WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximize training transfer

  1. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    /or weightlifting exercises performed with loads ranging from 50% to 90% of 1RM appears to be the most potent loading stimulus for improving maximal power in complex movements. Furthermore, plyometric exercises should involve stretch rates as well as stretch loads that are similar to those encountered in each specific sport and involve little to no external resistance. These loading conditions allow for superior transfer to performance because they require similar movement velocities to those typically encountered in sport. Third, it is vital to consider the individual athlete's window of adaptation (i.e. the magnitude of potential for improvement) for each neuromuscular factor contributing to maximal power production when developing an effective and efficient power training programme. A training programme that focuses on the least developed factor contributing to maximal power will prompt the greatest neuromuscular adaptations and therefore result in superior performance improvements for that individual. Finally, a key consideration for the long-term development of an athlete's maximal power production capacity is the need for an integration of numerous power training techniques. This integration allows for variation within power meso-/micro-cycles while still maintaining specificity, which is theorized to lead to the greatest long-term improvement in maximal power.

  2. Understanding Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark G.

    1983-01-01

    Stresses the difficulty of "maintenance" of newly learned behaviors by reinforcement and feedback on the job and proposes an alternative means of promoting transfer of training--establishing rule-governed behavior. Some ways of establishing rules in training are listed and discussed, including use of behavior-modeling and other…

  3. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    OpenAIRE

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the r...

  4. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  5. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  6. Using Molecular Biology to Maximize Concurrent Training

    OpenAIRE

    Baar, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and power-lifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, the development of a high level of endurance seems to prohibit the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. This revie...

  7. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  8. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Impact of training status on maximal oxygen uptake criteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak treadmill running speed was significantly faster and total test time significantly longer in the trained group. In contrast, peak lactate, although maximal for both groups, was significantly higher in the untrained group (13.5 mmol.l-1 compared with 10.3 mmol.l-1). The other responses were not different between the groups ...

  10. Factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Bai, Yangjing; Bai, Yangjuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Xiangyu; Li, Jiping

    2018-03-20

    There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013. Purposeful sampling of 24 nursing staffs were interviewed about the factors influencing training transfer. Seven themes evolved from the analysis, categorized in 4 main domains, which described the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession in trainee characteristics, training design, work environment and profession domain. The trainee characteristics domain included attitude and ability. The training design domain included training content and instruction method. The work environment domain included supports as facilitators and opposition as hindrance. The theme pertaining to the profession domain was professional development. Health care managers need to understand the factors influencing training transfer for maximizing the benefits of training. The right beliefs and values about training, the rigorous employee selection for training, the relevance of training content, training instructions facilitating learning and transfer, supports from peer, supervisors and the organization, organizational culture such as change, sharing, learning and support, and professional development are key to successful training transfer. Furthermore, managers should be aware of the opposition from co-workers and find ways to prevent it.

  11. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if 70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  12. The efficacy of incorporating partial squats in maximal strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Sato, Kimitake; Wassinger, Craig A; Lamont, Hugh S; Stone, Michael H

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of 2 different training methods on dynamic and isometric measures of maximal strength. Seventeen recreationally trained men (1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat: 146.9 ± 22.4 kg) were assigned to 2 groups: full range of motion (ROM) squat (F) and full ROM with partial ROM squat (FP) for the 7-week training intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that there was a statistically significant group-by-time interaction for impulse scaled at 50, 90, and 250 milliseconds at 90° of knee flexion and rate of force development at 200 milliseconds with 120° of knee flexion (p ≤ 0.05). There was also a statistically significant time effect (p ≤ 0.05) for the 1RM squat, 1RM partial squat, isometric squat peak force allometrically scaled (IPFa) 90°, IPFa 120°, and impulse allometrically scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Additionally, the FP group achieved statistically larger relative training intensities (%1RM) during the final 3 weeks of training (p ≤ 0.05). There was a trend for FP to improve over F in 1RM squat (+3.1%, d = 0.53 vs. 0.32), 1RM partial squat (+4.7%, d = 0.95 vs. 0.69), IPFa 120° (+5.7%, d = 0.52 vs. 0.12), and impulse scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° (+6.3 to 13.2%, d = 0.50-1.01 vs. 0.30-0.57) and 120° (+3.4 to 16.8%, d = 0.45-1.11 vs. 0.08-0.37). These larger effect sizes in the FP group can likely be explained their ability to train at larger relative training intensities during the final 3 weeks of training resulting in superior training adaptations. Our findings suggest that partial ROM squats in conjunction with full ROM squats may be an effective training method for improving maximal strength and early force-time curve characteristics in men with previous strength training experience. Practically, partial squats may be beneficial for strength and power athletes during a strength-speed mesocycle while peaking

  13. Hypoxic training increases maximal oxygen consumption in Thoroughbred horses well-trained in normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Hajime; Mukai, Kazutaka; Takahashi, Yuji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Jones, James H

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxic training is effective for improving athletic performance in humans. It increases maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O 2 max) more than normoxic training in untrained horses. However, the effects of hypoxic training on well-trained horses are unclear. We measured the effects of hypoxic training on V̇O 2 max of 5 well-trained horses in which V̇O 2 max had not increased over 3 consecutive weeks of supramaximal treadmill training in normoxia which was performed twice a week. The horses trained with hypoxia (15% inspired O 2 ) twice a week. Cardiorespiratory valuables were analyzed with analysis of variance between before and after 3 weeks of hypoxic training. Mass-specific V̇O 2 max increased after 3 weeks of hypoxic training (178 ± 10 vs. 194 ± 12.3 ml O 2 (STPD)/(kg × min), Phorses, at least for the durations of time evaluated in this study. Training while breathing hypoxic gas may have the potential to enhance normoxic performance of Thoroughbred horses.

  14. Prioritizing Training To Maximize Results: The 3 Box System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Considers fundamentals of effective training and focuses on the evaluation of training. Describes the 3 Box System, which provides a framework for discussing: (1) basic training needs and priorities; (2) added value training, including ROI (return on investment); evaluation; and (3) prioritizing training budgets. (LRW)

  15. Alterations in Strength and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Consequent to Nautilus Circuit Weight Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Dill, Mary Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    The study compared the effects on muscular strength and maximal oxygen uptake of a Nautilus circuit weight training program, a free weight strength training program, and a running program. Nautilus circuit weight training appears to be equally effective for a training period of short duration. (MT)

  16. Transfer after Working Memory Updating Training

    OpenAIRE

    Waris, Otto; Soveri, Anna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, working memory training has attracted much interest. However, the training outcomes have varied between studies and methodological problems have hampered the interpretation of results. The current study examined transfer after working memory updating training by employing an extensive battery of pre-post cognitive measures with a focus on near transfer. Thirty-one healthy Finnish young adults were randomized into either a working memory training group or an active cont...

  17. Limited Benefits of Heterogeneous Dual-Task Training on Transfer Effects in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Maxime; Brouillard, Philippe; Bherer, Louis

    2017-09-01

    It has often been reported that cognitive training has limited transfer effects. The present study addresses training context variability as a factor that could increase transfer effects, as well as the manifestation through time of transfer effects. Fifty-eight older adults were assigned to an active placebo or two dual-task training conditions, one in which the training context varies between sessions (heterogeneous training) and the other in a fixed training context (homogeneous training). Transfer was assessed with near and far-modality transfer tasks. Results show that heterogeneous and homogeneous training led to larger near-modality transfer effects than an active placebo (computer lessons). Transfer effects were roughly comparable in both training groups, but heterogeneous training led to a steeper improvement of the dual-task coordination learning curve within training sessions. Also, results indicated that dual-task cost did not improve in the active placebo group from the pre- to the post-training sessions. Heterogeneous training showed modest advantages over homogeneous training. Results also suggest that transfer effects on dual-task cost induced by training take place early on in the post-training session. These findings provide valuable insights on benefits arising from variability in the training protocol for maximizing transfer effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    = 0.051) and time to complete 3000 m tended (P = 0.09) to increase in LHTH but not after sea level training. In study III haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after classical altitude and sea level training and ABP thresholds for [Hb], %ret, OFF......-score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were generated using the official ABP software. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: Two swimmers exceeded the OFF-score thresholds at day 7; One swimmer exceeded the OFF-score threshold at day 28; One swimmer exceeded the threshold...... for %ret at day 14; One swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day 7 and one swimmer exceeded the ABPS threshold 28 days after altitude training. No values exceeded the individual thresholds in the control group. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrated that BV is a main determinant of the exercise induced...

  19. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    2017-01-01

    Author's accepted version (post-print). Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consi...

  20. Sales Training: Effects of Spaced Practice on Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffeld, Simone; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The benefits of spaced training over massed training practice are well established in the laboratory setting. In a field study design with sales trainings, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of spaced compared with massed practice on transfer quantity and quality, sales competence, and key figures.…

  1. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  2. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  3. Maximal fat oxidation rates in endurance trained and untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, A.B.; Stougaard, O.; Langfort, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in fat oxidation between endurance trained (ET) and untrained (UT) women. Eight ET and nine UT women performed a progressive cycle ergometer test until exhaustion. The rate of fat oxidation was similar at low work rates (...

  4. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by

  5. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press

  6. Superfund Training/Tech Transfer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a collection of information resources, training, and other media related to hazardous waste site cleanup and characterization. A major part of...

  7. Transfer of skill engendered by complex task training under conditions of variable priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I; Neider, Mark; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika; Lee, HyunKyu; Low, Kathy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-11-01

    We explored the theoretical underpinnings of a commonly used training strategy by examining issues of training and transfer of skill in the context of a complex video game (Space Fortress, Donchin, 1989). Participants trained using one of two training regimens: Full Emphasis Training (FET) or Variable Priority Training (VPT). Transfer of training was assessed with a large battery of cognitive and psychomotor tasks ranging from basic laboratory paradigms measuring reasoning, memory, and attention to complex real-world simulations. Consistent with previous studies, VPT accelerated learning and maximized task mastery. However, the hypothesis that VPT would result in broader transfer of training received limited support. Rather, transfer was most evident in tasks that were most similar to the Space Fortress game itself. Results are discussed in terms of potential limitations of the VPT approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

  9. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; [Formula: see text], 44 ± 11 mL kg -1 ·min -1 ) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower-body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

  10. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non-periodized training plans. Variation in training stimuli

  11. Phlebotomy eliminates the maximal cardiac output response to six weeks of exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Doucende, Gregory; Flück, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    With this study we tested the hypothesis that six weeks of endurance training increases maximal cardiac output (Qmax) relatively more by elevating blood volume (BV) than by inducing structural and functional changes within the heart. Nine healthy but untrained volunteers (VO2max 47 ± 5 ml.min(-1......).kg(-1)) underwent supervised training (60 min; 4 times weekly at 65% VO2max for six weeks) and Qmax was determined by inert gas re-breathing during cycle ergometer exercise before and after the training period. After the training period, blood volume (determined in duplicates by CO re......-breathing) was re-established to pre-training values by phlebotomy and Qmax was quantified again. Resting echography revealed no structural heart adaptations as a consequence of the training intervention. Following the training period, plasma volume (PV), red blood cell volume (RBCV) and BV increased (p...

  12. Orientation Transfer in Vernier and Stereoacuity Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Nathaniel; Kattner, Florian; Rokers, Bas; Green, C Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Human performance on various visual tasks can be improved substantially via training. However, the enhancements are frequently specific to relatively low-level stimulus dimensions. While such specificity has often been thought to be indicative of a low-level neural locus of learning, recent research suggests that these same effects can be accounted for by changes in higher-level areas--in particular in the way higher-level areas read out information from lower-level areas in the service of highly practiced decisions. Here we contrast the degree of orientation transfer seen after training on two different tasks--vernier acuity and stereoacuity. Importantly, while the decision rule that could improve vernier acuity (i.e. a discriminant in the image plane) would not be transferable across orientations, the simplest rule that could be learned to solve the stereoacuity task (i.e. a discriminant in the depth plane) would be insensitive to changes in orientation. Thus, given a read-out hypothesis, more substantial transfer would be expected as a result of stereoacuity than vernier acuity training. To test this prediction, participants were trained (7500 total trials) on either a stereoacuity (N = 9) or vernier acuity (N = 7) task with the stimuli in either a vertical or horizontal configuration (balanced across participants). Following training, transfer to the untrained orientation was assessed. As predicted, evidence for relatively orientation specific learning was observed in vernier trained participants, while no evidence of specificity was observed in stereo trained participants. These results build upon the emerging view that perceptual learning (even very specific learning effects) may reflect changes in inferences made by high-level areas, rather than necessarily fully reflecting changes in the receptive field properties of low-level areas.

  13. Glucose clearance in aged trained skeletal muscle during maximal insulin with superimposed exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mikines, K J; Larsen, J J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin and muscle contractions are major stimuli for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and have in young healthy people been shown to be additive. We studied the effect of superimposed exercise during a maximal insulin stimulus on glucose uptake and clearance in trained (T) (1-legged bicycle tra...

  14. Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmons, James A; Knudsen, Steen; Rankinen, Tuomo

    2010-01-01

    A low maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is a strong risk factor for premature mortality. Supervised endurance exercise training increases VO2max with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. Discovering the DNA variants that contribute to this heterogeneity typically requires substantial s...

  15. Multidisciplinary Knowledge Transfer in Training Multimedia Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyens, Benoit; Martin, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--Training multimedia projects often face identical knowledge-transfer obstacles that partly originate in the multidisciplinarity of the project team. The purpose of this paper is to describe these difficulties and the tools used to overcome them. In particular, the aim is to show how elements of cognitive psychology theory (concept maps,…

  16. Social Support at the Workplace, Motivation to Transfer and Training Transfer: A Multilevel Indirect Effects Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…

  17. Weighting training images by maximizing distribution similarity for supervised segmentation across scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Opbroek, Annegreet; Vernooij, Meike W; Ikram, M.Arfan

    2015-01-01

    Many automatic segmentation methods are based on supervised machine learning. Such methods have proven to perform well, on the condition that they are trained on a sufficiently large manually labeled training set that is representative of the images to segment. However, due to differences between...... scanners, scanning parameters, and patients such a training set may be difficult to obtain. We present a transfer-learning approach to segmentation by multi-feature voxelwise classification. The presented method can be trained using a heterogeneous set of training images that may be obtained with different...... scanners than the target image. In our approach each training image is given a weight based on the distribution of its voxels in the feature space. These image weights are chosen as to minimize the difference between the weighted probability density function (PDF) of the voxels of the training images...

  18. Inter-Basin Water Transfer Green Supply Chain Equilibrium and Coordination under Social Welfare Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisong Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The inter-basin water transfer (IBWT projects have quasi-public-welfare characteristics, whose operations should take into account the water green level (WGL and social welfare maximization (SWM. This paper explores the interactions between multiple stakeholders of an IBWT green supply chain through the game-theoretic and coordination research approaches considering the government’s subsidy to the WGL improvement under the SWM. The study and its findings complement the IBWT literature in the area of the green supply chain and social welfare maximization modeling. The analytical modeling results with and without considering the SWM are compared. A numerical analysis for a hypothetical IBWT green supply chain is conducted to draw strategic insights from this study. The research results indicate that (1 If the SWM is not considered, coordination strategy could effectively improve the operations performances of the IBWT supply chain and its members, the consumers’ surplus, and the social welfare when compared with the equilibrium strategy; (2 If the SWM is considered, the IBWT green supply chain and its members have a strong intention to adopt the equilibrium strategy to gain more profits, while the government has a strong intention to encourage the IBWT green supply chain and its members to adopt the coordination strategy to maximize social welfare with a smaller public subsidy; (3 The government’s subsidy policy should be designed and provided to encourage the IBWT green supply chain and its members to improve WGL and pursue the SWM, and a subsidy threshold policy can be designed to maximize social welfare with a lower subsidy budget: only when the IBWT green supply chain and its members adopt the coordination strategy can they get a subsidy from the government.

  19. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting.

  20. Maximizing the use of research reactors in training power reactor operating staff with special reference to US experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research reactors have been used in training nuclear power plant personnel for many years. Using the experience in the United States of America a programme is proposed that will maximize the training conducted at a research reactor and lessen the time that the staff must spend training elsewhere. The programme is adaptable to future training of replacement staff and for staff retraining. (author)

  1. Less is more: latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Katharine; Moore, David R; Sohoglu, Ediz; Amitay, Sygal

    2012-01-01

    The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session. We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min) had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr) showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total) relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr). However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased. Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.

  2. Maximal intended velocity training induces greater gains in bench press performance than deliberately slower half-velocity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Badillo, Juan José; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect on strength gains of two isoinertial resistance training (RT) programmes that only differed in actual concentric velocity: maximal (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) velocity. Twenty participants were assigned to a MaxV (n = 9) or HalfV (n = 11) group and trained 3 times per week during 6 weeks using the bench press (BP). Repetition velocity was controlled using a linear velocity transducer. A complementary study (n = 10) aimed to analyse whether the acute metabolic (blood lactate and ammonia) and mechanical response (velocity loss) was different between the MaxV and HalfV protocols used. Both groups improved strength performance from pre- to post-training, but MaxV resulted in significantly greater gains than HalfV in all variables analysed: one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength (18.2 vs. 9.7%), velocity developed against all (20.8 vs. 10.0%), light (11.5 vs. 4.5%) and heavy (36.2 vs. 17.3%) loads common to pre- and post-tests. Light and heavy loads were identified with those moved faster or slower than 0.80 m · s(-1) (∼ 60% 1RM in BP). Lactate tended to be significantly higher for MaxV vs. HalfV, with no differences observed for ammonia which was within resting values. Both groups obtained the greatest improvements at the training velocities (≤ 0.80 m · s(-1)). Movement velocity can be considered a fundamental component of RT intensity, since, for a given %1RM, the velocity at which loads are lifted largely determines the resulting training effect. BP strength gains can be maximised when repetitions are performed at maximal intended velocity.

  3. Isometric parameters in the monitoring of maximal strength, power, and hypertrophic resistance-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Heikki; Walker, Simon; Lähitie, Anuliisa; Häkkinen, Keijo; Avela, Janne

    2018-02-01

    This study monitored strength-training adaptations via isometric parameters throughout 2 × 10 weeks of hypertrophic (HYP I-II) or 10 weeks maximum strength (MS) followed by 10 weeks power (P) training with untrained controls. Trainees performed bilateral isometric leg press tests analyzed for peak force (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and rate of force development (RFD) every 3.5 weeks. These parameters were compared with dynamic performance, voluntary and electrically induced isometric contractions, muscle activity, and cross-sectional area (CSA) in the laboratory before and after 10 and 20 weeks. RFD increased similarly during the first 7 weeks (HYP I, 44% ± 53%; MS, 48% ± 55%, P strength/power training, while MVC cannot distinguish between strength or muscle mass changes. Monitoring RFD provided important information regarding plateaus in RFD improvement, which were observed in dynamic explosive performances after HYP II compared with P.

  4. Effects of Heavy Squat Training on a Vibration Platform on Maximal Strength and Jump Performance in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Roger L; Linton, Joshua T; Hammer, Adam M

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine maximal strength and jump performance outcomes of heavy squat training on a low-amplitude (<1.0 mm peak-to-peak) vibration platform (VP). Nineteen recreationally resistance-trained college-aged men (22.3 ± 1.66 years) completed the 6-week study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: SQT (n = 10) performed conventional back squats on the floor; SQTV (n = 9) performed back squats on the VP. Supervised training took place over 12 sessions (2 days/week) which utilized an aggressive strength development protocol (85-95 % 1-RM), which was identically followed by both groups. After the intervention, both groups showed (via t-test) a marked increase (p < 0.001) in 1-RM squat strength (SQT = 34.5 kg vs SQTV = 36.2 kg), but there was no significant difference (via mixed ANOVA) between groups (p = 0.875). Standing broad jump performance increased by an average of 5-6 cm, but was not significantly changed in either group (SQT; p = 0.199, SQTV; p = 0.087). In conclusion, squats performed with whole body vibration (WBV) were not superior to conventional squats with respect to maximal strength and jump performance outcomes. It appears that there was no additive effect of superimposed WBV training in strength beyond that caused by strength training alone. This study can help strength conditioning professionals and athletes make an informed decision on whether to invest in a VP and use WBV as an alternative or a complementary mode of training.

  5. Endurance training intensity does not mediate interference to maximal lower-body strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson J Fyfe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT. Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; V ̇O 2peak, 44 ± 11 mL∙kg-1•min-1 were ranked by one-repetition maximum (1-RM leg press strength and randomly allocated tounderwent 8 weeks (3 sessions•wk-1 of either: 1 HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n=8, 2 work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n=7, or 3 RT performed alone (RT group, n=8. Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance and body composition (DXA were obtained before (PRE, mid-way (MID, and after (POST eight weeks of training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM] leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ±90% confidence interval; 38.5 ±8.5%; effect size [ES] ±90% confidence interval; 1.26 ±0.24; P<0.001, HIT+RT (28.7 ±5.3%; ES, 1.17 ±0.19; P<0.001 and MICT+RT (27.5 ±4.6%, ES, 0.81 ±0.12; P<0.001; however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ±8.7%; ES, 0.40 ±0.40 and MICT+RT (8.2 ±9.9%; ES, 0.60 ±0.45. There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ±4.5%; ES, 0.41 ±0.28 and MICT+RT (9.9 ±11.2%; ES, 0.54 ±0.65, and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ±26.1%; ES, 0.72 ±0.88. Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ±2.0%; ES; 0.33 ±0.16; P=0.023 and MICT+RT (3.6 ±2.4%; ES; 0.45 ±0.30; P=0.052; however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ±1.6%; ES; 0.13 ±0.12; P=0.069. We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work

  6. Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Intensity for Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Du, Ping; Zhao, Wanting; Pang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Exercise group (n=16) walked at individualized FATmax intensities for 1 h/day for 3 days/week over 12 weeks. No dietary intervention was introduced during the experimental period. Maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.37±0.10 g/min, and occurred at 37.3±7.3% of the estimated VO 2 max. Within the exercise group, significant improvements were observed for most of the measured variables compared to non-exercising controls; in particular, the FATmax program reduced body fat% (presistance (pchange in daily energy intake for all participants during the intervention period. These results suggest that individualized FATmax training is an effective exercise training intensity for managing type 2 diabetes in older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Energy Efficiency Maximization for WSNs with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Guo, Songtao; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ji, Luyue

    2017-08-18

    Recently, the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique has been regarded as a promising approach to enhance performance of wireless sensor networks with limited energy supply. However, from a green communication perspective, energy efficiency optimization for SWIPT system design has not been investigated in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs). In this paper, we consider the tradeoffs between energy efficiency and three factors including spectral efficiency, the transmit power and outage target rate for two different modes, i.e., power splitting (PS) and time switching modes (TS), at the receiver. Moreover, we formulate the energy efficiency maximization problem subject to the constraints of minimum Quality of Service (QoS), minimum harvested energy and maximum transmission power as non-convex optimization problem. In particular, we focus on optimizing power control and power allocation policy in PS and TS modes to maximize energy efficiency of data transmission. For PS and TS modes, we propose the corresponding algorithm to characterize a non-convex optimization problem that takes into account the circuit power consumption and the harvested energy. By exploiting nonlinear fractional programming and Lagrangian dual decomposition, we propose suboptimal iterative algorithms to obtain the solutions of non-convex optimization problems. Furthermore, we derive the outage probability and effective throughput from the scenarios that the transmitter does not or partially know the channel state information (CSI) of the receiver. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed optimal iterative algorithm can achieve optimal solutions within a small number of iterations and various tradeoffs between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency, transmit power and outage target rate, respectively.

  8. Energy Efficiency Maximization for WSNs with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ji, Luyue

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique has been regarded as a promising approach to enhance performance of wireless sensor networks with limited energy supply. However, from a green communication perspective, energy efficiency optimization for SWIPT system design has not been investigated in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs). In this paper, we consider the tradeoffs between energy efficiency and three factors including spectral efficiency, the transmit power and outage target rate for two different modes, i.e., power splitting (PS) and time switching modes (TS), at the receiver. Moreover, we formulate the energy efficiency maximization problem subject to the constraints of minimum Quality of Service (QoS), minimum harvested energy and maximum transmission power as non-convex optimization problem. In particular, we focus on optimizing power control and power allocation policy in PS and TS modes to maximize energy efficiency of data transmission. For PS and TS modes, we propose the corresponding algorithm to characterize a non-convex optimization problem that takes into account the circuit power consumption and the harvested energy. By exploiting nonlinear fractional programming and Lagrangian dual decomposition, we propose suboptimal iterative algorithms to obtain the solutions of non-convex optimization problems. Furthermore, we derive the outage probability and effective throughput from the scenarios that the transmitter does not or partially know the channel state information (CSI) of the receiver. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed optimal iterative algorithm can achieve optimal solutions within a small number of iterations and various tradeoffs between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency, transmit power and outage target rate, respectively. PMID:28820496

  9. The Relationship between Job Dissatisfaction and Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodlbauer, Susanne; Selenko, Eva; Batinic, Bernad; Stiglbauer, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The high rates of training transfer failure that prevail still puzzle practitioners as well as researchers. The central aim of the present study is to analyze the relatively under-researched role of job dissatisfaction in the training transfer process. Specifically, we expect that job dissatisfaction would have a negative effect on transfer but…

  10. Training transfer: scientific background and insights for practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issurin, Vladimir B

    2013-08-01

    Training transfer as an enduring, multilateral, and practically important problem encompasses a large body of research findings and experience, which characterize the process by which improving performance in certain exercises/tasks can affect the performance in alternative exercises or motor tasks. This problem is of paramount importance for the theory of training and for all aspects of its application in practice. Ultimately, training transfer determines how useful or useless each given exercise is for the targeted athletic performance. The methodological background of training transfer encompasses basic concepts related to transfer modality, i.e., positive, neutral, and negative; the generalization of training responses and their persistence over time; factors affecting training transfer such as personality, motivation, social environment, etc. Training transfer in sport is clearly differentiated with regard to the enhancement of motor skills and the development of motor abilities. The studies of bilateral skill transfer have shown cross-transfer effects following one-limb training associated with neural adaptations at cortical, subcortical, spinal, and segmental levels. Implementation of advanced sport technologies such as motor imagery, biofeedback, and exercising in artificial environments can facilitate and reinforce training transfer from appropriate motor tasks to targeted athletic performance. Training transfer of motor abilities has been studied with regard to contralateral effects following one limb training, cross-transfer induced by arm or leg training, the impact of strength/power training on the preparedness of endurance athletes, and the impact of endurance workloads on strength/power performance. The extensive research findings characterizing the interactions of these workloads have shown positive transfer, or its absence, depending on whether the combinations conform to sport-specific demands and physiological adaptations. Finally, cross-training

  11. A Model of the Antecedents of Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time…

  12. Effect of Ramadan observance on maximal muscular performance of trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Hatem; Shephard, Roy J; Gmada, Nebil; Aouichaoui, Chirine; Peres, Gilbert; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouhlel, Ezdine

    2013-05-01

    To assess the influence of Ramadan fasting on maximal performance of moderately trained young men using various tests of muscle performance. Comparison of Ramadan fasting (n = 10) versus control group (n = 10) over 3 test sessions, before Ramadan (B), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (R-1), and during the fourth week of Ramadan (R-4). At each 2-day test session, 4 tests were performed in the same order: measurement of vertical jump height (VJH) and a force-velocity test using the arms on day 1, and measurement of handgrip force (HGF), and a force-velocity test using the legs on day 2. Twenty trained men. Maximal power of the arms and of the legs (force-velocity testing), vertical jump performance, HGF, anthropometric data, dietary intake, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Two-way analyses of variance (group × time) showed Ramadan fasters with decreased maximal anaerobic power of the arms (Wmax-A) and legs (Wmax-L) at R-1, with a partial return of arm data to initial values at R-4. Vertical jump height and HGF remained unchanged throughout. Other changes in Ramadan observers were a decreased energy intake and a decrease of plasma volume at R-1. These results suggest that Ramadan observance initially had detrimental effects on Wmax-A, and Wmax-L, with a tendency to recovery by week 4 of Ramadan. Reductions of total energy intake and intramuscular glycogen may contribute to the reduced Wmax-A and Wmax-L during Ramadan fasting.

  13. EFFECT OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND TRAINING STATUS ON LEPTIN RESPONSE TO SUB-MAXIMAL CYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Bouassida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR and 7 untrained (UTR subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP. Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01 and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively. [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05 in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01 and [GH] increased (p < 0.01 significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01 and higher (GH: p < 0.01 than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01 during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1 leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2 volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3 it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of

  14. Effect of maximal oxygen uptake and different forms of physical training on serum lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, A; Kindermann, W

    1982-01-01

    260 well trained male sportsmen between 17 and 30 years of age participating in a variety of events were examined for total serum cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol and compared with 37 moderately active leisure-time sportsmen and 20 sedentary controls of similar ages and sex. Lipoprotein cholesterol distribution was determined by quantitative electrophoresis. Mean HDL-cholesterol increased progressively from the mean of the sedentary control to the mean of the long-distance runners, indicating a graded effect of physical activity on HDL-cholesterol. In all sporting groups mean LDL-cholesterol tended to be lower than in the controls, no association between LDL-cholesterol and form of training being apparent. Except for the long-distance runners, all sporting groups tended to be lower in total cholesterol than the controls. The HDL-/total cholesterol and LDL/HDL ratios yielded a better discrimination between the physically active and inactive than the HDL-cholesterol alone. Significant positive correlations with maximal oxygen uptake and roentgenologically determined heart volume were found for HDL-cholesterol and HDL-/total cholesterol, and negative ones for LDL/HDL. Differences in the regressions among subsets made up of sporting groups under different physical demands suggest a positive relationship between lipoprotein distribution and the magnitude of the trained muscle mass.

  15. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Ratamess, Noah A. Beller, Adam M. Gonzalez, Gregory E. Spatz, Jay R. Hoffman, Ryan E. Ross, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jie Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT or a non-exercising control group (CTL. The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON and 3-sec eccentric (ECC phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg, 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg, and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women.

  16. Attenuated Increase in Maximal Force of Rat Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle after Concurrent Peak Power and Endurance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Furrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control, peak power training (PT, or both peak power and endurance training (PET, which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training.

  17. Genomic predictors of the maximal O2 uptake response to standardized exercise training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzynski, Mark A.; Rice, Treva K.; Kraus, William E.; Church, Timothy S.; Sung, Yun Ju; Rao, D. C.; Rankinen, Tuomo

    2011-01-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness is a powerful predictor of morbidity and cardiovascular mortality. In 473 sedentary adults, all whites, from 99 families of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, the heritability of gains in maximal O2 uptake (V̇o2max) after exposure to a standardized 20-wk exercise program was estimated at 47%. A genome-wide association study based on 324,611 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was undertaken to identify SNPs associated with improvements in V̇o2max Based on single-SNP analysis, 39 SNPs were associated with the gains with P HERITAGE whites were replicated in HERITAGE blacks (n = 247). These genomic predictors of the response of V̇o2max to regular exercise provide new targets for the study of the biology of fitness and its adaptation to regular exercise. Large-scale replication studies are warranted. PMID:21183627

  18. An Archival Research Comparing Learning Effectiveness and Training Transfer Perceptions between Classroom Technical Training and Synchronous Online Technical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous online training has become one of the preferred training modes for organizations. Despite organizations increasing their use of online training, there is still little data to confirm that synchronous online technical training is as effective as classroom technical training for training transfer. Although learning effectiveness between…

  19. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  20. Exploring the Critical Role of Motivation to Transfer in the Training Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Anna; Beller, Johannes; Kauffeld, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring the critical role of motivation to transfer within the training transfer process. In a sample of N?=?252 employees of one industrial company, one peer rating and several self-ratings of transfer were used to investigate the mediating role of motivation to transfer in the relationship between training…

  1. Living high-training low: effect on erythropoiesis and maximal aerobic performance in elite Nordic skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, P.; Schmitt, L.; Brugniaux, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    The "living high-training low" model (Hi-Lo) may improve aerobic performance in athletes, and the main mechanism of this improvement is thought to be augmented erythropoiesis. A positive effect of Hi-Lo has been demonstrated previously by using altitudes of 2,000-3,000 m. Since the rate...... of erythropoiesis is altitude-dependent, we tested whether a higher altitude (3,500 m) during Hi-Lo increases erythropoiesis and maximal aerobic performance. Nordic skiers trained for 18 days at 1,200 m, while sleeping at 1,200 m in ambient air (control group, n = 5) or in hypoxic rooms (Hi-Lo, n = 6; 3 x 6 days......(2max)), respectively. Erythropoietin and soluble transferrin receptor responses were higher during Hi-Lo, whereas reticulocytes did not change. In POST (vs. before): hematological parameters were similar to basal levels, as well as red blood cell volume, being 2.68 +/- 0.83 l (vs. 2.64+/-0.54 l...

  2. Effect of short-term heat acclimation training on kinetics of lactate removal following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, Tsavis D; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kang, Hyoung K; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) evokes numerous physiological adaptations, improves heat tolerance and has also been shown to enhance lactate (LA) responses during exercise, similar to that seen with endurance training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether HA improves the body's ability to remove LA during recovery following maximal exercise. Ten healthy men completed two trials of maximal treadmill exercise (pre- and post-HA) separated by 5 days of HA. Each day of HA consisted of two 45 minute periods of cycling at ~50% VO2max separated by a 15min rest period in an environmental chamber (T(db) 45° C, RH 20%). In pre-/post-HA trials, venous blood was collected during 60 minutes of recovery to determine LA concentrations and removal kinetics (A2: amplitude and y2: velocity constant) using bi-exponential curve fitting. Physiological adaptation to heat was significantly developed during HA, as evidenced by end-exercise T(re) (DAY1 vs. 5) (38.89±0.56 vs. 38.66±0.44° C), T(sk) (38.07±0.51 vs. 37.66±0.48° C), HR (175.0±9.9 vs. 165.0±18.5 beats·min(-1)), and sweat rate (1.24 ±.26 vs. 1.47 ±0.27 L·min(-1)) (PLA concentrations (LA(0min): 8.78±1.08 vs. 8.69±1.23; LA(peak): 10.97±1.77 vs. 10.95±1.46; and La(60min); 2.88±0.82 vs. 2.96±0.93 mmol·L(-1)) or removal kinetics (A2: -13.05±7.05 vs -15.59±7.90 mmol.L(-1) and y2: 0.02±0.01 vs. 0.03±.01 min(-1)). The present study concluded that, while effective in inducing thermo-physiological adaptations to heat stress, short-term HA does not improve the body's ability to remove LA following maximal exercise. Therefore, athletes and workers seeking faster LA recovery from intense physical activity may not benefit from short-term HA.

  3. Effects of volume-based overload plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, Cesar; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players (who were strong individuals at baseline) participating in regular basketball training versus regular plus a volume-based plyometric training program in the pre-season period. Young basketball players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric with regular basketball training group (experimental group [EG]; N.=8), or a basketball training only group (control group [CG]; N.=8). The athletes in EG performed periodized (i.e., from 117 to 183 jumps per session) plyometric training for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, players were assessed in vertical and broad jump, change of direction, maximal strength and a 60-meter sprint test. No significant improvements were found in the CG, while the EG improved vertical jump (effect size [ES] 2.8), broad jump (ES=2.4), agility T test (ES=2.2), Illinois agility test (ES=1.4), maximal strength (ES=1.8), and 60-m sprint (ES=1.6) (Ptraining in addition to regular basketball practice can lead to meaningful improvements in maximal-intensity exercise adaptations among young basketball players during the pre-season.

  4. A transfer-learning approach to image segmentation across scanners by maximizing distribution similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Opbroek, Annegreet; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W.

    2013-01-01

    Many successful methods for biomedical image segmentation are based on supervised learning, where a segmentation algorithm is trained based on manually labeled training data. For supervised-learning algorithms to perform well, this training data has to be representative for the target data. In pr...

