Sample records for maximal sympathetic discharge

  1. Sympathetic rhythms and nervous integration. (United States)

    Gilbey, Michael P


    1. The present review focuses on some of the processes producing rhythms in sympathetic nerves influencing cardiovascular functions and considers their potential relevance to nervous integration. 2. Two mechanisms are considered that may account for rhythmic sympathetic discharges. First, neuronal elements of peripheral or central origin produce rhythmic activity by phasically exciting and/or inhibiting neurons within central sympathetic networks. Second, rhythms arise within central sympathetic networks. Evidence is considered that indicates the operation of both mechanisms; the first in muscle and the second in skin sympathetic vasoconstrictor networks. 3. Sympathetic activity to the rat tail, a model for the nervous control of skin circulation, is regulated by central networks involved in thermoregulation and those associated with fear and arousal. In an anaesthetized preparation, activity displays an apparently autonomous rhythm (T-rhythm; 0.4-1.2 Hz) and the level of activity can be manipulated by regulating core body temperature. This model has been used to study rhythm generation in central sympathetic networks and possible functional relevance. 4. A unique insight provided by the T rhythm, into possible physiological function(s) underlying rhythmic sympathetic discharges is that the activity of single sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons within a population innervating the same target can have different rhythm frequencies. Therefore, the graded and dynamic entrainment of the rhythms by inputs, such as central respiratory drive and/or lung inflation-related afferent activity, can produce graded and dynamic synchronization of sympathetic discharges. The degree of synchronization may influence the efficacy of transmission in a target chain of excitable cells. 5. The T-rhythm may be generated within the spinal cord because the intrathecal application of 5-hydroxytryptamine at the L1 level of the spinal cord of a rat spinalized at T10-T11 produces a T-like rhythm

  2. Non-invasive coronary angiography for patients with acute atypical chest pain discharged after negative screening including maximal negative treadmill stress test. A prospective study. (United States)

    Bonello, L; Armero, S; Jacquier, A; Com, O; Sarran, A; Sbragia, P; Panuel, M; Arques, S; Paganelli, F


    Among patients admitted in the emergency department for acute atypical chest pain those with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are mistakenly discharged home have high mortality. A recent retrospective study has demonstrated that multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography could improve triage of these patients. We aimed to prospectively confirm these data on patients with a negative screening including maximal treadmill stress. 30 patients discharged from the emergency department after negative screening for an ACS were included. All patients underwent MSCT angiography of the coronary artery. Patients with coronary atheroma on MSCT had an invasive coronary angiography to confirm these findings. Seven patients (23%) had obstructive coronary artery disease on MSCT. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. In patients with no previously known coronary artery disease admitted to the emergency department with atypical acute chest pain and discharged after negative screening, including maximal treadmill stress test, MSCT coronary angiography is useful for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease.

  3. New approach to exploit optimally the PV array output energy by maximizing the discharge rate of a directly-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system (DC/PVPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutelhig, Azzedine; Hadj Arab, Amar; Hanini, Salah


    Highlights: • Mismatches on a designed d-c PV pumping system have been highlighted. • A new approach predicting the maximal discharge has been developed. • The approach has been discussed versus its linearity coefficient. • The approach effectiveness has been investigated and approved. • Theoretical and experimental obtained values have been compared and approved. - Abstract: A directly-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system (DC/PVPS) is generally designed by considering the worst month conditions on lowest daylight-hours, the maximum monthly daily required water volume and tank to store the excess water. In case of absence of hydraulic storage (water tank) or it is not enough dimensioned, the extra amount of pumped water is lost or is not reasonably used, when the system is operated on full daylight-hour. Beside that the extra amount of energy, which might be produced by the PV generator, is not exploited, when the system is operated only during a specified period-time needed to satisfy the demand. Beyond the accurate design that satisfying the end-user, a new approach has been developed as target to exploit maximally the PV array energy production, by maximizing the discharge rate of the system. The methodology consists of approaching maximally the demanded energy to the supplied energy on full operating day. Based on the demand/supply energy condition, the approach has been developed, upon the PV array and the pump performance models. The issued approach predicts the maximum delivery capacity of the system on monthly daily water volumes versus the monthly daily averages of solar irradiation, previously recorded. Its efficacy has been investigated and discussed according to the estimated and experimental values of its linearity coefficient, following the characterization tests of a designed system, carried out at our pumping test facility in Ghardaia (Algeria). The new theoretically and experimentally obtained flow-rates fit well, except

  4. New rules of thumb maximizing energy efficiency in street lighting with discharge lamps: The general equations for lighting design (United States)

    Peña-García, A.; Gómez-Lorente, D.; Espín, A.; Rabaza, O.


    New relationships between energy efficiency, illuminance uniformity, spacing and mounting height in public lighting installations were derived from the analysis of a large sample of outputs generated with a widely used software application for lighting design. These new relationships greatly facilitate the calculation of basic lighting installation parameters. The results obtained are also based on maximal energy efficiency and illuminance uniformity as a premise, which are not included in more conventional methods. However, these factors are crucial since they ensure the sustainability of the installations. This research formulated, applied and analysed these new equations. The results of this study highlight their usefulness in rapid planning and urban planning in developing countries or areas affected by natural disasters where engineering facilities and computer applications for this purpose are often unavailable.

  5. Sympathetic chain Schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mashat, Faisal M.


    Schwannomas are rare, benign, slowly growing tumors arising from Schwann cells that line nerve sheaths. Schwannomas arising from the cervical sympathetic chain are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented with only an asymptomatic neck mass. Physical examination revealed a left sided Horner syndrome and a neck mass with transmitted pulsation and anterior displacement of the carotid artery. Computed tomography (CT) showed a well-defined non-enhancing mass with vascular displacement. The nerve of origin of this encapsulated tumor was the sympathetic chain. The tumor was excised completely intact. The pathologic diagnosis was Schwannoma (Antoni type A and Antoni type B). The patient has been well and free of tumor recurrence for 14 months with persistence of asymptomatic left sided Horner syndrome. The clinical, radiological and pathological evaluations, therapy and postoperative complications of this tumor are discussed. (author)

  6. Baroreflex control of sympathetic activity in experimental hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C. Irigoyen


    Full Text Available The arterial baroreceptor reflex system is one of the most powerful and rapidly acting mechanisms for controlling arterial pressure. The purpose of the present review is to discuss data relating sympathetic activity to the baroreflex control of arterial pressure in two different experimental models: neurogenic hypertension by sinoaortic denervation (SAD and high-renin hypertension by total aortic ligation between the renal arteries in the rat. SAD depresses baroreflex regulation of renal sympathetic activity in both the acute and chronic phases. However, increased sympathetic activity (100% was found only in the acute phase of sinoaortic denervation. In the chronic phase of SAD average discharge normalized but the pattern of discharges was different from that found in controls. High-renin hypertensive rats showed overactivity of the renin angiotensin system and a great depression of the baroreflexes, comparable to the depression observed in chronic sinoaortic denervated rats. However, there were no differences in the average tonic sympathetic activity or changes in the pattern of discharges in high-renin rats. We suggest that the difference in the pattern of discharges may contribute to the increase in arterial pressure lability observed in chronic sinoaortic denervated rats.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by chronic burning pain, restricted range of motion, oedema and vasolability. Patients are difficult to treat and the prognosis is very often poor. This report emphasizes that an amputation in case of a reflex sympathetic


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Zimovets, Ivan; Hu, Huidong; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, Xinghua, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)


    The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. When the erupting filament moved to an open magnetic field region, it experienced an obvious acceleration process and was accompanied by a C-class flare and the rise of another larger filament that eventually failed to erupt. We measure the decay index of the background magnetic field, which presents a critical height of 118 Mm. Combining with a potential field source surface extrapolation method, we analyze the distributions of the large-scale magnetic field, which indicates that the open magnetic field region may provide a favorable condition for F2 rapid acceleration and have some relation with the largest solar storm. The comparison between the successful and failed filament eruptions suggests that the confining magnetic field plays an important role in the preconditions for an eruption.

  9. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  10. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  11. Angina - discharge (United States)

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  12. Electroacupuncture Improved the Function of Myocardial Ischemia Involved in the Hippocampus-Paraventricular Nucleus-Sympathetic Nerve Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cui


    Full Text Available We investigated the hippocampus-paraventricular nucleus- (PVN- sympathetic nerve pathway in electroacupuncture (EA at the heart meridian for the treatment of myocardial ischemia by observing PVN neuronal discharge, sympathetic nerve discharge, and hemodynamics parameters. Sprague Dawley (SD rats were equally divided into four groups: Sham, Model, Model + EA, and Model + EA + Lesion. The model rat was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Changes in the sympathetic nerve discharge and hemodynamic parameters were observed. The Model + EA exhibited a significantly lower discharge frequency of PVN neurons compared with the Model. The Model + EA + Lesion had a significantly higher discharge frequency compared with the Model + EA. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons and interneurons were positively correlated with the sympathetic nerve discharge. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons was positively correlated with heart rate (HR and negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP and rate pressure product (RPP. The discharge frequency of interneurons was positively correlated with HR and negatively correlated with MAP and RPP. The hippocampus-PVN-sympathetic nerve pathway is involved in electroacupuncture at the heart meridian and interneurons are the key neurons in PVNs.

  13. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  14. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  15. Effect of sympathetic activity on capsaicin-evoked pain, hyperalgesia, and vasodilatation. (United States)

    Baron, R; Wasner, G; Borgstedt, R; Hastedt, E; Schulte, H; Binder, A; Kopper, F; Rowbotham, M; Levine, J D; Fields, H L


    Painful nerve and tissue injuries can be exacerbated by activity in sympathetic neurons. The mechanisms of sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) are unclear. To determine the effect of cutaneous sympathetic activity on pain induced by primary afferent C-nociceptor sensitization with capsaicin in humans. In healthy volunteers capsaicin was applied topically (n = 12) or injected into the forearm skin (n = 10) to induce spontaneous pain, dynamic and punctate mechanical hyperalgesia, and antidromic (axon reflex) vasodilatation (flare). Intensity of pain and hyperalgesia, axon reflex vasodilatation (laser Doppler), and flare size and area of hyperalgesia (planimetry) were assessed. The local skin temperature at the application and measurement sites was kept constant at 35 degrees C. In each individual the analyses were performed during the presence of high and low sympathetic skin activity induced by whole-body cooling and warming with a thermal suit. By this method sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity is modulated in the widest range that can be achieved physiologically. The degree of vasoconstrictor discharge was monitored by measuring skin blood flow (laser Doppler) and temperature (infrared thermometry) at the index finger. The intensity and spatial distribution of capsaicin-evoked spontaneous pain and dynamic and punctate mechanical hyperalgesia were identical during the presence of high and low sympathetic discharge. Antidromic vasodilatation and flare size were significantly diminished when sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons were excited. Cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity does not influence spontaneous pain and mechanical hyperalgesia after capsaicin-induced C-nociceptor sensitization. When using physiologic stimulation of sympathetic activity, the capsaicin model is not useful for elucidating mechanisms of SMP. In neuropathic pain states with SMP, different mechanisms may be present.

  16. Vestibular control of sympathetic activity. An otolith-sympathetic reflex in humans. (United States)

    Kaufmann, H; Biaggioni, I; Voustianiouk, A; Diedrich, A; Costa, F; Clarke, R; Gizzi, M; Raphan, T; Cohen, B


    It has been proposed that a vestibular reflex originating in the otolith organs and other body graviceptors modulates sympathetic activity during changes in posture with regard to gravity. To test this hypothesis, we selectively stimulated otolith and body graviceptors sinusoidally along different head axes in the coronal plane with off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) and recorded sympathetic efferent activity in the peroneal nerve (muscle sympathetic nerve activity, MSNA), blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. All parameters were entrained during OVAR at the frequency of rotation, with MSNA increasing in nose-up positions during forward linear acceleration and decreasing when nose-down. MSNA was correlated closely with blood pressure when subjects were within +/-90 degrees of nose-down positions with a delay of 1.4 s, the normal latency of baroreflex-driven changes in MSNA. Thus, in the nose-down position, MSNA was probably driven by baroreflex afferents. In contrast, when subjects were within +/-45 degrees of the nose-up position, i.e., when positive linear acceleration was maximal along the naso-ocipital axis, MSNA was closely related to gravitational acceleration at a latency of 0.4 s. This delay is too short for MSNA changes to be mediated by the baroreflex, but it is compatible with the delay of a response originating in the vestibular system. We postulate that a vestibulosympathetic reflex, probably originating mainly in the otolith organs, contributes to blood pressure maintenance during forward linear acceleration. Because of its short latency, this reflex may be one of the earliest mechanisms to sustain blood pressure upon standing.

  17. Sympathetic network drive during water deprivation does not increase respiratory or cardiac rhythmic sympathetic nerve activity. (United States)

    Holbein, Walter W; Toney, Glenn M


    Effects of water deprivation on rhythmic bursting of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were investigated in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, euhydrated (control) and 48-h water-deprived (WD) rats (n = 8/group). Control and WD rats had similar baseline values of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and central respiratory drive. Although integrated splanchnic SNA (sSNA) was greater in WD rats than controls (P analysis of respiratory rhythmic bursting of sSNA revealed that inspiratory rhythmic burst amplitude was actually smaller (P analysis revealed that water deprivation had no effect on either the amplitude or periodicity of the cardiac rhythmic oscillation of sSNA. Collectively, these data indicate that the increase of sSNA produced by water deprivation is not attributable to either increased respiratory or cardiac rhythmic burst discharge. Thus the sympathetic network response to acute water deprivation appears to differ from that of chronic sympathoexcitation in neurogenic forms of arterial hypertension, where increased respiratory rhythmic bursting of SNA and baroreflex adaptations have been reported.

  18. Renal sympathetic denervation in hypertension. (United States)

    Doumas, Michael; Faselis, Charles; Papademetriou, Vasilios


    Despite the abundance of antihypertensive drugs, resistant hypertension remains a major clinical problem. Recent technological advances render interventional management of resistant hypertension one of the hottest topics in the hypertension field. The aim of this review is to present the pathophysiologic background and the mechanisms mediating blood pressure reduction after renal sympathetic denervation, to analyze recent findings with this fascinating approach and to critically suggest future research directions. Catheter-based, ablation-induced renal sympathetic denervation was initially studied in 45 patients with resistant hypertension in a proof-of-concept study. Impressive blood pressure reductions of about 30/15  mmHg were achieved at 6 months, without serious complications. A second, controlled, randomized (but not blinded) study confirmed the results, verifying the efficacy and safety of the procedure. A recent report revealed the 2-year durability of blood pressure reduction. Data published so far indicate that ablation-induced renal denervation is a feasible, effective, and well tolerated interventional approach for the management of resistant hypertension. The groundbreaking studies of renal denervation in drug-resistant hypertension pave the way for further research in other disease conditions in which sympathetic overactivity seems to play a critical role. This initial wave of enthusiasm needs to be followed by rigorous investigation, for the proper identification of the potential and the limitations, indications, and contraindications of this approach.

