gordon; Raskar, Ramesh; Heidrich, Wolfgang
2014-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.
A Compressive Superresolution Display
Heide, Felix
2014-06-22
In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.
Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.
2009-01-01
We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.
Compressions of electrorheological fluids under different initial gap distances.
Tian, Yu; Wen, Shizhu; Meng, Yonggang
2003-05-01
Compressions of electrorheological (ER) fluids have been carried out under different initial gap distances and different applied voltages. The nominal yield stresses of the compressed ER fluid under different conditions, according to the mechanics of compressing continuous fluids considering the yield stress of the plastic fluid, have been calculated. Curves of nominal yield stress under different applied voltages at an initial gap distance of 4 mm overlapped well and were shown to be proportional to the square of the external electric field and agree well with the traditional description. With the decrease of the initial gap distance, the difference between the nominal yield stress curves increased. The gap distance effect on the compression of ER fluids could not be explained by the traditional description based on the Bingham model and the continuous media theory. An explanation based on the mechanics of particle chain is proposed to describe the gap distance effect on the compression of ER fluids.
Microbunching and RF Compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.
2010-01-01
Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maawad, E.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Hofmann, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Wagner, L.
2010-01-01
Mechanical surface treatments such as shot peening (SP) or ball-burnishing (BB) induce plastic deformation close to the surface resulting in work-hardening and compressive residual stresses. It enhances the fatigue performance by retarding or even suppressing micro-crack growth from the surface into the interior. SP and BB were carried out on a solution heat treated (SHT) Ti-2.5Cu. The investigations of compressive and balancing tensile residual stresses need a combination of energy-dispersive synchrotron (ED) and neutron diffraction. Essential for the stress distribution is the stress state before surface treatments which was determined by neutron diffraction. Results show that the maximum compressive stress and its depth play an important role to improve the fatigue performance.
Mining compressing sequential problems
Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.
2012-01-01
Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and
Compressive buckling of black phosphorene nanotubes: an atomistic study
Nguyen, Van-Trang; Le, Minh-Quy
2018-04-01
We investigate through molecular dynamics finite element method with Stillinger-Weber potential the uniaxial compression of armchair and zigzag black phosphorene nanotubes. We focus especially on the effects of the tube’s diameter with fixed length-diameter ratio, effects of the tube’s length for a pair of armchair and zigzag tubes of equal diameters, and effects of the tube’s diameter with fixed lengths. Their Young’s modulus, critical compressive stress and critical compressive strain are studied and discussed for these 3 case studies. Compressive buckling was clearly observed in the armchair nanotubes. Local bond breaking near the boundary occurred in the zigzag ones under compression.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Probable maximum flood control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.
1991-11-01
This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility
Introduction to maximum entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivia, D.S.
1988-01-01
The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Introduction to maximum entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivia, D.S.
1989-01-01
The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2005-01-01
MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Chambers, David W
2008-01-01
We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.
Compressive creep of silicon nitride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, C.R.M. da; Melo, F.C.L. de; Cairo, C.A.; Piorino Neto, F.
1990-01-01
Silicon nitride samples were formed by pressureless sintering process, using neodymium oxide and a mixture of neodymium oxide and yttrio oxide as sintering aids. The short term compressive creep behaviour was evaluated over a stress range of 50-300 MPa and temperature range 1200 - 1350 0 C. Post-sintering heat treatments in nitrogen with a stepwise decremental variation of temperature were performed in some samples and microstructural analysis by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the secondary crystalline phase which form from the remnant glass are dependent upon composition and percentage of aditives. Stress exponent values near to unity were obtained for materials with low glass content suggesting grain boundary diffusion accommodation processes. Cavitation will thereby become prevalent with increase in stress, temperature and decrease in the degree of crystallization of the grain boundary phase. (author) [pt
Modeling Compressed Turbulence with BHR
Israel, Daniel
2011-11-01
Turbulence undergoing compression or expansion occurs in systems ranging from internal combustion engines to supernovae. One common feature in many of these systems is the presence of multiple reacting species. Direct numerical simulation data is available for the single-fluid, low turbulent Mach number case. Wu, et al. (1985) compared their DNS results to several Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models. They also proposed a three-equation k - ɛ - τ model, in conjunction with a Reynolds-stress model. Subsequent researchers have proposed alternative corrections to the standard k - ɛ formulation. Here we investigate three variants of the BHR model (Besnard, 1992). BHR is a model for multi-species variable-density turbulence. The three variants are the linear eddy-viscosity, algebraic-stress, and full Reynolds-stress formulations. We then examine the predictions of the model for the fluctuating density field for the case of variable-density turbulence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.
2014-01-01
The present work deals with the evaluation of the residual-stress profile in expanded-austenite by successive removal steps using GI-XRD. Preliminary results indicate stresses of several GPa's from 111 and 200 diffraction lines. These stresses appear largest for the 200 reflection. The strain......-free lattice parameter decayed smoothly with depth, while for the compressive stress a maximum value is observed at some depth below the surface. Additionally a good agreement was found between the nitrogen profile determined with GDOES analysis and the strain-free lattice parameter from XRD....
On the compression behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohajerani, M.; Delage, P.; Monfared, M.; Sulem, J.; Tang, A.M.; Schroeder, C.
2010-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of research into radioactive waste disposal, it was decided to investigate some aspects of the volume change behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, a possible host rock in which the ANDRA underground laboratory of Bure (East of France) has been excavated. To do so, high pressure oedometers able to apply a maximum load of 113 MPa were used. Oedometers are widely used in Soil mechanics but not so much in Rock mechanics. In spite of applying combined stress/strain conditions (controlled vertical stress with no radial strain allowed) in which the radial stress is not controlled, their advantage is to be simple and robust to use (easy long term stress control and strain measurements). They provide a simple way to investigate the elastoplastic behaviour of soils, particularly regarding the elastic modulus, yield point and plastic compressibility. A high pressure oedometer developed at UR Navier/CERMES was used. The apparatus is a double lever arm device able to apply a maximum axial stress of 113 MPa on a specimen contained in a rigid ring of diameter 38 mm. The sample is 10 mm high. Vertical strains are monitored by using an electronic strain transducer connected to a data acquisition system. Previous calibration of the system was carried out by running a test with no sample in the ring so as to account for the effects of the compression of the top and bottom porous disks, of cell and of the piston. A reversible response of the system was observed after applying various loading cycles between 0 and 113 MPa. The specimen was trimmed by using a diamond corer of corresponding diameter and placed inside the oedometer ring. The top and bottom faces of the sample were polished by using sand paper so as to get two flat, regular and parallel faces. The ring was placed into the oedometer cell with dry porous stones and specimen was loaded under 1 MPa to ensure good contact with the porous stones and the
Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu
1999-11-01
The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.
Compression for radiological images
Wilson, Dennis L.
1992-07-01
The viewing of radiological images has peculiarities that must be taken into account in the design of a compression technique. The images may be manipulated on a workstation to change the contrast, to change the center of the brightness levels that are viewed, and even to invert the images. Because of the possible consequences of losing information in a medical application, bit preserving compression is used for the images used for diagnosis. However, for archiving the images may be compressed to 10 of their original size. A compression technique based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) takes the viewing factors into account by compressing the changes in the local brightness levels. The compression technique is a variation of the CCITT JPEG compression that suppresses the blocking of the DCT except in areas of very high contrast.
Finite element analysis of maxillary bone stress caused by Aramany Class IV obturator prostheses.
Miyashita, Elcio Ricardo; Mattos, Beatriz Silva Câmara; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Navarro, Hamilton
2012-05-01
The retention of an Aramany Class IV removable partial dental prosthesis can be compromised by a lack of support. The biomechanics of this obturator prosthesis result in an unusual stress distribution on the residual maxillary bone. This study evaluated the biomechanics of an Aramany Class IV obturator prosthesis with finite element analysis and a digital 3-dimensional (3-D) model developed from a computed tomography scan; bone stress was evaluated according to the load placed on the prosthesis. A 3-D model of an Aramany Class IV maxillary resection and prosthesis was constructed. This model was used to develop a finite element mesh. A 120 N load was applied to the occlusal and incisal platforms corresponding to the prosthetic teeth. Qualitative analysis was based on the scale of maximum principal stress; values obtained through quantitative analysis were expressed in MPa. Under posterior load, tensile and compressive stresses were observed; the tensile stress was greater than the compressive stress, regardless of the bone region, and the greatest compressive stress was observed on the anterior palate near the midline. Under an anterior load, tensile stress was observed in all of the evaluated bone regions; the tensile stress was greater than the compressive stress, regardless of the bone region. The Aramany Class IV obturator prosthesis tended to rotate toward the surgical resection when subjected to posterior or anterior loads. The amount of tensile and compressive stress caused by the Aramany Class IV obturator prosthesis did not exceed the physiological limits of the maxillary bone tissue. (J Prosthet Dent 2012;107:336-342). Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan Khairuddin bin Wan Ali
1994-01-01
An investigation was carried out to determine and compile the mechanical strength of a refractory ceramic made of ground fire bricks and refractory fire mortar. Three different compositions were studied for the compression strength and it was found that the composition with 50% fire bricks and 50% fire mortar gives the best mechanical strength. With this composition the maximum failure compression stress is 3.2 MPa. and the Young Modulus is 403.5 MPa. The investigation also shows that the curing temperatures and the composition percentages play an important role in determining the strength of the ceramic. The trend obtained from the investigation shows that there is the possibility that an optimum value of composition percentage exist
Radiological Image Compression
Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict
The movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve, and transmit the volume of digital images. Basic research into image data compression is necessary in order to move from a film-based department to an efficient digital -based department. Digital data compression technology consists of two types of compression technique: error-free and irreversible. Error -free image compression is desired; however, present techniques can only achieve compression ratio of from 1.5:1 to 3:1, depending upon the image characteristics. Irreversible image compression can achieve a much higher compression ratio; however, the image reconstructed from the compressed data shows some difference from the original image. This dissertation studies both error-free and irreversible image compression techniques. In particular, some modified error-free techniques have been tested and the recommended strategies for various radiological images are discussed. A full-frame bit-allocation irreversible compression technique has been derived. A total of 76 images which include CT head and body, and radiographs digitized to 2048 x 2048, 1024 x 1024, and 512 x 512 have been used to test this algorithm. The normalized mean -square-error (NMSE) on the difference image, defined as the difference between the original and the reconstructed image from a given compression ratio, is used as a global measurement on the quality of the reconstructed image. The NMSE's of total of 380 reconstructed and 380 difference images are measured and the results tabulated. Three complex compression methods are also suggested to compress images with special characteristics. Finally, various parameters which would effect the quality of the reconstructed images are discussed. A proposed hardware compression module is given in the last chapter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, J.
1981-01-01
By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments
Stress analysis of steam generator row-1 tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Woo Gon; Ryu, Woo Seog; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Sung Chung
2000-01-01
Residual stresses induced in U-bending and tube-to-tubesheet joining processes of PWR's steam generator row-1 tube were measured by X-ray method and Hole-Drilling Method(HDM). The stresses resulting from the internal pressure and the temperature gradient in the steam generator were also estimated theoretically. In U-bent regions, the residual stresses at extrados were induced with compressive stress(-), and its maximum value reached -319 Mpa in axial direction at ψ=0 .deg. in position. Maximum tensile residual stress of 170 MPa was found to be at the flank side at position of ψ=90 deg., i.e., at apex region. In tube-to-tubesheet joining methods, the residual stresses induced by the explosive joint method were found to be lower than that by the mechanical roll method. The gradient of residual stress along the expanded tube was highest at the transition region, and the residual stress in circumferential direction was found to be higher than the residual stress in axial direction. Hoop stress due to an internal pressure between primary and secondary side was analyzed to be 76 MPa and thermal stress was 45 MPa
Pressure Dependence of the Peierls Stress in Aluminum
Dang, Khanh; Spearot, Douglas
2018-03-01
The effect of pressure applied normal to the {111} slip plane on the Peierls stress in Al is studied via atomistic simulations. Edge, screw, 30°, and 60° straight dislocations are created using the Volterra displacement fields for isotropic elasticity. For each dislocation character angle, the Peierls stress is calculated based on the change in the internal energy, which is an invariant measure of the dislocation driving force. It is found that the Peierls stress for dislocations under zero pressure is in general agreement with previous results. For screw and 60° dislocations, the Peierls stress versus pressure relationship has maximum values associated with stacking fault widths that are multiples of the Peierls period. For the edge dislocation, the Peierls stress decreases with increasing pressure from tension to compression. Compared with the Mendelev potential, the Peierls stress calculated from the Mishin potential is more sensitive to changes in pressure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Woo Young; Ahn, Kun Ho; Hwang, Cheol Seong
2003-01-01
This study investigated the structural and electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) thin film capacitors with thicknesses ranging from 18 to 215 nm, which were prepared by on- and off-axis rf magnetron sputtering technique on Pt/SiO 2 /Si substrates. The deposition rate and cation composition ratios of the films were controlled to be the same regardless of the sputtering geometry. All the films show elongations in the out-of-plane lattice spacing, suggesting the presence of compressive stress with a smaller value by on-axis sputtering than by the off-axis system. There was no thickness dependence of the strain in the polycrystalline BST films. The BST films deposited using the on-axis system showed a higher bulk dielectric constant with a higher interfacial capacitance and a lower leakage current level than the films produced by the off-axis system. The strain effect was proposed to explain the correlations between the structural and electrical properties
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2009-01-01
This book introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. For the computation of turbulent compressible flows, current methods of averaging and filtering are presented so that the reader is exposed to a consistent development of applicable equation sets for both the mean or resolved fields as well as the transport equations for the turbulent stress field. For the measurement of turbulent compressible flows, current techniques ranging from hot-wire anemometry to PIV are evaluated and limitations assessed. Characterizing dynamic features of free shear flows, including jets, mixing layers and wakes, and wall-bounded flows, including shock-turbulence and shock boundary-layer interactions, obtained from computations, experiments and simulations are discussed. Key features: * Describes prediction methodologies in...
Failure behaviour of carbon/carbon composite under compression
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tushtev, K.; Grathwohl, G. [Universitaet Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Bremen (Germany); Koch, D. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut fuer Bauweisen- und Konstruktionsforschung, Keramische Verbundstrukturen, Stuttgart (Germany); Horvath, J.
2012-11-15
In this work the properties of Carbon/Carbon-material are investigated under quasi-static compression and model-like characterized. The investigated material was produced by pyrolysis of a Carbon/Carbon - composite of bidirectionally reinforced fabric layers. For the compression tests, a device to prevent additional bending stress was made. The stress-strain behaviour of this material has been reproduced in various publications. This will be discussed on the fracture behaviour and compared the experimental results from the compression tests with the characteristics of tensile and shear tests. The different compression and tensile properties of stiffness, poisson and strength were assessed. Differences between the tensile and compression behaviour resulting from on-axis tests by micro buckling and crack closure and off-axis experiments by superimposed pressure normal stresses that lead to increased shear friction. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Strength properties and structure of a submicrocrystalline Al-Mg-Mn alloy under shock compression
Petrova, A. N.; Brodova, I. G.; Razorenov, S. V.
2017-06-01
The results of studying the strength of a submicrocrystalline aluminum A5083 alloy (chemical composition was 4.4Mg-0.6Mn-0.11Si-0.23Fe-0.03Cr-0.02Cu-0.06Ti wt % and Al base) under shockwave compression are presented. The submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy was produced in the process of dynamic channel-angular pressing at a strain rate of 104 s-1. The average size of crystallites in the alloy was 180-460 nm. Hugoniot elastic limit σHEL, dynamic yield stress σy, and the spall strength σSP of the submicrocrystalline alloy were determined based on the free-surface velocity profiles of samples during shock compression. It has been established that upon shock compression, the σHEL and σy of the submicrocrystalline alloy are higher than those of the coarse-grained alloy and σsp does not depend on the grain size. The maximum value of σHEL reached for the submicrocrystalline alloy is 0.66 GPa, which is greater than that in the coarse-crystalline alloy by 78%. The dynamic yield stress is σy = 0.31 GPa, which is higher than that of the coarse-crystalline alloy by 63%. The spall strength is σsp = 1.49 GPa. The evolution of the submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy during shock compression was studied. It has been established that a mixed nonequilibrium grain-subgrain structure with a fragment size of about 400 nm is retained after shock compression, and the dislocation density and the hardness of the alloy are increased.
Molecular dynamics simulations of tension–compression asymmetry in nanocrystalline copper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Kai, E-mail: kaizhou@aliyun.com; Liu, Bin; Shao, Shaofeng; Yao, Yijun
2017-04-04
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate uniaxial tension and compression of nanocrystalline copper with mean grain sizes of 3.8–11.9 nm. The simulation results show an apparent asymmetry in the flow stress, with nanocrystalline copper stronger in compression than in tension. The asymmetry exhibits a maximum at the mean grain size of about 10 nm. The dominant mechanism of the asymmetry depends on the mean grain size. At small grain sizes, grain-boundary based plasticity dominates the asymmetry, while for large grain sizes the asymmetry mainly arises from the pressure dependent dislocation emission from grain boundaries. - Highlights: • The tension–compression asymmetry in strength exhibits a maximum at the mean grain size of about 10 nm. • The main mechanisms govern the asymmetry are grain-boundary mediated plasticity and dislocation based plasticity. • The above-mentioned mechanisms are both grain size and pressure dependent. • The transition of the asymmetry with the mean grain size is not influenced by strain rate.
Impact compressive and bending behaviour of rocks accompanied by electromagnetic phenomena.
Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Horikawa, Keitaro; Ogawa, Kinya; Watanabe, Keiko
2014-08-28
It is well known that electromagnetic phenomena are often observed preceding earthquakes. However, the mechanism by which these electromagnetic waves are generated during the fracture and deformation of rocks has not been fully identified. Therefore, in order to examine the relationship between the electromagnetic phenomena and the mechanical properties of rocks, uniaxial compression and three-point bending tests for two kinds of rocks with different quartz content, granite and gabbro, have been carried out at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Especially, in the bending tests, pre-cracked specimens of granite were also tested. Using a split Hopkinson pressure bar and a ferrite-core antenna in close proximity to the specimens, both the stress-strain (load-displacement) curve and simultaneous electromagnetic wave magnitude were measured. It was found that the dynamic compressive and bending strengths and the stress increase slope of both rocks were higher than those observed in static tests; therefore, there is a strain-rate dependence in their strength and stress increase rate. It was found from the tests using the pre-cracked bending specimens that the intensity of electromagnetic waves measured during crack extension increased almost proportionally to the increase of the maximum stress intensity factor of specimens. This tendency was observed in both the dynamic and quasi-static three-point bending tests for granite. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Compressed sensing & sparse filtering
Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J
2013-01-01
This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary.Â Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app
Martel, S. J.
2008-12-01
downstream curvature promotes the opening of the joints, whereas the compressive stress acting across the U-shaped valley promotes closure of the joints. Apparently the former more than compensates for the latter. Finally, the abundance of sheeting joints on convex ridges, where erosion is a local minimum, coupled with their scarcity in the adjacent concave valleys, where erosion is a local maximum, is consistent with hypothesis 1 but inconsistent with hypothesis 2.
Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao
2017-01-01
When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...
Experiments with automata compression
Daciuk, J.; Yu, S; Daley, M; Eramian, M G
2001-01-01
Several compression methods of finite-state automata are presented and evaluated. Most compression methods used here are already described in the literature. However, their impact on the size of automata has not been described yet. We fill that gap, presenting results of experiments carried out on
Effect of transverse compression on I/sub c/ of Nb3Sn multifilamentary wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Specking, W.; Goldacker, W.; Fluekiger, R.
1988-01-01
The effect of transverse compressive stress on critical current in bronze processed Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary wires was measured at 13.5 T. For the same wire the critical current was more sensitive to this stress than to axial stress. An increase in this stress first caused a slight enhancement of the critical current followed by a drastic decrease of 50 percent at a stress equal to 100 MPa. X-ray diffraction under transverse compression revealed a decrease in the spacing between the lattice planes parallel to the wire axis. This provided a physical basis for the initial enhancement of the critical current under transverse compressive stress
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai, J.; Phoenix, S.L. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics
2005-04-01
Predicting compressive failure of a unidirectional fibrous composite is a longstanding and challenging problem that we study from a new perspective. Motivated by previous modelling of tensile failure as well as experimental observations on compressive failures in single carbon fibers, we develop a new micromechanical model for the compressive failure process in unidirectional, planar composites. As the compressive load is increased, random fiber failures are assumed to occur due to statistically distributed flaws, analogous to what occurs in tension. These breaks are often shear-mode failures with slanted surfaces that induce shear dislocations, especially when they occur in small groups aligned obliquely. Our model includes interactions of dislocated and neighboring intact fibers through a system of fourth-order, differential equations governing transverse deformation, and also allows for local matrix plastic yielding and debonding from the fiber near and within the dislocation arrays. Using the Discrete Fourier Transform method, we find a 'building-block' analytical solution form, which naturally embodies local length scales of fiber microbuckling and instability. Based on the influence function, superposition approach, a computationally efficient scheme is developed to model the evolution of fiber and matrix stresses. Under increasing compressive strain the simulations show that matrix yielding and debonding crucially lead to large increases in bending strains in fibers next to small groups of obliquely aligned, dislocated breaks. From the paired locations of maximum fiber bending in flanking fibers, the triggering of an unstable kink band becomes realistic. The geometric features of the kink band, such as the fragment lengths and orientation angles, will depend on the fiber and matrix mechanical and geometric properties. In carbon fiber-polymer matrix systems our model predicts a much lower compressive failure stress than obtained from Rosen
Luttrell, K.M.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D.T.; Brooks, B.A.; Bevis, M.G.
