WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximizing conservation benefit

  1. Maximizing conservation benefit for grassland species with contrasting management requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Cabeza, M.; Poyry, J.; Raatikainen, K.; Kuussaari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Conservation management often encompasses multiple, alternative management actions on a given site, involving habitat restoration and maintenance for example. Which actions are preferable depends on the conservation goals, the expected outcomes of actions, and their associated costs. When actions

  2. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  3. MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André da Conceição Menezes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.

  4. Maximizing the benefits of a dewatering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.; Iverson, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The use of dewatering systems in the mining, industrial sludge and sewage waste treatment industries is discussed, also describing some of the problems that have been encountered while using drilling fluid dewatering technology. The technology is an acceptable drilling waste handling alternative but it has had problems associated with recycled fluid incompatibility, high chemical costs and system inefficiencies. This paper discussed the following five action areas that can maximize the benefits and help reduce costs of a dewatering project: (1) co-ordinate all services, (2) choose equipment that fits the drilling program, (3) match the chemical treatment with the drilling fluid types, (4) determine recycled fluid compatibility requirements, and (5) determine the disposal requirements before project start-up. 2 refs., 5 figs

  5. Efficient Conservation in a Utility-Maximization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W. Davis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic planning for biodiversity conservation is being conducted at scales ranging from global to national to regional. The prevailing planning paradigm is to identify the minimum land allocations needed to reach specified conservation targets or maximize the amount of conservation accomplished under an area or budget constraint. We propose a more general formulation for setting conservation priorities that involves goal setting, assessing the current conservation system, developing a scenario of future biodiversity given the current conservation system, and allocating available conservation funds to alter that scenario so as to maximize future biodiversity. Under this new formulation for setting conservation priorities, the value of a site depends on resource quality, threats to resource quality, and costs. This planning approach is designed to support collaborative processes and negotiation among competing interest groups. We demonstrate these ideas with a case study of the Sierra Nevada bioregion of California.

  6. MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo André da Conceição Menezes; Fernando González-Ladrón-de-Guevara

    2010-01-01

    The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as th...

  7. Maximizing biodiversity co-benefits under REDD+: a decoupled approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, Matthew D; Kelley, Lisa C; Doll, Hannah M

    2013-01-01

    Current debates on biodiversity co-benefits under REDD+ are marked by considerable ambiguity and contention. Nevertheless, REDD+ continues to represent one of the most important opportunities for global biodiversity conservation, and the question of how best to achieve biodiversity co-benefits remains an important one. Thus far, most biodiversity conservation in the context of REDD+ is predicated on the notion that services are co-located on a landscape. In contrast, this letter argues that decoupling biodiversity and carbon services on a landscape through national-level planning is a better approach to biodiversity conservation under REDD+. We discuss the fundamental ecological differences between the two services and use principles of resource economics to demonstrate that a decoupled approach will be more efficient, more flexible, and better able to mobilize sufficient finance for biodiversity conservation than a coupled approach. (letter)

  8. Maximizing biodiversity co-benefits under REDD+: a decoupled approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Matthew D.; Kelley, Lisa C.; Doll, Hannah M.

    2013-06-01

    Current debates on biodiversity co-benefits under REDD+ are marked by considerable ambiguity and contention. Nevertheless, REDD+ continues to represent one of the most important opportunities for global biodiversity conservation, and the question of how best to achieve biodiversity co-benefits remains an important one. Thus far, most biodiversity conservation in the context of REDD+ is predicated on the notion that services are co-located on a landscape. In contrast, this letter argues that decoupling biodiversity and carbon services on a landscape through national-level planning is a better approach to biodiversity conservation under REDD+. We discuss the fundamental ecological differences between the two services and use principles of resource economics to demonstrate that a decoupled approach will be more efficient, more flexible, and better able to mobilize sufficient finance for biodiversity conservation than a coupled approach.

  9. Policies with Varying Costs and Benefits: A Land Conservation Classroom Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.; Jacobson, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Some policies try to maximize net benefits by targeting different individuals to participate. This is difficult when costs and benefits of participation vary independently, such as in land conservation. The authors share a classroom game that explores cases in which minimizing costs may not maximize benefits and vice versa. The game is a…

  10. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  11. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason R.; Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  12. Energy conservation and maximal entropy production in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Vitas, Marko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2017-08-01

    A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated. The test, whether these calculated values of the reaction parameters are consistent with their corresponding measured values, is performed for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase. It is found that calculated and measured rate constants agree within an order of magnitude, whereas the calculated reaction flux and the product yield differ from their corresponding measured values for less than 20 % and 5 %, respectively. This indicates that the enzyme Glucose Isomerase, considered in a non-equilibrium stationary state, as found in experiments using the continuous stirred tank reactors, possibly operates close to the state with the maximum in the density of entropy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization."

  14. Developing a conservation strategy to maximize persistence of an endangered freshwater mussel species while considering management effectiveness and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; McRae, Sarah E.; Augspurger, Tom; Ratcliffe, Judith A.; Nichols, Robert B.; Eads, Chris B.; Savidge, Tim; Bogan, Arthur E.

    2015-01-01

    We used a structured decision-making process to develop conservation strategies to increase persistence of Dwarf Wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in North Carolina, USA, while accounting for uncertainty in management effectiveness and considering costs. Alternative conservation strategies were portfolios of management actions that differed by location of management actions on the landscape. Objectives of the conservation strategy were to maximize species persistence, maintain genetic diversity, maximize public support, and minimize management costs. We compared 4 conservation strategies: 1) the ‘status quo’ strategy represented current management, 2) the ‘protect the best’ strategy focused on protecting the best populations in the Tar River basin, 3) the ‘expand the distribution’ strategy focused on management of extant populations and establishment of new populations in the Neuse River basin, and 4) the ‘hybrid’ strategy combined elements of each strategy to balance conservation in the Tar and Neuse River basins. A population model informed requirements for population management, and experts projected performance of alternative strategies over a 20-y period. The optimal strategy depended on the relative value placed on competing objectives, which can vary among stakeholders. The protect the best and hybrid strategies were optimal across a wide range of relative values with 2 exceptions: 1) if minimizing management cost was of overriding concern, then status quo was optimal, or 2) if maximizing population persistence in the Neuse River basin was emphasized, then expand the distribution strategy was optimal. The optimal strategy was robust to uncertainty in management effectiveness. Overall, the structured decision process can help identify the most promising strategies for endangered species conservation that maximize conservation benefit given the constraint of limited funding.

  15. Maximize Benefits, Minimize Risk: Selecting the Right HVAC Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, James T.

    1993-01-01

    An informal survey of 20 major urban school districts found that 40% were currently operating in a "break down" maintenance mode. A majority, 57.9%, also indicated they saw considerable benefits in contracting for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) maintenance services with outside firms. Offers guidelines in selecting…

  16. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

  17. Economic Benefits, Conservation and Wildlife Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Different economic methods are being used to estimate the economic benefits generated by nature (wildlife) tourism. The most prominent of these are economic valuation analysis and economic impact analysis. These methods often provide divergent and conflicting estimates of the economic benefits obtained from wildlife tourism, as is demonstrated in this article by the use of a microeconomic model. Tourism Research Australia has estimated the economic benefits to Australia of nature tourism base...

  18. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Turner, Will R.; Brooks, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites......) benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity - significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being....

  19. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  20. CISO's guide to penetration testing a framework to plan, manage, and maximize benefits

    CERN Document Server

    Tiller, James S

    2011-01-01

    CISO's Guide to Penetration Testing: A Framework to Plan, Manage, and Maximize Benefits details the methodologies, framework, and unwritten conventions penetration tests should cover to provide the most value to your organization and your customers. Discussing the process from both a consultative and technical perspective, it provides an overview of the common tools and exploits used by attackers along with the rationale for why they are used. From the first meeting to accepting the deliverables and knowing what to do with the results, James Tiller explains what to expect from all phases of th

  1. On the Cutting Edge of Research to Conserve At-Risk Species: Maximizing Impact through Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Shauna R; Annis, Mandy; Drum, Ryan G; Hummel, Stephanie Longstaff; Mosby, David E; Smith, Tamara

    2018-04-25

    Today's conservation challenges are complex. Solving these challenges often requires scientific collaborations that extend beyond the scope, expertise, and capacity of any single agency, organization, or institution. Conservation efforts can benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration, scientific and technological innovations, and the leveraging of capacity and resources among partners. Here we explore a series of case studies demonstrating how collaborative scientific partnerships are furthering the mission of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, including: 1) contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin, 2) Poweshiek skipperling conservation, 3) using technology to improve population survey methods for bats and monarch butterfly, and 4) Big River restoration in the Southeast Missouri lead mining district. These case studies illustrate how strategic and effective scientific collaboration is a multi-stage process that requires investment of time and resources by all participants. Early coordination and communication is crucial to aligning planned work with scientific and decision-making needs. Collaborations between USFWS and external scientists can be mutually beneficial by supporting the agency mission while also providing an avenue for innovative research to be directly applied in conservation decisions and management actions.

  2. Maximizing Conservation and Production with Intensive Forest Management: It's All About Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittler, Rebecca; Filotas, Élise; Kroese, Jasmin; Messier, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Functional zoning has been suggested as a way to balance the needs of a viable forest industry with those of healthy ecosystems. Under this system, part of the forest is set aside for protected areas, counterbalanced by intensive and extensive management of the rest of the forest. Studies indicate this may provide adequate timber while minimizing road construction and favoring the development of large mature and old stands. However, it is unclear how the spatial arrangement of intensive management areas may affect the success of this zoning. Should these areas be agglomerated or dispersed throughout the forest landscape? Should managers prioritize (a) proximity to existing roads, (b) distance from protected areas, or (c) site-specific productivity? We use a spatially explicit landscape simulation model to examine the effects of different spatial scenarios on landscape structure, connectivity for native forest wildlife, stand diversity, harvest volume, and road construction: (1) random placement of intensive management areas, and (2-8) all possible combinations of rules (a)-(c). Results favor the agglomeration of intensive management areas. For most wildlife species, connectivity was the highest when intensive management was far from the protected areas. This scenario also resulted in relatively high harvest volumes. Maximizing distance of intensive management areas from protected areas may therefore be the best way to maximize the benefits of intensive management areas while minimizing their potentially negative effects on forest structure and biodiversity.

  3. Climate change adaptation benefits of potential conservation partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William B; Theobald, David M

    2018-01-01

    We evaluate the world terrestrial network of protected areas (PAs) for its partnership potential in responding to climate change. That is, if a PA engaged in collaborative, trans-boundary management of species, by investing in conservation partnerships with neighboring areas, what climate change adaptation benefits might accrue? We consider core tenets of conservation biology related to protecting large areas with high environmental heterogeneity and low climate change velocity and ask how a series of biodiversity adaptation indicators change across spatial scales encompassing potential PA and non-PA partners. Less than 1% of current world terrestrial PAs equal or exceed the size of established and successful conservation partnerships. Partnering at this scale would increase the biodiversity adaptation indicators by factors up to two orders of magnitude, compared to a null model in which each PA is isolated. Most partnership area surrounding PAs is comprised of non-PAs (70%), indicating the importance of looking beyond the current network of PAs when promoting climate change adaptation. Given monumental challenges with PA-based species conservation in the face of climate change, partnerships provide a logical and achievable strategy for helping areas adapt. Our findings identify where strategic partnering efforts in highly vulnerable areas of the world may prove critical in safeguarding biodiversity.

  4. Under what circumstances can wildlife farming benefit species conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tensen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild animals and their derivatives are traded worldwide. Consequent poaching has been a main threat to species conservation. As current interventions and law enforcement cannot circumvent the resulting extinction of species, an alternative approach must be considered. It has been suggested that commercial breeding can keep the pressure off wild populations, referred to as wildlife farming. During this review, it is argued that wildlife farming can benefit species conservation only if the following criteria are met: (i the legal products will form a substitute, and consumers show no preference for wild-caught animals; (ii a substantial part of the demand is met, and the demand does not increase due to the legalized market; (iii the legal products will be more cost-efficient, in order to combat the black market prices; (iv wildlife farming does not rely on wild populations for re-stocking; (v laundering of illegal products into the commercial trade is absent. For most species encountered in the wildlife trade, these criteria are unlikely to be met in reality and commercial breeding has the potential to have the opposite effect to what is desired for conservation. For some species, however, none of the criteria are violated, and wildlife farming can be considered a possible conservation tool as it may help to take the pressure off wild populations. For these species, future research should focus on the impact of legal products on the market dynamics, effective law enforcement that can prevent corruption, and wildlife forensics that enable the distinction between captive-bred and wild-caught species.

  5. Innovations in Agriculture in Oregon: Farmers Irrigation District Improves Water Quality, Maximizes Water Conservation, and Generates Clean, Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hood River Farmers Irrigation District used $36.2 million in CWSRF loans for a multiple-year endeavor to convert the open canal system to a piped, pressurized irrigation system to maximize water conservation and restore reliable water delivery to crops

  6. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  7. House sparrows benefit from the conservation of white storks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosicki, Jakub Z.; Sparks, Tim H.; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    As with many farmland bird species, the house sparrow Passer domesticus is declining in Europe, mainly due to intensification of agriculture reducing nest sites and food supplies. During 2002-2005, we studied the population size and nest site characteristics of house sparrows breeding within white stork Ciconia ciconia nests in a large area of agricultural landscape within western Poland. To explain sparrow density within stork nests, we examined characteristics of white stork nests (position, age, productivity) and the farm type around the nest. House sparrow density was greatest in the longest established (and hence larger) white stork nests located on traditionally managed farms. Two recent changes appear to have adverse effects on house sparrows. The first is the intensification of farming and the second is active management of white stork nests on electric poles to reduce nest size and thus avoid both disruption to the electrical supply and electrocution of white storks. Because the white stork has such a high profile in Poland, there are numerous schemes to conserve and enhance this species. In conclusion, we clearly show that protecting one species can have valuable, although unplanned, benefits to another species of conservation interest, the house sparrow.

  8. Competing Air Quality and Water Conservation Co-benefits from Power Sector Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W.; Wagner, F.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Ramana, M. V.; Zhai, H.; Small, M.; Zhang, X.; Dalin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Decarbonizing the power sector can reduce fossil-based generation and associated air pollution and water use. However, power sector configurations that prioritize air quality benefits can be different from those that maximize water conservation benefits. Despite extensive work to optimize the generation mix under an air pollution or water constraint, little research has examined electricity transmission networks and the choice of which fossil fuel units to displace in order to achieve both environmental objectives simultaneously. When air pollution and water stress occur in different regions, the optimal transmission and displacement decisions still depend on priorities placed on air quality and water conservation benefits even if low-carbon generation planning is fixed. Here we use China as a test case, and develop a new optimization framework to study transmission and displacement decisions and the resulting air quality and water use impacts for six power sector decarbonization scenarios in 2030 ( 50% of national generation is low carbon). We fix low-carbon generation in each scenario (e.g. type, location, quantity) and vary technology choices and deployment patterns across scenarios. The objective is to minimize the total physical costs (transmission costs and coal power generation costs) and the estimated environmental costs. Environmental costs are estimated by multiplying effective air pollutant emissions (EMeff, emissions weighted by population density) and effective water use (Weff, water use weighted by a local water stress index) by their unit economic values, Vem and Vw. We are hence able to examine the effect of varying policy priorities by imposing different combinations of Vem and Vw. In all six scenarios, we find that increasing the priority on air quality co-benefits (higher Vem) reduces air pollution impacts (lower EMeff) at the expense of lower water conservation (higher Weff); and vice versa. Such results can largely be explained by differences

  9. Appropriate methodologies for assessing the societal cost and benefits of conservation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.M.; Gill, G.S.; Harvey, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The use of cost-benefit analysis for assessing the societal cost and benefits of conservation programmes is discussed. It is concluded that it should not be the sole criterion for project choice. (U.K.)

  10. Steady at the wheel: conservative sex and the benefits of bacterial transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Ole Herman; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnsen, Pål J.

    2016-01-01

    Many bacteria are highly sexual, but the reasons for their promiscuity remain obscure. Did bacterial sex evolve to maximize diversity and facilitate adaptation in a changing world, or does it instead help to retain the bacterial functions that work right now? In other words, is bacterial sex innovative or conservative? Our aim in this review is to integrate experimental, bioinformatic and theoretical studies to critically evaluate these alternatives, with a main focus on natural genetic transformation, the bacterial equivalent of eukaryotic sexual reproduction. First, we provide a general overview of several hypotheses that have been put forward to explain the evolution of transformation. Next, we synthesize a large body of evidence highlighting the numerous passive and active barriers to transformation that have evolved to protect bacteria from foreign DNA, thereby increasing the likelihood that transformation takes place among clonemates. Our critical review of the existing literature provides support for the view that bacterial transformation is maintained as a means of genomic conservation that provides direct benefits to both individual bacterial cells and to transformable bacterial populations. We examine the generality of this view across bacteria and contrast this explanation with the different evolutionary roles proposed to maintain sex in eukaryotes.  This article is part of the themed issue ‘Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction’. PMID:27619692

  11. Steady at the wheel: conservative sex and the benefits of bacterial transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Ole Herman; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnsen, Pål J; Miller, Eric L; Rozen, Daniel E

    2016-10-19

    Many bacteria are highly sexual, but the reasons for their promiscuity remain obscure. Did bacterial sex evolve to maximize diversity and facilitate adaptation in a changing world, or does it instead help to retain the bacterial functions that work right now? In other words, is bacterial sex innovative or conservative? Our aim in this review is to integrate experimental, bioinformatic and theoretical studies to critically evaluate these alternatives, with a main focus on natural genetic transformation, the bacterial equivalent of eukaryotic sexual reproduction. First, we provide a general overview of several hypotheses that have been put forward to explain the evolution of transformation. Next, we synthesize a large body of evidence highlighting the numerous passive and active barriers to transformation that have evolved to protect bacteria from foreign DNA, thereby increasing the likelihood that transformation takes place among clonemates. Our critical review of the existing literature provides support for the view that bacterial transformation is maintained as a means of genomic conservation that provides direct benefits to both individual bacterial cells and to transformable bacterial populations. We examine the generality of this view across bacteria and contrast this explanation with the different evolutionary roles proposed to maintain sex in eukaryotes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Potential benefits of maximal exercise just prior to return from weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance of a single maximal bout of exercise during weightlessness within hours of return to earth would enhance recovery of aerobic fitness and physical work capacities under a 1G environment. Ten healthy men were subjected to a 10-d bedrest period in the 6-deg headdown position. A graded maximal supine cycle ergometer test was performed before and at the end of bedrest to simulate exercise during weightlessness. Following 3 h of resumption of the upright posture, a second maximal exercise test was performed on a treadmill to measure work capacity under conditions of 1G. Compared to before bedrest, peak oxygen consumption, V(O2), decreased by 8.7 percent and peak heart rate (HR) increased by 5.6 percent in the supine cycle test at the end of bedrest. However, there were no significant changes in peak V(O2) and peak HR in the upright treadmill test following bedrest. These data suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise prior to return from 10 d of weightlessness may be adequate to restore preflight aerobic fitness and physical work capacity.

  13. Decision analysis for conservation breeding: Maximizing production for reintroduction of whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Des H.V.; Converse, Sarah J.; Gibson, Keith; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Maguire, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Captive breeding is key to management of severely endangered species, but maximizing captive production can be challenging because of poor knowledge of species breeding biology and the complexity of evaluating different management options. In the face of uncertainty and complexity, decision-analytic approaches can be used to identify optimal management options for maximizing captive production. Building decision-analytic models requires iterations of model conception, data analysis, model building and evaluation, identification of remaining uncertainty, further research and monitoring to reduce uncertainty, and integration of new data into the model. We initiated such a process to maximize captive production of the whooping crane (Grus americana), the world's most endangered crane, which is managed through captive breeding and reintroduction. We collected 15 years of captive breeding data from 3 institutions and used Bayesian analysis and model selection to identify predictors of whooping crane hatching success. The strongest predictor, and that with clear management relevance, was incubation environment. The incubation period of whooping crane eggs is split across two environments: crane nests and artificial incubators. Although artificial incubators are useful for allowing breeding pairs to produce multiple clutches, our results indicate that crane incubation is most effective at promoting hatching success. Hatching probability increased the longer an egg spent in a crane nest, from 40% hatching probability for eggs receiving 1 day of crane incubation to 95% for those receiving 30 days (time incubated in each environment varied independently of total incubation period). Because birds will lay fewer eggs when they are incubating longer, a tradeoff exists between the number of clutches produced and egg hatching probability. We developed a decision-analytic model that estimated 16 to be the optimal number of days of crane incubation needed to maximize the number of

  14. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia

  15. Maximizing Benefits from Maintenance Pemetrexed with Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Oligoprogressive Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Lun Lu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance pemetrexed offers survival benefit with well-tolerated toxicities for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We present 3 consecutively enrolled patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC, receiving stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR for oligoprogressive disease during maintenance pemetrexed. All of them had sustained local control of thoracic oligoprogression after the SABR, while maintenance pemetrexed were kept for additionally long progression-free interval. SABR targeting oligoprogression with continued pemetrexed is an effective and safe approach to extend exposure of maintenance pemetrexed, thus maximizing the benefit from it.

  16. Maximal conservation and minimal usage of blood products in open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, P E; Pastoriza-Pinol, J; McMillan, J; Smith, B F; Stirling, G R

    1980-05-01

    Open heart surgery has previously been associated with the use of large volumes of blood products. This paper describes methods of blood conservation and a simple method of intraoperative autotransfusion that together have resulted in minimal blood product usage in elective open heart surgery cases. This has reduced our dependence on blood bank supplies for the performance of elective open heart surgery.

  17. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  18. A Review of Fiscal Measures to Benefit Heritage Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Pickerill, Tracy; Pickard, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This research paper explores to use of fiscal incentives for heritage conservation in a range of countries in Western Europe (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom) and North America (Canada and USA), to see how they are used and how effective they are. The main incentives are: Income tax deductions and credits for costs incurred in heritage conservation activity; Income tax credits for the provision of social housing in heritage bui...

  19. Maximizing industry benefit through cooperation between federal, state and private-sector floricultural research efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    he USDA-ARS Greenhouse Production Research Group was established to provide a federally funded research emphasis on greenhouse crop production. It has focused on broad production issues (nutrition, water management, and energy conservation) by coordinating research between in-house researchers, Uni...

  20. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A mixture of "cheats" and "co-operators" can enable maximal group benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig MaClean

    Full Text Available Is a group best off if everyone co-operates? Theory often considers this to be so (e.g. the "conspiracy of doves", this understanding underpinning social and economic policy. We observe, however, that after competition between "cheat" and "co-operator" strains of yeast, population fitness is maximized under co-existence. To address whether this might just be a peculiarity of our experimental system or a result with broader applicability, we assemble, benchmark, dissect, and test a systems model. This reveals the conditions necessary to recover the unexpected result. These are 3-fold: (a that resources are used inefficiently when they are abundant, (b that the amount of co-operation needed cannot be accurately assessed, and (c the population is structured, such that co-operators receive more of the resource than the cheats. Relaxing any of the assumptions can lead to population fitness being maximized when cheats are absent, which we experimentally demonstrate. These three conditions will often be relevant, and hence in order to understand the trajectory of social interactions, understanding the dynamics of the efficiency of resource utilization and accuracy of information will be necessary.

  2. The benefits of self-governance for nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattijssen, Thomas; Buijs, Arjen; Elands, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    An increased involvement of citizens in the management of European green spaces raises questions about its contributions to nature conservation. In this research, we study the effects of different types of active citizenship in green space. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods, we look at

  3. Multiple function benefit - cost comparison of conservation buffer placement strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Qiu; M.G. Dosskey

    2012-01-01

    Conservation buffers are considered to be effective practices for repairing impaired streams and restoring multiple ecosystem functions in degraded agricultural watersheds. Six different planning strategies for targeting their placement within watersheds were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness for environmental improvement in the 144 km² Neshanic River...

  4. Spatial targeting of conservation tillage to improve water quality and carbon retention benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Sheng, C.; Voroney, P.

    2005-01-01

    Conservation tillage reduces soil erosion and improves water quality in agricultural watersheds. However, the benefits of conservation tillage in carbon sequestration are the subject of controversy. Public funds are provided to farms to encourage the adoption of conservation tillage. Given the economic costs, the targeting of areas likely to achieve the greatest environmental benefits has become an important policy-making issue. A geographic information system (GIS) based modelling framework which integrated hydrologic, soil organic matter, and farm models to evaluate the spatial targeting of conservation tillage was presented. A case study applying the framework in the Fairchild Creek watershed in Ontario indicated that targeting conservation tillage based on sediment abatement goals can achieve comparable carbon retention benefits in terms of the percentage reduction of base carbon losses. Targeted subcatchments for conservation tillage varied across the watershed based on benefit to cost ratios. Conservation tillage patterns based on carbon retention goals showed similar results to sediment abatement goals but slight differences were observed because of different carbon content in the soils. The results indicated that sediment abatement may be used as an indicator in setting up program goals. The impacts of conservation programs can then be evaluated based on calibrated and validated hydrologic models in conjunction with monitoring data. Results also showed that setting carbon retention may lead to higher costs in order to achieve corresponding sediment abatement benefits. Carbon retention may not be suitable for setting as a stand-alone environmental goal for conservation programs because of the difficulties in verifying the impacts and the discrepancies between carbon and sediment benefits. It was concluded that the modelling results have important policy implications for the design of conservation stewardship programs that aim to achieve environmental

  5. Navy Ship Maintenance: Action Needed to Maximize New Contracting Strategys Potential Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    implementation of the new strategy, the Navy conducted market research and pilot-tested attributes of the strategy with pilot maintenance periods for a...readiness strategy and, in 2015, introduction of a new contracting strategy for ship repair, referred to as MAC-MO. House Report 114-102 accompanying the...Maintenance Letter 1 Background 3 Market Research and Piloting Helped Inform Roll-out of MAC-MO Strategy, Which Offers Potential Benefits

  6. How to maximally support local and regional biodiversity in applied conservation? Insights from pond management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe.

  7. Conservative sex and the benefits of transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J P Engelmoer

    Full Text Available Natural transformation has significant effects on bacterial genome evolution, but the evolutionary factors maintaining this mode of bacterial sex remain uncertain. Transformation is hypothesized to have both positive and negative evolutionary effects on bacteria. It can facilitate adaptation by combining beneficial mutations into a single individual, or reduce the mutational load by exposing deleterious alleles to natural selection. Alternatively, it may expose transformed cells to damaged or otherwise mutated environmental DNA and is energetically expensive. Here, we examine the long-term effects of transformation in the naturally competent species Streptococcus pneumoniae by evolving populations of wild-type and competence-deficient strains in chemostats for 1000 generations. Half of these populations were exposed to periodic mild stress to examine context-dependent benefits of transformation. We find that competence reduces fitness gain under benign conditions; however, these costs are reduced in the presence of periodic stress. Using whole genome re-sequencing, we show that competent populations fix fewer new mutations and that competence prevents the emergence of mutators. Our results show that during evolution in benign conditions competence helps maintain genome stability but is evolutionary costly; however, during periods of stress this same conservativism enables cells to retain fitness in the face of new mutations, showing for the first time that the benefits of transformation are context dependent.