  5. Teleportation is necessary for faithful quantum state transfer through noisy channels of maximal rank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Raffaele; Loock, Peter van

    2010-01-01

    Quantum teleportation enables deterministic and faithful transmission of quantum states, provided a maximally entangled state is preshared between sender and receiver, and a one-way classical channel is available. Here, we prove that these resources are not only sufficient, but also necessary, for deterministically and faithfully sending quantum states through any fixed noisy channel of maximal rank, when a single use of the cannel is admitted. In other words, for this family of channels, there are no other protocols, based on different (and possibly cheaper) sets of resources, capable of replacing quantum teleportation.

  6. The Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Healy, Alice; Dempsey, Donna L.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Landon, Lauren B.

    2018-01-01

    Training our crew members for long duration, exploration-class missions will have to maximize long-term retention and transfer of the trained skills. The expected duration of the missions, our inability to predict all the possible tasks the crew will be called upon to perform, and the low training-to-mission time ratio require that the training be maximally effective such that the skills acquired during training will be retained and will be transferrable across a wide range of specific tasks that are different from the particular tasks used during training. However, to be able to design training that can achieve these ambitious goals, we must first understand the ways in which long-duration spaceflight affects training retention and transfer. Current theories of training retention and transfer are largely based on experimental studies conducted at university laboratories using undergraduate students as participants. Furthermore, all such studies have been conducted on Earth. We do not know how well the results of these studies predict the performance of crew members. More specifically, we do not know how well the results of these studies predict the performance of crew members in space and especially during long-duration missions. To address this gap in our knowledge, the current on-going study seeks to test the null hypothesis that performance of university undergraduate students on Earth on training retention and transfer tests do in fact predict accurately the performance of crew members during long-duration spaceflights. To test this hypothesis, the study employs a single 16-month long experimental protocol with 3 different participant groups: undergraduate university students, crew members on the ground, and crew members in space. Results from this study will be presented upon its completion. This poster presents results of study trials of the two tasks used in this study: a data entry task and a mapping task. By researching established training principles, by

  7. Maximizing the information transfer in a quantum-limited light-scattering system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    1990-01-01

    A quantum-limited light-scattering system is considered. The spatial configuration that maximizes a given figure of merit is investigated, assuming that the emitted light has Poisson photon statistics. A specific system for measuring the velocity of a small particle is considered as an example. A...

  8. Are training and transfer effects of working memory updating training modulated by achievement motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Yiwenjie; Fu, Junjun; Maes, Joseph H R

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies examining effects of working memory (WM) updating training revealed mixed results. One factor that might modulate training gains, and possibly also transfer of those gains to non-trained cognitive tasks, is achievement motivation. In the present Studies 1 and 2, students with either a high (HAM) or low (LAM) achievement motivation completed a 14-day visuospatial WM updating training program. In Study 2, the students also performed a set of tasks measuring other executive functions and fluid intelligence prior to and after training. In both studies, the HAM students displayed a larger training gain than the LAM students. Study 2 revealed that after training, both groups showed better performance on the near-transfer but not far-transfer tasks. Importantly, the differential training gain was not associated with better post-training performance for the HAM compared to the LAM students on any of the transfer tasks. These results are taken to support a modulatory role of achievement motivation on WM training benefits, but not on transfer of those benefits to other tasks. Possible reasons for the general improvement on the near-transfer tasks and the absence of a modulatory role of achievement motivation on transfer-task performance are discussed.

  9. Therapeutic effects of maximal strength training on walking efficiency in patients with schizophrenia - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Jørn; Morken, Gunnar; Helgerud, Jan; Nilsberg, Geir E; Hoff, Jan

    2012-07-03

    Patients with schizophrenia frequently have disabling gait deficits. The net mechanical efficiency of walking (ϵnet) is an accurate measure often used to evaluate walking performance. Patients with gait deficits have a reduced ϵnet with excessive energy expenditure during sub-maximal walking. Maximal strength training (MST) improves ϵnet in healthy individuals and is associated with reduced risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MST improves ϵnet in patients with schizophrenia. Patients (ICD-10 schizophrenia, schizotypal or delusional disorders (F20-F29)) were included in a non-randomized trial. Patients were assigned to one of two groups: 1) MST consisting of 4x4 repetitions at 85-90% one repetition maximum (1RM) performed in a leg press apparatus or 2) playing computer games (CG). Both groups carried out their activity three days per week for eight weeks. 1RM, ϵnet at 60 watt walking, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 36-items short form (SF-36) were measured pre and post intervention. The baseline ϵnet was 17.3 ± 1.2% and 19.4 ± 3.0% in the MST (n = 6) and CG groups (n = 7), respectively, which is categorized as mechanical inefficiency. The MST group improved 1RM by 79 kg (p = 0.006) and ϵnet by 3.4% (p = 0.046) more than the CG group. The MST group improved 1RM and ϵnet, by a mean of 83 kg (p = 0.028) and 3.4% (p = 0.028), respectively. VO2peak at baseline was 34.2 ± 10.2 and 38.3 ± 9.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 in the MST and CG groups, respectively, and did not change (p > 0.05). No change was observed in PANSS or SF-36 (p > 0.05). MST improves 1RM and ϵnet in patients with schizophrenia. MST could be used as a therapeutic intervention for patients with schizophrenia to normalize their reduced ϵnet.

  10. Effects of plyometric training and creatine supplementation on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; González-Jurado, José Antonio; Martínez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Peñailillo, Luis; Meylan, Cesar M P; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; Moran, Jason; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of a six-week plyometric training and creatine supplementation intervention on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during in-season training. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Young (age 22.9±2.5y) female players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to a plyometric training group receiving placebo (PLACEBO, n=10), a plyometric training group receiving creatine supplementation (CREATINE, n=10) or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric program (CONTROL, n=10). Athletes were evaluated for jumping, maximal and repeated sprinting, endurance and change-of-direction speed performance before and after six weeks of training. After intervention the CONTROL group did not change, whereas both plyometric training groups improved jumps (ES=0.25-0.49), sprint (ES=0.35-0.41), repeated sprinting (ES=0.48-0.55), endurance (ES=0.32-0.34) and change-of-direction speed performance (ES=0.46-0.55). However, the CREATINE group improved more in the jumps and repeated sprinting performance tests than the CONTROL and the PLACEBO groups. Adaptations to plyometric training may be enhanced with creatine supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional brain activation associated with working memory training and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cameron M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M

    2017-09-15

    While behavioural trials of working memory (WM) training have received much attention in recent years, a lesser explored parallel approach is functional neuroimaging. A small literature has suggested a complex time course for functional activation pattern changes following WM training (i.e. not simply increasing or decreasing due to training); however, no study to date has examined such neuroplastic effects in both the training task (dual n-back) and the fluid intelligence transfer task to which the training is purported to transfer (Raven's Matrices). This study investigated neural correlates of WM training in healthy young adults randomized to six weeks of WM training, or an active control condition (processing speed training) with a pre- and post-training fMRI design. Results indicated significant reductions in activation for the WM trained group in key WM-task related areas for trained WM tasks after training compared to the processing speed active control group. The same pattern of training related decreases in activation for the WM trained group was not observed for the transfer task, which is consistent with null results for all cognitive outcomes of the present trial. The observed pattern of results suggests that repetitive practice with a complex task does indeed lead to neuroplastic processes that very likely represent the reduced demand for attentional control while sub-components of the task become more routinized with practice. We suggest that future research investigate neural correlates of WM training in populations for which WM itself is impaired and/or behavioural trials of WM training have returned more promising results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Feedback Specificity, Information Processing, and Transfer of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jodi S.; Wood, Robert E.; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of feedback specificity on transfer of training and the mechanisms through which feedback can enhance or inhibit transfer. We used concurrent verbal protocol methodology to elicit and operationalize the explicit information processing activities used by 48 trainees performing the Furniture Factory computer…

  13. Workplace Climate and Peer Support as Determinants of Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    Although billions of dollars are spent annually on training and development, much about the transfer processes is not well understood. This study investigated the interaction of workplace climate and peer support on the transfer of learning in a corporate field setting. Supervisor ratings of performance on several skill dimensions were obtained…

  14. Predicting Autonomous and Controlled Motivation to Transfer Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Festner, Dagmar; Gallenberger, Wolfgang; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans

    2009-01-01

    In spite of a broad consensus on the importance of motivation for the transfer of learning from training to the job in work organizations, studies investigating motivation to transfer are limited. This study combines the self-determination theory, the expectancy theory and the theory of planned behaviour to provide a theoretical framework for…

  15. Voluntary or Mandatory Enrollment in Training and the Motivation to Transfer Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, Carla; Henriques, Paulo Lopes; Ribeiro, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the motivation to transfer training in a multidimensional way. It investigates autonomous and controlled motivation and explores the difference in motivation to transfer according to whether the employee is enrolled in training on a voluntary or mandatory basis. This is a cross-sectional hypotheses-testing…

  16. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  17. Maximizing the transferred power to electric arc furnace for having maximum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, Haidar; Ghanbari, Teymoor; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase production of an EAF (electric arc furnace) by reduction of melting time, one can increase transferred power to the EAF. In other words a certain value of energy can be transferred to the EAF in less time. The transferred power to the EAF reduces when series reactors are utilized in order to have stable arc with desired characteristics. To compensate the reduced transferred power, the secondary voltage of the EAF transformer should be increased by tap changing of the transformer. On the other hand, after any tap changing of the EAF transformer, improved arc stability is degraded. Therefore, the series reactor and EAF transformer tap changing should be simultaneously determined to achieve arc with desired characteristics. In this research, three approaches are proposed to calculate the EAF system parameters, by which the optimal set-points of the different series reactor and EAF transformer taps are determined. The electric characteristics relevant to the EAF for the all transformer and series reactor taps with and without SVC (static VAr compensator) are plotted and based on these graphs the optimal set-points are tabulated. Finally, an economic evaluation is also presented for the methods. - Highlights: • The main goal is to transfer the maximum power to electric arc furnace. • Optimal transformer and series reactor taps are determined. • Arc stability and transferred power to EAF determine the optimal performance. • An economic assessment is done and the number of increased meltings is calculated

  18. Transfer between Pose and Illumination Training in Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang Hong; Bhuiyan, Md. Al-Amin; Ward, James; Sui, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive level of pose training through a face-name association task was able to generalize to a new…

  19. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.

  20. Training Transfer: the Case for ‘Implementation Intentions'

    OpenAIRE

    Greenan, P; Reynolds, M; Turner, P

    2017-01-01

    As organizations adopt a more inclusive or pluralistic approach to talent management, there is an emphasis on the engagement of a broader segment of the workforce to deliver both strategic and operational objectives. Accompanying this is investment in learning, training and development activity which is intended to enhance the achievement of the objectives based on the assumption of the effective transfer of training to improve performance or behavioural outcomes. Ensuring that training inves...

  1. Working memory training and transfer in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Lauren L; Morrison, Alexandra B; Chein, Jason M; Olson, Ingrid R

    2011-12-01

    There has been a great deal of interest, both privately and commercially, in using working memory training exercises to improve general cognitive function. However, many of the laboratory findings for older adults, a group in which this training is of utmost interest, are discouraging due to the lack of transfer to other tasks and skills. Importantly, improvements in everyday functioning remain largely unexamined in relation to WM training. We trained working memory in older adults using a task that encourages transfer in young adults (Chein & Morrison, 2010). We tested transfer to measures of working memory (e.g., Reading Span), everyday cognitive functioning [the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)], and other tasks of interest. Relative to controls, trained participants showed transfer improvements in Reading Span and the number of repetitions on the CVLT. Training group participants were also significantly more likely to self-report improvements in everyday attention. Our findings support the use of ecological tasks as a measure of transfer in an older adult population.

  2. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Warren B

    2006-06-01

    The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

  3. KT Training: Introduction to knowledge transfer tools | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Target population: All CERN staff and fellows Prerequisites: None Objectives: Get an overview of different forms of knowledge transfer Learn about available tools to: • Facilitate knowledge and technology transfer • Securing ownership and recognition for knowledge and technology Understand what services and support are available to the CERN community from the KT group Content: Why CERN engages in knowledge and technology transfer Modes of knowledge transfer and the general workflow of a knowledge transfer project Introduction to intellectual property with a focus on patents Overview of contracts for knowledge transfer and the basic structure and content of a typical contract Entrepreneurship and available support for starting a company Examples of knowledge transfer projects at CERN For more information, see the Training catalogue.

  4. Are training and transfer effects of working memory updating training modulated by achievement motivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Xu, Y.; Fu, J.; Maes, J.H.R.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies examining effects of working memory (WM) updating training revealed mixed results. One factor that might modulate training gains, and possibly also transfer of those gains to non-trained cognitive tasks, is achievement motivation. In the present Studies 1 and 2, students with either

  5. Getting the Most of Management Training - the Role of Identical Elements for Training Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof. dr. Karen van Dam; drs. Martijn van der Locht; dr. Dan Chiaburu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Focusing on management training, this study aimed to establish whether identical elements in a training program (i.e. aspects resembling participants' work situation) can improve training transfer and whether they do so beyond the contribution of two well-established predictors --

  6. Left ventricular atrioventricular plane displacement is preserved with lifelong endurance training and is the main determinant of maximal cardiac output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Boushel, Robert C; Calbet, José A

    2015-01-01

    subjects (29 ± 4 years) underwent cardiac MR. All subjects underwent maximal exercise testing and for elderly subjects maximal cardiac output during cycling was determined using dye dilution technique. RESULTS: Longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume did not differ between groups......BACKGROUND: Age-related decline in cardiac function can be prevented or postponed by lifelong endurance training. However, effects of normal ageing as well as of lifelong endurance exercise on longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine...... groups for RVAVPD (P = 0.2). LVAVPD was an independent predictor of maximal cardiac output (R(2 = ) 0.61, P groups. However, how longitudinal pumping...

  7. Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filopoulos, Dean; Cormack, Stuart J; Whyte, Douglas G

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the effect of hypoxia on growth hormone (GH) release during an acute bout of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise. Using a single-blinded, randomised crossover design, 16 resistance-trained males completed two resistance exercise sessions in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; inspiratory oxygen fraction, (FiO 2 ) 0.12, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) 82 ± 2%) and normoxia (NOR; FiO 2 0.21, SpO 2 98 ± 0%). Each session consisted of five sets of three repetitions of 45° leg press and bench press at 85% of one repetition maximum. Heart rate, SpO 2 , and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured throughout the protocol. Serum lactate and GH levels were determined pre-exposure, and at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Differences in mean and integrated EMG between HYP and NOR treatments were unclear. However, there was an important increase in the peak levels and area under the curve of both lactate (HYP 5.8 ± 1.8 v NOR 3.9 ± 1.1 mmol.L -1 and HYP 138.7 ± 33.1 v NOR 105.8 ± 20.8 min.mmol.L -1 ) and GH (HYP 4.4 ± 3.1 v NOR 2.1 ± 2.5 ng.mL -1 and HYP 117.7 ± 86.9 v NOR 72.9 ± 85.3 min.ng.mL -1 ) in response to HYP. These results suggest that performing high-intensity resistance exercise in a hypoxic environment may provide a beneficial endocrine response without compromising the neuromuscular activation required for maximal strength development.

  8. Transfer of Training in Simple Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yalin; Campbell, Jamie I D

    2017-04-18

    In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e.g., practice B + 3, test B + 2 or B + 1). Here we constructed analogous simple addition problems (practice 4 + 3, test 4 + 2 or 4 + 1). In each of three experiments (total n = 108) participants received six practice blocks followed by two test blocks of new problems to examine generalization effects. Practice of addition identity-rule problems (i.e., 0 + N = N) showed complete transfer of RT gains made during practice to unpracticed items at test. In contrast, the addition ties (2 + 2, 3 + 3, etc.) presented large RT costs for unpracticed problems at test, but sped up substantially in the second test block. This pattern is consistent with item-specific strengthening of associative memory. The critical items were small non-tie additions (sum ≤ 10) for which the test problems would be implicitly practiced if counting was employed during practice. In all three experiments (and collectively) there was no evidence of generalization for these items in the first test block, but there was robust speed up when the items were repeated in the second test block. Thus, there was no evidence of the generalization of practice that would be expected if counting procedures mediated our participants' performance on small non-tie addition problems.

  9. The Differences between Hard and Soft Skills and Their Relative Impact on Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Dennis R.; Powell, Jimmy L.

    2011-01-01

    Most research and conceptualizing of training transfer assumes that the content of the training is irrelevant in whether or not or to what extent transfer is successful. The singular perspective that all training is the same when it comes to issues of training transfer is misguided. This is especially true for the types of training that have been…

  10. Training and transfer of training in rapid visual search for camouflaged targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Neider

    Full Text Available Previous examinations of search under camouflage conditions have reported that performance improves with training and that training can engender near perfect transfer to similar, but novel camouflage-type displays [1]. What remains unclear, however, are the cognitive mechanisms underlying these training improvements and transfer benefits. On the one hand, improvements and transfer benefits might be associated with higher-level overt strategy shifts, such as through the restriction of eye movements to target-likely (background display regions. On the other hand, improvements and benefits might be related to the tuning of lower-level perceptual processes, such as figure-ground segregation. To decouple these competing possibilities we had one group of participants train on camouflage search displays and a control group train on non-camouflage displays. Critically, search displays were rapidly presented, precluding eye movements. Before and following training, all participants completed transfer sessions in which they searched novel displays. We found that search performance on camouflage displays improved with training. Furthermore, participants who trained on camouflage displays suffered no performance costs when searching novel displays following training. Our findings suggest that training to break camouflage is related to the tuning of perceptual mechanisms and not strategic shifts in overt attention.

  11. Maximizing kinetic energy transfer in one-dimensional many-body collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricardo, Bernard; Lee, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The main problem discussed in this paper involves a simple one-dimensional two-body collision, in which the problem can be extended into a chain of one-dimensional many-body collisions. The result is quite interesting, as it provides us with a thorough mathematical understanding that will help in designing a chain system for maximum energy transfer for a range of collision types. In this paper, we will show that there is a way to improve the kinetic energy transfer between two masses, and the idea can be applied recursively. However, this method only works for a certain range of collision types, which is indicated by a range of coefficients of restitution. Although the concept of momentum, elastic and inelastic collision, as well as Newton’s laws, are taught in junior college physics, especially in Singapore schools, students in this level are not expected to be able to do this problem quantitatively, as it requires rigorous mathematics, including calculus. Nevertheless, this paper provides nice analytical steps that address some common misconceptions in students’ way of thinking about one-dimensional collisions. (paper)

  12. Maximizing kinetic energy transfer in one-dimensional many-body collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Bernard; Lee, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The main problem discussed in this paper involves a simple one-dimensional two-body collision, in which the problem can be extended into a chain of one-dimensional many-body collisions. The result is quite interesting, as it provides us with a thorough mathematical understanding that will help in designing a chain system for maximum energy transfer for a range of collision types. In this paper, we will show that there is a way to improve the kinetic energy transfer between two masses, and the idea can be applied recursively. However, this method only works for a certain range of collision types, which is indicated by a range of coefficients of restitution. Although the concept of momentum, elastic and inelastic collision, as well as Newton’s laws, are taught in junior college physics, especially in Singapore schools, students in this level are not expected to be able to do this problem quantitatively, as it requires rigorous mathematics, including calculus. Nevertheless, this paper provides nice analytical steps that address some common misconceptions in students’ way of thinking about one-dimensional collisions.

  13. Transfer of Skills Evaluation for Assembly and Maintenance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peveri Matteo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the research topics within the EU-project SKILLS1 was the training of Industrial Maintenance and Assembly (IMA tasks. The IMA demonstrator developed comprehends two different training platforms, one based on technologies of Virtual Reality (VR and the other one on Augmented Reality (AR. To qualify the efficiency of the developed training systems different studies have been conducted, followed by a final “Transfer of Skill” evaluation that has been performed by service technicians at the “SIDEL industrial training centre” in Parma. This evaluation included qualitative methods (feedback collection in questionnaires as well as quantitative methods (experiments with control groups. The results demonstrate that both platforms are useful and suitable training tools for IMA tasks, and that the AR training decreased the number of unsolved errors in the task.

  14. The repeated bout effect of typical lower body strength training sessions on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Sinclair, Wade H; Leicht, Anthony S; Deakin, Glen B; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two typical strength training sessions performed 1 week apart (i.e. repeated bout effect) on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal. Fourteen resistance-untrained men (age 24.0 ± 3.9 years; height 1.83 ± 0.11 m; body mass 77.4 ± 14.0 kg; VOpeak 48.1 ± 6.1 M kg(-1) min(-1)) undertook two bouts of high-intensity strength training sessions (i.e. six-repetition maximum). Creatine kinase (CK), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), counter-movement jump (CMJ) as well as concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C) were examined prior to and immediately post, 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h post each strength training bout. Sub-maximal running performance was also conducted at T24 and T48 of each bout. When measures were compared between bouts at T48, the degree of elevation in CK (-58.4 ± 55.6 %) and DOMS (-31.43 ± 42.9 %) and acute reduction in CMJ measures (4.1 ± 5.4 %) were attenuated (p 0.05). Sub-maximal running performance was impaired until T24, although changes were not attenuated following the second bout. The initial bout appeared to provide protection against a number of muscle damage indicators suggesting a greater need for recovery following the initial session of typical lower body resistance exercises in resistance-untrained men although sub-maximal running should be avoided following the first two sessions.

  15. Experience in SSAC training and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.R.; Keepin, G.R.; Pontes, B.

    1983-01-01

    Each year since 1980 an international training course on the implementation of States' Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSACs) has been offered in the USA under the auspices of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978. The courses are sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, with the assistance of other organizations. The purpose of the courses, which are described in detail in the paper, is ''to provide practical training in the design, implementation and operation of a national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials that satisfies both national and IAEA international safeguards objectives.'' On odd numbered years, the course emphasis is on bulk-processing facilities; on even years the emphasis is on item-dominant facilities. Internationally known authorities are selected as course lecturers from the IAEA and Los Alamos, as well as government, industry, and national laboratories in both the USA and abroad. Lectures are supplemented with workshops, panel discussions, tours of Los Alamos safeguards laboratories, and visits to operating nuclear fuel-cycle facilities. Attendance at the 1981, 1982 and 1983 SSAC courses has averaged 26 student participants, with almost as many nations represented. The overall response to the courses has been highly favorable, indicating that they are fulfilling a timely and important need. Key to the success has been a course format that encourages maximum exchange of safeguards technology and experience among all participants, both students and lecturers. (author)

  16. Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Human endurance performance can be predicted from maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), lactate threshold, and exercise efficiency. These physiologic parameters, however, are not wholly exclusive from one another and their interplay is complex. Accordingly, we sought to identify more specific me...

  17. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait.

  18. Endurance training-induced changes in the GH-IGF-I axis influence maximal muscle strength in previously untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Kuczek, Piotr; Sztefko, Krystyna; Duda, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2017-02-01

    In this study we have determined the effects of 20weeks of endurance running training on the GH-IGF-I axis changes in the context of the skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity level. Before and after the endurance training program a maximal incremental exercise tests, a 1500m race and a muscle strength measurements were performed and the blood samples were taken to determine both resting as well as end-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth hormone-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth hormone binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations. 20weeks of endurance running training improved power output generated at the end of the maximal incremental test by 24% (P<0.012), 1500m running time by 13% (P<0.012) and maximal muscle strength by 9% (P<0.02). End-exercise IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was decreased by 22% after the training (P<0.04) and the magnitude of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio decrease (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 ex ) was 2.3 times higher after the training (P<0.04). The magnitude of the exercise-induced changes in IGFBP-3 concentration was also significantly higher (P<0.04) and there was a trend toward lower end-exercise IGF-I concentration (P=0.08) after the training. These changes were accompanied by a significantly higher (30%) end-exercise IL-6 concentration (P<0.01) as well as by a 3.4 times higher magnitude of IL-6 increase (P<0.02) after the training. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between changes in resting serum IGF-I concentration (ΔIGF-I res ) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 res ) and changes in muscle strength (ΔMVC) (r=0.95, P=0.0003 and r=0.90, P=0.002, respectively). The training-induced changes in the components of the GH-IGF-I axis may have additive effects on skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transfer of Training: A Reorganized Review on Work Environment and Motivation to Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of skills & knowledge gained from a training program to a job situation, i.e. transfer of training, has become a great concern in training issues. Transfer of learned skills at the actual workplace is subject to a number of factors, with work environment being one of those factors. Research has shown a relatively profound role of the work environment in delineating the construct of transfer. However, some of the most important characteristics of the work environment have arguably remained under-researched and are still going empirical testing. So, in earnest, this paper is an attempt to make a holistic review of the literature and methodology by going through summative, formative and meta studies published from 1988–2014 on transfer. This paper proposes a conceptual framework by recognizing the influential role of two forms of work environments (i.e., support and climate on transfer of training, taking into account the mediating role played by transfer motivation with recommended methodological standards.

  20. Working-memory training in younger and older adults: Training gains, transfer, and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne eBrehmer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM, a key determinant of many higher-order cognitive functions, declines in old age. Current research attempts to develop process-specific WM training procedures, which may lead to general cognitive improvement. Adaptivity of the training as well as the comparison of training gains to performance changes of an active control group are key factors in evaluating the effectiveness of a specific training program. In the present study, 55 younger adults (20-30 years of age and 45 older adults (60-70 years of age received five weeks of computerized training on various spatial and verbal WM tasks. Half of the sample received adaptive training (i.e., individually adjusted task difficulty, whereas the other half worked on the same task material but on a low task difficulty level (active controls. Performance was assessed using criterion, near-transfer, and far-transfer tasks before training, after 5 weeks of intervention, as well as after a 3-month follow-up interval. Results indicate that (a adaptive training generally led to larger training gains than low-level practice, (b training and transfer gains were somewhat greater for younger than for older adults in some tasks, but comparable across age groups in other tasks, (c far transfer was observed to a test on sustained attention and for a self-rating scale on cognitive functioning in daily life for both young and old, and (d training gains and transfer effects were maintained across the 3-month follow-up interval across age.

  1. MILITARY TRAINING TRANSFERABILITY STUDY, DECEMBER 15, 1966. QUARTERLY REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEINSTEIN, PAUL A.

    PROGRESS WAS REPORTED ON AN ANALYTICAL SURVEY EFFORT OF THE HISTORICAL IMPLICATIONS OF OCCUPATIONAL CROSSOVER AND MOBILITY BETWEEN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN LIFE. TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS WERE DRAWN ON THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE U.S. MILITARY SERVICE PROGRAM FOR (1) OFFERING TRAINING IN INTERESTING AND TRANSFERABLE JOB SKILLS AND (2) PROVIDING…

  2. Transfer of Training: Adding Insight through Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews studies which apply a social network perspective to examine transfer of training. The theory behind social networks focuses on the interpersonal mechanisms and social structures that exist among interacting units such as people within an organization. A premise of this perspective is that individual's behaviors and outcomes…

  3. Far Transfer of Leadership Training: Concepts, Experiences, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Thorndike , 1932). For Army leadership training, transfer is the key goal captured in the motto Be-Know-Do (Department of the Army, 2006; FM 6-22...Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. 52 Thorndike , E.L. (1932). The fundamentals of learning. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University

  4. Training and Transfer Effects of Response Inhibition Training in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Chen, Ling; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2018-01-01

    Response inhibition is crucial for mental and physical health but studies assessing the trainability of this type of inhibition are rare. Thirty-nine children aged 10-12 years and 46 adults aged 18-24 years were assigned to an adaptive go/no-go inhibition training condition or an active control condition. Transfer of training effects to…

  5. Optimizing Half Squat Postactivation Potential Load in Squat Jump Training for Eliciting Relative Maximal Power in Ski Jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaś, Artur; Wilk, Michal; Stastny, Petr; Maszczyk, Adam; Pajerska, Katarzyna; Zając, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Gołaś, A, Wilk, M, Stastny, P, Maszczyk, A, Pajerska, K, and Zając, A. Optimizing half squat postactivation potential load in squat jump training for eliciting relative maximal power in ski jumpers. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3010-3017, 2017-Training load manipulation in a single workout session can increase or decrease training effectiveness in terms of athletes' strength or power gains. In ski jumping, the complex training that elicits maximal power gains may take advantage of the postactivation potentiation (PAP) mechanism. The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in rate of force development (RFD), rate of power development (RPD), and jump height during a complex training session consisted of the barbell half squat (Sq) as a conditioning exercise with loads ranged between 60 and 100% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), followed by a body weight squat jump (SqJ) as a performance task. The study was conducted with 16 elite athletes from the Polish National Ski Jumping Team, age 23 ± 8 years, body mass 56 ± 9 kg, and height 172 ± 12 cm. Complex training session started with the Sq at 60% of 1RM as the conditioning exercise, followed by 3 minutes of rest and the SqJ. The conditioning barbell half Sq was performed with 70, 80, 90, and 100% of 1RM with 5 minutes of rest. The differences in RFD occurred between an SqJ following the application of 80% of 1RM and all other SqJs (p = 0.01), and in RPD between SqJ without conditioning, SqJ after 60% of 1RM and 80% of 1RM (p = 0.02). On average, the most effective load in inducing PAP during ski jumpers' SqJ training is 80% of 1RM. The intensity of the conditioning exercise that elicits the greatest PAP effect should be individualized (60-100% 1RM), as it is dependent on the level of maximal strength.

  6. The Factors That Influence Transfer of Training and Its Effect on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Nazli, Nik Nadian Nisa; Sheikh Khairudin, Sheikh Muhamad Hizam

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the relationship between organizational learning culture, psychological contract breach, work engagement, training simulation and transfer of training, to examine the effect of transfer of training on organizational citizenship behaviour and to determine the mediating effect of transfer of training on the…

  7. University-industry consortium: maximizing the use of limited resources for instructor training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, R.E.; Williams, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    This proposed development effort would accomplish three major objectives, as follows: 1. To identify and verify, through job analysis, the critical professional tasks that must be performed by electric utility instructors. 2. To adapt and revise existing instructor training modules to make them self-contained and highly specific to the professional knowledge and skills needed by electric utility instructors. 3. To develop new instructor training modules, if needed, to meet utility instructor training needs that are not addressed by any existing materials. It is anticipated that approximately twenty (20) modules will be needed to address all of the critical instructor tasks identified during the job analysis phase. The National Center for Research in Vocational Education proposes that it would be very cost-effective and time-efficient to cooperatively undertake the development of the needed instructor training modules with a consortium of about to ten interested electric utility companies

  8. Designing Training for Temporal and Adaptive Transfer: A Comparative Evaluation of Three Training Methods for Process Control Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Sauer, Juergen; Burkolter, Dina; Ritzmann, Sandrina

    2010-01-01

    Training in process control environments requires operators to be prepared for temporal and adaptive transfer of skill. Three training methods were compared with regard to their effectiveness in supporting transfer: Drill & Practice (D&P), Error Training (ET), and procedure-based and error heuristics training (PHT). Communication…

  9. Maximizing lipocalin prediction through balanced and diversified training set and decision fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Abhigyan; Subbiah, Karthikeyan

    2015-12-01

    Lipocalins are short in sequence length and perform several important biological functions. These proteins are having less than 20% sequence similarity among paralogs. Experimentally identifying them is an expensive and time consuming process. The computational methods based on the sequence similarity for allocating putative members to this family are also far elusive due to the low sequence similarity existing among the members of this family. Consequently, the machine learning methods become a viable alternative for their prediction by using the underlying sequence/structurally derived features as the input. Ideally, any machine learning based prediction method must be trained with all possible variations in the input feature vector (all the sub-class input patterns) to achieve perfect learning. A near perfect learning can be achieved by training the model with diverse types of input instances belonging to the different regions of the entire input space. Furthermore, the prediction performance can be improved through balancing the training set as the imbalanced data sets will tend to produce the prediction bias towards majority class and its sub-classes. This paper is aimed to achieve (i) the high generalization ability without any classification bias through the diversified and balanced training sets as well as (ii) enhanced the prediction accuracy by combining the results of individual classifiers with an appropriate fusion scheme. Instead of creating the training set randomly, we have first used the unsupervised Kmeans clustering algorithm to create diversified clusters of input patterns and created the diversified and balanced training set by selecting an equal number of patterns from each of these clusters. Finally, probability based classifier fusion scheme was applied on boosted random forest algorithm (which produced greater sensitivity) and K nearest neighbour algorithm (which produced greater specificity) to achieve the enhanced predictive performance

  10. Effects of Plyometric Training and Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Maximal-Intensity Exercise and Endurance in Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosas Fabián

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8, a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8, or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9. Athletes were evaluated for single and repeated jumps and sprints, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after the intervention. Both plyometric training groups improved in explosive jumping (ES = 0.27 to 1.0, sprinting (ES = 0.31 to 0.78, repeated sprinting (ES = 0.39 to 0.91, 60 s repeated jumping (ES = 0.32 to 0.45, endurance (ES = 0.35 to 0.37, and change-of-direction speed performance (ES = 0.36 to 0.58, whereas no significant changes were observed for the CONTROL group. Nevertheless, compared to the CONTROL group, only the BA group showed greater improvements in endurance, repeated sprinting and repeated jumping performances. It was concluded that beta-alanine supplementation during plyometric training may add further adaptive changes related to endurance, repeated sprinting and jumping ability.

  11. Effects of Plyometric Training and Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Maximal-Intensity Exercise and Endurance in Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Fabián; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martínez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; McCrudden, Emma; Meylan, Cesar; Moran, Jason; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Lucas A; Loturco, Irineu; Diaz, Daniela; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-09-01

    Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years) were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8), a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8), or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9). Athletes were evaluated for single and repeated jumps and sprints, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after the intervention. Both plyometric training groups improved in explosive jumping (ES = 0.27 to 1.0), sprinting (ES = 0.31 to 0.78), repeated sprinting (ES = 0.39 to 0.91), 60 s repeated jumping (ES = 0.32 to 0.45), endurance (ES = 0.35 to 0.37), and change-of-direction speed performance (ES = 0.36 to 0.58), whereas no significant changes were observed for the CONTROL group. Nevertheless, compared to the CONTROL group, only the BA group showed greater improvements in endurance, repeated sprinting and repeated jumping performances. It was concluded that beta-alanine supplementation during plyometric training may add further adaptive changes related to endurance, repeated sprinting and jumping ability.

  12. Effects of basketball training on maximal oxygen uptake, muscle strength, and joint mobility in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Galazoulas, Christos; Stefanidis, Panagiotis; Metaxas, Thomas I; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged basketball skills training on maximal aerobic power, isokinetic strength, joint mobility, and body fat percentage, in young basketball players, and controls of the same age. Twenty basketball players and 18 control boys participated in the study. Basketball players participated both in their school's physical education program and in a children's basketball team training program. Controls participated only in their school's physical education program. All subjects were tested every 6 months (18 months total, 11(1/2), 12, 12(1/2), 13 years old) for VO(2)max, peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings at 180 and 300 degrees x s(-1) and range of motion of the knee and hip joints. Body fat percentage was assessed at the beginning and the end of the experimental period. Results showed that the basketball group had lower heart rate values in all ages and higher VO(2) values in the initial test compared with the control in submaximal intensity. The VO(2)max was altered in both groups on the final test, when compared to the initial test. However, the basketball group had a higher VO(2)max on each of the 6-month follow-up measurements, compared to the control group (p trained group had significantly lower percentage body fat values, compared to controls. In conclusion, regular basketball training increased aerobic power and decreased body fat percentage of prepubescent boys, while it did not affect muscle strength and joint mobility of the lower limbs. The major implication suggested by the findings of the present study is that, in order to improve the basic physical components, specific training procedures should be incorporated during the basketball training sessions. It is recommended that all children should be involved in some type of cardiovascular and resistance training program.

  13. High-dose inhaled terbutaline increases muscle strength and enhances maximal sprint performance in trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ) participated in a double-blinded randomized crossover study. After administration of inhaled terbutaline (30 × 0.5 mg) or placebo, subjects' maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of m.quadriceps was measured. After MVC, subjects performed a 30-s Wingate test. Sixty minutes following the Wingate test......, subjects exercised for 10 min at 80 % of [Formula: see text] and completed a 100-kcal time trial. Aerobic contribution was determined during the Wingate test by indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, plasma terbutaline, lactate, glucose, and K(+) were measured. RESULTS: Inhalation of 15 mg terbutaline resulted...... = 0.019) and 3.3 ± 1.0 % (P = 0.009) higher for terbutaline than placebo. Net accumulation of plasma lactate was higher (P = 0.003) for terbutaline than placebo during the Wingate test, whereas [Formula: see text] above baseline was unchanged by terbutaline (P = 0.882). Time-trial performance...