2011-01-01
The great 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake off the coast of southern Chile ruptured a ???600 km length of subduction zone. In this paper, we make two independent estimates of shear stress in the crust in the region of the Chile earthquake. First, we use a coseismic slip model constrained by geodetic observations from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS to derive a spatially variable estimate of the change in static shear stress along the ruptured fault. Second, we use a static force balance model to constrain the crustal shear stress required to simultaneously support observed fore-arc topography and the stress orientation indicated by the earthquake focal mechanism. This includes the derivation of a semianalytic solution for the stress field exerted by surface and Moho topography loading the crust. We find that the deviatoric stress exerted by topography is minimized in the limit when the crust is considered an incompressible elastic solid, with a Poisson ratio of 0.5, and is independent of Young's modulus. This places a strict lower bound on the critical stress state maintained by the crust supporting plastically deformed accretionary wedge topography. We estimate the coseismic shear stress change from the Maule event ranged from-6 MPa (stress increase) to 17 MPa (stress drop), with a maximum depth-averaged crustal shear-stress drop of 4 MPa. We separately estimate that the plate-driving forces acting in the region, regardless of their exact mechanism, must contribute at least 27 MPa trench-perpendicular compression and 15 MPa trench-parallel compression. This corresponds to a depth-averaged shear stress of at least 7 MPa. The comparable magnitude of these two independent shear stress estimates is consistent with the interpretation that the section of the megathrust fault ruptured in the Maule earthquake is weak, with the seismic cycle relieving much of the total sustained shear stress in the crust. Copyright 2011 by the American
Effects of LSP on micro-structures and residual stresses in a 4 mm CLAM steel weld joints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xizhang, E-mail: chenxizhang@wzu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University., Wenzhou 325035 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Fang, Yuanyuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Shuyan; Kelleher, Joe F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Zhou, Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China)
2015-05-15
The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the distribution of residual stress and micro-structure of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel weldment were investigated via neutron diffraction and optical microscope (OM). A pair of 4 mm CLAM steel plates joined by GTA welding. Special attention is paid to the generation of high level compressive residual stresses introduced by LSP. Residual stress in longitudinal, normal and transversal direction at weldment surface and longitudinal stress through thickness are evaluated via neutron diffraction. Compressive residual stress after LSP occurred at more than 90% areas within the weld joint, it is almost double the areas of compressive stress compare to weldment surface before LSP. The maximum compressive normal residual stress becomes to −183 MPa after LSP from −63 MPa before LSP. The Modification of surface micro-structures including weld zone (WZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) are also discussed. Results to date demonstrate that laser shock processing has been a great potential method for the improvement of mechanical performance of components.
Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D, E-mail: allan.burke@itesm.m [MAHLE Engine Systems UK Ltd, 2 Central park Drive, Rugby CV23 0WE (United Kingdom)
2009-08-01
This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.
Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S; Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D
2009-01-01
This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.
Fracture criteria of reactor graphite under multiaxial stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, S.; Kawamata, K.; Kurumada, A.; Oku, T.
1987-01-01
New fracture criteria for graphite under multiaxial stresses are presented for designing core and support materials of a high temperature gas cooled reactor. Different kinds of fracture strength tests are carried out for a near isotropic graphite IG-11. Results show that, under the stress state in which tensile stresses are predominant, the maximum principal stress theory is seen as applicable for brittle fracture. Under the stress state in which compressive stresses are predominant there may be two fracture modes for brittle fracture, namely, slipping fracture and mode II fracture. For the former fracture mode the maximum shear stress criterion is suitable, but for the latter fracture mode a new mode II fracture criterion including a restraint effect for cracks is verified to be applicable. Also a statistical correction for brittle fracture criteria under multiaxial stresses is discussed. By considering the allowable stress values for safe design, the specified minimum ultimate strengths corresponding to a survival probability of 99% at the 95% confidence level are presented. (orig./HP)
Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Dong, Lu; Xu, Nuwen; Feng, Peng
2018-01-01
Intermittently jointed rocks, widely existing in many mining and civil engineering structures, are quite susceptible to cyclic loading. Understanding the fatigue mechanism of jointed rocks is vital to the rational design and the long-term stability analysis of rock structures. In this study, the fatigue mechanical properties of synthetic jointed rock models under different cyclic conditions are systematically investigated in the laboratory, including four loading frequencies, four maximum stresses, and four amplitudes. Our experimental results reveal the influence of the three cyclic loading parameters on the mechanical properties of jointed rock models, regarding the fatigue deformation characteristics, the fatigue energy and damage evolution, and the fatigue failure and progressive failure behavior. Under lower loading frequency or higher maximum stress and amplitude, the jointed specimen is characterized by higher fatigue deformation moduli and higher dissipated hysteresis energy, resulting in higher cumulative damage and lower fatigue life. However, the fatigue failure modes of jointed specimens are independent of cyclic loading parameters; all tested jointed specimens exhibit a prominent tensile splitting failure mode. Three different crack coalescence patterns are classified between two adjacent joints. Furthermore, different from the progressive failure under static monotonic loading, the jointed rock specimens under cyclic compression fail more abruptly without evident preceding signs. The tensile cracks on the front surface of jointed specimens always initiate from the joint tips and then propagate at a certain angle with the joints toward the direction of maximum compression.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sticchi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Laser Shock Peening is a fatigue enhancement treatment using laser energy to induce compressive Residual Stresses (RS in the outer layers of metallic components. This work describes the variations of introduced RS-field with peen size and coverage for thin metal samples treated with under-water-LSP. The specimens under investigation were of aluminium alloy AA2024-T351, AA2139-T3, AA7050-T76 and AA7075-T6, with thickness 1.9 mm. The RS were measured by using Hole Drilling with Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry and X-ray Diffraction. Of particular interest are the effects of the above mentioned parameters on the zero-depth value, which gives indication of the amount of RS through the thickness, and on the value of the surface compressive stresses, which indicates the magnitude of induced stresses. A 2D-axisymmetrical Finite Element model was created for a preliminary estimation of the stress field trend. From experimental results, correlated with numerical and analytical analysis, the following conclusions can be drawn: increasing the spot size the zero-depth value increases with no significant change of the maximum compressive stress; the increase of coverage leads to significant increase of the compressive stress; thin samples of Al-alloy with low Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL reveal deeper compression field than alloy with higher HEL value.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly ...
Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy
Lukasiewicz, Thomas
2013-01-01
We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...
Stress analysis of two-dimensional cellular materials with thick cell struts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Do Hyung; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Al-Hassani, S.T.S.
2008-01-01
Finite element analyses (FEA) were performed to thoroughly validate the collapse criteria of cellular materials presented in our previous companion paper. The maximum stress (von-Mises stress) on the cell strut surface and the plastic collapse stress were computed for two-dimensional (2D) cellular materials with thick cell struts. The results from the FEA were compared with those from theoretical criteria of authors. The FEA results were in good agreement with the theoretical results. The results indicate that when bending moment, axial and shear forces are considered, the maximum stress on the strut surface gives significantly different values in the tensile and compressive parts of the cell wall as well as in the two loading directions. Therefore, for the initial yielding of ductile cellular materials and the fracture of brittle cellular materials, in which the maximum stress on the strut surface is evaluated, it is necessary to consider not only the bending moment but also axial and shear forces. In addition, this study shows that for regular cellular materials with the identical strut geometry for all struts, the initial yielding and the plastic collapse under a biaxial state of stress occur not only in the inclined cell struts but also in the vertical struts. These FEA results support the theoretical conclusion of our previous companion paper that the anisotropic 2D cellular material has a truncated yield surface not only on the compressive quadrant but also on the tensile quadrant
Warm pre-stressing, preliminary experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedner, G.
1984-09-01
The beneficial effect of warm pre-stressing, WPS, on apparent fracture thoughness at low temperature is well established. Tests are usually performed with constant load during the cooling part of the load cycle. In practice load variations may occur during this part. The present paper reports a preliminary study of the influence of superimposed fatigue loads. It is found that if crack propagation occurs during cooling+fatigue loading, then the maximum load during the fatigue load cycle is the preload to be used for WPS consideration. A few tests were preformed to study the effect of preload reversal. Tensile preload was followed by a compressive load and after unloading the specimens were cooled and fractured. It was found that for the high preload level used in the tests, the beneficial effect of the tensile preload could be totally annihilated by the compressive preload. (author)
Recent tectonic stress field, active faults and geothermal fields (hot-water type) in China
Wan, Tianfeng
1984-10-01
It is quite probable that geothermal fields of the hot-water type in China do not develop in the absence of recently active faults. Such active faults are all controlled by tectonic stress fields. Using the data of earthquake fault-plane solutions, active faults, and surface thermal manifestations, a map showing the recent tectonic stress field, and the location of active faults and geothermal fields in China is presented. Data collected from 89 investigated prospects with geothermal manifestations indicate that the locations of geothermal fields are controlled by active faults and the recent tectonic stress field. About 68% of the prospects are controlled by tensional or tensional-shear faults. The angle between these faults and the direction of maximum compressive stress is less than 45°, and both tend to be parallel. About 15% of the prospects are controlled by conjugate faults. Another 14% are controlled by compressive-shear faults where the angle between these faults and the direction maximum compressive stress is greater than 45°.
Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Compressive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salim T. Yousif
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Compressive strength of concrete is a commonly used criterion in evaluating concrete. Although testing of the compressive strength of concrete specimens is done routinely, it is performed on the 28th day after concrete placement. Therefore, strength estimation of concrete at early time is highly desirable. This study presents the effort in applying neural network-based system identification techniques to predict the compressive strength of concrete based on concrete mix proportions, maximum aggregate size (MAS, and slump of fresh concrete. Back-propagation neural networks model is successively developed, trained, and tested using actual data sets of concrete mix proportions gathered from literature. The test of the model by un-used data within the range of input parameters shows that the maximum absolute error for model is about 20% and 88% of the output results has absolute errors less than 10%. The parametric study shows that water/cement ratio (w/c is the most significant factor affecting the output of the model. The results showed that neural networks has strong potential as a feasible tool for predicting compressive strength of concrete.
Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer
2011-12-15
Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.
Dynamic compressive properties and failure mechanism of glass fiber reinforced silica hydrogel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Jie; Li Shukui; Yan Lili; Huo Dongmei; Wang Fuchi
2010-01-01
The dynamic compressive properties of glass fiber reinforced silica (GFRS) hydrogel were investigated using a spilt Hopkinson pressure bar. Failure mechanism of GFRS hydrogel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Result showed that dynamic compressive stresses were much higher than the quasi-static compressive stresses at the same strain. The dynamic compressive strength was directly proportional to the strain rate with same sample dimensions. The dynamic compressive strength was directly proportional to the sample basal area at same strain rate. Dynamic compressive failure strain was small. At high strain rates, glass fibers broke down and separated from the matrix, pores shrank rapidly. Failure resulted from the increase of lateral tensile stress in hydrogel under dynamic compression.
Wave energy devices with compressible volumes.
Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John
2014-12-08
We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m 3 and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s.
Hartmann, E C; Stickley, G W
1942-01-01
Fatigue-test were conducted on six specimens made from 3/4-inch-diameter 17S-T rolled-and-drawn rod for the purpose of obtaining additional data on the fatigue life of the material at stresses up to the static strength. The specimens were tested in direct tension using a stress range from zero to a maximum in tension. A static testing machine was used to apply repeated loads in the case of the first three specimens; the other three specimens were tested in a direct tension-compression fatigue machine. The direct-stress fatigue curve obtained for the material indicates that, in the range of stresses above about two-thirds the tensile strength, the fatigue strength is higher than might be expected by simply extrapolating the ordinary curve of stress plotted against the number of cycles determined at lower stresses.
PRESENTDAY STRESS STATE OF THE SHANXI TECTONIC BELT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Kaiying
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The Shanxi tectonic belt is a historically earthquakeabundant area. For the majority of strong earthquakes in this area, the distribution of earthquake foci was controlled by the N–S oriented local structures on the tectonic belt. Studies of the present stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt can contribute to the understanding of the relationship between strong earthquakes’ occurrence and their structural distribution and also facilitate assessments of regional seismic danger and determination of the regions wherein strong earthquakes may occur in future. Using the Cataclastic Analysis Method (CAM, we performed stress inversion based on the focal mechanism data of earthquakes which took place in the Shanxi tectonic belt from 1967 to 2010. Our results show that orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress axis of the Shanxi tectonic belt might have been variable before and after the 2001 Kunlun MS=8.1 strong earthquake, with two different superior trends of the NW–SE and NE–SW orientation in different periods. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is oriented in the NE–SW direction, the pattern of the space distribution of the seismic events in the Shanxi tectonic belt shows a trend of their concentration in the N–S oriented tectonic segments. At the same time, the stress state is registered as horizontal shearing and horizontal extension in the N–S and NE–SW oriented local segments in turn. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is NW–SE oriented, the stress state of the N–S and NE–SW oriented tectonic segments is primarily registered as horizontal shearing. Estimations of plunges of stress axes show that seismicity in the Shanxi belt corresponds primarily to the activity of lowangle faults, and highangle stress sites are located in the NE–SW oriented extensional tectonic segments of the Shanxi belt. This indicates that the stress change of the Shanxi belt is
Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charles Mendler
2011-03-15
the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new
influence of relative humidity on tensile and compressive creep
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
creep specimens were cured in a fog room at 99% RH and 20 oC until the beginning of the tests in the controlled environment creep rooms. To eliminate the influence of stress level and age of loading, a uniform stress of 12.26MPa was used for the three compressive creep tests and the specimens were all loaded at the.
Stress strain flow curves for Cu-OFP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandstroem, Rolf; Hallgren, Josefin
2009-04-01
Stress strain curves of oxygen free copper alloyed with phosphorus Cu-OFP have been determined in compression and tension. The compression tests were performed at room temperature for strain rates between 10 -5 and 10 -3 1/s. The tests in tension covered the temperature range 20 to 175 deg C for strain rates between 10 -7 and 5x10 -3 1/s. The results in compression and tension were close for similar strain rates. A model for stress strain curves has been formulated using basic dislocation mechanisms. The model has been set up in such a way that fitting of parameters to the curves is avoided. By using a fundamental creep model as a basis a direct relation to creep data has been established. The maximum engineering flow stress in tension is related to the creep stress giving the same strain rate. The model reproduces the measured flow curves as function of temperature and strain rate in the investigated interval. The model is suitable to use in finite-element computations of structures in Cu-OFP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, P.-Y.; Hou, S.-S.
2005-01-01
In this paper, performance analysis and comparison based on the maximum power and maximum power density conditions have been conducted for an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The Atkinson cycle is internally reversible but externally irreversible, since there is external irreversibility of heat transfer during the processes of constant volume heat addition and constant pressure heat rejection. This study is based purely on classical thermodynamic analysis methodology. It should be especially emphasized that all the results and conclusions are based on classical thermodynamics. The power density, defined as the ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle, is taken as the optimization objective because it considers the effects of engine size as related to investment cost. The results show that an engine design based on maximum power density with constant effectiveness of the hot and cold side heat exchangers or constant inlet temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs will have smaller size but higher efficiency, compression ratio, expansion ratio and maximum temperature than one based on maximum power. From the view points of engine size and thermal efficiency, an engine design based on maximum power density is better than one based on maximum power conditions. However, due to the higher compression ratio and maximum temperature in the cycle, an engine design based on maximum power density conditions requires tougher materials for engine construction than one based on maximum power conditions
Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.
2004-01-01
In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahotra, I.M.
2006-01-01
The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)
Overall bolt stress optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2013-01-01
The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsson, L.E.
1984-06-01
The axial residual stress distribution on the inner surface of welded pipes of stainless steel SS 2333 (AISI 304) have been measured using the X-ray diffraction technique. Four halves of two pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm and wall thickness of 10 mm were investigated. The result on the pipe inner surface shows compressive stresses in the weld metal and tensile stresses within a region between 8-23 mm with a maximum of 180MPa at a distance of 17 mm from the weld centerline. The maximum axial and circumferential residual stresses on the pipe outer surface are of the magnitude of 100 MPa. By cutting the pipes into two halves these stresses are relaxed by about 35 MPa. (author)
Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari
1980-01-01
A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, A.J.
1975-01-01
The interest in using large lasers to achieve a very short and intense pulse for generating fusion plasma has provided a strong impetus to reexamine the possibilities of optical pulse compression at high energy. Pulse compression allows one to generate pulses of long duration (minimizing damage problems) and subsequently compress optical pulses to achieve the short pulse duration required for specific applications. The ideal device for carrying out this program has not been developed. Of the two approaches considered, the Gires--Tournois approach is limited by the fact that the bandwidth and compression are intimately related, so that the group delay dispersion times the square of the bandwidth is about unity for all simple Gires--Tournois interferometers. The Treacy grating pair does not suffer from this limitation, but is inefficient because diffraction generally occurs in several orders and is limited by the problem of optical damage to the grating surfaces themselves. Nonlinear and parametric processes were explored. Some pulse compression was achieved by these techniques; however, they are generally difficult to control and are not very efficient. (U.S.)
Working characteristics of variable intake valve in compressed air engine.
Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin
2014-01-01
A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine.
Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine
Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin
2014-01-01
A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536
Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qihui Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine.
Compression cracking of plastic spheres: a high speed photography study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majzoub, R.; Chaudhri, M.M.
1999-01-01
Failure of brittle spheres under compressive loading, both quasi static and dynamic, is a technologically important problem. However, so far, neither the stress state in a loaded nor the failure process in understood clearly. In fact, because the process of the failure of a loaded sphere is very rapid, it has not been possible to follow it when making static observations. We have, therefore, carried out a high-speed photographic study using framing rates of up to 200,000 frames per second to follow the sequence of events when polished 12.7 mm diameter spheres of acrylic resin are fragmented using a low-velocity impact apparatus. The latter consist of a 5.7 kg hammer, which is allowed to drop on to the test sphere from a height of 1.3 m and the entire event of impact and ensuing fracture is photographed with a rotating mirror camera (C-4). Form numerous impact experiments it has been found that as the impact load increases gradually, plastic flow and flattering of the sphere occurs at the contact region. The size of the flattened region continuous to grow with increasing impact load and when this region becomes sufficiently large, usually one or two cracks initiate at the periphery of the contact rather than in the bulk of the sphere. The surface cracks then grow into the bulk of the sphere at velocities in the range of 600-800 m s/sup -1/. It is interesting to note these crack velocities are the maximum observed velocities in this material, but these are only approx. 0.8 of the Rayleigh wave velocity, which is the theoretically predicted maximum crack velocity in brittle materials. It is argued that in order to cause the catastrophic failure of a solid sphere, it is necessary to cause plasticity in it which then leads to the generation of tensile hoop stresses at the circle of contact between the sphere and platen. (author)
Effect of bronze on the compression of Nb3Sn in multifilamentary conductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rupp, G.
1978-01-01
Nb 3 Sn in multifilamentary conductors is subject to compressive strain as a result of the relatively small thermal contraction of the filaments as compared to bronze. The critical current Isub(c) is consequently degraded. The critical current increases, when an external tensile stress is applied, and passes through a maximum. The ratio of the maximum critical current to the initial critical current increases with the flux density and reaches a value of two at a flux density of 16 T for technical conductors. The strain epsilonsub(m), at which Isub(c) maximum is reached, lies between 0.4% and 0.7% for the conductors investigated and depends on the material parameters. For a constant ratio of bronze to filament cross section this strain epsilonsub(m) is reduced as the Nb 3 Sn layer thickness is increased and can be determined approximately by a graphical method from the stress-strain diagram. Epsilonsub(m) is to a large extent dependent on the metallurgical properties of bronze, which vary to a considerable extent depending upon the heat treatment. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benajes, Jesús; Pastor, José V.; García, Antonio; Boronat, Vicente
2016-01-01
Highlights: • RCCI with CR 12.75 reaches up to 80% load fulfilling mechanical limits. • Ultra-low levels in NOx and soot emissions are obtained in the whole engine map. • Ultra-high levels of CO and uHC have been measured overall at low load. • RCCI improves fuel consumption from 25% to 80% engine loads comparing with CDC. - Abstract: Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition concept offers an ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions with a high thermal efficiency. This work investigates the capabilities of this low temperature combustion concept to work on the whole map of a medium duty engine proposing strategies to solve its main challenges. In this sense, an extension to high loads of the concept without exceeding mechanical stress as well as a mitigation of carbon oxide and unburned hydrocarbons emissions at low load together with a fuel consumption penalty have been identified as main Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition drawbacks. For this purpose, a single cylinder engine derived from commercial four cylinders medium-duty engine with an adapted compression ratio of 12.75 is used. Commercial 95 octane gasoline was used as a low reactivity fuel and commercial diesel as a high reactivity fuel. Thus, the study consists of two different parts. Firstly, the work is focused on the development and evaluation of an engine map trying to achieve the maximum possible load without exceeding a pressure rise rate of 15 bar/CAD. The second part holds on improving fuel consumption and carbon oxide and unburned hydrocarbons emissions at low load. Results suggest that it is possible to achieve up to 80% of nominal conventional diesel combustion engine load without overpassing the constraints of pressure rise rate (below 15 bar/CAD) and maximum pressure peak (below 190 bar) while obtaining ultra-low levels of nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. Regarding low load challenges, it has developed a particular methodology sweeping the gasoline-diesel blend together
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasuo, Nakamura; Toshizo, Ohya; Koji, Okimura
2001-01-01
As one of degradation conditions on components used in water, the overlapping effect of environment, material and stress might cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Especially, for the tensile residual stress produced by welding, it is particularly effective to reduce the tensile residual stress on the material surface to prevent SCC. In this paper, the residual stress improvement method using cavitation impact generated by a water jet, called Water Jet Peening (WJP), has been developed as the maintenance technology for the inner surfaces of small-diameter Ni-Cr-Fe alloy (Alloy 600) pipes. As the results, by WJP for the inner surface of Alloy 600 pipe (inner diameter; approximately 10-15 mm), we confirmed that the compressive stress generated within the range from the surface to the inner part about 0.5 mm deep and took a maximum value about 350 MPa on the surface. (author)
End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Ju
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.
Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by the fractal ... rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is ... muscle stress limitation, and maximized oxygen delivery and metabolic rates.
Isentropic Compression of Argon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oona, H.; Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Rodriquez, P.J.; Younger, S.M.; Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D.
1997-01-01
We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roestenberg, T. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)
2012-06-07
The advantages of the Pulsed Compression Reactor (PCR) over the internal combustion engine-type chemical reactors are briefly discussed. Over the last four years a project concerning the fundamentals of the PCR technology has been performed by the University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands. In order to assess the feasibility of the application of the PCR principle for the conversion methane to syngas, several fundamental questions needed to be answered. Two important questions that relate to the applicability of the PCR for any process are: how large is the heat transfer rate from a rapidly compressed and expanded volume of gas, and how does this heat transfer rate compare to energy contained in the compressed gas? And: can stable operation with a completely free piston as it is intended with the PCR be achieved?.
Medullary compression syndrome
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barriga T, L.; Echegaray, A.; Zaharia, M.; Pinillos A, L.; Moscol, A.; Barriga T, O.; Heredia Z, A.
1994-01-01
The authors made a retrospective study in 105 patients treated in the Radiotherapy Department of the National Institute of Neoplasmic Diseases from 1973 to 1992. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the influence of radiotherapy in patients with medullary compression syndrome in aspects concerning pain palliation and improvement of functional impairment. Treatment sheets of patients with medullary compression were revised: 32 out of 39 of patients (82%) came to hospital by their own means and continued walking after treatment, 8 out of 66 patients (12%) who came in a wheelchair or were bedridden, could mobilize by their own after treatment, 41 patients (64%) had partial alleviation of pain after treatment. In those who came by their own means and did not change their characteristics, functional improvement was observed. It is concluded that radiotherapy offers palliative benefit in patients with medullary compression syndrome. (authors). 20 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs
Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1979-07-01
A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, C.H.