  8. Demolish or refurbish – Environmental benefits of housing conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ding

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and energy efficiency are some of the most pressing issues facing China today. With its economic growth since 1978, the government has struggled to contain environmental damages and social unrest related to the economy’s rapid transformation. With the rapid growth in population and urbanization the demand for housing has escalated and traditional housing has been under threat of demolition to make way for new construction. Traditional housing is generally considered wasteful in its use of land and/or energy, and is often demolished for more intensive and more energy-efficient housing, despite the resulting loss of embodied energy and urban amenity. A research project was undertaken to study the environmental performance of traditional housing in Hangzhou. The project looks into analyzing and comparing embodied energy and CO2 for seven dwellings. In addition indoor climate data were recorded and collected in the form of hourly temperature and humidity readings for one year in six local houses and in a modern unit as a control for one year. The research results reveal that there is little difference in environmental performance between traditional and conventional modern construction and the value of conservation rather than demolition as a strategic development for the construction industry.

  9. Multispecies benefits of wetland conservation for marsh birds, frogs, and species at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Douglas C; Steele, Owen; Gloutney, Mark

    2018-04-15

    Wetlands conserved using water level manipulation, cattle exclusion, naturalization of uplands, and other techniques under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan ("conservation project wetlands") are important for ducks, geese, and swans ("waterfowl"). However, the assumption that conservation actions for waterfowl also benefit other wildlife is rarely quantified. We modeled detection and occupancy of species at sites within 42 conservation project wetlands compared to sites within 52 similar nearby unmanaged wetlands throughout southern Ontario, Canada, and small portions of the adjacent U.S., using citizen science data collected by Bird Studies Canada's Great Lakes Marsh Monitoring Program, including 2 waterfowl and 13 non-waterfowl marsh-breeding bird species (n = 413 sites) and 7 marsh-breeding frog species (n = 191 sites). Occupancy was significantly greater at conservation project sites compared to unmanaged sites in 7 of 15 (47%) bird species and 3 of 7 (43%) frog species, with occupancy being higher by a difference of 0.12-0.38 across species. Notably, occupancy of priority conservation concern or at-risk Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Sora (Porzana carolina), and Western Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata) was significantly higher at conservation project sites compared to unmanaged sites. The results demonstrate the utility of citizen science to inform wetland conservation, and suggest that actions under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan are effective for conserving non-waterfowl species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social perception of soil conservation benefits in Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A soil conservation project was implemented in Tanzania for over 30 years. This study applied a socio-economic approach to examine and analyse the benefits of soil conservation in the Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania by conducting a household survey of 240 households. The study findings show that 89% and 70% of respondents consider soil conservation activities have increased vegetation and soil fertility, respectively. Decreased soil erosion was perceived by 68% of respondents, increased firewood by 98%, increased fodder by 50%, high crop yields by 56%, and food sufficiency by 68%. These are the outcomes of conservation tillage, integrated farming and use of organic fertilizers, controlled stall feeding, agroforestry, construction of cut off drains, contour bunds and contour ridges cultivation, which are the main land use practices in the area. Access to extension services, household sizes, long term land ownership, crop incomes and awareness of soil conservation project were found to determine the level of participation in soil conservation. Major challenges are the lack of sustainability of those activities because of a recent policy decision to withdraw conservation investment. Despite the challenge, this study concluded that past government efforts on soil conservation activities initiated since the early 1970s through decentralization, institutional collaboration, socioeconomic support to farmers and continuous local community participation in restoring the degraded ecosystem of Kondoa have contributed to ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability in the area.

  11. Forest Conservation in Costa Rica: when nonuse benefits are uncertain but rising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Soest, van D.P.; Kooten, van G.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic dynamic programming is used to investigate optimal holding of primary tropical forest in humid Costa Rica when future nonuse benefits of forest conservation are uncertain and increasing. The quasi-option value of maintaining primary forests is included as a component of investment in

  12. Linking the benefits of ecosystem services to sustainable spatial planning of ecological conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Cao, Wei; Xu, Xinliang; Fan, Jiangwen; Wang, Junbang

    2018-09-15

    The maintenance and improvement of ecosystem services on the Tibet Plateau are critical for national ecological security in China and are core objectives of ecological conservation in this region. In this paper, ecosystem service benefits of the Tibet Ecological Conservation Project were comprehensively assessed by estimating and mapping the spatiotemporal variation patterns of critical ecosystem services on the Tibet Plateau from 2000 to 2015. Furthermore, we linked the benefit assessment to the sustainable spatial planning of future ecological conservation strategies. Comparing the 8 years before and after the project, the water retention and carbon sink services of the forest, grassland and wetland ecosystems were slightly increased after the project, and the ecosystem sand fixation service has been steadily enhanced. The increasing forage supply service of grassland significantly reduced the grassland carrying pressure and eased the conflict between grassland and livestock. However, enhanced rainfall erosivity occurred due to increased rainfall, and root-layer soils could not recover in a short period of time, both factors have led to a decline in soil conservation service. The warm and humid climate is beneficial for the restoration of ecosystems on the Tibet Plateau, and the implementation of the Tibet Ecological Conservation Project has had a positive effect on the local improvement of ecosystem services. A new spatial planning strategy for ecological conservation was introduced and aims to establish a comprehensive, nationwide system to protect important natural ecosystems and wildlife, and to promote the sustainable use of natural resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maximizing the benefit of health workforce secondment in Botswana: an approach for strengthening health systems in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grignon JS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jessica S Grignon,1,2 Jenny H Ledikwe,1,2 Ditsapelo Makati,2 Robert Nyangah,2 Baraedi W Sento,2 Bazghina-werq Semo1,2 1Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, Botswana Abstract: To address health systems challenges in limited-resource settings, global health initiatives, particularly the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, have seconded health workers to the public sector. Implementation considerations for secondment as a health workforce development strategy are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to present outcomes, best practices, and lessons learned from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded secondment program in Botswana. Outcomes are documented across four World Health Organization health systems' building blocks. Best practices include documentation of joint stakeholder expectations, collaborative recruitment, and early identification of counterparts. Lessons learned include inadequate ownership, a two-tier employment system, and ill-defined position duration. These findings can inform program and policy development to maximize the benefit of health workforce secondment. Secondment requires substantial investment, and emphasis should be placed on high-level technical positions responsible for building systems, developing health workers, and strengthening government to translate policy into programs. Keywords: human resources, health policy, health worker, HIV/AIDS, PEPFAR

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of Hydro-Quebec's energy conservation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, E.

    1993-09-01

    A cost-benefit analysis is presented of the energy conservation programs of Hydro-Quebec for 1991 to 2010. Three possible scenarios are simulated. In the first scenario, Hydro-Quebec data are used without modification. In the second, the simulation is carried out in the absence of the Hydro-Quebec programs, and in the third, it is assumed that any economies achieved are only for the short term. A comparison between these simulations allows determination of results concerning the advantages and the costs which the programs introduce for the three groups comprising society: the consumer, the producer, and the government. The results of these comparisons show that the consumer, the producer, and the whole society gain benefits from the energy conservation programs, while the government loses. 13 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Social Benefits of Energy Conservation in Hungary. An examination of alternative methods of evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H.A.; Aunan, K.; Seip, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    This report compares alternative methods for valuation of the social benefits of less air pollution. One can estimate such benefits by the economic consequences of less damage caused by pollution or by the willingness to pay for less pollution. As a case study, the report examines an energy conservation programme in Hungary, in which 64 PJ of fossil energy was conserved per year. According to the damage cost approach, the benefits corresponds to 75 million USD per year, divided into 41 mill for health and 33 mill in material damage. The willingness to pay approach yielded a value of 1.9 bill. USD. Most of the difference is attributed to different estimates for chronic distresses and early death. One should not regard the results of the different approaches as alternative answers to the same question. Instead, damage cost and willingness to pay assessments can be considered as necessary components of a macro economic study of environmental policy. 23 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Limited benefit of inversely optimised intensity modulation in breast conserving radiotherapy with simultaneously integrated boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Dolsma, Wil V.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Korevaar, Erik W.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Maduro, John H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine whether in breast-conserving radiotherapy (RT) with simultaneously integrated boost (SIB), application of inversely planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT-SIB) instead of three-dimensional RT (3D-CRT-SIB) has benefits that justify the additional costs, and to evaluate whether a potential benefit of IMRT-SIB depends on specific patient characteristics. Material and methods: 3D-CRT-SIB and various IMRT-SIB treatment plans were constructed and optimised for 30 patients with early stage left-sided breast cancer. Coverage of planning target volumes (PTVs) and dose delivered to organs at risk (OARs) were determined for each plan. Overlap between heart and breast PTV (OHB), size of breast and boost PTVs and boost location were examined in their ability to identify patients that might benefit from IMRT-SIB. Results: All plans had adequate PTV coverage. IMRT-SIB generally reduced dose levels delivered to heart, lungs, and normal breast tissue relative to 3D-CRT-SIB. However, IMRT-SIB benefit differed per patient. For many patients, comparable results were obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB, while patients with OHB > 1.4 cm and a relatively large boost PTV volume (>125 cm 3 ) gained most from the use of IMRT-SIB. Conclusions: In breast-conserving RT, results obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB and IMRT-SIB are generally comparable. Patient characteristics could be used to identify patients that are most likely to benefit from IMRT-SIB.

  17. Energy conservation and environmental benefits that may be realized from Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology which has the capability to significantly improve electrical system operations within electric utility systems. This has been demonstrated by Bonneville Power Administration in a 30-MJ SMES demonstration unit. Savings in utility operations from improved system efficiency, increased reliability, and reduced maintenance requirements contribute to the economic justification of SMES. Beyond these benefits, there are additional benefits which in the long run may significantly outweigh the electrical operational benefits. These benefits are the energy conservation and environmental benefits. Since SMES can uncouple generation from load, it can shift generation around, thereby changing the operational characteristics of the system. The technology has the capability of reducing fuel consumption which can in turn reduce emissions. In a regional setting it can potentially shift emissions both in volumes and in physical areas to avoid problem situations. With its capability to strategically shift generation and significantly affect emissions and air quality it can stretch clean energy generation options. With these attributes, SMES can be recognized as an energy and environmental management technology and tool

  18. Simple rules can guide whether land- or ocean-based conservation will best benefit marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Megan I; Bode, Michael; Atkinson, Scott; Klein, Carissa J; Metaxas, Anna; Beher, Jutta; Beger, Maria; Mills, Morena; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Tulloch, Vivitskaia; Possingham, Hugh P

    2017-09-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems can be managed by actions undertaken both on the land and in the ocean. Quantifying and comparing the costs and benefits of actions in both realms is therefore necessary for efficient management. Here, we quantify the link between terrestrial sediment runoff and a downstream coastal marine ecosystem and contrast the cost-effectiveness of marine- and land-based conservation actions. We use a dynamic land- and sea-scape model to determine whether limited funds should be directed to 1 of 4 alternative conservation actions-protection on land, protection in the ocean, restoration on land, or restoration in the ocean-to maximise the extent of light-dependent marine benthic habitats across decadal timescales. We apply the model to a case study for a seagrass meadow in Australia. We find that marine restoration is the most cost-effective action over decadal timescales in this system, based on a conservative estimate of the rate at which seagrass can expand into a new habitat. The optimal decision will vary in different social-ecological contexts, but some basic information can guide optimal investments to counteract land- and ocean-based stressors: (1) marine restoration should be prioritised if the rates of marine ecosystem decline and expansion are similar and low; (2) marine protection should take precedence if the rate of marine ecosystem decline is high or if the adjacent catchment is relatively intact and has a low rate of vegetation decline; (3) land-based actions are optimal when the ratio of marine ecosystem expansion to decline is greater than 1:1.4, with terrestrial restoration typically the most cost-effective action; and (4) land protection should be prioritised if the catchment is relatively intact but the rate of vegetation decline is high. These rules of thumb illustrate how cost-effective conservation outcomes for connected land-ocean systems can proceed without complex modelling.

  19. Benefits to poorly studied taxa of conservation of bird and mammal diversity on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare; Holmes, Nick; Tershy, Bernie; Spatz, Dena; Croll, Donald A

    2015-02-01

    Protected area delineation and conservation action are urgently needed on marine islands, but the potential biodiversity benefits of these activities can be difficult to assess due to lack of species diversity information for lesser known taxa. We used linear mixed effects modeling and simple spatial analyses to investigate whether conservation activities based on the diversity of well-known insular taxa (birds and mammals) are likely to also capture the diversity of lesser known taxa (reptiles, amphibians, vascular land plants, ants, land snails, butterflies, and tenebrionid beetles). We assembled total, threatened, and endemic diversity data for both well-known and lesser known taxa and combined these with physical island biogeography characteristics for 1190 islands from 109 archipelagos. Among physical island biogeography factors, island area was the best indicator of diversity of both well-known and little-known taxa. Among taxonomic factors, total mammal species richness was the best indicator of total diversity of lesser known taxa, and the combination of threatened mammal and threatened bird diversity was the best indicator of lesser known endemic richness. The results of other intertaxon diversity comparisons were highly variable, however. Based on our results, we suggest that protecting islands above a certain minimum threshold area may be the most efficient use of conservation resources. For example, using our island database, if the threshold were set at 10 km(2) and the smallest 10% of islands greater than this threshold were protected, 119 islands would be protected. The islands would range in size from 10 to 29 km(2) and would include 268 lesser known species endemic to a single island, along with 11 bird and mammal species endemic to a single island. Our results suggest that for islands of equivalent size, prioritization based on total or threatened bird and mammal diversity may also capture opportunities to protect lesser known species endemic to

  20. Alignment of policies to maximize the climate benefits of diesel vehicles through control of particulate matter and black carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minjares, Ray; Blumberg, Kate; Posada Sanchez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Diesel vehicles offer greater fuel-efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions at a time when national governments seek to reduce the energy and climate impacts of the vehicle fleet. Policies that promote diesels like preferential fuel taxes, fuel economy standards and greenhouse gas emission standards can produce higher emissions of diesel particulate matter if diesel particulate filters or equivalent emission control technology is not in place. This can undermine the expected climate benefits of dieselization and increase impacts on public health. This paper takes a historical look at Europe to illustrate the degree to which dieselization and lax controls on particulate matter can undermine the potential benefits sought from diesel vehicles. We show that countries on the dieselization pathway can fully capture the value of diesels with the adoption of tailpipe emission standards equivalent to Euro 6 or Tier 2 for passenger cars, and fuel quality standards that limit the sulfur content of diesel fuel to no greater than 15 ppm. Adoption of these policies before or in parallel with adoption of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas standards can avert the negative impacts of dieselization. - Highlights: ► Preferential tax policies have increased the dieselization of some light-duty vehicle fleets. ► Dieselization paired with lax emission standards produces large black carbon emissions. ► Diesel black carbon undermines the perceived climate benefits of diesel vehicles. ► Stringent controls on diesel particulate emissions will also reduce black carbon. ► Euro 6/VI equivalent emission standards can preserve the climate benefits of diesel vehicles

  1. Assessment of Benefits of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Functions in Arable Production Systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhim Bahadur Ghaley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional farming (CONV is the norm in European farming, causing adverse effects on some of the five major soil functions, viz. primary productivity, carbon sequestration and regulation, nutrient cycling and provision, water regulation and purification, and habitat for functional and intrinsic biodiversity. Conservation agriculture (CA is an alternative to enhance soil functions. However, there is no analysis of CA benefits on the five soil functions as most studies addressed individual soil functions. The objective was to compare effects of CA and CONV practices on the five soil functions in four major environmental zones (Atlantic North, Pannonian, Continental and Mediterranean North in Europe by applying expert scoring based on synthesis of existing literature. In each environmental zone, a team of experts scored the five soil functions due to CA and CONV treatments and median scores indicated the overall effects on five soil functions. Across the environmental zones, CONV had overall negative effects on soil functions with a median score of 0.50 whereas CA had overall positive effects with median score ranging from 0.80 to 0.83. The study proposes the need for field-based investigations, policies and subsidy support to benefit from CA adoption to enhance the five soil functions.

  2. Quantifying the evidence for co-benefits between species conservation and climate change mitigation in giant panda habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renqiang; Xu, Ming; Powers, Ryan; Zhao, Fen; Jetz, Walter; Wen, Hui; Sheng, Qingkai

    2017-10-05

    Conservationists strive for practical, cost-effective management solutions to forest-based species conservation and climate change mitigation. However, this is compromised by insufficient information about the effectiveness of protected areas in increasing carbon storage, and the co-benefits of species and carbon conservation remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first rigorous quantitative assessment of the roles of giant panda nature reserves (NRs) in carbon sequestration, and explore the co-benefits of habitat conservation and climate change mitigation. Results show that more than 90% of the studied panda NRs are effective in increasing carbon storage, with the mean biomass carbon density of the whole NRs exhibiting a 4.2% higher growth rate compared with lands not declared as NRs over the period 1988-2012, while this effectiveness in carbon storage masks important patterns of spatial heterogeneity across the giant panda habitats. Moreover, the significant associations have been identified between biomass carbon density and panda's habitat suitability in ~85% NRs and at the NR level. These findings suggest that the planning for carbon and species conservation co-benefits would enhance the greatest return on limited conservation investments, which is a critical need for the giant panda after its conservation status has been downgraded from "endangered" to "vulnerable".

  3. Understanding how environmental enhancement and conservation activities may benefit health and wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Rebecca; Husk, Kerryn; Cooper, Chris; Stahl-Timmins, Will; Garside, Ruth

    2015-09-07

    Action taken to enhance or conserve outdoor environments may benefit health and wellbeing through the process of participation but also through improving the environment. There is interest, amongst both health and environmental organisations, in using such activities as health promotion interventions. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the health and wellbeing impacts of participation in environmental enhancement and conservation activities and to understand how these activities may be beneficial, to whom and in what circumstances or contexts. A theory-led mixed-method systematic review was used to assess evidence of effect and to identify pathways to change (protocol: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1002/14651858.CD010351/full ). Due to the multi-disciplinary, dispersed and disparate body of evidence an extensive multi-stage search strategy was devised and undertaken. Twenty-seven databases and multiple sources of grey literature were searched and over 200 relevant organisations were contacted. The heterogenous evidence was synthesised using a narrative approach and a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the mechanisms of effect. Due to the limited nature of the evidence additional higher order evidence was sought to assess the plausibility of the proposed mechanisms of effect through which health and wellbeing may accrue. The majority of the quantitative evidence (13 studies; all poor quality and lower-order study designs) was inconclusive, though a small number of positive and negative associations were observed. The qualitative evidence (13 studies; 10 poor quality, 3 good) indicated that the activities were perceived to have value to health and wellbeing through a number of key mechanisms; including exposure to natural environments, achievement, enjoyment and social contact. Additional high level evidence indicated that these pathways were plausible. Despite interest in the use of environmental enhancement activities as a

  4. Add-on conservation benefits of marine territorial user rights fishery policies in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Godoy, Natalio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To combine the rational use of marine benthic resources and economic development of small-scale fishers, Chile passed legislation in 1991 establishing a comanagement policy that grants exclusive territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs) to artisanal fisher organizations in well-defined inshore coastal areas, known as Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs). In general the policy has been proclaimed a management and economic success because benthic resource abundances have increased inside MEABRs in comparison with open-access areas. However, there is a lack of studies assessing the impact of this management policy on nontargeted subtidal species and community assemblages and the policy's implications for biodiversity and conservation. This study starts to fill this gap and links the allocation of TURFs for benthic resources with add-on conservation benefits for species that are not directly linked with the fishery policy. Comparative subtidal surveys inside vs. outside MEABRs were used to assess the effects of three MEABRs on managed targeted benthic species, biodiversity (species richness), and community assemblages in central Chile. Surveys focused exclusively on subtidal kelp forest habitats dominated by Lessonia trabeculata, spanning 4-12 m in depth and with similar levels of habitat complexity. The study comprised: (1) quantification of kelp forest complexity, (2) understory survey of sessile species, (3) quantification of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, including those under management, and (4) quantification of reef-fish species inside the kelp habitat. Results showed population enhancement of target-managed invertebrates inside MEABRs. Moreover, reef-fish species were significantly more diverse and abundant inside MEABRs, and community assemblages of nontarget benthic invertebrates and reef fish were significantly different inside vs. outside MEABRs. The comanagement of inshore benthic resources in Chile, through MEABRs

  5. Greenhouse gas and energy co-benefits of water conservation[Water Sustainability Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, C.

    2009-03-15

    Energy is needed to deliver water to, within and from communities to remove contaminants from water and wastewater, and to heat water in homes. The interconnections between water and energy are referred to as the water-energy nexus. Large volumes of water are needed to generate energy, notably to power turbines, to cool thermal or nuclear energy plants, and to extract oil from tar sands. At the same time, large amounts of energy are needed to pump, treat, heat and distribute water for urban, industrial and agricultural use and to collect and treat the resulting wastewater. The two sides of the water-energy nexus are generating new research and policy proposals to address the challenges of climate change, energy security and increasing water scarcity. This report demonstrated that a large untapped opportunity exists for water conservation to reduce energy, municipal costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The water-energy research in this study was based on a Soft Path for Water approach that incorporated facets of water demand management while moving beyond a short-term focus on cost-benefit criteria to examine how the services currently provided by water can be delivered to meet the need for economic, social and ecological sustainability. Although the research was conducted using data for municipalities in Ontario, the report is relevant to the rest of Canada and much of North America. Water conservation strategies included water efficiency measures such as high efficiency toilets and washing machines, as well as water saving measures such as xeriscaping and rainwater harvesting. The objectives of the study were to quantify the energy use associated with each component of the urban water use cycle and to determine the potential for energy and GHG emissions reductions associated with water conservation strategies. This report provided an overview of energy inputs needed for water provision. It outlined the methodology used to achieve the project objectives and

  6. Measuring the effectiveness of conservation: a novel framework to quantify the benefits of sage-grouse conservation policy and easements in Wyoming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E Copeland

    Full Text Available Increasing energy and housing demands are impacting wildlife populations throughout western North America. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, a species known for its sensitivity to landscape-scale disturbance, inhabits the same low elevation sage-steppe in which much of this development is occurring. Wyoming has committed to maintain sage-grouse populations through conservation easements and policy changes that conserves high bird abundance "core" habitat and encourages development in less sensitive landscapes. In this study, we built new predictive models of oil and gas, wind, and residential development and applied build-out scenarios to simulate future development and measure the efficacy of conservation actions for maintaining sage-grouse populations. Our approach predicts sage-grouse population losses averted through conservation action and quantifies return on investment for different conservation strategies. We estimate that without conservation, sage-grouse populations in Wyoming will decrease under our long-term scenario by 14-29% (95% CI: 4-46%. However, a conservation strategy that includes the "core area" policy and $250 million in targeted easements could reduce these losses to 9-15% (95% CI: 3-32%, cutting anticipated losses by roughly half statewide and nearly two-thirds within sage-grouse core breeding areas. Core area policy is the single most important component, and targeted easements are complementary to the overall strategy. There is considerable uncertainty around the magnitude of our estimates; however, the relative benefit of different conservation scenarios remains comparable because potential biases and assumptions are consistently applied regardless of the strategy. There is early evidence based on a 40% reduction in leased hectares inside core areas that Wyoming policy is reducing potential for future fragmentation inside core areas. Our framework using build-out scenarios to anticipate species declines

  7. Thinking outside of the Lake: Can controls on nutrient inputs into Lake Erie benefit stream conservation in its watershed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investment in agricultural conservation practices (CPs) to address Lake Erie's re-eutrophication may offer benefits that extend beyond the lake, such as improved habitat conditions for fish communities throughout the watershed. If such conditions are not explicitly considered in Lake Erie nutrient ...

  8. Maximization of Benefits of Agricultural Enterprise Group Based on Game Theory Analysis%农业企业集团利益最大化博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范磊; 田建民; 白红杰; 赵博; 高方; 焦宏廷

    2015-01-01

    为了实现农业企业集团整体利益最大化,促进其健康持续发展,文章分析了母子公司间在经营管理、资源调配等方面的博弈特点,提出应以产权为纽带,从制度设计实施、避免内部竞争、人员的交叉任用、财务利益共享、信息交流平台建设和文化联结等方面入手,在分权管理的基础上建立有效管控体系,使母公司在博弈中取得主动,以充分发挥整体优势,促进集团整体利益最大化的实现。%In order to maximize the overall benefits of agricultural enterprise group, promote healthy and sustainable development of enterprises, and play better the role of economic and social, the game characteristic between group and subsidiary in business management, resource allocation and other aspects were analyzed in the paper. It was pointed out that property was the bond. The effective decentralized management and control systems should be constructed beginning with system design and implementation, avoiding internal competition, personnel crossing appointment, financial advantage sharing, information communication platform construction, cultural connection, etc. It should make the parent company gain the initiative in the game, fully play the whole advantage, and promote to maximize of the overall benefits of the group.

  9. Functional diversity of home gardens and their agrobiodiversity conservation benefits in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedomon, Rodrigue Castro; Salako, Valère Kolawolé; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Idohou, Alix Frank Rodrigue; Glèlè Kakaї, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem

    2017-11-25

    Understanding the functional diversity of home gardens and their socio-ecological determinants is essential for mainstreaming these agroforestry practices into agrobiodiversity conservation strategies. This paper analyzed functional diversity of home gardens, identified the socio-ecological drivers of functions assigned to them, and assessed the agrobiodiversity benefits of home gardens functions. Using data on occurring species in home garden (HG) and functions assigned to each species by the gardeners, the study combined clustering and discriminant canonical analyses to explore the functional diversity of 360 home gardens in Benin, West Africa. Next, multinomial logistic models and chi-square tests were used to analyze the effect of socio-demographic characteristics of gardeners (age, gender, and education level), agro-ecological zones (humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid), and management regime (single and multiple managers) on the possession of a functional type of home gardens. Generalized linear models were used to assess the effect of the functions of home gardens and the determinant factor on their potential in conserving agrobiodiversity. Seven functional groups of home gardens, four with specific functions (food, medicinal, or both food and medicinal) and three with multiple functions (more than two main functions), were found. Women owned most of home gardens with primarily food plant production purpose while men owned most of home gardens with primarily medicinal plant production purposes. Finding also showed that multifunctional home gardens had higher plant species diversity. Specifically, crops and crop wild relatives occurred mainly in home gardens with food function while wild plant species were mostly found in home gardens with mainly medicinal function. Home gardening is driven by functions beyond food production. These functions are mostly related to direct and extractive values of home gardens. Functions of home gardens were gendered, with women

  10. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  11. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  12. Potential energy efficiency and conservation, economic, and environmental benefits from the implementation of superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) which is a recent technology that has the capability to significantly improve electrical system operations within electric utility systems. The technology has already been demonstrated by Bonneville Power Administration in a 30-MJ SMES test demonstration unit. Savings in utility operations from improved system efficiency, increased reliability, and reduced maintenance requirements contribute to the economic justification of SMES. Beyond these benefits, there are additional benefits which in the long run may equal or outweigh the electrical operational benefits. These benefits are the energy conservation and environmental benefits. The technology has the capability of reducing fuel consumption which can in turn reduce emissions. In a regional setting it can shift emissions both in volumes and in physical. With its capability to strategically shift generation and significantly affect emissions and air quality it can stretch clean energy generation options, thus SMES can be seen as an energy and environmental management technology and tool

  13. HbA1c below 7% as the goal of glucose control fails to maximize the cardiovascular benefits: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin; Huang, Rong; Lu, Sen; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Haixia; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-09-22

    Whether lowering glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level below 7.0% improves macro-vascular outcomes in diabetes remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of relatively tight glucose control resulting in a follow-up HbA1c level of less or more than 7.0% on cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic patients. We systematically searched Medline, Web of science and Cochrane Library for prospective randomized controlled trials published between Jan 1, 1996 and July 1, 2015 that recorded cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering drugs or strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data from 15 studies involving 88,266 diabetic patients with 4142 events of non-fatal myocardial infarction, 6997 of major cardiovascular events, 3517 of heart failure, 6849 of all-cause mortality, 2084 of non-fatal stroke, 3816 of cardiovascular death were included. A 7% reduction of major cardiovascular events was observed only when relatively tight glucose control resulted in a follow-up HbA1c level above 7.0% (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98; I(2) = 33%), however, the patients can benefit from reduction incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction only when the follow-up HbA1c value below 7.0% (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Apart from the HbA1c value above 7.0% (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.40), the application of thiazolidinediones (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14-1.69) also increased the risk of heart failure, while the gliptins shows neutral effects to heart failure (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.97-1.34). Relatively tight glucose control has some cardiovascular benefits. HbA1c below 7.0% as the goal to maximize the cardiovascular benefits remains suspended.