  19. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity: An entity to keep in mind. (United States)

    Godoy, D A; Panhke, P; Guerrero Suarez, P D; Murillo-Cabezas, F


    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a potentially life-threatening neurological emergency secondary to multiple acute acquired brain injuries. It is clinically characterized by the cyclic and simultaneous appearance of signs and symptoms secondary to exacerbated sympathetic discharge. The diagnosis is based on the clinical findings, and high alert rates are required. No widely available and validated homogeneous diagnostic criteria have been established to date. There have been recent consensus attempts to shed light on this obscure phenomenon. Its physiopathology is complex and has not been fully clarified. However, the excitation-inhibition model is the theory that best explains the different aspects of this condition, including the response to treatment with the available drugs. The key therapeutic references are the early recognition of the disorder, avoiding secondary injuries and the triggering of paroxysms. Once sympathetic crises occur, they must peremptorily aborted and prevented. of the later the syndrome is recognized, the poorer the patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Netrin-1 controls sympathetic arterial innervation. (United States)

    Brunet, Isabelle; Gordon, Emma; Han, Jinah; Cristofaro, Brunella; Broqueres-You, Dong; Liu, Chun; Bouvrée, Karine; Zhang, Jiasheng; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Larrivée, Bruno; Jagu, Julia; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Pardanaud, Luc; Machado, Maria J C; Kennedy, Timothy E; Zhuang, Zhen; Simons, Michael; Levy, Bernard I; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger; Eichmann, Anne


    Autonomic sympathetic nerves innervate peripheral resistance arteries, thereby regulating vascular tone and controlling blood supply to organs. Despite the fundamental importance of blood flow control, how sympathetic arterial innervation develops remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the axon guidance cue netrin-1 as an essential factor required for development of arterial innervation in mice. Netrin-1 was produced by arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the onset of innervation, and arterial innervation required the interaction of netrin-1 with its receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), on sympathetic growth cones. Function-blocking approaches, including cell type-specific deletion of the genes encoding Ntn1 in SMCs and Dcc in sympathetic neurons, led to severe and selective reduction of sympathetic innervation and to defective vasoconstriction in resistance arteries. These findings indicate that netrin-1 and DCC are critical for the control of arterial innervation and blood flow regulation in peripheral organs.

  1. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve function in alcoholic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Andersen, K; Smith, T


    (18% and 48% decrease respectively). However, in three patients with moderate neuropathy, and in one patient with no signs of neuropathy, this veno-arteriolar reflex was absent, indicating dysfunction of the peripheral sympathetic adrenergic nerve fibres. The three patients also showed a lesser degree......The peripheral sympathetic vasomotor nerve function was investigated in 18 male chronic alcoholics admitted for intellectual impairment or polyneuropathy. By means of the local 133Xenon washout technique, the sympathetic veno-arteriolar axon-reflex was studied. This normally is responsible for a 50...... comprise not only the peripheral sensory and motor nerve fibres, but also the thin pseudomotor and vasomotor nerves....

  2. The Effects of Sympathetic Inhibition on Metabolic and Cardiopulmonary Responses to Exercise in Hypoxic Conditions. (United States)

    Scalzo, Rebecca L; Peltonen, Garrett L; Binns, Scott E; Klochak, Anna L; Szallar, Steve E; Wood, Lacey M; Larson, Dennis G; Luckasen, Gary J; Irwin, David; Schroeder, Thies; Hamilton, Karyn L; Bell, Christopher


    Pre-exertion skeletal muscle glycogen content is an important physiological determinant of endurance exercise performance: low glycogen stores contribute to premature fatigue. In low-oxygen environments (hypoxia), the important contribution of carbohydrates to endurance performance is further enhanced as glucose and glycogen dependence is increased; however, the insulin sensitivity of healthy adult humans is decreased. In light of this insulin resistance, maintaining skeletal muscle glycogen in hypoxia becomes difficult, and subsequent endurance performance is impaired. Sympathetic inhibition promotes insulin sensitivity in hypoxia but may impair hypoxic exercise performance, in part due to suppression of cardiac output. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxic exercise performance after intravenous glucose feeding in a low-oxygen environment will be attenuated when feeding occurs during sympathetic inhibition. On 2 separate occasions, while breathing a hypoxic gas mixture, 10 healthy men received 1 hour of parenteral carbohydrate infusion (20% glucose solution in saline; 75 g), after which they performed stationary cycle ergometer exercise (~65% maximal oxygen uptake) until exhaustion. Forty-eight hours before 1 visit, chosen randomly, sympathetic inhibition via transdermal clonidine (0.2 mg/d) was initiated. The mean time to exhaustion after glucose feeding both with and without sympathetic inhibition was not different (22.7 ± 5.4 minutes vs 23.5 ± 5.1 minutes; P = .73). Sympathetic inhibition protects against hypoxia-mediated insulin resistance without influencing subsequent hypoxic endurance performance. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Renal sympathetic denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension. (United States)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Catalina; González-Vélez, Miguel; Stilp, Erik; Ward, Charisse; Mena-Hurtado, Carlos


    Arterial hypertension (HTN) is a major health problem worldwide. Treatment-resistant hypertension (trHTN) is defined as the failure to achieve target blood pressure despite the concomitant use of maximally tolerated doses of three different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. trHTN is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Renal sympathetic denervation (RDn) is available and implemented abroad as a strategy for the treatment of trHTN and is currently under clinical investigation in the United States. Selective renal sympathectomy via an endovascular approach effectively decreases renal sympathetic nerve hyperactivity leading to a decrease in blood pressure. The Symplicity catheter, currently under investigation in the United States, is a 6-French compatible system advanced under fluoroscopic guidance via percutaneous access of the common femoral artery to the distal lumen of each of the main renal arteries. Radiofrequency (RF) energy is then applied to the endoluminal surface of the renal arteries via an electrode located at the tip of the catheter. Two clinical trials (Symplicity HTN 1 and Symplicity HTN 2) have shown the efficacy of RDn with a post-procedure decline of 27/17 mmHg at 12 months and 32/12 mmHg at 6 months, respectively, with few minor adverse events. Symplicity HTN-3 study is a, multi-center, prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study currently under way and will provide further insights about the safety and efficacy of renal denervation in patients with trHTN.

  4. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit


    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  5. Carotid body (Thermoreceptors, sympathetic neural activation, and cardiometabolic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Iturriaga

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing body of experimental evidence supports the novel concept that an abnormally enhanced CB chemosensory input to the brainstem contributes to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequent pathology. Indeed, the CB has been implicated in several diseases associated with increases in central sympathetic outflow. These include hypertension, heart failure, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, ablation of the CB has been proposed for the treatment of severe and resistant hypertension in humans. In this review, we will analyze and discuss new evidence supporting an important role for the CB chemoreceptor in the progression of autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome.

  6. Sympathetic vasoconstriction takes an unexpected pannexin detour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schak Nielsen, Morten


    Sympathetic vasoconstriction plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow. In this issue of Science Signaling, Billaud et al. show that sympathetic vasoconstriction occurs through a complex scheme involving the activation of large-pore pannexin 1...... channels and the subsequent release of adenosine triphosphate that promotes contraction in an autocrine and paracrine manner. This elaborate mechanism may function as a point of intercept for other signaling pathways-for example, in relation to the phenomenon "functional sympatholysis," in which exercise...... abrogates sympathetic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle. Because pannexin 1 channels are inhibited by nitric oxide, they may function as a switch to turn off adrenergic signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise....

  7. Pancreatitis - discharge (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  8. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System. (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo


    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympathoexcitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel therapeutic

  9. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)


    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  10. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario


    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  11. Heart pacemaker - discharge (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  12. Sympathetic Nerve Injury in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Diamantis


    Full Text Available The double innervation of the thyroid comes from the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Injury rates during surgery are at 30% but can be minimized by upwardly preparing the thyroid vessels at the level of thyroid capsule. Several factors have been accused of increasing the risk of injury including age and tumor size. Our aim was to investigate of there is indeed any possible correlations between these factors and a possible increase in injury rates following thyroidectomy. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical correlation was observed for a positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and thyroid malignancy surgery (p < 0.001; I2 = 74% No statistical correlations were observed for a negative or positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and tumor size. There was also no statistically significant value observed for the correlation of the patients’ age with the risk of sympathetic nerve injury (p = 0.388. Lack of significant correlation reported could be due to the small number of studies and great heterogeneity between them.

  13. Literary ethnographic writing as sympathetic experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    perhaps only implicitly) of research. But we have no direct access to the subjective world of others and can only inhabit their point of view by way of imagination. Writing literary ethnographic text is one way, I will argue, of experimenting with such sympathetic imagination. By putting together observed...

  14. Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Hibernation or Resurrection? (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Doumas, Michael; Tsioufis, Costas

    The most current versions of renal sympathetic denervation have been invented as minimally invasive approaches for the management of drug-resistant hypertension. The anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of renal sympathetic innervation provide a strong background supporting an important role of the renal nerves in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and volume. In addition, historical data with surgical sympathectomy and experimental data with surgical renal denervation indicate a beneficial effect on BP levels. Early clinical studies with transcatheter radiofrequency ablation demonstrated impressive BP reduction, accompanied by beneficial effects in target organ damage and other disease conditions characterized by sympathetic overactivity. However, the failure of the SYMPLICITY 3 trial to meet its primary efficacy end point raised a lot of concerns and put the field of renal denervation into hibernation. This review aims to translate basic research into clinical practice by presenting the anatomical and physiological basis for renal sympathetic denervation, critically discussing the past and present knowledge in this field, where we stand now, and also speculating about the future of the intervention and potential directions for research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Sympathetic activation during early pregnancy in humans (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Bivens, Tiffany B; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi


    Sympathetic activity has been reported to increase in normotensive pregnant women, and to be even greater in women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia at term. Whether sympathetic overactivity develops early during pregnancy, remaining high throughout gestation, or whether it only occurs at term providing the substrate for hypertensive disorders is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation occurs early during pregnancy in humans. Eleven healthy women (29 ± 3 (SD) years) without prior hypertensive pregnancies were tested during the mid-luteal phase (PRE) and early pregnancy (EARLY; 6.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and haemodynamics were measured supine, at 30 deg and 60 deg upright tilt for 5 min each. Blood samples were drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, and aldosterone. MSNA was significantly greater during EARLY than PRE (supine: 25 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 8 bursts min−1, 60 deg tilt: 49 ± 14 vs. 40 ± 10 bursts min−1; main effect, P < 0.05). Resting diastolic pressure trended lower (P = 0.09), heart rate was similar, total peripheral resistance decreased (2172 ± 364 vs. 2543 ± 352 dyne s cm−5; P < 0.05), sympathetic vascular transduction was blunted (0.10 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.47 units a.u.−1 min−1; P < 0.01), and both renin (supine: 27.9 ± 6.2 vs. 14.2 ± 8.7 pg ml−1, P < 0.01) and aldosterone (supine: 16.7 ± 14.1 vs. 7.7 ± 6.8 ng ml−1, P = 0.05) were higher during EARLY than PRE. These results suggest that sympathetic activation is a common characteristic of early pregnancy in humans despite reduced diastolic pressure and total peripheral resistance. These observations challenge conventional thinking about blood pressure regulation during pregnancy, showing marked sympathetic activation occurring within the first few weeks of conception, and may provide the substrate for pregnancy induced cardiovascular complications. PMID:22687610

  16. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on cardiac sympathetic activity and function in patients with therapy resistant hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Peter M.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Daan W.; Dobrowolski, Linn C.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Verberne, Hein J.; Vogt, Liffert; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.


    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is currently being investigated in multiple studies of sympathetically driven cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and arrhythmias. Our aim was to assess systemic and cardiac sympatholytic effects of RSD by the measurement of cardiac sympathetic activity

  17. Maximizers versus satisficers


    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff


    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  18. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E


    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  19. Resting sympathetic activity is associated with the sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal. (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Malterer, Katherine R; Matzek, Luke J; Levine, James A; Charkoudian, Nisha; Miles, John M; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B


    Individuals with high plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels at rest have a smaller reduction in resting energy expenditure (REE) following β -adrenergic blockade. If this finding extends to the response to a meal, it could have important implications for the role of the sympathetic nervous system in energy balance and weight gain. We hypothesized high muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) would be associated with a low sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal. Fourteen young, healthy adults completed two visits randomized to continuous saline (control) or intravenous propranolol to achieve systemic β -adrenergic blockade. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and REE were measured (indirect calorimetry) followed by a liquid mixed meal (Ensure). Measures of energy expenditure continued every 30 min for 5 h after the meal and are reported as an area under the curve (AUC). Sympathetic support of energy expenditure was calculated as the difference between the AUC during saline and β -blockade (AUC P ropranolol -AUC S aline , β -REE) and as a percent (%) of control (AUC P ropranolol ÷AUC S aline  × 100). β -REE was associated with baseline sympathetic activity, such that individuals with high resting MSNA (bursts/100 heart beats) and plasma NE had the greatest sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal (MSNA: β -REE R  =   -0.58, P =  0.03; %REE R  = -0.56, P =  0.04; NE: β -REE R  = -0.55, P  = 0.0535; %REE R  = -0.54, P  = 0.0552). Contrary to our hypothesis, high resting sympathetic activity is associated with a greater sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a liquid meal. These findings may have implications for weight maintenance in individuals with varying resting sympathetic activity. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O


    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...... sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno...... skeletal muscle, cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues of the limbs indicate that the situation is more complex. Measurements have been carried out during acute as well as chronic sympathetic denervation. Spinal sympathetic reflex mechanisms have been evaluated in tetraplegic patients, where supraspinal...

  1. Nipple Discharge (United States)

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  2. Maximally multipartite entangled states (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio


    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  3. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker


    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  4. Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Parasympathetic versus sympathetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Akihiko; Kurata, Chinori; Sugi, Toshihiko; Mikami, Tadashi; Shouda, Sakae


    Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction often causes lethal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. 123 I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) can evaluate cardiac sympathetic dysfunction, and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) can reflect cardiac parasympathetic activity. We examined whether cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction assessed by HRV may correlate with sympathetic dysfunction assessed by MIBG in diabetic patients. In 24-hour electrocardiography, we analyzed 4 HRV parameters: high-frequency power (HF), HF in the early morning (EMHF), rMSSD and pNN50. MIBG planar images and SPECT were obtained 15 minutes (early) and 150 minutes (late) after injection and the heart washout rate was calculated. The defect score in 9 left ventricular regions was scored on a 4 point scale (0=normal - 3=severe defect). In 20 selected diabetic patients without congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and renal failure, parasympathetic HRV parameters had a negative correlation with the sum of defect scores (DS) in the late images (R=-0.47 to -0.59, p<0.05) and some parameters had a negative correlation with the washout rate (R=-0.50 to -0.55, p<0.05). In a total of 64 diabetic patients also, these parameters had a negative correlation with late DS (R=-0.28 to -0.35, p<0.05) and early DS (R=-0.27 to -0.32, p<0.05). The progress of diabetic cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction may parallel the sympathetic one. (author)

  5. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.