1976-01-01
Twenty-nine intervals in 10 core holes were hydraulically fractured in N, E, and T tunnels, Nevada Test Site, during 1974. Certain pressures were determined and related to the ambient stress field, but the orientation of the hydraulic fractures was not measured. These data and data from previous investigations in G tunnel indicated that both the magnitude of the hydraulic pressures and the direction of fracturing are independent of the orientation of the core holes. The maximum and minimum principal compressive stresses determined by the hydraulic fracturing methods are good approximations of those determined by nearby overcore methods. The data show that a good approximation of the magnitudes of the maximum and minimum principal stress axes can be obtained from several hydrofractured intervals in one core hole. Furthermore, if fracture orientation can be measured, then the direction of minimum principal compressive stress can be determined and the orientation of the plane of the maximum and intermediate principal compressive stresses can also be determined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Lae-Hyong; Lee, Dae-Oen; Han, Jae-Hung
2011-01-01
We introduce a new compression test method for piezoelectric materials to investigate changes in piezoelectric properties under the compressive stress condition. Until now, compression tests of piezoelectric materials have been generally conducted using bulky piezoelectric ceramics and pressure block. The conventional method using the pressure block for thin piezoelectric patches, which are used in unimorph or bimorph actuators, is prone to unwanted bending and buckling. In addition, due to the constrained boundaries at both ends, the observed piezoelectric behavior contains boundary effects. In order to avoid these problems, the proposed method employs two guide plates with initial longitudinal tensile stress. By removing the tensile stress after bonding a piezoelectric material between the guide layers, longitudinal compressive stress is induced in the piezoelectric layer. Using the compression test specimens, two important properties, which govern the actuation performance of the piezoelectric material, the piezoelectric strain coefficients and the elastic modulus, are measured to evaluate the effects of applied electric fields and re-poling. The results show that the piezoelectric strain coefficient d 31 increases and the elastic modulus decreases when high voltage is applied to PZT5A, and the compression in the longitudinal direction decreases the piezoelectric strain coefficient d 31 but does not affect the elastic modulus. We also found that the re-poling of the piezoelectric material increases the elastic modulus, but the piezoelectric strain coefficient d 31 is not changed much (slightly increased) by re-poling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melese d'Hospital, G.B.
1979-10-01
General expressions for steady state temperatures and elastic thermal stress distributions are derived for a hollow fuel element cooled on both sides. The main simplifying assumptions consist of one dimensional heat transfer and a single medium. Dimensionless numerical results are plotted in the case of uniform internal heat generation and for constant thermal conductivity. Solid rods and flat plates are treated as special cases. As could be expected, cooling on both sides rather than on only one side, leads to significant reduction in maximum fuel temperature and thermal stresses for a given power density, or to a significant increase in power density for either given maximum temperature drop in the fuel or for maximum tensile thermal stress. Typically, for a rod diameter ratio of 2, the power density could be increased by a factor of 3 to 4 without increasing the maximum stress. Similarly, for the same power density, replacing internal cooling of a hollow fuel element by external cooling reduces the maximum fuel temperature drop by a factor of 1.5 and the average fuel temperature drop (or maximum tensile stress) by a factor of 2, with the same maximum compressive stress
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Apostolico
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.
The Diagonal Compression Field Method using Circular Fans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas
2005-01-01
This paper presents a new design method, which is a modification of the diagonal compression field method, the modification consisting of the introduction of circular fan stress fields. The traditional method does not allow changes of the concrete compression direction throughout a given beam...... if equilibrium is strictly required. This is conservative, since it is not possible fully to utilize the concrete strength in regions with low shear stresses. The larger inclination (the smaller -value) of the uniaxial concrete stress the more transverse shear reinforcement is needed; hence it would be optimal...... if the -value for a given beam could be set to a low value in regions with high shear stresses and thereafter increased in regions with low shear stresses. Thus the shear reinforcement would be reduced and the concrete strength would be utilized in a better way. In the paper it is shown how circular fan stress...
Failure Waves in Shock-Compressed Glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanel, G. I.
2006-01-01
The failure wave is a network of cracks that are nucleated on the surface and propagate into the elastically stressed body. It is a mode of catastrophic fracture in an elastically stressed media whose relevance is not limited to impact events. In the paper, main properties of the failure waves are summarized and discussed. It has been shown that the failure wave is really a wave process which is characterized by small increase of the longitudinal stress and corresponding increments of the particle velocity and the density. The propagation velocity of the failure wave is less than the sound speed; it is not directly related to the compressibility but is determined by the crack growth speed. The failure wave is steady if the stress state ahead of it is supported unchanging. In some sense the process is similar to a subsonic combustion wave. Computer simulations based on the phenomenological combustion-like model reproduces well all kinematical aspects of the phenomenon
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg
2013-01-01
in the joint will ensure a certain level of load-carrying capacity. This is due to the interaction between compression in the weak mortar and tension in the adjacent bricks. This paper proposes an expression for the compressive strength of masonry made with weak lime mortars (fm... of masonry depends only on the strength of the bricks. A compression failure in masonry made with weak mortars occurs as a tension failure in the bricks, as they seek to prevent the mortar from being pressed out of the joints. The expression is derived by assuming hydrostatic pressure in the mortar joints......, which is the most unfavourable stress distribution with respect to tensile stresses in bricks. The expression is compared with the results of compression tests of masonry made with weak mortars. It can take into account bricks with arbitrary dimensions as well as perforated bricks. For a stronger mortar...
Compressible generalized Newtonian fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.
2010-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 1097-1110 ISSN 0044-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : power law fluid * uniform temperature * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2010
Temporal compressive sensing systems
Reed, Bryan W.
2017-12-12
Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.
Gas compression infrared generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hug, W.F.
1980-01-01
A molecular gas is compressed in a quasi-adiabatic manner to produce pulsed radiation during each compressor cycle when the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, and part of the energy is recovered during the expansion phase, as defined in U.S. Pat. No. 3,751,666; characterized by use of a cylinder with a reciprocating piston as a compressor
The impact of mineral composition on compressibility of saturated soils
Dolinar, Bojana
2012-01-01
This article analyses the impact of soils` mineral composition on their compressibility. Physical and chemical properties of minerals which influence the quantity of intergrain water in soils and, consequently, the compressibility of soils are established by considering the previous theoretical findings. Test results obtained on artificially prepared samples are used to determine the analytical relationship between the water content and stress state, depending on the mineralogical properties ...
Behaviour of soil-cement specimens in unconfined dynamic compression
Davies, J.; Fendukly, L. M.
1994-06-01
The response of the cement-stabilized red marl to dynamic loading in compression has been investigated over a range of cement contents and curing times. Specimens were subjected to different stress levels below unconfined compressive strength, at a frequency of 5 Hz, and a fatigue relationship for the material was developed. The value of resilient modulus was found to be greater than the modulus of elasticity for the same cement content and curing time.
Magnetic field compression using pinch-plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Veno, I.
1987-01-01
In a previous report, the method for ultra-high magnetic field compression by using the pinchplasma was discussed. It is summarized as follows. The experiment is performed with the Mather-type plasma focus device tau/sub 1/4/ = 2 μs, I=880 kA at V=20 kV). An initial DC magnetic field is fed by an electromagnet embedded in the inner electrode. The axial component of the magnetic field diverges from the maximum field of 1 kG on the surface of the inner electrode. The density profile deduced from a Mach-Zehnder interferogram with a 2-ns N/sub 2/-laser shows a density dip lasting for 30 ns along the axes. Using the measured density of 8 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/, the temperature of 1.5 keV and the pressure balance relation, the magnitude of the trapped magnetic field is estimated to be 1.0 MG. The magnitude of the compressed magnetic field is also measured by Faraday rotation in a single-mode quartz fiber and a magnetic pickup soil. A protective polyethylene tube (3-mm o.d.) is used along the central axis through the inner electrode and the discharge chamber. The peak value of the compressed field range from 150 to 190 kG. No signal of the magnetic field appears up to the instance of the maximum pinch
Jung, K.; Kitamori, A.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Komatsu, K.
2006-01-01
This research is focused on evaluating the efficiency and failure mechanism of joints using a komisen (Japanese traditional square key) of compressed sugi (Japanese ceder ;Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), and to evaluate to what extend hozo-komisen (Japanese traditional mortise and tenon) joint
Residual stresses in U-bending deformations and expansion joints of heat exchanger tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Sun Jae; Jang, Jin Sung; Kuk, Ii Hiun; Bae, Kang Gug; Kim, Sung Chung
2000-01-01
Residual stress induced in U-bending and tube-to-tubesheet joint processes of PWR's rew-1 heat exchanger tube was measured by X-ray method and Hole-Drilling Method(HDM). Compressive residual stresses(-) at the extrados surface were induced in U-bending, and its maximum value reached -319MPa in axial direction at the position of ψ=0 deg. Tensile residual stresses (+) of 0σ zz =45 MPa and σ θθ =25MPa were introduced in the intrados surface at the position of ψ=0 deg. Maximum tensile residual stress of 170 MPa was measured at the flank side at the position of ψ=90 deg, i.e., at apex region. It was observed that higher stress gradient was generated at the irregular transition regions (ITR). The trend of residual stress induced by U-bending process of the tubes was found to be related with the change of ovality. The residual stress induced by the explosive joint method was found to be lower than that by the mechanical roll method. The gradient of residual stress along the expanded tube was highest at the transition region (TR), and the residual stress in circumferential direction was found to be higher than the residual stress in axial direction
Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottershead, C.T.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs
Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottershead, C.T.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore
A portable storage maximum thermometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayart, Gerard.
1976-01-01
A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr
Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu
1989-01-01
A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)
Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)
2013-01-15
;'Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage'' (ALP-CAES). The compression ratio of the gas in the vessel (ratio between maximum and minimum pressure) is relatively low; typical values would be < 1,5, whereas the compression ratio in existing CAES systems can be higher than 100, because the air is compressed from atmospheric pressure to the storage pressure. This investigation leads to the conclusion that: 1) The mechanical/electrical efficiency of the ALP-CAES system is significantly higher than existing CAES systems due to a low or nearly absent compression heat loss. Furthermore, pumps/turbines, which use a liquid as a medium, are more efficient than air/gas compressors/turbines. In addition, the demand for fuel during expansion does not occur. 2) The energy density of the ALP-CAES system is much lower than that of existing CAES systems (by a factor of 15-30) leading to a similar increase in investment in pressure vessel volume per stored MWh. Since the pressure vessel constitutes a relatively large fraction of the overall cost of a CAES system, an increase of 15-30 times renders the system economically unfeasible unless the operating conditions and the system design are very carefully selected to compensate the low energy density. Future electricity prices may increase to the extent that the efficiency benefit of ALP-CAES partly compensates the added investment. 3) When comparing ALP-CAES to an adiabatic CAES system, where compression heat is stored in thermal oil, the ALP-CAES system is found only to be competitive under a very specific set of operating/design conditions, including very high operation pressure and the use of very large caverns. 4) New systems are under development, which show an interesting trend in that they use near-isothermal compression and expansion of air (compression/expansion at almost constant temperature), eliminate compression heat loss and still maintain nearly the same level of energy density as existing CAES systems. This
Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hoogterp, Francis
2003-01-01
... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuura, Akiko; Urashima, Masaki; Nishihara, Reisuke
2009-01-01
Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a useful method of breast biopsy. However, some patients feel unbearable breast pain due to compression. Breast pain due to compression caused the fact that the breast cannot be compressed sufficiently. Sufficient compression is important to fix the breast in this method. Breast pain during this procedure is problematic from the perspectives of both stress and fixing the breast. We performed biopsy in the original manner by injecting local anesthetic before compression, in order to relieve breast pain due to compression. This was only slightly different in order from the standard method, and there was no need for any special technique or device. This way allowed for even higher breast compression, and all of the most recent 30 cases were compressed at levels greater than 120N. This approach is useful not only for relieving pain, but also for fixing the breast. (author)
Active stress along the ne external margin of the Apennines: the Ferrara arc, northern Italy
Montone, Paola; Mariucci, M. Teresa
1999-09-01
We have analysed borehole breakout data from 12 deep wells in order to constrain the direction of the minimum and maximum horizontal stress in a part of the Po Plain, northern Italy, characterised by a ˜N-S prevailing compressional stress regime, and in order to shed light on the regional state of stress and on the correlation between the active stress field and the orientation of tectonic structures. The results have been compared with seismological data relating to 1988-1995 crustal seismicity (2.5Reggio Emilia ( Ms=5.1) events. Plio-Pleistocene mesostructural data are also described in order to better define the present-day stress field and to understand the active tectonic processes in particular stress provinces. The borehole breakout analysis, in accordance with the seismicity and mesostructural data, shows the presence of a predominant compression area, characterised by approximately N-S maximum horizontal stress, along the outer thrust of the Ferrara arc. Particularly, the breakout analysis indicates a minimum horizontal stress, N81W±22° relative to a total of eleven analysed wells, with 3746 m cumulative total length of breakout zones. Among these, nine wells are located in the same tectonic structure, consisting of an arc of asymmetric folds overthrust towards the NE. The breakout results for these wells are quite similar in terms of minimum horizontal stress direction (˜E-W oriented). The other two wells are located in the outside sector of the arc and one of them shows a different minimum horizontal stress direction, probably distinctive of another tectonic unit. On the basis of these new reliable stress indicators, the active compressive front in this area is located along the termination of the external northern Apenninic arc.
Compression Models for Plasma Focus Devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, Jose; Calusse, Alejandro; Ramos, Ruben; Rodriguez Palomino, Luis
2003-01-01
Using a numerical model that calculates the dynamics of Plasma Focus devices, we compared the results of three different compression models of the plasma pinch.One of the main objectives in this area is to develop a simplified model to calculate the neutron production of Plasma Focus devices, to study the influence of the main parameters in this neutron yield.The dynamics is thoroughly studied, and the model predicts fairly well values such as maximum currents and times for pinch collapse.Therefore, we evaluate here different models of pinch compression, to try to predict the neutron production with good agreement with the rest of the variables involved.To fulfill this requirement, we have experimental results of neutron production as a function of deuterium filling pressure in the chamber, and typical values of other main variables in the dynamics of the current sheet
Shock compression and quasielastic release in tantalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.N.; Hixson, R.S.; Tonks, D.L.; Gray, G.T. III
1994-01-01
Previous studies of quasielastic release in shock-loaded FCC metals have shown a strong influence of the defect state on the leading edge, or first observable arrival, of the release wave. This is due to the large density of pinned dislocation segments behind the shock front, their relatively large pinning separation, and a very short response time as determined by the drag coefficient in the shock-compressed state. This effect is entirely equivalent to problems associated with elastic moduli determination using ultrasonic methods. This is particularly true for FCC metals, which have an especially low Peierls stress, or inherent lattice resistance, that has little influence in pinning dislocation segments and inhibiting anelastic deformation. BCC metals, on the other hand, have a large Peierls stress that essentially holds dislocation segments in place at low net applied shear stresses and thus allows fully elastic deformation to occur in the complete absence of anelastic behavior. Shock-compression and release experiments have been performed on tantalum (BCC), with the observation that the leading release disturbance is indeed elastic. This conclusion is established by examination of experimental VISAR records taken at the tantalum/sapphire (window) interface in a symmetric-impact experiment which subjects the sample to a peak longitudinal stress of approximately 7.3 GPa, in comparison with characteristic code calculations. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics
Compressible turbulent flows: aspects of prediction and analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedrich, R. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Fachgebiet Stroemungsmechanik
2007-03-15
variation as sources in the pressure Poisson equation rather than wave propagation phenomena. This opens new challenges to turbulence modellers and underlines the need to treat compressibility effects via the full Reynolds stress equations. (orig.)
Compression characteristics and permeability of saturated Gaomiaozi ca-bentonite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Wenjing; Sun De'an; Fang Lei
2012-01-01
The compression characteristics and permeability of compacted Gaomiaozi Ca-bentonite saturated by the water uptake tests are studied by conducting a series of one-dimension compression tests. The permeability coefficient can be calculated by the Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory after the consolidation coefficient is obtained by the square root of time method. It is found that the compression curves of compacted specimens saturated by the water uptake tests tend to be consistent in the relatively high stress range. The compression indexes show a linear decrease with increasing dry density and the swelling index is a constant. The permeability coefficient decreases with increasing compression stress, and they show the linear relationship in double logarithmic coordinates. Meanwhile, the permeability coefficient shows a linear decrease with decreasing void ratio, which has no relationship with initial states, stress states and stress paths. The permeability coefficient k of GMZ Ca-bentonite at dry density Pd of 1.75 g/cm 3 can be calculated as 2.0 × 10 -11 cm/s by the linear relationship between Pd and log k. It is closed to the permeability coefficient of GMZ Ca-bentonite with the same dry density published in literature, which testifies that the method calculating the permeability coefficient is feasible from the consolidation coefficient obtained by the consolidation test. (authors)
LZ-Compressed String Dictionaries
Arz, Julian; Fischer, Johannes
2013-01-01
We show how to compress string dictionaries using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ78) data compression algorithm. Our approach is validated experimentally on dictionaries of up to 1.5 GB of uncompressed text. We achieve compression ratios often outperforming the existing alternatives, especially on dictionaries containing many repeated substrings. Our query times remain competitive.
Tree compression with top trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.
2013-01-01
We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...
Tree compression with top trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.
2015-01-01
We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, T.; Cook, N.G.W.
1979-12-01
Thermally induced displacements and stresses have been calculated by finite element analysis to guide the design, operation, and data interpretation of the in situ heating experiments in a granite formation at Stripa, Sweden. There are two full-scale tests with electrical heater canisters comparable in size and power to those envisaged for reprocessed high level waste canisters and a time-scaled test. To provide a simple theoretical basis for data analysis, linear thermoelasticity was assumed. Constant (temperature-independent) thermal and mechanical rock properties were used in the calculations. These properties were determined by conventional laboratory testing on small intact core specimens recovered from the Stripa test site. Two-dimensional axisymmetric models were used for the full-scale experiments, and three-dimensional models for the time-scaled experiment. Highest compressive axial and tangential stresses are expected at the wall of the heater borehole. For the 3.6 kW full-scale heated experiment, maximum compressive tangential stress was predicted to be below the unconfined compressive strength of Stripa granite, while for the 5 kW experiment, the maximum was approximately equal to the compressive strength before the concentric ring of eight 1 kW peripheral heaters was activated, but would exceed that soon afterwards. Three zones of tensile thermomechanical stresses will occur in each full-scale experiment. Maximum vertical displacements range from a fraction of a millimeter over most of the instrumented area of the time-scaled experiment to a few millimeters in the higher-power full-scale experiment. Radial displacements are typically half or less than vertical displacements. The predicted thermomechanical displacements and stresses have been stored in an on-site computer to facilitate instant graphic comparison with field data as the latter are collected
Digital cinema video compression
Husak, Walter
2003-05-01
The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.
Fingerprints in compressed strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge
2017-01-01
In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time...
Mechanical properties of the human spinal cord under the compressive loading.
Karimi, Alireza; Shojaei, Ahmad; Tehrani, Pedram
2017-12-01
The spinal cord as the most complex and critical part of the human body is responsible for the transmission of both motor and sensory impulses between the body and the brain. Due to its pivotal role any types of physical injury in that disrupts its function following by shortfalls, including the minor motor and sensory malfunctions as well as complicate quadriplegia and lifelong ventilator dependency. In order to shed light on the injuries to the spinal cord, the application of the computational models to simulate the trauma impact loading to that are deemed required. Nonetheless, it has not been fulfilled since there is a paucity of knowledge about the mechanical properties of the spinal cord, especially the cervical one, under the compressive loading on the grounds of the difficulty in obtaining this tissue from the human body. This study was aimed at experimentally measuring the mechanical properties of the human cervical spinal cord of 24 isolated fresh samples under the unconfined compressive loading at a relatively low strain rate. The stress-strain data revealed the elastic modulus and maximum/failure stress of 40.12±6.90 and 62.26±5.02kPa, respectively. Owing to the nonlinear response of the spinal cord, the Yeoh, Ogden, and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material models have also been employed. The results may have implications not only for understanding the linear elastic and nonlinear hyperelastic mechanical properties of the cervical spinal cord under the compressive loading, but also for providing a raw data for investigating the injury as a result of the trauma thru the numerical simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On Maximum Entropy and Inference
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luigi Gresele
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.
WSNs Microseismic Signal Subsection Compression Algorithm Based on Compressed Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhouzhou Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For wireless network microseismic monitoring and the problems of low compression ratio and high energy consumption of communication, this paper proposes a segmentation compression algorithm according to the characteristics of the microseismic signals and the compression perception theory (CS used in the transmission process. The algorithm will be collected as a number of nonzero elements of data segmented basis, by reducing the number of combinations of nonzero elements within the segment to improve the accuracy of signal reconstruction, while taking advantage of the characteristics of compressive sensing theory to achieve a high compression ratio of the signal. Experimental results show that, in the quantum chaos immune clone refactoring (Q-CSDR algorithm for reconstruction algorithm, under the condition of signal sparse degree higher than 40, to be more than 0.4 of the compression ratio to compress the signal, the mean square error is less than 0.01, prolonging the network life by 2 times.
Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis
Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani
2011-01-01
Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunfeng Shan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the ﬁnding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reﬂects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Pan [LNM, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Kang, Zhitao; Summers, Christopher J. [Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0826 (United States); Bansihev, Alexandr A.; Christensen, James M.; Dlott, Dana D. [School of Chemical Sciences and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Breidenich, Jennifer; Scripka, David A.; Thadhani, Naresh N. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States); Zhou, Min, E-mail: min.zhou@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States)
2016-01-04
Laser-driven shock compression experiments and corresponding finite element method simulations are carried out to investigate the blueshift in the optical emission spectra under continuous laser excitation of a dilute composite consisting of 0.15% CdTe quantum dots by weight embedded in polyvinyl alcohol polymer. This material is a potential candidate for use as internal stress sensors. The analyses focus on the time histories of the wavelength blue-shift for shock loading with pressures up to 7.3 GPa. The combined measurements and calculations allow a relation between the wavelength blueshift and pressure for the loading conditions to be extracted. It is found that the blueshift first increases with pressure to a maximum and subsequently decreases with pressure. This trend is different from the monotonic increase of blueshift with pressure observed under conditions of quasistatic hydrostatic compression. Additionally, the blueshift in the shock experiments is much smaller than that in hydrostatic experiments at the same pressure levels. The differences in responses are attributed to the different stress states achieved in the shock and hydrostatic experiments and the time dependence of the mechanical response of the polymer in the composite. The findings offer a potential guide for the design and development of materials for internal stress sensors for shock conditions.
LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clendenin, J.
2005-01-01
The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed
Stress orientations in subduction zones and the strength of subduction megathrust faults.