  14. Conservation Benefits of Tropical Multifunctional Land-Uses in and Around a Forest Protected Area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif A. Mukul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competing interests in land for agriculture and commodity production in tropical human-dominated landscapes make forests and biodiversity conservation particularly challenging. Establishment of protected areas in this regard is not functioning as expected due to exclusive ecological focus and poor recognition of local people’s traditional forest use and dependence. In recent years, multifunctional land-use systems such as agroforestry have widely been promoted as an efficient land-use in such circumstances, although their conservation effectiveness remains poorly investigated. We undertake a rapid biodiversity survey to understand the conservation value of four contrasting forms of local land-use, namely: betel leaf (Piper betle agroforestry; lemon (Citrus limon agroforestry; pineapple (Ananas comosus agroforestry; and, shifting cultivation–fallow managed largely by the indigenous communities in and around a highly diverse forest protected area of Bangladesh. We measure the alpha and beta diversity of plants, birds, and mammals in these multifunctional land-uses, as well as in the old-growth secondary forest in the area. Our study finds local land-use critical in conserving biodiversity in the area, with comparable biodiversity benefits as those of the old-growth secondary forest. In Bangladesh, where population pressure and rural people’s dependence on forests are common, multifunctional land-uses in areas of high conservation priority could potentially be used to bridge the gap between conservation and commodity production, ensuring that the ecological integrity of such landscapes will be altered as little as possible.

  15. Voluntary Nonmonetary Conservation Approaches on Private Land: A Review of Constraints, Risks, and Benefits for Raptor Nest Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation on private land of the developed world faces several challenges. The costs of land are often high, and the attitudes of landowners towards conservation are variable. Scientists and practitioners need to scan for and adopt cost-effective solutions that allow for the long-term sustainability of conservation measures on private land. In this study, we focus on one of such possible solutions: Working with landowners to implement voluntary nonmonetary conservation. We restrict our focus to protection of raptor nests, but the ideas can be applied to other taxa as well. Through a literature review, we show that a voluntary nonmonetary approach for protecting raptor nests has been so far largely neglected and/or rarely reported in the scientific literature. However, results of a questionnaire sent to BirdLife partners across Europe indicate that this approach is more widely used than it appears from the literature. We show that voluntary nonmonetary approaches may represent useful tools to protect raptor nests on private land. We provide a workflow for implementation of such an approach in raptor nest protection, highlighting benefits, potential risks, and constraints in the application of the strategy. We suggest that a voluntary nonmonetary approach may have great potential for cost-effective conservation, but the risks it may entail should be carefully assessed in each case. There is an urgent need to consider and evaluate novel approaches, such as the one described here, which may constitute missed opportunities for cost-effective conservation.

  16. An Analytical Method for Deriving Reservoir Operation Curves to Maximize Social Benefits from Multiple Uses of Water in the Willamette River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. M.; Jaeger, W. K.; Jones, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    uncertainty and risk daily, and 3) require complex computer programming. The proposed research addresses these critiques by pursuing a novel approach - the development of an analytical method to demonstrate how reservoir management could adapt to anticipated changes in water supply and demand, which incorporates some of the complexity of the hydrologic system, includes stochasticity, and can be readily implemented. Employing a normative economic framework of social welfare maximization, the research will 1) estimate the social benefits associated with reservoir uses, 2) analytically derive conditions for maximizing the benefits of reservoir operation, and 3) estimate the resulting optimal operating rules under future trajectories of climate, land cover, and population. The findings of this analysis will be used to address the following research questions: 1) How do the derived optimal operating rules compare to the existing rule curves? 2) How does the shape of the derived rule curves change under different scenarios of global change? 3) What is the change in net social benefits resulting from the use of these derived rule curves as compared to existing rule curves? 4) To the extent possible, what are the distributional and social justice implications of the derived changes in the rule curves?

  17. Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï

    2008-05-27

    Recent proposals to compensate developing countries for reducing emissions from deforestation (RED) under forthcoming climate change mitigation regimes are receiving increasing attention. Here we demonstrate that if RED credits were traded on international carbon markets, even moderate decreases in deforestation rates could generate billions of Euros annually for tropical forest conservation. We also discuss the main challenges for a RED mechanism that delivers real climatic benefits. These include providing sufficient incentives while only rewarding deforestation reductions beyond business-as-usual scenarios, addressing risks arising from forest degradation and international leakage, and ensuring permanence of emission reductions. Governance may become a formidable challenge for RED because some countries with the highest RED potentials score poorly on governance indices. In addition to climate mitigation, RED funds could help achieve substantial co-benefits for biodiversity conservation and human development. However, this will probably require targeted additional support because the highest biodiversity threats and human development needs may exist in countries that have limited income potentials from RED. In conclusion, how successfully a market-based RED mechanism can contribute to climate change mitigation, conservation and development will strongly depend on accompanying measures and carefully designed incentive structures involving governments, business, as well as the conservation and development communities.

  18. Evaluating Safeguards in a Conservation Incentive Program: Participation, Consent, and Benefit Sharing in Indigenous Communities of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Krause

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Critics suggest that Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ may not generate improvements in well-being for participating stakeholders, and may in fact undermine indigenous rights. To ensure positive social benefits from REDD+ projects, the United Nations REDD Programme has proposed core safeguards, including local stakeholder participation; free, prior, and informed consent; and equitable distribution of benefits. However, there is little experience to date in implementing and evaluating these safeguards. We apply these core safeguards as a framework to study how people in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon perceive and benefit from Programa Socio Bosque, a conservation incentive program in Ecuador's national REDD+ Programme portfolio. We interviewed 101 individuals in five communities that had participated in the Programa Socio Bosque for at least 18 months. Close to 80% of respondents reported that the decision to join Socio Bosque was made democratically, that they were familiar with the conservation goals of Socio Bosque, and that they were aware which area their community had selected for conservation. However, only 17% were familiar with the overall terms of the conservation agreement, implying that they were either not fully informed of or did not fully understand what they were consenting to in joining the program. Although the terms of the program require a community investment plan to be democratically developed by community members, less than half of respondents were aware of the existence of the investment plan, and fewer than 20% had participated in its development. The majority of respondents (61% reported that they did not know the amount of incentives that their community currently receives, and only 44% stated that incentives were managed democratically in communal assemblies. Moreover, although a slight majority (53% said they had noticed benefits to the community from participating in

  19. Conservation reserve program: benefit for grassland birds in the northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.E.; Shaffer, T.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    During the past few decades numbers of some species of upland-nesting birds in North America have declined. Duck species such as mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), northern pintail (A. acuta) and blue-winged teal (A. discors) have declined since the early 1970s and have remained low since 1985 (Caithamer et al. 1993). Some grassland-dependent nonwaterfowl species also have declined since 1966, as indicated by the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) (Robbins et al. 1986). For prairie-nesting ducks, population declines can be attributed mostly to low recruitment, partially as a result of low nest success. Klett et al. (1988) concluded that nest success (probability of ≥1 egg of clutch hatches) in much of the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region was inadequate to maintain populations of the five most common upland-nesting duck species studied, and that predators were the most important cause of nest failure. Over the years, as grassland areas have been converted to cropland, ducks have concentrated their nesting in the remaining areas of available habitat, where predators such as red fox (Vulpes vulpes), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and badger (Taxidea taxus) forage (Cowardin et al. 1983). The reasons for declining populations of grassland nonwaterfowl birds are not clear but the loss of suitable grassland-nesting habitat probably is an important factor. Currently, approximately 95 percent of the land in North Dakota is used for agricultural purposes, of which over 60 percent is used for annual crop production (Haugse 1990). Of the grassland that remains, 95 percent is used for livestock production. This probably had a severe impact on grassland bird species that seek idle grass cover for nesting. The 1985 and 1990 U.S. Farm Bills include provisions under the Food Security Act to fund a cropland-idling program called the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Over 36 million acres have been enrolled nationwide in the CRP since 1985 (Osborn 1993), and up to 25 percent of

  20. Economic benefits of combining soil and water conservation measures with nutrient management in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of conservation agriculture implementation in Syrdarya province of Uzbekistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daujanov, Azizbek; Groeneveld, R.A.; Pulatov, Alim; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Most irrigated lands of Central Asia suffer from land degradation, and unsustainable Agricultural practices are one of the factors contributing to land degradation. Conservation agriculture (CA) is seen as a way to mitigate land degradation and rationalize resource use. The aim of this article is to

  2. Valuing soil conservation benefits of agroforestry: contour hedgerows in the Eastern Visayas, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhrendu Patanayak; D. Evan Mercer

    1998-01-01

    Trecs can he considered as investments made by economic agents to prevent depreciation of natural assets such as stocks of top soil and water. In agroforestq systems farmers use trees in this manner by deliberately combining them with agricultural crops on the same unit of land. Although advocates of agroforestry have asserted that soil conservation is one of its...

  3. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  4. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  5. The Combined Use of Correlative and Mechanistic Species Distribution Models Benefits Low Conservation Status Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Rougier

    Full Text Available Species can respond to climate change by tracking appropriate environmental conditions in space, resulting in a range shift. Species Distribution Models (SDMs can help forecast such range shift responses. For few species, both correlative and mechanistic SDMs were built, but allis shad (Alosa alosa, an endangered anadromous fish species, is one of them. The main purpose of this study was to provide a framework for joint analyses of correlative and mechanistic SDMs projections in order to strengthen conservation measures for species of conservation concern. Guidelines for joint representation and subsequent interpretation of models outputs were defined and applied. The present joint analysis was based on the novel mechanistic model GR3D (Global Repositioning Dynamics of Diadromous fish Distribution which was parameterized on allis shad and then used to predict its future distribution along the European Atlantic coast under different climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. We then used a correlative SDM for this species to forecast its distribution across the same geographic area and under the same climate change scenarios. First, projections from correlative and mechanistic models provided congruent trends in probability of habitat suitability and population dynamics. This agreement was preferentially interpreted as referring to the species vulnerability to climate change. Climate change could not be accordingly listed as a major threat for allis shad. The congruence in predicted range limits between SDMs projections was the next point of interest. The difference, when noticed, required to deepen our understanding of the niche modelled by each approach. In this respect, the relative position of the northern range limit between the two methods strongly suggested here that a key biological process related to intraspecific variability was potentially lacking in the mechanistic SDM. Based on our knowledge, we hypothesized that local

  6. Pokémon Go: benefits, costs, and lessons for the conservation movement

    OpenAIRE

    Dorward, L; Mittermeier, JC; Sandbrook, C; Spooner, F

    2016-01-01

    Pokémon Go, an augmented reality (AR) smartphone game, replicates many aspects of real-world wildlife watching and natural history by allowing players to find, capture, and collect Pokémon, which are effectively virtual animals. In this paper, we consider how the unprecedented success of Pokémon Go as a smartphone game might create opportunities and challenges for the conservation movement. By encouraging players to go outside and consider various aspects of virtual species’ biology, the game...

  7. Isolated Ficus trees deliver dual conservation and development benefits in a rural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Bajpai, Omesh; Chaudhary, Lal B.

    2015-01-01

    strategy to manage the availability of valuable plant resources, facilitated by the use of isolated Ficus trees as restoration nuclei. We surveyed the plants growing under 207 isolated trees in Assam, India, and categorized them according to their local human-uses. We found that Ficus trees were associated...... densities in most categories. Community management practices that conserve isolated Ficus trees, and restrict livestock grazing and high-intensity land-use in their vicinity, can promote plant growth and the provision of important local resources....

  8. Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation: can cooling strategies reduce water consumption in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are at the forefront of climate mitigation and adaptation efforts given their high concentration of people, industry, and infrastructure. Many cities globally are seeking strategies to counter the consequences of both a hotter and drier climate. While urban heat mitigation strategies have been shown to have beneficial effects on health, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions, their implications for water conservation have not been widely examined. Here we show that broad implementation of cool roofs, an urban heat mitigation strategy, not only results in significant cooling of air temperature, but also meaningfully decreases outdoor water consumption by reducing evaporative and irrigation water demands. Based on a suite of satellite-supported, multiyear regional climate simulations, we find that cool roof adoption has the potential to reduce outdoor water consumption across the major metropolitan areas in California by up to 9%. Irrigation water savings per capita, induced by cool roofs, range from 1.8 to 15.4 gallons per day across 18 counties examined. Total water savings in Los Angeles county alone is about 83 million gallons per day. While this effect is robust across the 15 years examined (2001-2015), including both drought and non-drought years, we find that cool roofs are most effective during the hottest days of the year, indicating that they could play an even greater role in reducing outdoor water use in a hotter future climate. We further show that this synergistic relationship between heat mitigation and water conservation is asymmetrical - policies that encourage direct reductions in irrigation water use can lead to substantial regional warming, potentially conflicting with heat mitigation efforts designed to counter the effects of the projected warming climate.

  9. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  10. Benefits and limitations of using decision analytic tools to assess uncertainty and prioritize Landscape Conservation Cooperative information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nelson, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    The Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of partnerships throughout North America that are tasked with integrating science and management to support more effective delivery of conservation at a landscape scale. In order to achieve this integration, some LCCs have adopted the approach of providing their partners with better scientific information in an effort to facilitate more effective and coordinated conservation decisions. Taking this approach has led many LCCs to begin funding research to provide the information for improved decision making. To ensure that funding goes to research projects with the highest likelihood of leading to more integrated broad scale conservation, some LCCs have also developed approaches for prioritizing which information needs will be of most benefit to their partnerships. We describe two case studies in which decision analytic tools were used to quantitatively assess the relative importance of information for decisions made by partners in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. The results of the case studies point toward a few valuable lessons in terms of using these tools with LCCs. Decision analytic tools tend to help shift focus away from research oriented discussions and toward discussions about how information is used in making better decisions. However, many technical experts do not have enough knowledge about decision making contexts to fully inform the latter type of discussion. When assessed in the right decision context, however, decision analyses can point out where uncertainties actually affect optimal decisions and where they do not. This helps technical experts understand that not all research is valuable in improving decision making. But perhaps most importantly, our results suggest that decision analytic tools may be more useful for LCCs as way of developing integrated objectives for coordinating partner decisions across the landscape, rather than simply ranking research priorities.

  11. Telecoupled governance of land use change: Sustainable palm oil conservation benefits limited by preferential certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmayr, R.; Carlson, K. M.; Gibbs, H.; Noojipady, P.; Burns, D.; Morton, D. C.; Walker, N.; Paoli, G.; Kremen, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dozens of trans-national corporations have made public commitments to purchase only zero-deforestation palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Eco-certification is a basic requirement of most such forest-related procurement policies, and >20% of palm oil was certified in 2015.While the impact of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations has never been tested, such evaluation is critical to inform improvements of voluntary sustainability initiatives. Here, we use a new, comprehensive data set of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) certified and non-certified oil palm plantation boundaries (191,561 km2) in Indonesia, the leading global producer of palm oil to generate robust spatio-temporal estimates of certification's impact on deforestation and fires from 2000-2014. We find that certification reduced forest cover loss embodied in RSPO certified palm oil through two mechanisms. Certification had a significant protective effect, which lowered plantation deforestation rates by 29%.However, due to preferential certification of plantations developed before 2000, little forest was available for protection; forest area conserved totaled 56±4.9 km2. Our models suggest that increased adoption of RSPO certification may reduce the ability of palm oil companies to selectively certify previously cleared regions, and consequently strengthen the role of certification in protecting the tropical forests at greatest risk from agricultural encroachment. We reflect upon the complex interactions between traditional government policies, and emerging market-based governance structures in this telecoupled system.

  12. Isolated Ficus trees deliver dual conservation and development benefits in a rural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottee-Jones, H Eden W; Bajpai, Omesh; Chaudhary, Lal B; Whittaker, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Many of the world's rural populations are dependent on the local provision of economically and medicinally important plant resources. However, increasing land-use intensity is depleting these resources, reducing human welfare, and thereby constraining development. Here we investigate a low cost strategy to manage the availability of valuable plant resources, facilitated by the use of isolated Ficus trees as restoration nuclei. We surveyed the plants growing under 207 isolated trees in Assam, India, and categorized them according to their local human-uses. We found that Ficus trees were associated with double the density of important high-grade timber, firewood, human food, livestock fodder, and medicinal plants compared to non-Ficus trees. Management practices were also important in determining the density of valuable plants, with grazing pressure and land-use intensity significantly affecting densities in most categories. Community management practices that conserve isolated Ficus trees, and restrict livestock grazing and high-intensity land-use in their vicinity, can promote plant growth and the provision of important local resources.

  13. Building Connections among Lands, People and Communities: A Case Study of Benefits-Based Management Plan Development for the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Knopf; Kathleen L. Andereck; Karen Tucker; Bill Bottomly; Randy J. Virden

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of Study This paper demonstrates how a Benefits-Based Management paradigm has been useful in guiding management plan development for an internationally significant natural resource – the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area (GGNCA) in Colorado. Through a program of survey research, a database on benefits desired by various stakeholder groups was created....

  14. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Swann, Roberta; Johnson, Hoyt, III

    2010-01-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  15. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J. T.; Swann, R.; Johnson, H., III

    2010-12-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA’s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA’s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  16. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  17. Options for REDD+ Voluntary Certification to Ensure Net GHG Benefits, Poverty Alleviation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dutschke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare and evaluate the practical applicability to REDD+ of ten forest management, social, environmental and carbon standards that are currently active worldwide: Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB, CCB REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (CCBA REDD+ S&E, CarbonFix Standard (CFS, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, Global Conservation Standard (GCS, ISO 14064:2006, Plan Vivo Standard, Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC, SOCIALCARBON Standard and the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS. We developed a framework for evaluation of these standards relative to each other using four substantive criteria: (1 poverty alleviation, (2 sustainable management of forests (SMF, (3 biodiversity protection, (4 quantification and assessment of net greenhouse gas (GHG benefits; and two procedural criteria: (5 monitoring and reporting, and (6 certification procedures. REDD programs require assessment of GHG benefits, monitoring, reporting and certification. Our analysis shows that only the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS treats these three criteria comprehensively. No standard provides comprehensive coverage of the social and other environmental criteria. FSC, PEFC and CarbonFix provide comprehensive assessments of the sustainable forest management criterion. CCBA REDD+ S&E, CCB, and GCS provide comprehensive coverage of the biodiversity and poverty alleviation criteria. Experience in using these standards in pilot projects shows that projects are currently combining several standards as part of their strategy to improve their ability to attract investment, but costs of implementing several certification schemes is a concern. We conclude that voluntary certification provides useful practical experience that should feed into the design of the international REDD+ regime.

  18. Commercially important species associated with horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) biogenic reefs: A priority habitat for nature conservation and fisheries benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Flora E.A.; Mair, James M.; Newton, Jason; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S.; Sanderson, William G.

    2017-01-01

    Horse mussel reefs (Modiolus modiolus) are biodiversity hotspots afforded protection by Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the NE Atlantic. In this study, horse mussel reefs, cobble habitats and sandy habitats were assessed using underwater visual census and drop-down video techniques in three UK regions. Megafauna were enumerated, differences in community composition and individual species abundances were analysed. Samples of conspicuous megafauna were also collected from horse mussel reefs in Orkney for stable isotope analysis. Communities of conspicuous megafauna were different between horse mussel habitats and other habitats throughout their range. Three commercially important species: whelks (Buccinum undatum), queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) and spider crabs (Maja brachydactyla) were significantly more abundant (by as much as 20 times) on horse mussel reefs than elsewhere. Isotopic analysis provided insights into their trophic relationship with the horse mussel reef. Protection of M. modiolus habitat can achieve biodiversity conservation objectives whilst benefiting fisheries also. - Highlights: • Communities of conspicuous megafauna were assessed on Modiolus modiolus reefs, sand and cobble habitats. • Tissue samples from reef fauna were subject to stable isotope analysis to investigate trophic structure. • Reef associated species included Aequipecten opercularis, Buccinum undatum and Maja brachydactyla. • Evidence of the commercial value of M. modiolus reefs in the UK.

  19. Changes in historical Iowa land cover as context for assessing the environmental benefits of current and future conservation efforts on agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walt; Roth, Mark F.; Rewa, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Conservationists and agriculturists face unprecedented challenges trying to minimize tradeoffs between increasing demands for food, fiber, feed, and biofuels and the resulting loss or reduced values of other ecosystem services, such as those derived from wetlands and biodiversity (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005a, 2005c; Maresch et al. 2008). The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-234, Stat. 923, HR 2419, also known as the 2008 Farm Bill) reauthorized the USDA to provide financial incentives for agricultural producers to reduce environmental impacts via multiple conservation programs. Two prominent programs, the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), provide incentives for producers to retire environmentally sensitive croplands, minimize erosion, improve water quality, restore wetlands, and provide wildlife habitat (USDA FSA 2008a, 2008b; USDA NRCS 2002). Other conservation programs (e.g., Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Conservation Stewardship Program) provide incentives to implement structural and cultural conservation practices to improve the environmental performance of working agricultural lands. Through its Conservation Effects Assessment Project, USDA is supporting evaluation of the environmental benefits obtained from the public investment in conservation programs and practices to inform decisions on where further investments are warranted (Duriancik et al. 2008; Zinn 1997).

  20. Cost benefit analysis of energy conservation measures on the motor car traffic sector. Nutzen-Kosten-Analyse fuer Energiesparmassnahmen auf dem Sektor Kraftwagenverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner-Newton, I.; Lenz, H.P.; Vecernik, P.; Biberschick, D.; Wailzer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The book consists of 6 chapters and an introduction. The following subjects are discussed: Chapter 2: Search for relevant publications. Chapter 3: Austria's energy situation and its influence on individual motor car traffic. Chapter 4: Ways to reduce fuel consumption. Chapter 5: Cost benefit analyses. Chapter 6: Evaluation of the possible energy conservation measures.

  1. Dance-Based ExerGaming: User Experience Design Implications for Maximizing Health Benefits Based on Exercise Intensity and Perceived Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, Alasdair G.; Poole, Nicola

    Dance is a form of exercise that is considered to have widespread popular appeal and in particular to adolescent females. Dance-based body-movement controlled video games are a popular form of ExerGaming that is being adopted for use in school-based physical activity health promotion programs. The results of this study indicate that the game play mechanics and skill demands of the dance-based ExerGames would appear to have limited the subjects' level of physical exertion over the period of study. After training there was an increase in enjoyment rating for the Step Aerobics game which appears related to a perceptible improvement in game performance. It is therefore recommended that ExerGames should be designed with very low initial skill demands in order to maximize the user's level of exertion and to realize and reward progress, thereby helping to promote an enjoyable exercise experience and counterbalance any sense of exertional discomfort. Keywords: exercise; health promotion; exergaming; user experience; design; video game; enjoyment.

  2. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopade Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  3. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewayrga, Hailemichael; Sopade, Peter A

    2011-06-28

    Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  4. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  5. Maximizing the Benefit-Cost Ratio of Anthracyclines in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Case Report of a Patient with a Complete Response to High-Dose Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Shee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the clinical efficacy of anthracycline agents such as doxorubicin, dose-limiting cardiac toxicities significantly limit their long-term use. Here, we present the case of a 33-year-old female patient with extensive metastatic ER+/PR+/HER2– mucinous adenocarcinoma of the breast, who was started on doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide therapy after progressing on paclitaxel and ovarian suppressor goserelin with aromatase inhibitor exemestane. The patient was comanaged by cardiology, who carefully monitored measures of cardiac function, including EKGs, serial echocardiograms, and profiling of lipids, troponin, and pro-BNP every 2 months. The patient was treated with the cardioprotective agent dexrazoxane, and changes in cardiac markers [e.g. decreases in ejection fraction (EF] were immediately addressed by therapeutic intervention with the ACE inhibitor lisinopril and beta-blocker metoprolol. The patient had a complete response to doxorubicin therapy, with a cumulative dose of 1,350 mg/m2, which is significantly above the recommended limits, and to our knowledge, the highest dose reported in literature. Two and a half years after the last doxorubicin cycle, the patient is asymptomatic with no cardiotoxicity and an excellent quality of life. This case highlights the importance of careful monitoring and management of doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity, and that higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines can be considered in patients with ongoing clinical benefit.

  6. Maximizing Effectiveness Trials in PTSD and SUD Through Secondary Analysis: Benefits and Limitations Using the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network "Women and Trauma" Study as a Case Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Denise A; Campbell, Aimee N C; Ruglass, Lesia M; Saavedra, Lissette; Mathews, Abigail G; Kiriakos, Grace; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Recent federal legislation and a renewed focus on integrative care models underscore the need for economical, effective, and science-based behavioral health care treatment. As such, maximizing the impact and reach of treatment research is of great concern. Behavioral health issues, including the frequent co-occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are often complex, with a myriad of factors contributing to the success of interventions. Although treatment guides for comorbid SUD/PTSD exist, most patients continue to suffer symptoms following the prescribed treatment course. Further, the study of efficacious treatments has been hampered by methodological challenges (e.g., overreliance on "superiority" designs (i.e., designs structured to test whether or not one treatment statistically surpasses another in terms of effect sizes) and short term interventions). Secondary analyses of randomized controlled clinical trials offer potential benefits to enhance understanding of findings and increase the personalization of treatment. This paper offers a description of the limits of randomized controlled trials as related to SUD/PTSD populations, highlights the benefits and potential pitfalls of secondary analytic techniques, and uses a case example of one of the largest effectiveness trials of behavioral treatment for co-occurring SUD/PTSD conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) and producing 19 publications. The paper concludes with implications of this secondary analytic approach to improve addiction researchers' ability to identify best practices for community-based treatment of these disorders. Innovative methods are needed to maximize the benefits of clinical studies and better support SUD/PTSD treatment options for both specialty and non-specialty healthcare settings. Moving forward, planning for and description of secondary analyses in randomized trials should be given equal

  7. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner...

  8. Balance between climate change mitigation benefits and land use impacts of bioenergy: conservation implications for European birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Laura; Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Hof, Andries; Cabeza, Mar

    2015-07-01

    Both climate change and habitat modification exert serious pressure on biodiversity. Although climate change mitigation has been identified as an important strategy for biodiversity conservation, bioenergy remains a controversial mitigation action due to its potential negative ecological and socio-economic impacts which arise through habitat modification by land-use change. While the debate continues, the separate or simultaneous impacts of both climate change and bioenergy on biodiversity have not yet been compared. We assess projected range shifts of 156 European bird species by 2050 under two alternative climate change trajectories: a baseline scenario, where the global mean temperature increases by 4°C by the end of the century, and a 2 degrees scenario, where global concerted effort limits the temperature increase to below 2°C. For the latter scenario, we also quantify the pressure exerted by increased cultivation of energy biomass as modelled by IMAGE2.4, an integrated land-use model. The global bioenergy use in this scenario is in the lower end of the range of previously estimated sustainable potential. Under the assumptions of these scenarios, we find that the magnitude of range shifts due to climate change is far greater than the impact of land conversion to woody bioenergy plantations within the European Union, and that mitigation of climate change reduces the exposure experienced by species. However, we identified potential for local conservation conflict between priority areas for conservation and bioenergy production. These conflicts must be addressed by strict bioenergy sustainability criteria that acknowledge biodiversity conservation needs beyond existing protected areas and apply also to biomass imported from outside the European Union.