    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  6. Fibromyalgia: When Distress Becomes (Un)sympathetic Pain


    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel


    Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may...

  7. Influence of exercise modality on cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic indices during post-exercise recovery. (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M


    This study investigated indirect measures of post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation (using heart-rate-variability, HRV) and sympathetic withdrawal (using systolic-time-intervals, STI) following upper- and lower-body exercise. Randomized, counter-balanced, crossover. 13 males (age 26.4±4.7years) performed maximal arm-cranking (MAX-ARM) and leg-cycling (MAX-LEG). Subsequently, participants undertook separate 8-min bouts of submaximal HR-matched exercise of each mode (ARM and LEG). HRV (including natural-logarithm of root-mean-square-of-successive-differences, Ln-RMSSD) and STI (including pre-ejection-period, PEP) were assessed throughout 10-min seated recovery. Peak-HR was higher (p=0.001) during MAX-LEG (182±7beatsmin -1 ) compared with MAX-ARM (171±12beatsmin -1 ), while HR (preflecting sympathetic withdrawal). Exercise modality appears to influence post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal in an intensity-dependent manner. These results highlight the need for test standardization and may be relevant to multi-discipline athletes and in clinical applications with varying modes of exercise testing. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shoulder replacement - discharge (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  9. Renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension. (United States)

    Froeschl, Michael; Hadziomerovic, Adnan; Ruzicka, Marcel


    Resistant hypertension is an increasingly prevalent health problem associated with important adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The pathophysiology that underlies this condition involves increased function of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system. A crucial link between these 2 systems is the web of sympathetic fibres that course within the adventitia of the renal arteries. These nerves can be targeted by applying radiofrequency energy from the lumen of the renal arteries to renal artery walls (percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation [RSD]), an approach that has attracted great interest. This paper critically reviews the evidence supporting the use of RSD. Small studies suggest that RSD can produce dramatic blood pressure reductions: In the randomized Symplicity HTN-2 trial of 106 patients, the mean fall in blood pressure at 6 months in patients who received the treatment was 32/12 mm Hg. However, there are limitations to the evidence for RSD in the treatment of resistant hypertension. These include the small number of patients studied; the lack of any placebo-controlled evidence; the fact that blood pressure outcomes were based on office assessments, as opposed to 24-hour ambulatory monitoring; the lack of longer-term efficacy data; and the lack of long-term safety data. Some of these concerns are being addressed in the ongoing Renal Denervation in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension (Symplicity HTN-3) trial. The first percutaneous RSD system was approved by Health Canada in the spring of 2012. But until more and better-quality data are available, this procedure should generally be reserved for those patients whose resistant hypertension is truly uncontrolled. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of sympathetic nerve responses to neck and forearm isometric exercise (United States)

    Steele, S. L. Jr; Ray, C. A.


    PURPOSE: Although the autonomic and cardiovascular responses to arm and leg exercise have been studied, the sympathetic adjustments to exercise of the neck have not. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to determine sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric contractions of the neck extensors and 2) to compare sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric exercise of the neck and forearm. METHODS: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate were measured in nine healthy subjects while performing isometric neck extension (INE) and isometric handgrip (IHG) in the prone position. After a 3-min baseline period, subjects performed three intensities of INE for 2.5 min each: 1) unloaded (supporting head alone), 2) 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and 3) 30% MVC, then subjects performed two intensities (10% and 30% MVC) of IHG for 2.5 min. RESULTS: Supporting the head by itself did not significantly change any of the variables. During [NE, MAP significantly increased by 10 +/- 2 and 31 +/- 4 mm Hg and MSNA increased by 67 +/- 46 and 168 +/- 36 units/30 s for 10% and 30% MVC, respectively. IHG and INE evoked similar responses at 10% MVC, but IHG elicited higher peak MAP and MSNA at 30% MVC (37 +/- 7 mm Hg (P INE can elicit marked increases in MSNA and cardiovascular responses but that it evokes lower peak responses as compared to IHG. We speculate that possible differences in muscle fiber type composition, muscle mass, and/or muscle architecture of the neck and forearm are responsible for these differences in peak responses.

  11. Sympathetic skin responses in patients with hyperthyroidism. (United States)

    Gozke, E; Ozyurt, Z; Dortcan, N; Ore, O; Kocer, A; Ozer, E


    The aim of this study was to investigate the disorders of sympathetic nervous system in patients with hyperthyroidism using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Twenty-two newly diagnosed cases with hyperthyroidism were included in the study. The results were compared with those of 20 healthy controls. SSR was recorded with the contralateral electrical stimulation of the median nerve (of the upper extremities) and tibial nerve (of the lower extremities) with active electrodes placed on palms and soles and reference electrodes attached on the dorsal aspects of hands and feet. Ages of the cases with hyperthyroidism and controls ranged between 15-65 years (mean: 46.7 +/- 15.0 years) and 24-62 years (mean: 39.6 +/- 9.8 years) respectively (p > 0.05). In all the control subjects SSR could be obtained, while from the lower extremities of 4 cases with hyperthyroidism (18.0%) SSR could not be elicited. Mean SSR latencies of lower extremities were found significantly longer than control group (p nervous system involvement in cases with hyperthyroidism.

  12. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D


    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  13. The Effect of Sympathetic Antagonists on the Antidepressant Action ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alprazolam is an anti-anxiety drug shown to be effective in the treatment of depression. In this study, the effect of sympathetic receptor antagonists on alprazolam–induced antidepressant action was studied using a mouse model of forced swimming behavioral despair. The interaction of three sympathetic receptor ...

  14. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner


    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  15. Sympathetic block by metal clips may be a reversible operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lars L; Mikkelsen, Rasmus T; Derejko, Miroslawa


    , but the question of reversibility remains controversial. Two recent experimental studies found severe histological signs of nerve damage 4-6 weeks after clip removal, but they only used conventional histopathological staining methods. METHODS: Thoracoscopic clipping of the sympathetic trunk was performed in adult...... the sympathetic chain vary tremendously. Most surgeons transect or resect the sympathetic chain, but application of a metal clip that blocks transmission of nerve impulses in the sympathetic chain is used increasingly worldwide. This approach offers potential reversibility if patients regret surgery...... suggests in theory that application of metal clips to the sympathetic chain is a reversible procedure if only the observation period is prolonged. Further studies with longer periods between application and removal as well as investigations of nerve conduction should be encouraged, because we do not know...

  16. Differential Toxicities of Intraneurally Injected Mercuric Chloride for Sympathetic and Somatic Motor Fibers: An Ultrastructural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng


    Conclusion: This study demonstrated an undue susceptibility of sympathetic fibers to mercury intoxication. The mechanisms that underlie the selective reaction of sympathetic fibers to mercury warrant further investigation.

  17. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G


    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  18. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome: MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, C.; Fascetti, E.; Bonanni, G.; Calvisi, V.; Buoni, C.; Passariello, R.


    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) is characterized by pain, swelling, and limitation of motion. The etiology and pathophysiology mechanism have not yet been identified. We considered eight patients with clinical signs of RSDS, in five cases located at the knee joint and in three cases in the hip. In all cases conventional radiography and radionuclide bone scanning were performed before MR imaging. Conventional radiography was negative in three cases while scintigraphy demonstrated the lesion in all patients. MR imaging showed an area of low intensity signal on T1-weighted scans and an increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. This area is located at the bone marrow and its regular and homogeneous. This specific finding on MR images is due to reflect edema by hyperemia of the bone marrow. The MR imaging diagnosis was confirmed on clinical and radiological follow-up. MR imaging can have a role in the differential diagnosis when other studies are nondiagnostic or nonspecific for RSDS

  19. Sympathetic cooling of nanospheres with cold atoms (United States)

    Montoya, Cris; Witherspoon, Apryl; Ranjit, Gambhir; Casey, Kirsten; Kitching, John; Geraci, Andrew


    Ground state cooling of mesoscopic mechanical structures could enable new hybrid quantum systems where mechanical oscillators act as transducers. Such systems could provide coupling between photons, spins and charges via phonons. It has recently been shown theoretically that optically trapped dielectric nanospheres could reach the ground state via sympathetic cooling with trapped cold atoms. This technique can be beneficial in cases where cryogenic operation of the oscillator is not practical. We describe experimental advances towards coupling an optically levitated dielectric nanosphere to a gas of cold Rubidium atoms. The sphere and the cold atoms are in separate vacuum chambers and are coupled using a one-dimensional optical lattice. This work is partially supported by NSF, Grant Nos. PHY-1205994,PHY-1506431.

  20. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Bengel, Frank M.


    Balance of the autonomic nervous system is essential for adequate cardiac performance, and alterations seem to play a key role in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases. PET imaging of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has advanced extensively in recent years, and multiple pre- and postsynaptic tracers have been introduced. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PET enables noninvasive quantification of neurophysiologic processes at the tissue level. Ligands for catecholamine receptors, along with radiolabeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs, have been applied to determine involvement of sympathetic dysinnervation at different stages of heart diseases such as ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. This review summarizes the recent findings in neurocardiological PET imaging. Experimental studies with several radioligands and clinical findings in cardiac dysautonomias are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Renal sympathetic nerve ablation for treatment-resistant hypertension (United States)

    Krum, Henry; Schlaich, Markus; Sobotka, Paul


    Hypertension is a major risk factor for increased cardiovascular events with accelerated sympathetic nerve activity implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of disease. Blood pressure is not adequately controlled in many patients, despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapy. Novel procedure- as well as device-based strategies, such as percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, have been developed to improve blood pressure in these refractory patients. Renal sympathetic denervation not only reduces blood pressure but also renal as well as systemic sympathetic nerve activity in such patients. The reduction in blood pressure appears to be sustained over 3 years after the procedure, which suggests absence of re-innervation of renal sympathetic nerves. Safety appears to be adequate. This approach may also have potential in other disorders associated with enhanced sympathetic nerve activity such as congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome. This review will focus on the current status of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, clinical efficacy and safety outcomes and prospects beyond refractory hypertension. PMID:23819768

  2. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise. (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo


    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  3. Glutamate and GABA in vestibulo-sympathetic pathway neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay R Holstein


    Full Text Available The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively. The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova


    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  5. Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering. (United States)

    Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M


    This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered. Findings are taken to suggest that sympathetic activity may be an early marker of heightened risk for chronic stuttering.

  6. Intracranial Pressure Is a Determinant of Sympathetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Schmidt


    Full Text Available Intracranial pressure (ICP is the pressure within the cranium. ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation. We hypothesize that changes in ICP modulates sympathetic activity. Thus, modest ICP increase and decrease were achieved in mice and patients with respectively intra-ventricular and lumbar fluid infusion. Sympathetic activity was gauged directly by microneurography, recording renal sympathetic nerve activity in mice and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients, and gauged indirectly in both species by heart-rate variability analysis. In mice (n = 15, renal sympathetic activity increased from 29.9 ± 4.0 bursts.s−1 (baseline ICP 6.6 ± 0.7 mmHg to 45.7 ± 6.4 bursts.s−1 (plateau ICP 38.6 ± 1.0 mmHg and decreased to 34.8 ± 5.6 bursts.s−1 (post-infusion ICP 9.1 ± 0.8 mmHg. In patients (n = 10, muscle sympathetic activity increased from 51.2 ± 2.5 bursts.min−1 (baseline ICP 8.3 ± 1.0 mmHg to 66.7 ± 2.9 bursts.min−1 (plateau ICP 25 ± 0.3 mmHg and decreased to 58.8 ± 2.6 bursts.min−1 (post-infusion ICP 14.8 ± 0.9 mmHg. In patients 7 mmHg ICP rise significantly increases sympathetic activity by 17%. Heart-rate variability analysis demonstrated a significant vagal withdrawal during the ICP rise, in accordance with the microneurography findings. Mice and human results are alike. We demonstrate in animal and human that ICP is a reversible determinant of efferent sympathetic outflow, even at relatively low ICP levels. ICP is a biophysical stress related to the forces within the brain. But ICP

  7. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris


    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  8. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan


    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  9. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve integrity with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffel, David M.; Wieland, Donald M.


    The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac function. Abnormalities of cardiac innervation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many heart diseases, including sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. In an effort to provide clinicians with the ability to regionally map cardiac innervation, several radiotracers for imaging cardiac sympathetic neurons have been developed. This paper reviews the development of neuronal imaging agents and discusses their emerging role in the noninvasive assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation

  10. Schwanomma From Cervical Sympathetic Chain Ganglion – A Rare Presentation (United States)

    Asma, A. Affee


    Schwanommas arising from cervical sympathetic chain are tumours that are rare in occurrence. These lesions are usually difficult to differentiate from a vagal schwanomma and a carotid body tumour during the initial workup. In this report, a rarely seen huge cervical sympathetic chain schwanomma case with partial Horner’s syndrome is being presented in detail, which to our known knowledge, is one of the few cases reported in literature. PMID:26557566

  11. Imbalance between sympathetic and sensory innervation in peritoneal endometriosis. (United States)

    Arnold, Julia; Barcena de Arellano, Maria L; Rüster, Carola; Vercellino, Giuseppe F; Chiantera, Vito; Schneider, Achim; Mechsner, Sylvia


    To investigate possible mechanisms of pain pathophysiology in patients with peritoneal endometriosis, a clinical study on sensory and sympathetic nerve fibre sprouting in endometriosis was performed. Peritoneal lesions (n=40) and healthy peritoneum (n=12) were immunostained and analysed with anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), anti-substance P (SP) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), specific markers for intact nerve fibres, sensory nerve fibres and sympathetic nerve fibres, respectively, to identify the ratio of sympathetic and sensory nerve fibres. In addition, immune cell infiltrates in peritoneal endometriotic lesions were analysed and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and interleukin (IL)-1β expression was correlate with the nerve fibre density. Peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis (n=40) and without endometriosis (n=20) were used for the in vitro neuronal growth assay. Cultured chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sympathetic ganglia were stained with anti-growth associated protein 43 (anti-GAP 43), anti-SP and anti-TH. We could detect an increased sensory and decreased sympathetic nerve fibres density in peritoneal lesions compared to healthy peritoneum. Peritoneal fluids of patients with endometriosis compared to patients without endometriosis induced an increased sprouting of sensory neurites from DRG and decreased neurite outgrowth from sympathetic ganglia. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an imbalance between sympathetic and sensory nerve fibres in peritoneal endometriosis, as well as an altered modulation of peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis on sympathetic and sensory innervation which might directly be involved in the maintenance of inflammation and pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sympathetic skin response evoked by laser skin stimulation


    Rossi, P.; Truini, A.; Serrao, M.; Iannetti, G. D.; Parisi, L.; Pozzessere, G.; Cruccu, G.