Hardebeck, Jeanne L
2015-09-11
Subduction zone megathrust faults produce most of the world's largest earthquakes. Although the physical properties of these faults are difficult to observe directly, their frictional strength can be estimated indirectly by constraining the orientations of the stresses that act on them. A global investigation of stress orientations in subduction zones finds that the maximum compressive stress axis plunges systematically trenchward, consistently making an angle of 45° to 60° with respect to the subduction megathrust fault. These angles indicate that the megathrust fault is not substantially weaker than its surroundings. Together with several other lines of evidence, this implies that subduction zone megathrusts are weak faults in a low-stress environment. The deforming outer accretionary wedge may decouple the stress state along the megathrust from the constraints of the free surface. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zinszner Jean-Luc
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Ceramic materials are commonly used as protective materials particularly due to their very high hardness and compressive strength. However, the microstructure of a ceramic has a great influence on its compressive strength and on its ballistic efficiency. To study the influence of microstructural parameters on the dynamic compressive behaviour of silicon carbides, isentropic compression experiments have been performed on two silicon carbide grades using a high pulsed power generator called GEPI. Contrary to plate impact experiments, the use of the GEPI device and of the lagrangian analysis allows determining the whole loading path. The two SiC grades studied present different Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL due to their different microstructures. For these materials, the experimental technique allowed evaluating the evolution of the equivalent stress during the dynamic compression. It has been observed that these two grades present a work hardening more or less pronounced after the HEL. The densification of the material seems to have more influence on the HEL than the grain size.
Compressed sensing electron tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leary, Rowan; Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A.; Holland, Daniel J.
2013-01-01
The recent mathematical concept of compressed sensing (CS) asserts that a small number of well-chosen measurements can suffice to reconstruct signals that are amenable to sparse or compressible representation. In addition to powerful theoretical results, the principles of CS are being exploited increasingly across a range of experiments to yield substantial performance gains relative to conventional approaches. In this work we describe the application of CS to electron tomography (ET) reconstruction and demonstrate the efficacy of CS–ET with several example studies. Artefacts present in conventional ET reconstructions such as streaking, blurring of object boundaries and elongation are markedly reduced, and robust reconstruction is shown to be possible from far fewer projections than are normally used. The CS–ET approach enables more reliable quantitative analysis of the reconstructions as well as novel 3D studies from extremely limited data. - Highlights: • Compressed sensing (CS) theory and its application to electron tomography (ET) is described. • The practical implementation of CS–ET is outlined and its efficacy demonstrated with examples. • High fidelity tomographic reconstruction is possible from a small number of images. • The CS–ET reconstructions can be more reliably segmented and analysed quantitatively. • CS–ET is applicable to different image content by choice of an appropriate sparsifying transform
Algorithm for Compressing Time-Series Data
Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Darlington, Edward Hugo
2012-01-01
An algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomials effects lossy compression of time-series data or other one-dimensional data streams (e.g., spectral data) that are arranged in blocks for sequential transmission. The algorithm was developed for use in transmitting data from spacecraft scientific instruments to Earth stations. In spite of its lossy nature, the algorithm preserves the information needed for scientific analysis. The algorithm is computationally simple, yet compresses data streams by factors much greater than two. The algorithm is not restricted to spacecraft or scientific uses: it is applicable to time-series data in general. The algorithm can also be applied to general multidimensional data that have been converted to time-series data, a typical example being image data acquired by raster scanning. However, unlike most prior image-data-compression algorithms, this algorithm neither depends on nor exploits the two-dimensional spatial correlations that are generally present in images. In order to understand the essence of this compression algorithm, it is necessary to understand that the net effect of this algorithm and the associated decompression algorithm is to approximate the original stream of data as a sequence of finite series of Chebyshev polynomials. For the purpose of this algorithm, a block of data or interval of time for which a Chebyshev polynomial series is fitted to the original data is denoted a fitting interval. Chebyshev approximation has two properties that make it particularly effective for compressing serial data streams with minimal loss of scientific information: The errors associated with a Chebyshev approximation are nearly uniformly distributed over the fitting interval (this is known in the art as the "equal error property"); and the maximum deviations of the fitted Chebyshev polynomial from the original data have the smallest possible values (this is known in the art as the "min-max property").
Maximum Work of Free-Piston Stirling Engine Generators
Kojima, Shinji
2017-04-01
Using the method of adjoint equations described in Ref. [1], we have calculated the maximum thermal efficiencies that are theoretically attainable by free-piston Stirling and Carnot engine generators by considering the work loss due to friction and Joule heat. The net work done by the Carnot cycle is negative even when the duration of heat addition is optimized to give the maximum amount of heat addition, which is the same situation for the Brayton cycle described in our previous paper. For the Stirling cycle, the net work done is positive, and the thermal efficiency is greater than that of the Otto cycle described in our previous paper by a factor of about 2.7-1.4 for compression ratios of 5-30. The Stirling cycle is much better than the Otto, Brayton, and Carnot cycles. We have found that the optimized piston trajectories of the isothermal, isobaric, and adiabatic processes are the same when the compression ratio and the maximum volume of the same working fluid of the three processes are the same, which has facilitated the present analysis because the optimized piston trajectories of the Carnot and Stirling cycles are the same as those of the Brayton and Otto cycles, respectively.
Compression deformation of WC: atomistic description of hard ceramic material
Feng, Qing; Song, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xuemei; Liang, Shuhua; Wang, Haibin; Nie, Zuoren
2017-11-01
The deformation characteristics of WC, as a typical hard ceramic material, were studied on the nanoscale using atomistic simulations for both the single-crystal and polycrystalline forms under uniaxial compression. In particular, the effects of crystallographic orientation, grain boundary coordination and grain size on the origin of deformation were investigated. The deformation behavior of the single-crystal and polycrystalline WC both depend strongly on the orientation towards the loading direction. The grain boundaries play a significant role in the deformation coordination and the potential high fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline WC. In contrast to conventional knowledge of ceramics, maximum strength was obtained at a critical grain size corresponding to the turning point from a Hall-Petch to an inverse Hall-Petch relationship. For this the mechanism of the combined effect of dislocation motion within grains and the coordination of stress concentration at the grain boundaries were proposed. The present work has moved forward our understanding of plastic deformability and the possibility of achieving a high strength of nanocrystalline ceramic materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faure, F.; Leggatt, R.H.
1996-01-01
Surface and through thickness residual stress measurements were performed on an aged cast austenitic-ferritic stainless steel pipe and on an orbital TIG weld representative of those of primary coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors. An abrasive-jet hole drilling method and a block removal and layering method were used. Surface stresses and through thickness stress profiles are strongly dependent upon heat treatments, machining and welding operations. In the aged cast stainless steel pipe, stresses ranged between -250 and +175 MPa. On and near the orbital TIG weld, the outside surface of the weld was in tension both in the axial and hoop directions, with maximum values reaching 420 MPa in the weld. On the inside surface, the hoop stresses were compressive, reaching -300 MPa. However, the stresses in the axial direction at the root of the weld were tensile within 4 mm depth from the inside surface, locally reaching 280 MPa. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, I-Fang; Phan, Thien Q.; Levine, Lyle E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Geantil, Peter T.; Huang, Yi; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.
2013-01-01
Aluminum alloy 1050 was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) using a single pass (equivalent uniaxial strain of about 0.88). Long-range internal stresses (LRISs) were assessed in the grain/subgrain interiors using X-ray microbeam diffraction to measure the spacing of {5 3 1} planes, with normals oriented approximately +27.3°, +4.9° and −17.5° off the pressing (axial) direction. The results are consistent with mechanical analysis that suggests the maximum tensile plastic-strain after one pass is expected for +22.5°, roughly zero along the pressing axis, and maximum compressive strain for the −67.5° direction. The magnitude of the measured maximum compressive long-range internal stress is about 0.13σ a (applied stress) in low-dislocation regions within the grain/subgrain interiors. This work is placed in the context of earlier work where convergent beam electron diffraction was used to analyze LRISs in close proximity to the deformation-induced boundaries. The results are complementary and the measured stresses are consistent with a composite model for long-range internal stresses
Numerical modeling of tectonic stress field and fault activity in North China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Yan
2012-02-01
Full Text Available On the basis of a 3-dimension visco-elastic finite element model of lithosphere in North China, we numerically simulate the recent mutative figures of tectonic stress field. Annual change characteristics of stress field are; 1 Maximum principal tensile stress is about 3–9 kPaa−1 and its azimuth lie in NNW-SSE. 2 Maximum principal compressive stress is about 1–6 kPaa−1 and its azimuth lie in NEE-SWW. 3 Maximum principal tensile stress is higher both in the west region and Liaoning Province. 4 Variation of tectonic stress field benefits fault movement in the west part and northeast part of North China. 5 Annual accumulative rates of Coulomb fracture stress in Tanlu fault belt have segmentation patterns: Jiashan-Guangji segment is the highest (6 kPaa−1, Anshan-Liaodongwan segment is the second (5 kPaa−1, and others are relatively lower (3–4 kPaa−1.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, X.Z.; Gao, K.W.; Chu, W.Y.; Qiao, L.J.
2003-01-01
The flow stress of a specimen of α-Ti before unloading is different with the yield stress of the same specimen after unloading and forming a passive film through immersing in a methanol solution at various constant potentials. The difference is the passive film-induced stress. The film-induced stress and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the methanol solution at various potentials were measured. At the stable open-circuit potential and under anodic polarization, both film-induced tensile stress σ p and susceptibility to SCC had a maximum value. The film-induced stress and SCC susceptibility, however, decreased steeply with a decrease in potential under cathodic polarization. When the potential V≤-280 mV SCE , the film-induced stress became compressive; correspondingly, susceptibility to SCC was zero. Therefore, the variation of film-induced stress with potential was consistent with that of susceptibility to SCC. A large film-induced tensile stress is the necessary condition for SCC of α-Ti in the methanol solution. The symbol and amount of the film-induced stress were related to the compositions of the passive film, which have been analyzed using the X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS)
Starting up a programme of atomic piles using compressed gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, J.; Yvon, J.
1959-01-01
1) An examination of the intellectual and material resources which have directed the French programme towards: a) the natural uranium and plutonium system, b) the use of compressed gas as heat transfer fluid (primary fluid). 2) The parts played in exploring the field by the pile EL2 and G1, EL2 a natural uranium, heavy water and compressed gas pile, G1 a natural uranium, graphite and atmospheric air pile. 3) Development of the neutronics of graphite piles: physical study of G1. 4) The examination of certain problem posed by centres equipped with natural uranium, graphite and compressed carbon dioxide piles: structure, special materials, fluid circuits, maximum efficiency. Economic aspects. 5) Aids to progress: a) piles for testing materials and for tests on canned fuel elements, b) laboratory and calculation facilities. 6) Possible new orientations of compressed gas piles: a) raising of the pressure, b) enriched fuel, c) higher temperatures, d) use of heavy water. (author) [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fejerskov, Morten
1996-12-31
In-situ rock stresses have proved to be important for exploration and production of hydrocarbons. This thesis uses various stress determination techniques to characterize the in-situ stress field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Leak off tests and borehole breakouts have been used to determine the in-situ stress in deep well bores. Overcoring and earthquake focal mechanisms data have also been compiled and evaluated together with stress information from petroleum wells. A new test procedure is suggested to improve the quality of leak off tests that emphasises the importance of accurate pressure determination, longer test periods and digital data sampling. Four-arm calliper logs are used to identify borehole breakouts on the Tampen Spur and Horda Platform. However, it proved difficult to distinguish borehole breakouts from other drilling processes since the elongations of the borehole consistently appeared in the direction of hole azimuth; drilling-induced key seats are here observed in vertical wells. This behaviour is discussed but not fully understood. This reduces the number of reliable stress data and their quality enormously and even casts some doubt about the quality of previous breakout studies from the North Sea. A highly compressive horizontal stress field seems to be present onshore and offshore Norway. Different stress determination techniques yield very consistent stress orientation, regional and internal variation. A 1. order stress direction is identified, where the maximum horizontal stress direction is rotating from N-S in the Barents Sea to NW-SE in the Norwegian Sea and WNW-ESE in the northern North Sea. At Tampen Spur, a dominant WNW-ESE maximum horizontal stress direction, normal to the major tectonic structures is identified as well as a minimum stress close to the vertical stress, the latter indicating high horizontal stresses. 250 refs., 91 figs., 14 tabs.
Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blair, S.C.
1994-12-01
Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.
Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Yüksek
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Hongzhi; Hao, Linpo; Yi, Jingwen; Zhang, Xianglin; Luo, Zhonghan; Chen, Shenglin; Li, Rongfeng
2016-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of punching process on residual stress and magnetic domain structure. The residual stress in non-oriented silicon steel after punching process was measured by nanoindentation. The maximum depth was kept constant as 300 nm during nanoindentation. The material around indentation region exhibited no significant pile-up deformation. The calculation of residual stress was based on the Suresh theoretical model. Our experimental results show that residual compressive stress was generated around the sheared edge after punching. The width of residual stress affected zone by punching was around 0.4–0.5 mm. After annealing treatment, the residual stress was significantly decreased. Magnetic domain structure was observed according to the Bitter method. The un-annealed sample exhibited complicated domain patterns, and the widths of the magnetic domains varied between 3 µm and 8 µm. Most of the domain patterns of the annealed sample were 180°-domains and 90°-domains, and the widths of the domains decreased to 1–3 µm. - Highlights: • The residual stress distribution on sheared edge was measured. • The residual compressive stress was generated around the sheared edge. • The width of residual stress affected zone was about 0.4–0.5 mm. • The shape and width of the domain structure would be changed by annealing.
Generic maximum likely scale selection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...
Thermal stress control using waste steel fibers in massive concretes
Sarabi, Sahar; Bakhshi, Hossein; Sarkardeh, Hamed; Nikoo, Hamed Safaye
2017-11-01
One of the important subjects in massive concrete structures is the control of the generated heat of hydration and consequently the potential of cracking due to the thermal stress expansion. In the present study, using the waste turnery steel fibers in the massive concretes, the amount of used cement was reduced without changing the compressive strength. By substituting a part of the cement with waste steel fibers, the costs and the generated hydration heat were reduced and the tensile strength was increased. The results showed that by using 0.5% turnery waste steel fibers and consequently, reducing to 32% the cement content, the hydration heat reduced to 23.4% without changing the compressive strength. Moreover, the maximum heat gradient reduced from 18.5% in the plain concrete sample to 12% in the fiber-reinforced concrete sample.
Compression behavior of a ferritic-martensitic Cr-Mo steel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Pantleon, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
The compression behavior of a ferritic-martensitic Cr-Mo steel is characterized for strain rates ranging from 10-4 s-1 to 10-1 s-1 and engineering strains up to 40%. Adiabatic heating causes a reduction in flow stress during continuous compression at a strain rate of 10-1 s-1. No reduction...... in the flow stress is observed if interrupted compression tests are performed with loading and holding steps. Two work-hardening stages with work-hardening rates decreasing linearly with the flow stress are identified and interpreted in terms of the KocksMecking model. The microstructural evolution...
Response of notched AS4/PEEK laminates to tension/compression loading
Simonds, Robert A.; Stinchcomb, Wayne W.
1989-01-01
Fatigue life, damage-initiation and propagation, and residual strength data are presently examined to ascertain the response of notched AS4/PEEK specimens to fully reversed tension/compression loading. Stiffness measurements made during the low-level fatigue history show that compression stiffness and tension stiffness degrade throughout the fatigue life. Damage to specimens fatigued at higher cyclic stresses developed primarily in the direction perpendicular to the loading. As in the case of specimens fatigued at lower stress levels, residual compressive stress decreased with damage development.
Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.
Garratt, J. R.
1992-09-01
There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).
Sun, Qilin
2017-04-01
High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.
Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan
2014-10-01
It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.
SeqCompress: an algorithm for biological sequence compression.
Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz; Bajwa, Hassan
2014-10-01
The growth of Next Generation Sequencing technologies presents significant research challenges, specifically to design bioinformatics tools that handle massive amount of data efficiently. Biological sequence data storage cost has become a noticeable proportion of total cost in the generation and analysis. Particularly increase in DNA sequencing rate is significantly outstripping the rate of increase in disk storage capacity, which may go beyond the limit of storage capacity. It is essential to develop algorithms that handle large data sets via better memory management. This article presents a DNA sequence compression algorithm SeqCompress that copes with the space complexity of biological sequences. The algorithm is based on lossless data compression and uses statistical model as well as arithmetic coding to compress DNA sequences. The proposed algorithm is compared with recent specialized compression tools for biological sequences. Experimental results show that proposed algorithm has better compression gain as compared to other existing algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasan, M R; Ibrahimy, M I; Motakabber, S M A; Ferdaus, M M; Khan, M N H
2013-01-01
Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms
Shock compression profiles in ceramics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grady, D.E.; Moody, R.L.
1996-03-01
An investigation of the shock compression properties of high-strength ceramics has been performed using controlled planar impact techniques. In a typical experimental configuration, a ceramic target disc is held stationary, and it is struck by plates of either a similar ceramic or by plates of a well-characterized metal. All tests were performed using either a single-stage propellant gun or a two-stage light-gas gun. Particle velocity histories were measured with laser velocity interferometry (VISAR) at the interface between the back of the target ceramic and a calibrated VISAR window material. Peak impact stresses achieved in these experiments range from about 3 to 70 GPa. Ceramics tested under shock impact loading include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, B{sub 4}C, SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, TiB{sub 2}, WC and ZrO{sub 2}. This report compiles the VISAR wave profiles and experimental impact parameters within a database-useful for response model development, computational model validation studies, and independent assessment of the physics of dynamic deformation on high-strength, brittle solids.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meredith, David
MEL is a geometric music encoding language designed to allow for musical objects to be encoded parsimoniously as sets of points in pitch-time space, generated by performing geometric transformations on component patterns. MEL has been implemented in Java and coupled with the SIATEC pattern...... discovery algorithm to allow for compact encodings to be generated automatically from in extenso note lists. The MEL-SIATEC system is founded on the belief that music analysis and music perception can be modelled as the compression of in extenso descriptions of musical objects....
Compressive full waveform lidar
Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun
2017-05-01
To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Terry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowman, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anovitz, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States)
2017-07-01
Conventional hydrogen compressors often contribute over half of the cost of hydrogen stations, have poor reliability, and have insufficient flow rates for a mature FCEV market. Fatigue associated with their moving parts including cracking of diaphragms and failure of seal leads to failure in conventional compressors, which is exacerbated by the repeated starts and stops expected at fueling stations. Furthermore, the conventional lubrication of these compressors with oil is generally unacceptable at fueling stations due to potential fuel contamination. Metal hydride (MH) technology offers a very good alternative to both conventional (mechanical) and newly developed (electrochemical, ionic liquid pistons) methods of hydrogen compression. Advantages of MH compression include simplicity in design and operation, absence of moving parts, compactness, safety and reliability, and the possibility to utilize waste industrial heat to power the compressor. Beyond conventional H2 supplies of pipelines or tanker trucks, another attractive scenario is the on-site generating, pressuring and delivering pure H_{2} at pressure (≥ 875 bar) for refueling vehicles at electrolysis, wind, or solar generating production facilities in distributed locations that are too remote or widely distributed for cost effective bulk transport. MH hydrogen compression utilizes a reversible heat-driven interaction of a hydride-forming metal alloy with hydrogen gas to form the MH phase and is a promising process for hydrogen energy applications [1,2]. To deliver hydrogen continuously, each stage of the compressor must consist of multiple MH beds with synchronized hydrogenation & dehydrogenation cycles. Multistage pressurization allows achievement of greater compression ratios using reduced temperature swings compared to single stage compressors. The objectives of this project are to investigate and demonstrate on a laboratory scale a two-stage MH hydrogen (H_{2}) gas compressor with a
Measurement of the through thickness compression of a battery separator
Yan, Shutian; Huang, Xiaosong; Xiao, Xinran
2018-04-01
The mechanical integrity of the separator is critical to the reliable operation of a battery. Due to its minimal thickness, compression experiments with a single/a few layers of separator are difficult to perform. In this work, a capacitance based displacement set-up has been developed for the measurement of the through thickness direction (TTD) compression stress-strain behavior of the separator and the investigation of its interaction with the electrode. The experiments were performed for a stack of two layers of Celgard 2400 separator, NMC cathode, and separator/NMC cathode/separator stack in both dry and wet (i.e. submersed in dimethyl carbonate DMC) conditions. The experimental results reveal that the separator compression modulus can be significantly affected by the presence of DMC. The iso-stress based rule of mixtures was used to compute the compressive stress-strain curve for the stack from that of the separator and NMC layer. The computed curve agreed with the experimental curve reasonably well up to about 0.16 strain but deviated significantly to a softer response at higher strains. The results suggest that, in the stack, the TTD compressive deformation of the separator is influenced by the NMC cathode.
Dislocations and point defects in hydrostatically compressed crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosevich, A.M.; Tokij, V.V.; Strel'tsov, V.A.
1978-01-01
Within the framework of the theory of finite deformations, the elastic fields are considered, which are induced by the sources of internal stresses in a crystal compressed under a high pressure. In the case of a hydrostatically compressed crystal with defects, the use of a variation principle is discussed. Using the smallness of distorsions, the linear theory of elastic fields of defects in the crystal compressed under a high pressure, is developed. An analysis of the main relationships of the theory results in the following conclusion: in a course of the linear approximation the taking into account of the hydrostatic pressure brings to the renorming of the elasticity moduli and to the replacing of the hydrostatic parameters of defects by their values in the compressed crystal. That conclusion allows the results of the elasticity linear theory of the crystal with defects to be used to the full extent
Vacancy behavior in a compressed fcc Lennard-Jones crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beeler, J.R. Jr.
1981-12-01
This computer experiment study concerns the determination of the stable vacancy configuration in a compressed fcc Lennard-Jones crystal and the migration of this defect in a compressed crystal. Isotropic and uniaxial compression stress conditions were studied. The isotropic and uniaxial compression magnitudes employed were 0.94 less than or equal to eta less than or equal to 1.5, and 1.0 less than or equal to eta less than or equal to 1.5, respectively. The site-centered vacancy (SCV) was the stable vacancy configuration whenever cubic symmetry was present. This includes all of the isotropic compression cases and the particular uniaxial compression case (eta = √2) that give a bcc structure. In addition, the SCV was the stable configuration for uniaxial compression eta 1.20, the SV-OP is an extended defect and, therefore, a saddle point for SV-OP migration could not be determined. The mechanism for the transformation from the SCV to the SV-OP as the stable form at eta = 1.29 appears to be an alternating sign [101] and/or [011] shear process
Sitarenios Panagiotis; Kavvadas Michael
2016-01-01
The Modified Cam Clay model is extended to account for the behaviour of unsaturated soils using Bishop’s stress. To describe the Loading – Collapse behaviour, the model incorporates a compressibility framework with suction and degree of saturation dependent compression lines. For simplicity, the present paper describes the model in the triaxial stress space with characteristic simulations of constant suction compression and triaxial tests, as well as wetting tests. The model reproduces an evo...