  9. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  10. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  11. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  12. Conservation value of clustered housing developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenth, Buffy A; Knight, Richard L; Gilgert, Wendell C

    2006-10-01

    Traditionally, exurban lands in Colorado have been subdivided into a grid of parcels ranging from 2 to 16 ha. From an ecological perspective, this dispersed pattern of development effectively maximizes the individual influence of each home on the land. Clustered housing developments, designed to maximize open space, are assumed to benefit plant and wildlife communities of conservation interest. They have become a popular alternative for rural development despite the lack of empirical evidence demonstrating their conservation benefits. To better inform rural land-use planning, we evaluated clustered housing developments by comparing their spatial pattern with that of dispersed housing developments and by comparing their conservation value with that of both dispersed housing developments and undeveloped areas in Boulder County, Colorado. We used four indicators to assess conservation value: (1) densities of songbirds, (2) nest density and survival of ground-nesting birds, (3) presence of mammals, and (4) percent cover and proportion of native and non-native plant species. Clustered and dispersed housing developments did not differ on the majority of variables we examined. Both types of housing development had significantly higher densities of non-native and human-commensal species and significantly lower densities of native and human-sensitive species than undeveloped areas. More rigorous ecological guidelines and planning on a regional scale may help create clustered developments with higher conservation value.

  13. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  14. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  15. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  16. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  17. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  18. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Mallory, Mindy L

    2012-04-24

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit-cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change-induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area.

  19. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  20. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  1. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  2. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W.; Mallory, Mindy L.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit–cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change–induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area. PMID:22451914

  3. Lessons from Transportation Agency Participation In Regional Conservation Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Jaimee

    2017-01-01

    Transportation agencies struggle to maximize the benefits of transportation infrastructure while minimizing environmental harm. This dissertation examines institutional collaborations that integrate capital investments (e.g. highway and rail projects) with regional Habitat Conservation Plans (RHCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). It addresses ways of maintaining these collaborations over time. The ESA requires that public and private project developers mitigate any harm to endangered...

  4. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  5. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  6. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  7. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  8. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  9. Effect of risk aversion on prioritizing conservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Maloney, Richard F; Joseph, Liana N; Bennett, Joseph R; Di Fonzo, Martina M I; Probert, William J M; O'Connor, Shaun M; Densem, Jodie P; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-04-01

    Conservation outcomes are uncertain. Agencies making decisions about what threat mitigation actions to take to save which species frequently face the dilemma of whether to invest in actions with high probability of success and guaranteed benefits or to choose projects with a greater risk of failure that might provide higher benefits if they succeed. The answer to this dilemma lies in the decision maker's aversion to risk--their unwillingness to accept uncertain outcomes. Little guidance exists on how risk preferences affect conservation investment priorities. Using a prioritization approach based on cost effectiveness, we compared 2 approaches: a conservative probability threshold approach that excludes investment in projects with a risk of management failure greater than a fixed level, and a variance-discounting heuristic used in economics that explicitly accounts for risk tolerance and the probabilities of management success and failure. We applied both approaches to prioritizing projects for 700 of New Zealand's threatened species across 8303 management actions. Both decision makers' risk tolerance and our choice of approach to dealing with risk preferences drove the prioritization solution (i.e., the species selected for management). Use of a probability threshold minimized uncertainty, but more expensive projects were selected than with variance discounting, which maximized expected benefits by selecting the management of species with higher extinction risk and higher conservation value. Explicitly incorporating risk preferences within the decision making process reduced the number of species expected to be safe from extinction because lower risk tolerance resulted in more species being excluded from management, but the approach allowed decision makers to choose a level of acceptable risk that fit with their ability to accommodate failure. We argue for transparency in risk tolerance and recommend that decision makers accept risk in an adaptive management

  10. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of the Zonal Program of Castro Verde (Portugal): Highlighting the trade-off between biodiversity and soil conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marta-Predoso, C.; Domingos, T.; Freitas, H.; Groot, de R.S.

    2007-01-01

    We address the effects of erosion on the environmental services provided by the soil and explore possibilities for integrating soil erosion impacts in cost-benefit analyses of agri-environmental policies. As a case study, we considered the continued soil erosion caused by the traditional cereal

  12. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host-Pathogen Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R

    2015-10-01

    Conservation physiology aims to apply an understanding of physiological mechanisms to management of imperiled species, populations, or ecosystems. One challenge for physiologists hoping to apply their expertise to conservation is connecting the mechanisms we study, often in the laboratory, with the vital rates of populations in the wild. There is growing appreciation that infectious pathogens can threaten populations and species, and represent an important issue for conservation. Conservation physiology has much to offer in terms of addressing the threat posed to some host species by infectious pathogens. At the same time, the well-developed theoretical framework of disease ecology could provide a model to help advance the application of physiology to a range of other conservation issues. Here, I use white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating North American bats as an example of a conservation problem for which integrative physiological research has been a critical part of research and management. The response to WNS highlights the importance of a well-developed theoretical framework for the application of conservation physiology to a particular threat. I review what is known about physiological mechanisms associated with mortality from WNS and emphasize the value of combining a strong theoretical background with integrative physiological studies in order to connect physiological mechanisms with population processes and thereby maximize the potential benefits of conservation physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Softly Broken Lepton Numbers: an Approach to Maximal Neutrino Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss models where the U(1) symmetries of lepton numbers are responsible for maximal neutrino mixing. We pay particular attention to an extension of the Standard Model (SM) with three right-handed neutrino singlets in which we require that the three lepton numbers L e , L μ , and L τ be separately conserved in the Yukawa couplings, but assume that they are softly broken by the Majorana mass matrix M R of the neutrino singlets. In this framework, where lepton-number breaking occurs at a scale much higher than the electroweak scale, deviations from family lepton number conservation are calculable, i.e., finite, and lepton mixing stems exclusively from M R . We show that in this framework either maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing or maximal solar neutrino mixing or both can be imposed by invoking symmetries. In this way those maximal mixings are stable against radiative corrections. The model which achieves maximal (or nearly maximal) solar neutrino mixing assumes that there are two different scales in M R and that the lepton number (dash)L=L e -L μ -L τ 1 is conserved in between them. We work out the difference between this model and the conventional scenario where (approximate) (dash)L invariance is imposed directly on the mass matrix of the light neutrinos. (author)

  14. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  15. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  16. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  17. Restoring arid western habitats: Native plants maximize wildlife conservation effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Jeremy Pinto; Deborah M. Finch

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and other pollinating insects have garnered a lot of attention recently from federal and state wildlife officials. These two species and pollinators share dwindling sagebrush habitat in the western United States that is putting their populations at risk. Sagebrush...

  18. A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldekop, J A; Holmes, G; Harris, W E; Evans, K L

    2016-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a key strategy for protecting biological resources, but they vary considerably in their effectiveness and are frequently reported as having negative impacts on local people. This has contributed to a divisive and unresolved debate concerning the compatibility of environmental and socioeconomic development goals. Elucidating the relationship between positive and negative social impacts and conservation outcomes of PAs is key for the development of more effective and socially just conservation. We conducted a global meta-analysis on 165 PAs using data from 171 published studies. We assessed how PAs affect the well-being of local people, the factors associated with these impacts, and crucially the relationship between PAs' conservation and socioeconomic outcomes. Protected areas associated with positive socioeconomic outcomes were more likely to report positive conservation outcomes. Positive conservation and socioeconomic outcomes were more likely to occur when PAs adopted comanagement regimes, empowered local people, reduced economic inequalities, and maintained cultural and livelihood benefits. Whereas the strictest regimes of PA management attempted to exclude anthropogenic influences to achieve biological conservation objectives, PAs that explicitly integrated local people as stakeholders tended to be more effective at achieving joint biological conservation and socioeconomic development outcomes. Strict protection may be needed in some circumstances, yet our results demonstrate that conservation and development objectives can be synergistic and highlight management strategies that increase the probability of maximizing both conservation performance and development outcomes of PAs. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Maximizing the Benefits of Training by Example and Direct Instruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Love, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    .... The updated equations can be downloaded at http://love.psy.utexas.edu/̃love/cluster.pdf. One popular approach to modeling human category learning in the face of challenging data has been to propose models containing multiple systems...

  20. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  1. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  2. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  3. Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, R.; Balmford, A.; Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Green, R. E.; Lehner, B.; Malcolm, T. R.; Ricketts, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    Global efforts to conserve biodiversity have the potential to deliver economic benefits to people (i.e., “ecosystem services”). However, regions for which conservation benefits both biodiversity and ecosystem services cannot be identified unless ecosystem services can be quantified and valued and their areas of production mapped. Here we review the theory, data, and analyses needed to produce such maps and find that data availability allows us to quantify imperfect global proxies for only four ecosystem services. Using this incomplete set as an illustration, we compare ecosystem service maps with the global distributions of conventional targets for biodiversity conservation. Our preliminary results show that regions selected to maximize biodiversity provide no more ecosystem services than regions chosen randomly. Furthermore, spatial concordance among different services, and between ecosystem services and established conservation priorities, varies widely. Despite this lack of general concordance, “win–win” areas—regions important for both ecosystem services and biodiversity—can be usefully identified, both among ecoregions and at finer scales within them. An ambitious interdisciplinary research effort is needed to move beyond these preliminary and illustrative analyses to fully assess synergies and trade-offs in conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:18621701

  4. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  5. Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings. Conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.; Akbari, H.

    2010-01-01

    Cool roofs - roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission - lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes - new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980) - were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m 2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m 2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m 2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m 2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m 2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m 2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from USD 0.126/m 2 in West Virginia to USD 1.14/m 2 in Arizona (USD 0.356/m 2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m 2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m 2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m 2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m 2 in New York to 11.7 g/m 2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m 2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m 2 in California to 26.1 g/m 2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m 2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 μg/m 2 in Alaska to 105 μg/m 2 in Alabama (61.2 μg/m 2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2

  6. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  7. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  8. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  9. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  10. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  11. Engaging recreational fishers in management and conservation: global case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, E F; Madin, E M P; Brown, M A; Figueira, W; Cameron, D S; Hogan, Z; Kristianson, G; de Villiers, P; Williams, J E; Post, J; Zahn, S; Arlinghaus, R

    2008-10-01

    Globally, the number of recreational fishers is sizeable and increasing in many countries. Associated with this trend is the potential for negative impacts on fish stocks through exploitation or management measures such as stocking and introduction of non-native fishes. Nevertheless, recreational fishers can be instrumental in successful fisheries conservation through active involvement in, or initiation of, conservation projects to reduce both direct and external stressors contributing to fishery declines. Understanding fishers' concerns for sustained access to the resource and developing methods for their meaningful participation can have positive impacts on conservation efforts. We examined a suite of case studies that demonstrate successful involvement of recreational fishers in conservation and management activities that span developed and developing countries, temperate and tropical regions, marine and freshwater systems, and open- and closed-access fisheries. To illustrate potential benefits and challenges of involving recreational fishers in fisheries management and conservation, we examined the socioeconomic and ecological contexts of each case study. We devised a conceptual framework for the engagement of recreational fishers that targets particular types of involvement (enforcement, advocacy, conservation, management design [type and location], research, and monitoring) on the basis of degree of stakeholder stewardship, scale of the fishery, and source of impacts (internal or external). These activities can be enhanced by incorporating local knowledge and traditions, taking advantage of leadership and regional networks, and creating collaborations among various stakeholder groups, scientists, and agencies to maximize the probability of recreational fisher involvement and project success.

  12. A role for selective contraception of individuals in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Holly R; Hogg, Carolyn J; White, Peter J; Herbert, Catherine A

    2017-10-28

    Contraception has an established role in managing overabundant populations and preventing undesirable breeding in zoos. We propose that it can also be used strategically and selectively in conservation to increase the genetic and behavioral quality of the animals. In captive breeding programs, it is becoming increasingly important to maximize the retention of genetic diversity by managing the reproductive contribution of each individual and preventing genetically suboptimal breeding through the use of selective contraception. Reproductive suppression of selected individuals in conservation programs has further benefits of allowing animals to be housed as a group in extensive enclosures without interfering with breeding recommendations, which reduces adaptation to captivity and facilitates the expression of wild behaviors and social structures. Before selective contraception can be incorporated into a breeding program, the most suitable method of fertility control must be selected, and this can be influenced by factors such as species life history, age, ease of treatment, potential for reversibility, and desired management outcome for the individual or population. Contraception should then be implemented in the population following a step-by-step process. In this way, it can provide crucial, flexible control over breeding to promote the physical and genetic health and sustainability of a conservation dependent species held in captivity. For Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii), black-flanked rock wallabies (Petrogale lateralis), and burrowing bettongs (Bettongia lesueur), contraception can benefit their conservation by maximizing genetic diversity and behavioral integrity in the captive breeding program, or, in the case of the wallabies and bettongs, by reducing populations to a sustainable size when they become locally overabundant. In these examples, contraceptive duration relative to reproductive life, reversibility, and predictability of the contraceptive

  13. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  14. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  15. SPECIES RICHNESS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...

  16. Biodiversity gains from efficient use of private sponsorship for flagship species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joseph R; Maloney, Richard; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-04-22

    To address the global extinction crisis, both efficient use of existing conservation funding and new sources of funding are vital. Private sponsorship of charismatic 'flagship' species conservation represents an important source of new funding, but has been criticized as being inefficient. However, the ancillary benefits of privately sponsored flagship species conservation via actions benefiting other species have not been quantified, nor have the benefits of incorporating such sponsorship into objective prioritization protocols. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of conservation actions for the 700 most threatened species in New Zealand to examine the potential biodiversity gains from national private flagship species sponsorship programmes. We find that private funding for flagship species can clearly result in additional species and phylogenetic diversity conserved, via conservation actions shared with other species. When private flagship species funding is incorporated into a prioritization protocol to preferentially sponsor shared actions, expected gains can be more than doubled. However, these gains are consistently smaller than expected gains in a hypothetical scenario where private funding could be optimally allocated among all threatened species. We recommend integrating private sponsorship of flagship species into objective prioritization protocols to sponsor efficient actions that maximize biodiversity gains, or wherever possible, encouraging private donations for broader biodiversity goals. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Social murder: the long-term effects of conservative economic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, Robert; Hudson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors take inspiration from Engels's 1845 account of the social murder committed by British capitalists to assess the contemporary impact of conservative economic policy, which they define as policies designed to maximize the accumulation of profit while socializing the associated risks and costs. Conservative economists argue that if their policy prescription is followed, it will produce broad-based economic benefits including more rapid growth, higher incomes, less illness, and, even, more democracy. The authors contrast the myth of conservative economic policy with the reality. What conservative economic policy has actually accomplished is a redistribution of wealth and power away from the vast majority of the population to firms and their owners. The effects of these policies on citizens and workers have been socially determined economic instability, unemployment, poverty, inequality, dangerous products, and infectious and chronic disease.

  18. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  19. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  20. Application of the maximal covering location problem to habitat reserve site selection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Robert G. Haight

    2016-01-01

    The Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP) is a classic model from the location science literature which has found wide application. One important application is to a fundamental problem in conservation biology, the Maximum Covering Species Problem (MCSP), which identifies land parcels to protect to maximize the number of species represented in the selected sites. We...

  1. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  2. Limited carbon and biodiversity co-benefits for tropical forest mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Kroetz, Kailin; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Amaral, Eda; Breuer, Thomas; Fletcher, Christine; Jansen, Patrick A; Kenfack, David; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Marshall, Andrew R; Martin, Emanuel H; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; O'Brien, Timothy; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Roy, Cisquet Hector; Sheil, Douglas; Silva, Carlos E F; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Valencia, Renato; Zvoleff, Alex; Ahumada, Jorge; Andelman, Sandy

    2016-06-01

    The conservation of tropical forest carbon stocks offers the opportunity to curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and simultaneously conserve biodiversity. However, there has been considerable debate about the extent to which carbon stock conservation will provide benefits to biodiversity in part because whether forests that contain high carbon density in their aboveground biomass also contain high animal diversity is unknown. Here, we empirically examined medium to large bodied ground-dwelling mammal and bird (hereafter "wildlife") diversity and carbon stock levels within the tropics using camera trap and vegetation data from a pantropical network of sites. Specifically, we tested whether tropical forests that stored more carbon contained higher wildlife species richness, taxonomic diversity, and trait diversity. We found that carbon stocks were not a significant predictor for any of these three measures of diversity, which suggests that benefits for wildlife diversity will not be maximized unless wildlife diversity is explicitly taken into account; prioritizing carbon stocks alone will not necessarily meet biodiversity conservation goals. We recommend conservation planning that considers both objectives because there is the potential for more wildlife diversity and carbon stock conservation to be achieved for the same total budget if both objectives are pursued in tandem rather than independently. Tropical forests with low elevation variability and low tree density supported significantly higher wildlife diversity. These tropical forest characteristics may provide more affordable proxies of wildlife diversity for future multi-objective conservation planning when fine scale data on wildlife are lacking.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation to analyze the cost-benefit of radioactive seed localization versus wire localization for breast-conserving surgery in fee-for-service health care systems compared with accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Vilert A; Edwards, David B; Roche, Kevin T; Steele, Joseph R; Sapareto, Stephen A; Byrum, Stephanie C; Schomer, Donald F

    2014-06-01

    In breast-conserving surgery for nonpalpable breast cancers, surgical reexcision rates are lower with radioactive seed localization (RSL) than wire localization. We evaluated the cost-benefit of switching from wire localization to RSL in two competing payment systems: a fee-for-service (FFS) system and a bundled payment system, which is typical for accountable care organizations. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed to compare the cost-benefit of RSL and wire localization. Equipment utilization, procedural workflows, and regulatory overhead differentiate the cost between RSL and wire localization. To define a distribution of possible cost scenarios, the simulation randomly varied cost drivers within fixed ranges determined by hospital data, published literature, and expert input. Each scenario was replicated 1000 times using the pseudorandom number generator within Microsoft Excel, and results were analyzed for convergence. In a bundled payment system, RSL reduced total health care cost per patient relative to wire localization by an average of $115, translating into increased facility margin. In an FFS system, RSL reduced total health care cost per patient relative to wire localization by an average of $595 but resulted in decreased facility margin because of fewer surgeries. In a bundled payment system, RSL results in a modest reduction of cost per patient over wire localization and slightly increased margin. A fee-for-service system suffers moderate loss of revenue per patient with RSL, largely due to lower reexcision rates. The fee-for-service system creates a significant financial disincentive for providers to use RSL, although it improves clinical outcomes and reduces total health care costs.

  4. Adaptive social impact management for conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan-Hallam, Maery; Bennett, Nathan J

    2018-04-01

    Concerns about the social consequences of conservation have spurred increased attention the monitoring and evaluation of the social impacts of conservation projects. This has resulted in a growing body of research that demonstrates how conservation can produce both positive and negative social, economic, cultural, health, and governance consequences for local communities. Yet, the results of social monitoring efforts are seldom applied to adaptively manage conservation projects. Greater attention is needed to incorporating the results of social impact assessments in long-term conservation management to minimize negative social consequences and maximize social benefits. We bring together insights from social impact assessment, adaptive management, social learning, knowledge coproduction, cross-scale governance, and environmental planning to propose a definition and framework for adaptive social impact management (ASIM). We define ASIM as the cyclical process of monitoring and adaptively managing social impacts over the life-span of an initiative through the 4 stages of profiling, learning, planning, and implementing. We outline 14 steps associated with the 4 stages of the ASIM cycle and provide guidance and potential methods for social-indicator development, predictive assessments of social impacts, monitoring and evaluation, communication of results, and identification and prioritization of management responses. Successful ASIM will be aided by engaging with best practices - including local engagement and collaboration in the process, transparent communication of results to stakeholders, collective deliberation on and choice of interventions, documentation of shared learning at the site level, and the scaling up of insights to inform higher-level conservation policies-to increase accountability, trust, and perceived legitimacy among stakeholders. The ASIM process is broadly applicable to conservation, environmental management, and development initiatives at various

  5. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  6. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  7. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  8. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  9. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Setting priorities for private land conservation in fire-prone landscapes: Are fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation competing or compatible objectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra D. Syphard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although wildfire plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity in many ecosystems, fire management to protect human assets is often carried out by different agencies than those tasked for conserving biodiversity. In fact, fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation are often viewed as competing objectives. Here we explored the role of management through private land conservation and asked whether we could identify private land acquisition strategies that fulfill the mutual objectives of biodiversity conservation and fire risk reduction, or whether the maximization of one objective comes at a detriment to the other. Using a fixed budget and number of homes slated for development, we simulated 20 years of housing growth under alternative conservation selection strategies, and then projected the mean risk of fires destroying structures and the area and configuration of important habitat types in San Diego County, California, USA. We found clear differences in both fire risk projections and biodiversity impacts based on the way conservation lands are prioritized for selection, but these differences were split between two distinct groupings. If no conservation lands were purchased, or if purchases were prioritized based on cost or likelihood of development, both the projected fire risk and biodiversity impacts were much higher than if conservation lands were purchased in areas with high fire hazard or high species richness. Thus, conserving land focused on either of the two objectives resulted in nearly equivalent mutual benefits for both. These benefits not only resulted from preventing development in sensitive areas, but they were also due to the different housing patterns and arrangements that occurred as development was displaced from those areas. Although biodiversity conflicts may still arise using other fire management strategies, this study shows that mutual objectives can be attained through land-use planning in this region

  11. Setting priorities for private land conservation in fire-prone landscapes: Are fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation competing or compatible objectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Butsic, Van; Bar-Massada, Avi; Keeley, Jon E.; Tracey, Jeff A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Although wildfire plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity in many ecosystems, fire management to protect human assets is often carried out by different agencies than those tasked for conserving biodiversity. In fact, fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation are often viewed as competing objectives. Here we explored the role of management through private land conservation and asked whether we could identify private land acquisition strategies that fulfill the mutual objectives of biodiversity conservation and fire risk reduction, or whether the maximization of one objective comes at a detriment to the other. Using a fixed budget and number of homes slated for development, we simulated 20 years of housing growth under alternative conservation selection strategies, and then projected the mean risk of fires destroying structures and the area and configuration of important habitat types in San Diego County, California, USA. We found clear differences in both fire risk projections and biodiversity impacts based on the way conservation lands are prioritized for selection, but these differences were split between two distinct groupings. If no conservation lands were purchased, or if purchases were prioritized based on cost or likelihood of development, both the projected fire risk and biodiversity impacts were much higher than if conservation lands were purchased in areas with high fire hazard or high species richness. Thus, conserving land focused on either of the two objectives resulted in nearly equivalent mutual benefits for both. These benefits not only resulted from preventing development in sensitive areas, but they were also due to the different housing patterns and arrangements that occurred as development was displaced from those areas. Although biodiversity conflicts may still arise using other fire management strategies, this study shows that mutual objectives can be attained through land-use planning in this region. These results likely

  12. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  13. Waiting can be an optimal conservation strategy, even in a crisis discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacona, Gwenllian D; Possingham, Hugh P; Bode, Michael

    2017-09-26

    Biodiversity conservation projects confront immediate and escalating threats with limited funding. Conservation theory suggests that the best response to the species extinction crisis is to spend money as soon as it becomes available, and this is often an explicit constraint placed on funding. We use a general dynamic model of a conservation landscape to show that this decision to "front-load" project spending can be suboptimal if a delay allows managers to use resources more strategically. Our model demonstrates the existence of temporal efficiencies in conservation management, which parallel the spatial efficiencies identified by systematic conservation planning. The optimal timing of decisions balances the rate of biodiversity decline (e.g., the relaxation of extinction debts, or the progress of climate change) against the rate at which spending appreciates in value (e.g., through interest, learning, or capacity building). We contrast the benefits of acting and waiting in two ecosystems where restoration can mitigate forest bird extinction debts: South Australia's Mount Lofty Ranges and Paraguay's Atlantic Forest. In both cases, conservation outcomes cannot be maximized by front-loading spending, and the optimal solution recommends substantial delays before managers undertake conservation actions. Surprisingly, these delays allow superior conservation benefits to be achieved, in less time than front-loading. Our analyses provide an intuitive and mechanistic rationale for strategic delay, which contrasts with the orthodoxy of front-loaded spending for conservation actions. Our results illustrate the conservation efficiencies that could be achieved if decision makers choose when to spend their limited resources, as opposed to just where to spend them.

  14. Where and how to manage: Optimal selection of conservation actions for multiple species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid van Teeffelen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple alternative options are frequently available for the protection, maintenance or restoration of conservation areas. The choice of a particular management action can have large effects on the species occurring in the area, because different actions have different effects on different species. Together with the fact that conservation funds are limited and particular management actions are costly, it would be desirable to be able to identify where, and what kind of management should be applied to maximize conservation benefits. Currently available site-selection algorithms can identify the optimal set of sites for a reserve network. However, these algorithms have not been designed to answer what kind of action would be most beneficial at these sites when multiple alternative actions are available. We describe an algorithm capable of solving multi-species planning problems with multiple management options per site. The algorithm is based on benefit functions, which translate the effect of a management action on species representation levels into a value, in order to identify the most beneficial option. We test the performance of this algorithm with simulated data for different types of benefit functions and show that the algorithm’s solutions are optimal, or very near globally optimal, partially depending on the type of benefit function used. The good performance of the proposed algorithm suggests that it could be profitably used for large multi-action multi-species conservation planning problems.

  15. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  16. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  17. Trading Water Conservation Credits: A Coordinative Approach for Enhanced Urban Water Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Water utilities in arid and semi-arid regions are increasingly relying on water use efficiency and conservation to extend the availability of supplies. Despite spatial and institutional inter-dependency of many service providers, these demand-side management initiatives have traditionally been tackled by individual utilities operating in a silo. In this study, we introduce a new approach to water conservation that addresses regional synergies—a novel system of tradable water conservation credits. Under the proposed approach, utilities have the flexibility to invest in water conservation measures that are appropriate for their specific service area. When utilities have insufficient capacity for local cost-effective measures, they may opt to purchase credits, contributing to fund subsidies for utilities that do have that capacity and can provide the credits, while the region as whole benefits from more reliable water supplies. While similar programs have been used to address water quality concerns, to our knowledge this is one of the first studies proposing tradable credits for incentivizing water conservation. Through mathematical optimization, this study estimates the potential benefits of a trading program and demonstrates the institutional and economic characteristics needed for such a policy to be viable, including a proposed web platform to facilitate transparent regional planning, data-driven decision-making, and enhanced coordination of utilities. We explore the impacts of defining conservation targets tailored to local realities of utilities, setting credit prices, and different policy configurations. We apply these models to the case study of water utility members of the Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency. Preliminary work shows that the diverse characteristics of these utilities present opportunities for the region to achieve conservation goals while maximizing the benefits to individual utilities through more flexible coordinative efforts.