    The objective of this study was to evoke sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) in healthy subjects using laser stimulation and to compare these responses with those induced by conventional electrical stimuli. Twenty healthy subjects were investigated. SSRs were obtained using electrical and laser stimuli delivered to the wrist controlateral to the recording site. The sympathetic sudomotor conduction velocity (SSFCV) was measured in 8 subjects by simultaneously recording the SSR from the hand and ...

  13. Sympathetic Responses to Central Hypovolemia: New Insights from Microneurographic Recordings (United States)


    Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA 2 Department of Health and Kinesiology , The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Edited...suggested that this phenomenon may represent sympathetic baroreflex deafferentation (Cooke et al., 2009), as the fused bursts observed during intense ...Convertino, V. A. (2009). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity during intense lower body negative pressure to presyn- cope in humans. J. Physiol. (Lond

  14. Schwanomma From Cervical Sympathetic Chain Ganglion - A Rare Presentation. (United States)

    Asma, A Affee; Kannah, E


    Schwanommas arising from cervical sympathetic chain are tumours that are rare in occurrence. These lesions are usually difficult to differentiate from a vagal schwanomma and a carotid body tumour during the initial workup. In this report, a rarely seen huge cervical sympathetic chain schwanomma case with partial Horner's syndrome is being presented in detail, which to our known knowledge, is one of the few cases reported in literature.

  15. CaMKII Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptor Activity of Hypothalamic Presympathetic Neurons and Sympathetic Outflow in Hypertension. (United States)

    Li, De-Pei; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Jixiang; Pan, Hui-Lin


    NMDAR activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is increased and critically involved in heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binds to and modulates NMDAR activity. In this study, we determined the role of CaMKII in regulating NMDAR activity of PVN presympathetic neurons in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). NMDAR-mediated EPSCs and puff NMDA-elicited currents were recorded in spinally projecting PVN neurons in SHRs and male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The basal amplitude of evoked NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in retrogradely labeled PVN neurons were significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. The CaMKII inhibitor autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP) normalized the increased amplitude of NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in labeled PVN neurons in SHRs but had no effect in WKY rats. Treatment with AIP also normalized the higher frequency of NMDAR-mediated miniature EPSCs of PVN neurons in SHRs. CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation level of GluN2B serine 1303 (S1303) in the PVN, but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, was significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. Lowering blood pressure with celiac ganglionectomy in SHRs did not alter the increased level of phosphorylated GluN2B S1303 in the PVN. In addition, microinjection of AIP into the PVN significantly reduced arterial blood pressure and lumbar sympathetic nerve discharges in SHRs. Our findings suggest that CaMKII activity is increased in the PVN and contributes to potentiated presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity to elevate sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone is a major contributor to the development of hypertension. Although glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory drive in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in increased sympathetic output in hypertension, the molecular mechanism involved in

  16. Ileostomy - discharge (United States)

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  17. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in children with severe tetanus: dissociation of cardiac and vascular sympathetic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei de Davila C.A.


    Full Text Available The medical records of ten pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of tetanus were reviewed retrospectively. The heart rate and blood pressure of all tetanus patients were measured noninvasively every hour during the first two weeks of hospitalization. Six of ten tetanus patients presented clinical evidence of sympathetic hyperactivity (group A and were compared with a control group consisting of four children who required mechanical ventilation for diseases other than tetanus (group B. Heart rate and blood pressure simultaneously and progressively increased to a maximum by day 7. The increase over baseline was 43.70 ± 11.77 bpm (mean ± SD for heart rate (P<0.01 and 38.60 ± 26.40 mmHg for blood pressure (P<0.01. These values were higher and significantly different from those of the control group (group B at day 6, which had an average heart rate increase over baseline of 19.35 ± 12.26 bpm (P<0.05 and blood pressure of 10.24 ± 13.30 mmHg (P<0.05. By the end of the second week of hospitalization, in group A the increase of systolic blood pressure over baseline had diminished to 9.60 ± 15.37 mmHg (P<0.05, but the heart rate continued to be elevated (27.80 ± 33.92 bpm, P = NS, when compared to day 7 maximal values. The dissociation of these two cardiovascular variables at the end of the second week of hospitalization suggests the presence of asymmetric cardiac and vascular sympathetic control. One possible explanation for these observations is a selective and delayed action of tetanus toxin on the inhibitory neurons which control sympathetic outflow to the heart.

  18. Sympathetic neural modulation of the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, K.S.


    One route by which the central nervous system communicates with lymphoid organs in the periphery is through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To study SNS regulation of immune activity in vivo, selective removal of peripheral noradrenergic nerve fibers was achieved by administration of the neurotoxic drug, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), to adult mice. To assess SNS influence on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, uptake of 125 iododeoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR), a DNA precursor, was measured following 6-OHDA treatment. Sympathectomy prior to epicutaneous immunization with TNCB did not alter draining lymph nodes (LN) cell proliferation, whereas 6-OHDA treatment before footpad immunization with KLH reduced DNA synthesis in popliteal LN by 50%. In mice which were not deliberately immunized, sympathectomy stimulated 125 IUdR uptake inguinal and axillary LN, spleen, and bone marrow. In vitro, these LN and spleen cells exhibited decreased proliferation responses to the T cell mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A), whereas lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IgG secretion was enhanced. Studies examining 51 Cr-labeled lymphocyte trafficking to LN suggested that altered cell migration may play a part in sympathectomy-induced changes in LN cell function

  19. Bone mineral density in reflex sympathetic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghaphi, M.; Azarian, A.


    Objectives: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) is a complex of symptoms that produce pain burning sensation, swelling, tenderness, autonomic and physical dysfunction in joint areas, particularly distal of a limb. Osteopenia or osteoporosis is an important finding that is produced gradually in involved limb. Three phase bone can scan help to diagnosis of RSD. The disease may be bilateral but is mostly unilateral. As it is believed that bone densitometry will show osteopenia more accurate than plain comparative radiographs of the involved limbs, we investigated in patients with RSD. Methods: During last three years, 8 patients with RSD were admitted. Bone mineral density was measured for 5 patients by DEXA method. The patients were 3 males and 2 females with age range of 20 to 48 years (mean 32 years). The involved areas were ankle and foot in 4, and wrist and hand in one patient. Results: Mean Bone Mineral Content (BMC) of 4 involved lower limbs were 475 +-73 grams comparing with 516+-72 grams of uninvolved limbs (p t h patient was not significant. conclusion: comparative bone mineral density in patients with RSD of the lower limbs contributes to more accurate diagnosis than plain radiographs

  20. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.


    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  1. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders


    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...... how the home context provides different resources for identification of patient needs and mutual decision making....

  2. Inflammation in CRPS: role of the sympathetic supply. (United States)

    Schlereth, Tanja; Drummond, Peter D; Birklein, Frank


    Acute Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is associated with signs of inflammation such as increased skin temperature, oedema, skin colour changes and pain. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-1beta, IL-6) are up-regulated, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) are diminished. Adaptive immunity seems to be involved in CRPS pathophysiology as many patients have autoantibodies directed against β2 adrenergic and muscarinic-2 receptors. In an animal tibial fracture model changes in the innate immune response such as up-regulation of keratinocytes are also found. Additionally, CRPS is accompanied by increased neurogenic inflammation which depends mainly on neuropeptides such as CGRP and Substance P. Besides inflammatory signs, sympathetic nervous system involvement in CRPS results in cool skin, increased sweating and sympathetically-maintained pain. The norepinephrine level is lower in the CRPS-affected than contralateral limb, but sympathetic sprouting and up-regulation of alpha-adrenoceptors may result in an adrenergic supersensitivity. The sympathetic nervous system and inflammation interact: norepinephrine influences the immune system and the production of cytokines. There is substantial evidence that this interaction contributes to the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of CRPS, but this interaction is not straightforward. How inflammation in CRPS might be exaggerated by sympathetic transmitters requires further elucidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The articulo-cardiac sympathetic reflex in spinalized, anesthetized rats. (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Atsuko; Ito, Ryuzo


    Somatic afferent regulation of heart rate by noxious knee joint stimulation has been proven in anesthetized cats to be a reflex response whose reflex center is in the brain and whose efferent arc is a cardiac sympathetic nerve. In the present study we examined whether articular stimulation could influence heart rate by this efferent sympathetic pathway in spinalized rats. In central nervous system (CNS)-intact rats, noxious articular movement of either the knee or elbow joint resulted in an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate. However, although in acutely spinalized rats a noxious movement of the elbow joint resulted in a significant increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate, a noxious movement of the knee joint had no such effect and resulted in only a marginal increase in heart rate. Because this marginal increase was abolished by adrenalectomy suggests that it was due to the release of adrenal catecholamines. In conclusion, the spinal cord appears to be capable of mediating, by way of cardiac sympathetic nerves, the propriospinally induced reflex increase in heart rate that follows noxious stimulation of the elbow joint, but not the knee joint.

  4. Sympathetic Innervation Promotes Arterial Fate by Enhancing Endothelial ERK Activity. (United States)

    Pardanaud, Luc; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; English, Isabel; Brunet, Isabelle; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne


    Arterial endothelial cells are morphologically, functionally, and molecularly distinct from those found in veins and lymphatic vessels. How arterial fate is acquired during development and maintained in adult vessels is incompletely understood. We set out to identify factors that promote arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. We developed a functional assay, allowing us to monitor and manipulate arterial fate in vivo, using arteries isolated from quails that are grafted into the coelom of chick embryos. Endothelial cells migrate out from the grafted artery, and their colonization of host arteries and veins is quantified. Here we show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. Removal of sympathetic nerves decreases arterial fate and leads to colonization of veins, whereas exposure to sympathetic nerves or norepinephrine imposes arterial fate. Mechanistically, sympathetic nerves increase endothelial ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) activity via adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors. These findings show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial fate and may lead to novel approaches to improve arterialization in human disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models. (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing


    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  6. Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats. (United States)

    Briant, Linford J B; Stalbovskiy, Alexey O; Nolan, Matthew F; Champneys, Alan R; Pickering, Anthony E


    Hypertension is associated with pathologically increased sympathetic drive to the vasculature. This has been attributed to increased excitatory drive to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) from brainstem cardiovascular control centers. However, there is also evidence supporting increased intrinsic excitability of SPN. To test this hypothesis, we made whole cell recordings of muscle vasoconstrictor-like (MVClike) SPN in the working-heart brainstem preparation of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MVClike SPN have a higher spontaneous firing frequency in the SH rat (3.85 ± 0.4 vs. 2.44 ± 0.4 Hz in WKY; P = 0.011) with greater respiratory modulation of their activity. The action potentials of SH SPN had smaller, shorter afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and showed diminished transient rectification indicating suppression of an A-type potassium conductance (IA). We developed mathematical models of the SPN to establish if changes in their intrinsic properties in SH rats could account for their altered firing. Reduction of the maximal conductance density of IA by 15-30% changed the excitability and output of the model from the WKY to a SH profile, with increased firing frequency, amplified respiratory modulation, and smaller AHPs. This change in output is predominantly a consequence of altered synaptic integration. Consistent with these in silico predictions, we found that intrathecal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased sympathetic nerve activity, elevated perfusion pressure, and augmented Traube-Hering waves. Our findings indicate that IA acts as a powerful filter on incoming synaptic drive to SPN and that its diminution in the SH rat is potentially sufficient to account for the increased sympathetic output underlying hypertension. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  8. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Fortuna


    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation.

  9. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons. (United States)

    Fortuna, Vitor; Pardanaud, Luc; Brunet, Isabelle; Ola, Roxana; Ristori, Emma; Santoro, Massimo M; Nicoli, Stefania; Eichmann, Anne


    The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs) develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA) and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA) differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC) recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of sympathetic nervous system and neuropeptides in obesity hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Hall


    Full Text Available Obesity is the most common cause of human essential hypertension in most industrialized countries. Although the precise mechanisms of obesity hypertension are not fully understood, considerable evidence suggests that excess renal sodium reabsorption and a hypertensive shift of pressure natriuresis play a major role. Sympathetic activation appears to mediate at least part of the obesity-induced sodium retention and hypertension since adrenergic blockade or renal denervation markedly attenuates these changes. Recent observations suggest that leptin and its multiple interactions with neuropeptides in the hypothalamus may link excess weight gain with increased sympathetic activity. Leptin is produced mainly in adipocytes and is believed to regulate energy balance by acting on the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and to increase energy expenditure via sympathetic activation. Short-term administration of leptin into the cerebral ventricles increases renal sympathetic activity, and long-term leptin infusion at rates that mimic plasma concentrations found in obesity raises arterial pressure and heart rate via adrenergic activation in non-obese rodents. Transgenic mice overexpressing leptin also develop hypertension. Acute studies suggest that the renal sympathetic effects of leptin may depend on interactions with other neurochemical pathways in the hypothalamus, including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R. However, the role of this pathway in mediating the long-term effects of leptin on blood pressure is unclear. Also, it is uncertain whether there is resistance to the chronic renal sympathetic and blood pressure effects of leptin in obese subjects. In addition, leptin also has other cardiovascular and renal actions, such as stimulation of nitric oxide formation and improvement of insulin sensitivity, which may tend to reduce blood pressure in some conditions. Although the role of these mechanisms in human obesity has not been elucidated, this

  11. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  12. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.


    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  13. Thermography imaging during static and controlled thermoregulation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: diagnostic value and involvement of the central sympathetic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra Mirjam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1 is a clinical diagnosis based on criteria describing symptoms of the disease. The main aim of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of calculation methods used to assess thermographic images (infrared imaging obtained during temperature provocation. The secondary objective was to obtain information about the involvement of the sympathetic system in CRPS1. Methods We studied 12 patients in whom CRPS1 was diagnosed according to the criteria of Bruehl. High and low whole body cooling and warming induced and reduced sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. The degree of vasoconstrictor activity in both hands was monitored using a videothermograph. The sensitivity and specificity of the calculation methods used to assess the thermographic images were calculated. Results The temperature difference between the hands in the CRPS patients increases significantly when the sympathetic system is provoked. At both the maximum and minimum vasoconstriction no significant differences were found in fingertip temperatures between both hands. Conclusion The majority of CRPS1 patients do not show maximal obtainable temperature differences between the involved and contralateral extremity at room temperature (static measurement. During cold and warm temperature challenges this temperature difference increases significantly. As a result a higher sensitivity and specificity could be achieved in the diagnosis of CRPS1. These findings suggest that the sympathetic efferent system is involved in CRPS1.