Compression and expansion in central collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danielewicz, P.
1997-01-01
Dynamics of central collisions of heavy nuclei in the energy range from few tens of MeV/nucleon to a couple of GeV/nucleon is discussed. As the beam energy increases and/or the impact parameter decreases, the maximum compression increases. It is argued that the hydrodynamic behaviour of matter sets in the vicinity of balance energy. At higher energies shock fronts are observed to form within head-on reaction simulations, perpendicular to beam axis and separating hot compressed matter from cold. In the semi-central reactions a weak tangential discontinuity develops in-between these fronts. The hot compressed matter exposed to the vacuum in directions parallel to the shock front begin to expand collectively into these directions. The expansion affects particle angular distributions and mean energy components and further shapes of spectra and mean energies of particles emitted into any one direction. The variation of slopes and the relative yields measured within the FOPI collaboration are in a general agreement with the results of simulations. As to the FOPI data on stopping, they are consistent with the preference for transverse over the longitudinal motion in the head-on Au + Au collisions. Unfortunately, though, the data can not be used to decide directly on that preference due to acceptance cuts. Tied to the spatial and temporal changes in the reactions are changes in the entropy per nucleon. (authors)
Expandable image compression system: A modular approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, B.K.T.; Lo, S.C.; Huang, H.K.
1986-01-01
The full-frame bit-allocation algorithm for radiological image compression can achieve an acceptable compression ratio as high as 30:1. It involves two stages of operation: a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform and pixel quantization in the transformed space with pixel depth kept accountable by a bit-allocation table. The cosine transform hardware design took an expandable modular approach based on the VME bus system with a maximum data transfer rate of 48 Mbytes/sec and a microprocessor (Motorola 68000 family). The modules are cascadable and microprogrammable to perform 1,024-point butterfly operations. A total of 18 stages would be required for transforming a 1,000 x 1,000 image. Multiplicative constants and addressing sequences are to be software loaded into the parameter buffers of each stage prior to streaming data through the processor stages. The compression rate for 1K x 1K images is expected to be faster than one image per sec
Mechanisms of anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica
Clark, Alisha N.; Lesher, Charles E.; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Sen, Sabyasachi
2014-11-01
The anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica has been known for nearly a century, but the mechanisms responsible for it remain poorly understood. Using GHz-ultrasonic interferometry, we measured longitudinal and transverse acoustic wave travel times at pressures up to 5 GPa in vitreous silica with fictive temperatures (Tf) ranging between 985 °C and 1500 °C. The maximum in ultrasonic wave travel times-corresponding to a minimum in acoustic velocities-shifts to higher pressure with increasing Tf for both acoustic waves, with complete reversibility below 5 GPa. These relationships reflect polyamorphism in the supercooled liquid, which results in a glassy state possessing different proportions of domains of high- and low-density amorphous phases (HDA and LDA, respectively). The relative proportion of HDA and LDA is set at Tf and remains fixed on compression below the permanent densification pressure. The bulk material exhibits compression behavior systematically dependent on synthesis conditions that arise from the presence of floppy modes in a mixture of HDA and LDA domains.
System for memorizing maximum values
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1992-08-01
The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.
Remarks on the maximum luminosity
Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon
2018-04-01
The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thumim, A.D.
1975-01-01
A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Free compression tube. Applications
Rusu, Ioan
2012-11-01
During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.
Photon compression in cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ensley, D.L.
1977-01-01
It has been shown theoretically that intense microwave radiation is absorbed non-classically by a newly enunciated mechanism when interacting with hydrogen plasma. Fields > 1 Mg, lambda > 1 mm are within this regime. The predicted absorption, approximately P/sub rf/v/sub theta/sup e/, has not yet been experimentally confirmed. The applications of such a coupling are many. If microwave bursts approximately > 5 x 10 14 watts, 5 ns can be generated, the net generation of power from pellet fusion as well as various military applications becomes feasible. The purpose, then, for considering gas-gun photon compression is to obtain the above experimental capability by converting the gas kinetic energy directly into microwave form. Energies of >10 5 joules cm -2 and powers of >10 13 watts cm -2 are potentially available for photon interaction experiments using presently available technology. The following topics are discussed: microwave modes in a finite cylinder, injection, compression, switchout operation, and system performance parameter scaling
Fingerprints in Compressed Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li
2013-01-01
The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Subramani Sockalingam
2017-02-01
Full Text Available High-velocity transverse impact of ballistic fabrics and yarns by projectiles subject individual fibers to multi-axial dynamic loading. Single-fiber transverse impact experiments with the current state-of-the-art experimental capabilities are challenging due to the associated micron length-scale. Kevlar® KM2 fibers exhibit a nonlinear inelastic behavior in transverse compression with an elastic limit less than 1.5% strain. The effect of this transverse behavior on a single KM2 fiber subjected to a cylindrical and a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP transverse impact is studied with a 3D finite element model. The inelastic behavior results in a significant reduction of fiber bounce velocity and projectile-fiber contact forces up to 38% compared to an elastic impact response. The multiaxial stress states during impact including transverse compression, axial tension, axial compression and interlaminar shear are presented at the location of failure. In addition, the models show a strain concentration over a small length in the fiber under the projectile-fiber contact. A failure criterion, based on maximum axial tensile strain accounting for the gage length, strain rate and multiaxial loading degradation effects are applied to predict the single-fiber breaking speed. Results are compared to the elastic response to assess the importance of inelastic material behavior on failure during a transverse impact.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Indranil Basu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The current work implements a correlative microscopy method utilizing electron back scatter diffraction, focused ion beam and digital image correlation to accurately determine spatially resolved stress profiles in the vicinity of grain/twin boundaries and tensile deformation twin tips in commercially pure titanium. Measured local stress gradients were in good agreement with local misorientation values. The role of dislocation-boundary interactions on the buildup of local stress gradients is elucidated. Stress gradients across the twin-parent interface were compressive in nature with a maximum stress magnitude at the twin boundary. Stress profiles near certain grain boundaries initially display a local stress minimum, followed by a typically observed “one over square root of distance” variation, as was first postulated by Eshelby, Frank and Nabarro. The observed trends allude to local stress relaxation mechanisms very close to the grain boundaries. Stress states in front of twin tips showed tensile stress gradients, whereas the stress state inside the twin underwent a sign reversal. The findings highlight the important role of deformation twins and their corresponding interaction with grain boundaries on damage nucleation in metals.
Compressive sensing in medical imaging.
Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y
2015-03-10
The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.
Generalized massive optimal data compression
Alsing, Justin; Wandelt, Benjamin
2018-05-01
In this paper, we provide a general procedure for optimally compressing N data down to n summary statistics, where n is equal to the number of parameters of interest. We show that compression to the score function - the gradient of the log-likelihood with respect to the parameters - yields n compressed statistics that are optimal in the sense that they preserve the Fisher information content of the data. Our method generalizes earlier work on linear Karhunen-Loéve compression for Gaussian data whilst recovering both lossless linear compression and quadratic estimation as special cases when they are optimal. We give a unified treatment that also includes the general non-Gaussian case as long as mild regularity conditions are satisfied, producing optimal non-linear summary statistics when appropriate. As a worked example, we derive explicitly the n optimal compressed statistics for Gaussian data in the general case where both the mean and covariance depend on the parameters.
Stress corrosion cracking mitigation by ultrasound induced cavitation technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fong, C.; Lee, Y.C. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.K. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China)
2014-07-01
Cavitation is usually considered as a damaging mechanism under erosion corrosion condition. However, if used appropriately, cavitation can be applied as a peening technique for surface stress modification process. The aim of surface stress modification is to alter the stress state of processed surface through direct or indirect thermo-mechanical treatments to reduce cracking problems initiated from surface. Ultrasonic devices are used to generate cavitation bubbles which when collapse will produce high intensity shock waves and high velocity micro-jet streams. The cavitation impact when properly controlled will create plastically deformed compressive layers in nearby surfaces and minimize cracking susceptibility in corrosive environments. This study is to investigate the effectiveness of Ultrasound Induced Cavitation (UIC) technique in surface stress improvement. Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of SS304 stainless steel under pure water is carried out with different controlling parameters. The cavitation impact on SS304 surface is measured in terms of surface roughness, surface strain, hardness, and microstructural characteristics. The in-depth residual stress distribution and crack mitigation effect are also evaluated. Test result indicates ultrasound induced cavitation treatment only has minor effect on surface physical characteristics. The extent of compressive stress produced on top surface exceeds the yield strength and can reach a depth above 150 μm. The maximum surface strain measured is generally below 20%, which is not considered detrimental to accelerate crack initiation. Stress corrosion verification tests show UIC treatment is capable in preventing environmental assisted cracking of stainless steels in severely corrosive conditions. In view of the test results, UIC technique has demonstrated to be a low cost, low contaminating, and effective surface stress improvement technology. (author)
Stress corrosion cracking mitigation by ultrasound induced cavitation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fong, C.; Lee, Y.C.; Yeh, T.K.
2014-01-01
Cavitation is usually considered as a damaging mechanism under erosion corrosion condition. However, if used appropriately, cavitation can be applied as a peening technique for surface stress modification process. The aim of surface stress modification is to alter the stress state of processed surface through direct or indirect thermo-mechanical treatments to reduce cracking problems initiated from surface. Ultrasonic devices are used to generate cavitation bubbles which when collapse will produce high intensity shock waves and high velocity micro-jet streams. The cavitation impact when properly controlled will create plastically deformed compressive layers in nearby surfaces and minimize cracking susceptibility in corrosive environments. This study is to investigate the effectiveness of Ultrasound Induced Cavitation (UIC) technique in surface stress improvement. Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of SS304 stainless steel under pure water is carried out with different controlling parameters. The cavitation impact on SS304 surface is measured in terms of surface roughness, surface strain, hardness, and microstructural characteristics. The in-depth residual stress distribution and crack mitigation effect are also evaluated. Test result indicates ultrasound induced cavitation treatment only has minor effect on surface physical characteristics. The extent of compressive stress produced on top surface exceeds the yield strength and can reach a depth above 150 μm. The maximum surface strain measured is generally below 20%, which is not considered detrimental to accelerate crack initiation. Stress corrosion verification tests show UIC treatment is capable in preventing environmental assisted cracking of stainless steels in severely corrosive conditions. In view of the test results, UIC technique has demonstrated to be a low cost, low contaminating, and effective surface stress improvement technology. (author)
Research on the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof
Zhao, Guanglei; Cao, Jianxiao; Liu, Tao; Yang, Na; Zhao, Hongguang
2017-05-01
To study the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof, this paper makes the simulation test on the static collapse of the passenger vehicle roof and analyzes the stress and deformation of the vehicle roof under pressure in accordance with the Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars (GB26134-2010). It studies the optimization on the major stressed parts, pillar A, pillar B and the rail of roof, during the static collapse process of passenger vehicle roof. The result shows that the thickness of pillar A and the roof rail has significant influence on the compressive strength of the roof while that of pillar B has minor influence on the compressive strength of the roof.
The Taylor relation in compression deformed Ge single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nyilas, K; Ungar, T; Dupas, C; Martin, J L; Kruml, T
2010-01-01
Ge single crystals are deformed in compression at 850K and the same strain rate to various extents of strains. In each sample, the internal stress is measured through stress reduction tests and the dislocation densities by X-ray measurements. Data about these two parameters follow fairly well the Taylor-Saada relation, provided a correction term is added. It probably corresponds to dislocations which are seen by X-rays, though they do not contribute to crystal hardening.
The evolution of crack-tip stresses during a fatigue overload event
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steuwer, A.; Rahman, M.; Shterenlikht, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Withers, P.J.
2010-01-01
The mechanisms responsible for the transient retardation or acceleration of fatigue crack growth subsequent to overloading are a matter of intense debate. Plasticity-induced closure and residual stresses have often been invoked to explain these phenomena, but closure mechanisms are disputed, especially under conditions approximating to generalised plane strain. In this paper we exploit synchrotron radiation to report very high spatial resolution two-dimensional elastic strain and stress maps at maximum and minimum loading measured under plane strain during a normal fatigue cycle, as well as during and after a 100% overload event, in ultra-fine grained AA5091 aluminium alloy. These observations provide direct evidence of the material stress state in the vicinity of the crack-tip in thick samples. Significant compressive residual stresses were found both in front of and behind the crack-tip immediately following the overload event. The effective stress intensity at the crack-tip was determined directly from the local stress field measured deep within the bulk (plane strain) by comparison with linear elastic fracture mechanical theory. This agrees well with that nominally applied at maximum load and 100% overload. After overload, however, the stress fields were not well described by classical K fields due to closure-related residual stresses. Little evidence of overload closure was observed sometime after the overload event, in our case possibly because the overload plastic zone was very small.
Introduction to compressible fluid flow
Oosthuizen, Patrick H
2013-01-01
IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices
Mammographic compression in Asian women.
Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong
2017-01-01
To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35-80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (pAsian women. The median compression force should be about 8.1 daN compared to the current 12.0 daN. Decreasing compression force from 12.0 daN to 9.0 daN increased CBT by 3.3±1.4 mm, MGD by 6.2-11.0%, and caused no significant effects on image quality (p>0.05). Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD.
Expandable image compression system: A modular approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, B.K.T.; Chan, K.K.; Ishimitsu, Y.; Lo, S.C.; Huang, H.K.
1987-01-01
The full-frame bit allocation algorithm for radiological image compression developed in the authors' laboratory can achieve compression ratios as high as 30:1. The software development and clinical evaluation of this algorithm has been completed. It involves two stages of operations: a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform and pixel quantization in the transform space with pixel depth kept accountable by a bit allocation table. Their design took an expandable modular approach based on the VME bus system which has a maximum data transfer rate of 48 Mbytes per second and a Motorola 68020 microprocessor as the master controller. The transform modules are based on advanced digital signal processor (DSP) chips microprogrammed to perform fast cosine transforms. Four DSP's built into a single-board transform module can process an 1K x 1K image in 1.7 seconds. Additional transform modules working in parallel can be added if even greater speeds are desired. The flexibility inherent in the microcode extends the capabilities of the system to incorporate images of variable sizes. Their design allows for a maximum image size of 2K x 2K
The Diagonal Compression Field Method using Circular Fans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas
2006-01-01
is a modification of the traditional method, the modification consisting of the introduction of circular fan stress fields. To ensure proper behaviour for the service load the -value ( = cot, where is the angle relative to the beam axis of the uniaxial concrete compression) chosen should not be too large...
Tension and Compression Creep Apparatus for wood-Plastic Composites
Scott E. Hamel; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer
2011-01-01
Design of structural members made of wood-plastic composites (WPC) is not possible without accurate test data for tension and compression. The viscoelastic behavior of these materials means that these data are required for both the quasi-static stress-strain response, and the long-term creep response. Their relative incompressibility causes inherent difficulties in...
Micro-deformation behavior in micro-compression with high-purity aluminum processed by ECAP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Jie
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Ultrafine-grained (UFG materials have a potential for applications in micro-forming since grain size appears to be the dominant factor which determines the limiting size of the geometrical features. In this research, high-purity Al was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP at room temperature through 1–8 passes. Analysis shows that processing by ECAP produces a UFG structure with a grain size of ~1.3 μm and with microhardness and microstructural homogeneity. Micro-compression testing was carried out with different specimen dimensions using the annealed sample and after ECAP processing through 1–8 passes. The results show the flow stress increases significantly after ECAP processing by comparison with the annealed material. The flow stress generally reaches a maximum value after 2 passes which is consistent with the results of microhardness. The flow stress decreases with decreasing specimen diameter from 4 mm to 1 mm which demonstrates that size effects also exist in the ultrafine-grained materials. However, the deformation mechanism in ultrafine-grained pure Al changes from strain strengthening to softening by dynamic recovery by comparison with the annealed material.
Safety for Compressed Gas and Air Equipment. Module SH-26. Safety and Health.
Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.
This student module on safety for compressed gas and air equipment is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents technical data about commonly used gases and stresses the procedures necessary for safe handling of compressed gases. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the…
Thermal effect on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. This paper deals with the effect of temperature on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a solid half-space. It has been assumed that the liquid layer is under the action of gravity, while the solid half-space is under the influence of initial compressive hydrostatic stress. When the temperature of the.
Thermal effect on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper deals with the effect of temperature on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a solid half-space. It has been assumed that the liquid layer is under the action of gravity, while the solid half-space is under the inﬂuence of initial compressive hydrostatic stress. When the temperature of the half-space is ...
Roman, D. C.
2003-12-01
A complete understanding of the initiation, evolution, and termination of volcanic eruptions requires reliable monitoring techniques to detect changes in the conduit system during periods of activity, as well as corresponding knowledge of conduit structure and of magma physical properties. Case studies of stress field orientation prior to, during, and after magmatic activity can be used to relate changes in stress field orientation to the state of the magmatic conduit system. These relationships may be tested through modeling of induced stresses. Here I present evidence from case studies and modeling that horizontal rotation of the axis of maximum compressive stress at an active volcano indicates pressurization of a magmatic conduit, and that this rotation, when observed, may also be indicative of the physical properties of the ascending magma. Changes in the local stress field orientation during the 1992 eruption sequence at Crater Peak (Mt. Spurr), Alaska were analyzed by calculating and inverting subsets of over 150 fault-plane solutions. Local stress tensors for four time periods, corresponding approximately to changes in activity at the volcano, were calculated based on the misfit of individual fault-plane solutions to a regional stress tensor. Results indicate that for nine months prior to the eruption, local maximum compressive stress was oriented perpendicular to regional maximum compressive stress. A similar horizontal rotation was observed beginning in November of 1992, coincident with an episode of elevated earthquake and tremor activity indicating intrusion of magma into the conduit. During periods of quiescence the local stress field was similar to the regional stress field. Similar horizontal rotations have been observed at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand (Miller and Savage 2001, Gerst 2003), Usu Volcano, Japan (Fukuyama et al. 2001), Unzen Volcano, Japan (Umakoshi et al. 2001), and Mt. St. Helens Volcano, USA (Moran 1994) in conjunction with eruptive
Rajak, Dipen Kumar; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.; Das, S.
2018-02-01
This study has examined proposed structures with mild steel-reinforced LM30 aluminum (Al) alloy having diversely unfilled and 10 wt.% SiCp composite foam-filled tubes for improving axial compression performance. This class of material has novel physical, mechanical, and electrical properties along with low density. In the present experiment, Al alloy foams were prepared by the melt route technique using metal hydride powder as a foaming agent. Crash energy phenomena for diverse unfilled and foam-filled in mild steel thin-wall tubes (triangular, square and hexagonal) were studied as well. Compression deformation investigation was conducted at strain rates of 0.001-0.1/s for evaluating specific energy absorption (SEA) under axial loading conditions. The results were examined to measure plateau stress, maximum densification strain, and deformation mechanism of the materials. Specific energy absorption and total energy absorption capacities of the unfilled and filled sections were determined from the compressive stress-strain curves, which were then compared with each other.
On compressible flow in a gas centrifuge and its effect on the maximum separative power
Brouwers, J.J.H.
1978-01-01
The gas circulation in a gas centrifuge due to temperature differences, differential rotation and injection, and removal of fluid at the ends, as well as due to temperature gradients at the cylinder wall, is treated analytically. The motion consists of a small perturbation on a state of isothermal
Maximum compression of Z-pinch in a gas with high atomic number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerusov, A.V.
1989-01-01
An ideal system of equations with shock heating is used for describing of a Z pinch in a gas with high atomic number. In this case equations do not depend from the installation parameters. The approximate simple solution of such a system is presented. Numerical calculations of equations with radiative cooling and various dissipative effects have determined the employment conditions of ideal magnetohydrodynamic equation system. 10 refs
Stress gradients in CrN coatings
Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Visser, C.C.G.
2006-01-01
Stress in hard films is the net sum of tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries, compressive stress due to ion peening, and thermal stress due to the difference in thermal expansion of the coating and substrate. The tensile part due to grain boundaries is thickness dependent. The other two
Adiabatic compression and radiative compression of magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woods, C.H.
1980-01-01
Flux is conserved during mechanical compression of magnetic fields for both nonrelativistic and relativistic compressors. However, the relativistic compressor generates radiation, which can carry up to twice the energy content of the magnetic field compressed adiabatically. The radiation may be either confined or allowed to escape
Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.
1992-01-01
Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come
Compression force and radiation dose in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waade, Gunvor G.; Sanderud, Audun [Department of Life Sciences and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, P.O. 4 St. Olavs Plass, 0130 Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, Solveig, E-mail: solveig.hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Department of Life Sciences and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, P.O. 4 St. Olavs Plass, 0130 Oslo (Norway); The Cancer Registry of Norway, P.O. 5313 Majorstuen, 0304 Oslo (Norway)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Compression force and radiation dose for 17 951 screening mammograms were analyzed. • Large variations in mean applied compression force between the breast centers. • Limited associations between compression force and radiation dose. - Abstract: Purpose: Compression force is used in mammography to reduce breast thickness and by that decrease radiation dose and improve image quality. There are no evidence-based recommendations regarding the optimal compression force. We analyzed compression force and radiation dose between screening centers in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), as a first step towards establishing evidence-based recommendations for compression force. Materials and methods: The study included information from 17 951 randomly selected screening examinations among women screened with equipment from four different venors at fourteen breast centers in the NBCSP, January-March 2014. We analyzed the applied compression force and radiation dose used on craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) view on left breast, by breast centers and vendors. Results: Mean compression force used in the screening program was 116N (CC: 108N, MLO: 125N). The maximum difference in mean compression force between the centers was 63N for CC and 57N for MLO. Mean radiation dose for each image was 1.09 mGy (CC: 1.04mGy, MLO: 1.14mGy), varying from 0.55 mGy to 1.31 mGy between the centers. Compression force alone had a negligible impact on radiation dose (r{sup 2} = 0.8%, p = < 0.001). Conclusion: We observed substantial variations in mean compression forces between the breast centers. Breast characteristics and differences in automated exposure control between vendors might explain the low association between compression force and radiation dose. Further knowledge about different automated exposure controls and the impact of compression force on dose and image quality is needed to establish individualised and evidence
Vergroesen, P.P.A.; van der Veen, A.J.; van Royen, B.J.; Kingma, I.; Smit, T.H.
2014-01-01
Purpose Intervertebral discs exhibit time-dependent deformation (creep), which could influence the relation between applied stress and intradiscal pressure. This study investigates the effect of prolonged dynamic loading on intradiscal pressure, disc height and compressive stiffness, and examines
Ockendon, Hilary
2016-01-01
Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications. New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises. Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science. Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...
Compressive buckling of a rectangular nanoplate
Bochkarev, A. O.