  14. Designing Serious Games for getting transferable skills in training settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Buendía-García

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, serious games are present in almost every educational context. The current work deals with the design of serious games oriented towards getting transferable skills in different kinds of training settings. These games can be a valuable way of engaging citizens and workers in the learning process by means of metaphors or similar mechanisms close to their user experience. They also contain an encouragement factor to uptake generic job competencies. An approach is proposed to develop this type of game by mixing traditional design steps with an instructional strategy to provide structured learning bites in training settings. Several game prototypes have been developed to test this approach in the context of courses for public employees. The obtained outcomes reveal the wider possibilities of serious games as educational resources, as well as the use of game achievements to evaluate the acquisition of transferable skills.

  15. Low- and high-volume of intensive endurance training significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake after 10-weeks of training in healthy men.

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    Arnt Erik Tjønna

    Full Text Available Regular exercise training improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, but the optimal intensity and volume necessary to obtain maximal benefit remains to be defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training with low-volume but high-intensity may be a time-efficient means to achieve health benefits. In the present study, we measured changes in VO2max and traditional cardiovascular risk factors after a 10 wk. training protocol that involved three weekly high-intensity interval sessions. One group followed a protocol which consisted of 4×4 min at 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax interspersed with 3 min active recovery at 70% HRmax (4-AIT, the other group performed a single bout protocol that consisted of 1×4 min at 90% HRmax (1-AIT. Twenty-six inactive but otherwise healthy overweight men (BMI: 25-30, age: 35-45 y were randomized to either 1-AIT (n = 11 or 4-AIT (n = 13. After training, VO2max increased by 10% (∼5.0 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 13% (∼6.5 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively (group difference, p = 0.08. Oxygen cost during running at a sub-maximal workload was reduced by 14% and 13% after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 7.1 and 2.6 mmHg after 1-AIT and 4-AIT respectively, while diastolic pressure decreased by 7.7 and 6.1 mmHg (group difference, p = 0.84. Both groups had a similar ∼5% decrease in fasting glucose. Body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ox-LDL cholesterol only were significantly reduced after 4-AIT. Our data suggest that a single bout of AIT performed three times per week may be a time-efficient strategy to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure and fasting glucose in previously inactive but otherwise healthy middle-aged individuals. The 1-AIT type of exercise training may be readily implemented as part of activities of daily living and could easily be translated into programs designed to improve public health

  16. Dietary protein to maximize resistance training: a review and examination of protein spread and change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Dixon, Brian M

    2012-09-08

    An appreciable volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for greater gains from resistance training, but not all findings are in agreement. We recently proposed "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" in an effort to explain discrepancies in the response to increased dietary protein in weight management interventions. The present review aimed to extend "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" to studies examining the effects of protein on resistance training induced muscle and strength gains. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see muscle and strength differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see muscle and strength benefits. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 66.1% g/kg/day between group intake spread versus a 10.2% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +59.5% compared to +6.5% when additional protein was no more effective than control. The magnitudes of difference between the mean spreads and changes of the present review are similar to our previous review on these theories in a weight management context. Providing sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in enhancing muscle and strength gains from resistance training. An increase in dietary protein favorably effects muscle and strength during resistance training.

  17. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

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    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. PMID:25987736

  18. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L

    2015-07-01

    Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Change in maximal fat oxidation in response to different regimes of periodized high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; Gallant, Rachael; King, Leesa; Ordille, Gina M; Heath, Brendyn; Montell, Matthew; Bandong, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO 2 max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed training and 32 men and women with similar physical activity and fitness level served as non-exercising controls (CON). Training consisted of ten sessions of progressive low-volume HIIT on the cycle ergometer after which participants completed an additional ten sessions of sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume HIIT, or periodized HIIT, whose assignment was randomized. Before and throughout training, MFO, FatOx, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx) were assessed during progressive cycling to exhaustion. Compared to CON, there was no effect of HIIT on MFO (p = 0.11). Small increases (p = 0.03) in FatOx were evident in response to HIIT leading to an additional 4.3 g of fat oxidized, although this value may not be clinically meaningful. Our results refute the widely reported increases in capacity for FatOx demonstrated with HIIT, which is likely due to marked day-to-day variability in determinations of MFO and exercise fat oxidation as well as the heterogeneity of our sample.

  20. The correlation between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships in highly trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; Peconomy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; Peconomy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently.

  1. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6-week cluster versus traditional plyometric training sets on jumping ability, sprint and agility performance. Thirteen college students were assigned to a cluster sets group (N=6) or traditional sets group (N=7). Both training groups completed the same training program. The traditional group completed five sets of 20 repetitions with 2min of rest between sets each session, while the cluster group completed five sets of 20 [2×10] repetitions with 30/90-s rest each session. Subjects were evaluated for countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), t test, 20-m and 40-m sprint test performance before and after the intervention. Both groups had similar improvements (Psets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of manual versus free-weight training to improve maximal strength and performance for microgravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Schüren, Thomas; McCourt, Molly; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We tested a simple and compact device designed for manual resistance training in conditions of microgravity (Self-Powered Rope Trainer Duo (SPoRT Duo)) to increase muscle performance. Twenty-four participants (20.8 ± 2.1 years) were randomly assigned to a manual resistance group (n = 12) and a free-weight group (n = 12). Participants performed eight exercises (three sets; 8-12 efforts) either with free weights or the SPoRT Duo twice a week for 6 weeks. Maximal isometric force of trunk flexion, back extension and chest press increased (P at least 0.01, d at least 0.52) both in the manual resistance group (18.4% ± 15.0%; 32.7% ± 22.7%; 15.3% ± 9.7%) and free-weight group (18.0% ± 13.9%; 26.6% ± 28.9%; 13.3% ± 7.6%). The change in maximal isometric force of wide grip row in both groups (d at best 0.38) did not reach statistical significance (P at best 0.08). The squat one-repetition-maximum increased in the manual resistance group (29.8% ± 22.1%) and the free-weight group (32.4% ± 26.6%). Jump height, determined by a jump-and-reach test, increased in the free-weight group (9.8% ± 13.2%) but not in the manual resistance group (2.0% ± 8.5%). Manual resistance training was equally effective in increasing strength as traditional resistance training with free weights. This apparatus is a useful addition to current in-flight exercise systems.

  3. Linking Positive Affect and Motivation to Transfer within Training: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Hilko Frederik Klaas; Kauffeld, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Motivation to transfer is a critical element for successful training transfer. Whereas recent research has shown that training-related factors such as training design are related to motivation to transfer, participants' affective experiences have been neglected. Based on the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, we conducted a multilevel…

  4. Investigating the Efficacy of Web-Based Transfer Training on Independent Wheelchair Transfers Through Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, Lynn A; Rigot, Stephanie K; Hogaboom, Nathan S; Venus, Chris; Boninger, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of a web-based transfer training module at improving transfer technique across 3 groups: web-based training, in-person training (current standard of practice), and a waitlist control group (WLCG); and secondarily, to determine subject factors that can be used to predict improvements in transfer ability after training. Randomized controlled trials. Summer and winter sporting events for disabled veterans. A convenience sample (N=71) of manual and power wheelchair users who could transfer independently. An individualized, in-person transfer training session or a web-based transfer training module. The WLCG received the web training at their follow-up visit. Transfer Assessment Instrument (TAI) part 1 score was used to assess transfers at baseline, skill acquisition immediately posttraining, and skill retention after a 1- to 2-day follow-up period. The in-person and web-based training groups improved their median (interquartile range) TAI scores from 7.98 (7.18-8.46) to 9.13 (8.57-9.58; P.05). A lower initial TAI score was found to be the only significant predictor of a larger percent change in TAI score after receiving training. Transfer training can improve technique with changes retained within a short follow-up window, even among experienced wheelchair users. Web-based transfer training demonstrated comparable improvements to in-person training. With almost half of the United States population consulting online resources before a health care professional, web-based training may be an effective method to increase knowledge translation. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake in response to ten sessions of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael M; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi A

    2018-01-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are widely reported in response to completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the mechanism explaining this result is poorly understood. This study examined changes in VO2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to 10 sessions of low-volume HIIT. Participants included 30 active men and women (mean age and VO2max=22.9±5.4 years and 39.6±5.6 mL/kg/min) who performed HIIT and 30 men and women (age and VO2max=25.7±4.5 years and 40.7±5.2 mL/kg/min) who served as non-exercising controls (CON). High intensity interval training consisted of 6-10 s bouts of cycling per session at 90-110 percent peak power output (PPO) interspersed with 75 s recovery. Before and after training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which CO, stroke volume (SV), and heart rate (HR) were estimated using thoracic impedance. To confirm VO2max attainment, a verification test was completed after progressive cycling at a work rate equal to 110%PPO. Data demonstrated significant improvements in VO2max (2.71±0.63 L/min to 2.86±0.63 L/min, Psessions of HIIT is due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  6. Redirecting learners' attention during training: effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merriënboer, J.J.G.; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; de Croock, M.B.M.; Paas, F.G.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive load theory provides guidelines for improving the training of complex cognitive skills and their transfer to new situations. One guideline states that extraneous cognitive load that is irrelevant to the construction of cognitive schemata should be minimised. Experiment 1 (N=26) compares

  7. The impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on recovery after intensive, muscle damaging, maximal speed training in professional team sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-05-01

    During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TRAINING-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE TOPOGRAPHY OF MUSCLE TORQUES AND MAXIMAL MUSCLE TORQUES IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Buśko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect changes in the maximal muscle torques in male basketball players during a two-year training cycle. We verified the hypothesis that different workloads applied during the preparation and competition periods would result in changes in the maximal muscle torques of the athletes (increase during the former and decrease or no change during the latter period accompanied by no alteration of the percent muscle topography of all the muscle groups tested. The examinations were conducted on nine senior male basketball players from the Polish national team. Estimations of the muscle torques in static conditions were performed at the end of the preparation (measurements I and III and competition (measurements II and IV periods of a two-year training cycle. Eleven muscle groups were studied including flexors and extensors of the trunk and flexors and extensors of the shoulder, the elbow, the hip, the knee, and the ankle. Muscle torques of the shoulder and the elbow insignificantly decreased except for the muscle torque of the flexors of the shoulder. Muscle torques of the flexors and extensors of the trunk as well as of the flexors and extensors of the hip, the knee, and the ankle increased between measurements I and III and between measurements I and IV with the only exception being the muscle torque of the flexors of the knee (which significantly decreased by 7.4% In the case of the flexors and extensors of the trunk and the flexors and extensors of the hip, the changes appeared to be significant. The sum of the muscle torques of the upper limbs markedly decreased between the preparation (measurement I and competition (measurement IV periods. The sum of the muscle torques of the trunk and the lower limbs and the sum of the muscle torques of the eleven muscle groups significantly increased between measurements I and IV. Percent muscle topography significantly decreased for the flexors and extensors of the shoulder and the

  9. The Effect of Training on Productivity: The Transfer of On-the-Job Training from the Perspective of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grip, Andries; Sauermann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Although the transfer of on-the-job training to the workplace belongs to the realm of educational research, it is also highly related to labour economics. In the economic literature, the transfer of training is based on the theoretical framework of human capital theory and has been extensively analysed empirically in econometric studies that take…

  10. High-intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9?11-year-old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9?11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000?m time (T 100?m and T 2,000?m), VO2peak and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (La...

  11. Impact of Using a Robot Patient for Nursing Skill Training in Patient Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhifeng; Lin, Chingszu; Kanai-Pak, Masako; Maeda, Jukai; Kitajima, Yasuko; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Kuwahara, Noriaki; Ogata, Taiki; Ota, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, simulation training has been used to help nurses improve their patient-transfer skills. However, the effectiveness of such training remains limited because it lacks effective ways of simulating patients' actions realistically. It is difficult for nurses to use the skills learned from simulation training to transfer an…

  12. Evaluation in practice: identifying factors for improving transfer of training in technical domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnard, Y.F.; Veldhuis, G.J.; Rooij, J.C.G.M. van

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of training is to prepare trainees for the tasks they are going to perform on their jobs. In other words, training aims at transfer from the classroom to the work floor. Transfer of training can be defined as the extent to which trainees are able to use effectively in their work

  13. The effect from maximal bench press strength training on work economy during wheelchair propulsion in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørhaug, T; Brurok, B; Hoff, J; Helgerud, J; Leivseth, G

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effect from maximal bench press strength training (MST) on wheelchair propulsion work economy (WE). Pretest-posttest case-control group design. St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. Seventeen male individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegia were allocated to either MST bench press (n=11) or the control group (CG) (n=7). The MST group trained bench press three times per week, for 6 weeks, starting at 85-95% of their pretest bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM). For calculation of WE during wheelchair propulsion, oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) measurements were collected during wheelchair ergometry (WCE) at submaximal workload of 50 W. Similarly, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) and peak power output (W) were measured during WCE. Individuals in the MST regimen significantly improved WE compared with the CG by 17.3 % (mean between-group differences: 95% confidence interval) of 2.63 ml kg -1  min -1 : (-4.34, -0.91) (P=0.007). Between pretest and posttest, the increase in bench press 1RM was by 17% higher in the MST group compared with the CG. At peak testing, the MST group generated significantly higher peak power compared with the CG. All other physiological variables were comparable within and between groups. A 6-week MST bench press regimen significantly improved WE during wheelchair propulsion at 50 W workload. These preliminary data support a possible beneficial role for MST to reduce the energy cost of wheelchair propulsion for SCI individuals.

  14. The Effect of Maximal Strength Training on Strength, Walking, and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb I. Karpatkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little literature examining the use of maximal strength training (MST in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS. This pretest-posttest study examined the effects of a MST program on strength, walking, balance, and fatigue in a sample of pwMS. Seven pwMS (median EDSS 3.0, IQR 1.5 participated in a MST program twice weekly for eight weeks. Strength was assessed with 1-repetition maximum (1RM on each leg. Walking and balance were measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT and Berg Balance Scale (BBS, respectively. Fatigue was measured during each week of the program with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. The program was well tolerated, with an attendance rate of 96.4%. Participants had significant improvements in right leg 1RM (t6=-6.032, P=0.001, left leg 1RM (t(6=-5.388, P=0.002, 6MWT distance (t(6=-2.572,P=0.042, and BBS score (Z=-2.371, P=0.018 after the MST intervention. There was no significant change in FSS scores (F(1,3.312=2.411, P=0.092. Participants in the MST program experienced improved balance and walking without an increase in fatigue. This MST program may be utilized by rehabilitation clinicians to improve lower extremity strength, balance, and mobility in pwMS.

  15. High intensity interval training in a real world setting: a randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg, before and after the 12 week interventions. RESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat analyses, baseline (N = 49 and exit (N = 39 [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03. The actual (observed, rather than prescribed time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001. On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a

  16. Therapeutic effects of maximal strength training on walking efficiency in patients with schizophrenia – a pilot study

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    Heggelund Jørn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with schizophrenia frequently have disabling gait deficits. The net mechanical efficiency of walking (ϵnet is an accurate measure often used to evaluate walking performance. Patients with gait deficits have a reduced ϵnet with excessive energy expenditure during sub-maximal walking. Maximal strength training (MST improves ϵnet in healthy individuals and is associated with reduced risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MST improves ϵnet in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Patients (ICD-10 schizophrenia, schizotypal or delusional disorders (F20-F29 were included in a non-randomized trial. Patients were assigned to one of two groups: 1 MST consisting of 4x4 repetitions at 85-90% one repetition maximum (1RM performed in a leg press apparatus or 2 playing computer games (CG. Both groups carried out their activity three days per week for eight weeks. 1RM, ϵnet at 60 watt walking, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the 36-items short form (SF-36 were measured pre and post intervention. Results The baseline ϵnet was 17.3 ± 1.2% and 19.4 ± 3.0% in the MST (n = 6 and CG groups (n = 7, respectively, which is categorized as mechanical inefficiency. The MST group improved 1RM by 79 kg (p = 0.006 and ϵnet by 3.4% (p = 0.046 more than the CG group. The MST group improved 1RM and ϵnet, by a mean of 83 kg (p = 0.028 and 3.4% (p = 0.028, respectively. VO2peak at baseline was 34.2 ± 10.2 and 38.3 ± 9.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 in the MST and CG groups, respectively, and did not change (p > 0.05. No change was observed in PANSS or SF-36 (p > 0.05. Conclusions MST improves 1RM and ϵnet in patients with schizophrenia. MST could be used as a therapeutic intervention for patients with schizophrenia to normalize their reduced ϵnet.

  17. Predictors of Collateral Learning Transfer in Continuing Vocational Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Anja-Christina

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change and skill shortages continuing vocational training is of great significance in Germany. However, the training effectiveness is mostly assessed only at the end of a training program or several months after the training. Since in continuing vocational training the two contexts learning field (training)…

  18. Effect of maturation on hemodynamic and autonomic control recovery following maximal running exercise in highly-trained young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBuchheit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maturation on post-exercise hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Fifty-five highly-trained young male soccer players (12-18 yr classified as pre-, circum- or post-peak height velocity (PHV performed a graded running test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Before (Pre and after (5th-10th min, Post exercise, heart rate (HR, stroke volume (SV, cardiac ouput (CO, arterial pressure (AP and total peripheral resistance (TPR were monitored. Parasympathetic (high-frequency [HFRR] of HR variability (HRV and baroreflex sensitivity [Ln BRS] and sympathetic activity (low-frequency [LFSAP] of systolic AP variability were estimated. Post-exercise blood lactate [La]b, the HR recovery (HRR time constant and parasympathetic reactivation (time varying HRV analysis were assessed. In all three groups, exercise resulted in increased HR, CO, AP and LFSAP (P<0.001, decreased SV, HFRR and Ln BRS (all P<0.001, and no change in TPRI (P=0.98. There was no ‘maturation x time’ interaction for any of the hemodynamic or autonomic variables (all P>0.22. After exercise, pre-PHV players displayed lower SV, CO and [La]b, faster HRR and greater parasympathetic reactivation compared with circum- and post-PHV players. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean muscle mass, [La]b and Pre parasympathetic activity were the strongest predictors of HRR (r2=0.62, P<0.001. While pre-PHV players displayed a faster HRR and greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, maturation had little influence on the hemodynamic and autonomic responses following maximal running exercise. HRR relates to lean muscle mass, blood acidosis and intrinsic parasympathetic function, with less evident impact of post-exercise autonomic function.

  19. Research Funding, Patent Search Training and Technology Transfer: a collaboration

    KAUST Repository

    Tyhurst, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This paper will focus on the collaboration efforts of three different university departments to create, teach and evaluate the benefits of a joint patent training series, as well as the future directions this collaboration will take. KAUST has as one of its goals the diversification of the Saudi economy. There is a strong focus at the university on developing entrepreneurial ideas and commercializing research done. The University Library supports this goal through the provision of electronic resources and introductory patent search training skills. However, the patent training class offered by the University Library is only one step in a process that faculty and students need when starting or taking their research to the next level. In the Fall of 2015, I met with representatives of the two major stakeholders in the patent arena, the office of Sponsored Research (OSR) and the Technology Transfer Office (TTO), to develop a patent training program to meet the needs of researchers. The OSR provides funding to researchers who have demonstrated that their ideas have merit with potential applications, the TTO works with researchers who are at the point of needing IP protection. The resulting discussion led us to collaborate on creating a workshop series that benefit the researcher’s information needs and each of our departments as well. In the first of the series of three 2 hour workshops, the Manager of TTO and the Lead Integrative Specialist from the OSR presented a workshop on an overview of Intellectual Property and the patenting process. These presentations focused on when and how to determine whether research is potentially patentable, why a researcher needs to protect his/her research and how to go about protecting it. The second workshop focused on introductory patent search skills and tools, how to expand a literature search to include the information found in patents, and how this kind of research will improve not only the literature search but the research

  20. Evidence for Narrow Transfer after Short-Term Cognitive Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souders, Dustin J; Boot, Walter R; Blocker, Kenneth; Vitale, Thomas; Roque, Nelson A; Charness, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which "brain training" can improve general cognition, resulting in improved performance on tasks dissimilar from the trained tasks (transfer of training), is a controversial topic. Here, we tested the degree to which cognitive training, in the form of gamified training activities that have demonstrated some degree of success in the past, might result in broad transfer. Sixty older adults were randomly assigned to a gamified cognitive training intervention or to an active control condition that involved playing word and number puzzle games. Participants were provided with tablet computers and asked to engage in their assigned training for 30 45-min training sessions over the course of 1 month. Although intervention adherence was acceptable, little evidence for transfer was observed except for the performance of one task that most resembled the gamified cognitive training: There was a trend for greater improvement on a version of the corsi block tapping task for the cognitive training group relative to the control group. This task was very similar to one of the training games. Results suggest that participants were learning specific skills and strategies from game training that influenced their performance on a similar task. However, even this near-transfer effect was weak. Although the results were not positive with respect to broad transfer of training, longer duration studies with larger samples and the addition of a retention period are necessary before the benefit of this specific intervention can be ruled out.

  1. Maximal lipid oxidation in patients with type 2 diabetes is normal and shows an adequate increase in response to aerobic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, M; Vind, B F; Højlund, K

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity is associated with an imbalance between the availability and the oxidation of lipids. We hypothesized that maximal whole-body lipid oxidation during exercise (FATmax) is reduced and that training-induced metabolic adaptation...... in response to aerobic training in obese subjects with and without T2D. These metabolic adaptations to training seem to be unrelated to changes in insulin sensitivity and indicate that an impaired capacity for lipid oxidation is not a major cause of insulin resistance in T2D....... subjects after training (all p Insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance rate (Rd) was lower in T2D vs. control subjects both before and after training. Rd increased...

  2. Social Support and Motivation to Transfer as Predictors of Training Transfer: Testing Full and Partial Mediation Using Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Sarah; Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Lewalter, Doris

    2018-01-01

    Social support and motivation to transfer are important components in conceptual models on transfer of training. Previous research indicates that both support and motivation influence transfer. To date, however, it is not yet clear if social support influences transfer of training directly, or if this influence is mediated by motivation to…

  3. Training for Adaptibility and Transfer on Digital Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaab, Brooke

    2001-01-01

    .... This research compared training digital skills to entry-level, enlisted soldiers by the conventional method to training by a constructivist method The constructivist method actively engages soldiers...

  4. Specific transfer effects following variable priority dual-task training in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Maxime; Bugaiska, Aurélia; Bherer, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Past divided attention training studies in older adults have suggested that variable priority training (VPT) tends to show larger improvement than fixed priority training (FPT). However, it remains unclear whether VPT leads to larger transfer effects. In this study, eighty-three older adults aged between 55 and 65 received five 1-hour sessions of VPT, FPT or of an active placebo. VPT and FPT subjects trained on a complex dual-task condition with variable stimulus timings in order to promote more flexible and self-guided strategies with regard to attentional priority devoted to the concurrent tasks. Real-time individualized feedback was provided to encourage improvement. The active placebo group attended computer classes. Near and far modality transfer tasks were used to assess the generalization of transfer effects. Results showed that VPT induced significantly larger transfer effects than FPT on a near modality transfer task. Evidence for larger transfer effects in VPT than FPT on a far modality transfer task was also observed. Furthermore, the superiority of VPT on FPT in transfer effects was specific to the ability to coordinate two concurrent tasks. Results of this study help better understand the benefits of VPT attentional training on transfer effects, which is an essential outcome for cognitive training effectiveness and relevancy.

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of training in the Spanish Public Administration: transfer to the job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aurelio Alonso García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the evaluation of training transfer in the Spanish Public Administration with the aim of identifying the factors that influence it.We analyzed 1475 answers and 69 courses organized by the Spanish Public Administration during the first semester of 2016. Direct transfer was evaluated through the Deferred Transfer Scale (CdE; Pineda, Quesada y Ciraso, 2011 while indirect transfer was evaluated through the Training Transfer Factors Scale (FET; Pineda, Quesada y Ciraso, 2013.The results show that trainee factors, organization factors, the orientation towards job requirements and the creation of a professional community all have a positive correlation with training transfer. However the duration of the training, the number of trainees and the number of instructors do not have a correlation with transfer.The time that laps until the trainees finally apply what they learnt in the training has an inverse correlation to transfer.The most important factor when it comes to predicting training transfer is the orientation towards job requirements.

  6. FLIGHT SIMULATION IN AIR FORCE TRAINING. A KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER EFICIENCY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GHEORGHIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For decades the issue of training through simulation has been discussed and studied to show its value and importance in fighter pilot training programs. Besides the fact that simulators are less expensive than a real airplane, and eliminate the operational risks that are present in a real flight they bring a significant contribution to the pilot training by their fidelity and realism that they show in such scenarios as in the reality. To measure the efficiency of training transfer from simulator to the aircraft, performance indicators were defined. The purpose of this article is to define these performance indicators and measurement of training transfer within the flight simulator involvement.

  7. Influence of the type of training task on intermanual transfer effects in upper-limb prosthesis training : A randomized pre-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2017-01-01

    Intermanual transfer, the transfer of motor skills from the trained hand to the untrained hand, can be used to train upper limb prosthesis skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effect and the type of training task. The used

  8. Management Versus Non-Management Knowledge Transfer from Training to Real Work Environments: A Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... A meta-analysis was performed with training transfer as a dependent variable and post-training independent variables of supervisor support, subordinate support, peer support, workplace support...

  9. Multicomponent Exercise Improves Hemodynamic Parameters and Mobility, but Not Maximal Walking Speed, Transfer Capacity, and Executive Function of Older Type II Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio José Coelho Junior

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program (MCEP on functional, cognitive, and hemodynamic parameters of older Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Moreover, additional analyses were performed to evaluate if T2DM patients present impaired adaptability in response to physical exercise when compared to nondiabetic volunteers. A total of 72 T2DM patients and 72 age-matched healthy volunteers (CG were recruited and submitted to functional, cognitive, and hemodynamic evaluations before and after six months of a MCEP. The program of exercise was performed twice a week at moderate intensity. Results indicate T2DM and nondiabetic patients present an increase in mobility (i.e., usual walking speed after the MCEP. However, improvements in maximal walking speed, transfer capacity, and executive function were only observed in the CG. On the other hand, only T2DM group reveals a marked decline in blood pressure. In conclusion, data of the current study indicate that a 6-month MCEP improves mobility and reduce blood pressure in T2DM patients. However, maximal walking speed, transfer capacity, and executive function were only improved in CG, indicating that T2DM may present impaired adaptability in response to physical stimulus.

  10. Transfer of training effects in stroke patients with apraxia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geusgens, Chantal; van Heugten, Caroline; Donkervoort, Mireille; van den Ende, Els; Jolles, Jelle; van den Heuvel, Wim

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the transfer of the effects of cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia from trained to non-trained tasks. In strategy training, the occurrence of transfer is expected as the training programme is aimed, not at relearning specific tasks, but at teaching patients new ways to handle the problems resulting from the impairment. Exploratory analyses were conducted on data previously collected in a randomised controlled trial on the efficacy of the strategy training. A total of 113 left hemisphere stroke patients were randomly assigned to a strategy training group and a group receiving occupational therapy as usual. Assessment of apraxia, motor functioning and activities of daily living (ADL) took place at baseline, after an eight-week treatment period, and five months after baseline. The primary outcome measure consisted of standardised ADL observations of trained and non-trained tasks. The analyses showed that in both treatment groups, the scores on the ADL observations for non-trained tasks improved significantly after eight weeks of training as compared with the baseline score. Change scores of non-trained activities were larger in the strategy training group as compared with the usual treatment group. By using previously collected data we are able to illustrate the potential transfer of treatment effects in a large sample of stroke patients. We found indications for the occurrence of transfer, although the study was not originally designed for the purpose of evaluating transfer. Therefore these results are worth exploring more profoundly. We will further investigate our preliminary conclusions in a new prospective study which is specifically designed to examine the transfer of training effects.

  11. Effects of Temperature and Stirring on Mass Transfer to Maximize Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil: A Mathematical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Al Basir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, the most promising renewable and alternative energy, is produced through transesterification of vegetable oils. One of the most cost effective sources of biodiesel is Jatropha curcas oil. Transesterification of Jatropha oil depends significantly on reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, molar ratio, catalyst amount, and stirrer speed. Among these parameters temperature and stirring have noteworthy effect on mass transfer. In this research article, we have shown the simultaneous effect of temperature and stirring on mass transfer by considering a mathematical model. The optimal profiles of temperature and stirring are determined as a combined parameter, for which maximum biodiesel can be obtained. Further, we have shown that this pair exists and is unique for the optimality of the system.

  12. An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Personality Traits and Transfer Climate Factors on Transfer of Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Imran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality has been considered an important factor influencing trainee efficiency & organizational productivity. Similarly, work climate factors have been recognized as primary influencers in post training context influencing productivity. But research concerning the impact of personality and work climate on trainees’ learning motivation has been very scant and mostly conducted in the western context. The present study was an attempt therefore, to extend this line of research in the Indian context involving educational sector of the State of Jammu & Kashmir. A sample of 517 teacher trainees was drawn for the present study using convenience sampling method. Results indicate that personality traits (i.e., conscientiousness, openness to experience, and internal locus of control do not influence training transfer directly or indirectly, while, transfer climate factors do affect training transfer both directly as well as indirectly via learning motivation. The implications of the results are discussed and the limitations of the study are noted, along with suggested avenues for future research.

  13. Building Supervisory Confidence--A Key to Transfer of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byham, William C.; Robinson, James

    1977-01-01

    A training concept is described which suggests that efforts toward maintaining and/or building the confidence of the participants in supervisory training programs can increase their likelihood of using the skills on the job. (TA)

  14. Transfer effects of a cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geusgens, C A V; van Heugten, C M; Cooijmans, J P J; Jolles, J; van den Heuvel, W J A

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transfer effects of cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia. During 8 weeks, 29 apraxic patients received cognitive strategy training to teach them how to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as independently as possible. ADL functioning was assessed at the rehabilitation centre at baseline and after 8 weeks of training. In addition, assessment took place at the patients' own homes after 8 weeks of training and 5 months after the start of the training. The performance of both trained and nontrained tasks was observed. Patients performed trained tasks and nontrained tasks at the same level of independency at the rehabilitation centre as well as at home, indicating transfer of training effects. These effects turned out to be stable over time.

  15. The effect of dyad versus individual simulation-based ultrasound training on skills transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Madsen, Mette E; Oxlund, Birgitte S

    2015-01-01

    : This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of simulation-based ultrasound training in pairs (dyad practice) with that of training alone (single-student practice) on skills transfer. METHODS: In a non-inferiority trial, 30 ultrasound novices were randomised to dyad (n = 16) or single-student (n...... through pre-, post- and transfer tests. The transfer test involved the assessment of a transvaginal ultrasound scan by one of two clinicians using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS). RESULTS: Thirty participants completed the simulation-based training and 24...... interactions between training type and performance (p = 0.59). The dyad group demonstrated higher training efficiency in terms of simulator score per number of attempts compared with the single-student group (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Dyad practice improves the efficiency of simulation-based training and is non...

  16. Training Recollection in Healthy Older Adults: Clear Improvements on the Training Task, but Little Evidence of Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vess eStamenova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging holds negative consequences for memory, in particular for the ability to recollect the precise details of an experience. With this in mind, Jennings and Jacoby (2003 developed a recollection training method using a single-probe recognition memory paradigm in which new items (i.e., foils were repeated during the test phase at increasingly long intervals. In previous reports, this method has appeared to improve older adults’ performance on several non-trained cognitive tasks. We aimed to further examine potential transfer effects of this training paradigm and to determine which cognitive functions might predict training gains. Fifty-one older adults were assigned to either recollection training (n = 30 or an active control condition (n = 21 for six sessions over two weeks. Afterward, the recollection training group showed a greatly enhanced ability to reject the repeated foils. Surprisingly, however, the training and the control groups improved to the same degree as one another in recognition accuracy (d’ on their respective training tasks. Further, despite the recollection group’s significant improvement in rejecting the repeated foils, we observed little evidence of transfer to non-trained tasks (including a temporal source memory test. Age and higher baseline scores on a measure of global cognitive function (as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and working memory (as measured by Digit Span Backward predicted gains made by the recollection training group members.

  17. The Impact of Support at the Workplace on Transfer of Training: A Study of an Indian Manufacturing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ragini; Ghosh, Piyali; Rai, Alka; Shukla, Divya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the individual impacts of two components of support at the workplace, namely, support from peers and supervisor, on transfer of training in a post-training environment. Mediation by motivation to transfer in the relationship of supervisor and peer support with transfer of training has also been examined. Data on 149…

  18. The Consequences of Transfer of Training for Service Quality and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study in the Malaysian Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim; Boyle, Stephen; Fein, Erich C.

    2013-01-01

    The significance of transfer of training to organizations has been acknowledged by many studies. However, the consequences of transfer of training, particularly for employees, have still not been adequately explored. The present study was conducted to address this gap. Specifically, it explores the relationship among transfer of training, service…

  19. Effects of a high-intensity interval training program versus a moderate-intensity continuous training program on maximal oxygen uptake and blood pressure in healthy adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Serna, Víctor Hugo; Arango Vélez, Elkin Fernando; Gómez Arias, Rubén Darío; Feito, Yuri

    2016-08-18

    Participation in aerobic exercise generates increased cardiorespiratory fitness, which results in a protective factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. High-intensity interval training might cause higher increases in cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training; nevertheless, current evidence is not conclusive. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the effect of high-intensity interval training with total load duration of 7.5 min per session. A randomized controlled trial will be performed on two groups of healthy, sedentary male volunteers (n = 44). The study protocol will include 24 exercise sessions, three times a week, including aerobic training on a treadmill and strength training exercises. The intervention group will perform 15 bouts of 30 s, each at an intensity between 90 % and 95 % of maximal heart rate. The control group will complete 40 min of continuous exercise, ranging between 65 % and 75 % of maximal heart rate. The primary outcome measure to be evaluated will be maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure will be evaluated as secondary outcome measures. Waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition will also be evaluated. Epidemiological evidence shows the link between VO2max and its association with chronic conditions that trigger CVD. Therefore, finding ways to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure it is of vital importance to public health. NCT02288403 . Registered on 4 November 2014.

  20. Problems of training in connection with the transfer of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, M.; Hervet, J.

    1980-01-01

    The authors, who belong to the Training Department of the Technicatome Export Division, discuss the problems encountered in training foreign technicians and engineers and the way in which they can be overcome. The paper first lists the various phases in a training programme, which are a grounding in French (the effectiveness of which conditions everything that follows), adaptation of the basic knowledge of the trainees to nuclear problems and the acquisition of the relevant technical vocabulary, and a practical course at the laboratories of the CEA nuclear research centres and the various stages into which it is divided. The paper then discusses the specific difficulties involved in this form of training, such as problems of communication and difference in working practices. Lastly, emphasis is given to some of the more important points governing the success of the training, such as: the development of close collaboration between the requesting organization and the officials responsible for the training: choice of activities in the CEA laboratories (which requires thorough study); formulation of a training programme that enjoys the support of the trainee and stipulates standards by which to judge progress made; creation of an atmosphere of mutual trust between the trainee, his supervisor and the Training Department officials; and, lastly, keeping check on the implementation of the training. (author)

  1. A comparison of maximal squat strength and 5-, 10-, and 20-meter sprint times, in athletes and recreationally trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Paul; Bullock, Nathan; Pearson, Stephen J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether there was a relationship between relative strength during a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) back squat and 5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint performances in both trained athletes and recreationally trained individuals. Professional rugby league players (n = 24) and recreationally trained individuals (n = 20) participated in this investigation. Twenty-meter sprint time and 1RM back squat strength, using free weights, were assessed on different days. There were no significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences between the well-trained and recreationally trained groups for 5-m sprint times. In contrast, the well-trained group's 10- and 20-m sprint times were significantly quicker (p = 0.004; p = 0.002) (1.78 + 0.06 seconds; 3.03 + 0.09 seconds) compared with the recreationally trained group (1.84 + 0.07 seconds; 3.13 + 0.11 seconds). The athletes were significantly stronger (170.63 + 21.43 kg) than the recreationally trained individuals (135.45 + 30.07 kg) (p = 0.01); however, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in relative strength between groups (1.78 + 0.27 kg/kg; 1.78 + 0.33 kg/kg, respectively). Significant negative correlations were found between 5-m sprint time and relative squat strength (r = -0.613, power = 0.96, p = 0.004) and between relative squat strength and 10- and 20-m sprint times in the recreationally trained group (r = -0.621, power = 0.51, p = 0.003; r = -0.604, power = 0.53, p = 0.005, respectively). These results, indicating that relative strength, are important for initial sprint acceleration in all athletes but more strongly related to sprint performance over greater distances in recreationally trained individuals.