  18. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  19. Maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses during deepwater running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p41   Aquatic exercises provide numerous benefits to the health of their practitioners. To secure these benefits, it is essential to have proper prescriptions to the needs of each individual and, therefore, it is important to study the cardiorespiratory responses of different activities in this environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses at the anaerobic threshold (AT between maximal deep-water running (DWR and maximal treadmill running (TMR. In addition, two methods of determining the AT (the heart rate deflection point [HRDP] and ventilatory method [VM] are compared in the two evaluated protocols. Twelve young women performed the two maximal protocols. Two-factor ANOVA for repeated measures with a post-hoc Bonferroni test was used (α < 0.05. Significantly higher values of maximal heart rate (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 and maximal oxygen uptake (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 in TMR compared to the DWR were found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the methods for determining the AT (TMR: VM: 28.1 ± 5.3, HRDP: 26.6 ± 5.5 ml.kg−1.min−1; DWR: VM: 18.7 ± 4.8, HRDP: 17.8 ± 4.8 ml.kg−1.min−1. The results indicate that a specific maximal test for the trained modality should be conducted and the HRDP can be used as a simple and practical method of determining the AT, based on which the training intensity can be determined

  20. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  1. Targeting water and energy conservation using big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water conservation is often the most cost effective source of additional water supply for water stressed regions to maintain supply reliability with increasing population and/or demands, or shorter-term droughts. In previous research we demonstrated how including energy savings of conserved water can increase willingness to adopt conservation measures, at the same time that increases energy and GHG emissions savings. But the capacity to save water, energy and GHG emissions depends fundamentally in the economic benefits for customers and utilities. Utilities have traditionally used rebates, subsidies or incentives to enhance water conservation. But the economic benefits originated by these rebates depend on the actual savings of the water, energy and GHG emissions. A crucial issue that is not considered in the financial analysis of these rebates is the heterogeneity in water consumption, resulting in rebating households that actually do not need improvements in certain appliances. Smart meters with end-use disaggregation allow to consider this heterogeneity and to target rebates. By using an optimization approach that minimizes water and energy residential costs—accounting for retrofit costs and individual benefits according to previous levels of consumption—we are able to assess economically optimal rebate programs both for customers and utilities. Three programs are considered: first, same economic incentives are provided to all households and then they do their optimal decisions; second, traditional appliance-focused rebates are assessed; and third, utilities provide only rebates to those households that maximize water, energy or GHG emissions savings. Results show that the most economically efficient options for households are not the best options for utilities, and that traditional appliance-focused rebates are much less optimal than targeted rebates.

  2. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  3. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...

  4. 18 CFR 1317.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 1317... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  5. Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2011-01-01

    The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.

  6. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  7. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Maximal lens bounds on QSO-galaxy association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, I.

    1989-01-01

    The maximal possible enhancement of QSO number counts that can be produced by any ensemble of lenses which conserve brightness and in which the magnification probability is negligibly correlated with the intrinsic QSO flux is obtained. Under the assumption of the Boyle et al. (1988) number-magnitude relation for the QSOs unaffected by lenses, the theory is applied to the QSO-galaxy association sample of Webster et al. (1988). The results suggest that the background QSOs of Webster et al. may be appreciably affected by lensing. 17 refs

  9. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  10. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  11. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  12. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  13. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  14. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  16. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  17. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  18. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  19. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  20. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaugn, Kit; Brickell, Emily [WWF-UK (United Kingdom); Roe, Dilys; Reid, Hannah; Elliot, Jo

    2007-07-01

    The growing market for carbon offers great opportunities for linking greenhouse gas mitigation with conservation of forests and biodiversity, and the generation of local livelihoods. For these combined objectives to be achieved, strong governance is needed along with institutions that ensure poor people win, rather than lose out, from the new challenges posed by climate change. This briefing paper explores the opportunities from and limitations to carbon-based funds for conservation and development. It highlights mechanisms that may help secure benefits for climate, conservation and communities.

  1. 77 FR 8525 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... way of representing consumer NPV), and (2) the monetary value of the benefits of emission reductions... standards to the Nation (energy savings, positive NPV of consumer benefits, consumer LCC savings, and... and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and...

  2. Land under pressure: soil conservation concerns and opportunities for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the future impact of soil degradation on national food security and land occupation in Ethiopia. It applies a spatial optimization model that maximizes national agricultural revenues under alternative scenarios of soil conservation, land accessibility and technology. The

  3. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  4. Quality control in breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, breast conservation has become an accepted option for treatment of Stages I and II carcinoma of the breast; in this practice in 1991, more than 80% of these patients were treated in this manner. A surgical procedure to excise the primary lesion and to dissect the axilla is generally required to prepare patients for breast conservation, concurrently maximizing esthetic appearance of the breast, minimizing the risk of local recurrence and providing appropriate information for recommendations concerning adjuvant therapy. The volume of breast tissue to be removed, significance of findings at surgical margins, and extent of the axillary dissection are all somewhat controversial subjects. Based upon a personal series of almost 800 patients undergoing breast conservation, observations that reflect the findings from this experience may be shared. (author)

  5. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  6. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  7. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  9. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  10. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  11. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  13. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Maria Garcia; Richard B. Alexander; Jeffrey G. Arnold; Lee Norfleet; Mike White; Dale M. Robertson; Gregory Schwarz

    2016-01-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), initiated by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), has the goal of quantifying the environmental benefits of agricultural conservation practices. As part of this effort, detailed farmer surveyswere compiled to document the adoption of conservation practices. Survey data showed that up to 38...

  14. Lyme disease and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  15. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  16. Parks & benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...

  17. Parton Distributions based on a Maximally Consistent Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    The choice of data that enters a global QCD analysis can have a substantial impact on the resulting parton distributions and their predictions for collider observables. One of the main reasons for this has to do with the possible presence of inconsistencies, either internal within an experiment or external between different experiments. In order to assess the robustness of the global fit, different definitions of a conservative PDF set, that is, a PDF set based on a maximally consistent dataset, have been introduced. However, these approaches are typically affected by theory biases in the selection of the dataset. In this contribution, after a brief overview of recent NNPDF developments, we propose a new, fully objective, definition of a conservative PDF set, based on the Bayesian reweighting approach. Using the new NNPDF3.0 framework, we produce various conservative sets, which turn out to be mutually in agreement within the respective PDF uncertainties, as well as with the global fit. We explore some of their implications for LHC phenomenology, finding also good consistency with the global fit result. These results provide a non-trivial validation test of the new NNPDF3.0 fitting methodology, and indicate that possible inconsistencies in the fitted dataset do not affect substantially the global fit PDFs.

  18. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  19. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  20. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  1. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  2. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  3. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  4. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  5. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  6. Energy conservation employing membrane-based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Membranes based processes, if properly adapted to industrial processes have good potential with regard to optimisation and economisation of energy consumption. The specific benefits of MBT (membrane based technology) as an energy conservation methodology are highlighted. (author). 6 refs

  7. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  8. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  9. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  10. Why firms should not always maximize profits

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the corporate social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This paper argues that the first position i...

  11. Maximally Informative Observables and Categorical Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiang, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We formulate the problem of perception in the framework of information theory, and prove that categorical perception is equivalent to the existence of an observable that has the maximum possible information on the target of perception. We call such an observable maximally informative. Regardless whether categorical perception is real, maximally informative observables can form the basis of a theory of perception. We conclude with the implications of such a theory for the problem of speech per...

  12. An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Arbuthnot, Margaret; Blackman, Allen; Brooks, Sharon E; Giovannucci, Daniele; Gross, Lee; Kennedy, Elizabeth T; Komives, Kristin; Lambin, Eric F; Lee, Audrey; Meyer, Daniel; Newton, Peter; Phalan, Ben; Schroth, Götz; Semroc, Bambi; Van Rikxoort, Henk; Zrust, Michal

    2015-04-01

    implemented to maximize benefits for biodiversity conservation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Optimal fire histories for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke T; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Fire is used as a management tool for biodiversity conservation worldwide. A common objective is to avoid population extinctions due to inappropriate fire regimes. However, in many ecosystems, it is unclear what mix of fire histories will achieve this goal. We determined the optimal fire history of a given area for biological conservation with a method that links tools from 3 fields of research: species distribution modeling, composite indices of biodiversity, and decision science. We based our case study on extensive field surveys of birds, reptiles, and mammals in fire-prone semi-arid Australia. First, we developed statistical models of species' responses to fire history. Second, we determined the optimal allocation of successional states in a given area, based on the geometric mean of species relative abundance. Finally, we showed how conservation targets based on this index can be incorporated into a decision-making framework for fire management. Pyrodiversity per se did not necessarily promote vertebrate biodiversity. Maximizing pyrodiversity by having an even allocation of successional states did not maximize the geometric mean abundance of bird species. Older vegetation was disproportionately important for the conservation of birds, reptiles, and small mammals. Because our method defines fire management objectives based on the habitat requirements of multiple species in the community, it could be used widely to maximize biodiversity in fire-prone ecosystems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Bird community conservation and carbon offsets in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Richard; Martin, Tara G; Arcese, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Conservation initiatives to protect and restore valued species and communities in human-dominated landscapes face huge challenges linked to the cost of acquiring habitat. We ask how the sale of forest carbon offsets could reduce land acquisition costs, and how the alternate goals of maximizing α or β-diversity in focal communities could affect the prioritization land parcels over a range of conservation targets. Maximizing total carbon storage and carbon sequestration potential reduced land acquisition costs by up to 48%. Maximizing β rather than α-diversity within forest and savannah bird communities reduced acquisition costs by up to 15%, and when these solutions included potential carbon credit revenues, acquisition cost reductions up to 32% were achieved. However, the total cost of conservation networks increased exponentially as area targets increased in all scenarios. Our results indicate that carbon credit sales have the potential to enhance conservation outcomes in human-dominated landscapes by reducing the net acquisition costs of land conservation in old and maturing forests essential for the persistence of old forest plant and animal communities. Maximizing β versus α-diversity may further reduce costs by reducing the total area required to meet conservation targets and enhancing landscape heterogeneity. Although the potential value of carbon credit sales declined as a fraction of total acquisition costs, even conservative scenarios using a carbon credit value of $12.5/T suggest reductions in acquisition cost of up to $235 M, indicating that carbon credit sales could substantially reduce the costs of conservation.

  15. Perspectives of genomics for genetic conservation of livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Engelsma, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics provides new opportunities for conservation genetics. Conservation genetics in livestock is based on estimating diversity by pedigree relatedness and managing diversity by choosing those animals that maximize genetic diversity. Animals can be chosen as parents for the next generation, as

  16. Accounting for complementarity to maximize monitoring power for species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Chadès, Iadine; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-10-01

    To choose among conservation actions that may benefit many species, managers need to monitor the consequences of those actions. Decisions about which species to monitor from a suite of different species being managed are hindered by natural variability in populations and uncertainty in several factors: the ability of the monitoring to detect a change, the likelihood of the management action being successful for a species, and how representative species are of one another. However, the literature provides little guidance about how to account for these uncertainties when deciding which species to monitor to determine whether the management actions are delivering outcomes. We devised an approach that applies decision science and selects the best complementary suite of species to monitor to meet specific conservation objectives. We created an index for indicator selection that accounts for the likelihood of successfully detecting a real trend due to a management action and whether that signal provides information about other species. We illustrated the benefit of our approach by analyzing a monitoring program for invasive predator management aimed at recovering 14 native Australian mammals of conservation concern. Our method selected the species that provided more monitoring power at lower cost relative to the current strategy and traditional approaches that consider only a subset of the important considerations. Our benefit function accounted for natural variability in species growth rates, uncertainty in the responses of species to the prescribed action, and how well species represent others. Monitoring programs that ignore uncertainty, likelihood of detecting change, and complementarity between species will be more costly and less efficient and may waste funding that could otherwise be used for management. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Benefits | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    flexible work environment that enables and encourages a good work/life balance A growing, changing exceptional work. A woman riding her bike past the NREL entrance sign. Hundreds of NREL employees opt out of their cars, cycling to work, to take part in Bike To Work Day each year. Benefits Package NREL's

  18. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  19. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  20. Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesen, Anne Borge; Skonhoft, Anders [Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Dragvoll (Norway)

    2005-10-15

    Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have frequently been established in Africa to improve wildlife conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, their effectiveness has been hampered by conflicts and illegal harvesting. This paper focuses on the strategic interaction between the manager of a protected area and a group of local people. The park manager benefits from wildlife through tourism and hunting. The local people benefit through hunting, but also bear the wildlife damage. ICDPs relying on money transfers to the local people from the park manager may or may not promote wildlife conservation. In addition, the welfare of the local people are ambiguous. (author) [Wildlife; Conservation; Conflicts; Local welfare].

  1. Vacua of maximal gauged D=3 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, T; Nicolai, H; Samtleben, H

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the scalar potentials of maximal gauged three-dimensional supergravities which reveal a surprisingly rich structure. In contrast to maximal supergravities in dimensions D≥4, all these theories possess a maximally supersymmetric (N=16) ground state with negative cosmological constant Λ 2 gauged theory, whose maximally supersymmetric groundstate has Λ = 0. We compute the mass spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around these vacua and identify the unitary irreducible representations of the relevant background (super)isometry groups to which they belong. In addition, we find several stationary points which are not maximally supersymmetric, and determine their complete mass spectra as well. In particular, we show that there are analogues of all stationary points found in higher dimensions, among them are de Sitter (dS) vacua in the theories with noncompact gauge groups SO(5, 3) 2 and SO(4, 4) 2 , as well as anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua in the compact gauged theory preserving 1/4 and 1/8 of the supersymmetries. All the dS vacua have tachyonic instabilities, whereas there do exist nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua which are stable, again in contrast to the D≥4 theories

  2. An Expectation-Maximization Method for Calibrating Synchronous Machine Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Da; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang

    2013-07-21

    The accuracy of a power system dynamic model is essential to its secure and efficient operation. Lower confidence in model accuracy usually leads to conservative operation and lowers asset usage. To improve model accuracy, this paper proposes an expectation-maximization (EM) method to calibrate the synchronous machine model using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. First, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied to estimate the dynamic states using measurement data. Then, the parameters are calculated based on the estimated states using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. The EM method iterates over the preceding two steps to improve estimation accuracy. The proposed EM method’s performance is evaluated using a single-machine infinite bus system and compared with a method where both state and parameters are estimated using an EKF method. Sensitivity studies of the parameter calibration using EM method are also presented to show the robustness of the proposed method for different levels of measurement noise and initial parameter uncertainty.

  3. The importance of local forest benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaafsma, M.; Morse-Jones, S.; Posen, P.

    2014-01-01

    values shows that benefits vary highly across space with population density, infrastructure and resource availability. We argue that if further restrictions on forest access to promote conservation are considered, this will require additional policies to prevent a consequent increase in poverty......, and an enforced trade-off between conservation and energy supply to rural and urban households....

  4. Some guiding concepts for conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David; Hunter, Malcolm

    2010-12-01

    The search for generalities in ecology has often been thwarted by contingency and ecological complexity that limit the development of predictive rules. We present a set of concepts that we believe succinctly expresses some of the fundamental ideas in conservation biology. (1) Successful conservation management requires explicit goals and objectives. (2) The overall goal of biodiversity management will usually be to maintain or restore biodiversity, not to maximize species richness. (3) A holistic approach is needed to solve conservation problems. (4) Diverse approaches to management can provide diverse environmental conditions and mitigate risk. (5) Using nature's template is important for guiding conservation management, but it is not a panacea. (6) Focusing on causes not symptoms enhances efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions. (7) Every species and ecosystem is unique, to some degree. (8) Threshold responses are important but not ubiquitous. (9) Multiple stressors often exert critical effects on species and ecosystems. (10) Human values are variable and dynamic and significantly shape conservation efforts. We believe most conservation biologists will broadly agree these concepts are important. That said, an important part of the maturation of conservation biology as a discipline is constructive debate about additional or alternative concepts to those we have proposed here. Therefore, we have established a web-based, online process for further discussion of the concepts outlined in this paper and developing additional ones. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  6. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  7. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  8. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  9. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  10. Optimizing protection efforts for amphibian conservation in Mediterranean landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Enrique; Ceacero, Francisco; Carretero, Miguel A.; Pedrajas-Pulido, Luis; Parra, Gema; Guerrero, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    Amphibians epitomize the modern biodiversity crisis, and attract great attention from the scientific community since a complex puzzle of factors has influence on their disappearance. However, these factors are multiple and spatially variable, and declining in each locality is due to a particular combination of causes. This study shows a suitable statistical procedure to determine threats to amphibian species in medium size administrative areas. For our study case, ten biological and ecological variables feasible to affect the survival of 15 amphibian species were categorized and reduced through Principal Component Analysis. The principal components extracted were related to ecological plasticity, reproductive potential, and specificity of breeding habitats. Finally, the factor scores of species were joined in a presence-absence matrix that gives us information to identify where and why conservation management are requires. In summary, this methodology provides the necessary information to maximize benefits of conservation measures in small areas by identifying which ecological factors need management efforts and where should we focus them on.

  11. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  12. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  13. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  14. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  15. Consequences of co-benefits for the efficient design of carbon sequestration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.; Kling, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The social efficiency of private carbon markets that also included trading in agricultural soil carbon sequestration with significant associated co-benefits were considered. Three topics related to the presence of co-benefits that sequester carbon were examined: (1) the consequences of co-benefits from carbon sinks and carbon abatement technology on the efficiency of carbon markets; (2) the efficient supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits when there is spatial heterogeneity; and (3) the consequences of the presence of a carbon market when there is also a government supported conservation program. Co-benefits from carbon sinks and abatement were considered in relation to the socially efficient level of sequestration. The supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits were then considered when fields differed in their potential to provide carbon and other environmental benefits. An empirical example of the economic characteristics of carbon sequestration and co-benefits in the Upper Mississippi River Basin was presented, in which the sequestration practice of land retirement with planting of perennial grasses was examined. Two sets of figures were used to illustrate the relationship between the cost of carbon sequestration and its marginal co-benefits: the marginal cost and the marginal co-benefits of carbon sequestration in a carbon market; and the marginal cost of carbon sequestration under a policy designed to maximize a bundle of environmental benefits. It was demonstrated that the relationship between carbon and its associated co-benefits will affect the efficiency of policy instruments designed for carbon sequestration. It was recommended that policy-makers consider that there are already a multitude of existing conservation programmes that result in significant carbon sequestration in many countries, and that nascent carbon markets are emerging in countries that have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The efficient level and location of carbon

  16. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. In a second part of the paper I review the conservation genetic studies carried on the Iberian raptors. I introduce several studies on the Spanish imperial eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture and the red kite that were carried out using autosomal microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. I describe studies on the lesser kestrel and Egyptian vulture that additionally applied major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers, with the purpose of incorporating the study of non–neutral variation. For every species I explain how these studies can be and/or are applied in the strategy of conservation in the wild.

  17. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... concentration facilitated conservation of entire ecosystems. We investigate the benefits that accrued through dynamic linkages of the hydrological cycle and groundwater aquifer system. This provides a clear example of the need to consider integrated watershed effects, industrial structure, and linkages...... in determining conservation policy. We incorporated remote-sensing data, expert opinion on current watershed quality, and a spatial economic and hydrological model of O`ahu’s freshwater use with reports of conservation activities from 1910–1960 to assess these benefits. We find a 2.3% annual increase...

  18. Targeted conservation to safeguard a biodiversity hotspot from climate and land-cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struebig, Matthew J; Wilting, Andreas; Gaveau, David L A; Meijaard, Erik; Smith, Robert J; Fischer, Manuela; Metcalfe, Kristian; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-02-02

    Responses of biodiversity to changes in both land cover and climate are recognized [1] but still poorly understood [2]. This poses significant challenges for spatial planning as species could shift, contract, expand, or maintain their range inside or outside protected areas [2-4]. We examine this problem in Borneo, a global biodiversity hotspot [5], using spatial prioritization analyses that maximize species conservation under multiple environmental-change forecasts. Climate projections indicate that 11%-36% of Bornean mammal species will lose ≥ 30% of their habitat by 2080, and suitable ecological conditions will shift upslope for 23%-46%. Deforestation exacerbates this process, increasing the proportion of species facing comparable habitat loss to 30%-49%, a 2-fold increase on historical trends. Accommodating these distributional changes will require conserving land outside existing protected areas, but this may be less than anticipated from models incorporating deforestation alone because some species will colonize high-elevation reserves. Our results demonstrate the increasing importance of upland reserves and that relatively small additions (16,000-28,000 km(2)) to the current conservation estate could provide substantial benefits to biodiversity facing changes to land cover and climate. On Borneo, much of this land is under forestry jurisdiction, warranting targeted conservation partnerships to safeguard biodiversity in an era of global change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)

  20. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  1. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  2. Reserve design to maximize species persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  3. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  4. Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2000-01-01

    to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...

  5. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  6. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  7. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...

  8. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  9. Logit Analysis for Profit Maximizing Loan Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Mortensen, Timothy L.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    1988-01-01

    Lending criteria and loan classification methods are developed. Rating system breaking points are analyzed to present a method to maximize loan revenues. Financial characteristics of farmers are used as determinants of delinquency in a multivariate logistic model. Results indicate that debt-to-asset and operating ration are most indicative of default.

  10. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  11. Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mako eOkanda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.

  12. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.S.; Blignaut, J.; Ploeg, van der S.; Aronson, J.; Elmqvist, T.; Farley, J.

    2013-01-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies)

  13. 7 CFR 1467.20 - Market-based conservation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market-based conservation initiatives. 1467.20....20 Market-based conservation initiatives. (a) Acceptance and use of contributions. Section 1241(e) of... for Conservation Improvements. (1) USDA recognizes that environmental benefits will be achieved by...

  14. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  16. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  17. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  18. Selling energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  19. Maximizing the phylogenetic diversity of seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate E; Balding, Sharon T; Dickie, John B; Lewis, Gwilym P; Pearce, Tim R; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Ex situ conservation efforts such as those of zoos, botanical gardens, and seed banks will form a vital complement to in situ conservation actions over the coming decades. It is therefore necessary to pay the same attention to the biological diversity represented in ex situ conservation facilities as is often paid to protected-area networks. Building the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections will strengthen our capacity to respond to biodiversity loss. Since 2000, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership has banked seed from 14% of the world's plant species. We assessed the taxonomic, geographic, and phylogenetic diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank collection of legumes (Leguminosae). We compared the collection with all known legume genera, their known geographic range (at country and regional levels), and a genus-level phylogeny of the legume family constructed for this study. Over half the phylogenetic diversity of legumes at the genus level was represented in the Millennium Seed Bank. However, pragmatic prioritization of species of economic importance and endangerment has led to the banking of a less-than-optimal phylogenetic diversity and prioritization of range-restricted species risks an underdispersed collection. The current state of the phylogenetic diversity of legumes in the Millennium Seed Bank could be substantially improved through the strategic banking of relatively few additional taxa. Our method draws on tools that are widely applied to in situ conservation planning, and it can be used to evaluate and improve the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Preliminary accelerator plans for maximizing the integrated LHC luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Ruggiero, F; Ostojic, R; Scandale, Walter; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Wenninger, J

    2006-01-01

    A working group on "Proton Accelerators for the Future" (PAF) has been created in May 2005 by the CERN direction to elaborate a baseline scenario of the possible development and upgrade of the present Proton Accelerator Complex. This report is the result of the investigation conducted until the end of 2005, in close connection with the working group on "Physics Opportunities with Future Proton Accelerators" (POFPA) and is consistent with their recommendations. Focused on the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity for the LHC experiments, a scenario of evolution is proposed, subject to further refinement using the future experience of commissioning and running-in the collider and its injector complex. The actions to be taken in terms of consolidation, R & D and improvement are outlined. The benefits for other types of physics are mentioned and will be investigated in more detail in the future.

  1. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration. PMID:29425214

  2. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sandra Isay; Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  3. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isay Saad

    Full Text Available The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil, where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion, so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  4. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  5. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  6. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kallsen

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  7. Control of Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Oladipupo; C. O. Okafor

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on who controls shareholder’s wealth maximization and how does this affect firm’s performance in publicly quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. The shareholder fund was the dependent while explanatory variables were firm size (proxied by log of turnover), retained earning (representing management control) and dividend payment (representing measure of shareholders control). The data used for this study were obtained from the Nigerian Stock Exchange [NSE] fact book an...

  8. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  9. Dynamic Convex Duality in Constrained Utility Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yusong; Zheng, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a constrained utility maximization problem following the convex duality approach. After formulating the primal and dual problems, we construct the necessary and sufficient conditions for both the primal and dual problems in terms of FBSDEs plus additional conditions. Such formulation then allows us to explicitly characterize the primal optimal control as a function of the adjoint process coming from the dual FBSDEs in a dynamic fashion and vice versa. Moreover, we also...

  10. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  11. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  12. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  13. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  14. REVIEW: The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature Conservancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareiva, Peter; Groves, Craig; Marvier, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    and strategies, and in turn the evolving practice of conservation has altered the type of science sought by TNC in order to maximize its conservation effectiveness.

  15. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  16. Alignment by Maximization of Mutual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    me how truly valuable unconditional support can be. Students are the AI lab’s most precious resource and I benefited from discussions with Phil Agre...to analyze these problems is purely convenience. There is nothing random about these problems once the samples are drawn. One of the benefits of...To provide further intuition regarding the behavior of ECA we have run ECA, PCA, and two related procedures BCM and BINGO on the same density. BCM

  17. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  18. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  19. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  20. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  1. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  2. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  3. Pouliot type duality via a-maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yagi, Futoshi

    2006-01-01

    We study four-dimensional N=1Spin(10) gauge theory with a single spinor and N Q vectors at the superconformal fixed point via the electric-magnetic duality and a-maximization. When gauge invariant chiral primary operators hit the unitarity bounds, we find that the theory with no superpotential is identical to the one with some superpotential at the infrared fixed point. The auxiliary field method in the electric theory offers a satisfying description of the infrared fixed point, which is consistent with the better picture in the magnetic theory. In particular, it gives a clear description of the emergence of new massless degrees of freedom in the electric theory

  4. Heat-conserving postures hinder escape: a thermoregulation–predation trade-off in wintering birds

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie M. Carr; Steven L. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Wintering birds may conserve body heat by adopting postures with minimal leg exposure or significant ptiloerection. However, maximally heat-conserving postures may hinder a bird's ability to escape attack, leading to a trade-off between predation risk and thermoregulation. Such a trade-off implies that birds should use the most heat-conserving postures only at very cold temperatures. Feeding in a relatively low-risk environment should also facilitate the use of such heat-conserving postures. ...

  5. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  6. A strategy for maximizing native plant material diversity for ecological restoration, germplasm conservation and genecology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta Youtie; Nancy Shaw; Matt Fisk; Scott Jensen

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important steps in planning a restoration project is careful selection of ecologically adapted native plant material. As species-specific seed zone maps are not available for most species in the Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) ecoregion in the Great Basin, USA, we are employing a provisional seed zone map based on annual...