2018-05-01
This paper considers the constitutive relations of the nanoplate theory with surface stresses taken into account according to the original or complete Gurtin-Murdoch (GM) model and according to the simplified strain-consistent GM model (which does not include any non-strain terms in the surface stress-strain relation). It is shown that the potential energy of a deformed nanoplate according to both GM models preserves the classical structure using the redefined elastic moduli (effective tangential and flexural elastic properties, which contain the characteristics of bulk phase and a surface). This allows to apply the known solutions and methods from macroplates to nanoplates. As example, it is shown that the critical load of the compressive buckling of a nanoplate according to the complete and strain-consistent GM models has the difference between two solutions no more than 1.5%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Thakur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal stress and strain rates in a thick walled rotating cylinder under steady state temperature has been derived by using Seth’s transition theory. For elastic-plastic stage, it is seen that with the increase of temperature, the cylinder having smaller radii ratios requires lesser angular velocity to become fully plastic as compared to cylinder having higher radii ratios The circumferential stress becomes larger and larger with the increase in temperature. With increase in thickness ratio stresses must be decrease. For the creep stage, it is seen that circumferential stresses for incompressible materials maximum at the internal surface as compared to compressible material, which increase with the increase in temperature and measure n.
On Compression of a Heavy Compressible Layer of an Elastoplastic or Elastoviscoplastic Medium
Kovtanyuk, L. V.; Panchenko, G. L.
2017-11-01
The problem of deformation of a horizontal plane layer of a compressible material is solved in the framework of the theory of small strains. The upper boundary of the layer is under the action of shear and compressing loads, and the no-slip condition is satisfied on the lower boundary of the layer. The loads increase in absolute value with time, then become constant, and then decrease to zero.Various plasticity conditions are consideredwith regard to the material compressibility, namely, the Coulomb-Mohr plasticity condition, the von Mises-Schleicher plasticity condition, and the same conditions with the viscous properties of the material taken into account. To solve the system of partial differential equations for the components of irreversible strains, a finite-difference scheme is developed for a spatial domain increasing with time. The laws of motion of elastoplastic boundaries are presented, the stresses, strains, rates of strain, and displacements are calculated, and the residual stresses and strains are found.
On the compressive behavior of an FDM Steward Platform part
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nectarios Vidakis
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS is commonly used material in the fused deposition modeling (FDM process. In this work, ABS and ABS plus parts were built with different building parameters and they were tested according to the ASTM D695 standard. Compression strength results were compared to stock ABS material values. The fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined under a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, to determine the failure mode of the filament strands. Following this a Steward Platform part was tested under compression in a tensile testing machine. The experimental results were employed to develop a finite element model of the Steward Platform part, in order to determine the maximum force the part can withstand. The Finite Element Model results were in good agreement with the values measured in the Steward Platform part compressive tests, demonstrating that the model developed is reliable. In these experiments, it was found that ABS parts build with a larger layer thickness showed lower compressive strength, which ABS plus did not show. ABS specimens on average developed about half the compressive strength of the ABS plus specimens, while the ABS plus specimens showed lower compressive strength values than stock ABS material.
Axial Compressive Strength of Foamcrete with Different Profiles and Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Othuman Mydin M.A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Lightweight foamcrete is a versatile material; primarily consist of a cement based mortar mixed with at least 20% volume of air. High flow ability, lower self-weight, minimal requirement of aggregate, controlled low strength and good thermal insulation properties are a few characteristics of foamcrete. Its dry densities, typically, is below 1600kg/m3 with compressive strengths maximum of 15MPa. The ASTM standard provision specifies a correction factor for concrete strengths of between 14 and 42MPa to compensate for the reduced strength when the aspect height-to-diameter ratio of specimen is less than 2.0, while the CEB-FIP provision specifically mentions the ratio of 150 x 300mm cylinder strength to 150 mm cube strength. However, both provisions requirements do not specifically clarify the applicability and/or modification of the correction factors for the compressive strength of foamcrete. This proposed laboratory work is intended to study the effect of different dimensions and profiles on the axial compressive strength of concrete. Specimens of various dimensions and profiles are cast with square and circular cross-sections i.e., cubes, prisms and cylinders, and to investigate their behavior in compression strength at 7 and 28 days. Hypothetically, compressive strength will decrease with the increase of concrete specimen dimension and concrete specimen with cube profile would yield comparable compressive strength to cylinder (100 x 100 x 100mm cube to 100dia x 200mm cylinder.
Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.
1999-01-01
Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs
A design approach for systems based on magnetic pulse compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Praveen Kumar, D. Durga; Mitra, S.; Senthil, K.; Sharma, D. K.; Rajan, Rehim N.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.
2008-01-01
A design approach giving the optimum number of stages in a magnetic pulse compression circuit and gain per stage is given. The limitation on the maximum gain per stage is discussed. The total system volume minimization is done by considering the energy storage capacitor volume and magnetic core volume at each stage. At the end of this paper, the design of a magnetic pulse compression based linear induction accelerator of 200 kV, 5 kA, and 100 ns with a repetition rate of 100 Hz is discussed with its experimental results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohta, Takahiro; Kamo, Kazuhiko; Muroya, Itaru; Asada, Seiji; Nakamura, Yasuo
2009-01-01
The new process called L-SIP (outer surface irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process) is developed to improve the tensile residual stress of the inner surface near the butt welded joints of pipes in the compression stress. The temperature gradient occurs in the thickness of pipes in heating the outer surface rapidly by laser beam. By the thermal expansion difference between the inner surface and the outer surface, the compression stress occurs near the inner surface of pipes. In this paper, the essential variables for L-SIP is studied by experimental and FEM analysis. The range of the essential variables for L-SIP, which are defined by thermo-elastic FEM analysis, are Tmax=550 - 650degC, L Q /√rh ≥ 3, W Q /√rh ≥ 1.7, and, 0.04 ≤ F 0 ≤ 0.10 where Tmax is maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, F 0 is k x τ 0 /h 2 , k is thermal diffusivity coefficient, τ 0 is the temperature rise time from 100degC to maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, W Q is τ 0 x v, υ is moving velocity, L Q is the uniform temperature length in the axial direction, h is thickness of the pipe, and r is average radius of the pipe. It is showed by thermo-elastic-plastic FEM analysis that the residual stresses near the inner surface of pipes are improved in 4 different size pipes under the same essential variables. L-SIP is actually applied to welding joints of 4B x Sch160 and 2B x Sch80 SUS304 type stainless steel pipes within the defined range of the essential variables. The measured welding residual stresses on the inner surface near the welding joints are tensile. The residual stresses on the inner surface change to compression in all joints by L-SIP. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitalkar, Saurabh; Manglunia, Ashmi S.; Kulkarni, Arvind; Puranik, Ameya D.
2016-01-01
Stress insufficiency fracture is usually diagnosed clinically and on the basis of routine X-ray imaging findings. However, the absence of any known predisposing factors and negative or occult radiographic findings pose diagnostic challenges. We report the case of an elderly male patient who presented with a chief complaint of trivial left hip pain and with equivocal radiographic findings. Triphasic 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography helped in arriving at the diagnosis of stress insufficiency fracture involving femoral neck
Maximum entropy principal for transportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.
2008-01-01
In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.
Application specific compression : final report.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.
2008-12-01
With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.
Compressed Baryonic Matter of Astrophysics
Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Renxin
2013-01-01
Baryonic matter in the core of a massive and evolved star is compressed significantly to form a supra-nuclear object, and compressed baryonic matter (CBM) is then produced after supernova. The state of cold matter at a few nuclear density is pedagogically reviewed, with significant attention paid to a possible quark-cluster state conjectured from an astrophysical point of view.
Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isenburg, M; Courbet, C
2010-02-03
We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.
Data Compression with Linear Algebra
Etler, David
2015-01-01
A presentation on the applications of linear algebra to image compression. Covers entropy, the discrete cosine transform, thresholding, quantization, and examples of images compressed with DCT. Given in Spring 2015 at Ocean County College as part of the honors program.
Images compression in nuclear medicine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebelo, M.S.; Furuie, S.S.; Moura, L.
1992-01-01
The performance of two methods for images compression in nuclear medicine was evaluated. The LZW precise, and Cosine Transformed, approximate, methods were analyzed. The results were obtained, showing that the utilization of approximated method produced images with an agreeable quality for visual analysis and compression rates, considerably high than precise method. (C.G.C.)
Risk of shear failure and extensional failure around over-stressed excavations in brittle rock
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nick Barton
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The authors investigate the failure modes surrounding over-stressed tunnels in rock. Three lines of investigation are employed: failure in over-stressed three-dimensional (3D models of tunnels bored under 3D stress, failure modes in two-dimensional (2D numerical simulations of 1000 m and 2000 m deep tunnels using FRACOD, both in intact rock and in rock masses with one or two joint sets, and finally, observations in TBM (tunnel boring machine tunnels in hard and medium hard massive rocks. The reason for ‘stress-induced’ failure to initiate, when the assumed maximum tangential stress is approximately (0.4–0.5σc (UCS, uniaxial compressive strength in massive rock, is now known to be due to exceedance of a critical extensional strain which is generated by a Poisson's ratio effect. However, because similar ‘stress/strength’ failure limits are found in mining, nuclear waste research excavations, and deep road tunnels in Norway, one is easily misled into thinking of compressive stress induced failure. Because of this, the empirical SRF (stress reduction factor in the Q-system is set to accelerate as the estimated ratio σθmax/σc >> 0.4. In mining, similar ‘stress/strength’ ratios are used to suggest depth of break-out. The reality behind the fracture initiation stress/strength ratio of ‘0.4’ is actually because of combinations of familiar tensile and compressive strength ratios (such as 10 with Poisson's ratio (say 0.25. We exceed the extensional strain limits and start to see acoustic emission (AE when tangential stress σθ ≈ 0.4σc, due to simple arithmetic. The combination of 2D theoretical FRACOD models and actual tunnelling suggests frequent initiation of failure by ‘stable’ extensional strain fracturing, but propagation in ‘unstable’ and therefore dynamic shearing. In the case of very deep tunnels (and 3D physical simulations, compressive stresses may be too high for extensional strain fracturing, and
Minimization of Residual Stress in an Al-Cu Alloy Forged Plate by Different Heat Treatments
Dong, Ya-Bo; Shao, Wen-Zhu; Jiang, Jian-Tang; Zhang, Bao-You; Zhen, Liang
2015-06-01
In order to improve the balance of mechanical properties and residual stress, various quenching and aging treatments were applied to Al-Cu alloy forged plate. Residual stresses determined by the x-ray diffraction method and slitting method were compared. The surface residual stress measured by x-ray diffraction method was consistent with that measured by slitting method. The residual stress distribution of samples quenched in water with different temperatures (20, 60, 80, and 100 °C) was measured, and the results showed that the boiling water quenching results in a 91.4% reduction in residual stress magnitudes compared with cold water quenching (20 °C), but the tensile properties of samples quenched in boiling water were unacceptably low. Quenching in 80 °C water results in 75% reduction of residual stress, and the reduction of yield strength is 12.7%. The residual stress and yield strength level are considerable for the dimensional stability of aluminum alloy. Quenching samples into 30% polyalkylene glycol quenchants produced 52.2% reduction in the maximum compressive residual stress, and the reduction in yield strength is 19.7%. Moreover, the effects of uphill quenching and thermal-cold cycling on the residual stress were also investigated. Uphill quenching and thermal-cold cycling produced approximately 25-40% reduction in residual stress, while the effect on tensile properties is quite slight.
Magnetic pulse compression circuits for plasma devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Georgescu, N; Zoita, V; Presura, R [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania)
1997-12-31
Two magnetic pulse compression circuits (MPCC), for two different plasma devices, are presented. The first is a 20 J/pulse, 3-stage circuit designed to trigger a low pressure discharge. The circuit has 16-18 kV working voltage, and 200 nF in each stage. The saturable inductors are realized with toroidal 25 {mu}m strip-wound cores, made of a Fe-Ni alloy, with 1.5 T saturation induction. The total magnetic volume is around 290 cm{sup 3}. By using a 25 kV/1 A thyratron as a primary switch, the time compression is from 3.5 {mu}s to 450 ns, in a short-circuit load. The second magnetic pulser is a 200 J/pulse circuit, designed to drive a high average power plasma focus soft X-ray source, for X-ray microlithography as the main application. The 3-stage pulser should supply a maximum load current of 100 kA with a rise-time of 250 - 300 ns. The maximum pulse voltage applied on the plasma discharge chamber is around 20 - 25 kV. The three saturable inductors in the circuit are made of toroidal strip-wound cores with METGLAS 2605 CO amorphous alloy as the magnetic material. The total, optimized mass of the magnetic material is 34 kg. The maximum repetition rate is limited at 100 Hz by the thyratron used in the first stage of the circuit, the driver supplying to the load about 20 kW average power. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 3 refs.
Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fyhn, Karsten
2013-01-01
. The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...... with using compressive sensing in communication systems. The main contribution of this thesis is two-fold: 1) a new compressive sensing hardware structure for spread spectrum signals, which is simpler than the current state-of-the-art, and 2) a range of algorithms for parameter estimation for the class...
Atomistic simulation of rapid compression of fractured silicon carbide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romano, A.; Li, J.; Yip, S.
2006-01-01
Deformation mechanisms of a crack in silicon carbide under high-rate compression are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The penny-shaped crack is in tension throughout the simulation while a variable compression is applied in an in-plane direction. Two different mechanisms of crack-tip response are observed: (1) At low tension, a disordered band forms from the crack surface in the direction orthogonal to the compression, which grows as the compressional force is increased in a manner suggesting a stress-induced transition from an ordered to a disordered phase. Moreover the crack is observed to close. (2) At a tension sufficient to allow the crack to remain open, the compressional stress induces formation of disordered regions along the boundaries of the opened crack, which grow and merge into a band as the compression proceeds. This process is driven by bending of the initial crack, which transforms into a curved slit. This mechanism induces incorporation of fragments of perfect crystal into the disordered band. Similar mechanisms have been experimentally observed to occur in porous SiC under high-strain rate compression
Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction
Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.
2016-12-01
It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were
Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks
2012-01-01
Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are
Isentropic compression studies using the NHMFL single turn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rickel, Dwight [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-10-19
Magnetic isentropic compression experiments (ICE) provide the most accurate shock free compression data for materials at megabar stresses. Recent ICE experiments performed on the Sandia Z-machine (Asay, 1999) and at the Los Alamos High Explosive Pulsed Power facility (Tasker, 2006) are providing our nation with data on material properties in extreme dynamic high stress environments. The LANL National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) can offer a less complex ICE experiment at high stresses (up to {approx}1Mbar) with a high sample throughput and relatively low cost. This is not to say that the NHMFL technique will replace the other methods but rather complement them. For example, NHMFL-ICE is ideal for the development of advanced diagnostics, e.g., to detect phase changes. We will discuss the physics of the NHMFL-ICE experiments and present data from the first proof-of-principle experiments that were performed in September 2010.
The thermoviscoplastic response of polycrystalline tungsten in compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lennon, A.M.; Ramesh, K.T.
2000-01-01
The thermomechanical response of commercially pure polycrystalline tungsten was investigated over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. The material was examined in two forms: one an equiaxed recrystallized microstructure and the other a heavily deformed extruded microstructure that was loaded in compression along the extrusion axis. Low strain rate (10 -3 -10 0 s -1 ) compression experiments were conducted on an MTS servo-hydraulic load frame equipped with an infra-red furnace capable of sustaining specimen temperatures in excess of 600 C. High strain rate (10 3 -10 4 s -1 ) experiments were performed on a compression Kolsky bar equipped with an infra-red heating system capable of developing specimen temperatures as high as 800 C. Pressure-shear plate impact experiments were used to obtain shear stress versus shear strain curves at very high rates (∝10 4 -10 5 s -1 ). The recrystallized material was able to sustain very substantial plastic deformations in compression (at room temperature), with a flow stress that appears to be rate-dependent. Intergranular microcracks were developed during the compressive deformations. Under quasi-static loadings a few relatively large axial splitting cracks were formed, while under dynamic loadings a very large number of small, uniformly distributed microcracks (that did not link up to form macrocracks) were developed. The rate of nucleation of microcracks increased dramatically with strain rate. The extruded tungsten is also able to sustain large plastic deformations in compression, with a flow stress that increases with the rate of deformation. The strain hardening of the extruded material is lower than that of the recrystallized material, and is relatively insensitive to the strain rate. (orig.)
The pre-compression system of the toroidal field coils in ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knaster, J.; Ferrari, M.; Jong, C.; Vollmann, T.
2007-01-01
The toroidal field (TF) coils of ITER will undergo out-of-plane forces caused by the poloidal fields required to confine the plasma. These forces will be supported against overturning moments by links between the coils. In turn, these links consist of the inner intercoil structure (IIC), which is composed of two pairs (placed at the top and bottom part of the inboard leg) of four sets of poloidal shear keys inserted in slots between adjacent coils, and the outer intercoil structure (OIS) formed by four bands of shear panels on the outboard leg. The magnetic forces during energization of ITER would cause at IIC locations at toroidal gap between adjacent TF coils of 0.35 mm; during plasma operation this value could reach >1 mm causing a loosening of the keys and intensifying stress concentrations. This undesired effect will be suppressed by the application of a centripetal force of 70 MN/coil (35 MN at both the bottom and top part of the inboard leg of each of the 18 TF coils) that will be provided by two sets of three glass fibre/epoxy composite rings submitted to a toroidal hoop force of 100 MN/set. The calculated maximum stress in the rings will occur during the installation phase at room temperature, where the maximum radial elongation (∼25 mm) is required, and it reaches 1/5 of the composite presently estimated ultimate stress. The imposed elongation to reach that force and the lower Young's modulus of the composite compared with that of stainless steel will ease component tolerances and/or settlement effects in the final assembly. The paper describes the evolution in the design of the pre-compression system, from the conceptual phase when two circular cross-sections rings were considered to the present definitive one with three rectangular cross-section rings
Evaluation of mammogram compression efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Przelaskowski, A.; Surowski, P.; Kukula, A.
2005-01-01
Lossy image coding significantly improves performance over lossless methods, but a reliable control of diagnostic accuracy regarding compressed images is necessary. The acceptable range of compression ratios must be safe with respect to as many objective criteria as possible. This study evaluates the compression efficiency of digital mammograms in both numerically lossless (reversible) and lossy (irreversible) manner. Effective compression methods and concepts were examined to increase archiving and telediagnosis performance. Lossless compression as a primary applicable tool for medical applications was verified on a set 131 mammograms. Moreover, nine radiologists participated in the evaluation of lossy compression of mammograms. Subjective rating of diagnostically important features brought a set of mean rates given for each test image. The lesion detection test resulted in binary decision data analyzed statistically. The radiologists rated and interpreted malignant and benign lesions, representative pathology symptoms, and other structures susceptible to compression distortions contained in 22 original and 62 reconstructed mammograms. Test mammograms were collected in two radiology centers for three years and then selected according to diagnostic content suitable for an evaluation of compression effects. Lossless compression efficiency of the tested coders varied, but CALIC, JPEG-LS, and SPIHT performed the best. The evaluation of lossy compression effects affecting detection ability was based on ROC-like analysis. Assuming a two-sided significance level of p=0.05, the null hypothesis that lower bit rate reconstructions are as useful for diagnosis as the originals was false in sensitivity tests with 0.04 bpp mammograms. However, verification of the same hypothesis with 0.1 bpp reconstructions suggested their acceptance. Moreover, the 1 bpp reconstructions were rated very similarly to the original mammograms in the diagnostic quality evaluation test, but the
The Benefits of Leisure Stress.
Mitchell, Jr., Richard G.
1982-01-01
Leisure bereft of all stress is action without purpose. Maximum motivation and gratification are achieved when a balance is achieved between abilities and responsibilities. Stress is an essential leisure ingredient that provides meaning and clarity to social experience. (CJ)
Material Compressing Test of the High Polymer Part Used in Draft Gear of Heavy Load Locomotive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Yangang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available According to the actual load cases of heavy load locomotive, the material compressing tests of the high polymer parts used in the locomotive are researched. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing are acquired by means of comparing the many results of the material compressing tests under different test condition. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing is nonlinear in large range of strain, but the relationship is approximately linear in small range of strain. The material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are compared through the tests. The results show that the compressing property of the material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are almost same. The research offers the foundation to study the structure elasticity of the draft gear.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2013-01-01
The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....
Numerical simulation of CO2 scroll compressor in transcritical compression cycle
Wang, Hongli; Tian, JingRui; Du, Yuanhang; Hou, Xiujuan
2018-05-01
Based on the theory of thermodynamics and kinetics, the mathematical model of an orbiting scroll was established and the stress deformations were employed by ANSYS software. Under the action of pressure load, the results show that the serious displacement part is located in the center of the gear head and the maximum deformation is about 7.33 μm. The maximum radial displacement is about 4.42 μm. The maximum radial stress point occurs in the center of the gear head and the maximum stress is about 40.9 MPa. The maximum axial displacement is about 2.31 μm. The maximum axial stress point occurs in the gear head and the maximum stress is about 44.7 MPa. Under the action of temperature load, the results show that the serious deformation part is located in the center of the gear head and the maximum deformation is about 6.3 μm. The maximum thermal stress occurs in the center of the gear head and the maximum thermal stress is about 86.36 MPa. Under the combined action of temperature load and pressure load, the results show that the serious deformation part and the maximum stress are located in the center of the gear head, and the value are about 7.79 μm and 74.19 MPa, respectively.
Geiger, Philipp T.; Khansur, Neamul H.; Riess, Kevin; Martin, Alexander; Hinterstein, Manuel; Webber, Kyle G.
2018-02-01
Lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3-δ (LSCF) is one of the most studied mixed ionic-electronic conductor materials due to electrical and transport properties, which are attractive for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen permeation membranes, and catalysis. The integration of such materials, however, depends on the thermal as well as mechanical behavior. LSCF exhibits nonlinear hysteresis during compressive stress-strain measurements, marked by a remanent strain and coercive stress, i.e., ferroelasticity. However, the origin of ferroelastic behavior has not been investigated under high compressive stress. This study, therefore, investigates the microscopic origin of stress-induced mechanical behavior in polycrystalline (La0.6Sr0.4)0.95Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The data presented here reveals that the strain response originates from the intrinsic lattice strain as well as the extrinsic domain switching strain without any apparent change in crystallographic symmetry. A comparison of the calculated microscopic strain contribution with that of a macroscopic measurement indicates a significant change in the relative contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic strain depending on the applied stress state, i.e., under maximum stress and after unloading. Direct evidence of the microscopic origin of stress-strain response outlined in this paper may assist in guiding materials design with the improved mechanical reliability of SOFCs.