  2. Effects of In-Season Explosive Strength Training on Maximal Leg Strength, Jumping, Sprinting, and Intermittent Aerobic Performance in Male Handball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Fieseler, Georg; Bartels, Thomas; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Schwesig, René

    2017-09-01

    Background  Team handball is an intense ball sport with specific requirements on technical skills, tactical understanding, and physical performance. The ability of handball players to develop explosive efforts (e. g. sprinting, jumping, changing direction) is crucial to success. Objective  The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of an in-season high-intensity strength training program on the physical performance of elite handball players. Materials and methods  Twenty-two handball players (a single national-level Tunisian team) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n = 10) or a training group (TG; n = 12). At the beginning of the pilot study, all subjects performed a battery of motor tests: one repetition maximum (1-RM) half-squat test, a repeated sprint test [6 × (2 × 15 m) shuttle sprints], squat jumps, counter movement jumps (CMJ), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1. The TG additionally performed a maximal leg strength program twice a week for 10 weeks immediately before engaging in regular handball training. Each strength training session included half-squat exercises to strengthen the lower limbs (80 - 95 % of 1-RM, 1 - 3 repetitions, 3 - 6 sets, 3 - 4 min rest between sets). The control group underwent no additional strength training. The motor test battery was repeated at the end of the study interventions. Results  In the TG, 3 parameters (maximal strength of lower limb: η² = 0.74; CMJ: η² = 0.70, and RSA best time: η² = 0.25) showed significant improvements, with large effect sizes (e. g. CMJ: d = 3.77). A reduction in performance for these same 3 parameters was observed in the CG (d = -0.24). Conclusions  The results support our hypothesis that additional strength training twice a week enhances the maximal strength of the lower limbs and jumping or repeated sprinting performance. There was no evidence of shuttle sprints ahead of regular

  3. Supporting transfer of training : effects of the supervisor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, D.J.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the best-known and most widely used ways to improve employee performance in organisations is the use of corporate training. As a consequence, the effects of training are of major interest to both scholars and scientists in the field of human resource development. The results of research

  4. A new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia to improve body composition and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Martínez Guardado, Ismael; Marcos-Serrano, Marta; Timon, Rafael; Olcina, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study had the aim to determine the effects of a new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia in active adults. Twenty-four university student volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: hypoxia group, normoxia group or control group. The eight training sessions consisted of 2 sets of 5 repeated sprints of 10 seconds with a recovery of 20 seconds between sprints and a recovery period of 10 minutes between sets. Body composition was measured following standard procedures. A blood sample was taken for an immediate hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration assessment. An all-out 3-ute test was performed to evaluate ventilation parameters and power. HCT and Hb were significantly higher for the hypoxia group in Post- and Det- (P=0.01; P=0.03). Fat mass percentage was significantly lower for the hypoxia group in both assessments (P=0.05; P=0.05). The hypoxia group underwent a significant increase in mean power after the recovery period. A new dose of 8 sessions of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia is enough to decrease the percentage of fat mass and to improve HCT and Hb parameters and mean muscle power in healthy and active adults.

  5. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  6. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  7. Transfer Learning for OCRopus Model Training on Early Printed Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented that significantly reduces the character error rates for OCR text obtained from OCRopus models trained on early printed books when only small amounts of diplomatic transcriptions are available. This is achieved by building from already existing models during training instead of starting from scratch. To overcome the discrepancies between the set of characters of the pretrained model and the additional ground truth the OCRopus code is adapted to allow for alphabet expansion or reduction. The character set is now capable of flexibly adding and deleting characters from the pretrained alphabet when an existing model is loaded. For our experiments we use a self-trained mixed model on early Latin prints and the two standard OCRopus models on modern English and German Fraktur texts. The evaluation on seven early printed books showed that training from the Latin mixed model reduces the average amount of errors by 43% and 26%, compared to training from scratch with 60 and 150 lines of ground truth, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that even building from mixed models trained on standard data unrelated to the newly added training and test data can lead to significantly improved recognition results.

  8. Maintaining the Transfer of In-Service Teachers' Training in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Professional training and development is a major component of updating teachers' pedagogical knowledge and skills. However, transferring such knowledge and skill may not always be successful. Based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), the present study has developed a model specifying the factors affecting transfer maintenance intention and…

  9. Porcine Transfer Study: Virtual Reality Simulator Training Compared with Porcine Training in Endovascular Novices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Max; Lystig, Ted; Beard, Jonathan; Klingestierna, Hans; Reznick, Richard; Loenn, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the learning of endovascular interventional skills by training on pig models versus virtual reality simulators. Methods. Twelve endovascular novices participated in a study consisting of a pig laboratory (P-Lab) and a virtual reality laboratory (VR-Lab). Subjects were stratified by experience and randomized into four training groups. Following 1 hr of didactic instruction, all attempted an iliac artery stenosis (IAS) revascularization in both laboratories. Onsite proctors evaluated performances using task-specific checklists and global rating scales, yielding a Total Score. Participants completed two training sessions of 3 hr each, using their group's assigned method (P-Lab x 2, P-Lab + VR-Lab, VR-Lab + P-Lab, or VR-Lab x 2) and were re-evaluated in both laboratories. A panel of two highly experienced interventional radiologists performed assessments from video recordings. ANCOVA analysis of Total Score against years of surgical, interventional radiology (IR) experience and cumulative number of P-Lab or VR-Lab sessions was conducted. Inter-rater reliability (IRR) was determined by comparing proctored scores with the video assessors in only the VR-Lab. Results. VR-Lab sessions improved the VR-Lab Total Score (β 3.029, p = 0.0015) and P-Lab Total Score (β = 1.814, p = 0.0452). P-Lab sessions increased the P-Lab Total Score (β = 4.074, p < 0.0001) but had no effect on the VR-Lab Total Score. In the general statistical model, both P-Lab sessions (β = 2.552, p = 0.0010) and VR-Lab sessions (β 2.435, p = 0.0032) significantly improved Total Score. Neither previous surgical experience nor IR experience predicted Total Score. VR-Lab scores were consistently higher than the P-Lab scores (Δ = 6.659, p < 0.0001). VR-Lab IRR was substantial (r = 0.649, p < 0.0008). Conclusions. Endovascular skills learned in the virtual environment may be transferable to the real catheterization laboratory as modeled in the P-Lab

  10. Transfer effects of a cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusgens, C. A. V.; van Heugten, C. M.; Cooijmans, J. P. J.; Jolles, J.; van den Heuvel, W. J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transfer effects of cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia. During 8 weeks, 29 apraxic patients received cognitive strategy training to teach them how to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as independently as possible. ADL

  11. The Learning Transfer Approach To Estimating the Benefits of Training: Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Paul; Hannigan, Kevin; Crowe, Deirdre

    2001-01-01

    The Learning Transfer Systems Inventory provides a systematic approach for predicting training effectiveness through needs assessment, organizational analysis to determine issues affecting training outcomes, and assessment of needed resources. Data from 158 management trainers demonstrated its effectiveness in assessing how well an organization…

  12. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Dekkers, K.; De Vos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and

  13. Transfer of Training: The Role of Feedback in Supportive Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien; Jansen, Niekie

    2010-01-01

    The transfer of training to the workplace often fails to occur. The authors argue that feedback generated within the work environment about the application of newly learned skills in the workplace helps to close the gap between the current performance and the desired goal of full application of what is learned during training. This study takes a…

  14. Distinct Transfer Effects of Training Different Facets of Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bastian, Claudia C.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The impact of working memory training on a broad set of transfer tasks was examined. Each of three groups of participants trained one specific functional category of working memory capacity: storage and processing, relational integration, and supervision. A battery comprising tests to measure working memory, task shifting, inhibition, and…

  15. Transfer of Learning in Management Training: Building the Payoff Into the Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Michael J.; May, Gregory D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two reinforcement techniques designed to ensure transfer of learning from management training courses to the workplace: (1) participant journal writing to capture management insights occurring during training and (2) support groups providing encouragement, feedback, and accountability. Results of an evaluation of the techniques'…

  16. Working memory as a moderator of training and transfer of analogical reasoning in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, C.E.; Heiser, W.J.; Resing, W.C.M.

    Working memory is related to children's ability to solve analogies and other inductive reasoning tasks. The aim of this study was to examine whether working memory also plays a role in training and transfer effects of inductive reasoning in the context of a short training procedure within a

  17. Stress Effects on Transfer from Virtual Environment Flight Training to Stressful Flight Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    2001; Saunders, Driskell, Hall, & Salas, 1996; Thorndike & Woodworth, 1901). The present research project expands on these findings to further...Similar to Osgood (1949), Thorndike and Woodworth (1901) first demonstrated that training systems and the real world must share identical elements in...shared between the training and transfer task (Rose, Attree, Brooks, Parslow, Penn, & Ambihaipahan, 2000; Thorndike & Woodworth, 1901). When designing

  18. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  19. The mechanisms of far transfer from cognitive training: Review and hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Pamela M; Parasuraman, Raja

    2016-09-01

    General intelligence is important for success in daily life, fueling interest in developing cognitive training as an intervention to improve fluid ability (Gf). A major obstacle to the design of effective cognitive interventions has been the paucity of hypotheses bearing on mechanisms underlying transfer of cognitive training to Gf. Despite the large amounts of money and time currently being expended on cognitive training, there is little scientific agreement on how, or even whether, Gf can be heightened by such training. We review the relevant strands of evidence on cognitive-training-related changes in (a) cortical mechanisms of distraction suppression, and (b) activation of the dorsal attention network (DAN). We hypothesize that training-related increases in control of attention are important for what is termed far transfer of cognitive training to untrained abilities, notably to Gf. We review the evidence that distraction suppression evident in behavior, neuronal firing, scalp electroencephalography, and hemodynamic change is important for protecting target processing during perception and also for protecting targets held in working memory. Importantly, attentional control also appears to be central to performance on Gf assessments. Consistent with this evidence, forms of cognitive training that increase ability to ignore distractions (e.g., working memory training and perceptual training) not only affect the DAN but also affect transfer to Gf. Our hypothesis is supported by existing evidence. However, to advance the field of cognitive training, it is necessary that competing hypotheses on mechanisms of far transfer of cognitive training be advanced and empirically tested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Steering population transfer of the Na2 molecule by an ultrashort pulse train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dong-Hua; Wang, Shuo; Zhan, Wei-Shen; Tao, Hong-Cai; Wang, Si-Qi

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the complete population transfer among quantum states of the Na2 molecule using ultrashort pulse trains using the time-dependent wave packet method. The population accumulation of the target state can be steered by controlling the laser parameters, such as the variable pulse pairs, the different pulse widths, the time delays and the repetition period between two contiguous pulses; in particular, the pulse pairs and the pulse widths have a great effect on the population transfer. The calculations show that the ultrashort pulse train is a feasible solution, which can steer the population transfer from the initial state to the target state efficiently with lower peak intensities.

  1. Self-perceived long-term transfer of learning after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Brena C P; Falbo, Ana R; Sorensen, Jette Led

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore long-term transfer (application of acquired knowledge and skills on the job) after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training based on either instructional design (ID) principles or conventional best practice. METHODS: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews...... simulation format, residents perceived long-term transfer effects. Training design factors influencing transfer were, in their opinion, related to trainees' characteristics, simulation design, and workplace environment. Trainees who participated in the ID-based simulation perceived better communication...... skills and better overall situational awareness: "I didn't do that before." CONCLUSION: All residents perceived long-term transfer after simulation training for postpartum hemorrhage. Those who attended the ID format additionally perceived improvements in communication skills and situational awareness...

  2. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceci, R.; Beltran Valls, M.R.; Duranti, G.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) is highly beneficial in elderly subjects towards muscle strength and power, with a systemic adaptive response of anti-oxidant and stress-induced markers. In the present study, we aimed to ev...

  3. The effect of session order on the physiological, neuromuscular, and endocrine responses to maximal speed and weight training sessions over a 24-h period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael; Johnston, Julia; Cook, Christian J; Costley, Lisa; Kilgallon, Mark; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-05-01

    Athletes are often required to undertake multiple training sessions on the same day with these sessions needing to be sequenced correctly to allow the athlete to maximize the responses of each session. We examined the acute effect of strength and speed training sequence on neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological responses over 24h. 15 academy rugby union players completed this randomized crossover study. Players performed a weight training session followed 2h later by a speed training session (weights speed) and on a separate day reversed the order (speed weights). Countermovement jumps, perceived muscle soreness, and blood samples were collected immediately prior, immediately post, and 24h post-sessions one and two respectively. Jumps were analyzed for power, jump height, rate of force development, and velocity. Blood was analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, lactate and creatine kinase. There were no differences between countermovement jump variables at any of the post-training time points (p>0.05). Likewise, creatine kinase, testosterone, cortisol, and muscle soreness were unaffected by session order (p>0.05). However, 10m sprint time was significantly faster (mean±standard deviation; speed weights 1.80±0.11s versus weights speed 1.76±0.08s; p>0.05) when speed was sequenced second. Lactate levels were significantly higher immediately post-speed sessions versus weight training sessions at both time points (ptraining does not affect the neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological recovery over 24h. However, speed may be enhanced when performed as the second session. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvement of Repeated-Sprint Ability and Horizontal-Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players With Low-Volume Repeated-Maximal-Power Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Casajús, José Antonio; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and change-of- direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs. Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs, suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94). Six weeks of lowvolume (4-14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players.

  5. On the Effects of Training Inductive Reasoning: How Far Does It Transfer and How Long Do the Effects Persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Welko; Klauer, Karl Josef

    1996-01-01

    Reports on two training experiments in which it was expected that training in inductive reasoning would transfer to intelligence tests measuring inductive reasoning and on mathematics performance. Shows that transfer on intelligence tests as well as on mathematics performance was linearly dependent on the amount of prior training. (DSK)

  6. Working memory training in older adults: Bayesian evidence supporting the absence of transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guye, Sabrina; von Bastian, Claudia C

    2017-12-01

    The question of whether working memory training leads to generalized improvements in untrained cognitive abilities is a longstanding and heatedly debated one. Previous research provides mostly ambiguous evidence regarding the presence or absence of transfer effects in older adults. Thus, to draw decisive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of working memory training interventions, methodologically sound studies with larger sample sizes are needed. In this study, we investigated whether or not a computer-based working memory training intervention induced near and far transfer in a large sample of 142 healthy older adults (65 to 80 years). Therefore, we randomly assigned participants to either the experimental group, which completed 25 sessions of adaptive, process-based working memory training, or to the active, adaptive visual search control group. Bayesian linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate performance improvements on the level of abilities, using multiple indicator tasks for near (working memory) and far transfer (fluid intelligence, shifting, and inhibition). Our data provided consistent evidence supporting the absence of near transfer to untrained working memory tasks and the absence of far transfer effects to all of the assessed abilities. Our results suggest that working memory training is not an effective way to improve general cognitive functioning in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effects of High vs. Low Protein Intake on Body Composition and Maximal Strength in Aspiring Female Physique Athletes Engaging in an 8-Week Resistance Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill I; Aguilar, Danielle; Conlin, Laurin; Vargas, Andres; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Corson, Amey; Gai, Chris; Best, Shiva; Galvan, Elfego; Couvillion, Kaylee

    2018-02-06

    Aspiring female physique athletes are often encouraged to ingest relatively high levels of dietary protein in conjunction with their resistance-training programs. However, there is little to no research investigating higher vs. lower protein intakes in this population. This study examined the influence of a high vs. low protein diet in conjunction with an 8-week resistance training program in this population. Seventeen females (21.2±2.1 years; 165.1±5.1 cm; 61±6.1 kg) were randomly assigned to a high protein diet (HP: 2.5g/kg/day; n=8) or a low protein diet (LP: 0.9g/kg/day, n=9) and were assessed for body composition and maximal strength prior to and after the 8-week protein intake and exercise intervention. Fat-free mass (FFM) increased significantly more in the HP group as compared to the LP group (p=0.009), going from 47.1 ± 4.5kg to 49.2 ± 5.4kg (+2.1kg) and from 48.1 ± 2.7kg to 48.7 ± 2 (+0.6kg) in the HP and LP groups, respectively. Fat mass significantly decreased over time in the HP group (14.1 ± 3.6kg to 13.0 ± 3.3kg; p<0.01) but no change was observed in the LP group (13.2 ± 3.7kg to 12.5 ± 3.0kg). While maximal strength significantly increased in both groups, there were no differences in strength improvements between the two groups. In aspiring female physique athletes, a higher protein diet is superior to a lower protein diet in terms of increasing FFM in conjunction with a resistance training program.

  8. An investigation of response and stimulus modality transfer effects after dual-task training in younger and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Maxime; Gagnon, Christine; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that dual-task training leads to significant improvement in dual-task performance in younger and older adults. However, the extent to which training benefits to untrained tasks requires further investigation. The present study assessed (a) whether dual-task training leads to cross-modality transfer in untrained tasks using new stimuli and/or motor responses modalities, (b) whether transfer effects are related to improved ability to prepare and maintain multiple task-set and/or enhanced response coordination, (c) whether there are age-related differences in transfer effects. Twenty-three younger and 23 older adults were randomly assigned to dual-task training or control conditions. All participants were assessed before and after training on three dual-task transfer conditions; (1) stimulus modality transfer (2) response modality transfer (3) stimulus and response modalities transfer task. Training group showed larger improvement than the control group in the three transfer dual-task conditions, which suggests that training leads to more than specific learning of stimuli/response associations. Attentional costs analyses showed that training led to improved dual-task cost, only in conditions that involved new stimuli or response modalities, but not both. Moreover, training did not lead to a reduced task-set cost in the transfer conditions, which suggests some limitations in transfer effects that can be expected. Overall, the present study supports the notion that cognitive plasticity for attentional control is preserved in late adulthood.

  9. An investigation of far response and stimulus modality transfer effects after dual-task training in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eLussier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that dual-task training leads to significant improvement in dual-task performances in younger and older adults. However, the extent to which training benefits to untrained tasks requires further investigation. The present study assessed (a whether dual-task training leads to cross-modality transfer in untrained tasks using new stimuli and/or motor responses modalities, (b whether transfer effects are related to improvement in working memory and/or enhanced response coordination, (c whether there are age-related differences in transfer effects. Twenty-three younger and 23 older adults were randomly assigned to dual-task training or control conditions. All participants were assessed before and after training on three dual-task transfer conditions; (1 stimulus modality transfer (2 response modality transfer (3 stimulus and response modalities transfer task. Training group showed larger improvement than the control group in the three transfer dual-task conditions, which suggests that training leads to more than specific learning of stimuli/response associations. Attentional cost analyses showed that training led to improved dual-task cost, only in conditions that involved new stimuli or response modalities, but not both. Moreover, training did not lead to a reduced task-set cost in the transfer conditions, which suggests some limitations in transfer effects that can be expected. Overall, the present study supports the notion that cognitive plasticity for attentional control is preserved in late adulthood.

  10. Selective transfer of visual working memory training on Chinese character learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Bertram; Schneiders, Julia A; Krick, Christoph M; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown a systematic relationship between phonological working memory capacity and second language proficiency for alphabetic languages. However, little is known about the impact of working memory processes on second language learning in a non-alphabetic language such as Mandarin Chinese. Due to the greater complexity of the Chinese writing system we expect that visual working memory rather than phonological working memory exerts a unique influence on learning Chinese characters. This issue was explored in the present experiment by comparing visual working memory training with an active (auditory working memory training) control condition and a passive, no training control condition. Training induced modulations in language-related brain networks were additionally examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a pretest-training-posttest design. As revealed by pre- to posttest comparisons and analyses of individual differences in working memory training gains, visual working memory training led to positive transfer effects on visual Chinese vocabulary learning compared to both control conditions. In addition, we found sustained activation after visual working memory training in the (predominantly visual) left infero-temporal cortex that was associated with behavioral transfer. In the control conditions, activation either increased (active control condition) or decreased (passive control condition) without reliable behavioral transfer effects. This suggests that visual working memory training leads to more efficient processing and more refined responses in brain regions involved in visual processing. Furthermore, visual working memory training boosted additional activation in the precuneus, presumably reflecting mental image generation of the learned characters. We, therefore, suggest that the conjoint activity of the mid-fusiform gyrus and the precuneus after visual working memory training reflects an interaction of working memory and

  11. Assessment of the effectiveness of training technology transfer activities at soviet-designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.; Shurberg, D.; Yoder, J.; Draper, D.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with personnel at Soviet-Designed Reactors (SDRs) to enhance management and operational safety by upgrading many areas of plant operations to levels that meet established international standards. Since 1992 this work has included activities related to training. The work initially focussed on the establishment of nuclear training centers in Russia and Ukraine and the transfer of U.S. training methodologies but has since expanded to include all Russian and Ukrainian nuclear power stations and training centers as well as SDRs within other countries. A key component to the work has been the determination of programmatic effectiveness. Of specific interest has been the success of the transfer of U.S. training methodologies to SDRs so the capability exists for independent expansion of training efforts. Of equal importance has been the question of whether the training programs being developed are having the desired impact on facility safety performance. While progress has been made in the evaluation of the impact of training on facility safety performance, the question has not yet been fully answered. The issue has been further confounded due to wide-ranging and concurrent changes being made beyond training to many aspects of facility operations and maintenance. This paper focuses on the selection of a strategy to upgrade and, as necessary, develop training programs to assist in the improvement of SDR safety. Difficulties encountered in the development of assessment strategies across all SDRs that are being worked with are discussed. In addition, measures collected related to the success of the overall program efforts and data indicating the success of the DOE efforts in the transfer and adoption by SDRs of an effective training methodology are outlined. (author)

  12. Training rural practitioners to use buprenorphine; using The Change Book to facilitate technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Rieckmann, Traci; Green, Carla; Gallon, Steve; Knudsen, Jeff

    2004-04-01

    The Opiate Medication Initiative for Rural Oregon Residents trained physicians and counselors in Central and Southwestern Oregon to use buprenorphine and develop service models that supported patient participation in drug abuse counseling. The Change Book from Addiction Technology Transfer Centers was used to structure the change process. Fifty-one individuals (17 physicians, 4 pharmacists, 2 nurse practitioners, and 28 drug abuse counselors and administrators) from seven counties completed the training and contributed to the development of community treatment protocols. A pre-post measure of attitudes and beliefs toward the use of buprenorphine suggested significant improvements in attitude after training, especially among counselors. Eight months after training, 10 of 17 physicians trained had received waivers to use buprenorphine and 29 patients were in treatment with six of the physicians. The Change Book facilitated development of county change teams and structured the planning efforts. The initiative also demonstrated the potential to concurrently train physicians, pharmacists, and counselors on the use of buprenorphine.

  13. Skill Transfer and Virtual Training for IND Response Decision-Making: Project Summary and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    Lincoln Laboratory MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS Technical Report 1209 Skill Transfer and Virtual ...specifically authorized by the U.S. Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. Skill Transfer and Virtual Training for IND Response...lns:ull of lmme<lla:e 0 evacua!lon). but many aspects are the same (such as !’laVIng fresh water . knowing evacua:Jon routn. and tlavtng a

  14. The relationship between learning styles and motivation to transfer of learning in a vocational training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Olivos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is ample research about Kolb's learning styles, few studies have examined their relationship with motivations to transfer, a concept used to assess whether the content and competencies learned through professional training activities are transferred to the workplace context. Ninety-six students (M = 24.58 years old; 99% males from three vocational training institutes participated in laboratory activities at the Renewable Energy Research Institute of the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. They completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory; two scales adapted to measure student motivation to transfer their learning from training experiences; and a scale of satisfaction with the activities. A correlation analysis showed positive and moderately strong correlations (r = .708; p < .01 between motivations to transfer and “the relevance of the activities to academic performance”. A discriminant analysis between transfer and learning styles revealed that the “Student training motivation” item resulted in a distinct difference between assimilators and convergers, explaining 97.1% of the model variance (Wilks’ λ = .459; χ2 = 21.028; Sig. = .002 and classifying 56.4% of the cases. A discussion is presented as to the implications of these results for the theory of learning styles and the ways in which the design of the educational activities described in the study can be improved.

  15. Assessing Influences on Perceived Training Transfer: An Investigation of Perceptions of Air Force Logistics Readiness Officer Technical School Graduates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hobbs, Sarah E

    2005-01-01

    .... This research specifically investigates how influences/attitudes/beliefs of LRO technical school graduates regarding their training influence their perceptions about the transfer of such training back to the job...

  16. Self-perceived long-term transfer of learning after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Brena Carvalho Pinto; Rodrigues Falbo, Ana; Sorensen, Jette Led; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2018-05-01

    To explore long-term transfer (application of acquired knowledge and skills on the job) after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training based on either instructional design (ID) principles or conventional best practice. In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews with obstetrics and gynecology healthcare practitioners were conducted between August 7 and September 26, 2015, in Recife, Brazil. The participants were randomly selected from each of two postpartum hemorrhage simulations attended 2 years earlier (one ID and one conventional best practice). Thematic analysis was used to explore (1) residents' perceptions of long-term transfer of learning, (2) ID elements influencing the perceived long-term transfer, and (3) differences in the participants' perceptions according to the type of simulation attended. There were 12 interview participants. After either simulation format, residents perceived long-term transfer effects. Training design factors influencing transfer were, in their opinion, related to trainees' characteristics, simulation design, and workplace environment. Trainees who participated in the ID-based simulation perceived better communication skills and better overall situational awareness: "I didn't do that before." All residents perceived long-term transfer after simulation training for postpartum hemorrhage. Those who attended the ID format additionally perceived improvements in communication skills and situational awareness, which are fundamental factors in the management of postpartum hemorrhage. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. Training older adults on Theory of Mind (ToM): transfer on metamemory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Bottiroli, Sara; Bianco, Federica; Rosi, Alessia; Cavallini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Research on aging has shown a significant decline in ToM after 65 years of age. Despite these age-related difficulties, no study has yet investigated the possibility to improve ToM in older adults. To address this gap we tested the efficacy of a conversation-based ToM training with age-appropriate ToM tasks and its transfer effects on metamemory. We examined 72 older adults (Mage=67.61 years, SD=6.39 years) assigned to three training conditions: a ToM training, a physical-conversation training and a social-contact group. All participants took part in two 2-h testing and to two 2-h training sessions. Results showed that after the intervention, older adults in the ToM training group improved their mental states' understanding significantly more than participants in the physical-conversation training and in the social-contact groups. Crucially, the positive effect of the ToM intervention generalized to metamemory knowledge. This is the first study investigating the efficacy of a ToM training and its transfer effect on metacognition in older adults. From a theoretical point of view, it supports the relation between ToM and metamemory. Practical implications of these data are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B Parr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO or protein ingestion. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO, alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹, 12±2 standard drinks co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO, or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO. Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass⁻¹ 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. RESULTS: Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05. Phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05, while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05. Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29-109%, P<0.05. However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05 and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation

  19. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, M; Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players.

  20. Cognitive training for children with ADHD: Individual differences in training and transfer gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Donk, M.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to determine the efficacy of cognitive training for school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. We were mainly interested in whether the effects of training would generalize to functioning in everyday life, especially in terms of classroom

  1. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle...... cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.......3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast...

  2. Transfer of communication skills training from workshop to workplace: the impact of clinical supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Cathy; Clegg, Jenny; Maguire, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have recognised that the communication skills learned in the training environment are not always transferred back into the clinical setting. This paper reports a study which investigated the potential of clinical supervision in enhancing the transfer process. A randomised controlled trial was conducted involving 61 clinical nurse specialists. All attended a 3-day communication skills training workshop. Twenty-nine were then randomised to 4 weeks of clinical supervision, aimed at facilitating transfer of newly acquired skills into practice. Assessments, using real and simulated patients, were carried out before the course, immediately after the supervision period and 3 months later. Interviews were rated objectively using the Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale (MIARS) to assess nurses' ability to use key skills, respond to patient cues and identify patient concerns. Assessments with simulated patients showed that the training programme was extremely effective in changing competence in all three key areas. However, only those who experienced supervision showed any evidence of transfer. Improvements were found in the supervised groups' use of open questions, negotiation and psychological exploration. Whilst neither group facilitated more disclosure of cues or concerns, those in the experimental group responded more effectively to the cues disclosed, reduced their distancing behaviour and increasing their exploration of cues. The study has shown that whilst training enhances skills, without intervention, it may have little effect on clinical practice. The potential role of clinical supervision as one way of enhancing the clinical effectiveness of communication skills training programmes has been demonstrated. PRACTISE IMPLICATIONS: This study raises questions about the effectiveness of training programmes which do not incorporate a transfer element, and provides evidence to support the need for clinical supervision for clinical nurse specialist.

  3. Negative transfer of heart rate control following biofeedback training: a partial replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Macready, D

    1985-09-01

    Ability to raise and lower heart rate (HR) on instruction was tested before and after unidirectional biofeedback training in two groups of 10 male volunteers. Instructional control was assessed in 2-min trials before training, and after 5 and 10 biofeedback trials of increasing (Group I) and decreasing (Group D) HR. The magnitude of HR elevations produced by Group D diminished following training, while modifications in Group I were unchanged. This negative transfer effect is discussed in relation to whether voluntary speeding and slowing HR reflect distinct capacities.

  4. Initial training and technology transfer during the generational transition in the personnel of maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Anez, F.

    2006-01-01

    A significant progress in training capabilities of nuclear power plants maintenance personnel has taken place since mid of nineties. In the past, maintenance personnel acquired their competence throughout the years on their job positions. A greater flexibility and new polyvalence requirements demand efficient training actions. In addition, the new personnel incomes associated to the generational change require clear qualification processes. The objective is to develop didactic means and to have competent instructors to preserve and to transfer the knowledge acquires during all these past years to the new incorporations. This article describes a summary of actions and methods followed for the design, development and implantation of training plans for maintenance personnel. (Author)

  5. Neural correlates of training and transfer effects in working memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Stephan; Lorenz, Robert C; Pelz, Patricia; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Kathmann, Norbert; Rapp, Michael A; Stelzel, Christine

    2016-07-01

    As indicated by previous research, aging is associated with a decline in working memory (WM) functioning, related to alterations in fronto-parietal neural activations. At the same time, previous studies showed that WM training in older adults may improve the performance in the trained task (training effect), and more importantly, also in untrained WM tasks (transfer effects). However, neural correlates of these transfer effects that would improve understanding of its underlying mechanisms, have not been shown in older participants as yet. In this study, we investigated blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during n-back performance and an untrained delayed recognition (Sternberg) task following 12sessions (45min each) of adaptive n-back training in older adults. The Sternberg task used in this study allowed to test for neural training effects independent of specific task affordances of the trained task and to separate maintenance from updating processes. Thirty-two healthy older participants (60-75years) were assigned either to an n-back training or a no-contact control group. Before (t1) and after (t2) training/waiting period, both the n-back task and the Sternberg task were conducted while BOLD signal was measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in all participants. In addition, neuropsychological tests were performed outside the scanner. WM performance improved with training and behavioral transfer to tests measuring executive functions, processing speed, and fluid intelligence was found. In the training group, BOLD signal in the right lateral middle frontal gyrus/caudal superior frontal sulcus (Brodmann area, BA 6/8) decreased in both the trained n-back and the updating condition of the untrained Sternberg task at t2, compared to the control group. fMRI findings indicate a training-related increase in processing efficiency of WM networks, potentially related to the process of WM updating. Performance gains in untrained tasks

  6. Training efficiency and transfer success in an extended real-time functional MRI neurofeedback training of the somato-motor cortex of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor eAuer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of self-regulation of the somato-motor cortices (SMC attained by an extended functional MRI (fMRI neurofeedback training. Sixteen healthy subjects performed 12 real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback training sessions within 4 weeks, involving motor imagery of the dominant right as well as the non-dominant left hand. Target regions of interests in the SMC were individually localized prior to the training by overt finger movements. The feedback signal was defined as the difference between fMRI activation in the contra- and ipsilateral SMC and visually presented to the subjects. Training efficiency was determined by an off-line GLM analysis determining the fMRI percent signal changes in the somato-motor cortex (SMC target areas accomplished during the neurofeedback training. Transfer success was assessed by comparing the pre- and post-training transfer task, i.e. the neurofeedback paradigm without the presentation of the feedback signal. Group results show a distinct increase in feedback performance in the transfer task for the trained group compared to a matched untrained control group, as well as an increase in the time course of the training, indicating an efficient training and a successful transfer. Individual analysis revealed that the training efficiency was not only highly correlated to the transfer success but also predictive. Trainings with at least 12 efficient training runs were associated with a successful transfer outcome. A group analysis of the hemispheric contributions to the feedback performance showed that it is mainly driven by increased fMRI activation in the contralateral SMC, although some individuals relied on ipsilateral deactivation. Training and transfer results showed no difference between left and right hand imagery, with a slight indication of more ipsilateral deactivation in the early right hand trainings.

  7. Examining the motivators of training transfer in an enterprise systems context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasanmi, Chris Niyi; Wang, William Yu Chung; Singh, Harminder

    2017-09-01

    Enterprise systems (ES) are large software packages that have been widely adopted, but are complex to deploy. One way to obtain more value from them is to train end-users. However, little is known about the effectiveness of ES training. This study examines post-training behaviour in the ES environment through the concept of training transfer and the theoretical framework of self-determination theory. It proposes that end-users' computer self-efficacy (CSE) and mastery orientation (MO), as well as the perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) of a system, influence their motivation to transfer the skills they have gained during training to their work environment and to use the system. Data was collected from 170 ES end-users, who had previously attended ES training, through a survey. Partial least squares modelling was used to analyse the data, and all of the hypotheses were supported. This study is among the first few studies that investigate the more distal impact of information systems training.

  8. (Re)Anchored, Video-Centered Engagement: The Transferability of Preservice Training to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Gail; Summers, Emily J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracks primary participants over 3 years from their last year of university preservice teaching training through their second year of in-service teaching via surveys, interviews, and teaching observations. The study employs a descriptive case study design to examine the transfer of preservice content, pedagogy, and video…

  9. The Moderating Role of Self-Efficacy in the Organizational Culture-Training Transfer Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simosi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the combined effects of self-efficacy and organizational culture on employees' transfer of knowledge/skills acquired through training. The questionnaires were distributed to 252 newly hired employees working in a service organization in Greece. Each of the independent variables examined added incrementally to the…

  10. Returning the Favor: Positive Employee Responses to Supervisor and Peer Support for Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Tian, Amy; Cordery, John; Gamble, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on social exchange theory and associated notions of reciprocity, we argue that interpersonal support for training transfer in the workplace is associated with increased employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and reduced turnover intention. We test our hypotheses using survey data from 786 Chinese retail…

  11. Narrowing the Transfer Gap: The Advantages of "as if" Situations in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Rita C. M.