  14. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai


    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  15. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico


    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  16. Pet measurements of presynaptic sympathetic nerve terminals in the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Hutchins, G.D.; Wieland, D.M.


    [ 18 F]Metaraminol (FMR) and [ 11 C]hydroxyephedrine (HED) are catecholamine analogues that have been developed at the University of Michigan for the noninvasive characterization of the sympathetic nervous system of the heart using positron emission tomography (PET). Pharmacological studies employing neurotoxins and uptake inhibitors have demonstrated that both FMR and HED specifically trace the uptake and storage of catecholamines in sympathetic nerve terminals with little nonspecific tracer accumulation. These compounds exhibit excellent qualitative imaging characteristics with heart-to-blood ratios exceeding 6:1 as early as 15 min after intravenous injection in both animals (HED and FMR) and humans (HED). Tracer kinetic modeling techniques have been employed for the quantitative assessment of neuronal catecholamine uptake and storage. Indices of neuronal function, such as the volume of tracer distribution derived from the kinetic models, have been employed in preliminary human studies. Comparison of the tissue distribution volume of HED between normal (control subjects) and denervated (recent transplant patients) cardiac tissue demonstrates a dynamic range of approximately 5:1. This distribution volume is reduced by 60% from normal in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, indicating dysfunction of the sympathetic system. These results show that HED used in combination with PET provides a sophisticated quantitative approach for studying the sympathetic nervous system of the normal and diseased human heart

  17. Positron emission tomographic imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.S.; Chang, P.C.; Eisenhofer, G.; Miletich, R.; Finn, R.; Bacher, J.; Kirk, K.L.; Bacharach, S.; Kopin, I.J.


    Sites of uptake, storage, and metabolism of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and excretion of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and its metabolites were visualized using positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning after intravenous injection of the tracer into anesthetized dogs. Radioactivity was concentrated in the renal pelvis, heart, liver, spleen, salivary glands, and gall bladder. Uptake of 18F by the heart resulted in striking delineation of the left ventricular myocardium. Pretreatment with desipramine markedly decreased cardiac positron emission, consistent with dependence of the heart on neuronal uptake (uptake-1) for removal of circulating catecholamines. In reserpinized animals, cardiac positron emission was absent within 30 minutes after injection of [ 18 F]-6-fluorodopamine, demonstrating that the emission in untreated animals was from radioactive labeling of the sympathetic storage vesicles. Decreased positron emission from denervated salivary glands confirmed that the tracer was concentrated in sympathetic neurons. Radioactivity in the gall bladder and urinary system depicted the hepatic and renal excretion of the tracer and its metabolites. Administration of tyramine or nitroprusside increased and ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan decreased the rate of loss of myocardial radioactivity. The results show that PET scanning after administration of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine can be used to visualize sites of sympathetic innervation, follow the metabolism and renal and hepatic excretion of catecholamines, and examine cardiac sympathetic function

  18. The sympathetic innervation of the heart: Important new insights. (United States)

    Coote, J H; Chauhan, R A


    Autonomic control of the heart has a significant influence over development of life threatening arrhythmias that can lead to sudden cardiac death. Sympathetic activity is known to be upregulated during these conditions and hence the sympathetic nerves present a target for treatment. However, a better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of cardiac sympathetic nerves is required for the progression of clinical interventions. This review explores the organization of the cardiac sympathetic nerves, from the preganglionic origin to the postganglionic innervations, and provides an overview of literature surrounding anti-arrhythmic therapies including thoracic sympathectomy and dorsal spinal cord stimulation. Several features of the innervation are clear. The cardiac nerves differentially supply the nodal and myocardial tissue of the heart and are dependent on activity generated in spinal neurones in the upper thoracic cord which project to synapse with ganglion cells in the stellate complex on each side. Networks of spinal interneurones determine the pattern of activity. Groups of spinal neurones selectively target specific regions of the heart but whether they exhibit a functional selectivity has still to be elucidated. Electrical or ischemic signals can lead to remodeling of nerves in the heart or ganglia. Surgical and electrical methods are proving to be clinically beneficial in reducing atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, heart failure and severe cardiac pain. This is a rapidly developing area and we need more basic understanding of how these methods work to ensure safety and reduction of side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sympathetic neural responses to smoking are age dependent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hering, D.; Somers, V. K.; Kára, T.; Kucharska, W.; Jurák, Pavel; Bieniaszewski, L.; Narkiewicz, K.


    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2006), s. 691-695 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : sympathetic neural response * blood pressure * heart rate * smoking Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 4.021, year: 2006

  20. Sympathetic Overactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Consequences and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep Kaur


    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing worldwide, with more than 26 million people suffering from CKD in the United States alone. More patients with CKD die of cardiovascular complications than progress to dialysis. Over 80% of CKD patients have hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another common, perhaps underappreciated, feature of CKD is an overactive sympathetic nervous system. This elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA not only contributes to hypertension but also plays a detrimental role in the progression of CKD independent of any increase in blood pressure. Indeed, high SNA is associated with poor prognosis and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of its effect on blood pressure. This brief review will discuss some of the consequences of sympathetic overactivity and highlight some of the potential pathways contributing to chronically elevated SNA in CKD. Mechanisms leading to chronic sympathoexcitation in CKD are complex, multifactorial and to date, not completely understood. Identification of the mechanisms and/or signals leading to sympathetic overactivity in CKD are crucial for development of effective therapeutic targets to reduce the increased cardiovascular risk in this patient group.

  1. Sympathetic Wigner-function tomography of a dark trapped ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirkhalaf, Safoura; Mølmer, Klaus


    A protocol is provided to reconstruct the Wigner function for the motional state of a trapped ion via fluorescence detection on another ion in the same trap. This “sympathetic tomography” of a dark ion without optical transitions suitable for state measurements is based on the mapping of its...

  2. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months. Introduction ... SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1 ... may be either trauma of external origin or iatrogenic, post surgery. In some patients particularly children ...

  3. The clinical value of cardiac sympathetic imaging in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Kjaer, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip


    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the pathology of heart failure. The single-photon emission computed tomography tracer iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123) I-MIBG) can be used to investigate the activity of the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous...

  4. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.


    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  5. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong


    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  6. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  7. Maximizing profitability in a hospital outpatient pharmacy. (United States)

    Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A


    This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.

  8. Maximize x(a - x) (United States)

    Lange, L. H.


    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  9. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.


    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  10. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo


    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  11. Vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses produced by the Vestibulo-Sympathetic Reflex in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei B. Yakushin


    Full Text Available Sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS induces oscillations in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR i.e., vasovagal oscillations, and decreases in BP and HR i.e., vasovagal responses, in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We determined the characteristics of the vasovagal oscillations, assessed their role in the generation of vasovagal responses and determined whether they could be induced by monaural as well as by binaural sGVS and by oscillation in pitch. Wavelet analyses were used to determine the power distributions of the waveforms. Monaural and binaural sGVS and pitch generated vasovagal oscillations at the frequency and at twice the frequency of stimulation. Vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses were maximally induced at low stimulus frequencies (0.025-0.05 Hz. The oscillations were attenuated and the responses were rarely induced at higher stimulus frequencies. Vasovagal oscillations could occur without induction of vasovagal responses, but vasovagal responses were always associated with a vasovagal oscillation. We posit that the vasovagal oscillations originate in a low frequency band that, when appropriately activated by strong sympathetic stimulation, can generate vasovagal oscillations as a precursor for vasovagal responses and syncope. We further suggest that the activity responsible for the vasovagal oscillations arises in low frequency, otolith neurons with orientation vectors close to the vertical axis of the head. These neurons are likely to provide critical input to the Vestibulo-Sympathetic Reflex to increase BP and HR upon changes in head position relative to gravity, and to contribute to the production of vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses and syncope when the baroreflex is inactivated.

  12. Lung surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  13. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  14. Alpha-Blocker Treatment Response in Men With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Based on Sympathetic Activity: Prospective, Multicenter, Open-Labeled, Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Gon Park


    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we compared the treatment outcomes for an α-blocker between 2 groups of men, one with high sympathetic activity (HSA and another with low sympathetic activity (LSA or normal sympathetic activity. Methods: A total of 159 men (≥50 years of age with lower urinary tract symptoms resulting from benign prostatic hyperplasia were analyzed. We assigned patients to groups according to their sympathetic activity, which was evaluated by heart ratevariability measurements. HSA was defined as a low frequency/high frequency ratio greater than 1.6. All patients received 10mg of alfuzosin once a day for 12 weeks. The primary end point was a change in the total International Prostate SymptomScore (IPSS at 12 weeks from baseline. Results: Sixty-seven men were assigned to the HSA group and 92 men were assigned to the LSA group. The baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 groups, and the response to alfuzosin was good in both groups. Themean total IPSS change was not different between the groups. Both groups were not significantly different with respect to the changes in maximal flow rate, IPSS voiding or storage symptom subscores, quality of life, and rates of adverse drug events. TheHSA group showed a similar willingness to continue treatment compared to the LSA group, although their treatment satisfaction rating was lower. Conclusions: The therapeutic effects of alfuzosin did not differ in regards to the differences in sympathetic activity, but treatment satisfaction ratings were lower in the HSA group.

  15. Continuous Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglion Block in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients with Spinal Cord Stimulation Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EungDon Kim


    Full Text Available The sympathetic block is widely used for treating neuropathic pain such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, single sympathetic block often provides only short-term effect. Moreover, frequent procedures for sympathetic block may increase the risk of complications. The use of epidural route may be limited by concern of infection in case of previous implantation of the spinal cord stimulation (SCS. In contrast, a continuous sympathetic block can be administered without such concerns. The continuous thoracic sympathetic block (TSGB has been used to treat the ischemic disease and other neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia. We administered continuous thoracic sympathetic block using catheter in CRPS patients who underwent SCS implantations and achieved desirable outcomes. We believe a continuous sympathetic block is a considerable option before performing neurolysis or radiofrequency rhizotomy and even after SCS implantation.

  16. Sympathetic Innervation during Development Is Necessary for Pancreatic Islet Architecture and Functional Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Borden


    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons depend on target-derived neurotrophic cues to control their survival and growth. However, whether sympathetic innervation contributes reciprocally to the development of target tissues is less clear. Here, we report that sympathetic innervation is necessary for the formation of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and for their functional maturation. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of sympathetic innervation during development resulted in altered islet architecture, reduced insulin secretion, and impaired glucose tolerance in mice. Similar defects were observed with pharmacological blockade of β-adrenergic signaling. Conversely, the administration of a β-adrenergic agonist restored islet morphology and glucose tolerance in deinnervated animals. Furthermore, in neuron-islet cocultures, sympathetic neurons promoted islet cell migration in a β-adrenergic-dependent manner. This study reveals that islet architecture requires extrinsic inductive cues from neighboring tissues such as sympathetic nerves and suggests that early perturbations in sympathetic innervation might underlie metabolic disorders.

  17. Losartan reduces the immediate and sustained increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia. (United States)

    Jouett, Noah P; Moralez, Gilbert; Raven, Peter B; Smith, Michael L


    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxemia, which produces elevations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and associated hypertension in experimental models that persist beyond the initial exposure. We tested the hypotheses that angiotensin receptor blockade in humans using losartan attenuates the immediate and immediately persistent increases in 1 ) SNA discharge and 2 ) mean arterial pressure (MAP) after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) using a randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures experimental design. We measured ECG and photoplethysmographic arterial pressure in nine healthy human subjects, while muscle SNA (MSNA) was recorded in seven subjects using microneurography. Subjects were exposed to a series of hypoxic apneas in which they inhaled two to three breaths of nitrogen, followed by a 20-s apnea and 40 s of room air breathing every minute for 20 min. Hyperacute IHT produced substantial and persistent elevations in MSNA burst frequency (baseline: 15.3 ± 1.8, IHT: 24 ± 1.5, post-IHT 20.0 ± 1.3 bursts/min, all P 0.70). This investigation confirms the role of angiotensin II type 1a receptors in the immediate and persistent sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses to IHT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), abrogates the acute and immediately persistent increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in response to acute intermittent hypoxia. This investigation, along with others, provides important beginning translational evidence for using ARBs in treatment of the intermittent hypoxia observed in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil


    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  19. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  20. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  1. Simulating sympathetic detonation using the hydrodynamic models and constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Yoh, Jack J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Tae Boo [Hanwha Corporation Defense Rand D Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A Sympathetic detonation (SD) is a detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion. Most of times it is unintended while the impact of blast fragments or strong shock waves from the initiating donor explosive is the cause of SD. We investigate the SD of a cylindrical explosive charge (64 % RDX, 20 % Al, 16 % HTPB) contained in a steel casing. The constitutive relations for high explosive are obtained from a thermo-chemical code that provides the size effect data without the rate stick data typically used for building the rate law and equation of state. A full size SD test of eight pallet-packaged artillery shells is performed that provides the pressure data while the hydrodynamic model with proper constitutive relations for reactive materials and the fragmentation model for steel casing is conducted to replicate the experimental findings. The work presents a novel effort to accurately model and reproduce the sympathetic detonation event with a reduced experimental effort.

  2. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo


    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  3. The biophysics of renal sympathetic denervation using radiofrequency energy. (United States)

    Patel, Hitesh C; Dhillon, Paramdeep S; Mahfoud, Felix; Lindsay, Alistair C; Hayward, Carl; Ernst, Sabine; Lyon, Alexander R; Rosen, Stuart D; di Mario, Carlo


    Renal sympathetic denervation is currently performed in the treatment of resistant hypertension by interventionists who otherwise do not typically use radiofrequency (RF) energy ablation in their clinical practice. Adequate RF lesion formation is dependent upon good electrode-tissue contact, power delivery, electrode-tissue interface temperature, target-tissue impedance and the size of the catheter's active electrode. There is significant interplay between these variables and hence an appreciation of the biophysical determinants of RF lesion formation is required to provide effective and safe clinical care to our patients. In this review article, we summarize the biophysics of RF ablation and explain why and how complications of renal sympathetic denervation may occur and discuss methods to minimise them.