Mammography image compression using Wavelet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azuhar Ripin; Md Saion Salikin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Norriza Md Isa
2004-01-01
Image compression plays an important role in many applications like medical imaging, televideo conferencing, remote sensing, document and facsimile transmission, which depend on the efficient manipulation, storage, and transmission of binary, gray scale, or color images. In Medical imaging application such Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACs), the image size or image stream size is too large and requires a large amount of storage space or high bandwidth for communication. Image compression techniques are divided into two categories namely lossy and lossless data compression. Wavelet method used in this project is a lossless compression method. In this method, the exact original mammography image data can be recovered. In this project, mammography images are digitized by using Vider Sierra Plus digitizer. The digitized images are compressed by using this wavelet image compression technique. Interactive Data Language (IDLs) numerical and visualization software is used to perform all of the calculations, to generate and display all of the compressed images. Results of this project are presented in this paper. (Author)
Application of PDF methods to compressible turbulent flows
Delarue, B. J.; Pope, S. B.
1997-09-01
A particle method applying the probability density function (PDF) approach to turbulent compressible flows is presented. The method is applied to several turbulent flows, including the compressible mixing layer, and good agreement is obtained with experimental data. The PDF equation is solved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo method. To accurately account for the effects of compressibility on the flow, the velocity PDF formulation is extended to include thermodynamic variables such as the pressure and the internal energy. The mean pressure, the determination of which has been the object of active research over the last few years, is obtained directly from the particle properties. It is therefore not necessary to link the PDF solver with a finite-volume type solver. The stochastic differential equations (SDE) which model the evolution of particle properties are based on existing second-order closures for compressible turbulence, limited in application to low turbulent Mach number flows. Tests are conducted in decaying isotropic turbulence to compare the performances of the PDF method with the Reynolds-stress closures from which it is derived, and in homogeneous shear flows, at which stage comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data is conducted. The model is then applied to the plane compressible mixing layer, reproducing the well-known decrease in the spreading rate with increasing compressibility. It must be emphasized that the goal of this paper is not as much to assess the performance of models of compressibility effects, as it is to present an innovative and consistent PDF formulation designed for turbulent inhomogeneous compressible flows, with the aim of extending it further to deal with supersonic reacting flows.
Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.
1977-07-01
An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures
Context-Aware Image Compression.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacky C K Chan
Full Text Available We describe a physics-based data compression method inspired by the photonic time stretch wherein information-rich portions of the data are dilated in a process that emulates the effect of group velocity dispersion on temporal signals. With this coding operation, the data can be downsampled at a lower rate than without it. In contrast to previous implementation of the warped stretch compression, here the decoding can be performed without the need of phase recovery. We present rate-distortion analysis and show improvement in PSNR compared to compression via uniform downsampling.
Compressive sensing for urban radar
Amin, Moeness
2014-01-01
With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki
Stress rotation along pre-Cenozoic basement structures
Reiter, K.; Heidbach, O.; Henk, A.
2017-12-01
The in-situ stress state of the Earth's crust is under investigation since decades for both, scientific and economic purposes. Several methods have been established to indicate the contemporary orientation of the maximum compressive horizontal stress (SHmax). It is assumed that the same forces that drive plate motion are the first order stress sources and one could presume that SHmax is always parallel to plate motion, which is the case for some regions. However, deviations from this general trend occur in many regions. Therefore, second and third order sources of stress have been identified that potentially cause regional and local stress rotation with respect to the long wave-length trend imposed by plate tectonic forces. One group of such subordinate stress sources are lateral heterogeneities based on structures, petrothermal or petrophysical properties. The World Stress Map (WSM) project compiles systematically data records of the present day SHmax orientation. The increasing amount of stress orientation data allows to investigate areas with consistent stress rotation, divergent to the regional stress pattern. In our work we analyse the stress pattern variability and its causes beneath Germany. In the Molasse Basin in the Alpine foreland the SHmax orientation is perpendicular to the Alpine front as a consequence of gravitational potential energy of the orogen. SHmax is oriented in N-S direction in the central Alpine foreland and within the North German Basin. Between both, within the Mid-German Crystalline High, SHmax is divergent oriented in SE-NW direction. Neither gravitational potential energy nor petrothermal effects can be indicated as stress source. But when comparing the stress pattern with the Variscan basement structures it is obvious that SHmax is perpendicular oriented to this Palaeozoic basement structures. Therefore, petrophysical heterogeneities can be expected as reason for the observed stress rotation. Two assumptions can be made for the Mid
The study on stress-strain state of the spring at high temperature using ABAQUS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cylindrical helical springs are widely used in the elements of thermal energy devices. It is necessary to guarantee the stability of the stress state of spring in high temperature. Relaxation phenomenon of stress is studied in this paper. Calculations are carried out in the environment of ABAQUS. The verification is taken out using analytical calculations.This paper describes the distribution and character of stress contour lines on the cross section of spring under the condition of instantaneous load, explicates the relaxation law with time. Research object is cylindrical helical spring, that working at high temperature. The purpose of this work is to get the stress relaxation law of spring, and to guarantee the long-term strength.This article presents the basic theory of helical spring. Establishes spring mathematical model of creep under the loads of compression and torsion. The stress formulas of each component in the cross section of spring are given. The calculation process of relaxation is analyzed in the program ABAQUS.In this paper compare the analytical formulas of spring stress with the simulation results, which are created by program ABAQUS.Finite element model for stress creep analysis in the cross section is created, material of spring – stainless steel 10X18N9T, springs are used at the temperature 650℃.At the beginning, stress-stain of spring is in the elastic state. Analyzes the change law of creep stress under the condition of constant load and a fixed compression.When analyzing under the condition of a fixed compression, the stresses are quickly decreased in most area in the cross section of spring, and the point of minimum shear stress gradually moves to the direction of outer diameter, because of this, stresses in a small area near the center increase slowly at first then decrease gradually with time. When analyzing under the condition of constant load, the stresses are quickly decreased in the around area and in creased
Compressive properties of silica aerogel at 295, 76, and 20K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arvidson, J.M.; Scull, L.L.
1986-01-01
Specimens of silica aerogel were tested in compression at 295, 76, and 20 K in a helium gas environment. The properties reported include Young's modulus, the proportional limit, and yield strength. Compressive stress-versus-strain curves at these temperatures are also given. A test apparatus was developed specifically to determine the compressive properties of low strength materials. To measure specimen strain a concentric, overlapping-cylinder, capacitance extensometer was developed. This frictionless device has the capability to conduct variable temperature tests at any temperature from 1.8 to 295 K. Results from the compression tests indicate that at low temperatures the material is not only stronger, but tougher. During 295-K compression tests, the samples fractured and, in some cases, crumbled. After 76- or 20-K compression tests, the specimens remained intact
Experimental investigation of dynamic compression and spallation of Cerium at pressures up to 6 GPa
Zubareva, A. N.; Kolesnikov, S. A.; Utkin, A. V.
2014-05-01
In this study the experiments on one-dimensional dynamic compression of Cerium (Ce) samples to pressures of 0.5 to 6 GPa using various types of explosively driven generators were conducted. VISAR laser velocimeter was used to obtain Ce free surface velocity profiles. The isentropic compression wave was registered for γ-phase of Ce at pressures lower than 0.76 GPa that corresponds to γ-α phase transition pressure in Ce. Shock rarefaction waves were also registered in several experiments. Both observations were the result of the anomalous compressibility of γ-phase of Ce. On the basis of our experimental results the compression isentrope of Ce γ-phase was constructed. Its comparison with volumetric compression curves allowed to estimate the magnitude of shear stress at dynamic compression conditions for Ce. Spall strength measurements were also conducted for several samples. They showed a strong dependence of the spall strength of Ce on the strain rate.
Experimental investigation of dynamic compression and spallation of cerium at pressures up to 6 GPa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubareva, A N; Kolesnikov, S A; Utkin, A V
2014-01-01
In this study the experiments on one-dimensional dynamic compression of Cerium (Ce) samples to pressures of 0.5 to 6 GPa using various types of explosively driven generators were conducted. VISAR laser velocimeter was used to obtain Ce free surface velocity profiles. The isentropic compression wave was registered for γ-phase of Ce at pressures lower than 0.76 GPa that corresponds to γ-α phase transition pressure in Ce. Shock rarefaction waves were also registered in several experiments. Both observations were the result of the anomalous compressibility of γ-phase of Ce. On the basis of our experimental results the compression isentrope of Ce γ-phase was constructed. Its comparison with volumetric compression curves allowed to estimate the magnitude of shear stress at dynamic compression conditions for Ce. Spall strength measurements were also conducted for several samples. They showed a strong dependence of the spall strength of Ce on the strain rate.
Bronchoscopic guidance of endovascular stenting limits airway compression.
Ebrahim, Mohammad; Hagood, James; Moore, John; El-Said, Howaida
2015-04-01
Bronchial compression as a result of pulmonary artery and aortic arch stenting may cause significant respiratory distress. We set out to limit airway narrowing by endovascular stenting, by using simultaneous flexible bronchoscopy and graduated balloon stent dilatation, or balloon angioplasty to determine maximum safe stent diameter. Between August 2010 and August 2013, patients with suspected airway compression by adjacent vascular structures, underwent CT or a 3D rotational angiogram to evaluate the relationship between the airway and the blood vessels. If these studies showed close proximity of the stenosed vessel and the airway, simultaneous bronchoscopy and graduated stent re-dilation or graduated balloon angioplasty were performed. Five simultaneous bronchoscopy and interventional catheterization procedures were performed in four patients. Median age/weight was 33 (range 9-49) months and 14 (range 7.6-24) kg, respectively. Three had hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and one had coarctation of the aorta (CoA). All had confirmed or suspected left main stem bronchial compression. In three procedures, serial balloon dilatation of a previously placed stent in the CoA was performed and bronchoscopy was used to determine the safest largest diameter. In the other two procedures, balloon testing with simultaneous bronchoscopy was performed to determine the stent size that would limit compression of the adjacent airway. In all cases, simultaneous bronchoscopy allowed selection of an ideal caliber of the stent that optimized vessel diameter while minimizing compression of the adjacent airway. In cases at risk for airway compromise, flexible bronchoscopy is a useful tool to guide endovascular stenting. Maximum safe stent diameter can be determined without risking catastrophic airway compression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, Chiara G.; Carniel, Emanuele L.
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic behaviour of the human heel pad by comparing the stress–relaxation curves obtained from a compression device used on an in vivo heel pad with those obtained from a threedimensional computer-based subject-specific heel pad model subjected...... numerical analyses were performed to interpret the mechanical response of heel tissues, with loading conditions and displacement rate in agreement with experimental tests. The heel tissues showed a non-linear, viscoelastic behaviour described by characteristic hysteretic curves, stress......–relaxation and viscous recovery phenomena. The reliability of the investigations was validated by the interpretation of the mechanical response of heel tissues under the application of three pistons with diameter of 15, 20 and 40 mm, at the same displacement rate of about 1.7 mm/s. The maximum and minimum relative...
What controls the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes?
Eaton, D. W. S.
2017-12-01
Three different approaches for estimation of maximum magnitude are considered here, along with their implications for managing risk. The first approach is based on a deterministic limit for seismic moment proposed by McGarr (1976), which was originally designed for application to mining-induced seismicity. This approach has since been reformulated for earthquakes induced by fluid injection (McGarr, 2014). In essence, this method assumes that the upper limit for seismic moment release is constrained by the pressure-induced stress change. A deterministic limit is given by the product of shear modulus and the net injected fluid volume. This method is based on the assumptions that the medium is fully saturated and in a state of incipient failure. An alternative geometrical approach was proposed by Shapiro et al. (2011), who postulated that the rupture area for an induced earthquake falls entirely within the stimulated volume. This assumption reduces the maximum-magnitude problem to one of estimating the largest potential slip surface area within a given stimulated volume. Finally, van der Elst et al. (2016) proposed that the maximum observed magnitude, statistically speaking, is the expected maximum value for a finite sample drawn from an unbounded Gutenberg-Richter distribution. These three models imply different approaches for risk management. The deterministic method proposed by McGarr (2014) implies that a ceiling on the maximum magnitude can be imposed by limiting the net injected volume, whereas the approach developed by Shapiro et al. (2011) implies that the time-dependent maximum magnitude is governed by the spatial size of the microseismic event cloud. Finally, the sample-size hypothesis of Van der Elst et al. (2016) implies that the best available estimate of the maximum magnitude is based upon observed seismicity rate. The latter two approaches suggest that real-time monitoring is essential for effective management of risk. A reliable estimate of maximum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Parlak, Adnan
2015-01-01
This paper presents comprehensive performance analyses and comparisons for air-standard irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) based on the power output, power density, thermal efficiency, maximum dimensionless power output (MP), maximum dimensionless power density (MPD) and maximum thermal efficiency (MEF) criteria. Internal irreversibility of the cycles occurred during the irreversible-adiabatic processes is considered by using isentropic efficiencies of compression and expansion processes. The performances of the cycles are obtained by using engine design parameters such as isentropic temperature ratio of the compression process, pressure ratio, stroke ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, exhaust temperature ratio, cycle temperature ratio and cycle pressure ratio. The effects of engine design parameters on the maximum and optimal performances are investigated. - Highlights: • Performance analyses are conducted for irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines. • Comprehensive computations are performed. • Maximum and optimum performances of the engines are shown. • The effects of design parameters on performance and power density are examined. • The results obtained may be guidelines to the engine designers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangwei Li
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.
Spinal meningioma: relationship between degree of cord compression and outcome.
Davies, Simon; Gregson, Barbara; Mitchell, Patrick
2017-04-01
The aim of this study was to find the relationships between the degree of cord compression as seen on MRIs with persisting cord atrophy after decompression and patient outcomes in spinal meningiomas. We undertook a retrospective analysis of 31 patients' pre- and postoperative MRIs, preoperative functional status and their outcomes at follow-up. The following metrics were analysed; percentage cord area at maximum compression, percentage tumour occupancy and percentage cord occupancy. These were then compared with outcome as measured by the Nurick scale. Of the 31 patients, 27 (87%) had thoracic meningiomas, 3 (10%) cervical and 1 (3%) cervicothoracic. The meningiomas were pathologically classified as grade 1 (29) or grade 2 (2) according to the WHO classification. The average remaining cord cross-sectional area was 61% of the estimated original value. The average tumour occupancy of the canal was 72%. The average cord occupancy of the spinal canal at maximum compression was 20%. No correlation between cord cross-section area and Nurick Scale was seen. On the postoperative scan, the average cord area had increased to 84%. No correlation was seen between this value and outcome. We found that cross-section area measurements on MRI scans have no obvious relationship with function before or after surgery. This is a base for future research into the mechanism of cord recovery and other compressive cord conditions.
Stress analysis of glass-ceramic insulator and molybdenum cylinders in vacuum tube subassembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spears, R.K.
1980-01-01
This study determined the state of stress between molybdenum cylinders and a glass-ceramic insulator of a vacuum tube during cooling when the glass-ceramic coefficient of expansion differed from molybdenum by +-2 x 10 -7 / 0 C. A thermoelastic stress analysis was performed on the vacuum tube subassembly using the finite element method. Two cases, which examined the effect of cooling over a 700 0 C range, were considered. In Case One, the expansion coefficient of the glass-ceramic was 2 x 10 -7 / 0 C less than that of molybdenum while for Case Two, it was 2 x 10 -7 / 0 C greater. For Case One, it was found that the tangential stresses in the insulator were entirely compressive but the maximum principal stresses in the r-z plane were mainly tensile. For Case Two, the tangential stresses were tensile in the insulator as were most of the maximum principal stresses in the r-z plane except for stress in the upper regions of the insulator. The magnitude of the stress at the maximum principal stress location appears to be substantially lower than what has been observed in practice (i.e., cracking of this design had never been a major problem, but it has been observed that if the coefficient of expansion of the glass-ceramic was 2 x 10 -7 / 0 C lower than molybdenum, cracking usually resulted). This analysis showed that the expansion coefficient of the glass-ceramic could be varied quite liberally from molybdenum before the ultimate strength (13,000 lb/in. 2 ) of the glass-ceramic was exceeded
Compressed gas fuel storage system
Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.
2001-01-01
A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.
Compressed sensing for distributed systems
Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico
2015-01-01
This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...
Nonlinear compression of optical solitons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
linear pulse propagation is the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation [1]. There are ... Optical pulse compression finds important applications in optical fibres. The pulse com ..... to thank CSIR, New Delhi for financial support in the form of SRF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taniguchi, Yuu; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito
2017-01-01
The excessive tensile residual stress generated by welding after surface machining may be an important factor to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nuclear power plants. Therefore we need to understand and control the residual stress distribution appropriately. In this study, residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding were evaluated by X-ray diffraction method. Depth directional distributions were also investigated by electrolytic polishing. In addition, to consider the effect of work hardened layer on the residual stress distributions, we also measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) obtained from X-ray diffraction. Testing material was a low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type SUS316L. Test specimens were prepared by surface machining with different cutting conditions. Then, bead-on-plate welding under the same welding condition was carried out on the test specimens with different surface machined layer. As a result, the tensile residual stress generated by surface machining increased with increasing cutting speed and showed nearly uniform distributions on the surface. Furthermore, the tensile residual stress drastically decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Then, the residual stress approached 0 MPa after the compressive value showed. FWHM also decreased drastically with increasing measurement depth and almost constant value from a certain depth, which was almost equal regardless of the machining condition, within surface machined layer in all specimens. After welding, the transverse distribution of the longitudinal residual stress varied in the area apart from the weld center according to machining conditions and had a maximum value in heat affected zone. The magnitude of the maximum residual stress was almost equal regardless of the machining condition and decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Finally, the
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
SEED BANKS FOR MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATORS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fulkerson, E S
2008-05-14
In recent years the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been conducting experiments that require pulsed high currents to be delivered into inductive loads. The loads fall into two categories (1) pulsed high field magnets and (2) the input stage of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG). Three capacitor banks of increasing energy storage and controls sophistication have been designed and constructed to drive these loads. One bank was developed for the magnet driving application (20kV {approx} 30kJ maximum stored energy.) Two banks where constructed as MFCG seed banks (12kV {approx} 43kJ and 26kV {approx} 450kJ). This paper will describe the design of each bank including switching, controls, circuit protection and safety.
Transfer induced compressive strain in graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Martin Benjamin Barbour Spanget; Mackenzie, David; Caridad, Jose
2014-01-01
We have used spatially resolved micro Raman spectroscopy to map the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the graphene G-band and the 2D and G peak positions, for as-grown graphene on copper catalyst layers, for transferred CVD graphene and for micromechanically exfoliated graphene, in order...... to characterize the effects of a transfer process on graphene properties. Here we use the FWHM(G) as an indicator of the doping level of graphene, and the ratio of the shifts in the 2D and G bands as an indicator of strain. We find that the transfer process introduces an isotropic, spatially uniform, compressive...... strain in graphene, and increases the carrier concentration....
Behavior of porous tungsten under shock compression at room temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dandekar, D.P.; Lamothe, R.M.
1977-01-01
This work reports the results of room-temperature shock-compression experiments on porous tungsten. The porous tungsten was fabricated by sintering 1-μm tungsten particles. The initial density of the material was 15290 kg/m 3 . Around 97% of the pores in the material were interconnected. The main features of the results are as follows: (1) porous tungsten behaves as a linear elastic material to 1.43 GPa; (2) the shock wave following the elastic precursor is unstable in the material in the stress range 1.43--2.7 GPa; (3) a stable two-wave structure is established at and above 6.4 GPa; (4) the response of porous tungsten is accurately described by the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state at stresses above 4.9 GPa, the stress at which the voids suffer a complete extinction in the material; (5) the deformations induced in the material due to shock compression are irreversible; (6) the recentered Hugoniot of porous tungsten becomes stiffer with the increasing magnitude of initial compressive stress
Comparative study of oxihydrogen injection in turbocharged compression ignition engines
Barna, L.; Lelea, D.
2018-01-01
This document proposes for analysis, comparative study of the turbocharged, compression-ignition engine, equipped with EGR valve, operation in case the injection in intake manifold thereof a maximum flow rate of 1l/min oxyhydrogen resulted of water electrolysis, at two different injection pressures, namely 100 Pa and 3000 Pa, from the point of view of flue gas opacity. We found a substantial reduction of flue gas opacity in both cases compared to conventional diesel operation, but in different proportions.
Compressed Sensing in Vibration Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Osvaldo Casares-Quirós
2014-12-01
After an experimental test using Waspmotes the fixed-variable variant has a 56.58% reduction of power consumption by introducing a maximum error ± 0.00195g and compress in 52.44% the amount of samples. This algorithm increased the network energy autonomy from 17 hours to 26.5 hours. Through mathematical analysis, the variable-fixed technique reduces in 74.81% the power consumption in sensing nodes transmissions and decrease in 90% the number of samples.
Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.
2004-07-01
This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Full-frame compression of discrete wavelet and cosine transforms
Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Li, Huai; Krasner, Brian; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.
1995-04-01
At the foreground of computerized radiology and the filmless hospital are the possibilities for easy image retrieval, efficient storage, and rapid image communication. This paper represents the authors' continuous efforts in compression research on full-frame discrete wavelet (FFDWT) and full-frame discrete cosine transforms (FFDCT) for medical image compression. Prior to the coding, it is important to evaluate the global entropy in the decomposed space. It is because of the minimum entropy, that a maximum compression efficiency can be achieved. In this study, each image was split into the top three most significant bit (MSB) and the remaining remapped least significant bit (RLSB) images. The 3MSB image was compressed by an error-free contour coding and received an average of 0.1 bit/pixel. The RLSB image was either transformed to a multi-channel wavelet or the cosine transform domain for entropy evaluation. Ten x-ray chest radiographs and ten mammograms were randomly selected from our clinical database and were used for the study. Our results indicated that the coding scheme in the FFDCT domain performed better than in FFDWT domain for high-resolution digital chest radiographs and mammograms. From this study, we found that decomposition efficiency in the DCT domain for relatively smooth images is higher than that in the DWT. However, both schemes worked just as well for low resolution digital images. We also found that the image characteristics of the `Lena' image commonly used in the compression literature are very different from those of radiological images. The compression outcome of the radiological images can not be extrapolated from the compression result based on the `Lena.'
Carbon Nanofiber Cement Sensors to Detect Strain and Damage of Concrete Specimens Under Compression.
Galao, Oscar; Baeza, F Javier; Zornoza, Emilio; Garcés, Pedro
2017-11-24
Cement composites with nano-additions have been vastly studied for their functional applications, such as strain and damage sensing. The capacity of a carbon nanofiber (CNF) cement paste has already been tested. However, this study is focused on the use of CNF cement composites as sensors in regular concrete samples. Different measuring techniques and humidity conditions of CNF samples were tested to optimize the strain and damage sensing of this material. In the strain sensing tests (for compressive stresses up to 10 MPa), the response depends on the maximum stress applied. The material was more sensitive at higher loads. Furthermore, the actual load time history did not influence the electrical response, and similar curves were obtained for different test configurations. On the other hand, damage sensing tests proved the capability of CNF cement composites to measure the strain level of concrete samples, even for loads close to the material's strength. Some problems were detected in the strain transmission between sensor and concrete specimens, which will require specific calibration of each sensor one attached to the structure.