    2002-01-01

    A schema a frame creates context and shapes interpretation. Using an "as if" framework can connect the contexts of training and job performance to improve transfer. Techniques that create "as if" situations include role playing, visualization, psychodrama, voice dialogue, improvisation, playback theatre, and six-steps reframing. (Contains 23…

  12. Self-Help Training System for Nursing Students to Learn Patient Transfer Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhifeng; Nagata, Ayanori; Kanai-Pak, Masako; Maeda, Jukai; Kitajima, Yasuko; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Aida, Kyoko; Kuwahara, Noriaki; Ogata, Taiki; Ota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and evaluation of a self-help skill training system for assisting student nurses in learning skills involving the transfer of patients from beds to wheelchairs. We have proposed a feedback method that is based on a checklist and video demonstrations. To help trainees efficiently check their performance and…

  13. Using Multiple Schedules during Functional Communication Training to Promote Rapid Transfer of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance and abdominal and trunk fat loss induced by aerobic training in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Cheche PINA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the effect of eight weeks of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on physical performance, and trunk and abdominal fat in overweight women submitted to an aerobic training program. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight women (body mass index ³25 kg/m2 were divided randomly and double-blindly to receive conjugated linoleic acid or placebo, both associated with an aerobic exercise program (frequency = three times a week, duration=30 min/session, intensity=80% of maximum heart rate. Conjugated linoleic acid (3.2 g and placebo (4.0 g supplements were consumed daily (four capsules for eight weeks. Maximum speed and time to exhaustion were determined in incremental treadmill test. Trunk fat was estimated by dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Waist circumference was used as indicator of abdominal fat. Results: Main effect of time (p0.05. Similarly, significant reductions (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance, and loss of body and abdominal fat induced by aerobic training in overweight women.

  15. Transfer after process-based object-location memory training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; von Bastian, Claudia C; Röcke, Christina; Martin, Mike; Eschen, Anne

    2016-11-01

    A substantial part of age-related episodic memory decline has been attributed to the decreasing ability of older adults to encode and retrieve associations among simultaneously processed information units from long-term memory. In addition, this ability seems to share unique variance with reasoning. In this study, we therefore examined whether process-based training of the ability to learn and remember associations has the potential to induce transfer effects to untrained episodic memory and reasoning tasks in healthy older adults (60-75 years). For this purpose, the experimental group (n = 36) completed 30 sessions of process-based object-location memory training, while the active control group (n = 31) practiced visual perception on the same material. Near (spatial episodic memory), intermediate (verbal episodic memory), and far transfer effects (reasoning) were each assessed with multiple tasks at four measurements (before, midway through, immediately after, and 4 months after training). Linear mixed-effects models revealed transfer effects on spatial episodic memory and reasoning that were still observed 4 months after training. These results provide first empirical evidence that process-based training can enhance healthy older adults' associative memory performance and positively affect untrained episodic memory and reasoning abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Improvement of NPP training to ensure a transfer of critical knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaisnys, P.; Bieth, M.; Kosilov, A.; Lipar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. The adequate management of human resources, proper educational system and training approaches and methods to achieve and maintain the proper competencies of personnel are indispensable elements of knowledge management for nuclear industry. To transfer the knowledge from the experience to the newcomers, to establish the consistent links between the national educational system and qualification needs, to respond to the changes in the nuclear technology, to ensure the adequate level of corporate memory are the examples of the links between the knowledge management and the training. The paper presents the extensive information on the challenges, the nuclear industry encounters in the training and qualification (T and Q) of the personnel, and the good practises that are in use at nuclear power plants to respond to these challenges. The information presented is based on the experience from the IAEA OSART missions which review the training and qualification matters at the nuclear power plants among the other operational management programmes. IE/JRC-EC supports the OSART activities by providing the experts for the specific operational areas and participating in the development of the IAEA Safety Standards. New Project launched in the IE in 2007, SONIS (Safety of nuclear installations) is focused on the operational aspects of nuclear power plants, in particular maintenance, and the qualification and training of the maintenance personnel is of the particular interest of SONIS. The information presented in the paper is the result of the thorough analysis of the OSMIR Data Base. This database is a compilation of recommendations, suggestions and good practices from OSART mission reports, and covers all missions from January 1991 to the most recent missions for which an official reports have been published. It was

  17. Working Memory, Reasoning, and Task Switching Training: Transfer Effects, Limitations, and Great Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Allen, Courtney M; Kranz, Michael B; Johnson, Kathryn; Sipolins, Aldis; Dickens, Charles; Ward, Nathan; Geyer, Alexandra; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have shown that cognitive training can produce improvements to untrained cognitive domains (far transfer), many others fail to show these effects, especially when it comes to improving fluid intelligence. The current study was designed to overcome several limitations of previous training studies by incorporating training expectancy assessments, an active control group, and "Mind Frontiers," a video game-based mobile program comprised of six adaptive, cognitively demanding training tasks that have been found to lead to increased scores in fluid intelligence (Gf) tests. We hypothesize that such integrated training may lead to broad improvements in cognitive abilities by targeting aspects of working memory, executive function, reasoning, and problem solving. Ninety participants completed 20 hour-and-a-half long training sessions over four to five weeks, 45 of whom played Mind Frontiers and 45 of whom completed visual search and change detection tasks (active control). After training, the Mind Frontiers group improved in working memory n-back tests, a composite measure of perceptual speed, and a composite measure of reaction time in reasoning tests. No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking. Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups. A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement. In summary, although these findings provide modest evidence regarding the efficacy of an integrated cognitive training program, more research is needed to determine the utility of Mind Frontiers as a cognitive training tool.

  18. Working Memory, Reasoning, and Task Switching Training: Transfer Effects, Limitations, and Great Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L.; Ward, Nathan; Geyer, Alexandra; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have shown that cognitive training can produce improvements to untrained cognitive domains (far transfer), many others fail to show these effects, especially when it comes to improving fluid intelligence. The current study was designed to overcome several limitations of previous training studies by incorporating training expectancy assessments, an active control group, and “Mind Frontiers,” a video game-based mobile program comprised of six adaptive, cognitively demanding training tasks that have been found to lead to increased scores in fluid intelligence (Gf) tests. We hypothesize that such integrated training may lead to broad improvements in cognitive abilities by targeting aspects of working memory, executive function, reasoning, and problem solving. Ninety participants completed 20 hour-and-a-half long training sessions over four to five weeks, 45 of whom played Mind Frontiers and 45 of whom completed visual search and change detection tasks (active control). After training, the Mind Frontiers group improved in working memory n-back tests, a composite measure of perceptual speed, and a composite measure of reaction time in reasoning tests. No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking. Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups. A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement. In summary, although these findings provide modest evidence regarding the efficacy of an integrated cognitive training program, more research is needed to determine the utility of Mind Frontiers as a cognitive training tool. PMID:26555341

  19. Working Memory, Reasoning, and Task Switching Training: Transfer Effects, Limitations, and Great Expectations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L Baniqued

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown that cognitive training can produce improvements to untrained cognitive domains (far transfer, many others fail to show these effects, especially when it comes to improving fluid intelligence. The current study was designed to overcome several limitations of previous training studies by incorporating training expectancy assessments, an active control group, and "Mind Frontiers," a video game-based mobile program comprised of six adaptive, cognitively demanding training tasks that have been found to lead to increased scores in fluid intelligence (Gf tests. We hypothesize that such integrated training may lead to broad improvements in cognitive abilities by targeting aspects of working memory, executive function, reasoning, and problem solving. Ninety participants completed 20 hour-and-a-half long training sessions over four to five weeks, 45 of whom played Mind Frontiers and 45 of whom completed visual search and change detection tasks (active control. After training, the Mind Frontiers group improved in working memory n-back tests, a composite measure of perceptual speed, and a composite measure of reaction time in reasoning tests. No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking. Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups. A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement. In summary, although these findings provide modest evidence regarding the efficacy of an integrated cognitive training program, more research is needed to determine the utility of Mind Frontiers as a cognitive training tool.

  20. Training self-assessment and task-selection skills to foster self-regulated learning: Do trained skills transfer across domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Steven F; Baars, Martine; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Students' ability to accurately self-assess their performance and select a suitable subsequent learning task in response is imperative for effective self-regulated learning. Video modeling examples have proven effective for training self-assessment and task-selection skills, and-importantly-such training fostered self-regulated learning outcomes. It is unclear, however, whether trained skills would transfer across domains. We investigated whether skills acquired from training with either a specific, algorithmic task-selection rule or a more general heuristic task-selection rule in biology would transfer to self-regulated learning in math. A manipulation check performed after the training confirmed that both algorithmic and heuristic training improved task-selection skills on the biology problems compared with the control condition. However, we found no evidence that students subsequently applied the acquired skills during self-regulated learning in math. Future research should investigate how to support transfer of task-selection skills across domains.

  1. Learning better by repetition or variation? Is transfer at odds with task specific training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Bonney

    Full Text Available Transfer of motor skills is the ultimate goal of motor training in rehabilitation practice. In children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD, very little is known about how skills are transferred from training situations to real life contexts. In this study we examined the influence of two types of practice on transfer of motor skills acquired in a virtual reality (VR environment.One hundred and eleven children with DCD and their typically developing (TD peers, aged 6-10 years (M = 8.0 SD = 1.0 were randomly assigned to either variable (n = 56 or repetitive practice (n = 55. Participants in the repetitive practice played the same exergame (ski slalom twice weekly for 20 minutes, over a period of 5 weeks, while those in the variable group played 10 different games. Motor skills such as balance tasks (hopping, running and agility tasks, ball skills and functional activities were evaluated before and after 5 weeks of training.ANOVA repeated measures indicated that both DCD and TD children demonstrated transfer effects to real life skills with identical and non-identical elements at exactly the same rate, irrespective of the type of practice they were assigned to.Based on these findings, we conclude that motor skills acquired in the VR environment, transfers to real world contexts in similar proportions for both TD and DCD children. The type of practice adopted does not seem to influence children's ability to transfer skills acquired in an exergame to life situations but the number of identical elements does.

  2. Text-fading based training leads to transfer effects on children’s sentence reading fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telse eNagler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies used a text-fading procedure as a training tool with the goal to increase silent reading fluency (i.e., proficient reading rate and comprehension. In recently published studies, this procedure resulted in lasting reading enhancements for adult and adolescent research samples. However, studies working with children reported mixed results. While reading rate improvements were observable for Dutch reading children in a text-fading training study, reading fluency improvements in standardized reading tests post-training attributable to the fading manipulation were not detectable. These results raise the question of whether text-fading training is not effective for children or whether research design issues have concealed possible transfer effects. Hence, the present study sought to investigate possible transfer effects resulting from a text-fading based reading training program, using a modified research design. Over a period of three weeks, two groups of German third-graders read sentences either with an adaptive text-fading procedure or at their self-paced reading rate. A standardized test measuring reading fluency at the word, sentence, and text level was conducted pre- and post-training. Text level reading fluency improved for both groups equally. Post-training gains at the word level were found for the text-fading group, however, no significant interaction between groups was revealed for word reading fluency. Sentence level reading fluency gains were found for the text-fading group, which significantly differed from the group of children reading at their self-paced reading routine. These findings provide evidence for the efficacy of text-fading as a training method for sentence reading fluency improvement also for children.

  3. Effects of 18-week in-season heavy-resistance and power training on throwing velocity, strength, jumping, and maximal sprint swim performance of elite male water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Veliz, Rafael; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Newton, Robert U; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of 18 weeks of strength and high-intensity training on key sport performance measures of elite male water polo (WP) players. Twenty-seven players were randomly assigned to 2 groups, control (in-water training only) and strength group, (strength training sessions [twice per week] + in-water training). In-water training was conducted 5 d·wk. Twenty-meter maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength 1-repetition maximum (1RM) for upper bench press (BP) and lower full squat (FS) body, countermovement jump (CMJ), and throwing velocity were measured before and after the training. The training program included upper and lower body strength and high-intensity exercises (BP, FS, military press, pull-ups, CMJ loaded, and abs). Baseline-training results showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. No improvement was found in the control group; however, meaningful improvement was found in all variables in the experimental group: CMJ (2.38 cm, 6.9%, effect size [ES] = 0.48), BP (9.06 kg, 10.53%, ES = 0.66), FS (11.06 kg, 14.21%, ES = 0.67), throwing velocity (1.76 km·h(-1), 2.76%, ES = 0.25), and 20-m maximal sprint swim (-0.26 seconds, 2.25%, ES = 0.29). Specific strength and high-intensity training in male WP players for 18 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to WP. Therefore, we propose modifications to the current training methodology for WP players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  4. Technology transfer of the systematic approach to training to Soviet designed nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Yoder, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    International Nuclear Safety Program initiated by US DOE in 1992 in Russia and Ukraine was expanded to include Armenia (together with IAEA), Bulgaria, Lithuania and Slovak Republic. Presentation describes the background, objectives, activities and key accomplishments of technology transfer of SAT to Soviet designed NPPs. High level of cooperation between countries was achieved showing mutual commitment of US and the countries involved to improve the quality of training of NPP personnel. Technology transfer will succeed because of the efforts and dedication of personnel from the initial sites in Russia and Ukraine

  5. The effect of ratio and interval training on Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Wiltgen

    Full Text Available Conditional stimuli (CS that are paired with reward can be used to motivate instrumental responses. This process is called Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT. A recent study in rats suggested that habitual responses are particularly sensitive to the motivational effects of reward cues. The current experiments examined this idea using ratio and interval training in mice. Two groups of animals were trained to lever press for food pellets that were delivered on random ratio or random interval schedules. Devaluation tests revealed that interval training led to habitual responding while ratio training produced goal-directed actions. The presentation of CSs paired with reward led to positive transfer in both groups, however, the size of this effect was much larger in mice that were trained on interval schedules. This result suggests that habitual responses are more sensitive to the motivational influence of reward cues than goal-directed actions. The implications for neurobiological models of motivation and drug seeking behaviors are discussed.

  6. Inception report: Training and technology transfer feasibility study for Tenaga Nasional Berhad. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-29

    The study, conducted by General Physics Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report recommends strategies and specific actions for Tenaga Nasional Berhad`s training and technology transfer needs. The study covers the assessments made by teams of generation, transmission, distribution, management engineers and training specialists over a 4-month period. The Inception Report is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Objectives; (2) General Physics Background; (3) Project Description; (4) Project Organization; (5) Detailed Scope of Work; (6) Project Schedule; (Appendix A) Personnel Resumes; (Appendix B) General Physics Brochures.

  7. Observing the gender condition during technology transfer of solar oven training in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herliyani Suharta; Abdullah, K.

    2006-01-01

    Indonesian Sun Cooking via skill-training Technology Transfer of Solar Cooker has been undertaken since 1995. This community educational approach is expected could raise the local awareness on the need of gender equity for a better sustainable development. Quantitative survey with a multiple choices system is selected. Questionnaire was designed to investigate in depth the attitude of the participants. This questionnaire comes up with a positive result on gender equity. Therefore, it is proposed to disseminate this training as widely as possible as a vehicle for changing people ideas about their conventional role

  8. Lack of transfer of skills after virtual reality simulator training with haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våpenstad, Cecilie; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Bø, Lars Eirik; Kuhry, Esther; Johnsen, Gjermund; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas; Hernes, Toril Nagelhus

    2017-12-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators enrich surgical training and offer training possibilities outside of the operating room (OR). In this study, we created a criterion-based training program on a VR simulator with haptic feedback and tested it by comparing the performances of a simulator group against a control group. Medical students with no experience in laparoscopy were randomly assigned to a simulator group or a control group. In the simulator group, the candidates trained until they reached predefined criteria on the LapSim ® VR simulator (Surgical Science AB, Göteborg, Sweden) with haptic feedback (Xitact TM IHP, Mentice AB, Göteborg, Sweden). All candidates performed a cholecystectomy on a porcine organ model in a box trainer (the clinical setting). The performances were video rated by two surgeons blinded to subject training status. In total, 30 students performed the cholecystectomy and had their videos rated (N = 16 simulator group, N = 14 control group). The control group achieved better video rating scores than the simulator group (p training program did not transfer skills to the clinical setting. Poor mechanical performance of the simulated haptic feedback is believed to have resulted in a negative training effect.

  9. Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: Common Processing, Attention, and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Besson, Mireille; Chobert, Julie; Marie, Céline

    2011-01-01

    After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic processing in the other domain, results can be interpreted as common acoustic processing. But when long-te...

  10. Transfer of training between music and speech: common processing, attention and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille eBesson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than nonmusicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic processing in the other domain, results can be interpreted as common acoustic processing. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the Event-Related Potentials method to disentangle the different processes that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech processing.

  11. Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: Common Processing, Attention, and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Mireille; Chobert, Julie; Marie, Céline

    2011-01-01

    After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic processing in the other domain, results can be interpreted as common acoustic processing. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the event-related potentials method to disentangle the different processes that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech processing.

  12. Online games training aging brains: limited transfer to cognitive control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Muijden, Jesse; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC) in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77) played five different cognitive training games online for 30 min a day over a period of seven weeks (game group). Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73) instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group). Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention, and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task) and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM), whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3). These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults.

  13. Online Games Training Aging Brains:Limited transfer to cognitive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eVan Muijden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77 played five different cognitive training games online for 30 minutes a day over a period of seven weeks (game group. Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73 instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group. Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM, whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3. These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults.

  14. The Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Older Adults' Driving Mobility Across 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Edwards, Jerri D; O'Connor, Melissa L; Ball, Karlene K; Wadley, Virginia G; Vance, David E

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel models assessed the effects of cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) on older adults' self-reported driving using intention-to-treat (ITT, randomization to training or control conditions) and dosage (treatment-received via number of training sessions) analyses across 5 years. Participants randomized to SPT (n = 598) were compared with those randomized to either the no-contact control (n = 598) or memory training, which served as an active control (n = 610). Driving mobility (frequency, exposure, and space) was assessed over time. No significant effects were found within the ITT analyses. However, number of SPT sessions did affect driving mobility outcomes. In the full sample (N = 1,806), higher SPT doses were associated with maintained driving frequency as compared with both control groups, but no effects were found for driving exposure or space. Subsample analyses (n = 315) revealed that persons at-risk for mobility declines (i.e., poor initial processing speed) who received additional booster SPT sessions reported greater maintenance of both driving frequency and exposure over time as compared with the no-contact and active control groups. These results and prior research indicate that cognitive SPT transfers to prolonged driving mobility among older adults. Future research should investigate the mechanisms behind transfer effects to real-world activities, such as driving. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Older Adults’ Driving Mobility Across 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D.; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Ball, Karlene K.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Vance, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Multilevel models assessed the effects of cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) on older adults’ self-reported driving using intention-to-treat (ITT, randomization to training or control conditions) and dosage (treatment-received via number of training sessions) analyses across 5 years. Method. Participants randomized to SPT (n = 598) were compared with those randomized to either the no-contact control (n = 598) or memory training, which served as an active control (n = 610). Driving mobility (frequency, exposure, and space) was assessed over time. Results. No significant effects were found within the ITT analyses. However, number of SPT sessions did affect driving mobility outcomes. In the full sample (N = 1,806), higher SPT doses were associated with maintained driving frequency as compared with both control groups, but no effects were found for driving exposure or space. Subsample analyses (n = 315) revealed that persons at-risk for mobility declines (i.e., poor initial processing speed) who received additional booster SPT sessions reported greater maintenance of both driving frequency and exposure over time as compared with the no-contact and active control groups. Discussion. These results and prior research indicate that cognitive SPT transfers to prolonged driving mobility among older adults. Future research should investigate the mechanisms behind transfer effects to real-world activities, such as driving. PMID:25878053

  16. Level of training and experience in physicians performing interhospital transfers of adult patients in the internal medicine department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, P; Folkestad, L; Brabrand, M

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To establish the level of training doctors who participate in interhospital transfers in Denmark. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to every hospital department in Denmark with acute internal medicine admissions. RESULTS: Eighty-nine internal medicine departments were contacted and 84...... responded (response rate 94.4%). Of the 84 hospitals, 75 (89.3%) indicated that they perform interhospital transfers. Most transfers were performed by interns (61.3%) or senior house officers (10.7%) with only a few months' experience in their current speciality. Training in interhospital transfer...

  17. The Impact of Workplace Support and Identity on Training Transfer: A Case Study of Drug and Alcohol Safety Training in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the transfer climate of work organisations is an important factor in determining the degree to which knowledge, skills and abilities gained in training transfer to the workplace. In particular, workplace social support from supervisors and coworkers is consistently cited as an important factor that can…

  18. Game-based training of flexibility and attention improves task-switch performance: near and far transfer of cognitive training in an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfers, Kerwin J F; Band, Guido P H

    2018-01-01

    There is a demand for ways to enhance cognitive flexibility, as it can be a limiting factor for performance in daily life. Video game training has been linked to advantages in cognitive functioning, raising the question if training with video games can promote cognitive flexibility. In the current study, we investigated if game-based computerized cognitive training (GCCT) could enhance cognitive flexibility in a healthy young adult sample (N = 72), as measured by task-switch performance. Three GCCT schedules were contrasted, which targeted: (1) cognitive flexibility and task switching, (2) attention and working memory, or (3) an active control involving basic math games, in twenty 45-min sessions across 4-6 weeks. Performance on an alternating-runs task-switch paradigm during pretest and posttest sessions indicated greater overall reaction time improvements after both flexibility and attention training as compared to control, although not related to local switch cost. Flexibility training enhanced performance in the presence of distractor-related interference. In contrast, attention training was beneficial when low task difficulty undermined sustained selective attention. Furthermore, flexibility training improved response selection as indicated by a larger N2 amplitude after training as compared to control, and more efficient conflict monitoring as indicated by reduced Nc/CRN and larger Pe amplitude after training. These results provide tentative support for the efficacy of GCCT and suggest that an ideal training might include both task switching and attention components, with maximal task diversity both within and between training games.

  19. Does Far Transfer Exist? Negative Evidence From Chess, Music, and Working Memory Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Gobet, Fernand

    2017-12-01

    Chess masters and expert musicians appear to be, on average, more intelligent than the general population. Some researchers have thus claimed that playing chess or learning music enhances children's cognitive abilities and academic attainment. We here present two meta-analyses assessing the effect of chess and music instruction on children's cognitive and academic skills. A third meta-analysis evaluated the effects of working memory training-a cognitive skill correlated with music and chess expertise-on the same variables. The results show small to moderate effects. However, the effect sizes are inversely related to the quality of the experimental design (e.g., presence of active control groups). This pattern of results casts serious doubts on the effectiveness of chess, music, and working memory training. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings; extend the debate to other types of training such as spatial training, brain training, and video games; and conclude that far transfer of learning rarely occurs.

  20. Differences in perceptual learning transfer as a function of training task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C Shawn; Kattner, Florian; Siegel, Max H; Kersten, Daniel; Schrater, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research--including results from behavioral psychology, human structural and functional imaging, single-cell recordings in nonhuman primates, and computational modeling--suggests that perceptual learning effects are best understood as a change in the ability of higher-level integration or association areas to read out sensory information in the service of particular decisions. Work in this vein has argued that, depending on the training experience, the "rules" for this read-out can either be applicable to new contexts (thus engendering learning generalization) or can apply only to the exact training context (thus resulting in learning specificity). Here we contrast learning tasks designed to promote either stimulus-specific or stimulus-general rules. Specifically, we compare learning transfer across visual orientation following training on three different tasks: an orientation categorization task (which permits an orientation-specific learning solution), an orientation estimation task (which requires an orientation-general learning solution), and an orientation categorization task in which the relevant category boundary shifts on every trial (which lies somewhere between the two tasks above). While the simple orientation-categorization training task resulted in orientation-specific learning, the estimation and moving categorization tasks resulted in significant orientation learning generalization. The general framework tested here--that task specificity or generality can be predicted via an examination of the optimal learning solution--may be useful in building future training paradigms with certain desired outcomes.

  1. Working memory training in old age: an examination of transfer and maintenance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Zanoni, Giulia; Zavagnin, Michela; De Beni, Rossana

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of a verbal working memory (WM) training program in old-old individuals (over 75 years of age). Thirty-six adults aged 75-87 took part in the study: 18 were randomly assigned to receive training and the remainder served as active controls. Specific training gains in a verbal WM task (criterion task), and transfer effects on measures of visuospatial WM, short-term memory, inhibition, processing speed, and fluid intelligence were examined. The trained old-old adults performed better than the controls in the criterion task, and this benefit persisted after 8 months; they also showed an increase in the efficiency of inhibitory mechanisms at follow-up compared with pretest. The results of this study suggest that the present WM training program produces benefits maintained over time even in old-old adults. These findings confirm that there is still room for plasticity in the basic mechanisms of cognition in advance old age.

  2. An Evaluation of Organizational and Experience Factors Affecting the Perceived Transfer of U.S. Air Force Basic Combat Skills Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crow, Shirley D

    2007-01-01

    .... In this study, basic combat skills training was evaluated using a number of training factors that potentially affect trainees' perception of training transfer, or their ability to apply the skills...

  3. Brain-Behavior Mechanisms for the Transfer of Neuromuscular Training Adaptions to Simulated Sport: Initial Findings from the Train the Brain Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Dustin R; Kiefer, Adam W; Riley, Michael A; Ellis, Jonathan D; Thomas, Staci; Kitchen, Katie; DiCesare, Christopher; Bonnette, Scott; Gadd, Brooke; Barber Foss, Kim D; Yuan, Weihong; Silva, Paula; Galloway, Ryan; Diekfuss, Jed; Leach, James; Berz, Kate; Myer, Gregory D

    2018-03-27

    A limiting factor for reducing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is ensuring that the movement adaptions made during the prevention program transfer to sport-specific activity. Virtual reality provides a mechanism to assess transferability and neuroimaging provides a means to assay the neural processes allowing for such skill transfer. To determine the neural mechanisms for injury risk reducing biomechanics transfer to sport after ACL injury prevention training. Cohort study Setting: Research laboratory Participants: Four healthy high school soccer athletes. Participants completed augmented neuromuscular training utilizing real-time visual feedback. An unloaded knee extension task and a loaded leg-press task was completed with neuroimaging before and after training. A virtual reality soccer specific landing task was also competed following training to assess transfer of movement mechanics. Landing mechanics during the virtual reality soccer task and blood oxygen level dependent signal change during neuroimaging. Increased motor planning, sensory and visual region activity during unloaded knee extension and decreased motor cortex activity during loaded leg-press were highly correlated with improvements in landing mechanics (decreased hip adduction and knee rotation). Changes in brain activity may underlie adaptation and transfer of injury risk reducing movement mechanics to sport activity. Clinicians may be able to target these specific brain processes with adjunctive therapy to facilitate intervention improvements transferring to sport.

  4. An Examination of Mediators of the Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Everyday Functional Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Ruva, Christine L.; O’Brien, Jennifer L.; Haley, Christine B.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (Edwards, Wadley, Vance, Roenker, & Ball, 2005). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 communit...

  5. Effects of Transfer Training on Musculoskeletal pain in the Caregiver of a Stroke Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Taghizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case report was to evaluate the effectiveness of training of transfer techniques to a caregiver of a person who had suffered a stroke in decreasing musculoskeletal pain, depression and anxiety. This study adopted a single subject research design to evaluate the effectiveness of transfer-techniques training on musculoskeletal pain, depression, and anxiety in a 25-year-old female caregiver of a person with a stroke. The study was completed in four phases, including a baseline evaluation (1st and 3rd week, training (3rd, 5th and 7th week, post-training (9th week, and follow-up evaluation (11th week. During the 1st week, demographic and descriptive information  (such as age, time since diagnosis, cognition and independence of daily living were collected from the stroke patient. Also, pain severity, anxiety and depression levels of the caregiver were evaluated. In weeks 3, 5 and 7, transfer training was undertaken. The patient was involved in the training with the caregiver under the supervision of an occupational therapist in their own home. The effectiveness of the training with regard to musculoskeletal pain and depression and anxiety levels of the caregiver was evaluated in the 5th, 9th and 11th weeks. The data were analyzed using a visual analysis of trends and levels. The results showed a decrease in pain severity, anxiety and depression during training and post-training. The changes continued during the follow-up stage. This study suggests promising results for the effectiveness of the transfer-techniques training and justifies further clinical trials. A larger trial is required to confirm the effectiveness of transfer training in improving pain management in caregivers of stroke survivors.

  6. An Evaluation of Effective Factors in Learning Transfer of Nursing On-the-Job Training Courses in Work-Environment Based on Holton’s Transfer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi mohammadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background of Objective: Nursing is one of the health care jobs. In addition to health care, they need to continue education for individual development and be aware of the latest medical science achievements. The main purpose of this study was an evaluation of effective factors in learning transfer of nursing on the job training courses in work environment based on Holton’s transfer model. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which the population was all of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences nurses. Passing on-the-job training courses in 2015 was inclusion criterion. Using random sampling method and Cocran formula, 95 nurses were selected. Research instrument was learning transfer system inventory that was distributed after its validity and reliability were calculated. Data was analyzed by inferential statistical methods and SPSS21. Results: The results showed that effective individual, organizational and educational factors in learning transfer of on-the-job training courses in work environment are important. Also, they showed that individual was the most dominant effective factor (P< 0.05. Conclusion: With special attention to the nurse's on- the -job training courses, it is possible to transfer learning to work environment.

  7. Manual patient transfers used most often by student and staff nurses are consistent with their perceptions of transfer training, and performance confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Paula M; Weir, Patricia L; Andrews, David M

    2015-01-01

    A disconnect in manual patient transfer (MPT) training practices for nurses, between what is taught and used in academic and clinical settings, could have implications for injury. This study aimed to determine: 1. what MPTs student and staff nurses use in clinical settings, and 2. if the MPTs used most often were also the ones they perceived that they received training for and had the most confidence performing. Survey responses from student nurses (n=163) (mid-sized university) and staff nurses (n=33) (local hospital) regarding 19 MPTs were analyzed to determine which transfers were perceived to be used most often, and which ones they had received training for and had the greatest confidence performing. The MPTs nurses perceived using most often were the same transfers they had the greatest confidence performing and for which they perceived receiving training. However, these MPTs were not taught at the university at the time of this investigation. Reducing the disconnect between manual patient transfer training obtained in the academic and clinical environments will hopefully reduce the risk of injury for nurses and improve the quality of care for patients.

  8. Implementing Transfer of Learning in Training and Professional Development in a US Public Child Welfare Agency: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Virginia; Bosco-Ruggiero, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In-service training in public child welfare agencies in the United States has long been viewed as an important vehicle for the improvement of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and therefore as important to retention in child welfare. This article examines the critical role of transfer of learning strategies in such training and…

  9. Transfer validity of laparoscopic knot-tying training on a VR simulator to a realistic environment : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E.G.G.; Dankelman, J.; Lange, J.F.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Background- Laparoscopic suturing is one of the most difficult tasks in endoscopic surgery, requiring extensive training. The aim of this study was to determine the transfer validity of knot-tying training on a virtual-reality (VR) simulator to a realistic laparoscopic environment. Methods- Twenty

  10. Predicting Workplace Transfer of Learning: A Study of Adult Learners Enrolled in a Continuing Professional Education Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Alfred, Mary; Chakraborty, Misha; Johnson, Michelle; Cherrstrom, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to predict transfer of learning to workplace among adult learners enrolled in a continuing professional education (CPE) training program, specifically training courses offered through face-to-face, blended and online instruction formats. The study examined the predictive capacity of trainee…

  11. THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE TRAINING STRATEGIES IN WHAT CONCERNS OBTAINING A BIGGER TRANSFER OF THE TRAINING EFFECT FOR THE COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULGHERU MIRELA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The personal experiences in the position of performance athletes, put us in the situation to do observations about the differences between the segmentary muscular contraction regime during training and theone of the solicitations in the competition effort. In the present paper we want to acknowledge and demonstrate the existence of a competition specific bio-motor (un-metabolic of which if we do not take it into account we risk to have low transfer premises of the training effect towards the competition. In the present paper we usedclassic materials and methods and modern ones of research (the bibliographic study method, the observation method, the logical method, the measurements and recordings method, the graphic method and the experimental one. In our paper we will present the video recorded data of the executions during the competitions and thetraining of an athlete that was part of the investigated subjects’ batch. I put experimentally in evidence the differences in the speed and positions distribution and also in the strengths and speeds distribution during training and competition reaching the conclusion that these differences are obvious and generate changes in thecommands succession. The conclusion that we reached refers to the fact that the administration and regulation process of the physical effort in concordance with the competition effort’s specificity must be revised, known being the fact that because of ignoring the differential nature of the effort’s specificity mistakes are made inchoosing the means and dosages, means are chosen without taking into account the existent differences between the segmentary contraction regime during practice and the one of the solicitations during the competition effort

  12. Transfer of training from one working memory task to another: Behavioural and neural evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Beatty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available N-back working memory (WM tasks necessitate the maintenance and updating of dynamic rehearsal sets during performance. The delayed matching-to-sample (dMTS task is another WM task, which in turn involves the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of stimulus representations in sequential order. Because both n-back and dMTS engage WM function, we hypothesized that compared to a control task not taxing WM, training on the n-back task would be associated with better performance on dMTS by virtue of training a shared mental capacity. We tested this hypothesis by randomly assigning subjects (N = 43 to train on either the n-back (including 2-back and 3-back levels or an active control task. Following training, dMTS was administered in the fMRI scanner. The n-back group performed marginally better than the active control group on dMTS. In addition, although the n-back group improved more on the less difficult 2-back level than the more difficult 3-back level across training sessions, it was improvement on the 3-back level that accounted for 21% of the variance in dMTS performance. For the control group, improvement in training across sessions was unrelated to dMTS performance. At the neural level, greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus, right posterior parietal cortex and the cerebellum distinguished the n-back group from the control group in the maintenance phase of dMTS. Degree of improvement on the 3-back level across training sessions was correlated with activation in right lateral prefrontal and motor cortices in the maintenance phase of dMTS. Our results suggest that although n-back training is more likely to improve performance in easier blocks, it is improvement in more difficult blocks that is predictive of performance on a target task drawing on WM. In addition, the extent to which training on a task can transfer to another task is likely due to the engagement of shared cognitive capacities and underlying neural substrates

  13. [Resuscitation training for lay persons in first aid courses: Transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, J; Lingemann, C; Wagner, P

    2016-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most effective intervention for out of hospital sudden cardiac arrest; therefore, basic life support (BLS) courses for lay persons have become well established in industrialized countries, often since decades. Despite this favorable situation bystander CPR rates still remain low in some countries (e.g. in Germany), indicating serious implementation problems. The quality of instruction in these courses could be one reason for low bystander CPR rates. We therefore analyzed official lay BLS courses in terms of the teaching quality in the domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes (according to Bloom's taxonomy). A total of 20 officially accredited lay BLS courses in Berlin, Germany, were analyzed by a participating observer, who remained blinded to the instructor and course participants until the end of the course. Courses were offered by German rescue organizations and private providers according to European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines. Teaching quality was rated by a standardized checklist including 21 observable criteria of teaching quality for transfer of knowledge (n = 10), skills (n = 8) and attitudes (n = 3). In order to achieve comparability between items the results of each criterion were quantified by Likert scales ranging from +2 (very good) to -2 (very poor). The average score of all courses was +0.47 (SD ±0.46) for transfer of knowledge, +0.03 (SD ±0.61) for skills and -1.08 (SD ±0.73) for attitudes. In the domain of knowledge transfer, learning atmosphere and course structure were rated to be generally good, whilst marked deficits were found with respect to correctness of content. In the domain of skills the more positive ratings were given for teaching of single BLS elements (e.g. compressions and ventilation), in contrast to the training of BLS context, where e.g. realistic scenarios were only used by 3 out of 20 instructors. The domain of attitude transfer had the worst

  14. Strengthened effective connectivity underlies transfer of working memory training to tests of short-term memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Sutterer, David W; Emrich, Stephen M; Postle, Bradley R

    2013-05-15

    Although long considered a natively endowed and fixed trait, working memory (WM) ability has recently been shown to improve with intensive training. What remains controversial and poorly understood, however, are the neural bases of these training effects and the extent to which WM training gains transfer to other cognitive tasks. Here we present evidence from human electrophysiology (EEG) and simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and EEG that the transfer of WM training to other cognitive tasks is supported by changes in task-related effective connectivity in frontoparietal and parieto-occipital networks that are engaged by both the trained and transfer tasks. One consequence of this effect is greater efficiency of stimulus processing, as evidenced by changes in EEG indices of individual differences in short-term memory capacity and in visual search performance. Transfer to search-related activity provides evidence that something more fundamental than task-specific strategy or stimulus-specific representations has been learned. Furthermore, these patterns of training and transfer highlight the role of common neural systems in determining individual differences in aspects of visuospatial cognition.