  7. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  8. Inequity in ecosystem service delivery: Socioeconomic gaps in the public-private conservation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Mogollón, Beatriz; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation areas, both public and private, are critical tools to protect biodiversity and deliver important ecosystem services (ES) to society. Although societal benefits from such ES are increasingly used to promote public support of conservation, the number of beneficiaries, their identity, and the magnitude of benefits are largely unknown for the vast majority of conservation areas in the United States public-private conservation network. The location of conservation areas in relation to people strongly influences the direction and magnitude of ES flows as well as the identity of beneficiaries. We analyzed benefit zones, the areas to which selected ES could be conveyed to beneficiaries, to assess who benefits from a typical conservation network. Better knowledge of ES flows and beneficiaries will help land conservationists make a stronger case for the broad collateral benefits of conservation and help to address issues of social-environmental justice. To evaluate who benefits the most from the current public-private conservation network, we delineated the benefit zones for local ES (within 16 km) that are conveyed along hydrological paths from public (federal and state) and private (easements) conservation lands in the states of North Carolina and Virginia, USA. We also discuss the challenges and demonstrate an approach for delineating nonhydrological benefits that are passively conveyed to beneficiaries. We mapped and compared the geographic distribution of benefit zones within and among conservation area types. We further compared beneficiary demographics across benefit zones of the conservation area types and found that hydrological benefit zones of federal protected areas encompass disproportionately fewer minority beneficiaries compared to statewide demographic patterns. In contrast, benefit zones of state protected areas and private easements encompassed a much greater proportion of minority beneficiaries (~22–25%). Benefit zones associated with

  9. Integrating agricultural expansion into conservation biogeography: conflicts and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dobrovolski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing food production without compromising biodiversity is one of the great challenges for humanity. The aims of my thesis were to define spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation and to evaluate conservation conflicts considering agricultural expansion in the 21st century. I also tested the effect of globalizing conservation efforts on both food production and biodiversity conservation. I found spatial conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion. However, incorporating agricultural expansion data into the spatial prioritization process can significantly alleviate conservation conflicts, by reducing spatial correlation between the areas under high impact of agriculture and the priority areas for conservation. Moreover, developing conservation blueprints at the global scale, instead of the usual approach based on national boundaries, can benefit both food production and biodiversity. Based on these findings I conclude that the incorporation of agricultural expansion as a key component for defining global conservation strategies should be added to the list of solutions for our cultivated planet.

  10. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  11. Is It Time for Synthetic Biodiversity Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seddon, Philip J; Alphey, Luke; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Carlson, Robert H; Friedman, Robert M; Kanavy, Dona; Phelan, Ryan; Redford, Kent H; Rosales, Marina; Slobodian, Lydia; Wheeler, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Evidence indicates that, despite some critical successes, current conservation approaches are not slowing the overall rate of biodiversity loss. The field of synthetic biology, which is capable of altering natural genomes with extremely precise editing, might offer the potential to resolve some intractable conservation problems (e.g., invasive species or pathogens). However, it is our opinion that there has been insufficient engagement by the conservation community with practitioners of synthetic biology. We contend that rapid, large-scale engagement of these two communities is urgently needed to avoid unintended and deleterious ecological consequences. To this point we describe case studies where synthetic biology is currently being applied to conservation, and we highlight the benefits to conservation biologists from engaging with this emerging technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Precision Problem in Conservation and Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiers, J Kevin; Jackson, Stephen T; Hobbs, Richard J; Bernhardt, Emily S; Valentine, Leonie E

    2016-11-01

    Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit options for managers trying to balance competing objectives with limited resources. Conservation policies should embrace habitat variability, expand decision-space appropriately, and support adaptation to local circumstances to increase ecological resilience in a rapidly changing world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The precision problem in conservation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiers, J. Kevin; Jackson, Stephen T.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Valentine, Leonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit options for managers trying to balance competing objectives with limited resources. Conservation policies should embrace habitat variability, expand decision-space appropriately, and support adaptation to local circumstances to increase ecological resilience in a rapidly changing world.

  14. How to Be a Wise Consumer of Coaching: Strategies Teachers Can Use to Maximize Coaching's Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.; Luebeck, Jennifer; Heidema, Clare; Mitchell, Arlene; Sutton, John

    2011-01-01

    Instructional coaching is gaining popularity as a school-based effort to increase teacher effectiveness and student achievement. A coach can be broadly defined as a person who works collaboratively with a teacher to improve that teacher's practice and content knowledge, with the ultimate goal of affecting student achievement. By its very nature,…

  15. Maximizing dosimetric benefits of IMRT in the treatment of localized prostate cancer through multicriteria optimization planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Craft, David; Paly, Jon; Zietman, Anthony; Efstathiou, Jason

    2013-01-01

    We examine the quality of plans created using multicriteria optimization (MCO) treatment planning in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in treatment of localized prostate cancer. Nine random cases of patients receiving IMRT to the prostate were selected. Each case was associated with a clinically approved plan created using Corvus. The cases were replanned using MCO-based planning in RayStation. Dose-volume histogram data from both planning systems were presented to 2 radiation oncologists in a blinded evaluation, and were compared at a number of dose-volume points. Both physicians rated all 9 MCO plans as superior to the clinically approved plans (p −5 ). Target coverage was equivalent (p = 0.81). Maximum doses to the prostate and bladder and the V50 and V70 to the anterior rectum were reduced in all MCO plans (p<0.05). Treatment planning time with MCO took approximately 60 minutes per case. MCO-based planning for prostate IMRT is efficient and produces high-quality plans with good target homogeneity and sparing of the anterior rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, without sacrificing target coverage

  16. Maximizing dosimetric benefits of IMRT in the treatment of localized prostate cancer through multicriteria optimization planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Craft, David [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Paly, Jon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason, E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We examine the quality of plans created using multicriteria optimization (MCO) treatment planning in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in treatment of localized prostate cancer. Nine random cases of patients receiving IMRT to the prostate were selected. Each case was associated with a clinically approved plan created using Corvus. The cases were replanned using MCO-based planning in RayStation. Dose-volume histogram data from both planning systems were presented to 2 radiation oncologists in a blinded evaluation, and were compared at a number of dose-volume points. Both physicians rated all 9 MCO plans as superior to the clinically approved plans (p<10{sup −5}). Target coverage was equivalent (p = 0.81). Maximum doses to the prostate and bladder and the V50 and V70 to the anterior rectum were reduced in all MCO plans (p<0.05). Treatment planning time with MCO took approximately 60 minutes per case. MCO-based planning for prostate IMRT is efficient and produces high-quality plans with good target homogeneity and sparing of the anterior rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, without sacrificing target coverage.

  17. When Wanting the Best Goes Right or Wrong: Distinguishing Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Scholer, Abigail A

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have often disagreed on how to define maximization, leading to conflicting conclusions about its potential benefits or drawbacks. Drawing from motivation research, we distinguish between the goals (i.e., wanting the best) and strategies (e.g., alternative search) associated with maximizing. Three studies illustrate how this differentiation offers insight into when maximizers do or do not experience affective costs when making decisions. In Study 1, we show that two motivational orientations, promotion focus and assessment mode, are both associated with the goal of wanting the best, yet assessment (not promotion) is related to the use of alternative search strategies. In Study 2, we demonstrate that alternative search strategies are associated with frustration on a discrete decision task. In Study 3, we provide evidence that one reason for this link may be due to reconsideration of previously dismissed options. We discuss the potential of this approach to integrate research in this area.

  18. Are we working towards global research priorities for management and conservation of sea turtles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A.F.; Alfaro-Shigueto, J.; Barata, P.C.R.; Bjorndal, K.A.; Bolten, A.B.; Bourjea, J.; Broderick, A.C.; Campbell, L.M.; Cardona, L.; Carreras, C.; Casale, P.; Ceriani, S.A.; Dutton, P.H.; Eguchi, T.; Formia, A.; Fuentes, M.M.P.B.; Fuller, W.J.; Girondot, M.; Godfrey, M.H.; Hamann, M.; Hart, Kristen M.; Hays, G.C.; Hochscheid, S.; Kaska, Y.; Jensen, M.P.; Mangel, J.C.; Mortimer, J.A.; Naro-Maciel, E.; Ng, C.K.Y.; Nichols, W.J.; Phillott, A.D.; Reina, R.D.; Revuelta, O.; Schofield, G.; Seminoff, J.A.; Shanker, K.; Tomás, J.; van de Merwe, J.P.; Van Houtan, K.S.; Vander Zanden, H.B.; Wallace, B.P.; Wedemeyer-Strombel, K.R.; Work, Thierry M.; Godley, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, an international group of 35 sea turtle researchers refined an initial list of more than 200 research questions into 20 metaquestions that were considered key for management and conservation of sea turtles. These were classified under 5 categories: reproductive biology, biogeography, population ecology, threats and conservation strategies. To obtain a picture of how research is being focused towards these key questions, we undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature (2014 and 2015) attributing papers to the original 20 questions. In total, we reviewed 605 articles in full and from these 355 (59%) were judged to substantively address the 20 key questions, with others focusing on basic science and monitoring. Progress to answering the 20 questions was not uniform, and there were biases regarding focal turtle species, geographic scope and publication outlet. Whilst it offers some meaningful indications as to effort, quantifying peer-reviewed literature output is obviously not the only, and possibly not the best, metric for understanding progress towards informing key conservation and management goals. Along with the literature review, an international group based on the original project consortium was assigned to critically summarise recent progress towards answering each of the 20 questions. We found that significant research is being expended towards global priorities for management and conservation of sea turtles. Although highly variable, there has been significant progress in all the key questions identified in 2010. Undertaking this critical review has highlighted that it may be timely to undertake one or more new prioritizing exercises. For this to have maximal benefit we make a range of recommendations for its execution. These include a far greater engagement with social sciences, widening the pool of contributors and focussing the questions, perhaps disaggregating ecology and conservation.

  19. Heroes or thieves? The ethical grounds for lingering concerns about new conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea Batavia; Michael Paul Nelson

    2016-01-01

    After several years of intense debate surrounding so-called new conservation, there has been a general trend toward reconciliation among previously dissenting voices in the conservation community, a “more is more” mentality premised upon the belief that a greater diversity of conservation approaches will yield greater conservation benefits. However, there seems good...

  20. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G

    2016-08-01

    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  2. Distributed-Memory Fast Maximal Independent Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanewala Appuhamilage, Thejaka Amila J.; Zalewski, Marcin J.; Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    The Maximal Independent Set (MIS) graph problem arises in many applications such as computer vision, information theory, molecular biology, and process scheduling. The growing scale of MIS problems suggests the use of distributed-memory hardware as a cost-effective approach to providing necessary compute and memory resources. Luby proposed four randomized algorithms to solve the MIS problem. All those algorithms are designed focusing on shared-memory machines and are analyzed using the PRAM model. These algorithms do not have direct efficient distributed-memory implementations. In this paper, we extend two of Luby’s seminal MIS algorithms, “Luby(A)” and “Luby(B),” to distributed-memory execution, and we evaluate their performance. We compare our results with the “Filtered MIS” implementation in the Combinatorial BLAS library for two types of synthetic graph inputs.

  3. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  4. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  5. Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2011-08-21

    We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.

  6. Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.

  7. Maximizing profitability in a hospital outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.

  8. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  9. Conservative sex and benefits of transformation in Streptococcus pneumonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelmoer, D.J.P.; Donaldson, I.; Rozen, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Natural transformation has significant effects on bacterial genome evolution, but the evolutionary factors maintaining this mode of bacterial sex remain uncertain. Transformation is hypothesized to have both positive and negative evolutionary effects on bacteria. It can facilitate adaptation by

  10. Estimating the costs and benefits of soil conservation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlman, J.W.; Reinhard, A.J.; Gaaff, A.

    2010-01-01

    Economics is about problems of choice. In erosion control, both public authorities and private land users are faced with such problems. What is the impact of erosion, both on-site and off-site, and to what extent can this impact be quantified? If we conceptualize this impact in terms of

  11. Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam

    2009-07-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.

  12. A Criterion to Identify Maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang; Feng Feng

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Facchi, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 060304(R)] presented a maximally multipartite entangled state (MMES). Here, we give a criterion for the identification of maximally entangled four-qubit states. Using this criterion, we not only identify some existing maximally entangled four-qubit states in the literature, but also find several new maximally entangled four-qubit states as well. (general)

  13. Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral m...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....

  14. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  15. Energy conservation through the implementation of cogeneration and grid interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashash, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    expenses. There are already three distinct sub-groups being interconnected in North Africa, within the Gulf countries, and in the other Middle East Arab Countries. The same benefits will be maximized by connecting the Arab Countries power pool to Europe through the MEDRING system. Reaching the mentioned objectives is not only a major contribution to energy conservation but also leads intrinsically to better environmental protection

  16. 78 FR 79419 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Effect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ...\\ Present value Discount rate Category (million 2012$) (percent) Benefits Operating Cost Savings 1,848 7 3... Energy Conservation Standards \\5\\ Present value Discount rate Category (million 2012$) (percent) Benefits... Conservation Standards \\6\\ Present value Discount rate Category (billion 2012$) (percent) Benefits Operating...

  17. Conservation without borders: building communication and action across disciplinary boundaries for effective conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margles, Shawn W; Peterson, Richard B; Ervin, Jamison; Kaplin, Beth A

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approaches to conservation research and environmental management continue to garner interest among practitioners, academics, and students. Yet, cases of practitioners and researchers from different disciplines successfully working in concert towards an integrated conservation approach are rare. What is preventing practitioners of multiple disciplines from harmoniously working together? Why are practitioners and academics struggling to apply their graduate training to real world conservation? What is preventing the benefits of cooperation and partnerships between different disciplines addressing conservation from being realized? This special issue "Conservation without Borders: Building Communication and Action across Disciplinary Boundaries for Effective Conservation" asks readers to consider the numerous interpretations and implications of the phrase "Conservation without Borders" and to reflect on how different academic and disciplinary lenses can contribute to a more integrated approach to tackling conservation challenges. The articles that comprise this special issue offer readers insights into the ways in which different disciplines view conservation work and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental problems. Bringing these perspectives and approaches together in one place is a step towards improving communication across disciplines for the purpose of achieving more successful biodiversity conservation.

  18. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarik, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: → This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. → Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. → Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. → However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. → Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  19. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarik, Ingo, E-mail: kowarik@tu-berlin.de [Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Rothenburgstr. 12, D 12165 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: > This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. > Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. > Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. > However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. > Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  20. Decision support frameworks and tools for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Cook, Carly N.; Pressey, Robert L.; Pullin, Andrew S.; Runge, Michael C.; Salafsky, Nick; Sutherland, William J.; Williamson, Matthew A.

    2018-01-01

    The practice of conservation occurs within complex socioecological systems fraught with challenges that require transparent, defensible, and often socially engaged project planning and management. Planning and decision support frameworks are designed to help conservation practitioners increase planning rigor, project accountability, stakeholder participation, transparency in decisions, and learning. We describe and contrast five common frameworks within the context of six fundamental questions (why, who, what, where, when, how) at each of three planning stages of adaptive management (project scoping, operational planning, learning). We demonstrate that decision support frameworks provide varied and extensive tools for conservation planning and management. However, using any framework in isolation risks diminishing potential benefits since no one framework covers the full spectrum of potential conservation planning and decision challenges. We describe two case studies that have effectively deployed tools from across conservation frameworks to improve conservation actions and outcomes. Attention to the critical questions for conservation project planning should allow practitioners to operate within any framework and adapt tools to suit their specific management context. We call on conservation researchers and practitioners to regularly use decision support tools as standard practice for framing both practice and research.

  1. Community standards for genomic resources, genetic conservation, and data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Wegrzyn; Meg Staton; Emily Grau; Richard Cronn; C. Dana Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Genetics and genomics are increasingly important in forestry management and conservation. Next generation sequencing can increase analytical power, but still relies on building on the structure of previously acquired data. Data standards and data sharing allow the community to maximize the analytical power of high throughput genomics data. The landscape of incomplete...

  2. On maximal surfaces in asymptotically flat space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, R.; Chrusciel, P.T.; O Murchadha, N.

    1990-01-01

    Existence of maximal and 'almost maximal' hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat space-times is established under boundary conditions weaker than those considered previously. We show in particular that every vacuum evolution of asymptotically flat data for Einstein equations can be foliated by slices maximal outside a spatially compact set and that every (strictly) stationary asymptotically flat space-time can be foliated by maximal hypersurfaces. Amongst other uniqueness results, we show that maximal hypersurface can be used to 'partially fix' an asymptotic Poincare group. (orig.)

  3. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  4. Cultivating creativity in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare E; Pinsky, Malin L; Ryan, Maureen E; Souther, Sara; Terrell, Kimberly A

    2014-04-01

    Conservation practitioners and scientists are often faced with seemingly intractable problems in which traditional approaches fail. While other sectors (e.g., business) frequently emphasize creative thinking to overcome complex challenges, creativity is rarely identified as an essential skill for conservationists. Yet more creative approaches are urgently needed in the effort to sustain Earth's biodiversity. We identified 4 strategies to develop skills in creative thinking and discuss underlying research and examples supporting each strategy. First, by breaking down barriers between disciplines and surrounding oneself with unfamiliar people, concepts, and perspectives, one can expand base knowledge and experiences and increase the potential for new combinations of ideas. Second, by meeting people where they are (both literally and figuratively), one exposes oneself to new environments and perspectives, which again broadens experiences and increases ability to communicate effectively with stakeholders. Third, by embracing risk responsibly, one is more likely to develop new, nontraditional solutions and be open to high-impact outcomes. Finally, by following a cycle of learning, struggle, and reflection, one can trigger neurophysiological changes that allow the brain to become more creative. Creativity is a learned trait, rather than an innate skill. It can be actively developed at both the individual and institutional levels, and learning to navigate the relevant social and practical barriers is key to the process. To maximize the success of conservation in the face of escalating challenges, one must take advantage of what has been learned from other disciplines and foster creativity as both a professional skill and an essential component of career training and individual development. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prior to application for assistance. (d) Where new technologies or management approaches that provide a high potential for optimizing environmental benefits have been developed, NRCS may approve interim conservation practice standards that incorporate the new technologies and provide financial assistance for...

  6. River use, conservation and management among riverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However the problem remains that many water resource planning and management regimes do not capture the views of the myriad of stakeholders and the many benefits of ecological services. This paper examines river use, conservation and management among riverine communities in South Eastern Nigeria using ...

  7. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  8. Understanding conservationists' perspectives on the new-conservation debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, George; Sandbrook, Chris; Fisher, Janet A

    2017-04-01

    A vibrant debate about the future direction of biodiversity conservation centers on the merits of the so-called new conservation. Proponents of the new conservation advocate a series of positions on key conservation ideas, such as the importance of human-dominated landscapes and conservation's engagement with capitalism. These have been fiercely contested in a debate dominated by a few high-profile individuals, and so far there has been no empirical exploration of existing perspectives on these issues among a wider community of conservationists. We used Q methodology to examine empirically perspectives on the new conservation held by attendees at the 2015 International Congress for Conservation Biology (ICCB). Although we identified a consensus on several key issues, 3 distinct positions emerged: in favor of conservation to benefit people but opposed to links with capitalism and corporations, in favor of biocentric approaches but with less emphasis on wilderness protection than prominent opponents of new conservation, and in favor of the published new conservation perspective but with less emphasis on increasing human well-being as a goal of conservation. Our results revealed differences between the debate on the new conservation in the literature and views held within a wider, but still limited, conservation community and demonstrated the existence of at least one viewpoint (in favor of conservation to benefit people but opposed to links with capitalism and corporations) that is almost absent from the published debate. We hope the fuller understanding we present of the variety of views that exist but have not yet been heard, will improve the quality and tone of debates on the subject. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. A Note of Caution on Maximizing Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Neapolitan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Principle of Maximum Entropy is often used to update probabilities due to evidence instead of performing Bayesian updating using Bayes’ Theorem, and its use often has efficacious results. However, in some circumstances the results seem unacceptable and unintuitive. This paper discusses some of these cases, and discusses how to identify some of the situations in which this principle should not be used. The paper starts by reviewing three approaches to probability, namely the classical approach, the limiting frequency approach, and the Bayesian approach. It then introduces maximum entropy and shows its relationship to the three approaches. Next, through examples, it shows that maximizing entropy sometimes can stand in direct opposition to Bayesian updating based on reasonable prior beliefs. The paper concludes that if we take the Bayesian approach that probability is about reasonable belief based on all available information, then we can resolve the conflict between the maximum entropy approach and the Bayesian approach that is demonstrated in the examples.

  10. Optimal topologies for maximizing network transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhao; Wu, Jiajing; Rong, Zhihai; Tse, Chi K.

    2018-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that the structure of a network is a major factor that affects its traffic dynamics. In this work, we try to identify the optimal topologies for maximizing the network transmission capacity, as well as to build a clear relationship between structural features of a network and the transmission performance in terms of traffic delivery. We propose an approach for designing optimal network topologies against traffic congestion by link rewiring and apply them on the Barabási-Albert scale-free, static scale-free and Internet Autonomous System-level networks. Furthermore, we analyze the optimized networks using complex network parameters that characterize the structure of networks, and our simulation results suggest that an optimal network for traffic transmission is more likely to have a core-periphery structure. However, assortative mixing and the rich-club phenomenon may have negative impacts on network performance. Based on the observations of the optimized networks, we propose an efficient method to improve the transmission capacity of large-scale networks.

  11. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Syritsyn, S.N.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.

    2005-12-01

    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density. (orig.)

  12. Collaboration and partnership in forest conservation: The role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collaboration and partnership in forest conservation: The role of ... The results of a logit estimation model indicates that six factors (gender, ... Surprisingly, perceptions of economic and environmental benefits emerged as negatively significant.

  13. Identifying ambassador species for conservation marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Macdonald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation relies heavily on external funding, much of it from a supportive public. Therefore it is important to know which species are most likely to catalyse such funding. Whilst previous work has looked at the physical attributes that contribute to a species' appeal, no previous studies have tried to examine the extent to which a species' sympatriots might contribute to it's potential as flagship for wider conservation. Therefore, here we estimate ‘flexibility’ and ‘appeal’ scores for all terrestrial mammals (n = 4320 and identify which of these might serve as ambassadors (defined as both highly appealing and flexible. Relatively few mammals (between 240 and 331 emerged as ambassadors, with carnivores featuring heavily in this group (representing 5% of terrestrial mammals but 39% of ambassadors. ‘Top ambassadors’ were defined as those with both flexibility and appeal scores greater than 1 standard deviation above the mean. Less than a quarter of the 20 most endangered and evolutionary distinct species in this study were classed as ambassadors, highlighting the need for surrogate species to catalyse conservation effort in areas with such priority species. This is the first global analysis bringing together flexibility and appeal for all terrestrial mammals, and demonstrates an approach for determining how best to market species in order to achieve maximal conservation gain in a world with urgent conservation need but limited resources.

  14. Computerized detection of masses on mammograms by entropy maximization thresholding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kom, Guillaume; Tiedeu, Alain; Feudjio, Cyrille; Ngundam, J.

    2010-03-01

    In many cases, masses in X-ray mammograms are subtle and their detection can benefit from an automated system serving as a diagnostic aid. It is to this end that the authors propose in this paper, a new computer aided mass detection for breast cancer diagnosis. The first step focuses on wavelet filters enhancement which removes bright background due to dense breast tissues and some film artifacts while preserving features and patterns related to the masses. In the second step, enhanced image is computed by Entropy Maximization Thresholding (EMT) to obtain segmented masses. The efficiency of 98,181% is achieved by analyzing a database of 84 mammograms previously marked by radiologists and digitized at a pixel size of 343μmm x 343μ mm. The segmentation results, in terms of size of detected masses, give a relative error on mass area that is less than 8%. The performance of the proposed method has also been evaluated by means of the receiver operating-characteristics (ROC) analysis. This yielded respectively, an area (Az) of 0.9224 and 0.9295 under the ROC curve whether enhancement step is applied or not. Furthermore, we observe that the EMT yields excellent segmentation results compared to those found in literature. (author)

  15. Programmatic blood conservation in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralley, Fiona E

    2007-12-01

    Despite efforts to reduce blood transfusion rates in cardiac surgery over the past 40 years, cardiac surgery still consumes 10% to 20% of the blood transfused in the United States. This large demand has not only placed a significant pressure on the national blood supply, resulting in frequent shortages, but also has lead to many technical and pharmacological advances in blood conservation strategies in recent years. Recently, studies have shown that an organized approach to blood conservation in cardiac surgery is effective in significantly reducing the perioperative use of allogeneic blood and blood products. However, blood conservation techniques are multiple, varied, and in many situations costly and thus cannot be uniformly applied to all patients. Early preoperative planning and a coordinated perioperative plan allow the appropriate use of blood conservation modalities to ensure that their benefits span the entire perioperative period. This article describes some of the modalities currently used in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  16. What Do Consumers' Fund Flows Maximize?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan; Evans, Richard; Musto, David K.

    2013-01-01

    We ask whether mutual funds’ flows reflect the incentives of the brokers intermediating them. The incentives we address are those revealed in statutory filings: the brokers’ shares of sales loads and other revenue, and their affiliation with the fund family. We find significant effects...... of these payments to brokers on funds’ inflows, particularly when the brokers are not affiliated. Tracking these investments forward, we find load sharing, but not revenue sharing, to predict poor performance, consistent with the different incentives these payments impart. We identify one benefit of captive...

  17. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  18. Reconciling biodiversity and carbon conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chris D; Anderson, Barbara J; Moilanen, Atte; Eigenbrod, Felix; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Quaife, Tristan; Roy, David B; Gillings, Simon; Armsworth, Paul R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-05-01

    Climate change is leading to the development of land-based mitigation and adaptation strategies that are likely to have substantial impacts on global biodiversity. Of these, approaches to maintain carbon within existing natural ecosystems could have particularly large benefits for biodiversity. However, the geographical distributions of terrestrial carbon stocks and biodiversity differ. Using conservation planning analyses for the New World and Britain, we conclude that a carbon-only strategy would not be effective at conserving biodiversity, as have previous studies. Nonetheless, we find that a combined carbon-biodiversity strategy could simultaneously protect 90% of carbon stocks (relative to a carbon-only conservation strategy) and > 90% of the biodiversity (relative to a biodiversity-only strategy) in both regions. This combined approach encapsulates the principle of complementarity, whereby locations that contain different sets of species are prioritised, and hence disproportionately safeguard localised species that are not protected effectively by carbon-only strategies. It is efficient because localised species are concentrated into small parts of the terrestrial land surface, whereas carbon is somewhat more evenly distributed; and carbon stocks protected in one location are equivalent to those protected elsewhere. Efficient compromises can only be achieved when biodiversity and carbon are incorporated together within a spatial planning process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Community-based conservation of critical sites: Uganda's experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of natural resources, first and foremost for their own good, and then for national and global benefit. Ecotourism and adding value to locally produced materials in communities can translate into support for conservation. This paper highlights the importance of community-based conservation for important biodiversity sites.