Stress relaxation of shear in metals during shock loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glazyrin, V.P.; Platova, T.M.
1988-01-01
Constructed determining equation, taking into account stress relaxation of shear, was used to calculate the evolution of plane shock waves of primary and secondary compression in metals. Values of shear stress and viscosity coefficient were
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.
2017-01-01
The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [es
Cladding creepdown under compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hobson, D.O.
1977-01-01
Light-water power reactors use Zircaloy tubing as cladding to contain the UO 2 fuel pellets. In-service operating conditions impose an external hydrostatic force on the cladding, causing it to creep down into eventual contact with the fuel. Knowledge of the rate of such creepdown is of great importance to modelers of fuel element performance. An experimental system was devised for studying creepdown that meets several severe requirements by providing (1) correct stress state, (2) multiple positions for measuring radial displacement of the cladding surface, (3) high-precision data, and (4) an experimental configuration compact enough to fit in-reactor. A microcomputer-controlled, eddy-current monitoring system was developed for this study and has proven highly successful in measuring cladding deformation with time at temperatures of 371 0 C (700 0 F) and higher, and at pressures as high as 21 MPa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonne, M R; Hattel, J H; Frandsen, J O
2015-01-01
In this work, simulations of pouring, solidification and cooling, and residual stress evolution of sand and chill cast wind turbine main shafts is performed. The models are made in the commercial software MAGMAsoft. As expected, the cooling rate of the sand casting is shown to be much lower than for the chill casting, resulting in a very course microstructure. From the simulations the nodule count is found to be 17 nodules per mm 2 and 159 nodules per mm 2 for the sand and chill casting, respectively, in the critical region of the main bearing seat. This is verified from nodule counts performed on the real cast main shafts. Residual stress evaluations show an overall increase of the maximum principal stress field for the chill casting, which is expected. However, the stresses are found to be in compression on the surface of the chill cast main shaft, which is unforeseen. (paper)
Rodi, Patrick E.
1993-01-01
Forward swept sidewall compression inlets have been tested in the Mach 4 Blowdown Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effects of bodyside compression surfaces on inlet performance in the presence of an incoming turbulent boundary layer. The measurements include mass flow capture and mean surface pressure distributions obtained during simulated combustion pressure increases downstream of the inlet. The kerosene-lampblack surface tracer technique has been used to obtain patterns of the local wall shear stress direction. Inlet performance is evaluated using starting and unstarting characteristics, mass capture, mean surface pressure distributions and permissible back pressure limits. The results indicate that inlet performance can be improved with selected bodyside compression surfaces placed between the inlet sidewalls.
29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed a...
Double-compression method for biomedical images
Antonenko, Yevhenii A.; Mustetsov, Timofey N.; Hamdi, Rami R.; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa; Orshubekov, Nurbek; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Uvaysova, Svetlana
2017-08-01
This paper describes a double compression method (DCM) of biomedical images. A comparison of image compression factors in size JPEG, PNG and developed DCM was carried out. The main purpose of the DCM - compression of medical images while maintaining the key points that carry diagnostic information. To estimate the minimum compression factor an analysis of the coding of random noise image is presented.
Compressibility effects in the shear layer over a rectangular cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin; Casper, Katya Marie
2016-10-26
we studied the influence of compressibility on the shear layer over a rectangular cavity of variable width in a free stream Mach number range of 0.6–2.5 using particle image velocimetry data in the streamwise centre plane. As the Mach number increases, the vertical component of the turbulence intensity diminishes modestly in the widest cavity, but the two narrower cavities show a more substantial drop in all three components as well as the turbulent shear stress. Furthermore, this contrasts with canonical free shear layers, which show significant reductions in only the vertical component and the turbulent shear stress due to compressibility. The vorticity thickness of the cavity shear layer grows rapidly as it initially develops, then transitions to a slower growth rate once its instability saturates. When normalized by their estimated incompressible values, the growth rates prior to saturation display the classic compressibility effect of suppression as the convective Mach number rises, in excellent agreement with comparable free shear layer data. The specific trend of the reduction in growth rate due to compressibility is modified by the cavity width.
Aspects of forward scattering from the compression paddle in the dosimetry of mammography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toroi, Paula; Koenoenen, Niina; Timonen, Marjut; Kortesniemi, Mika
2013-01-01
The best compression paddle position during air kerma measurement in mammography dosimetry was studied. The amount of forward scattering as a function of the compression paddle distance was measured with different X-ray spectra and different types of paddles and dose meters. The contribution of forward scattering to the air kerma did not present significant dependency on the beam quality or of the compression paddle type. The tested dose meter types detected different amounts of forward scattering due to different internal collimation. When the paddle was adjusted to its maximum clinical distance, the proportion of the detected forward scattering was only 1 % for all dose meter types. The most consistent way of performing air kerma measurements is to position the compression paddle at the maximum distance from the dose meter and use a constant forward scattering factor for all dose meters. Thus, the dosimetric uncertainty due to the forward scatter can be minimised. (authors)
Perceptual Image Compression in Telemedicine
Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Eckstein, Miguel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
The next era of space exploration, especially the "Mission to Planet Earth" will generate immense quantities of image data. For example, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is expected to generate in excess of one terabyte/day. NASA confronts a major technical challenge in managing this great flow of imagery: in collection, pre-processing, transmission to earth, archiving, and distribution to scientists at remote locations. Expected requirements in most of these areas clearly exceed current technology. Part of the solution to this problem lies in efficient image compression techniques. For much of this imagery, the ultimate consumer is the human eye. In this case image compression should be designed to match the visual capacities of the human observer. We have developed three techniques for optimizing image compression for the human viewer. The first consists of a formula, developed jointly with IBM and based on psychophysical measurements, that computes a DCT quantization matrix for any specified combination of viewing distance, display resolution, and display brightness. This DCT quantization matrix is used in most recent standards for digital image compression (JPEG, MPEG, CCITT H.261). The second technique optimizes the DCT quantization matrix for each individual image, based on the contents of the image. This is accomplished by means of a model of visual sensitivity to compression artifacts. The third technique extends the first two techniques to the realm of wavelet compression. Together these two techniques will allow systematic perceptual optimization of image compression in NASA imaging systems. Many of the image management challenges faced by NASA are mirrored in the field of telemedicine. Here too there are severe demands for transmission and archiving of large image databases, and the imagery is ultimately used primarily by human observers, such as radiologists. In this presentation I will describe some of our preliminary explorations of the applications
Two-way shape memory effect induced by repetitive compressive loading cycles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yoo, Young-Ik; Lee, Jung-Ju
2009-01-01
The NiTi alloy can be trained by repetitive loading or heating cycles. As a result of the training, a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) can be induced. Considerable research has been reported regarding the TWSME trained by tensile loading. However, the TWSME trained by compressive loading has not been investigated nearly as much. In this paper, the TWSME is induced by compressive loading cycles and the two-way shape memory strain is evaluated by using two types of specimen: a solid cylinder type and a tube type. The TWSME trained by compressive loading is different from that trained by tensile loading owing to the severe tension/compression asymmetry as described in previous research. After repetitive compressive loading cycles, strain variation upon cooling is observed, and this result proves that the TWSME is induced by compressive loading cycles. By performing compressive loading cycles, plastic deformation in NiTi alloy occurs more than for tensile loading cycles, which brings about the appearance of TWSME. It can be said that the TWSME is induced by compressive loading cycles more easily. The two-way shape memory strain increases linearly as the maximum strain of compressive loading cycles increases, regardless of the shape and the size of the NiTi alloy; this two-way shape memory strain then shows a tendency towards saturation after some repeated cycles
Strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties of magnetorheological elastomeric foams
Wereley, Norman M.; Perez, Colette; Choi, Young T.
2018-05-01
This paper addresses the strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties (i.e., so-called Payne effect) of magnetorheological elastomeric foams (MREFs). Isotropic MREF samples (i.e., no oriented particle chain structures), fabricated in flat square shapes (nominal size of 26.5 mm x 26.5 mm x 9.5 mm) were synthesized by randomly dispersing micron-sized iron oxide particles (Fe3O4) into a liquid silicone foam in the absence of magnetic field. Five different Fe3O4 particle concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 percent by volume fraction (hereinafter denoted as vol%) were used to investigate the effect of particle concentration on the dynamic compressive properties of the MREFs. The MREFs were sandwiched between two multi-pole flexible plate magnets in order to activate the magnetorheological (MR) strengthening effect. Under two different pre-compression conditions (i.e., 35% and 50%), the dynamic compressive stresses of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes (i.e., 1%-10%) were measured by using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The complex modulus (i.e., storage modulus and loss modulus) and loss factors of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes were presented as performance indices to evaluate their strain-dependent dynamic compressive behavior.
Strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties of magnetorheological elastomeric foams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norman M. Wereley
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties (i.e., so-called Payne effect of magnetorheological elastomeric foams (MREFs. Isotropic MREF samples (i.e., no oriented particle chain structures, fabricated in flat square shapes (nominal size of 26.5 mm x 26.5 mm x 9.5 mm were synthesized by randomly dispersing micron-sized iron oxide particles (Fe3O4 into a liquid silicone foam in the absence of magnetic field. Five different Fe3O4 particle concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 percent by volume fraction (hereinafter denoted as vol% were used to investigate the effect of particle concentration on the dynamic compressive properties of the MREFs. The MREFs were sandwiched between two multi-pole flexible plate magnets in order to activate the magnetorheological (MR strengthening effect. Under two different pre-compression conditions (i.e., 35% and 50%, the dynamic compressive stresses of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes (i.e., 1%-10% were measured by using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The complex modulus (i.e., storage modulus and loss modulus and loss factors of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes were presented as performance indices to evaluate their strain-dependent dynamic compressive behavior.
Evaluation of a new image compression technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Algra, P.R.; Kroon, H.M.; Noordveld, R.B.; DeValk, J.P.J.; Seeley, G.W.; Westerink, P.H.
1988-01-01
The authors present the evaluation of a new image compression technique, subband coding using vector quantization, on 44 CT examinations of the upper abdomen. Three independent radiologists reviewed the original images and compressed versions. The compression ratios used were 16:1 and 20:1. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed no difference in the diagnostic contents between originals and their compressed versions. Subjective visibility of anatomic structures was equal. Except for a few 20:1 compressed images, the observers could not distinguish compressed versions from original images. They conclude that subband coding using vector quantization is a valuable method for data compression in CT scans of the abdomen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deo, Omkar; Neithalath, Narayanan
2010-01-01
Research highlights: → Identified the relevant pore structure features of pervious concretes, provided methodologies to extract those, and quantified the influence of these features on compressive response. → A model for stress-strain relationship of pervious concretes, and relationship between model parameters and parameters of the stress-strain relationship developed. → Statistical model for compressive strength as a function of pore structure features; and a stochastic model for the sensitivity of pore structure features in strength prediction. - Abstract: Properties of a random porous material such as pervious concrete are strongly dependent on its pore structure features, porosity being an important one among them. This study deals with developing an understanding of the material structure-compressive response relationships in pervious concretes. Several pervious concrete mixtures with different pore structure features are proportioned and subjected to static compression tests. The pore structure features such as pore area fractions, pore sizes, mean free spacing of the pores, specific surface area, and the three-dimensional pore distribution density are extracted using image analysis methods. The compressive stress-strain response of pervious concretes, a model to predict the stress-strain response, and its relationship to several of the pore structure features are outlined. Larger aggregate sizes and increase in paste volume fractions are observed to result in increased compressive strengths. The compressive response is found to be influenced by the pore sizes, their distributions and spacing. A statistical model is used to relate the compressive strength to the relevant pore structure features, which is then used as a base model in a Monte-Carlo simulation to evaluate the sensitivity of the predicted compressive strength to the model terms.
Effect of shallow angles on compressive strength of biaxial and triaxial laminates.
Jia, Hongli; Yang, Hyun-Ik
2016-01-01
Biaxial (BX) and triaxial (TX) composite laminates with ±45° angled plies have been widely used in wind turbine blades. As the scale of blades increases, BX and TX laminates with shallow-angled plies (i.e. off-axis ply angle shallow-angled BX and TX laminates are critical considering their locations in a wind turbine blade, and therefore in this study, the uniaxial static compression tests were conducted using BX and TX laminates with angled-plies of ±45°, ±35°, and ±25°, for the purpose of evaluation. On the other hand, Mori-Tanaka mean field homogenization method was employed to predict elastic constants of plies in BX and TX laminates involved in tests; linear regression analyses of experimentally measured ply strengths collected from various sources were then performed to estimate strengths of plies in BX and TX laminates; finally, Tsai-Wu, Hashin, and Puck failure criteria were chosen to predict compressive strengths of BX and TX laminates. Comparison between theoretical predictions and test results were carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of each criterion. The compressive strength of BX laminate decreases as ply angle increases, and the trend was successfully predicted by all three failure criteria. For TX laminates, ±35° angled plies rather than ±45° angled plies led to the lowest laminate compressive strength. Hashin and Puck criteria gave good predictions at certain ply angles for TX laminates, but Tsai-Wu criterion was able to capture the unexpected strength variation of TX laminates with ply angle. It was concluded that the transverse tensile stress in 0° plies of TX laminates, which attains its maximum when the off-axis ply angle is 35°, is the dominant factor in failure determination if using Tsai-Wu criterion. This explains the unexpected strength variation of TX laminates with ply angle, and also indicates that proper selection of ply angle is the key to fully utilizing the advantages of shallow-angled laminates.
Elastic-plastic behaviour of thick-walled containers considering plastic compressibility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betten, J.; Frosch, H.G.
1983-01-01
In this paper the elastic-plastic behaviour of thick-walled pressure vessels with internal and external pressure is studied. To describe the mechanical behaviour of isotropic, plastic compressible materials we use a plastic potential which is a single-valued function of the principle stresses. For cylinders and spheres an analytic expression for the computation of stresses and residual stresses is specified. Afterwards the strains are calculated by using the finite difference method. Some examples will high-light the influence of the plastic compressibility on the behaviour of pressure vessels. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, P.A.
1982-10-01
Tests to determine the tensile and compressive properties of a micro-concrete mix are described. The material is a nominally 40MPa ultimate compressive strength concrete used in impact tests with scale models in the prediction of responses in prototype concrete structures. Compressive tests were intended to give complete stress-strain relationships beyond initial failure. Tensile properties were measured by the Brazilian splitting technique and direct tension dog-bone specimens for comparison reasons. (U.K.)
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Building indifferentiable compression functions from the PGV compression functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gauravaram, P.; Bagheri, Nasour; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde
2016-01-01
Preneel, Govaerts and Vandewalle (PGV) analysed the security of single-block-length block cipher based compression functions assuming that the underlying block cipher has no weaknesses. They showed that 12 out of 64 possible compression functions are collision and (second) preimage resistant. Black......, Rogaway and Shrimpton formally proved this result in the ideal cipher model. However, in the indifferentiability security framework introduced by Maurer, Renner and Holenstein, all these 12 schemes are easily differentiable from a fixed input-length random oracle (FIL-RO) even when their underlying block...
Compression of Probabilistic XML Documents
Veldman, Irma; de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice
Database techniques to store, query and manipulate data that contains uncertainty receives increasing research interest. Such UDBMSs can be classified according to their underlying data model: relational, XML, or RDF. We focus on uncertain XML DBMS with as representative example the Probabilistic XML model (PXML) of [10,9]. The size of a PXML document is obviously a factor in performance. There are PXML-specific techniques to reduce the size, such as a push down mechanism, that produces equivalent but more compact PXML documents. It can only be applied, however, where possibilities are dependent. For normal XML documents there also exist several techniques for compressing a document. Since Probabilistic XML is (a special form of) normal XML, it might benefit from these methods even more. In this paper, we show that existing compression mechanisms can be combined with PXML-specific compression techniques. We also show that best compression rates are obtained with a combination of PXML-specific technique with a rather simple generic DAG-compression technique.
Plasma heating by adiabatic compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, R.A. Jr.
1972-01-01
These two lectures will cover the following three topics: (i) The application of adiabatic compression to toroidal devices is reviewed. The special case of adiabatic compression in tokamaks is considered in more detail, including a discussion of the equilibrium, scaling laws, and heating effects. (ii) The ATC (Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor) device which was completed in May 1972, is described in detail. Compression of a tokamak plasma across a static toroidal field is studied in this device. The device is designed to produce a pre-compression plasma with a major radius of 17 cm, toroidal field of 20 kG, and current of 90 kA. The compression leads to a plasma with major radius of 38 cm and minor radius of 10 cm. Scaling laws imply a density increase of a factor 6, temperature increase of a factor 3, and current increase of a factor 2.4. An additional feature of ATC is that it is a large tokamak which operates without a copper shell. (iii) Data which show that the expected MHD behavior is largely observed is presented and discussed. (U.S.)
Concurrent data compression and protection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saeed, M.
2009-01-01
Data compression techniques involve transforming data of a given format, called source message, to data of a smaller sized format, called codeword. The primary objective of data encryption is to ensure security of data if it is intercepted by an eavesdropper. It transforms data of a given format, called plaintext, to another format, called ciphertext, using an encryption key or keys. Thus, combining the processes of compression and encryption together must be done in this order, that is, compression followed by encryption because all compression techniques heavily rely on the redundancies which are inherently a part of a regular text or speech. The aim of this research is to combine two processes of compression (using an existing scheme) with a new encryption scheme which should be compatible with encoding scheme embedded in encoder. The novel technique proposed by the authors is new, unique and is highly secured. The deployment of sentinel marker' enhances the security of the proposed TR-One algorithm from 2/sup 44/ ciphertexts to 2/sup 44/ +2/sub 20/ ciphertexts thus imposing extra challenges to the intruders. (author)
Radiologic image compression -- A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, S.; Huang, H.K.; Zaremba, L.; Gooden, D.
1995-01-01
The objective of radiologic image compression is to reduce the data volume of and to achieve a lot bit rate in the digital representation of radiologic images without perceived loss of image quality. However, the demand for transmission bandwidth and storage space in the digital radiology environment, especially picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and teleradiology, and the proliferating use of various imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, computed radiography, and digital subtraction angiography, continue to outstrip the capabilities of existing technologies. The availability of lossy coding techniques for clinical diagnoses further implicates many complex legal and regulatory issues. This paper reviews the recent progress of lossless and lossy radiologic image compression and presents the legal challenges of using lossy compression of medical records. To do so, the authors first describe the fundamental concepts of radiologic imaging and digitization. Then, the authors examine current compression technology in the field of medical imaging and discuss important regulatory policies and legal questions facing the use of compression in this field. The authors conclude with a summary of future challenges and research directions. 170 refs
30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped with...
Residual stress investigation of copper plate and canister EB-Welds Complementary Results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gripenberg, H.
2009-03-01
The residual stresses in copper as induced by EB-welding were studied by specimens where the weld had two configurations: either a linear or a circumferential weld. This report contains the residual stress measurements of two plates, containing linear welds, and the full-scale copper lid specimen to which a hollow cylinder section had been joined by a circumferential EB-weld. The residual stress state of the EB-welded copper specimens was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), hole drilling (HD) ring core (RC) and contour method (CM). Three specimens, canister XK010 and plates X251 and X252, were subjected to a thorough study aiming at quantitative determination of the residual stress state in and around the EB-welds using XRD for surface and HD and RC for spatial stress analysis. The CM maps one stress component over a whole cross section. The surface residual stresses measured by XRD represent the machined condition of the copper material. The XRD study showed that the stress changes towards compression close to the weld in the hollow cylinder, which indicates shrinkage in the hoop direction. According to the same analogy, the shrinkage in the axial direction is much smaller. The HD measurements showed that the stress state in the base material is bi-axial and, in terms of von Mises stress, 50 MPa for the plates and 20 MPa for the cylinder part of the canister. The stress state in the EB-welds of all specimens differs clearly from the stress state in the base material being more tensile, with higher magnitudes of von Mises stress in the plate than in the canister welds. The HD and RC results were obtained using linear elastic theory. The RC measurements showed that the maximum principal stress in the BM is close to zero near the surface and it becomes slightly tensile, 10 MPa, deeper under the surface. Welding pushed the general stress state towards tension with the maximum principal stress reaching 50 MPa, deeper than 5 mm below the surface in the weld. The
Acute Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury: Relationship of Cord Compression to Neurological Outcome.
Skeers, Peta; Battistuzzo, Camila R; Clark, Jillian M; Bernard, Stephen; Freeman, Brian J C; Batchelor, Peter E
2018-02-21
Spinal cord injury in the cervical spine is commonly accompanied by cord compression and urgent surgical decompression may improve neurological recovery. However, the extent of spinal cord compression and its relationship to neurological recovery following traumatic thoracolumbar spinal cord injury is unclear. The purpose of this study was to quantify maximum cord compression following thoracolumbar spinal cord injury and to assess the relationship among cord compression, cord swelling, and eventual clinical outcome. The medical records of patients who were 15 to 70 years of age, were admitted with a traumatic thoracolumbar spinal cord injury (T1 to L1), and underwent a spinal surgical procedure were examined. Patients with penetrating injuries and multitrauma were excluded. Maximal osseous canal compromise and maximal spinal cord compression were measured on preoperative mid-sagittal computed tomography (CT) scans and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by observers blinded to patient outcome. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) grades from acute hospital admission (≤24 hours of injury) and rehabilitation discharge were used to measure clinical outcome. Relationships among spinal cord compression, canal compromise, and initial and final AIS grades were assessed via univariate and multivariate analyses. Fifty-three patients with thoracolumbar spinal cord injury were included in this study. The overall mean maximal spinal cord compression (and standard deviation) was 40% ± 21%. There was a significant relationship between median spinal cord compression and final AIS grade, with grade-A patients (complete injury) exhibiting greater compression than grade-C and D patients (incomplete injury) (p compression as independently influencing the likelihood of complete spinal cord injury (p compression. Greater cord compression is associated with an increased likelihood of severe neurological deficits (complete injury) following
Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation
Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.
2015-11-01
We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.
Rectal perforation by compressed air.
Park, Young Jin
2017-07-01
As the use of compressed air in industrial work has increased, so has the risk of associated pneumatic injury from its improper use. However, damage of large intestine caused by compressed air is uncommon. Herein a case of pneumatic rupture of the rectum is described. The patient was admitted to the Emergency Room complaining of abdominal pain and distension. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle over his buttock. On arrival, vital signs were stable but physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and marked distension of the abdomen. Computed tomography showed a large volume of air in the peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous emphysema at the perineum. A rectal perforation was found at laparotomy and the Hartmann procedure was performed.