  15. Mastery versus the standard proficiency target for basic laparoscopic skill training: effect on skill transfer and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolozsvari, Nicoleta O; Kaneva, Pepa; Brace, Chantalle; Chartrand, Genevieve; Vaillancourt, Marilou; Cao, Jiguo; Banaszek, Daniel; Demyttenaere, Sebastian; Vassiliou, Melina C; Fried, Gerald M; Feldman, Liane S

    2011-07-01

    Little evidence exists to guide educators in the best way to implement simulation within surgical skills curricula. This study investigated whether practicing a basic Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) simulator task [peg transfer (PT)] facilitates learning a more complex skill [intracorporeal suturing (ICS)] and compared the effect of PT training to mastery with training to the passing level on PT retention and on learning ICS. For this study, 98 surgically naïve subjects were randomized to one of three PT training groups: control, standard training, and overtraining. All the participants then trained in ICS. The learning curves for ICS were analyzed by estimating the learning plateau and rate using nonlinear regression. Skill retention was assessed by retesting participants 1 month after training. The groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Effectiveness of skill transfer was calculated using the transfer effectiveness ratio (TER). Data are presented as mean±standard deviation (pstandard, and 23 overtrained subjects). The ICS learning plateau rose with increasing PT training (452±10 vs. 459±10 vs. 467±10; p0.5). The PT training took 20±10 min for standard training and 39±20 min for overtraining (pstandard training group, suggesting that PT overtraining took longer than the time saved on ICS training. For surgically naïve subjects, part-task training with PT alone was associated with slight improvements in the learning curve for ICS. However, overtraining with PT did not improve skill retention, and peg training alone was not an efficient strategy for learning ICS.

  16. The effects of video-game training on broad cognitive transfer in multiple sclerosis: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Alisha; Boster, Aaron; Lee, HyunKyu; Patterson, Beth; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that results in diffuse nerve damage and associated physical and cognitive impairments. Of the few comprehensive rehabilitation options that exist for populations with lower baseline cognitive functioning, those that have been successful at eliciting broad cognitive improvements have focused on a multimodal training approach, emphasizing complex cognitive processing that utilizes multiple domains simultaneously. The current study sought to determine the feasibility of an 8-week, hybrid-variable priority training (HVT) program, with a secondary aim to assess the success of this training paradigm at eliciting broad cognitive transfer effects. Capitalizing on the multimodal training modalities offered by the Space Fortress platform, we compared the HVT strategy-based intervention with a waitlist control group, to primarily assess skill acquisition and secondarily determine presence of cognitive transfer. Twenty-eight participants met inclusionary criteria for the study and were randomized to either training or waitlist control groups. To assess broad transfer effects, a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered pre- and post-intervention. The results indicated an overall improvement in skill acquisition and evidence for the feasibility of the intervention, but a lack of broad transfer to tasks of cognitive functioning. Participants in the training group, however, did show improvements on a measure of spatial short-term memory. The current investigation provided support for the feasibility of a multimodal training approach, using the HVT strategy, within the MS population, but lacked broad transfer to multiple domains of cognitive functioning. Future improvements to obtain greater cognitive transfer efficacy would include a larger sample size, a longer course of training to evoke greater game score improvement, the inclusion of only cognitively impaired individuals, and

  17. Transferring Pre-Trained Deep CNNs for Remote Scene Classification with General Features Learned from Linear PCA Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs have been widely used to obtain high-level representation in various computer vision tasks. However, in the field of remote sensing, there are not sufficient images to train a useful deep CNN. Instead, we tend to transfer successful pre-trained deep CNNs to remote sensing tasks. In the transferring process, generalization power of features in pre-trained deep CNNs plays the key role. In this paper, we propose two promising architectures to extract general features from pre-trained deep CNNs for remote scene classification. These two architectures suggest two directions for improvement. First, before the pre-trained deep CNNs, we design a linear PCA network (LPCANet to synthesize spatial information of remote sensing images in each spectral channel. This design shortens the spatial “distance” of target and source datasets for pre-trained deep CNNs. Second, we introduce quaternion algebra to LPCANet, which further shortens the spectral “distance” between remote sensing images and images used to pre-train deep CNNs. With five well-known pre-trained deep CNNs, experimental results on three independent remote sensing datasets demonstrate that our proposed framework obtains state-of-the-art results without fine-tuning and feature fusing. This paper also provides baseline for transferring fresh pretrained deep CNNs to other remote sensing tasks.

  18. Transferable Training Modules: Building Environmental Education Opportunities With and for Mexican Community Health Workers (Promotores de Salud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Vea, Lourdes; Field, James A; Baker, Paul B; Gandolfi, A Jay; Maier, Raina M

    Community health workers (promotores de salud) have the ability to empower communities to mitigate negative health outcomes. Current training efforts in environmental topics are lacking. This project addressed this gap by developing 4 transferable training modules on environmental health. By applying a series of surveys, interviews, and trainings, we evaluated their relevance. Partners provided favorable feedback for 3 of the 4 modules. It was also learned that the development method could be improved by engaging technically trained promotores de salud in the role of co-creators. This project has implications for environmental justice communities as it can lessen information disparities.

  19. High intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate production, time trial and competition performance in 9-11 year old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Helleman, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, H. C.; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Open Access - This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the source is credited. Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present s...

  20. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  1. Embracing Errors in Simulation-Based Training: The Effect of Error Training on Retention and Transfer of Central Venous Catheter Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Abdelfattah, Kareem; Wiersch, John; Ahmed, Rami A; Willis, Ross E

    2015-01-01

    Error management training is an approach that encourages exposure to errors during initial skill acquisition so that learners can be equipped with important error identification, management, and metacognitive skills. The purpose of this study was to determine how an error-focused training program affected performance, retention, and transfer of central venous catheter (CVC) placement skills when compared with traditional training methodologies. Surgical interns (N = 30) participated in a 1-hour session featuring an instructional video and practice performing internal jugular (IJ) and subclavian (SC) CVC placement with guided instruction. All interns underwent baseline knowledge and skill assessment for IJ and SC (pretest) CVC placement; watched a "correct-only" (CO) or "correct + error" (CE) instructional video; practiced for 30 minutes; and were posttested on knowledge and IJ and SC CVC placement. Skill retention and transfer (femoral CVC placement) were assessed 30 days later. All skills tests (pretest, posttest, and transfer) were videorecorded and deidentified for evaluation by a single blinded instructor using a validated 17-item checklist. Both the groups exhibited significant improvements (p error-based activities and discussions into training programs can be beneficial for skill retention and transfer. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using multiple schedules during functional communication training to promote rapid transfer of treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W; Greer, Brian D; Fuhrman, Ashley M; Querim, Angie C

    2015-12-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and therapists. With 2 children, we conducted FCT in the context of mixed (baseline) and multiple (treatment) schedules introduced across settings or therapists using a multiple baseline design. Results indicated that when the multiple schedules were introduced, the functional communication response came under rapid discriminative control, and problem behavior remained at near-zero rates. We extended these findings with another individual by using a more traditional baseline in which problem behavior produced reinforcement. Results replicated those of the previous participants and showed rapid reductions in problem behavior when multiple schedules were implemented across settings. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. An Evaluation of Organizational and Experience Factors Affecting the Perceived Transfer of U.S. Air Force Basic Combat Skills Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crow, Shirley D

    2007-01-01

    ... they learned in training on the job or in a hostile environment. The analysis used structural equation modeling to evaluate the paths between each of the factors and perceived training transfer...

  4. Learned control over spinal nociception: Transfer and stability of training success in a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumler, Maximilian; Feller, Moritz; Krafft, Stefanie; Schiffer, Manuela; Sommer, Jens; Straube, Andreas; Weinges, Fabian; Ruscheweyh, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    Healthy subjects can learn to use cognitive-emotional strategies to suppress their spinal nociception, quantified by the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex), when given visual RIII feedback. This likely reflects learned activation of descending pain inhibition. Here, we investigated if training success persists 4 and 8 months after the end of RIII feedback training, and if transfer (RIII suppression without feedback) is possible. 18 and 8 subjects who had successfully completed feedback training were investigated 4 and 8 months later. At 4 months, RIII suppression during feedback and transfer was similar to that achieved at the final RIII feedback training session (to 50 ± 22%, 53 ± 21% and 52 ± 21% of baseline, all differences n.s.). At 8 months, RIII suppression was somewhat (not significantly) smaller in the feedback run (to 64 ± 17%) compared to the final training session (56 ± 19%). Feedback and transfer runs were similar (to 64 ± 17% vs. 68 ± 24%, n.s.). Concomitant reductions in pain intensity ratings were stable at 4 and 8 months. RIII feedback training success was completely maintained after 4 months, and somewhat attenuated 8 months after training. Transfer was successful. These results are an important pre-requisite for application of RIII feedback training in the context of clinical pain. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  6. Dynamic, continuous multitasking training leads to task-specific improvements but does not transfer across action selection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Angela D.; Filmer, Hannah L.; Naughtin, Claire K.; Dux, Paul E.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to perform multiple tasks concurrently is an ever-increasing requirement in our information-rich world. Despite this, multitasking typically compromises performance due to the processing limitations associated with cognitive control and decision-making. While intensive dual-task training is known to improve multitasking performance, only limited evidence suggests that training-related performance benefits can transfer to untrained tasks that share overlapping processes. In the real world, however, coordinating and selecting several responses within close temporal proximity will often occur in high-interference environments. Over the last decade, there have been notable reports that training on video action games that require dynamic multitasking in a demanding environment can lead to transfer effects on aspects of cognition such as attention and working memory. Here, we asked whether continuous and dynamic multitasking training extends benefits to tasks that are theoretically related to the trained tasks. To examine this issue, we asked a group of participants to train on a combined continuous visuomotor tracking task and a perceptual discrimination task for six sessions, while an active control group practiced the component tasks in isolation. A battery of tests measuring response selection, response inhibition, and spatial attention was administered before and immediately after training to investigate transfer. Multitasking training resulted in substantial, task-specific gains in dual-task ability, but there was no evidence that these benefits generalized to other action control tasks. The findings suggest that training on a combined visuomotor tracking and discrimination task results in task-specific benefits but provides no additional value for untrained action selection tasks.

  7. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Scheib, Peter; Ko, Nayeong; Wirsching, Michael; Kuhnert, Andrea; Hick, Jie; Schüßler, Gerhard; Wu, Wenyuan; Yuan, Shen; Cat, Nguyen Huu; Vongphrachanh, Sisouk; Linh, Ngo Tich; Viet, Ngyuen Kim

    2012-08-29

    With the "ASIA-LINK" program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1) an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2) a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3) training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai), Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue) and Laos (Vientiane). A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the participants were necessary for the topics of "breaking bad

  8. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Kurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1 an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2 a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3 training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue and Laos (Vientiane. A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the

  9. Classroom Strategies That Facilitate Transfer of Learning to the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Brenda S.; Korth, Sharon J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a master's program in human resource development that uses experiential learning, transfer of learning, and team learning theories to maximize students' transfer of their formal training to the workplace. Activities include individual and group analysis papers and a team project. Students have found the group and experiential practice…

  10. Task complexity and maximal isometric strength gains through motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jessica; Green, Lara A.; Gabriel, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of a simple versus complex contraction pattern on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of maximal isometric strength gains and reductions in force variability. A control group (N = 12) performed simple isometric contractions of the wrist flexors. An experimental group (N = 12) performed complex proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) contractions consisting of maximal isometric wrist extension immediately reversing force direction to wrist flexion within a single trial. Ten contractions were completed on three consecutive days with a retention and transfer test 2‐weeks later. For the retention test, the groups performed their assigned contraction pattern followed by a transfer test that consisted of the other contraction pattern for a cross‐over design. Both groups exhibited comparable increases in strength (20.2%, P < 0.01) and reductions in mean torque variability (26.2%, P < 0.01), which were retained and transferred. There was a decrease in the coactivation ratio (antagonist/agonist muscle activity) for both groups, which was retained and transferred (35.2%, P < 0.01). The experimental group exhibited a linear decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves, indicating transfer to the simple contraction pattern (P < 0.01). The control group underwent a decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves from the first day of training to retention, but participants returned to baseline levels during the transfer condition (P < 0.01). However, the difference between torque RMS error versus the variability in torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves suggests the demands of the complex task were transferred, but could not be achieved in a reproducible way. PMID:25428951

  11. Lapse in embryo transfer training does not negatively affect clinical pregnancy rates for reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresowik, Jessica; Sparks, Amy; Duran, Eyup H; Shah, Divya K

    2015-03-01

    To compare rates of clinical pregnancy (CPR) and live birth (LBR) following embryo transfer (ET) performed by reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows before and after a prolonged lapse in clinical training due to an 18-month research rotation. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. All women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with ET performed by REI fellows from August 2003 to July 2012. Eighteen-month lapse in clinical training of REI fellows. CPR and LBR before and after the lapse in clinical training were calculated and compared per fellow and as a composite group. Alternating logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth following transfers performed before and after the lapse in training. Unadjusted odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth were similar between the two time periods both for individual fellows and for the composite group. Alternate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant difference in CPR (odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.07) or LBR (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18) after the lapse in training compared with before. A research rotation is common in REI fellowship training programs. This prolonged departure from clinical training does not appear to negatively affect pregnancy outcome following fellow ET. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Short- and long-term transfer of urethral catheterization skills from simulation training to performance on patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Mikael V.; Kromann, Charles B.

    2013-01-01

    Inexperienced interns are responsible for most iatrogenic complications after urethral catheterization (UC). Although training on simulators is common, little is known about the transfer of learned skills to real clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of UC...

  13. Examining the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support, Transfer of Training and Service Quality in the Malaysian Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS), transfer of training outcomes to the workplace and service quality in the context of public sector organizations in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The data for this study have been collected from three sources, the employees of public…

  14. Transfer and maintenance effects of online working-memory training in normal ageing and mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, A.; Claassen, J.A.; Dautzenberg, P.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is one of the cognitive functions that is susceptible to ageing-related decline. Interventions that are able to improve WM functioning at older age are thus highly relevant. In this pilot study, we explored the transfer effects of core WM training on the WM domain and other

  15. Age-Related Differences in the Relation between Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training in Adult Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…

  16. Perceptions of a Learning Organization and Factors within the Work Environment That Influence Transfer of Training in Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine law enforcement officers' perception of factors within the workplace that influence transfer of training and their perception of the organization being a learning organization. The study actually had three parts. First, it intended to investigate the perception of law enforcement officers regarding…

  17. Supervisor/Peer Involvement in Evaluation Transfer of Training Process and Results Reliability: A Research in an Italian Public Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldo, Guido; Depolo, Marco; Rippa, Pierluigi; Schiattone, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a study performed in conjunction with a branch of the Italian Public Italian Administration, the ISSP (Istituto Superiore di Studi Penitenziari--the Higher Institute of Penitentiary Studies). The study aimed to develop a Transfer of Training (ToT) evaluation methodology that would be both scientifically…

  18. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  19. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  20. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  1. Applying the Internal Referencing Strategy to the Evaluation of Transfer of Training in Field Settings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watola, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    ...), a quasi-experimental research design that infers training effectiveness when trainee pretest-posttest change on training-relevant test items is greater than pretest-posttest change on training-irrelevant test items...

  2. Preparatory training attenuates drastic response of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 at the point of maximal oxygen consumption in handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgica Nedić

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The inverse relation between insulin and IGFBP-1 was lost during MPET, as these 2 molecules changed in the same direction. The results obtained suggest less severe stress-induced depression of insulin and IGFBP-1 after preparatory training. But another metabolic mechanism cannot be excluded, and that is potentially impaired insulin sensitivity resulting in higher level of IGFBP-1.

  3. The Effects of a Maximal Power Training Cycle on the Strength, Maximum Power, Vertical Jump Height and Acceleration of High-Level 400-Meter Hurdlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=−2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=−1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=−1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=−1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers. PMID:23717361

  4. Turkey BILSAT-1: a Case Study for the Surrey Know-How Transfer and Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Nadeem; Murat Leloglu, Ugur; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Surrey has established itself over the past 18 years as a world leader in providing hands-on spacecraft engineering training through its Small Satellite Engineering Know-How Transfer and Training (`KHTT') programme. This 18- month course runs alongside the construction of a microsatellite executed through SSTL, and strikes a balance between classroom-based teaching and total immersion within professional engineering teams. Hands-on training is provided covering the entire satellite engineering process, from mission and subsystem design, through module manufacture, assembly and integration, to qualification and flight model environmental tests, launch and commissioning. SSTL's experience in providing the KHTT programme has resulted in a well-defined course structure that yet retains the ability to accommodate individual customer requirements. The programme also takes full advantage of SSTL's intrinsic link with the Surrey Space Centre (`SSC') at the University of Surrey, offering a range of MSc and PhD research programmes pursuing common research interests of both SSTL and the customer, and in many cases complementing the development of either the customer's satellite or their future plans for an evolved space capability. Throughout 2002, three KHTT programmes have run in parallel at SSTL. A team of 11 engineers from the Centre Nationale des Techniques Spatiales in Algeria have now reached completion of their programme with Alsat-1, the first enhanced microsatellite of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (`DMC'). In December 2001, 15 engineers from the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology in Nigeria arrived at SSTL and are now midway through their programme with Nigeriasat-1, the second enhanced microsatellite of the DMC. Thirdly, arriving slightly earlier in August 2001, a team from Tubitak-Bilten in Turkey commenced their KHTT programme with BILSAT-1, a high-capability enhanced microsatellite also contributing to the DMC, and are due to continue through

  5. Transfer of communication skills to the workplace: impact of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed for radiotherapy teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckaert, Isabelle; Delevallez, France; Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Marchal, Serge; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Bragard, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Van Houtte, Paul; Coucke, Philippe; Razavi, Darius

    2015-03-10

    This study assessed the efficacy of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed to train a multidisciplinary radiotherapy team. Four radiotherapy teams were randomly assigned to a training program or a waiting list. Assessments were scheduled at baseline and after training for the training group and at baseline and 4 months later for the waiting list group. Assessments included an audio recording of a radiotherapy planning session to assess team members' communication skills and expression of concerns of patients with breast cancer (analyzed with content analysis software) and an adapted European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer satisfaction with care questionnaire completed by patients at the end of radiotherapy. Two hundred thirty-seven radiotherapy planning sessions were recorded. Compared with members of the untrained teams, members of the trained teams acquired, over time, more assessment skills (P = .003) and more supportive skills (P = .050) and provided more setting information (P = .010). Over time, patients interacting with members of the trained teams asked more open questions (P = .022), expressed more emotional words (P = .025), and exhibited a higher satisfaction level regarding nurses' interventions (P = .028). The 38-hour training program facilitated transfer of team member learned communication skills to the clinical practice and improved patients' satisfaction with care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Little effect of transfer technique instruction and physical fitness training in reducing low back pain among nurses: a cluster randomised intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, S; Ebbehøj, N E; Wiese, N

    2008-01-01

    intervention (six wards) or to control (five wards). The intervention cluster was individually randomised to TT (55 nurses) and TTPT (50 nurses), control (76 nurses). The transfer technique programme was a 4-d course of train-the-trainers to teach transfer technique to their colleagues. The physical training...... consisted of supervised physical fitness training 1 h twice per week for 8 weeks. Implementing transfer technique alone or in combination with physical fitness training among a hospital nursing staff did not, when compared to a control group, show any statistical differences according to self-reported low...... to nurses in a hospital setting needs to be thoroughly considered. Other priorities such as physical training may be taken into consideration. The current study supports the findings of other studies that introducing transfer technique alone has no effect in targeting LBP. However, physical training seems...

  7. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  8. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  9. An examination of mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to everyday functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D; Ruva, Christine L; O'Brien, Jennifer L; Haley, Christine B; Lister, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (J. D. Edwards, V. G. Wadley,, D. E. Vance, D. L. Roenker, & K. K. Ball, 2005, The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 262-271). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a nonverbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  11. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  12. Transfer from point-of-care Ultrasonography training to diagnostic performance on patients--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todsen, Tobias; Jensen, Morten Lind; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinicians are increasingly using point-of-care ultrasonography for bedside examinations of patients. However, proper training is needed in this technique, and it is unknown whether the skills learned from focused Ultrasonography courses are being transferred to diagnostic performance...... test and binary logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the performance score between the intervention group (27.4%) and the control group (18.0%, P = .004) and the diagnostic accuracy between the intervention group (65%) and the control group (39%, P = .014......). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians could successfully transfer learning from an Ultrasonography course to improve diagnostic performance on patients. However, our results also indicate a need for more training when new technologies such as point-of-care ultrasonography are introduced....

  13. Nuclear control room modifications and the role of transfer of training principles: a review of issues and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, C.R.; Pain, R.F.; Cott, H.V.; Banks, W.W.

    1982-08-01

    This report addresses issues and research related to the implementation of NUREG-0700 . . . specifically, transfer of training considerations associated with control room modifications, retrofits, and general upgrades. The ultimate purpose of this effort is to identify literature and data which would indicate any specific negative effects of instrumentation and control board changes on operator performance, especially under high stress conditions. An exhaustive search for these types of applied technical studies failed to reveal anything substantive due to the lack of definitive applied work in this area. However, a successful review of the theoretical and human performance literature was completed with emphasis placed upon the generalizability of transfer of training studies to control room modification scenarios

  14. Taekwondo Fighting in Training Does Not Simulate the Affective and Cognitive Demands of Competition: Implications for Behavior and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Michael A; Renshaw, Ian; Headrick, Jonathon; Martin, David T; Farrow, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing practice design is critical to facilitate transfer of learning. Considerable research has focused on the role of perceptual information in practice simulation, yet has neglected how affect and cognition are shaped by practice environments and whether this influences the fidelity of behavior (Headrick et al., 2015). This study filled this gap by examining the fidelity of individual (cognition, affect, and actions) and interpersonal behavior of 10 highly skilled Australian Taekwondo athletes fighting in training compared to competition. Interpersonal behavior was assessed by tracking location coordinates to analyze distance-time coordination tendencies of the fighter-fighter system. Individual actions were assessed through notational analysis and approximate entropy calculations of coordinate data to quantify the (un)predictability of movement displacement. Affect and cognition were assessed with mixed-methods that included perceptual scales measuring anxiety, arousal, and mental effort, and post-fight video-facilitated confrontational interviews to explore how affect and cognitions might differ. Quantitative differences were assessed with mixed models and dependent t -tests. Results reveal that individual and interpersonal behavior differed between training and competition. In training, individuals attacked less ( d = 0.81, p training, fighters had lower anxiety ( d = -1.26, p interpersonal behavior, with larger interpersonal distances generated by the fighter-fighter system in training ( d = 0.80, p training environment, such as reductions in pressure, arousal, and mental challenge. Findings highlight the specificity of performer-environment interactions. Fighting in training affords reduced affective and cognitive demands and a decrease in action fidelity compared to competition. In addition to sampling information, representative practice needs to consider modeling the cognitions and affect of competition to enhance transfer.

  15. Measurement of local heat transfer coefficient during gas–liquid Taylor bubble train flow by infra-red thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Balkrishna; Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Infra-red thermographic study of Taylor bubble train flow in square mini-channel. • Design of experiments for measurement of local streamwise Nusselt number. • Minimizing conjugate heat transfer effects and resulting errors in data reduction. • Benchmarking against single-phase flow and three-dimensional computations. • Local heat transfer enhancement up to two times due to Taylor bubble train flow. -- Abstract: In mini/micro confined internal flow systems, Taylor bubble train flow takes place within specific range of respective volume flow ratios, wherein the liquid slugs get separated by elongated Taylor bubbles, resulting in an intermittent flow situation. This unique flow characteristic requires understanding of transport phenomena on global, as well as on local spatio-temporal scales. In this context, an experimental design methodology and its validation are presented in this work, with an aim of measuring the local heat transfer coefficient by employing high-resolution InfraRed Thermography. The effect of conjugate heat transfer on the true estimate of local transport coefficients, and subsequent data reduction technique, is discerned. Local heat transfer coefficient for (i) hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing single-phase flow in three-side heated channel and, (ii) non-boiling, air–water Taylor bubble train flow is measured and compared in a mini-channel of square cross-section (5 mm × 5 mm; D h = 5 mm, Bo ≈ 3.4) machined on a stainless steel substrate (300 mm × 25 mm × 11 mm). The design of the setup ensures near uniform heat flux condition at the solid–fluid interface; the conjugate effects arising from the axial back conduction in the substrate are thus minimized. For benchmarking, the data from single-phase flow is also compared with three-dimensional computational simulations. Depending on the employed volume flow ratio, it is concluded that enhancement of nearly 1.2–2.0 times in time

  16. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  17. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  18. Reliable gains? Evidence for substantially underpowered designs in studies of working memory training transfer to fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tim; Lasecki, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cognitive scientists and commercial interests (e.g., Fit Brains, Lumosity) have focused research attention and financial resources on cognitive tasks, especially working memory tasks, to explore and exploit possible transfer effects to general cognitive abilities, such as fluid intelligence. The increased research attention has produced mixed findings, as well as contention about the disposition of the evidence base. To address this contention, Au et al. (2014) recently conducted a meta-analysis of extant controlled experimental studies of n-back task training transfer effects on measures of fluid intelligence in healthy adults; the results of which showed a small training transfer effect. Using several approaches, the current review evaluated and re-analyzed the meta-analytic data for the presence of two different forms of small-study effects: (1) publication bias in the presence of low power and; (2) low power in the absence of publication bias. The results of these approaches showed no evidence of selection bias in the working memory training literature, but did show evidence of small-study effects related to low power in the absence of publication bias. While the effect size estimate identified by Au et al. (2014) provided the most precise estimate to date, it should be interpreted in the context of a uniformly low-powered base of evidence. The present work concludes with a brief set of considerations for assessing the adequacy of a body of research findings for the application of meta-analytic techniques.

  19. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  20. Anodal tDCS applied during multitasking training leads to transferable performance gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Lyons, Maxwell; Mattingley, Jason B; Dux, Paul E

    2017-10-11

    Cognitive training can lead to performance improvements that are specific to the tasks trained. Recent research has suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied during training of a simple response-selection paradigm can broaden performance benefits to an untrained task. Here we assessed the impact of combined tDCS and training on multitasking, stimulus-response mapping specificity, response-inhibition, and spatial attention performance in a cohort of healthy adults. Participants trained over four days with concurrent tDCS - anodal, cathodal, or sham - applied to the left prefrontal cortex. Immediately prior to, 1 day after, and 2 weeks after training, performance was assessed on the trained multitasking paradigm, an untrained multitasking paradigm, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a visual search task. Training combined with anodal tDCS, compared with training plus cathodal or sham stimulation, enhanced performance for the untrained multitasking paradigm and visual search tasks. By contrast, there were no training benefits for the go/no-go task. Our findings demonstrate that anodal tDCS combined with multitasking training can extend to untrained multitasking paradigms as well as spatial attention, but with no extension to the domain of response inhibition.

  1. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  2. Simulator-based crew resource management training for interhospital transfer of critically ill patients by a mobile ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droogh, Joep M; Kruger, Hanneke L; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Zijlstra, Jan G

    2012-12-01

    Transporting critically ill ICU patients by standard ambulances, with or without an accompanying physician, imposes safety risks. In 2007 the Dutch Ministry of Public Health required that all critically ill patients transferred between ICUs in different hospitals be transported by a mobile ICU (MICU). Since March 2009 a specially designed MICU and a retrieval team have served the region near University Medical Center Groningen, in the northeastern region of the Netherlands. The MICU transport program includes simulator-based crew resource management (CRM) training for the intensivists and ICU nurses, who, with the drivers, constitute the MICU crews. Training entails five pivotal aspects: (1) preparation, (2) teamwork, (3) new equipment, (4) mobility, and (5) safety. For example, the training accustoms participants to working in the narrow, moving ambulance and without benefit of additional manpower. The scenario-based team training, which takes about four hours, occurs in a training facility, with its reconstructed ICU, and then in the MICU itself. A "wireless" patient simulator that is able to mimic hemodynamic and respiratory patterns and to simulate lung and heart sounds is used. All scenarios can be adjusted to simulate medical, logistic, or technical problems. Since the start of MICU training in 2009, more than 70 training sessions, involving 100 team members, have been conducted. Quality issues identified include failure to anticipate possible problems (such as failing to ask for intubation of a respiratory-compromised patient at intake); late responses to alarms of the ventilator, perfusor pump, or monitor; and not anticipating a possible shortage of medication. Setting up and implementing simulator-based CRM training provides feasible and helpful preparation for an MICU team.

  3. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  4. Effectiveness of working memory training among children with dyscalculia: evidence for transfer effects on mathematical achievement-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Bouakkaz, Yamina; Rebai, Mohamed

    2017-12-22

    We examined whether the working memory (WM) capacity of developmentally dyscalculic children can be improved by a WM training program and whether outcomes relate to mathematical performance. The experimental design comprised two groups with developmental dyslexia with grade 4 schooling: an experimental group (n = 14; mean age = 129.74 months) and a control group (n = 14; mean age = 126.9 months). All participants were assessed on measures of WM, mathematic attainment, and nonverbal mental ability (Raven test) before and after training. The WM training program focused on manipulating and maintaining arithmetic information. The results show that both WM and mathematical performances improved significantly after intervention, indicating a strong relationship between these two constructs. The control group improved slightly in Raven's progressive matrices and a reading number task. These findings are discussed in terms of near and far transfer toward trained and untrained skills and stress the positive impact of WM training on learning mathematics in children with dyscalculia.

  5. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  6. Intermanual transfer of training : blood flow correlates in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thut, G; Halsband, U; Roelcke, U; Nienhusmeier, M; Missimer, J; Maguire, RP; Regard, M; Landis, T; Leenders, KL

    1997-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that relearning of a task with one hand might negatively be influenced by previous, opposite hand training of the analogue task, Thut G., et al., Exp. Brain Res., 108 (1996) 321-327. Drawing of a figure with the right hand, following left hand training, was slower than

  7. How Simulator Interfaces Affect Transfer of Training: Comparing Wearable and Desktop Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    RAM, an NVIDIA GeForce 8800 GTX graphics card, and a 20” LCD monitor with a 16:10 aspect ratio. GDIS, the software used for these scenarios, was...good lead-ins for field training. Company and platoon leaders said they would like a week of simulation training just prior to engaging in field

  8. Barriers Encountered in the Transfer of Educational Training to Workplace Practice in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…

  9. Going beyond Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model: The Role of Workplace Factors in Distance Learning Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, F. R.; Shonubi, O. K.

    2014-01-01

    This article emanates from a longitudinal study of the impact of a distance education programme for teacher training on graduates' job performance, in which the authors built on the findings of a previous pilot study. After using Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model in a previous study, one of the authors found there to be a strong relationship…

  10. Transferring generic SARA/OSHA training to US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.; McKinley, T.

    1989-01-01

    The Technical Resources and Training Section staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed three extensive training programs for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facility workers a required by SARA/OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.120. The ORNL program is widely recognized as one of the best in the DOE system. ORNL and ORAU, who manages the Training Resources and Data Exchange (TRADE) network for DOE, entered into as cooperative relationship to respond to the many requests from DOE contractors for copies of the ORNL training materials. This discussion will describe the ORNL program and the process of turning it into a series of generic tools which can be used by additional DOE facilities to meet the training requirements established by SARA/OSHA, 20 CFR 1910.120. The speakers will describe how the materials are being used by DOE facilities as well as plans for additional resources to be developed through TRADE. 5 refs

  11. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgical Simulation Training Curriculum: Transfer Reliability and Maintenance of Skill Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John C; Belmont, Philip J; Lanzi, Joseph; Martin, Kevin; Bader, Julia; Owens, Brett; Waterman, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Surgical education is evolving as work hour constraints limit the exposure of residents to the operating room. Potential consequences may include erosion of resident education and decreased quality of patient care. Surgical simulation training has become a focus of study in an effort to counter these challenges. Previous studies have validated the use of arthroscopic surgical simulation programs both in vitro and in vivo. However, no study has examined if the gains made by residents after a simulation program are retained after a period away from training. In all, 17 orthopedic surgery residents were randomized into simulation or standard practice groups. All subjects were oriented to the arthroscopic simulator, a 14-point anatomic checklist, and Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET). The experimental group received 1 hour of simulation training whereas the control group had no additional training. All subjects performed a recorded, diagnostic arthroscopy intraoperatively. These videos were scored by 2 blinded, fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons and outcome measures were compared within and between the groups. After 1 year in which neither group had exposure to surgical simulation training, all residents were retested intraoperatively and scored in the exact same fashion. Individual surgical case logs were reviewed and surgical case volume was documented. There was no difference between the 2 groups after initial simulation testing and there was no correlation between case volume and initial scores. After training, the simulation group improved as compared with baseline in mean ASSET (p = 0.023) and mean time to completion (p = 0.01). After 1 year, there was no difference between the groups in any outcome measurements. Although individual technical skills can be cultivated with surgical simulation training, these advancements can be lost without continued education. It is imperative that residency programs implement a simulation curriculum and

  12. eacher-training in Informatics and its Transfer to the Classroom: A Study in the Province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío Martínez Vidal

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate some factors that may be related to the degree to which the skills developed by in-service teachers during a computer course, are or are not transferred to the classroom. The course was oriented toward the pedagogical use of the computer, including the design of student-centered activities. The data, collected one academic year after the course ended, revealed different levels of transfer. The study examined the effect on the level of implementation of student-centered activities, with variables such as age, personal assessment of the training, access to a computer at home, attitudes toward computers, experience with computers, and perceived self-efficacy. The results showed that in the classroom, perceived self-efficacy was the most important predictor of the level of implementation for activities supported by the computer.

  13. Reliable gains? Evidence for substantially underpowered designs in studies of working memory training transfer to fluid intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eBogg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cognitive scientists and commercial interests (e.g., Fit Brains, Lumosity have focused research attention and financial resources on cognitive tasks, especially working memory tasks, to explore and exploit possible transfer effects to general cognitive abilities, such as fluid intelligence. The increased research attention has produced mixed findings, as well as contention about the disposition of the evidence base. To address this contention, J. Au and colleagues (2014; doi:10.3758/s13423-014-0699-x recently conducted a meta-analysis of extant controlled experimental studies of n-back task training transfer effects on measures of fluid intelligence in healthy adults; the results of which showed a small training transfer effect. Using several approaches, the current review evaluated and re-analyzed the meta-analytic data for the presence of two different forms of small-study effects: 1 publication bias in the presence of low power and; 2 low power in the absence of publication bias. The results of these approaches showed no evidence of selection bias in the working memory training literature, but did show evidence of small-study effects related to low power in the absence of publication bias. While the effect size estimate identified by Au and colleagues provided the most precise estimate to date, it should be interpreted in the context of a uniformly low-powered base of evidence. The present work concludes with a brief set of considerations for assessing the adequacy of a body of research findings for the application of meta-analytic techniques.

  14. 4 years of successful knowledge transfer - the nuclear technology training center of the TUeV Nord Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willenbockel, I.; Tietze, U.

    2007-01-01

    In connection with the 2002 amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, the topics of generational change and maintenance of competence grew in importance and necessitated new solution approaches. To this end, various activities were launched, with the aim of conducting conceptual analyses of these topics. Examples include the 'National Competence Network for Nuclear Technology' (Nationaler Kompetenzverbund fuer Kerntechnik), various networks established by colleges and universities, the 'Knowledge Management for the Maintenance and Transfer of Competence in Reactor Safety' (Wissensmanagement zum Kompetenzerhalt und -transfer in der Reaktorsicherheit) workshop held in 2001 in Garching near Munich (Germany) and the 'Ad-hoc Workgroup on the Maintenance of Competence' (Ad-hoc-Arbeitskreis Kompetenzerhalt) of the VdTUeV. The nuclear technology departments of the TUeV Nord Group were aware of te challenges associated with the generational change early on. By establishing the 'Nuclear Technology Training Center' (Ausbildungszentrum fuer Kerntechnik, AfK), the TUeV Nord Group intended to ensure the required knowledge transfer during the generational change as well as maintain the renowned high qualification as regards the subject of nuclear technology and thus continue to provide - in the sense of social responsibility - crucial contribution to the long-term safety of nuclear plants. Four years have passed since the training center held the first courses in the fall of 2002. Up to now, more than 350 participants have been trained in the courses conducted by the AfK. In the opinion of the TUeV Nord Group, the activities of the AfK have laid the foundation for a successful change of generations within the group's nuclear technology organizations. (orig.)