  4. Does transcutaneous nerve stimulation have effect on sympathetic skin response? (United States)

    Okuyucu, E Esra; Turhanoğlu, Ayşe Dicle; Guntel, Murat; Yılmazer, Serkan; Savaş, Nazan; Mansuroğlu, Ayhan


    This study examined the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the sympathetic nerve system by sympathetic skin response test. Fifty-five healthy volunteers received either: (i) 30minutes TENS (25 participants) (ii) 30minutes sham TENS (30 participants) and SSR test was performed pre- and post-TENS. The mean values of latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of five consecutive SSRs were calculated. A significant amplitude difference was found between TENS and sham TENS group both in right and left hand (p=0.04, p=0.01, respectively). However there was no significant latancy difference between two groups (p>0.05 ). TENS has an inhibitory effect on elicited SNS responses when compared with sham TENS control group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U


    vasoconstriction normally seen after lowering the forearm 40 cm below heart level was absent since SBF only decreased by 4% (+/- 7%, P greater than 0.1) during these conditions. In head-up vertical position we noticed a diminished baroreceptor response as SBF at heart level was reduced by 11% (+/- 7%, P greater...... than 0.1) compared to supine position. After proximal local anaesthesia SBF increased by 351% (+/- 81%, P less than 0.01) and disclosed a normal vasoconstrictor response as SBF was reduced by 53% (+/- 5%, P less than 0.01) during arm lowering. Five of the treated patients were restudied.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  6. Central vs. peripheral neuraxial sympathetic control of porcine ventricular electrophysiology (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kentaro; Howard-Quijano, Kimberly; Zhou, Wei; Rajendran, Pradeep; Yagishita, Daigo; Vaseghi, Marmar; Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Armour, J. Andrew; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.


    Sympathoexcitation is associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of thoracic dorsal root afferent neural inputs to the spinal cord in modulating ventricular sympathetic control of normal heart electrophysiology. We hypothesize that dorsal root afferent input tonically modulates basal and evoked efferent sympathetic control of the heart. A 56-electrode sock placed on the epicardial ventricle in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs (n = 17) recorded electrophysiological function, as well as activation recovery interval (ARI) and dispersion in ARI, at baseline conditions and during stellate ganglion electrical stimulation. Measures were compared between intact states and sequential unilateral T1–T4 dorsal root transection (DRTx), ipsilateral ventral root transection (VRTx), and contralateral dorsal and ventral root transections (DVRTx). Left or right DRTx decreased global basal ARI [Lt.DRTx: 369 ± 12 to 319 ± 13 ms (P < 0.01) and Rt.DRTx: 388 ± 19 to 356 ± 15 ms (P < 0.01)]. Subsequent unilateral VRTx followed by contralateral DRx+VRTx induced no further change. In intact states, left and right stellate ganglion stimulation shortened ARIs (6 ± 2% vs. 17 ± 3%), while increasing dispersion (+139% vs. +88%). There was no difference in magnitude of ARI or dispersion change with stellate stimulation following spinal root transections. Interruption of thoracic spinal afferent signaling results in enhanced basal cardiac sympathoexcitability without diminishing the sympathetic response to stellate ganglion stimulation. This suggests spinal dorsal root transection releases spinal cord-mediated tonic inhibitory control of efferent sympathetic tone, while maintaining intrathoracic cardiocentric neural networks. PMID:26661096

  7. Temperament affects sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee


    Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population.

  8. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population


    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee


    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean vers...

  9. Cardiorespiratory Coupling: Common Rhythms in Cardiac, Sympathetic, and Respiratory Activities (United States)

    Dick, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Yee-Hsee; Dhingra, Rishi R.; Baekey, David M.; Galán, Roberto F.; Wehrwein, Erica; Morris, Kendall F.


    Cardiorespiratory coupling is an encompassing term describing more than the well-recognized influences of respiration on heart rate and blood pressure. Our data indicate that cardiorespiratory coupling reflects a reciprocal interaction between autonomic and respiratory control systems, and the cardiovascular system modulates the ventilatory pattern as well. For example, cardioventilatory coupling refers to the influence of heart beats and arterial pulse pressure on respiration and is the tendency for the next inspiration to start at a preferred latency after the last heart beat in expiration. Multiple complementary, well-described mechanisms mediate respiration’s influence on cardiovascular function, whereas mechanisms mediating the cardiovascular system’s influence on respiration may only be through the baroreceptors but are just being identified. Our review will describe a differential effect of conditioning rats with either chronic intermittent or sustained hypoxia on sympathetic nerve activity but also on ventilatory pattern variability. Both intermittent and sustained hypoxia increase sympathetic nerve activity after 2 weeks but affect sympatho-respiratory coupling differentially. Intermittent hypoxia enhances sympatho-respiratory coupling, which is associated with low variability in the ventilatory pattern. In contrast, after constant hypobaric hypoxia, 1-to-1 coupling between bursts of sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity is replaced by 2-to-3 coupling. This change in coupling pattern is associated with increased variability of the ventilatory pattern. After baro-denervating hypobaric hypoxic-conditioned rats, splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity becomes tonic (distinct bursts are absent) with decreases during phrenic nerve bursts and ventilatory pattern becomes regular. Thus, conditioning rats to either intermittent or sustained hypoxia accentuates the reciprocal nature of cardiorespiratory coupling. Finally, identifying a compelling physiologic

  10. Sympathetic cooling of ions in a hybrid atom ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeltkemeier, Bastian


    In this thesis the dynamics of a trapped ion immersed in a spatially localized buffer gas is investigated. For a homogeneous buffer gas, the ion's energy distribution reaches a stable equilibrium only if the mass of the buffer gas atoms is below a critical value. This limitation can be overcome by using multipole traps in combination and/or a spatially confined buffer gas. Using a generalized model for elastic collisions of the ion with the buffer gas atoms, the ion's energy distribution is numerically determined for arbitrary buffer gas distributions and trap parameters. Three regimes characterized by the respective analytic form of the ion's equilibrium energy distribution are found. One of these is a novel regime at large atom-to-ion mass ratios where the final ion temperature can tuned by adiabatically decreasing the spatial extension of the buffer gas and the effective ion trap depth (forced sympathetic cooling). The second part of the thesis presents a hybrid atom ion trap designed for sympathetic cooling of hydroxide anions. In this hybrid trap the anions are immersed in a cloud of laser cooled rubidium atoms. The translational and rovibrational temperatures of the anions is probed by photodetachment tomography and spectroscopy which shows the first ever indication of sympathetic cooling of anions by laser cooled atoms.

  11. Renal Sympathetic Denervation by CT-Guided Ethanol Injection: A Phase II Pilot Trial of a Novel Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, J.; Seidensticker, M.; Becker, S.; Schiefer, J.; Adamchic, I.; Lohfink, K.; Kandulski, M.; Heller, A.; Mertens, P. R.


    ObjectivesCT-guided ethanol-mediated renal sympathetic denervation in treatment of therapy-resistant hypertension was performed to assess patient safety and collect preliminary data on treatment efficacy.Materials and MethodsEleven patients with therapy-resistant hypertension (blood pressure of >160 mmHg despite three different antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic) and following screening for secondary causes were enrolled in a phase II single arm open label pilot trial of CT-guided neurolysis of sympathetic renal innervation. Primary endpoint was safety, and secondary endpoint was a decrease of the mean office as well as 24-h systolic blood pressure in follow-up. Follow-up visits at 4 weeks, 3, and 6 months included 24-h blood pressure assessments, office blood pressure, laboratory values, as well as full clinical and quality of life assessments.ResultsNo toxicities ≥3° occurred. Three patients exhibited worsened kidney function in follow-up analyses. When accounting all patients, office systolic blood pressure decreased significantly at all follow-up visits (maximal mean decrease −41.2 mmHg at 3 months). The mean 24-h systolic blood pressure values decreased significantly at 3 months, but not at 6 months (mean: −9.7 and −6.3 mmHg, respectively). Exclusion of five patients who had failed catheter-based endovascular denervation and/or were incompliant for antihypertensive drug intake revealed a more pronounced decrease of 24-h systolic blood pressure (mean: −18.3 and −15.2 mmHg at 3 and 6 months, p = 0.03 and 0.06).ConclusionCT-guided sympathetic denervation proved to be safe and applicable under various anatomical conditions with more renal arteries and such of small diameter

  12. Renal Sympathetic Denervation by CT-Guided Ethanol Injection: A Phase II Pilot Trial of a Novel Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, J., E-mail:; Seidensticker, M.; Becker, S. [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg AöR (Germany); Schiefer, J. [Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg AöR, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Diabetes and Endocrinology (Germany); Adamchic, I.; Lohfink, K. [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg AöR (Germany); Kandulski, M.; Heller, A.; Mertens, P. R. [Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg AöR, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Diabetes and Endocrinology (Germany)


    ObjectivesCT-guided ethanol-mediated renal sympathetic denervation in treatment of therapy-resistant hypertension was performed to assess patient safety and collect preliminary data on treatment efficacy.Materials and MethodsEleven patients with therapy-resistant hypertension (blood pressure of >160 mmHg despite three different antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic) and following screening for secondary causes were enrolled in a phase II single arm open label pilot trial of CT-guided neurolysis of sympathetic renal innervation. Primary endpoint was safety, and secondary endpoint was a decrease of the mean office as well as 24-h systolic blood pressure in follow-up. Follow-up visits at 4 weeks, 3, and 6 months included 24-h blood pressure assessments, office blood pressure, laboratory values, as well as full clinical and quality of life assessments.ResultsNo toxicities ≥3° occurred. Three patients exhibited worsened kidney function in follow-up analyses. When accounting all patients, office systolic blood pressure decreased significantly at all follow-up visits (maximal mean decrease −41.2 mmHg at 3 months). The mean 24-h systolic blood pressure values decreased significantly at 3 months, but not at 6 months (mean: −9.7 and −6.3 mmHg, respectively). Exclusion of five patients who had failed catheter-based endovascular denervation and/or were incompliant for antihypertensive drug intake revealed a more pronounced decrease of 24-h systolic blood pressure (mean: −18.3 and −15.2 mmHg at 3 and 6 months, p = 0.03 and 0.06).ConclusionCT-guided sympathetic denervation proved to be safe and applicable under various anatomical conditions with more renal arteries and such of small diameter.

  13. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd


    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  14. Defective propagation of signals generated by sympathetic nerve stimulation in the liver of connexin32-deficient mice. (United States)

    Nelles, E; Bützler, C; Jung, D; Temme, A; Gabriel, H D; Dahl, U; Traub, O; Stümpel, F; Jungermann, K; Zielasek, J; Toyka, K V; Dermietzel, R; Willecke, K


    The gap junctional protein connexin32 is expressed in hepatocytes, exocrine pancreatic cells, Schwann cells, and other cell types. We have inactivated the connexin32 gene by homologous recombination in the mouse genome and have generated homozygous connexin32-deficient mice that were viable and fertile but weighed on the average approximately 17% less than wild-type controls. Electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves in connexin32-deficient liver triggered a 78% lower amount of glucose mobilization from glycogen stores, when compared with wild-type liver. Thus, connexin32-containing gap junctions are essential in mouse liver for maximal intercellular propagation of the noradrenaline signal from the periportal (upstream) area, where it is received from sympathetic nerve endings, to perivenous (downstream) hepatocytes. In connexin32-defective liver, the amount of connexin26 protein expressed was found to be lower than in wild-type liver, and the total area of gap junction plaques was approximately 1000-fold smaller than in wild-type liver. In contrast to patients with connexin32 defects suffering from X chromosome-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) due to demyelination in Schwann cells of peripheral nerves, connexin32-deficient mice did not show neurological abnormalities when analyzed at 3 months of age. It is possible, however, that they may develop neurodegenerative symptoms at older age.

  15. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  16. Ankle replacement - discharge (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  17. Hip fracture - discharge (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge ... in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of ...

  18. Asthma - child - discharge (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  19. The sympathetic and sensory innervation of rat airways: origin and neurochemical characterisation


    Radtke, Anne


    Sensory and sympathetic innervation of Brown Norway rat airways were investigated using retrograde neuronal tracing with fluorescent dyes and double labelling immunofluorescence. Sensory neurons projecting to the lung are located in nodose and jugular vagal ganglia. Sympathetic neuronal supply of the lung originates in the stellate ganglia and superior cervical ganglia. Concerning immuno-reactivity for the SP and NOS in sensory and NPY and TH in sympathetic neurons were investigated. IR for S...

  20. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.


    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  1. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier


    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  2. [Neurolitic block of the lumbar sympathetic chain improves chronic pain in a patient with critical lower limb ischemia]. (United States)

    Barreto Junior, Elton Pereira de Sá; Nascimento, Jedson Dos Santos; de Castro, Anita Perpetua Carvalho Rocha

    Sympathectomy is one of the therapies used in the treatment of chronic obstructive arterial disease (COAD). Although not considered as first-line strategy, it should be considered in the management of pain difficult to control. This clinical case describes the evolution of a patient with inoperable COAD who responded properly to the lumbar sympathetic block. A female patient, afro-descendant, 69 years old, ASA II, admitted to the algology service due to refractory ischemic pain in the lower limbs. The patient had undergone several surgical procedures and conservative treatments without success. Vascular surgery considered the case as out of therapeutic possibility, unless limb amputation. At that time, sympathectomy was indicated. After admission to the operating room, the patient was monitored, positioned and sedated. The blockade was performed with the aid of radioscopy, bilaterally, at L2-L3-L4 right and L3 left levels. On the right side, at each level cited, 3mL of absolute alcohol with 0.25% bupivacaine were injected without vasoconstrictor, and on the left side only local anesthetic. The procedure was performed uneventfully. The patient was discharged with complete remission of the pain. Neurolitic block of the lumbar sympathetic chain is an effective and safe treatment option for pain control in patients with critical limb ischemia patients in whom the only possible intervention would be limb amputation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation


    Espinoza, Michael


    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  4. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods


    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza


    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  5. Reduced capacity of cardiac efferent sympathetic neurons to release noradrenaline and modify cardiac function in tachycardia-induced canine heart failure. (United States)

    Cardinal, R; Nadeau, R; Laurent, C; Boudreau, G; Armour, J A


    To investigate the capacity of efferent sympathetic neurons to modulate the failing heart, stellate ganglion stimulation was performed in dogs with biventricular heart failure induced by rapid ventricular pacing (240 beats/min) for 4-6 weeks. Less noradrenaline was released from cardiac myoneural junctions into coronary sinus blood in response to left stellate ganglion stimulation in anesthetized failing heart preparations (582 pg/mL, lower and upper 95% confidence intervals of 288 and 1174 pg/mL, n = 19) compared with healthy heart preparations (6391 pg/mL, 95% confidence intervals of 4180 and 9770 pg/mL, n = 14; p < 0.001). There was substantial adrenaline extraction by failing hearts (49 +/- 6%), although it was slightly lower than in healthy heart preparations (65 +/- 9%, p = 0.055). In contrast with healthy heart preparations, no net release of adrenaline occurred during stellate ganglion stimulation in any of the failing heart preparations, and ventricular tissue levels of adrenaline fell below the sensitivity limit of the HPLC technique. In failing heart preparations, maximal electrical stimulation of right or left stellate ganglia resulted in minimal augmentation of left ventricular intramyocardial (17%) and chamber (12%) systolic pressures. These indices were augmented by 145 and 97%, respectively, following exogenous noradrenaline administration. Thus, the cardiac efferent sympathetic neurons' reduced capacity to release noradrenaline and modify cardiac function can contribute to reduction of sympathetic support to the failing heart.