  20. A fungal perspective on conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Barron, Elizabeth S; Boddy, Lynne; Dahlberg, Anders; Griffith, Gareth W; Nordén, Jenni; Ovaskainen, Otso; Perini, Claudia; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Halme, Panu

    2015-02-01

    Hitherto fungi have rarely been considered in conservation biology, but this is changing as the field moves from addressing single species issues to an integrative ecosystem-based approach. The current emphasis on biodiversity as a provider of ecosystem services throws the spotlight on the vast diversity of fungi, their crucial roles in terrestrial ecosystems, and the benefits of considering fungi in concert with animals and plants. We reviewed the role of fungi in ecosystems and composed an overview of the current state of conservation of fungi. There are 5 areas in which fungi can be readily integrated into conservation: as providers of habitats and processes important for other organisms; as indicators of desired or undesired trends in ecosystem functioning; as indicators of habitats of conservation value; as providers of powerful links between human societies and the natural world because of their value as food, medicine, and biotechnological tools; and as sources of novel tools and approaches for conservation of megadiverse organism groups. We hope conservation professionals will value the potential of fungi, engage mycologists in their work, and appreciate the crucial role of fungi in nature. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Conservation Documentation and the Implications of Digitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation documentation can be defined as the textual and visual records collected during the care and treatment of an object. It can include records of the object's condition, any treatment done to the object, any observations or conclusions made by the conservator as well as details on the object's past and present environment. The form of documentation is not universally agreed upon nor has it always been considered an important aspect of the conservation profession. Good documentation tells the complete story of an object thus far and should provide as much information as possible for the future researcher, curator, or conservator. The conservation profession will benefit from digitising its documentation using software such as databases and hardware like digital cameras and scanners. Digital technology will make conservation documentation more easily accessible, cost/time efficient, and will increase consistency and accuracy of the recorded data, and reduce physical storage space requirements. The major drawback to digitising conservation records is maintaining access to the information for the future; the notorious pace of technological change has serious implications for retrieving data from any machine- readable medium.

  2. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  3. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  4. Benefits of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Preventing Illness Benefits of Coffee Print Email Benefits of Coffee Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, RDN, ... your daily cup (or three) provides some health benefits as well. Drinking moderate amounts of coffee (including ...

  5. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING You may enjoy the following when ... about $2,000 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  6. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  7. POLITENESS MAXIM OF MAIN CHARACTER IN SECRET FORGIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maxim of Politeness is an interesting subject to be discussed, since politeness has been criticized from our childhood. We are obliques to be polite to anyone either in speaking or in acting. Somehow we are manage to show politeness in our spoken expression though our intention might be not so polite. For example we must appriciate others opinion although we feel objection toward the opinion. In this article the analysis of politeness is based on maxim proposes by Leech. He proposed six types of politeness maxim. The discussion shows that the main character (Kristen and Kami use all types of maxim in their conversation. The most commonly used are approbation maxim and agreement maxim

  8. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  9. Consequences of Not Conserving Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.; Crawford, L.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of fresh water is not only local, but also global. In certain parts of the world, much needed rain is becoming less frequent, possibly due to the effects of global warming. The resources of clean fresh water on earth are very limited and are reducing every year due to pollution like industrial waste, oil spills, untreated sewage, inefficient irrigation systems, waste and leakage, etc. This is destroying the ecosystem of the entire planet. Of course, in some parts of world there is rain almost throughout the year. Regardless, major problems are still prevalent because of a variety of reasons such as drainage, storage, evaporation, cleanliness, etc. It is all too well known that evapotranspiration contributes to a significant water loss from drainage basins. Most of the citizens of this world are still careless about water usage and are unappreciative of the need for water conservation. This is a very unpleasant fact and needs to change. Cost expenditures for the development of infrastructure to supply water to households and industries are becoming prohibitively expensive. Many parts in this world have extremely dry terrain and rainfall is not as frequent as it should be. As a result, the underground water tables are not replenished properly, thereby turning regions to arid land and deserts. Unless effective irrigation methods are used, potential evapotranspiration may be actually greater than precipitation provided by nature. The soil therefore dries out creating an arid landmass. The earth and its inhabitants can sustain only if creative methods of clean water conservation ideas are effectively implemented. (Co-author: Dr. Mysore Narayanan) References: http://www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/water/http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=conservationhttp://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sandiego.gov/water/conservation/http://www.swcs.org/http://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/water-knowledge/water-conservation.aspxhttp://www.benefits-of-recycling.com/waterconservationmethods/

  10. Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...

  11. Natural maximal νμ-ντ mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    1999-01-01

    The naturalness of maximal mixing between myon- and tau-neutrinos is investigated. A spontaneously broken nonabelian generation symmetry can explain a small parameter which governs the deviation from maximal mixing. In many cases all three neutrino masses are almost degenerate. Maximal ν μ -ν τ -mixing suggests that the leading contribution to the light neutrino masses arises from the expectation value of a heavy weak triplet rather than from the seesaw mechanism. In this scenario the deviation from maximal mixing is predicted to be less than about 1%. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. On the way towards a generalized entropy maximization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagci, G. Baris; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generalized entropy maximization procedure, which takes into account the generalized averaging procedures and information gain definitions underlying the generalized entropies. This novel generalized procedure is then applied to Renyi and Tsallis entropies. The generalized entropy maximization procedure for Renyi entropies results in the exponential stationary distribution asymptotically for q element of (0,1] in contrast to the stationary distribution of the inverse power law obtained through the ordinary entropy maximization procedure. Another result of the generalized entropy maximization procedure is that one can naturally obtain all the possible stationary distributions associated with the Tsallis entropies by employing either ordinary or q-generalized Fourier transforms in the averaging procedure.

  13. Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin

    2006-01-01

    We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information

  14. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  15. A conceptual framework for the emerging discipline of conservation physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coristine, Laura E.; Robillard, Cassandra M.; Kerr, Jeremy T.; O'Connor, Constance M.; Lapointe, Dominique; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Current rates of biodiversity decline are unprecedented and largely attributed to anthropogenic influences. Given the scope and magnitude of conservation issues, policy and management interventions must maximize efficiency and efficacy. The relatively new field of conservation physiology reveals the physiological mechanisms associated with population declines, animal–environment relationships and population or species tolerance thresholds, particularly where these relate to anthropogenic factors that necessitate conservation action. We propose a framework that demonstrates an integrative approach between physiology, conservation and policy, where each can inform the design, conduct and implementation of the other. Each junction of the conservation physiology process has the capacity to foster dialogue that contributes to effective implementation, monitoring, assessment and evaluation. This approach enables effective evaluation and implementation of evidence-based conservation policy and management decisions through a process of ongoing refinement, but may require that scientists (from the disciplines of both physiology and conservation) and policy-makers bridge interdisciplinary knowledge gaps. Here, we outline a conceptual framework that can guide and lead developments in conservation physiology, as well as promote innovative research that fosters conservation-motivated policy. PMID:27293654

  16. Coping With Constraints: Achieving Effective Conservation With Limited Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Walls

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation resources have become increasingly limited and, along with social, cultural and political complexities, this shortfall frequently challenges effectiveness in conservation. Because conservation can be costly, efforts are often only initiated after a species has declined below a critical threshold and/or when statutory protection is mandated. However, implementing conservation proactively, rather than reactively, is predicted to be less costly and to decrease a species' risk of extinction. Despite these benefits, I document that the number of studies that have implemented proactive conservation around the world are far fewer than those that simply acknowledge the need for such action. I provide examples of proactive actions that can ameliorate shortfalls in funding and other assets, thus helping conservation practitioners and managers cope with the constraints that resource limitation imposes. Not all of these options are new; however, the timing of their implementation is critical for effective conservation, and the need for more proactive conservation is increasingly recognized. These actions are (1 strengthening and diversifying stakeholder involvement in conservation projects; (2 complementing time-consuming and labor-intensive demographic studies with alternative approaches of detecting declines and estimating extinction risk; and (3 minimizing future costly conservation and management by proactively keeping common species common. These approaches may not constitute a cure-all for every conservation crisis. However, given escalating rates of species' losses, perhaps a reminder that these proactive actions can reduce conservation costs, save time, and potentially thwart population declines is warranted.

  17. Coping with constraints: Achieving effective conservation with limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Conservation resources have become increasingly limited and, along with social, cultural and political complexities, this shortfall frequently challenges effectiveness in conservation. Because conservation can be costly, efforts are often only initiated after a species has declined below a critical threshold and/or when statutory protection is mandated. However, implementing conservation proactively, rather than reactively, is predicted to be less costly and to decrease a species' risk of extinction. Despite these benefits, I document that the number of studies that have implemented proactive conservation around the world are far fewer than those that simply acknowledge the need for such action. I provide examples of proactive actions that can ameliorate shortfalls in funding and other assets, thus helping conservation practitioners and managers cope with the constraints that resource limitation imposes. Not all of these options are new; however, the timing of their implementation is critical for effective conservation, and the need for more proactive conservation is increasingly recognized. These actions are (1) strengthening and diversifying stakeholder involvement in conservation projects; (2) complementing time-consuming and labor-intensive demographic studies with alternative approaches of detecting declines and estimating extinction risk; and (3) minimizing future costly conservation and management by proactively keeping common species common. These approaches may not constitute a cure-all for every conservation crisis. However, given escalating rates of species' losses, perhaps a reminder that these proactive actions can reduce conservation costs, save time, and potentially thwart population declines is warranted.

  18. Integrated conservation planning for coral reefs: Designing conservation zones for multiple conservation objectives in spatial prioritisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers focus on representing biodiversity pattern, maintaining connectivity, and strengthening resilience to global warming when designing marine protected area (MPA systems, especially in coral reef ecosystems. The achievement of these broad conservation objectives will likely require large areas, and stretch limited funds for MPA implementation. We undertook a spatial prioritisation of Brazilian coral reefs that considered two types of conservation zones (i.e. no-take and multiple use areas and integrated multiple conservation objectives into MPA planning, while assessing the potential impact of different sets of objectives on implementation costs. We devised objectives for biodiversity, connectivity, and resilience to global warming, determined the extent to which existing MPAs achieved them, and designed complementary zoning to achieve all objectives combined in expanded MPA systems. In doing so, we explored interactions between different sets of objectives, determined whether refinements to the existing spatial arrangement of MPAs were necessary, and tested the utility of existing MPAs by comparing their cost effectiveness with an MPA system designed from scratch. We found that MPAs in Brazil protect some aspects of coral reef biodiversity pattern (e.g. threatened fauna and ecosystem types more effectively than connectivity or resilience to global warming. Expanding the existing MPA system was as cost-effective as designing one from scratch only when multiple objectives were considered and management costs were accounted for. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of integrating multiple objectives in the initial stages of conservation planning, and yields insights for planners of MPAs tackling multiple objectives in other regions.

  19. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  1. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  2. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  3. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  4. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  6. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  7. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  8. Turning scientific approaches into practical conservation actions: the case of Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, A; Bocco, G; Torres, A

    2001-05-01

    Optimum natural resource management and biodiversity conservation are desirable goals. These, however, often exclude each other, since maximum economic benefits have promoted drastic reductions in biodiversity throughout the world. This dilemma confronts local stakeholders, who usually go for maximizing economic inputs, whereas other social (e.g., academic) sectors are favor conservation practices. In this paper we describe the way two scientific approaches--landscape and participatory research--were used to develop sound and durable land use scenarios. These two approaches included expert knowledge of both social and environmental conditions in indigenous communities. Our major emphasis was given to detect spatially explicit land use scenarios and capacity building in order to construct a decision support system operated by stakeholders of the Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro in Mexico. The system for decision-making was fed with data from inventories of both abiotic and biotic biodiversity components. All research, implementation, and monitoring activities were conducted in close collaboration with members of the indigenous community. As a major result we obtained a number of forest alternative uses that favor emerging markets and make this indigenous community less dependent on a single market. Furthermore, skilled members of the community are now running the automated system for decision-making. In conclusion, our results were better expressed as products with direct benefits in local livelihoods rather than pure academic outputs.

  9. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic effect of Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuansheng; Cheng, Delin; Wang, Linbo; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yuepeng; Li, Kejuan; Yang, Yingnan; Zhang, Zhenya

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract from Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root (AKE).An in vitro evaluation was performed by using rat intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase), the key enzymes linked with type 2 diabetes. And an in vivo evaluation was also performed by loading maltose, sucrose, glucose to normal rats. As a result, AKE showed concentration-dependent inhibition effects on rat intestinal maltase and rat intestinal sucrase with IC(50) values of 1.83 and 1.03mg/mL, respectively. In normal rats, after loaded with maltose, sucrose and glucose, administration of AKE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia, which is similar to acarbose used as an anti-diabetic drug. High contents of total phenolics (80.49 ± 0.05mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoids (430.69 ± 0.91mg RE/g extract) were detected in AKE. In conclusion, AKE possessed anti-hyperglycemic effects and the possible mechanisms were associated with its inhibition on α-glucosidase and the improvement on insulin release and/or insulin sensitivity as well. The anti-hyperglycemic activity possessed by AKE maybe attributable to its high contents of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  10. Antibiotic effectiveness: balancing conservation against innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2014-09-12

    Antibiotic effectiveness is a natural societal resource that is diminished by antibiotic use. As with other such assets, keeping it available requires both conservation and innovation. Conservation encompasses making the best use of current antibiotic effectiveness by reducing demand through vaccination, infection control, diagnostics, public education, incentives for clinicians to prescribe fewer antibiotics, and restrictions on access to newer, last-resort antibiotics. Innovation includes improving the efficacy of current drugs and replenishing effectiveness by developing new drugs. In this paper, I assess the relative benefits and costs of these two approaches to maintaining our ability to treat infections. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Waterfowl populations of conservation concern: learning from diverse challenges, models, and conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Slattery, Stuart; Clark, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    There are 30 threatened or endangered species of waterfowl worldwide, and several sub-populations are also threatened. Some of these species occur in North America, and others there are also of conservation concern due to declining population trends and their importance to hunters. Here we review conservation initiatives being undertaken for several of these latter species, along with conservation measures in place in Europe, to seek common themes and approaches that could be useful in developing broad conservation guidelines. While focal species may vary in their life histories, population threats and geopolitical context, most conservation efforts have used a systematic approach to understand factors limiting populations and o identify possible management or policy actions. This approach generally includes a priori identification of plausible hypotheses about population declines or status, incorporation of hypotheses into conceptual or quantitative planning models, and the use of some form of structured decision making and adaptive management to develop and implement conservation actions in the face of many uncertainties. A climate of collaboration among jurisdictions sharing these birds is important to the success of a conservation or management programme. The structured conservation approach exemplified herein provides an opportunity to involve stakeholders at all planning stages, allows for all views to be examined and incorporated into model structures, and yields a format for improved communication, cooperation and learning, which may ultimately be one of the greatest benefits of this strategy.

  12. Economic evaluation of investment in electricity conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Nir; Fishman, Yaron; Lavee, Doron

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an economic study of the potential for energy conservation in Israel. We analyze energy conservation policies targeted at the household sector, focusing on the economic feasibility of scrapping old household electrical appliances, and considering the effect of such policies at both the household and the macro-economic level. The results of our analysis show that the appliance that provides the most potential conservation is the air conditioner (used for both heating and cooling). A scrapping program for old air conditioners passes a cost benefit analysis (CBA) even when external benefits are excluded from the calculation. When external benefits are included, scrapping programs for both washing machines and dishwashers pass the test as well. According to our findings, the annual economic benefit of a program involving the scrapping of 100,000 air conditioners, 45,000 washing machines and 15,000 dishwashers per annum over 10 years ranges from 246 million New Israeli Shekels (NIS) in the first year of implementation to 693 million in the tenth year. Most of the savings are derived from the scrapping of air conditioners

  13. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  15. Alternative approaches to maximally supersymmetric field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broedel, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The central objective of this work is the exploration and application of alternative possibilities to describe maximally supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions: N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and N=8 supergravity. While twistor string theory has been proven very useful in the context of N=4 SYM, no analogous formulation for N=8 supergravity is available. In addition to the part describing N=4 SYM theory, twistor string theory contains vertex operators corresponding to the states of N=4 conformal supergravity. Those vertex operators have to be altered in order to describe (non-conformal) Einstein supergravity. A modified version of the known open twistor string theory, including a term which breaks the conformal symmetry for the gravitational vertex operators, has been proposed recently. In a first part of the thesis structural aspects and consistency of the modified theory are discussed. Unfortunately, the majority of amplitudes can not be constructed, which can be traced back to the fact that the dimension of the moduli space of algebraic curves in twistor space is reduced in an inconsistent manner. The issue of a possible finiteness of N=8 supergravity is closely related to the question of the existence of valid counterterms in the perturbation expansion of the theory. In particular, the coefficient in front of the so-called R 4 counterterm candidate has been shown to vanish by explicit calculation. This behavior points into the direction of a symmetry not taken into account, for which the hidden on-shell E 7(7) symmetry is the prime candidate. The validity of the so-called double-soft scalar limit relation is a necessary condition for a theory exhibiting E 7(7) symmetry. By calculating the double-soft scalar limit for amplitudes derived from an N=8 supergravity action modified by an additional R 4 counterterm, one can test for possible constraints originating in the E 7(7) symmetry. In a second part of the thesis, the appropriate amplitudes are calculated

  16. The benefits of integrating cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, K.; Clarke-Whistler, K.

    1995-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that knowledge of risks in the absence of benefits and costs cannot dictate appropriate public policy choices. Recent evidence of this recognition includes the proposed EPA Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis Act of 1995, a number of legislative changes in Canada and the US, and the increasing demand for field studies combining measures of impacts, risks, costs and benefits. Failure to consider relative environmental and human health risks, benefits, and costs in making public policy decisions has resulted in allocating scarce resources away from areas offering the highest levels of risk reduction and improvements in health and safety. The authors discuss the implications of not taking costs and benefits into account in addressing environmental risks, drawing on examples from both Canada and the US. The authors also present the results of their recent field work demonstrating the advantages of considering costs and benefits in making public policy and site remediation decisions, including a study on the benefits and costs of prevention, remediation and monitoring techniques applied to groundwater contamination; the benefits and costs of banning the use of chlorine; and the benefits and costs of Canada's concept of disposing of high-level nuclear waste. The authors conclude that a properly conducted Cost-Benefit Analysis can provide critical input to a Risk Assessment and can ensure that risk management decisions are efficient, cost-effective and maximize improvement to environmental and human health

  17. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Effect of land tenure and stakeholders attitudes on optimization of conservation practices in agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemonti, A. D.; Babbar-Sebens, M.; Luzar, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Modeled watershed management plans have become valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of conservation practices on hydrologic processes in watersheds. In multi-objective optimization approaches, several studies have focused on maximizing physical, ecological, or economic benefits of practices in a specific location, without considering the relationship between social systems and social attitudes on the overall optimality of the practice at that location. For example, objectives that have been commonly used in spatial optimization of practices are economic costs, sediment loads, nutrient loads and pesticide loads. Though the benefits derived from these objectives are generally oriented towards community preferences, they do not represent attitudes of landowners who might operate their land differently than their neighbors (e.g. farm their own land or rent the land to someone else) and might have different social/personal drivers that motivate them to adopt the practices. In addition, a distribution of such landowners could exist in the watershed, leading to spatially varying preferences to practices. In this study we evaluated the effect of three different land tenure types on the spatial-optimization of conservation practices. To perform the optimization, we used a uniform distribution of land tenure type and a spatially varying distribution of land tenure type. Our results show that for a typical Midwestern agricultural watershed, the most optimal solutions (i.e. highest benefits for minimum economic costs) found were for a uniform distribution of landowners who operate their own land. When a different land-tenure was used for the watershed, the optimized alternatives did not change significantly for nitrates reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but were attained at economic costs much higher than the costs of the landowner who farms her/his own land. For example, landowners who rent to cash-renters would have to spend ~120

  19. 26 CFR 1.170A-14 - Qualified conservation contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for boating or fishing, or a nature or hiking trail for the use of the public. (ii) Access. The... Federal, state, or local governmental conservation policy and will yield a significant public benefit, or (B) For the scenic enjoyment of the general public and will yield a significant public benefit. An...

  20. Local socio-economic effects of protected area conservation: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some villagers have benefited from pilot development projects organized by financial and environmental organizations. Other local people benefited from other livelihood activities related to the conservation management of the forest. Most participants were aware of the ecosystem services of the forests (94.3%) and the ...

  1. Kinetic theory in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanishing directional derivative of a scalar field along particle trajectories in maximal acceleration invariant phase space is identical in form to the ordinary covariant Vlasov equation in curved spacetime in the presence of both gravitational and nongravitational forces. A natural foundation is thereby provided for a covariant kinetic theory of particles in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space. (orig.)

  2. IIB solutions with N>28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2007-01-01

    We show that all IIB supergravity backgrounds which admit more than 28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric. In particular, we find that for all N>28 backgrounds the supercovariant curvature vanishes, and that the quotients of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds either preserve all 32 or N<29 supersymmetries

  3. Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L

    2011-01-01

    Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial respira...

  4. Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

  5. Mass and momentum conservation for fluid simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lentine, Michael; Aanjaneya, Mridul; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Momentum conservation has long been used as a design principle for solid simulation (e.g. collisions between rigid bodies, mass-spring elastic and damping forces, etc.), yet it has not been widely used for fluid simulation. In fact, semi-Lagrangian advection does not conserve momentum, but is still regularly used as a bread and butter method for fluid simulation. In this paper, we propose a modification to the semi-Lagrangian method in order to make it fully conserve momentum. While methods of this type have been proposed earlier in the computational physics literature, they are not necessarily appropriate for coarse grids, large time steps or inviscid flows, all of which are common in graphics applications. In addition, we show that the commonly used vorticity confinement turbulence model can be modified to exactly conserve momentum as well. We provide a number of examples that illustrate the benefits of this new approach, both in conserving fluid momentum and passively advected scalars such as smoke density. In particular, we show that our new method is amenable to efficient smoke simulation with one time step per frame, whereas the traditional non-conservative semi-Lagrangian method experiences serious artifacts when run with these large time steps, especially when object interaction is considered. Copyright © 2011 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  6. Prospects and challenges for social media data in conservation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eDi Minin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media data have been extensively used in numerous fields of science, but examples of their use in conservation science are still very limited. In this paper, we propose a framework on how social media data could be useful for conservation science and practice. We present the commonly used social media platforms and discuss how their content could be providing new data and information for conservation science. Based on this, we discuss how future work in conservation science and practice would benefit from social media data.

  7. PEM-PCA: A Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA Face Recognition Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokmon Rujirakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages’ complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA.

  8. PEM-PCA: a parallel expectation-maximization PCA face recognition architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Kanokmon; So-In, Chakchai; Arnonkijpanich, Banchar

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages' complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA.

  9. The Optimization of Capital Structure in Maximizing Profit and Corporate Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharisya Ayu Effendi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal capital structure which could maximize profits and corporate value. The benefits of this research were companies knew clearly that optimal capital structure could maximize profits and corporate value. The method used was quantitative descriptive analysis. Moreover, the data used was secondary data in the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII from 2011 to 2015. The results of this research are companies which have optimal capital structure are in line with the trade-off theory models. The capital structure is optimal if the debt levels are to a certain extent so that the corporate value will increase . However, if the debt limit passes the certain degree, profit and corporate value will decrease. Meanwhile, pecking order theory in this research does not conform and cannot be said to be optimal, because of the low debt level describing the opposite result with the theory as low profits.

  10. Cost-effective conservation planning: lessons from economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Joshua M; Dundas, Steven J; Messer, Kent D

    2013-08-15

    Economists advocate that the billions of public dollars spent on conservation be allocated to achieve the largest possible social benefit. This is "cost-effective conservation"-a process that incorporates both monetized benefits and costs. Though controversial, cost-effective conservation is poorly understood and rarely implemented by planners. Drawing from the largest publicly financed conservation programs in the United States, this paper seeks to improve the communication from economists to planners and to overcome resistance to cost-effective conservation. Fifteen practical lessons are distilled, including the negative implications of limiting selection with political constraints, using nonmonetized benefit measures or benefit indices, ignoring development risk, using incomplete cost measures, employing cost measures sequentially, and using benefit indices to capture costs. The paper highlights interrelationships between benefits and complications such as capitalization and intertemporal planning. The paper concludes by identifying the challenges at the research frontier, including incentive problems associated with adverse selection, additionality, and slippage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investment decisions with benefits of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper studies how large shareholders with benefits of control affect firms' equity issue behavior and investment decisions. I introduce an explicit agency cost structure based on the large shareholder's benefits of control. In a simple extension of Myers and Majluf [1984], I show that underi......This paper studies how large shareholders with benefits of control affect firms' equity issue behavior and investment decisions. I introduce an explicit agency cost structure based on the large shareholder's benefits of control. In a simple extension of Myers and Majluf [1984], I show...... that underinvestment is aggravated when there are benefits of being in control, and these benefits are diluted if equity is issued to finance the investment project. I assume that large shareholders are constrained from further investments in their firms, and that they maximize their own wealth, which includes...... as a representation of the large shareholders' expected private benefits. Using a large panel of U.S. data, I find that large shareholders' concern with dilution of ownership and control cause firms to issue less equity and to invest less. I also find that it has no significant effect whether new shares are issued...

  12. 50 CFR 401.20 - Officials not to benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Officials not to benefit. 401.20 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A ANADROMOUS FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.20 Officials not to benefit. No Member of, or...

  13. The domestic benefits of tropical forests: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, K M; Kumari, K

    1998-02-01

    This review focuses on forests in the humid tropics and on two of their potentially most important benefits. These include hydrological benefits, such as erosion control and regulation of stream flows, and non-timber forest products, such as rubber, rattan, fruits, and nuts. The first benefit is motivational. Host countries capture only a small proportion of the global benefits, which stem from biodiversity conservation. Demonstration of palpable local benefits could help to build support for biodiversity-oriented projects. The second benefit is the magnitude of domestic benefits that could influence project financing. Sufficiently large net domestic benefits could justify financing of a project on narrow economic grounds, with biodiversity conservation as a by-product. Overall, it is noted that the quantifiable benefits of forest preservation in providing hydrological services and non-timber forest products are highly variable. These classes of domestic benefits may in general be smaller than popularly supposed. In view of this, the need for financing conservation from the Global Environmental Facility or other global sources is emphasized rather than placing the burden on domestic resources.

  14. The value of virtual conferencing for ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Hannah; Soanes, Kylie; Jones, Stuart A; Jones, Chris S; Malishev, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of conservation science and dissemination of its research create a paradox: Conservation is about preserving the environment, yet scientists spread this message at conferences with heavy carbon footprints. Ecology and conservation science depend on global knowledge exchange-getting the best science to the places it is most needed. However, conference attendance from developed countries typically outweighs that from developing countries that are biodiversity and conservation hotspots. If any branch of science should be trying to maximize participation while minimizing carbon emissions, it is conservation. Virtual conferencing is common in other disciplines, such as education and humanities, but it is surprisingly underused in ecology and conservation. Adopting virtual conferencing entails a number of challenges, including logistics and unified acceptance, which we argue can be overcome through planning and technology. We examined 4 conference models: a pure-virtual model and 3 hybrid hub-and-node models, where hubs stream content to local nodes. These models collectively aim to mitigate the logistical and administrative challenges of global knowledge transfer. Embracing virtual conferencing addresses 2 essential prerequisites of modern conferences: lowering carbon emissions and increasing accessibility for remote, time- and resource-poor researchers, particularly those from developing countries. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. THE SOCIALIZING OF WATER CONSERVATION THROUGH COUNSELING AND BIOPORI HOLE MAKING (LBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    puti renosori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The high population density in the devotion location, causing groundwater getting a much needed, but its condition now is dwindling due to lack of land infiltration. It is caused by the high of land conversion therefore the land becomes water resistant. Many residents who buy clean water during the dry season but when in the rainy season many puddles in the yard and the street due to the capacity of the drainage is not enough anymore. Furthermore, the rainwater runoff in the area contributed to the flooding in the Rancaekek and Jatinangor area. To resolve this issue is done counseling in order to change the rainwater management paradigm that only distributes as soon as possible to maximize their absorption into the drainage channel in a way to invite people to make LRB. LRB  chosen because it is one of the appropriate technology that is easy to do, relatively cheap, environmentally friendly and is an effective way to conserve underground water can overcome the water crisis, and contribute significantly to reducing flood donations. Residents with making LRB have benefits to eliminate the puddles in the yard and the street, and further can be groundwater reserves. Because the LRB can be filled with organic waste, which can be turned into compost, then the other benefits are be able to improve the processing of organic waste into compost.