  15. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of "Far Transfer": Evidence From a Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Redick, Thomas S; Hulme, Charles

    2016-07-01

    It has been claimed that working memory training programs produce diverse beneficial effects. This article presents a meta-analysis of working memory training studies (with a pretest-posttest design and a control group) that have examined transfer to other measures (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, or arithmetic; 87 publications with 145 experimental comparisons). Immediately following training there were reliable improvements on measures of intermediate transfer (verbal and visuospatial working memory). For measures of far transfer (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, arithmetic) there was no convincing evidence of any reliable improvements when working memory training was compared with a treated control condition. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated that across studies, the degree of improvement on working memory measures was not related to the magnitude of far-transfer effects found. Finally, analysis of publication bias shows that there is no evidential value from the studies of working memory training using treated controls. The authors conclude that working memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize to measures of "real-world" cognitive skills. These results seriously question the practical and theoretical importance of current computerized working memory programs as methods of training working memory skills. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Randomized trial to examine procedure-to-procedure transfer in laparoscopic simulator training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, F; Sorensen, J L; Konge, L

    2016-01-01

    -centre educational superiority trial. Surgical novices practised basic skills on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator. On reaching proficiency, participants were randomized to proficiency-based training. The intervention group practised two procedures on the simulator (appendicectomy followed by salpingectomy...

  17. Know-How Transfer and Training Issues for the Transport Research Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. George A. Giannopoulos

    2015-06-01

    Other relevant actions could be taken within the existing collaborative Transport research programmes e.g. the Transport pillar of the “societal challenges” part of the H2020 programme and could consist of specific provisions, impeded in the research contracts, allowing funding for activities such as web-training short courses and workshops, formulation and provision of training materials, holding workshops with the involvement of senior research personnel or leading international academics, etc.

  18. Transfer Effects to a Multimodal Dual-Task after Working Memory Training and Associated Neural Correlates in Older Adults - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Stephan; Rimpel, Jérôme; Stelzel, Christine; Rapp, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) performance declines with age. However, several studies have shown that WM training may lead to performance increases not only in the trained task, but also in untrained cognitive transfer tasks. It has been suggested that transfer effects occur if training task and transfer task share specific processing components that are supposedly processed in the same brain areas. In the current study, we investigated whether single-task WM training and training-related alterations in neural activity might support performance in a dual-task setting, thus assessing transfer effects to higher-order control processes in the context of dual-task coordination. A sample of older adults (age 60-72) was assigned to either a training or control group. The training group participated in 12 sessions of an adaptive n-back training. At pre and post-measurement, a multimodal dual-task was performed in all participants to assess transfer effects. This task consisted of two simultaneous delayed match to sample WM tasks using two different stimulus modalities (visual and auditory) that were performed either in isolation (single-task) or in conjunction (dual-task). A subgroup also participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of the n-back task before and after training. While no transfer to single-task performance was found, dual-task costs in both the visual modality ( p task costs, while neural activity changes in right DLPFC during three-back predicted visual dual-task costs. Results might indicate an improvement in central executive processing that could facilitate both WM and dual-task coordination.

  19. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  20. You can go your own way: effectiveness of participant-driven versus experimenter-driven processing strategies in memory training and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Kristin E; Lustig, Cindy

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training programs that instruct specific strategies frequently show limited transfer. Open-ended approaches can achieve greater transfer, but may fail to benefit many older adults due to age deficits in self-initiated processing. We examined whether a compromise that encourages effort at encoding without an experimenter-prescribed strategy might yield better results. Older adults completed memory training under conditions that either (1) mandated a specific strategy to increase deep, associative encoding, (2) attempted to suppress such encoding by mandating rote rehearsal, or (3) encouraged time and effort toward encoding but allowed for strategy choice. The experimenter-enforced associative encoding strategy succeeded in creating integrated representations of studied items, but training-task progress was related to pre-existing ability. Independent of condition assignment, self-reported deep encoding was associated with positive training and transfer effects, suggesting that the most beneficial outcomes occur when environmental support guiding effort is provided but participants generate their own strategies.

  1. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  2. Mirror Visual Feedback Training Improves Intermanual Transfer in a Sport-Specific Task: A Comparison between Different Skill Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Steinberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals’ skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research.

  3. A Mixed Methods Examination of the Influence of Dimensions of Support on Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Laura A.; Burkholder, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to explore how specific dimensions of supervisor support (mentoring, coaching, social support, and task support) influence the transfer of learned knowledge and skills to the job. Quantitative data were collected from employees (N = 48) who develop curriculum at an educational…

  4. The Influence of Social and Organizational Support on Transfer of Training: Evidence from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homklin, Tassanee; Takahashi, Yoshi; Techakanont, Kriengkrai

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on integrating social and organizational support as moderators into the main analysis model of the relationship between learning -- specifically perceived knowledge retained -- and its transfer as perceived by participants. We used hierarchical regression analysis in order to test our hypotheses. Results were generally…

  5. Transferable Competences of Young People with a High Dropout Risk in Vocational Training in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Andreas; Balzer, Lars; Ruppert, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether the subjective beliefs on their competences of 409 trainees in machinery, sales, and logistics constitute a reliable and valid way to measure transferable competences. The analysis of results attributes satisfactory to good reliability values to the assessment procedure. Furthermore, it could be shown that young people…

  6. Research Universities, Technology Transfer, and Job Creation: What Infrastructure, For What Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhag, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Technology transfer and innovation are considered major drivers of sustainable development; they place knowledge and its dissemination in society at the heart of the development process. This article considers the role of research universities, and how they can interact with key actors and institutions involved in "innovation…

  7. Changes in balance coordination and transfer to an unlearned balance task after slackline training: a self-organizing map analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrien, Ben; Hohenauer, Erich; Clijsen, Ron; Taube, Wolfgang; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Küng, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    How humans maintain balance and change postural control due to age, injury, immobility or training is one of the basic questions in motor control. One of the problems in understanding postural control is the large set of degrees of freedom in the human motor system. Therefore, a self-organizing map (SOM), a type of artificial neural network, was used in the present study to extract and visualize information about high-dimensional balance strategies before and after a 6-week slackline training intervention. Thirteen subjects performed a flamingo and slackline balance task before and after the training while full body kinematics were measured. Range of motion, velocity and frequency of the center of mass and joint angles from the pelvis, trunk and lower leg (45 variables) were calculated and subsequently analyzed with an SOM. Subjects increased their standing time significantly on the flamingo (average +2.93 s, Cohen's d = 1.04) and slackline (+9.55 s, d = 3.28) tasks, but the effect size was more than three times larger in the slackline. The SOM analysis, followed by a k-means clustering and marginal homogeneity test, showed that the balance coordination pattern was significantly different between pre- and post-test for the slackline task only (χ 2  = 82.247; p balance coordination on the slackline could be characterized by an increase in range of motion and a decrease in velocity and frequency in nearly all degrees of freedom simultaneously. The observation of low transfer of coordination strategies to the flamingo task adds further evidence for the task-specificity principle of balance training, meaning that slackline training alone will be insufficient to increase postural control in other challenging situations.

  8. A review of factors affecting the transfer of sexual and reproductive health training into practice in low and lower-middle income country humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Kristen; Dawson, Angela; Whelan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    A lack of access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among displaced women and girls of reproductive age. Efforts to address this public health emergency in humanitarian settings have included the widespread delivery of training programmes to address gaps in health worker capacity for SRH. There remains a lack of data on the factors which may affect the ability of health workers to apply SRH knowledge and skills gained through training programmes in humanitarian contexts. We searched four electronic databases and ten key organizations' websites to locate literature on SRH training for humanitarian settings in low and lower-middle income countries. Papers were examined using content analysis to identify factors which contribute to health workers' capacity to transfer SRH knowledge, skills and attitudes learned in training into practice in humanitarian settings. Seven studies were included in this review. Six research papers focused on the response stage of humanitarian crises and five papers featured the disaster context of conflict. A range of SRH components were addressed including maternal, newborn health and sexual violence. The review identified factors, including appropriate resourcing, organisational support and confidence in health care workers that were found to facilitate the transfer of learning. The findings suggest the presence of factors that moderate the transfer of training at the individual, training, organisational, socio-cultural, political and health system levels. Supportive strategies are necessary to best assist trainees to apply newly acquired knowledge and skills in their work settings. These interventions must address factors that moderate the success of learning transfer. Findings from this review suggest that these are related to the individual trainee, the training program itself and the workplace as well as the broader environmental context. Organisations which provide SRH

  9. Training Self-Regulated Learning Skills with Video Modeling Examples: Do Task-Selection Skills Transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Steven F.; Baars, Martine; Schaap, Lydia; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Self-assessment and task-selection skills are crucial in self-regulated learning situations in which students can choose their own tasks. Prior research suggested that training with video modeling examples, in which another person (the model) demonstrates and explains the cyclical process of problem-solving task performance, self-assessment, and…

  10. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  11. Negative transfer effects between reference memory and working memory training in the water maze in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Sponton, Lucas Ezequiel; Soria, Gonzalo Jose; Dubroqua, Sylvain; Singer, Philipp; Feldon, Joram; Gargiulo, Pascual A; Yee, Benjamin K

    2018-02-26

    The water maze is one of the most widely employed spatial learning paradigms in the cognitive profiling of genetically modified mice. Oftentimes, tests of reference memory (RM) and working memory (WM) in the water maze are sequentially evaluated in the same animals. However, critical difference in the rules governing efficient escape from the water between WM and RM tests is expected to promote the adoption of incompatible mnemonic or navigational strategies. Hence, performance in a given test is likely poorer if it follows the other test instead of being conducted first. Yet, the presence of such negative transfer effects (or proactive interference) between WM and RM training in the water maze is often overlooked in the literature. To gauge whether this constitutes a serious concern, the present study determined empirically the magnitude, persistence, and directionality of the transfer effect in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. We contrasted the order of tests between two cohorts of mice. Performance between the two cohorts in the WM and RM tests were then separately compared. We showed that prior training of either test significantly reduced performance in the subsequent one. The statistical effect sizes in both directions were moderate to large. Although extended training could overcome the deficit, it could re-emerge later albeit in a more transient fashion. Whenever RM and WM water maze tests are conducted sequentially in the same animals - regardless of the test order, extra caution is necessary when interpreting the outcomes in the second test. Counterbalancing test orders between animals is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The transfer of skills from cognitive and physical training to activities of daily living: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagovska, Magdalena; Nagyova, Iveta

    2017-06-01

    Ageing is associated with the deterioration of all cognitive functions, including attention, memory and psychomotor speed. It has not yet been clearly confirmed whether the effects of cognitive and physical interventions can improve activities of daily living (ADL). This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive and physical training on cognitive functions and the transfer to ADL. Eighty older people with mild cognitive impairment (mean age 67.07 ± 4.3 years) were randomly divided into an experimental group ( n  = 40) and a control group ( n  = 40). Data were collected in an outpatient psychiatric clinic in a randomised controlled trial. Primary outcome measures included the following: cognitive functions were evaluated using the mini mental state examination, the AVLT-Auditory verbal learning test, the Stroop test, the TMT-trail making test, the DRT-disjunctive reaction time and the NHPT-nine hole peg test. Secondary outcome measure was the Bristol activities of daily living scale. The experimental group underwent a CogniPlus and physical training; consisting of 20 training sessions over 10 weeks. Both groups went through 30 min of daily physical training for 10 weeks. After the training, significant differences in favour of the experimental group were found in almost all the tests. In memory (AVLT) (p ≤ 0.0001, effect size (ES) η 2  = 0.218. In reduction of the response time on attention tasks (Stroop tasks) ( p  ≤ 0.006, ES = 0.092-0.115). In lower error rates in all tests: Stroop tasks, DRT, TMT, NHPT ( p  ≤ 0.02-0.001, ES = 0.062-0.176). In ADL ( p  ≤ 0.0001, ES = 0.176). The combined cognitive and physical training had better efficacy for most cognitive functions and for ADL when compared with the physical training only.

  13. Transfer Learning for Video Recognition with Scarce Training Data for Deep Convolutional Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yu-Chuan; Chiu, Tzu-Hsuan; Yeh, Chun-Yen; Huang, Hsin-Fu; Hsu, Winston H.

    2014-01-01

    Unconstrained video recognition and Deep Convolution Network (DCN) are two active topics in computer vision recently. In this work, we apply DCNs as frame-based recognizers for video recognition. Our preliminary studies, however, show that video corpora with complete ground truth are usually not large and diverse enough to learn a robust model. The networks trained directly on the video data set suffer from significant overfitting and have poor recognition rate on the test set. The same lack-...

  14. Transfer effects after working memory training lead to improved fluid intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Onken, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence describes the ability to think abstract, to adapt to new situations and to solve unknown problems. It is important for learning as well as for academic and professional success. Working memory is characterized as a cognitive system, that saves information over a short period of time in spite of possible distractions. More- over, working memory is able to assess the relevance of information while requirements change. Effective implicit training is able to increase the workin...

  15. Overview of the French offer in nuclear training: 60 years to serve development and knowledge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjas, Y.; Navon-Gross, A.; Mougel, B.; Verdier, A.

    2017-01-01

    As early as the beginning of its nuclear program, France has developed a wide range of higher education programs and occupational training in nuclear sciences, nuclear technologies and nuclear engineering. INSTN (Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Technologies) was founded in 1956 inside CEA premises at Saclay to issue the diploma of 'ingenieur en genie atomique'. This diploma is still delivered and celebrated its 60. anniversary in 2016. A large course offering has been added to the sole initial INSTN diploma. Throughout France and each year about 2000 students are awarded a diploma opening the gates of nuclear industry or research from vocational baccalaureates (130) to doctoral thesis (200) via engineer/master degrees (1270). Continuous training has also been developed, employees from the nuclear industry benefit from 16 days a year of training in average. French high education systems are open to foreign students and 9 master degrees in nuclear engineering are entirely taught in English. (A.C.)

  16. A prospective randomized study to test the transfer of basic psychomotor skills from virtual reality to physical reality in a comparable training setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Kai S; Ritz, Joerg P; Maass, Heiko; Cakmak, Hueseyin K; Kuehnapfel, Uwe G; Germer, Christoph T; Bretthauer, Georg; Buhr, Heinz J

    2005-03-01

    To test whether basic skills acquired on a virtual endoscopic surgery simulator are transferable from virtual reality to physical reality in a comparable training setting. For surgical training in laparoscopic surgery, new training methods have to be developed that allow surgeons to first practice in a simulated setting before operating on real patients. A virtual endoscopic surgery trainer (VEST) has been developed within the framework of a joint project. Because of principal limitations of simulation techniques, it is essential to know whether training with this simulator is comparable to conventional training. Devices used were the VEST system and a conventional video trainer (CVT). Two basic training tasks were constructed identically (a) as virtual tasks and (b) as mechanical models for the CVT. Test persons were divided into 2 groups each consisting of 12 novices and 4 experts. Each group carried out a defined training program over the course of 4 consecutive days on the VEST or the CVT, respectively. To test the transfer of skills, the groups switched devices on the 5th day. The main parameter was task completion time. The novices in both groups showed similar learning curves. The mean task completion times decreased significantly over the 4 training days of the study. The task completion times for the control task on Day 5 were significantly lower than on Days 1 and 2. The experts' task completion times were much lower than those of the novices. This study showed that training with a computer simulator, just as with the CVT, resulted in a reproducible training effect. The control task showed that skills learned in virtual reality are transferable to the physical reality of a CVT. The fact that the experts showed little improvement demonstrates that the simulation trains surgeons in basic laparoscopic skills learned in years of practice.

  17. Genetic modulation of training and transfer in older adults:BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with wider useful field of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Western society has an increasing proportion of older adults. Increasing age is associated with a general decrease in the control over task-relevant mental processes. In the present study we investigated the possibility that successful transfer of game-based cognitive improvements to untrained tasks in elderly people is modulated by preexisting neuro-developmental factors as genetic variability related to levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, an important neuromodulator underlying cognitive processes. We trained participants, genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, on cognitive tasks developed to improve dynamic attention. Pre-training (baseline and post-training measures of attentional processes (divided and selective attention were acquired by means of the Useful Field of View (UFOV task. As expected, Val/Val homozygous individuals showed larger beneficial transfer effects than Met/-carriers. Our findings support the idea that genetic predisposition modulates transfer effects.

  18. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight [Petroleum Tech Transfer Council, Oak Hill, VA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  19. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  20. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  1. Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Kraiger, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the training and development literature since the year 2000. We review the literature focusing on the benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations, and society. We adopt a multidisciplinary, multilevel, and global perspective to demonstrate that training and development activities in work organizations can produce important benefits for each of these stakeholders. We also review the literature on needs assessment and pretraining states, training design and delivery, training evaluation, and transfer of training to identify the conditions under which the benefits of training and development are maximized. Finally, we identify research gaps and offer directions for future research.

  2. Mohawk Maximizes Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    For flooring manufacturer Mohawk Industries, it is not enough to teach employees how to be great. The long-time Training Top 125 contender focused last year on helping employees to blaze their own learning paths while meeting organization imperatives. That meant improving the technology that supports employee performance, as well as creating new…

  3. The European Nuclear Education Network: Towards Harmonisation of Education, Training, and Transfer of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, F.; Cizelj, L.; Dieguez Porras, P.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association strives to develop a more harmonized approach for education in the nuclear sciences and nuclear engineering in Europe and to integrate European education and training in nuclear safety and radiation protection. Improved co-operation and sharing of academic resources and capabilities at the national and international level is an important long-term objective. With respect to stakeholders, such as nuclear industries, research centers, regulatory bodies and other nuclear infrastructures, the primary objectives of ENEN are to create a secure basis of skills and knowledge of value to the EU, and to maintain a high-quality supply of qualified human resources for design, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear infrastructures, industries and power plants. ENEN supports activities aimed at maintaining the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of nuclear energy and applications of radiation and nuclear techniques in agriculture, industry and medicine. In this technical brief we describe selected activities pursued to reach these goals. (author

  4. Designing evidence-based medicine training to optimize the transfer of skills from the classroom to clinical practice: applying the four component instructional design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2015-11-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills, although taught in medical schools around the world, are not optimally practiced in clinical environments because of multiple barriers, including learners' difficulty transferring EBM skills learned in the classroom to clinical practice. This lack of skill transfer may be partially due to the design of EBM training. To facilitate the transfer of EBM skills from the classroom to clinical practice, the authors explore one instructional approach, called the Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model, to guide the design of EBM training. On the basis of current cognitive psychology, including cognitive load theory, the premise of the 4C/ID model is that complex skills training, such as EBM training, should include four components: learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice. The combination of these four components can inform the creation of complex skills training that is designed to avoid overloading learners' cognitive abilities; to facilitate the integration of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to execute a complex task; and to increase the transfer of knowledge to new situations. The authors begin by introducing the 4C/ID model and describing the benefits of its four components to guide the design of EBM training. They include illustrative examples of educational practices that are consistent with each component and that can be applied to teaching EBM. They conclude by suggesting that medical educators consider adopting the 4C/ID model to design, modify, and/or implement EBM training in classroom and clinical settings.

  5. Effects of Topic Familiarity and Training in Generative Learning Activities on Poor Readers' Comprehension of Comparison/Contrast Expository Text Structure: Transfer to Real-World Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Renee; Balajthy, Ernest

    A study investigated transfer effects of training below average high school readers in the use of graphic organizers and summary writing on their recognition of compare/contrast text structure. Subjects, 32 high school students with below-expectancy standardized test scores, were placed in two groups: an experimental group (five males and 11…

  6. PLYOMETRY TRAINING IN KARATE- SPECIFICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Vujkov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training is one of the most interesting innovations in the recent few decades in the process of sport training. The experience of coaches and athletes who have practised this kind of training proces brought them to higher performance in sports results. Plyometric exercise is developed and applied in conformity with certain sport requirements. Plyometry is a training method, which should be applied in combination with other methods for strenght development in overall programme of training, all in favour of improvement of the relationship between maximal strenght and explosive strenght, being very important for karate sport. This paper deals with a proposal of a few exercises that should have a positive transfer on improvement of the performance of karate tehnique.

  7. [Training of communication skills in stationary long care homes--the evaluation of a model project to develop communication skills and transfer it into practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann-Knoch, M; Korte, E; Heusinger, J; Klünder, M; Knoch, T

    2005-02-01

    The training of communication skills of professional caregivers in six homes for elderly people has been developed and evaluated in a model project. The purpose of the project was to strengthen the staff's orientation towards the residents, their needs, handicaps and abilities. Therefore, a series of 8 in-house training courses as well as procedures to establish the contents of the program into daily care-giving (transfer) have been developed and implemented with six teams during one year. The evaluation included interviews, questionnaires and observations and was realized with participants and non-participants of the program once before the implementation of the training program and once afterwards. We found evidence for positive effects of the training: although the staff's positive self perception of the climate of communication remained stable and mainly not affected by the training, this was contradictory to the observations. The way of giving information to the residents was improved by the training program as well as the quality of relations between staff and residents. Again, sending messages about oneself which are not care-oriented had not been affected by the training-as to the observations of care giving situations. Although the staff's self perception about the change of sending these messages was highly positive.Thus, the further development of the training program has to consider these effects.To establish the transfer of the training program into daily care giving, it proved to be helpful to specify exercises after each session which had to be carried out and discussed by the participants until the next training session.

  8. Quantitative Approach Based on Wearable Inertial Sensors to Assess and Identify Motion and Errors in Techniques Used during Training of Transfers of Simulated c-Spine-Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lebel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with suspected spinal cord injuries undergo numerous transfers throughout treatment and care. Effective c-spine stabilization is crucial to minimize the impacts of the suspected injury. Healthcare professionals are trained to perform those transfers using simulation; however, the feedback on the manoeuvre is subjective. This paper proposes a quantitative approach to measure the efficacy of the c-spine stabilization and provide objective feedback during training. Methods. 3D wearable motion sensors are positioned on a simulated patient to capture the motion of the head and trunk during a training scenario. Spatial and temporal indicators associated with the motion can then be derived from the signals. The approach was developed and tested on data obtained from 21 paramedics performing the log-roll, a transfer technique commonly performed during prehospital and hospital care. Results. In this scenario, 55% of the c-spine motion could be explained by the difficulty of rescuers to maintain head and trunk alignment during the rotation part of the log-roll and their difficulty to initiate specific phases of the motion synchronously. Conclusion. The proposed quantitative approach has the potential to be used for personalized feedback during training sessions and could even be embedded into simulation mannequins to provide an innovative training solution.

  9. Validation of SINERGIA as training tool: a randomized study to test the transfer of acquired basic psychomotor skills to LapMentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano-Cuevas, J L; Sánchez-Margallo, F M; Sánchez-Peralta, L F; Pagador, J B; Enciso, S; Sánchez-González, P; Gómez-Aguilera, E J; Usón-Gargallo, J

    2011-11-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is commonly used in many surgical procedures but requires a learning process to develop the necessary skills. Virtual reality simulators play an essential role within the training curricula. This paper aims to determine whether training in SINERGIA VR simulator allows novice surgeons to improve their basic psychomotor laparoscopic skills. Forty-two people participated in this study, including 28 unexperience medical students and 14 expert surgeons who developed previously more than 100 laparoscopic procedures. Medical students made a pre-training test in LapMentor II; then, they trained in SINERGIA and they finally accomplished a post-training test in LapMentor II. Experts just made one trial in LapMentor II. A statistical analysis was carried out and results of pre- and post-training tests of novices were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Pre- and post-training tests of novices were also compared with results of experts with Mann-Whitney U test. Most metrics provided by LapMentor II and included in this study show significant differences when comparing pre- and post-training tests of novices. Analysis of pre-training test of novices and experts results show significant differences in all analyzed metrics for all studied tasks. On the other hand, LapMentor was not able to distinguish between experts and novices after training in SINERGIA for any metric in the camera manipulation task and for some metrics of the other tasks. Training in SINERGIA VR simulator allows improvement of basic psychomotor laparoscpic skills and transferring them to another virtual simulator. Therefore, it could be used in laparoscopic surgery training programs.

  10. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  11. Impact of metacognition and motivation on the efficacy of strategic memory training in older adults: analysis of specific, transfer and maintenance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Borella, Erika; Zavagnin, Michela; De Beni, Rossana

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the contribution of a number of metacognitive and motivational variables in explaining specific, transfer and maintenance effects of a strategic memory training program, based on the use of mental imagery, in older adults. Participants were assessed before and after the training (immediately post-test, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up) on list recall (criterion) and working memory (transfer) tasks. At the pre-test, metacognition (use of strategies, belief about memory, control on memory) and motivational measures (cognitive engagement, self-efficacy) were also collected. The training produced a benefit in both the criterion and transfer tasks, which was maintained at follow-up. Some of the metacognitive and motivational measures, over and above the level of performance obtained at pre-test, predicted the gains in the objective memory measures. The findings confirmed the importance of considering the role of metacognitive attitudes of older adults in memory training activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. You can go your own way: Effectiveness of participant-driven versus experimenter-driven processing strategies in memory training and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Kristin E.; Lustig, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive training programs that instruct specific strategies frequently show limited transfer. Open-ended approaches can achieve greater transfer, but may fail to benefit many older adults due to age deficits in self-initiated processing. We examined whether a compromise that encourages effort at encoding without an experimenter-prescribed strategy might yield better results. Older adults completed memory training under conditions that either 1) mandated a specific strategy to increase deep, associative encoding, 2) attempted to suppress such encoding by mandating rote rehearsal, or 3) encouraged time and effort towards encoding but allowed for strategy choice. The experimenter-enforced associative encoding strategy succeeded in creating integrated representations of studied items, but training-task progress was related to pre-existing ability. Independent of condition assignment, self-reported deep encoding was associated with positive training and transfer effects, suggesting that the most beneficial outcomes occur when environmental support guiding effort is provided but participants generate their own strategies. PMID:26549616

  13. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  14. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  15. Intermanual Transfer Effect in Young Children After Training in a Complex Skill : Mechanistic, Pseudorandomized, Pretest-Posttest Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Background. Intermanual transfer implies that motor skills learned on one side of the body transfer to the untrained side. This effect was previously noted in adults practicing with a prosthesis simulator. Objective. The study objective was to determine whether intermanual transfer is present in

  16. Game-based training of flexibility and attention improves task-switch performance: near and far transfer of cognitive training in an EEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Olfers, Kerwin J. F.; Band, Guido P. H.

    2017-01-01

    There is a demand for ways to enhance cognitive flexibility, as it can be a limiting factor for performance in daily life. Video game training has been linked to advantages in cognitive functioning, raising the question if training with video games can promote cognitive flexibility. In the current study, we investigated if game-based computerized cognitive training (GCCT) could enhance cognitive flexibility in a healthy young adult sample (N = 72), as measured by task-switch performance. Thre...

  17. Amplified Head Rotation in Virtual Reality and the Effects on 3D Search, Training Transfer, and Spatial Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Eric D; Scerbo, Siroberto; Bacim, Felipe; Bowman, Doug A

    2017-08-01

    Many types of virtual reality (VR) systems allow users to use natural, physical head movements to view a 3D environment. In some situations, such as when using systems that lack a fully surrounding display or when opting for convenient low-effort interaction, view control can be enabled through a combination of physical and virtual turns to view the environment, but the reduced realism could potentially interfere with the ability to maintain spatial orientation. One solution to this problem is to amplify head rotations such that smaller physical turns are mapped to larger virtual turns, allowing trainees to view the entire surrounding environment with small head movements. This solution is attractive because it allows semi-natural physical view control rather than requiring complete physical rotations or a fully-surrounding display. However, the effects of amplified head rotations on spatial orientation and many practical tasks are not well understood. In this paper, we present an experiment that evaluates the influence of amplified head rotation on 3D search, spatial orientation, and cybersickness. In the study, we varied the amount of amplification and also varied the type of display used (head-mounted display or surround-screen CAVE) for the VR search task. By evaluating participants first with amplification and then without, we were also able to study training transfer effects. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of using amplified head rotation to view 360 degrees of virtual space, but noticeable problems were identified when using high amplification with a head-mounted display. In addition, participants were able to more easily maintain a sense of spatial orientation when using the CAVE version of the application, which suggests that visibility of the user's body and awareness of the CAVE's physical environment may have contributed to the ability to use the amplification technique while keeping track of orientation.

  18. Evaluating the influence of goal setting on intravenous catheterization skill acquisition and transfer in a hybrid simulation training context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Ryan; Mallette, Claire; Pollex, Heather; Carnahan, Heather; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-08-01

    Educators often simplify complex tasks by setting learning objectives that focus trainees on isolated skills rather than the holistic task. We designed 2 sets of learning objectives for intravenous catheterization using goal setting theory. We hypothesized that setting holistic goals related to technical, cognitive, and communication skills would result in superior holistic performance, whereas setting isolated goals related to technical skills would result in superior technical performance. We randomly assigned practicing health care professionals to set holistic (n = 14) or isolated (n = 15) goals. All watched an instructional video and studied a list of 9 goals specific to their group. Participants practiced independently in a hybrid simulation (standardized patient combined with an arm simulator). The first and the last practice trials were videotaped for analysis. One-week later, participants completed a transfer test in another hybrid simulation scenario. Blinded experts evaluated performance on all 3 trials using the Direct Observation of Procedural Skills tool. The holistic group scored higher than the isolated group on the holistic Direct Observation of Procedural Skills score for all 3 trials [mean (SD), 45.0 (9.16) vs. 38.4 (9.17); P = 0.01]. The isolated group did not perform better than the holistic group on the technical skills score [10.3 (2.73) vs. 11.6 (3.01); P = 0.11]. Our results suggest that asking learners to set holistic goals did not interfere with their attaining competent holistic and technical skills during hybrid simulation training. This exploratory trial provides preliminary evidence for how to consider integrating hybrid simulation into medical curricula and for the design of learning goals in simulation-based education.

  19. LQG/LTR [linear quadratic Gaussian with loop transfer recovery] robust control system design for a low-pressure feedwater heater train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.V.; Bailey, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper uses the linear quadratic Gaussian with loop transfer recovery (LQG/LTR) control system design method to obtain a level control system for a low-pressure feedwater heater train. The control system performance and stability robustness are evaluated for a given set of system design specifications. The tools for analysis are the return ratio, return difference, and inverse return difference singular-valve plots for a loop break at the plant output. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  1. Effects of a Self-Instruction Communication Skills Training on Skills, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, Mark A.; Van der Molen, Henk T.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study on the effects of a self-instruction training programme in communication skills for psychology students at the Open University of the Netherlands in comparison to a fully supervised training. We expected both training programmes to increase students' knowledge and skills, as well as their self-efficacy and motivation…

  2. The Effects of Transfer in Teaching Vocabulary to School Children: An Analysis of the Dependencies between Lists of Trained and Non-Trained Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jørgen; Ottem, Ernst; Hagtvet, Bente E.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 81 Norwegian students were taught the meaning of words by the Word Generation (WG) method and 51 Norwegian students were taught by an approach inspired by the Thinking Schools (TS) concept. Two sets of words were used: a set of words to be trained and a set of non-trained control words. The two teaching methods yielded no…

  3. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  4. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  5. 75 FR 16514 - Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,291] Maxim Integrated Products... Worker Adjustment Assistance on July 8th, 2009, applicable to workers of Maxim Integrated Products.... The workers produced integrated circuits (analog and mixed signal). Information shows that Maxim...

  6. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  7. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  8. Limited near and far transfer effects of Jungle Memory working memory training on learning mathematics in children with attentional and mathematical difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nelwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether Jungle Memory working memory training (JM affects performance on working memory tasks, performance in mathematics and gains made on a mathematics training (MT in school aged children between 9-12 years old (N = 64 with both difficulties in mathematics, as well as in attention and working memory. Children were randomly assigned to three groups and were trained in two periods: (1 JM first, followed by MT, (2 MT first, followed by JM, and (3 a control group that received MT only. Bayesian analyses showed possible short term effects of JM on near transfer measures of verbal working memory, but none on visual working memory. Furthermore, support was found for the hypothesis that children that received JM first, performed better after MT than children who did not follow JM first or did not train with JM at all. However, these effects could be explained at least partly by frequency of training effects, possibly due to motivational issues, and training-specific factors. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the effects found on math improvement were actually mediated by gains in working memory. It is argued that JM might not train the components of working memory involved in mathematics sufficiently. Another possible explanation can be found in the training’s lack of adaptivity, therefore failing to provide the children with tailored instruction and feedback. Finally, it was hypothesized that, since effect sizes are generally small, training effects are bound to a critical period in development.

  9. Deep Transfer Metric Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  10. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  11. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  12. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  13. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  14. How autobiographical memories can support episodic recall: transfer and maintenance effect of memory training with old-old low-autonomy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Facchini, Giulia; Nicolini, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    A large body of research has demonstrated that, although specific memory activities can enhance the memory performance of healthy older adults, the extent of the increment is negatively associated with age. Conversely, few studies have examined the case of healthy elderly people not living alone. This study has two mains goals: to understand whether older adults with limited autonomy can benefit from activities devoted to increasing their episodic memory performance, and to test the efficacy of a memory training program based on autobiographical memories, in terms of transfer and maintenance effect. We postulated that being able to rely on stable autobiographical memories (intrinsically associated with emotions) would be a valuable memory aid. Memory training was given to healthy older adults (aged 75-85) living in a retirement home. Two programs were compared: in the first, participants were primed to recall autobiographical memories around certain themes, and then to complete a set of episodic memory tasks (experimental group); in the second, participants were only given the episodic tasks (control group). Both groups improved their performance from pre- to post-test. However, the experimental group reported a greater feeling of well-being after the training, and maintained the training gains relating to episodic performance after three months. Our findings suggest that specific memory activities are beneficial to elderly people living in a retirement home context. In addition, training based on reactivation of autobiographical memories is shown to produce a long-lasting effect on memory performance.

  15. Training Preschoolers on First-Order False Belief Understanding: Transfer on Advanced ToM Skills and Metamemory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Demicheli, Patrizia; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and metamemory knowledge using a training methodology. Sixty-two 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: A first-order false belief (ToM) and a control condition. Intervention and control groups were equivalent at pretest for…

  16. Effects of pre-training using serious game technology on CPR performance – an exploratory quasi-experimental transfer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creutzfeldt Johan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplayer virtual world (MVW technology creates opportunities to practice medical procedures and team interactions using serious game software. This study aims to explore medical students’ retention of knowledge and skills as well as their proficiency gain after pre-training using a MVW with avatars for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR team training. Methods Three groups of pre-clinical medical students, n = 30, were assessed and further trained using a high fidelity full-scale medical simulator: Two groups were pre-trained 6 and 18 months before assessment. A reference control group consisting of matched peers had no MVW pre-training. The groups consisted of 8, 12 and 10 subjects, respectively. The session started and ended with assessment scenarios, with 3 training scenarios in between. All scenarios were video-recorded for analysis of CPR performance. Results The 6 months group displayed greater CPR-related knowledge than the control group, 93 (±11% compared to 65 (±28% (p  At start the pre-trained groups adhered better to guidelines than the control group; mean violations 0.2 (±0.5, 1.5 (±1.0 and 4.5 (±1.0 for the 6 months, 18 months and control group respectively. Likewise, in the 6 months group no chest compression cycles were delivered at incorrect frequencies whereas 54 (±44% in the control group (p  Conclusions This study supports the beneficial effects of MVW-CPR team training with avatars as a method for pre-training, or repetitive training, on CPR-skills among medical students.