  6. Marital conflict and children's externalizing behavior: interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Moore, Ginger A


    "Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS...

  7. Burst Activity and Heart Rhythm Modulation in the Sympathetic Outflow to the Heart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baselli, G


    In 13 decerebrate, artificially ventilated cats preganglionic sympathetic outflow to the heart was recorded with ECG and ventilation signal, A novel algorithm was implemented that extracts weighted...

  8. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum


    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  10. Sympathetic stimulation alters left ventricular relaxation and chamber size. (United States)

    Burwash, I G; Morgan, D E; Koilpillai, C J; Blackmore, G L; Johnstone, D E; Armour, J A


    Alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility, relaxation, and chamber dimensions induced by efferent sympathetic nerve stimulation were investigated in nine anesthetized open-chest dogs in sinus rhythm. Supramaximal stimulation of acutely decentralized left stellate ganglia augmented heart rate, LV systolic pressure, and rate of LV pressure rise (maximum +dP/dt, 1,809 +/- 191 to 6,304 +/- 725 mmHg/s) and fall (maximum -dP/dt, -2,392 +/- 230 to -4,458 +/- 482 mmHg/s). It also reduced the time constant of isovolumic relaxation, tau (36.5 +/- 4.8 to 14.9 +/- 1.1 ms). Simultaneous two-dimensional echocardiography recorded reductions in end-diastolic and end-systolic LV cross-sectional chamber areas (23 and 31%, respectively), an increase in area ejection fraction (32%), and increases in end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses (14 and 13%, respectively). End-systolic and end-diastolic wall stresses were unchanged by stellate ganglion stimulation (98 +/- 12 to 95 +/- 9 dyn x 10(3)/cm2; 6.4 +/- 2.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 dyn x 10(3)/cm2, respectively). Atrial pacing to similar heart rates did not alter monitored indexes of contractility. Dobutamine and isoproterenol induced changes similar to those resulting from sympathetic neuronal stimulation. These data indicate that when the efferent sympathetic nervous system increases left ventricular contractility and relaxation, concomitant reductions in systolic and diastolic dimensions of that chamber occur that are associated with increasing wall thickness such that LV wall stress changes are minimized.

  11. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve ablation for loin pain haematuria syndrome. (United States)

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Fulignati, Pierluigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola


    Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a severe renal pain condition of uncertain origin and often resistant to treatment. Nephrectomy and renal autotrasplantation have occasionally been performed in very severe cases. Its pathogenesis is controversial. A 40-year-old hypertensive lady was diagnosed with LPHS after repeated diagnostic imaging procedures had ruled out any renal, abdominal or spinal conditions to justify pain. Notwithstanding treatment with three drugs, she had frequent hypertensive crises during which the loin pain was dramatically exacerbated. Vascular causes of the pain and hypertension were investigated and excluded. Her renal function was normal. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic, but had no significant improvement in her pain symptoms despite the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adjuvant antidepressants and opioid-like agents. The pain and the discomfort were so severe that her quality of life was very poor, and her social and professional activities were compromised. Nephrectomy and renal autotransplantation have occasionally been performed in these cases. Since visceral pain signals flow through afferent sympathetic fibres, we felt that percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of the renal sympathetic nerve fibres (recently introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension) could be valuable for pain relief. We treated the patient with radiofrequency ablation (Medtronic Symplicity Catheter) applied only to the right renal artery. After a 6-month follow-up, the patient is pain free and normotensive with all drugs withdrawn. She has experienced no hypertensive crises in the meantime. This observation suggests that percutaneous sympathetic denervation could prove to be an effective mini-invasive strategy for the treatment of chronic renal pain, and LPHS in particular.

  12. Study of sympathetic nerve activity in young Indian obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kalpana


    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is the culmination of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This energy balance can be potentially affected by the activity of autonomic nervous system (ANS. Altered sympathetic nerve function may be of importance in obesity. Objective: The present study is an attempt to pinpoint the defect (if any in the activity of sympathetic limb of the ANS in obesity, by subjecting to isometric exercise stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 females belonging to the age group of 18-22 years were recruited for the study. The participants were divided into two groups as normal weight and obese based on WHO guidelines for Asia Pacific region. After recording the resting blood pressure, they were subjected to isometric exercise by Handgrip dynamometer. Blood pressure was recorded again, and the difference was noted down. All recorded parameters were compared between two groups using unpaired t test. The relationship between body mass index (BMI and rise in diastolic pressure was quantified by Pearson′s correlation test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In obese, the diastolic pressure was significantly higher at rest, but showed reduced rise during handgrip test in comparison with normal weight individuals. Also, the rise in diastolic pressure exhibited a negative relation with BMI. Conclusion: The result is suggestive of impaired autonomic function at rest and reduced sympathetic activity in the group of obese when subjected to stress. This could make them more prone for future development of hypertension or other cardiovascular disorders.


    Buckley, Una; Yamakawa, Kentaro; Takamiya, Tatsuo; Armour, J. Andrew; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.


    Background Selective, bilateral cervicothoracic sympathectomy has proven to be effective for managing ventricular arrhythmias in the setting of structural heart disease. The procedure currently employed removes the caudal portions of both stellate ganglia, along with thoracic chain ganglia down to T4 ganglia. Objective To define the relative contributions of T1-T2 and the T3-T4 paravertebral ganglia in modulating ventricular electrical function. Methods In anesthetized vagotomised porcine subjects (n=8), the heart was exposed via sternotomy along with right and left paravertebral sympathetic ganglia to the T4 level. A 56-electrode epicardial sock was placed over both ventricles to assess epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARI) in response to individually stimulating right and left stellate vs T3 paravertebral ganglia. Responses to T3 stimuli were repeated following surgical removal of the caudal portions of stellate ganglia and T2 bilaterally. Results In intact preparations, stellate ganglion vs T3 stimuli (4Hz, 4ms duration) were titrated to produce equivalent decreases in global ventricular ARIs (right-side 85±6 vs 55±10 ms; left-side 24±3 vs 17±7 ms). Threshold of stimulus intensity applied to T3 ganglia to achieve threshold was 3 times that of T1 threshold. ARIs in unstimulated states were unaffected by bilateral stellate-T2 ganglion removal. Following acute decentralization, T3 stimulation failed to change ARIs. Conclusion Preganglionic sympathetic efferents arising from the T1-T4 spinal cord that project to the heart transit through stellate ganglia via the paravertebral chain. T1-T2 surgical excision is thus sufficient to functionally interrupt central control of peripheral sympathetic efferent activity. PMID:26282244

  14. Sympathetic ophthalmia after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Haruta


    Full Text Available Masatoshi Haruta1, Hirokazu Mukuno2, Kazuaki Nishijima3, Hitoshi Takagi4, Mihori Kita51Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Konan Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: We report a case of a sympathetic ophthalmia that occurred after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a retinal detachment.Case report: A 41-year-old Japanese woman underwent combined phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the right eye. Endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade were used to manage inferior retinal holes. Four weeks after the surgery, she returned with a 5-day history of reduced vision and metamorphopsia in her left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed a shallow anterior chamber in the right eye and moderate anterior uveitis bilaterally. Silicone oil bubbles and pigment dispersion were observed in the subconjunctival space adjacent to the right eye’s superonasal sclerotomy site. Fundus examination showed multifocal serous retinal detachments in both eyes. A diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia was made and the patient was treated with intensive topical and systemic steroids. The subretinal fluid cleared in both eyes following treatment. Twelve months after the onset of inflammation, the patient’s condition was stable on a combination of oral cyclosporine and topical steroids. Sunset glow retinal changes remain, but there has been no evidence of recurrent inflammation.Conclusion: Sympathetic ophthalmia can develop after 23-gauge

  15. Memory coherence of a sympathetically cooled trapped-ion qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Home, J. P.; McDonnell, M. J.; Szwer, D. J.; Keitch, B. C.; Lucas, D. M.; Stacey, D. N.; Steane, A. M.


    We demonstrate sympathetic cooling of a 43 Ca + trapped-ion 'memory' qubit by a 40 Ca + 'coolant' ion sufficiently near the ground state of motion for fault-tolerant quantum logic, while maintaining coherence of the qubit. This is an essential ingredient in trapped-ion quantum computers. The isotope shifts are sufficient to suppress decoherence and phase shifts of the memory qubit due to the cooling light which illuminates both ions. We measure the qubit coherence during ten cycles of sideband cooling, finding a coherence loss of 3.3% per cooling cycle. The natural limit of the method is O(10 -4 ) infidelity per cooling cycle.

  16. Thoracoscopic Left Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation for a Patient with Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia and Recurrent Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Sik Yu


    Full Text Available A patient presented with loss of consciousness and conversion. During an exercise test, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT resulted in cardiac arrest. He started taking medication (a beta-blocker and flecainide and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD was inserted, but the ventricular tachycardia did not resolve. Left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD was then performed under general anesthesia, and the patient was discharged on the second postoperative day without complications. One month after the operation, no shock had been administered by the ICD, and an exercise stress test did not induce ventricular tachycardia. Although beta- blockers are the gold standard of therapy in patients with CPVT, thoracoscopic LCSD is safe and can be an effective alternative treatment option for patients with intractable CPVT.

  17. Single-side renal sympathetic denervation to treat malignant refractory hypertension in a solitary kidney patient. (United States)

    Ribichini, Flavio; Ferrara, Angela; Pighi, Michele; Pesarini, Gabriele; Gambaro, Alessia; Valvo, Enrico; Lupo, Antonio; Vassanelli, Corrado


    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is emerging as a new therapeutic option for patients with severe hypertension refractory to medical therapy. Patients affected by renovascular or anatomical abnormalities have hitherto been systematically excluded from clinical trials with RSD because of concern about safety and the unknown efficacy of the procedure in this subgroup of patients. We describe the management of a case of RSD in a single-kidney patient with refractory hypertension; the patient had had a previous surgical right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma that subsequently required no other oncologic treatment. After multidisciplinary assessment, the patient underwent RSD. The procedure was performed through a 6F femoral access using the Symplicity™ RSD system (Medtronic, Mountain View, CA, USA). Radiofrequency was applied to the renal artery wall in 6 different points under general sedation with midazolam to control back pain caused by the procedure, that was performed without periprocedural complications. The patient was discharged 2 days later after a control of the vascular access site and routine biochemical examinations. The following 9-month follow up showed a significant reduction in blood pressure and stable renal function, without signs of renal damage. Our report confirms the feasibility of RSD in this delicate context, without evident negative effects on kidney function and with a significant reduction in blood pressure. Future studies are needed to fully clarify the value of RSD in single-kidney patients.

  18. Myocardial Infarction Causes Transient Cholinergic Transdifferentiation of Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves via gp130. (United States)

    Olivas, Antoinette; Gardner, Ryan T; Wang, Lianguo; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Woodward, William R; Habecker, Beth A


    Sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the heart is a classic example of norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) triggering opposing actions. Sympathetic NE increases heart rate and contractility through activation of β receptors, whereas parasympathetic ACh slows the heart through muscarinic receptors. Sympathetic neurons can undergo a developmental transition from production of NE to ACh and we provide evidence that mouse cardiac sympathetic nerves transiently produce ACh after myocardial infarction (MI). ACh levels increased in viable heart tissue 10-14 d after MI, returning to control levels at 21 d, whereas NE levels were stable. At the same time, the genes required for ACh synthesis increased in stellate ganglia, which contain most of the sympathetic neurons projecting to the heart. Immunohistochemistry 14 d after MI revealed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in stellate sympathetic neurons and vesicular ACh transporter immunoreactivity in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cardiac sympathetic fibers. Finally, selective deletion of the ChAT gene from adult sympathetic neurons prevented the infarction-induced increase in cardiac ACh. Deletion of the gp130 cytokine receptor from sympathetic neurons prevented the induction of cholinergic genes after MI, suggesting that inflammatory cytokines induce the transient acquisition of a cholinergic phenotype in cardiac sympathetic neurons. Ex vivo experiments examining the effect of NE and ACh on rabbit cardiac action potential duration revealed that ACh blunted both the NE-stimulated decrease in cardiac action potential duration and increase in myocyte calcium transients. This raises the possibility that sympathetic co-release of ACh and NE may impair adaptation to high heart rates and increase arrhythmia susceptibility. Sympathetic neurons normally make norepinephrine (NE), which increases heart rate and the contractility of cardiac myocytes. We found that, after myocardial infarction, the sympathetic neurons

  19. Increased Sympathetic Renal Innervation in Hemodialysis Patients Is the Anatomical Substrate of Sympathetic Hyperactivity in End-Stage Renal Disease. (United States)

    Mauriello, Alessandro; Rovella, Valentina; Anemona, Lucia; Servadei, Francesca; Giannini, Elena; Bove, Pierluigi; Anselmo, Alessandro; Melino, Gerry; Di Daniele, Nicola


    Renal denervation represents an emerging treatment for resistant hypertension in patients with end-stage renal disease, but data about the anatomic substrate of this treatment are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the morphological basis of sympathetic hyperactivity in the setting of hemodialysis patients to identify an anatomical substrate that could warrant the use of this new therapeutic approach. The distribution of sympathetic nerves was evaluated in the adventitia of 38 renal arteries that were collected at autopsy or during surgery from 25 patients: 9 with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (DIAL group) and 16 age-matched control nondialysis patients (CTRL group). Patients in the DIAL group showed a significant increase in nerve density in the internal area of the peri-adventitial tissue (within the first 0.5 mm of the beginning of the adventitia) compared with the CTRL group (4.01±0.30 versus 2.87±0.28×mm(2), P=0.01). Regardless of dialysis, hypertensive patients with signs of severe arteriolar damage had a greater number of nerve endings in the most internal adventitia, and this number was significantly higher than in patients without hypertensive arteriolar damage (3.90±0.36 versus 2.87±0.41×mm(2), P=0.04), showing a correlation with hypertensive arteriolar damage rather than with hypertensive clinical history. The findings from this study provide a morphological basis underlying sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with end-stage renal disease and might offer useful information to improve the use of renal denervation in this group of patients. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Patterns of Sympathetic Responses Induced by Different Stress Tasks (United States)

    Fechir, M; Schlereth, T; Purat, T; Kritzmann, S; Geber, C; Eberle, T; Gamer, M; Birklein, F


    Stress tasks are used to induce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal. However, the efficacy and the patterns of SNS activation have not been systematically compared between different tasks. Therefore, we analyzed SNS activation during the following stress tasks: Presentation of negative, positive, and – as a control – neutral affective pictures, Color-Word interference test (CWT), mental arithmetic under time limit, singing a song aloud, and giving a spontaneous talk. We examined 11 healthy subjects and recorded the following SNS parameters: Activation of emotional sweating by quantitative sudometry, skin vasoconstriction by laser-Doppler flowmetry, heart rate by ECG, blood pressure by determination of pulse wave transit time (PWTT), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle. Moreover, subjective stress ratings were acquired for each task using a visual analog scale. All tasks were felt significantly stressful when compared to viewing neutral pictures. However, SNS activation was not reliable: Affective pictures did not induce a significant SNS response; singing, giving a talk and mental arithmetic selectively increased heart rate and emotional sweating. Only the CWT globally activated the SNS. Regarding all tasks, induction of emotional sweating, increase of heart rate and blood pressure significantly correlated with subjective stress ratings, in contrast to EMG and skin vasoconstriction. Our results show that the activation of the SNS widely varies depending on the stress task. Different stress tasks differently activate the SNS, which is an important finding when considering sympathetic reactions - in clinical situations and in research. PMID:19018304

  1. Acute sex hormone suppression reduces skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity. (United States)

    Day, Danielle S; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Bell, Christopher; Kohrt, Wendy M


    Comparisons of sympathetic nervous system activity (SNA) between young and older women have produced equivocal results, in part due to inadequate control for potential differences in sex hormone concentrations, age, and body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a short-term reduction in sex hormones on tonic skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), an indirect measure of whole body SNA, using an experimental model of sex hormone deficiency in young women. We also assessed the independent effects of estradiol and progesterone add-back therapy on MSNA. MSNA was measured in 9 women (30±2 years; mean±SE) on three separate occasions: during the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase, on the fifth day of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant) administration, and after 5 days add-back of either estradiol (n=4) or progesterone (n=3) during continued GnRHant administration. In response to GnRHant, there were significant reductions in serum estradiol and progesterone (both psuppression attenuates MSNA and that this may be related to the suppression of progesterone rather than estradiol.