  16. What's it worth to you? Estimating the public's willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    Conserving biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range requires tradeoffs. Policymakers must consider both the costs and benefits of new conservation programs. During this appraisal process, the costs, in terms of economic activity forgone, are often easier to quantify than the benefits. We all know that biodiversity is valuable, but how does its value compare to other...

  17. Concentrating or scattering management in agricultural landscapes : Examining the effectiveness and efficiency of conservation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Muskens, Gerard; Van Kats, Ruud J. M.; Teunissen, Wolf A.; Kleijn, David

    A key issue in conservation is where and how much management should be implemented to obtain optimal biodiversity benefits. Cost-effective conservation requires knowledge on whether biodiversity benefits are higher when management is concentrated in a few core areas or scattered across the

  18. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  19. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  20. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  1. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  2. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  4. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  5. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  6. Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajjad rahmatian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.

  7. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  8. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  9. Sex-specific associative learning cues and inclusive fitness benefits in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Komdeur, J

    In cooperative, breeding vertebrates, indirect fitness benefits would be maximized by subordinates that accurately assess their relatedness to group offspring and preferentially help more closely related kin. In the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we found a positive relationship

  10. Towards a more conservative energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, N.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is treated under the following headings: the meaning of energy policy; previous attempts to formulate United Kingdom energy policy; patterns of energy supply and demand (in the UK) (current and future); towards a more conservative energy policy (the use of energy in the various sectors, the conversion and distribution of energy (coal, nuclear power, electricity, oil and gas, renewable sources)); energy policy in broader perspective (international context, cost benefit assessments, contrasting patterns of energy use, ethical issues). (U.K.)

  11. Annotated directory of energy conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    Summaries of 34 consumer energy conservation programs in Canada and the USA are listed. Areas of focus are: (1) home heating and cooling; (2) household appliances; (3) private transportation; and (4) community involvement. Each summary contains information on the program objectives, operating details, results to date, costs and benefits, and source of funding. The key contact person is identified and background literature references are given. ((MJJ)

  12. Conservation Action Planning: Lessons learned from the St. Marys River watershed biodiversity conservation planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tamatha A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Conservation Action Planning (CAP) is an adaptive management planning process refined by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and embraced worldwide as the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. The CAP process facilitates open, multi-institutional collaboration on a common conservation agenda through organized actions and quantified results. While specifically designed for conservation efforts, the framework is adaptable and flexible to multiple scales and can be used for any collaborative planning effort. The CAP framework addresses inception; design and development of goals, measures, and strategies; and plan implementation and evaluation. The specific components of the CAP include defining the project scope and conservation targets; assessing the ecological viability; ascertaining threats and surrounding situation; identifying opportunities and designing strategies for action; and implementing actions and monitoring results. In 2007, TNC and a multidisciplinary graduate student team from the University of Michigan's School of Natural Resources and Environment initiated a CAP for the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, and its local watershed. The students not only gained experience in conservation planning, but also learned lessons that notably benefited the CAP process and were valuable for any successful collaborative effort—a dedicated core team improved product quality, accelerated the timeline, and provided necessary support for ongoing efforts; an academic approach in preparation for engagement in the planning process brought applicable scientific research to the forefront, enhanced workshop facilitation, and improved stakeholder participation; and early and continuous interactions with regional stakeholders improved cooperation and built a supportive network for collaboration.

  13. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  14. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice care How ...

  15. Gravitational collapse of charged dust shell and maximal slicing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    1980-01-01

    The maximal slicing condition is a good time coordinate condition qualitatively when pursuing the gravitational collapse by the numerical calculation. The analytic solution of the gravitational collapse under the maximal slicing condition is given in the case of a spherical charged dust shell and the behavior of time slices with this coordinate condition is investigated. It is concluded that under the maximal slicing condition we can pursue the gravitational collapse until the radius of the shell decreases to about 0.7 x (the radius of the event horizon). (author)

  16. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  17. Breakdown of maximality conjecture in continuous phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukamel, D.; Jaric, M.V.

    1983-04-01

    A Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model associated with a single irreducible representation which exhibits an ordered phase whose symmetry group is not a maximal isotropy subgroup of the symmetry group of the disordered phase is constructed. This example disproves the maximality conjecture suggested in numerous previous studies. Below the (continuous) transition, the order parameter points along a direction which varies with the temperature and with the other parameters which define the model. An extension of the maximality conjecture to reducible representations was postulated in the context of Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. Our model can also be extended to provide a counter example in these cases. (author)

  18. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  19. Commercialization of biomass energy projects: Outline for maximizing use of valuable tax credits and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Government offers a number of incentives designed specifically to promote biomass energy. These incentives include various tax credits, deductions and exemptions, as well as direct subsidy payments and grants. Additionally, equipment manufacturers and project developers may find several other tax provisions useful, including tax incentives for exporting U.S. good and engineering services, as well as incentives for the development of new technologies. This paper outlines the available incentives, and also addresses ways to coordinate the use of tax breaks with government grants and tax-free bond financing in order to maximize benefits for biomass energy projects

  20. Analysis of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kováříková, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with employee benefits in the current labour market, especially from the perspective of young employees. The first part is focused on the theory of motivation and employee benefits also with their tax impact on employee's income. Employee benefits in the current labour market, employee's satisfaction and employer's attitude to this issue are analyzed in the second part of this thesis.

  1. Success stories and emerging themes in conservation physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madliger, Christine L.; Cooke, Steven J.; Crespi, Erica J.; Funk, Jennifer L.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Hunt, Kathleen E.; Rohr, Jason R.; Sinclair, Brent J.; Suski, Cory D.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause–effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of ‘conservation physiology’, to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess whether physiological approaches contribute to downstream conservation outcomes and management decisions. Here, we present eight areas of conservation concern, ranging from chemical contamination to invasive species to ecotourism, where physiological approaches have led to beneficial changes in human behaviour, management or policy. We also discuss the shared characteristics of these successes, identifying emerging themes in the discipline. Specifically, we conclude that conservation physiology: (i) goes beyond documenting change to provide solutions; (ii) offers a diversity of physiological metrics beyond glucocorticoids (stress hormones); (iii) includes approaches that are transferable among species, locations and times; (iv) simultaneously allows for human use and benefits to wildlife; and (v) is characterized by successes that can be difficult to find in the primary literature. Overall, we submit that the field of conservation physiology has a strong foundation of achievements characterized by a diversity of conservation issues, taxa, physiological traits, ecosystem types and spatial scales. We hope that these concrete successes will encourage the continued evolution and use of physiological tools within conservation-based research and

  2. Success stories and emerging themes in conservation physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madliger, Christine L; Cooke, Steven J; Crespi, Erica J; Funk, Jennifer L; Hultine, Kevin R; Hunt, Kathleen E; Rohr, Jason R; Sinclair, Brent J; Suski, Cory D; Willis, Craig K R; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause-effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of 'conservation physiology', to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess whether physiological approaches contribute to downstream conservation outcomes and management decisions. Here, we present eight areas of conservation concern, ranging from chemical contamination to invasive species to ecotourism, where physiological approaches have led to beneficial changes in human behaviour, management or policy. We also discuss the shared characteristics of these successes, identifying emerging themes in the discipline. Specifically, we conclude that conservation physiology: (i) goes beyond documenting change to provide solutions; (ii) offers a diversity of physiological metrics beyond glucocorticoids (stress hormones); (iii) includes approaches that are transferable among species, locations and times; (iv) simultaneously allows for human use and benefits to wildlife; and (v) is characterized by successes that can be difficult to find in the primary literature. Overall, we submit that the field of conservation physiology has a strong foundation of achievements characterized by a diversity of conservation issues, taxa, physiological traits, ecosystem types and spatial scales. We hope that these concrete successes will encourage the continued evolution and use of physiological tools within conservation-based research and management

  3. Experimental tests of coherence and entanglement conservation under unitary evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černoch, Antonín; Bartkiewicz, Karol; Lemr, Karel; Soubusta, Jan

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the migration of coherence between composite quantum systems and their subsystems. The quantum systems are implemented using polarization states of photons in two experimental setups. The first setup is based on a linear optical controlled-phase quantum gate and the second scheme utilizes effects of nonlinear optics. Our experiment allows one to verify the relation between correlations of the subsystems and the coherence of the composite system, which was given in terms of a conservation law for maximal accessible coherence by Svozilík et al. [J. Svozilík et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 220501 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.220501]. We observe that the maximal accessible coherence is conserved for the implemented class of global evolutions of the composite system.

  4. Benefits of a formal waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    The proper management of waste is of vital importance in the conservation of our environment. Mound Laboratory, which is operated by Monsanto Research Corporation for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, has embarked upon a waste management program designed to assure that the generation, processing, storage, and disposal of waste is conducted in such a manner as to have a minimum impact on the environment. The organizational approach taken toward waste management is discussed and some of the benefits of the waste management program at Mound Laboratory are described. Ithas been shown that the utilization of proper waste management techniques can have economic, as well as environmental protection, benefits. (U.S.)

  5. Reference Values for Maximal Inspiratory Pressure: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MB Sclauser Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP is the most commonly used measure to evaluate inspiratory muscle strength. Normative values for MIP vary significantly among studies, which may reflect differences in participant demographics and technique of MIP measurement.

  6. Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.

  7. Maximizing Your Investment in Building Automation System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how organizational issues and system standardization can be important factors that determine an institution's ability to fully exploit contemporary building automation systems (BAS). Further presented is management strategy for maximizing BAS investments. (GR)

  8. Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S

    1996-01-01

    subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...... for all three clamp steps used (P maximal activity of glycogen synthase was identical in the two thighs for all clamp steps. 3. The glucose infusion rate (GIR......) necessary to maintain euglycaemia during maximal insulin stimulation was lower during PEC compared with CC (15.7%, 81.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 96.4 +/- 8.8 mumol kg-1 min-1, P maximal...

  9. Maximal slicing of D-dimensional spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Hirotaka; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We study the foliation of a D-dimensional spherically symmetric black-hole spacetime with D≥5 by two kinds of one-parameter families of maximal hypersurfaces: a reflection-symmetric foliation with respect to the wormhole slot and a stationary foliation that has an infinitely long trumpetlike shape. As in the four-dimensional case, the foliations by the maximal hypersurfaces avoid the singularity irrespective of the dimensionality. This indicates that the maximal slicing condition will be useful for simulating higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes in numerical relativity. For the case of D=5, we present analytic solutions of the intrinsic metric, the extrinsic curvature, the lapse function, and the shift vector for the foliation by the stationary maximal hypersurfaces. These data will be useful for checking five-dimensional numerical-relativity codes based on the moving puncture approach.

  10. ICTs and Urban Micro Enterprises : Maximizing Opportunities for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs and Urban Micro Enterprises : Maximizing Opportunities for Economic Development ... the use of ICTs in micro enterprises and their role in reducing poverty. ... in its approach to technological connectivity but bottom-up in relation to.

  11. Real-time topic-aware influence maximization using preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lin, Tian; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Influence maximization is the task of finding a set of seed nodes in a social network such that the influence spread of these seed nodes based on certain influence diffusion model is maximized. Topic-aware influence diffusion models have been recently proposed to address the issue that influence between a pair of users are often topic-dependent and information, ideas, innovations etc. being propagated in networks are typically mixtures of topics. In this paper, we focus on the topic-aware influence maximization task. In particular, we study preprocessing methods to avoid redoing influence maximization for each mixture from scratch. We explore two preprocessing algorithms with theoretical justifications. Our empirical results on data obtained in a couple of existing studies demonstrate that one of our algorithms stands out as a strong candidate providing microsecond online response time and competitive influence spread, with reasonable preprocessing effort.

  12. What are the Benefits of PCSI to Clients?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-07

    This podcast describes how PCSI directly benefits clients by maximizing opportunities to screen, test, treat, or vaccinate those in need of services.  Created: 12/7/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/7/2009.

  13. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-10-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  14. Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressé, Steve

    2014-11-01

    The maximum entropy method—used to infer probabilistic models from data—is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations.

  15. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  16. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  17. Maximally flat radiation patterns of a circular aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1989-08-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problems of maximizing the area utilization coefficient and of obtaining the best approximation (on the average) of a sectorial Pi-shaped radiation pattern of an antenna with a circular aperture when Butterworth conditions are imposed on the approximating pattern with the aim of flattening it. Constraints on the choice of admissible minimum and maximum antenna dimensions are determined which make possible the synthesis of maximally flat patterns with small sidelobes.

  18. Design of optimal linear antennas with maximally flat radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1990-02-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problem of maximizing the aperture area utilization coefficient and obtaining the best approximation in the mean of the sectorial U-shaped radiation pattern of a linear antenna, when Butterworth flattening constraints are imposed on the approximating pattern. Constraints are established on the choice of the smallest and large antenna dimensions that make it possible to obtain maximally flat patterns, having a low sidelobe level and free from pulsations within the main lobe.

  19. No Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect in Maximal Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, P. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Scott, W. G.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the possible influence of the MSW effect on the expectations for the solar neutrino experiments in the maximal mixing scenario suggested by the atmospheric neutrino data. A direct numerical calculation of matter induced effects in the Sun shows that the naive vacuum predictions are left completely undisturbed in the particular case of maximal mixing, so that the MSW effect turns out to be unobservable. We give a qualitative explanation of this result.

  20. A fractional optimal control problem for maximizing advertising efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Bykadorov; Andrea Ellero; Stefania Funari; Elena Moretti

    2007-01-01

    We propose an optimal control problem to model the dynamics of the communication activity of a firm with the aim of maximizing its efficiency. We assume that the advertising effort undertaken by the firm contributes to increase the firm's goodwill and that the goodwill affects the firm's sales. The aim is to find the advertising policies in order to maximize the firm's efficiency index which is computed as the ratio between "outputs" and "inputs" properly weighted; the outputs are represented...

  1. A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2015-02-01

    A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.

  2. On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...

  3. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    OpenAIRE

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the r...

  4. Considering connections between Hollywood and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Matthew J; Crowley, Sarah L; Woodhead, Anna J; Nuno, Ana

    2018-06-01

    Cinema offers a substantial opportunity to share messages with a wide audience. However, there is little research or evidence about the potential benefits and risks of cinema for conservation. Given their global reach, cinematic representations could be important in raising awareness of conservation issues and species of concern, as well as encouraging greater audience engagement due to their heightened emotional impact on viewers. Yet there are also risks associated with increased exposure, including heightened visitor pressure to environmentally sensitive areas or changes to consumer demand for endangered species. Conservationists can better understand and engage with the film industry by studying the impact of movies on audience awareness and behavior, identifying measurable impacts on conservation outcomes, and engaging directly with the movie industry, for example, in an advisory capacity. This improved understanding and engagement can harness the industry's potential to enhance the positive impacts of movies featuring species, sites, and issues of conservation concern and to mitigate any negative effects. A robust evidence base for evaluating and planning these engagements, and for informing related policy and management decisions, needs to be built. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  6. Graduate student's guide to necessary skills for nonacademic conservation careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickley, Jessica L; Deiner, Kristy; Garbach, Kelly; Lacher, Iara; Meek, Mariah H; Porensky, Lauren M; Wilkerson, Marit L; Winford, Eric M; Schwartz, Mark W

    2013-02-01

    Graduate education programs in conservation science generally focus on disciplinary training and discipline-specific research skills. However, nonacademic conservation professionals often require an additional suite of skills. This discrepancy between academic training and professional needs can make it difficult for graduate students to identify the skills and experiences that will best prepare them for the conservation job market. We analyzed job advertisements for conservation-science positions and interviewed conservation professionals with experience hiring early-career conservation scientists to determine what skills employers of conservation professionals seek; whether the relative importance of skills varies by job sector (government, nonprofit, and private); and how graduate students interested in careers in conservation science might signal competency in key skills to potential employers. In job advertisements, disciplinary, interpersonal, and project-management skills were in the top 5 skills mentioned across all job sectors. Employers' needs for additional skills, like program leadership, conflict resolution and negotiation, and technical and information technology skills, varied across sectors. Our interview results demonstrated that some skills are best signaled to employers via experiences obtained outside thesis or dissertation work. Our findings suggest that graduate students who wish to be competitive in the conservation job market can benefit by gaining skills identified as important to the job sector in which they hope to work and should not necessarily expect to be competent in these skills simply by completing their chosen degree path. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees.

  8. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  9. Oil and gas conservation in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereda, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Saskatchewan's Oil and Gas Conservation Act provides legislative authority for the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations, 1985. The main purposes of the Act are to maximize oil and gas recovery, to allow each owner the opportunity of obtaining his share of oil or gas and to protect the environment and prevent waste. The document under review described how this legislative intent is fulfilled through the spacing of wells, the setting of allowables, and approval of waterflood and enhanced recovery projects, while considering equitable drainage of oil and gas. Specific topics dealt with include: vertical well spacing, infill drilling, off-target drilling, horizontal well spacing, and allowables. The concepts of voluntary and statutory pooling as well as voluntary and statutory unitization were explained. Examples of waterflood and enhanced oil recovery projects were provided. The regulation relating to oil and gas conservation were first implemented in 1952 and evolved to their present form through a series of changes and amendments. The most significant changes to the regulations were made in 1991 when horizontal drilling needed to be accommodated. 1 tab

  10. Optimal Operation of Network-Connected Combined Heat and Powers for Customer Profit Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Network-connected combined heat and powers (CHPs, owned by a community, can export surplus heat and electricity to corresponding heat and electric networks after community loads are satisfied. This paper proposes a new optimization model for network-connected CHP operation. Both CHPs’ overall efficiency and heat to electricity ratio (HTER are assumed to vary with loading levels. Based on different energy flow scenarios where heat and electricity are exported to the network from the community or imported, four profit models are established accordingly. They reflect the different relationships between CHP energy supply and community load demand across time. A discrete optimization model is then developed to maximize the profit for the community. The models are derived from the intervals determined by the daily operation modes of CHP and real-time buying and selling prices of heat, electricity and natural gas. By demonstrating the proposed models on a 1 MW network-connected CHP, results show that the community profits are maximized in energy markets. Thus, the proposed optimization approach can help customers to devise optimal CHP operating strategies for maximizing benefits.

  11. Conservation of biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Rachel Riemann; Brent Dickinson; W. Keith Moser; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; James D. Garner

    2016-01-01

    People enjoy a variety of ecosystem services, or benefits, from forests, including water purification, recreation, income from tourism, timber products, and the cultural and economic benefits from hunting, fishing, and gathering (Shvidenko et al. 2005). Across the Northern United States, growing human populations will place increased service demands on forests for the...

  12. LWR FA burn up: A challenge to optimize the entire fuel cycle to assure the envisaged benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.

    1997-01-01

    Commercial LWR fuel will be limited to a maximum of U-235 content of 5% since the front end of the fuel cycle is licensed and prepared for that maximal enrichment. BWR- and PWR-reloads can be designed achieving batch average burn up over 60 GWd/tHM. In Germany the batch average burn up will presumably increase to this level, since the reload market is requesting further reductions in the fuel cycle inventories. However, it must be noted that the envisaged benefit can only be assured if the entire fuel cycle is optimized. Not all steps in the fuel cycle will bring a positive contribution bu the balance of all individual contributions must realize the envisaged integral benefit. In order to increase the burn up of the nuclear fuel beneficially further R and D both in the front end as well as in the back end of the fuel cycle is needed. An underestimation of the front end/back end interfaces may consume all benefits gained from isolated front optimizations. Back end R and D must be at once concentrated to avoid conservative enveloping licensing for the subsequent steps in the back end of the fuel cycle. Increasing burn up in the front end means making more and more use of the structural materials reserves

  13. LWR FA burn up: A challenge to optimize the entire fuel cycle to assure the envisaged benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peehs, M [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Commercial LWR fuel will be limited to a maximum of U-235 content of 5% since the front end of the fuel cycle is licensed and prepared for that maximal enrichment. BWR- and PWR-reloads can be designed achieving batch average burn up over 60 GWd/tHM. In Germany the batch average burn up will presumably increase to this level, since the reload market is requesting further reductions in the fuel cycle inventories. However, it must be noted that the envisaged benefit can only be assured if the entire fuel cycle is optimized. Not all steps in the fuel cycle will bring a positive contribution bu the balance of all individual contributions must realize the envisaged integral benefit. In order to increase the burn up of the nuclear fuel beneficially further R and D both in the front end as well as in the back end of the fuel cycle is needed. An underestimation of the front end/back end interfaces may consume all benefits gained from isolated front optimizations. Back end R and D must be at once concentrated to avoid conservative enveloping licensing for the subsequent steps in the back end of the fuel cycle. Increasing burn up in the front end means making more and more use of the structural materials reserves.

  14. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  15. Resource conservation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.

    1999-01-01

    Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. Given the reduction in rebates for the installation of energy-efficient equipment, this approach has considerable promise. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with a two-year pilot effort with seven school districts, as well as the critical components of a successful program

  16. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  17. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  18. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  19. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  20. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  1. Linking plastic ingestion research with marine wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Borrelle, Stephanie B; Provencher, Jennifer F

    2018-05-16

    Plastic is an increasingly pervasive marine pollutant. Concomitantly, the number of studies documenting plastic ingestion in wildlife is accelerating. Many of these studies aim to provide a baseline against which future levels of plastic ingestion can be compared, and are motivated by an underlying interest in the conservation of their study species and ecosystems. Although this research has helped to raise the profile of plastic as a pollutant of emerging concern, there is a disconnect between research examining plastic pollution and wildlife conservation. We present ideas to further discussion about how plastic ingestion research could benefit wildlife conservation by prioritising studies that elucidates the significance of plastic pollution as a population-level threat, identifies vulnerable populations, and evaluates strategies for mitigating impacts. The benefit of plastic ingestion research to marine wildlife can be improved by establishing a clearer understanding of how discoveries will be integrated into conservation and policy actions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Analysis of Employee Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Burešová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The target of this bachelor thesis is to analyze employee benefits from the perspective of employees and to employers suggest possible ideas to improve their provision. The work is divided into two parts: theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes the overal remuneration of employees, payroll system and employee benefits. Benefits are included in the remuneration system, broken and some of them are defined. The practical part presents a survey among employees in the Czech Repub...

  3. Implications of teenagers' attitudes toward maned wolf conservation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Consorte-McCrea, A.; Nigbur, D.; Bath, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between people and wild canids are a widespread concern for the conservation of species and habitats. The maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus is a Near Threatened species inhabiting South America. Strategies to conserve this keystone species may benefit the also-declining Cerrado biome. The attitudes of teenagers toward wild carnivores are also of worldwide interest as these youth are the future decision makers. We investigated selected attitudes, beliefs and knowledge in relat...

  4. Conservation of biodiversity in mountain ecosystems -- At a glance

    OpenAIRE

    MacKinnon, K.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Mountains are especially important for biodiversity conservation since many harbor unique assemblages of plants and animals, including high levels of endemic species. Mountain biodiversity and natural habitats bestow multiple ecosystem, soil conservation, and watershed benefits. Mountains are often centers of endemism, where species are prevalent in or peculiar to a particular region, and Pleistocene refuges, which are hypothesized to have high levels of diversity wher...

  5. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  6. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  7. (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICTs have a potential for improving the accessibility of environmental information, and if appropriately applied, they can empower local people to make informed decisions regarding environmental issues, thus enhancing environmental conservation. However, the challenge is on how to define particular roles that ...

  8. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  9. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  10. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Sims

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speyeria (Nymphalidae are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants. Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  11. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  12. On E(11) of M-theory: 1. Hidden Symmetries of Maximal Supergravities and Lego of Dynkin Diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmagambetov, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We review a graphical way of classifying hidden symmetry algebras and groups of D=11, 10 maximal supergravities in terms of Dynkin diagrams, the shapes of which are determined by the bosonic field content of supergravities supermultiplets. The approach we follow is tightly related to the West's conjecture on a hidden symmetry of M-theory, and we discuss benefits of the approach in compare to other ways of searching for hidden symmetries of String Theory

  13. Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Cajiao, E; Archibald, C; Friedman, R; Steven, R; Fuller, R A; Game, E T; Morrison, T H; Ritchie, E G

    2018-05-26

    Raising funds is critical for conserving biodiversity and hence so too is scrutinizing emerging financial mechanisms that might help achieve this goal. In this context, anecdotal evidence indicates crowdfunding is being used to support a variety of activities needed for biodiversity conservation, yet its magnitude and allocation remain largely unknown. We conducted a global analysis to help address this knowledge gap, based on empirical data from conservation-focused projects extracted from crowdfunding platforms. For each project, we determined the funds raised, date, country of implementation, proponent characteristics, activity type, biodiversity realm, and target taxa. We identified 72 relevant platforms and 577 conservation-focused projects that have raised US$4 790 634 since 2009. Whilst proponents were based in 38 countries, projects were delivered across 80 countries, indicating a potential mechanism of resource mobilization. Proponents were from non-governmental organizations (35%), universities (30%), or were freelancers (26%). Most projects were for research (40%), persuasion (31%), and on-ground actions (21%). Projects have focused primarily on species (57.7%) and terrestrial ecosystems (20.3%), and less on marine (8.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (3.6%). Projects have focused on 208 species, including a disproportionate number of threatened bird and mammal species. Crowdfunding for biodiversity conservation has now become a global phenomenon and presents signals for potential expansion, despite possible pitfalls. Opportunities arise from its spatial amplifying effect, steady increase over time, inclusion of Cinderella species, adoption by multiple actors, and funding of a range of activities beyond research. Our study paves the way for further research on key questions, such as campaign success rates, effectiveness, and drivers of adoption. Even though the capital input of crowdfunding so far has been modest compared to other conservation finance

  14. Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeida, Mohamed S; Rushdi, Ahmad A; Awad, Muhammad A; Mahmoud, Ahmed H; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A; Owens, John D; Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Mitchell, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations.

  15. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  16. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning.We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61 to 80 years old were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic

  17. Conservation Evo-Devo: Preserving Biodiversity by Understanding Its Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Calum S; Adams, Colin E; Bean, Colin W; Parsons, Kevin J

    2017-10-01

    Unprecedented rates of species extinction increase the urgency for effective conservation biology management practices. Thus, any improvements in practice are vital and we suggest that conservation can be enhanced through recent advances in evolutionary biology, specifically advances put forward by evolutionary developmental biology (i.e., evo-devo). There are strong overlapping conceptual links between conservation and evo-devo whereby both fields focus on evolutionary potential. In particular, benefits to conservation can be derived from some of the main areas of evo-devo research, namely phenotypic plasticity, modularity and integration, and mechanistic investigations of the precise developmental and genetic processes that determine phenotypes. Using examples we outline how evo-devo can expand into conservation biology, an opportunity which holds great promise for advancing both fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  19. Putting Paid to Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; J.M. Wildeboer Schut

    2003-01-01

    Original title: De uitkering van de baan. A good deal of time, money and effort is invested in the reintegration of benefit claimants. What is the result? How many recipients of disability, unemployment or social assistance benefit are in principle capable of working but are currently not

  20. Nanocosmetics: benefits and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Summary Various nanomaterials/nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for the development of cosmetic products - a field so-called nanocosmetic formulations. These advanced materials offer some benefits, while their utilization in the cosmetic formulations may be associated with some risks. The main aim of this editorial is to highlight the benefits and risks of the nanomaterials used in the cosmetic products.