  17. Maximization of energy in the output of a linear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A time-limited signal which, when passed through a linear system, maximizes the total output energy is considered. Previous work has shown that the solution is given by the eigenfunction associated with the maximum eigenvalue in a Hilbert-Schmidt integral equation. Analytical results are available for the case where the transfer function is a low-pass filter. This work is extended by obtaining a numerical solution to the integral equation which allows results for reasonably general transfer functions

  18. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  19. Making Training Stick: A Close Examination of How Trainee Readiness, Supervisor Support, and Practice Foster Transfer in a Mobile Technology-Based Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putter, Stefanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Although today's organizations are investing copious amounts of time, money, and resources on employee learning and development, trainees often fail to apply their learning and skills on the job, bringing into question the true value of organizational training. In an attempt to improve understanding of the key individual and organizational…

  20. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  1. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  2. Transferring from the Simulator to a Live Robotic Environment: The Effectiveness of Part-Task and Whole-Task Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    individual differences in abilities (spatial skills), related experience ( videogame experience), or demographic variables (age or gender) impact training or...demographic questionnaire collected basic information from each participant such as age, gender, education, and videogame experience. The Santa Barbara

  3. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  4. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  5. Simulator-based crew resource management training for interhospital transfer of critically ill patients by a mobile ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogh, Joep M; Kruger, H. L.; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Zijlstra, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transporting critically ill ICU patients by standard ambulances, with or without an accompanying physician, imposes safety risks. In 2007 the Dutch Ministry of Public Health required that all critically ill patients transferred between ICUs in different hospitals be transported by a

  6. Using Voice, Meaning, Mutual Construction of Knowledge, and Transfer of Learning to Apply an Ecological Perspective to Group Work Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jonathan J.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2006-01-01

    Concepts of voice, meaning, mutual construction of knowledge, and transfer of learning are presented in this paper as critical ingredients that support the teaching of group work from an ecological perspective. Examples of these concepts are given to illustrate their application in group work classes. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. Learning to remember: Cognitive training-induced attenuation of age-related memory decline depends on sex and cognitive demand, and can transfer to untrained cognitive domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talboom, Joshua S.; West, Stephen G.; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Enders, Craig K.; Crain, Ian; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive changes in learning and memory. A potential approach to attenuate age-related cognitive decline is cognitive training. In this study, adult male and female rats were given either repeated exposure to a T-maze, or no exposure to any maze, and then tested on a final battery of cognitive tasks. Two groups of each sex were tested from 6-18 months old on the same T-maze; one group received a version testing spatial reference memory, and the other group received only the procedural testing components with minimal cognitive demand. Groups three and four of each sex had no maze exposure until the final battery, and were comprised of aged or young rats. The final maze battery included the practiced T-maze plus two novel tasks, one with a similar, and one with a different, memory type to the practice task. The fifth group of each sex was not maze tested, serving as an aged control for the effects of maze testing on neurotrophin protein levels in cognitive brain regions. Results showed that adult intermittent cognitive training enhanced performance on the practice task when aged in both sexes, that cognitive training benefits transferred to novel tasks only in females, and that cognitive demand was necessary for these effects since rats receiving only the procedural testing components showed no improvement on the final maze battery. Further, for both sexes, rats that showed faster learning when young demonstrated better memory when aged. Age-related increases in neurotrophin concentrations in several brain regions were revealed, which was related to performance on the training task only in females. This longitudinal study supports the tenet that cognitive training can help one remember later in life, with broader enhancements and associations with neurotrophins in females. PMID:25104561

  8. Effects of short term training using resistance maximal workloads in futsal players and cyclist Respuesta a corto plazo al entrenamiento de fuerza máxima en jugadores de fútbol sala y ciclistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Garcia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of high intensity-strength training (S in two consecutive days in different athletes. 20 subjects divided in two groups: 11 futsal players of semiprofessional level (FG (22,5±1,4 yr and 9 endurance trained athletes of national level (EG (21±1,3 yr. The intervention was composed by two training sessions (4 sets of 3 repetitions at 8590% of their 1RM in the squat exercise separated by 24h. Two days before the first workout and 9 days after the second workout subjects were measured for 1RM in squat (90 knee angle. Tests: 1 Maximum Repetition in half-squat exercise. Variables: weight in one maximum repetititum (kg; Force (N; and power (w. Instrument: MicromuscleLab Power (ergotest technology as-Norway. The results showed increasing in 1MR in weight (p<0.05, force production ((p<0.05 but didn’t showed significant differences in power output in 1MR It was concluded that acute effects of high intensity strength training using this protocol is advantageous for increasing force production in futsal players and cyclists.

    Key Words:short term effect, strength, power, training program

     

    El objetivo del estudio es conocer los efectos sobre la fuerza máxima y la potencia en 1 repetición máxima (RM de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza usando cargas máximas en jugadores de fútbol-sala y ciclistas. 20 hombres divididos en 2 grupos: 11 jugadores de fútbol-sala semiprofesionales (21±1,3 años, y 9 ciclistas de ruta de categoría nacional (22,5±1,4 años participaron en la investigación. El programa de entrenamiento fue 2 sesiones (4 series de 3 repeticiones al 85-90% de 1RM, con 3-5 min de descanso entre series, con la máxima velocidad de ejecución posible, posteriormente descansaban 9 días repitiéndose de nuevo este trabajo. Se determinó a través del test 1RM en

  9. Hands-on 2.0: improving transfer of training via the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) Acquisition of Data for Outcomes and Procedure Transfer (ADOPT) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dort, Jonathan; Trickey, Amber; Paige, John; Schwarz, Erin; Dunkin, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Practicing surgeons commonly learn new procedures and techniques by attending a "hands-on" course, though trainings are often ineffective at promoting subsequent procedure adoption in practice. We describe implementation of a new program with the SAGES All Things Hernia Hands-On Course, Acquisition of Data for Outcomes and Procedure Transfer (ADOPT), which employs standardized, proven teaching techniques, and 1-year mentorship. Attendee confidence and procedure adoption are compared between standard and ADOPT programs. For the pilot ADOPT course implementation, a hands-on course focusing on abdominal wall hernia repair was chosen. ADOPT participants were recruited among enrollees for the standard Hands-On Hernia Course. Enrollment in ADOPT was capped at 10 participants and limited to a 2:1 student-to-faculty ratio, compared to the standard course 22 participants with a 4:1 student-to-faculty ratio. ADOPT mentors interacted with participants through webinars, phone conferences, and continuous email availability throughout the year. All participants were asked to provide pre- and post-course surveys inquiring about the number of targeted hernia procedures performed and related confidence level. Four of 10 ADOPT participants (40%) and six of 22 standard training participants (27%) returned questionnaires. Over the 3 months following the course, ADOPT participants performed more ventral hernia mesh insertion procedures than standard training participants (median 13 vs. 0.5, p = 0.010) and considerably more total combined procedures (median 26 vs. 7, p = 0.054). Compared to standard training, learners who participated in ADOPT reported greater confidence improvements in employing a components separation via an open approach (p = 0.051), and performing an open transversus abdominis release, though the difference did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.14). These results suggest that the ADOPT program, with standardized and structured teaching

  10. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  11. Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

    2014-07-01

    This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults.

  12. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  13. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees.

  14. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  15. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  16. Transfer of training in the development of intracorporeal suturing skill in medical student novices: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, Claude; Lee, Tommy H; Seagull, Jacob; Park, Adrian E

    2010-10-01

    To help optimize the use of limited resources in trainee education, we developed a prospective randomized trial to determine the most effective means of teaching laparoscopic suturing to novices. Forty-one medical students received rudimentary instruction in intracorporeal suturing, then were pretested on a pig enterotomy model. They then were posttested after completion of 1 of 4 training arms: laparoscopic suturing, laparoscopic drills, open suturing, and virtual reality (VR) drills. Tests were scored for speed, accuracy, knot quality, and mental workload (National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Task Load Index). Paired t tests were used. Task time was improved in all groups except the VR group. Knot quality improved only in the open or laparoscopic suturing groups. Mental workload improved only for those practicing on a physical laparoscopic trainer. For novice trainees, the efficacy of VR training is questionable. In contrast, the other training methods had benefits in terms of time, quality, and perceived workload. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammady, M.; Roohi, M.; Delavar, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to introduce the concepts of transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces. Also, some characterizations of them are considered. Further, the notion of minimal local intersection property will be introduced and characterized. Moreover, some maximal element theorems via minimal transfer closed multimaps and minimal local intersection property are given.

  18. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  19. Maximization of regional probabilities using Optimal Surface Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Lorza, Andres M.; Van Engelen, Arna; Petersen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We present a segmentation method that maximizes regional probabilities enclosed by coupled surfaces using an Optimal Surface Graph (OSG) cut approach. This OSG cut determines the globally optimal solution given a graph constructed around an initial surface. While most methods for vessel...... wall segmentation only use edge information, we show that maximizing regional probabilities using an OSG improves the segmentation results. We applied this to automatically segment the vessel wall of the carotid artery in magnetic resonance images. Methods: First, voxel-wise regional probability maps...... were obtained using a Support Vector Machine classifier trained on local image features. Then, the OSG segments the regions which maximizes the regional probabilities considering smoothness and topological constraints. Results: The method was evaluated on 49 carotid arteries from 30 subjects...

  20. Maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses during deepwater running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p41   Aquatic exercises provide numerous benefits to the health of their practitioners. To secure these benefits, it is essential to have proper prescriptions to the needs of each individual and, therefore, it is important to study the cardiorespiratory responses of different activities in this environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses at the anaerobic threshold (AT between maximal deep-water running (DWR and maximal treadmill running (TMR. In addition, two methods of determining the AT (the heart rate deflection point [HRDP] and ventilatory method [VM] are compared in the two evaluated protocols. Twelve young women performed the two maximal protocols. Two-factor ANOVA for repeated measures with a post-hoc Bonferroni test was used (α < 0.05. Significantly higher values of maximal heart rate (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 and maximal oxygen uptake (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 in TMR compared to the DWR were found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the methods for determining the AT (TMR: VM: 28.1 ± 5.3, HRDP: 26.6 ± 5.5 ml.kg−1.min−1; DWR: VM: 18.7 ± 4.8, HRDP: 17.8 ± 4.8 ml.kg−1.min−1. The results indicate that a specific maximal test for the trained modality should be conducted and the HRDP can be used as a simple and practical method of determining the AT, based on which the training intensity can be determined

  1. Combined cognitive-strategy and task-specific training improves transfer to untrained activities in sub-acute stroke: An exploratory randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Sara; Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach compared to usual outpatient rehabilitation on activity and participation in people less than 3 months post stroke. Methods An exploratory, single blind, randomized controlled trial with a usual care control arm was conducted. Participants referred to 2 stroke rehabilitation outpatient programs were randomized to receive either Usual Care or CO-OP. The primary outcome was actual performance of trained and untrained self-selected activities, measured using the Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS). Additional outcomes included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), the Stroke Impact Scale Participation Domain, the Community Participation Index, and the Self Efficacy Gauge. Results Thirty-five (35) eligible participants were randomized; 26 completed the intervention. Post-intervention, PQRS change scores demonstrated CO-OP had a medium effect over Usual Care on trained self-selected activities (d=0.5) and a large effect on untrained (d=1.2). At a 3 month follow-up, PQRS change scores indicated a large effect of CO-OP on both trained (d=1.6) and untrained activities (d=1.1). CO-OP had a small effect on COPM and a medium effect on the Community Participation Index perceived control and the Self-Efficacy Gauge. Conclusion CO-OP was associated with a large treatment effect on follow up performances of self-selected activities, and demonstrated transfer to untrained activities. A larger trial is warranted. PMID:25416738

  2. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  3. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  4. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  5. Effects of Transfer to Real-World Subject Area Materials from Training in Graphic Organizers and Summarizing on Developmental College Readers' Comprehension of the Compare/Contrast Text Structure in Science Expository Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest; Weisberg, Renee

    To determine whether less able readers could use the strategies they had been taught, a study investigated the transfer effects of training in the use of graphic organizers and summary writing on readers' recognition of the compare/contrast text structure. Subjects, 70 freshmen at a western New York state college of liberal arts and sciences in a…

  6. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  7. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniece R. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR or second-milking colostrum (transition milk on failure of passive transfer (FPT and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1, 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2, or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3. Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2 g/dL, IgG 15.9 g/L and 3 (TP 5.4 g/dL, IgG 18.3 g/L did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9 g/dL, IgG 24.6 g/L. Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.. Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp. or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp. did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia.

  9. El fenómeno de transferencia en gramáticas artificiales: efectos de la forma de entrenamiento Transference in artificial grammar: effects of training procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arismendi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utilizó una gramática artificial, consistente en una serie de reglas que especifican posibles órdenes de secuencias de letras, para evaluar la capacidad de transferencia de los sujetos, esto es la extracción de estas reglas y su aplicación a patrones de letras novedosas. Para ello 57 sujetos se asignaron aleatoriamente a dos formas de entrenamiento: una estándar donde debían memorizar y transcribir las secuencias correctas (gramaticales, y otra donde debían discriminar por ensayo y error entre secuencias correctas e incorrectas (no gramaticales mediante un procedimiento de realimentación. Con esta forma de entrenamiento se obtuvieron desempeños significativamente mejores que con el procedimiento estándar. Se discuten los resultados en el contexto de la aplicación de las gramáticas artificiales como paradigma experimental para el estudio de los procesos subyacentes a la adquisición del lenguaje.In this work an artificial grammar has been used, which consists in a set of rules that specifies possible orders of strings of letters, to evaluate subjects ability to transfer the extracted rules and implement these to patterns of novel letters. 57 subjects were randomly assigned to two learning procedures: a standard one in which they had to memorize and transcribe the correct (grammatical sequences, and one in which they had to discriminate between correct and incorrect (ungrammatical sequences by use of a feedback procedure. Subjects trained with the feedback procedure had a significantly better performance than subjects trained with the standard one. These results are discussed in the context of the implementation of artificial grammar as an experimental paradigm for studying processes underlying language acquisition.

  10. Maximizing the Benefits of Training by Example and Direct Instruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Love, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    .... The updated equations can be downloaded at http://love.psy.utexas.edu/̃love/cluster.pdf. One popular approach to modeling human category learning in the face of challenging data has been to propose models containing multiple systems...

  11. Minimalism vs. Maximalism in Intercultural Research and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, David

    Like Antarctica, the fields of cross- and intercultural communication are claimed by many, explored by not so many, and understood by perhaps rather few. The most popular references in this area reflect a "maximalist" perspective, generally cross-cultural, which advocates the view that culture is a monolithic and static entity and that…

  12. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  13. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  14. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  15. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  16. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  18. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  19. Improvements in Attention and Decision-Making Following Combined Behavioral Training and Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Varghese, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Guy E; Mattingley, Jason B; Dux, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    In recent years there has been a significant commercial interest in 'brain training' - massed or spaced practice on a small set of tasks to boost cognitive performance. Recently, researchers have combined cognitive training regimes with brain stimulation to try and maximize training benefits, leading to task-specific cognitive enhancement. It remains unclear, however, whether the performance gains afforded by such regimes can transfer to untrained tasks, or how training and stimulation affect the brain's latent information processing dynamics. To examine these issues, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the prefrontal cortex while participants undertook decision-making training over several days. Anodal, relative to cathodal/sham tDCS, increased performance gains from training. Critically, these gains were reliable for both trained and untrained tasks. The benefit of anodal tDCS occurred for left, but not right, prefrontal stimulation, and was absent for stimulation delivered without concurrent training. Modeling revealed left anodal stimulation combined with training caused an increase in the brain's rate of evidence accumulation for both tasks. Thus tDCS applied during training has the potential to modulate training gains and give rise to transferable performance benefits for distinct cognitive operations through an increase in the rate at which the brain acquires information. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Personalized Training in Romanian SME’s ERP Implementation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana DOROBAT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many practitioners and IS researchers have stated that the overwhelming majority of Enter-prise Resource Planning (ERP systems implementations exceed their training budget and their time allocations. In consequence many Romanian SMEs that implement an ERP system are looking to new approaches of knowledge transfer and performance support that are better aligned with business goals, deliver measurable results and are cost effective. Thus, we have begun to analyze the training methods used in ERP implementation in order to provide a so-lution that could help us maximize the efficiency of an ERP training program. We proposed a framework of an ERPTraining module that can be integrated with a Romanian ERP system and which provides a training management that is more personalized, effective and less ex-pensive.

  1. ComOn Coaching: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of a varied number of coaching sessions on transfer into clinical practice following communication skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niglio de Figueiredo, Marcelo; Rudolph, Bärbel; Rodolph, Bärbel; Bylund, Carma L; Goelz, Tanja; Heußner, Pia; Sattel, Heribert; Fritzsche, Kurt; Wuensch, Alexander

    2015-07-07

    Communication skills training has proven to be an effective means to enhance communication of health care professionals in oncology. These effects are well studied in standardized settings. The question of transferring these skills into clinical consultations remains open. We build up on a previous developed training concept consisting of a workshop and coaching. This training achieved a medium effect size in two studies with standardized patients. In the current study, we expanded and manualized the coaching concept, and we will evaluate effects of a varied number of coaching sessions on real clinical consultations. Our aim is to determine how much coaching oncologists need to transfer communication skills into clinical practice. Physicians of two German medical centers will participate in a workshop for communication skills and will be randomized to either a group with one coaching session or a group with four coaching sessions following the workshop. The participation is voluntary and the physicians will receive medical education points. Consultations held by the participating physicians with actual patients who gave their informed consent will be filmed at three time points. These consultations will be evaluated by blinded raters using a checklist based on the training content (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes will be the self-evaluated communication competence by physicians and an evaluation of the consultations by both physicians and patients. We will evaluate our communication training concept on three levels - rater, physician and patient - and concentrate on the transfer of communication skills into real life situations. As we emphasize the external validity in this study design, limitations will be expected due to heterogeneity of data. With this study we aim to gain data on how to improve communication skills training that will result in better patient outcomes. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004385 .

  2. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  3. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  5. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  7. Maximizing the Inter-Service SOF Handshake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bathurst, Ty D; Eldridge, Edward D

    2005-01-01

    .... Often, the results are redundant training with HN forces, lack of overall training continuity, a high expenditure for the results obtained, and an inability to more rapidly progress forward with HN training...

  8. Maximizing the return on taxpayers' investments in fundamental biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2015-05-01

    The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health has an annual budget of more than $2.3 billion. The institute uses these funds to support fundamental biomedical research and training at universities, medical schools, and other institutions across the country. My job as director of NIGMS is to work to maximize the scientific returns on the taxpayers' investments. I describe how we are optimizing our investment strategies and funding mechanisms, and how, in the process, we hope to create a more efficient and sustainable biomedical research enterprise.

  9. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  10. Macrosystems management approach to nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Maultsby, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    The world of the 1980s will be a world of diminishing resources, shifting economic bases, rapidly changing cultural and societal structures, and an ever increasing demand for energy. A major driving function in this massive redistribution of global power is man's ability to transfer technology, including nuclear technology, to the developing nations. The major task facing policy makers in planning and managing technology transfer is to avoid the difficulties inherent in such technology exploitation, while maximizing the technical, economic, social, and cultural benefits brought about by the technology itself. But today's policy makers, using industrial-style planning, cannot adequately deal with all the complex, closely-coupled issues involved in technology transfer. Yet, policy makers within the developing nations must be capable of tackling the full spectrum of issues associated with technology transfer before committing to a particular course of action. The transfer and acceptance of complex technology would be significantly enhanced if policy makers followed a macrosystems management approach. Macrosystems management is a decision making methodology based on the techniques of macrosystems analysis. Macrosystems analysis combines the best quantitative methods in systems analysis with the best qualitative evaluations provided by multidisciplined task teams. These are focused in a project management structure to produce solution-oriented advice to the policy makers. The general relationships and management approach offered by macrosystems analysis are examined. Nowhere are the nuclear power option problems and issues more complex than in the transfer of this technology to developing nations. Although many critical variables of interest in the analysis are generic to a particular importer/exporter relationship, two specific issues that have universally impacted the nuclear power option, namely the fuel cycle, and manpower and training, are examined in the light of

  11. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  12. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  13. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  14. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  15. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  16. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  17. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  18. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  19. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  20. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  1. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  2. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  3. Why firms should not always maximize profits

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the corporate social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This paper argues that the first position i...

  4. Maximally Informative Observables and Categorical Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiang, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We formulate the problem of perception in the framework of information theory, and prove that categorical perception is equivalent to the existence of an observable that has the maximum possible information on the target of perception. We call such an observable maximally informative. Regardless whether categorical perception is real, maximally informative observables can form the basis of a theory of perception. We conclude with the implications of such a theory for the problem of speech per...

  5. TRANSFERENCE BEFORE TRANSFERENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaminio, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    This paper is predominantly a clinical presentation that describes the transmigration of one patient's transference to another, with the analyst functioning as a sort of transponder. It involves an apparently accidental episode in which there was an unconscious intersection between two patients. The author's aim is to show how transference from one case may affect transference in another, a phenomenon the author calls transference before transference. The author believes that this idea may serve as a tool for understanding the unconscious work that takes place in the clinical situation. In a clinical example, the analyst finds himself caught up in an enactment involving two patients in which he becomes the medium of what happens in session. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  6. A Case Study to Evaluate Balance Training with Movement Test Items and through Teaching Observation: Beyond Specificity and Transfer of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe, Margret; Miyahara, Motohide; Heveldt, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Background: Specificity and transfer of learning have been examined in experimental studies. However, their findings may not be relevant to practitioners because of the difference between the experiment conditions and teaching situations. This case study investigates the theoretical issue of specificity vs. transfer of learning by conducting…

  7. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner...

  8. Expert Performance Transfer: Making Knowledge Transfer Count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.L.; Braudt, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    'Knowledge Transfer' is a high-priority imperative as the nuclear industry faces the combined effects of an aging workforce and economic pressures to do more with less. Knowledge Transfer is only a part of the solution to these challenges, however. The more compelling and immediate need faced by industry is Accomplishment Transfer, or the transference of the applied knowledge necessary to assure optimal performance transfer from experienced, high-performing staff to inexperienced staff. A great deal of industry knowledge and required performance information has been documented in the form of procedures. Often under-appreciated either as knowledge stores or as drivers of human performance, procedures, coupled with tightly-focused and effective training, are arguably the most effective influences on human and plant performance. (author)

  9. Efeito de oito semanas de suplementação com creatina monoidratada sobre o trabalho total relativo em esforços intermitentes máximos no cicloergômetro de homens treinados Effect of eight weeks of creatine supplementation on relative total work in intermittent maximal efforts in the cycle ergometer of trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ricardo Altimari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito de um longo período de suplementação com creatina monoidratada (Cr m sobre o trabalho total relativo (TTR em esforços intermitentes máximos no cicloergômetro de homens treinados. Vinte seis indivíduos foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo creatina (CR, n=13 e grupo placebo (PL, n=13. Os sujeitos receberam em sistema duplo-cego, doses de Cr m ou placebo-maltodextrina (20 g.d-1 por 5 dias e 3 g.d-1 durante 51 dias subseqüentes. Os grupos tiveram seus hábitos alimentares e sua condição física previamente controlados. Para determinação do TTR os sujeitos foram submetidos a protocolo de exercício em cicloergômetro composto de três Testes de Wingate de 30s separados por dois minutos recuperação, antes e após o período de suplementação. ANOVA, seguido pelo teste post hoc de Tukey, quando pThis study investigated the effect of long-term supplementation with creatine monohydrate (Cr m on relative total work (RTW in intermittent maximal efforts in the cycle ergometer of trained men. Twenty six individuals were randomly divided in creatine group (CR, n=13 and placebo group (PL, n=13. The subjects received in a double-blind manner, doses of Cr m or placebo-maltodextrin (20 g.d-1 for 5 days and 3 g.d-1 for 51 subsequent days. The groups had their alimentary habits and physical fitness controlled previously. For determination of the RTW the subjects were submitted to exercise protocol in cycle ergometer comprised three 30s Anaerobic Wingate Test interspersed with two minutes recovery, before and after the supplementation period. ANOVA, followed by the Tukey post hoc test, when p<0.05, were used for data treatment. There was a significant time effect for RTW (F1,24=8.00; p<0.05, with the CR group demonstrating significant greater (3% on the RTW production compared to PL group after the supplementation period (690.54 ± 46.83 vs 655.71 ± 74.34 J.kg-1 respectively; p<0.05. The results of the present study

  10. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9(th) and 17(th) session and four days after the final 24(th) training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (ptraining of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  11. Further Evidence for Nonspecificity of Theory of Mind in Preschoolers: Training and Transferability in the Understanding of False Beliefs and False Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Leekam, Susan; Perner, Josef; McConachie, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In a training study, the authors addressed whether or not preschoolers' difficulty with false belief is due to a domain-specific problem with mental states. Following Slaughter's (1998) design, 57 children who failed a false-belief (FB) pretest received two sessions of training on either an FB, false sign (FS), or control task. All children were…

  12. Limited near and far transfer effects of jungle memory working memory training on learning mathematics in children with attentional and mathematical difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelwan, Michel; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether Jungle Memory working memory training (JM) affects performance on working memory tasks, performance in mathematics and gains made on a mathematics training (MT) in school aged children between 9-12 years old (N = 64) with both

  13. Vacua of maximal gauged D=3 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, T; Nicolai, H; Samtleben, H

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the scalar potentials of maximal gauged three-dimensional supergravities which reveal a surprisingly rich structure. In contrast to maximal supergravities in dimensions D≥4, all these theories possess a maximally supersymmetric (N=16) ground state with negative cosmological constant Λ 2 gauged theory, whose maximally supersymmetric groundstate has Λ = 0. We compute the mass spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around these vacua and identify the unitary irreducible representations of the relevant background (super)isometry groups to which they belong. In addition, we find several stationary points which are not maximally supersymmetric, and determine their complete mass spectra as well. In particular, we show that there are analogues of all stationary points found in higher dimensions, among them are de Sitter (dS) vacua in the theories with noncompact gauge groups SO(5, 3) 2 and SO(4, 4) 2 , as well as anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua in the compact gauged theory preserving 1/4 and 1/8 of the supersymmetries. All the dS vacua have tachyonic instabilities, whereas there do exist nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua which are stable, again in contrast to the D≥4 theories

  14. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  15. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  16. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  17. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  18. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  19. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  20. Application of Decision Making and Team Training Research to Operational Training. A Translative Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DECISION MAKING , * GROUP DYNAMICS, NAVAL TRAINING, TRANSFER OF TRAINING, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, CLASSIFICATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, SUBMARINES, SIMULATORS, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), UNDERSEA WARFARE.

  1. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m

  2. Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)

  3. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  4. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  5. Reserve design to maximize species persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  6. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  7. Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2000-01-01

    to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...

  8. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  9. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  10. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...

  11. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  12. Logit Analysis for Profit Maximizing Loan Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Mortensen, Timothy L.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    1988-01-01

    Lending criteria and loan classification methods are developed. Rating system breaking points are analyzed to present a method to maximize loan revenues. Financial characteristics of farmers are used as determinants of delinquency in a multivariate logistic model. Results indicate that debt-to-asset and operating ration are most indicative of default.

  13. Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mako eOkanda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.

  14. Expectation-Maximization Tensor Factorization for Practical Location Privacy Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Takao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy attacks based on a Markov chain model have been widely studied to de-anonymize or de-obfuscate mobility traces. An adversary can perform various kinds of location privacy attacks using a personalized transition matrix, which is trained for each target user. However, the amount of training data available to the adversary can be very small, since many users do not disclose much location information in their daily lives. In addition, many locations can be missing from the training traces, since many users do not disclose their locations continuously but rather sporadically. In this paper, we show that the Markov chain model can be a threat even in this realistic situation. Specifically, we focus on a training phase (i.e. mobility profile building phase and propose Expectation-Maximization Tensor Factorization (EMTF, which alternates between computing a distribution of missing locations (E-step and computing personalized transition matrices via tensor factorization (M-step. Since the time complexity of EMTF is exponential in the number of missing locations, we propose two approximate learning methods, one of which uses the Viterbi algorithm while the other uses the Forward Filtering Backward Sampling (FFBS algorithm. We apply our learning methods to a de-anonymization attack and a localization attack, and evaluate them using three real datasets. The results show that our learning methods significantly outperform a random guess, even when there is only one training trace composed of 10 locations per user, and each location is missing with probability 80% (i.e. even when users hardly disclose two temporally-continuous locations.

  15. Automatic physical inference with information maximizing neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    Compressing large data sets to a manageable number of summaries that are informative about the underlying parameters vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference. When only simulations are available, these summaries are typically chosen heuristically, so they may inadvertently miss important information. We introduce a simulation-based machine learning technique that trains artificial neural networks to find nonlinear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). In test cases where the posterior can be derived exactly, likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces nearly exact posteriors, showing that these summaries are good approximations to sufficient statistics. In a series of numerical examples of increasing complexity and astrophysical relevance we show that IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, nonlinear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima. We anticipate that the automatic physical inference method described in this paper will be essential to obtain both accurate and precise cosmological parameter estimates from complex and large astronomical data sets, including those from LSST and Euclid.

  16. Learning piano melodies in visuo-motor or audio-motor training conditions and the neural correlates of their cross-modal transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Annerose; Bangert, Marc; Horbank, David; Hijmans, Brenda S.; Wilkens, Katharina; Keller, Peter E.; Keysers, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the cross-modal transfer of movement patterns necessary to perform melodies on the piano, 22 non-musicians learned to play short sequences on a piano keyboard by 1) merely listening and replaying (vision of own fingers occluded) or 2) merely observing silent finger movements and

  17. Cognitive control and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism: genetic modulation of videogame training and transfer to task-switching efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hommel, B.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated whether successful transfer of game-based cognitive improvements to untrained tasks might be modulated by preexisting neuro-developmental factors, such as genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)—an enzyme responsible for the degradation of

  18. ANNETTE. Advanced networking for nuclear education and training and transfer of expertise; ANNETTE. Fortschrittliche Vernetzung von Aus- und Weiterbildungsinitiativen in Kerntechnik und Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Bernhard-Stroel, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The present situation of nuclear energy in Europe asks for a continuing effort in the field of Education and Training aimed to assure a qualified workforce in the next decades. In this scenario, ANNETTE is aimed at enhancing and networking the Europe-wide efforts initiated in the past decades by different organisations belonging to academia, research centres and industry to maintain and develop Education and Training in the nuclear fields. This will allow consolidating, developing and better exploiting the achievements already reached in the past and to tackle the present challenges in preparing the European workforce in the nuclear fields.

  19. [Countertransference in homoerotic transference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkert-Tress, B; Reister, G

    1995-01-01

    Until now psychoanalytic training and literature have hardly considered the transference love of homosexual patients. We summarized the scarce literature and related it to the background of our knowledge of heterosexual transference love. The discussion leaves no doubt that, like the heterosexual, homosexual transference love must be read on all levels of psychosexual development instead of reading it on only one and definitely not on an amorphous "preoedipal" level. This is particularly true for the level of the adult homosexual patient, as the case history demonstrates.

  20. Neuromuscular adaptations to 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Meyland, Jacob; Raffalt, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes on jumping performance and underlying changes in biomechanics and neuromuscular adaptations. Nine well-trained athletes at high national competition level within sprinting and jumping disciplines...... participated in the study. The training was supervised and augmented feedback on performance was used to ensure maximal training intensity. The drop jumps were performed with minimal contact time and maximal jumping height. Assessment of performance during training showed effects of motor learning. Before...... and after the training intervention maximal isometric muscle strength, the biomechanics, muscle activity pattern of the lower extremities and the soleus H-reflex and V-wave during drop jumping were measured. Maximal jump height and performance index (PI) defined as jumping height divided by contact time...

  1. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  2. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  3. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  4. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kallsen

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  5. Control of Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Oladipupo; C. O. Okafor

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on who controls shareholder’s wealth maximization and how does this affect firm’s performance in publicly quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. The shareholder fund was the dependent while explanatory variables were firm size (proxied by log of turnover), retained earning (representing management control) and dividend payment (representing measure of shareholders control). The data used for this study were obtained from the Nigerian Stock Exchange [NSE] fact book an...

  6. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  7. Dynamic Convex Duality in Constrained Utility Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yusong; Zheng, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a constrained utility maximization problem following the convex duality approach. After formulating the primal and dual problems, we construct the necessary and sufficient conditions for both the primal and dual problems in terms of FBSDEs plus additional conditions. Such formulation then allows us to explicitly characterize the primal optimal control as a function of the adjoint process coming from the dual FBSDEs in a dynamic fashion and vice versa. Moreover, we also...

  8. A radiation protection training program designed to reduce occupational radiation dose to individuals using pneumatic-transfer systems at the Oregon State TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.; Pratt, D.; Dodd, B.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    In order to keeping personnel doses as low as reasonably achievable, and also to help satisfy requirements of NRC regulations contained in 10 CFR 19, a training program was established to qualify all individuals prior to their use of the OSTR PT systems. Program objectives are directed mainly towards minimizing the spread of radioactive contamination and reducing the potential for unnecessary and inappropriate personnel radiation exposure; however, other operational and emergency procedures are also covered. The PT systems training program described in this report was established approximately 8 to 10 years ago but recently there was an increased interest to use it. Whether or not a PT system training program should be implemented at a specific TRIGA operation (assuming the facility is equipped with a PT system) will undoubtedly be influenced heavily by the nature and frequency of the PT system's use, by who uses the system, and by whether the system is one of the automatic loading and unloading types, or one of the more' commonly encountered manually operated systems. However, from our experience we feel that training commensurate with the type of PT system operation being conducted is a wise investment, and should be a requirement for all system operators

  9. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  10. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  11. Aerobic training in myotonia congenita

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Løkken, Nicoline; Vissing, John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Exercise has not been investigated in myotonia congenita (MC). We investigated whether regular aerobic training can reduce myotonia and improve fitness. Methods: Untrained patients with MC (age: 24–62 years; n = 6) completed 28 ± 3 sessions of 30-minute cycle ergometer training at 75......–17%; P = 0.02) and maximal workload by 10% (95% CI, 3–18%; P = 0.03). None of the myotonia tests changed in a clinically meaningful way. Conclusions: Regular endurance training improves fitness and maximal workload performance in patients with MC. The lack of creatine kinase elevations indicates...

  12. Continuing Vocational Training for Teachers in Beauty and Hair Care : Teachers Act as Active Developers of their Work and Engage in Transferring Good Practices to their Students

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kurimo, Ritva; Laitinen, Jaana; Pesonen, Maria; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Poutanen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of students and organizers of the Hair and beauty care, the prevention of health hazards (HIKAT) project which offered nationwide continuing vocational training (CVT) for teachers in beauty and hair care to be further disseminated in vocational secondary education. The development of occupational skin diseases is one of the most important health risks related to the exposure to chemical and physical risks in hairdressing. The prevention of occupational...

  13. A French-speaking speech-language pathology program in West Africa: transfer of training between Minority and Majority World countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzkhanian, Sylvia; Mijiyawa, Moustafa

    2013-02-01

    In West Africa, as in Majority World countries, people with a communication disability are generally cut-off from the normal development process. A long-term involvement of two partners (Orthophonistes du Monde and Handicap International) allowed the implementation in 2003 of the first speech-language pathology qualifying course in West Africa, within the Ecole Nationale des Auxiliaires Medicaux (ENAM, National School for Medical Auxiliaries) in Lome, Togo. It is a 3-year basic training (after the baccalaureate) in the only academic training centre for medical assistants in Togo. This department has a regional purpose and aims at training French-speaking African students. French speech-language pathology lecturers had to adapt their courses to the local realities they discovered in Togo. It was important to introduce and develop knowledge and skills in the students' system of reference. African speech-language pathologists have to face many challenges: creating an African speech and language therapy, introducing language disorders and their possible cure by means other than traditional therapies, and adapting all the evaluation tests and tools for speech-language pathology to each country, each culture, and each language. Creating an African speech-language pathology profession (according to its own standards) with a real influence in West Africa opens great opportunities for schooling and social and occupational integration of people with communication disabilities.

  14. Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougouffa, Smail; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four-qubit system and we demonstrate the conditions under which the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of non-zero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. Complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes, with transfer to the other pairs being limited to 50%. We find that complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of qubits may take place if the initial state is not the maximally entangled state and the atoms couple to the cavity modes with unequal strengths. Depending on the ratio between the coupling strengths, optimal entanglement can be created between the atoms and one of the cavity modes.

  15. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  16. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  17. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  18. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  19. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  20. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...