  2. Gudmundur Finnbogason, "sympathetic understanding," and early Icelandic psychology. (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L


    Gudmundur Finnbogason (1873-1944) was a pioneer of Icelandic psychology. He was educated at the University of Copenhagen where he finished his M.A. in 1901 in philosophy, specializing in psychology. During the years 1901-1905, Finnbogason played a major role in establishing and shaping the future of primary education in Iceland. He defended his doctoral thesis on "sympathetic understanding" at the University of Copenhagen in 1911. This work deals with the psychology of imitation. In it Finnbogason defends the view that imitation is basically perception so that there is a direct link from perception to motor behavior. Through imitation people tend to assume the countenance and demeanor of other people, thus showing, in Finnbogason's terminology, "sympathetic understanding." Finnbogason's theory of imitation in many respects anticipates contemporary approaches to the psychology of imitation. In 1918 Finnbogason became professor of applied psychology at the recently founded University of Iceland. Here he attempted to establish psychology as an independent discipline. In this he was unsuccessful; his chair was abolished in 1924.

  3. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R


    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  4. Cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging with (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine: Perspectives from Japan and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, K.; Scholte, A.; Nakata, T.; Dimitriu-Leen, A.C.; Chikamori, T.; Vitola, J.V.; Yoshinaga, K.


    Cardiac sympathetic nervous system dysfunction is closely associated with risk of serious cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF), including HF progression, pump-failure death, and sudden cardiac death by lethal ventricular arrhythmia. For cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging,

  5. Regional sympathetic denervation after myocardial infarction in humans detected noninvasively using I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, M.S.; Tuli, M.M.; Radtke, N.L.; Heger, J.J.; Miles, W.M.; Mock, B.H.; Burt, R.W.; Wellman, H.N.; Zipes, D.P. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, IN (USA))


    Transmural myocardial infarction in dogs produces denervation of sympathetic nerves in viable myocardium apical to the infarct that may be arrhythmogenic. It is unknown whether sympathetic denervation occurs in humans. The purpose of this study was to use iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiolabeled guanethidine analog that is actively taken up by sympathetic nerve terminals, to image noninvasively the cardiac sympathetic nerves in patients with and without ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Results showed that 10 of 12 patients with spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial infarction exhibited regions of thallium-201 uptake indicating viable perfused myocardium, with no MIBG uptake. Such a finding is consistent with sympathetic denervation. One patient had frequent episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia induced at exercise testing that was eliminated by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Eleven of the 12 patients had ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study and metoprolol never prevented induction. Sympathetic denervation was also detected in two of seven postinfarction patients without ventricular arrhythmias. Normal control subjects had no regions lacking MIBG uptake. This study provides evidence that regional sympathetic denervation occurs in humans after myocardial infarction and can be detected noninvasively by comparing MIBG and thallium-201 images. Although the presence of sympathetic denervation may be related to the onset of spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias in some patients, it does not appear to be related to sustained ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study.

  6. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.


    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  7. Sympathetic mediated vasomotion and skin capillary permeability in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, JD; Hoeven, JH; Roon, AM; Smit, AJ; Hoogenberg, K

    Aims/hypothesis. A loss of sympathetic function could lead to changes in capillary fluid filtration in diabetic patients. We investigated whether a decreased sympathetically mediated vasomotion in the skin in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy is associated with an abnormal capillary

  8. Effects of Antidepressants, but not Psychopathology, on Cardiac Sympathetic Control : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco J. C.


    Increased sympathetic activity has been hypothesized to have a role in the elevated somatic disease risk in persons with depressive or anxiety disorders. However, it remains unclear whether increased sympathetic activity reflects a direct effect of anxiety or depression or an indirect effect of

  9. Axon Guidance of Sympathetic Neurons to Cardiomyocytes by Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miwa, Keiko; Lee, Jong-Kook; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Itsuo; Komuro, Issei


    Molecular signaling of cardiac autonomic innervation is an unresolved issue. Here, we show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes cardiac sympathetic innervation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, ventricular myocytes (VMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) isolated from neonatal

  10. Effect of sympathetic nerve block on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Rung, G W; Kehlet, H


    BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerve blocks relieve pain in certain chronic pain states, but the role of the sympathetic pathways in acute pain is unclear. Thus the authors wanted to determine whether a sympathetic block could reduce acute pain and hyperalgesia after a heat injury in healthy volunteers....... The duration and quality of blocks were evaluated by the sympatogalvanic skin response and skin temperature. Bilateral heat injuries were produced on the medial surfaces of the calves with a 50 x 25 mm thermode (47 degrees C, 7 min) 45 min after the blocks. Pain intensity induced by heat, pain thresholds...... between sympathetic block and placebo for pain or mechanical allodynia during injury, or pain thresholds, pain responses to heat, or areas of secondary hyperalgesia after the injury. The comparisons were done for the period when the block was effective. CONCLUSION: Sympathetic nerve block did not change...

  11. On the number of preganglionic neurones driving human postganglionic sympathetic neurones: a comparison of modelling and empirical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan G Macefield


    Full Text Available Postganglionic sympathetic axons in awake healthy human subjects, regardless of their identity as muscle vasoconstrictor, cutaneous vasoconstrictor or sudomotor neurones, discharge with a low firing probability (~30%, generate low firing rates (~0.5 Hz and typically fire only once per cardiac interval. The purpose of the present study was to use modelling of spike trains in an attempt to define the number of preganglionic neurones that drive an individual postganglionic neurone. Artificial spike trains were generated in 1-3 preganglionic neurones converging onto a single postganglionic neurone. Each preganglionic input fired with a mean interval distribution of either 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 or 3000 ms and the standard deviation varied between 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 x the mean interval; the discharge frequency of each preganglionic neurone exhibited positive skewness and kurtosis. Of the 45 patterns examined, the mean discharge properties of the postganglionic neurone could only be explained by it being driven by, on average, two preganglionic neurones firing with a mean interspike interval of 2500 ms and SD of 5000 ms. The mean firing rate resulting from this pattern was 0.22 Hz, comparable to that of spontaneously active muscle vasoconstrictor neurones in healthy subjects (0.40 Hz. Likewise, the distribution of the number of spikes per cardiac interval was similar between the modelled and actual data: 0 spikes (69.5 vs 66.6 %, 1 spike (25.6 vs 21.2 %, 2 spikes (4.3 vs 6.4 %, 3 spikes (0.5 vs 1.7 % and 4 spikes (0.1 vs 0.7 %. Although some features of the firing patterns could be explained by the postganglionic neurone being driven by a single preganglionic neurone, none of the emulated firing patterns generated by the firing of three preganglionic neurones matched the discharge of the real neurones. These modelling data indicate that, on average, human postganglionic sympathetic neurones are driven by two preganglionic inputs.

  12. Innervating sympathetic neurons regulate heart size and the timing of cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal. (United States)

    Kreipke, R E; Birren, S J


    Sympathetic drive to the heart is a key modulator of cardiac function and interactions between heart tissue and innervating sympathetic fibres are established early in development. Significant innervation takes place during postnatal heart development, a period when cardiomyocytes undergo a rapid transition from proliferative to hypertrophic growth. The question of whether these innervating sympathetic fibres play a role in regulating the modes of cardiomyocyte growth was investigated using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to abolish early sympathetic innervation of the heart. Postnatal chemical sympathectomy resulted in rats with smaller hearts, indicating that heart growth is regulated by innervating sympathetic fibres during the postnatal period. In vitro experiments showed that sympathetic interactions resulted in delays in markers of cardiomyocyte maturation, suggesting that changes in the timing of the transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes could underlie changes in heart size in the sympathectomized animals. There was also an increase in the expression of Meis1, which has been linked to cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal, suggesting that sympathetic signalling suppresses cell cycle withdrawal. This signalling involves β-adrenergic activation, which was necessary for sympathetic regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. The effect of β-adrenergic signalling on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy underwent a developmental transition. While young postnatal cardiomyocytes responded to isoproterenol (isoprenaline) with a decrease in cell size, mature cardiomyocytes showed an increase in cell size in response to the drug. Together, these results suggest that early sympathetic effects on proliferation modulate a key transition between proliferative and hypertrophic growth of the heart and contribute to the sympathetic regulation of adult heart size. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  13. Egr3 dependent sympathetic target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is a target tissue derived neurotrophin required for normal sympathetic neuron survival and target tissue innervation. NGF signaling regulates gene expression in sympathetic neurons, which in turn mediates critical aspects of neuron survival, axon extension and terminal axon branching during sympathetic nervous system (SNS development. Egr3 is a transcription factor regulated by NGF signaling in sympathetic neurons that is essential for normal SNS development. Germline Egr3-deficient mice have physiologic dysautonomia characterized by apoptotic sympathetic neuron death and abnormal innervation to many target tissues. The extent to which sympathetic innervation abnormalities in the absence of Egr3 is caused by altered innervation or by neuron death during development is unknown. Using Bax-deficient mice to abrogate apoptotic sympathetic neuron death in vivo, we show that Egr3 has an essential role in target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death. Sympathetic target tissue innervation is abnormal in many target tissues in the absence of neuron death, and like NGF, Egr3 also appears to effect target tissue innervation heterogeneously. In some tissues, such as heart, spleen, bowel, kidney, pineal gland and the eye, Egr3 is essential for normal innervation, whereas in other tissues such as lung, stomach, pancreas and liver, Egr3 appears to have little role in innervation. Moreover, in salivary glands and heart, two tissues where Egr3 has an essential role in sympathetic innervation, NGF and NT-3 are expressed normally in the absence of Egr3 indicating that abnormal target tissue innervation is not due to deregulation of these neurotrophins in target tissues. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate a role for Egr3 in mediating sympathetic target tissue innervation that is independent of neuron survival or neurotrophin deregulation.

  14. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.


    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  15. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.


    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  16. Production and sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chaobo


    This thesis reports on experimental and theoretical studies of the sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions demonstrating that this general method for cooling atomic and molecular ions is reliable and efficient. For this purpose, complex molecular ions and barium ions have been confined simultaneously in a linear Paul trap. The complex molecular ions are generated in an electrospray ionization system and transferred to the trap via a 2 m long octopole ion guide. These molecular ions are pre-cooled by room temperature helium buffer gas so that they can be captured by the trap. The atomic barium ions are loaded from a barium evaporator oven and are laser-cooled by a 493 nm cooling laser and a 650 nm repumping laser. Due to the mutual Coulomb interaction among these charged particles, the kinetic energy of the complex molecular ions can be reduced significantly. In our experiments we have demonstrated the sympathetic cooling of various molecules (CO{sub 2}, Alexa Fluor 350, glycyrrhetinic acid, cytochrome c) covering a wide mass range from a few tens to 13000 amu. In every case the molecular ions could be cooled down to millikelvin temperatures. Photo-chemical reactions of the {sup 138}Ba{sup +} ions in the ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) excited state with gases such as O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, or N{sub 2}O, could be observed. If the initial {sup 138}Ba{sup +} ion ensemble is cold, the produced {sup 138}BaO{sup +} ions are cold as well, with a similar temperature as the laser-cooled barium ions (a few tens of millikelvin). The back-reaction of {sup 138}BaO{sup +} ions with neutral CO to {sup 138}Ba{sup +} is possible and was observed in our experiments as well. A powerful molecular dynamics (MD) simulation program has been developed. With this program dynamic properties of ion ensembles, such as sympathetic interactions or heating effects, have been investigated and experimental results have been analyzed to obtain, for example, ion numbers and temperatures. Additionally, the

  17. Production and sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chaobo


    This thesis reports on experimental and theoretical studies of the sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions demonstrating that this general method for cooling atomic and molecular ions is reliable and efficient. For this purpose, complex molecular ions and barium ions have been confined simultaneously in a linear Paul trap. The complex molecular ions are generated in an electrospray ionization system and transferred to the trap via a 2 m long octopole ion guide. These molecular ions are pre-cooled by room temperature helium buffer gas so that they can be captured by the trap. The atomic barium ions are loaded from a barium evaporator oven and are laser-cooled by a 493 nm cooling laser and a 650 nm repumping laser. Due to the mutual Coulomb interaction among these charged particles, the kinetic energy of the complex molecular ions can be reduced significantly. In our experiments we have demonstrated the sympathetic cooling of various molecules (CO 2 , Alexa Fluor 350, glycyrrhetinic acid, cytochrome c) covering a wide mass range from a few tens to 13000 amu. In every case the molecular ions could be cooled down to millikelvin temperatures. Photo-chemical reactions of the 138 Ba + ions in the ( 2 P 1/2 ) excited state with gases such as O 2 , CO 2 , or N 2 O, could be observed. If the initial 138 Ba + ion ensemble is cold, the produced 138 BaO + ions are cold as well, with a similar temperature as the laser-cooled barium ions (a few tens of millikelvin). The back-reaction of 138 BaO + ions with neutral CO to 138 Ba + is possible and was observed in our experiments as well. A powerful molecular dynamics (MD) simulation program has been developed. With this program dynamic properties of ion ensembles, such as sympathetic interactions or heating effects, have been investigated and experimental results have been analyzed to obtain, for example, ion numbers and temperatures. Additionally, the feasibility of nondestructive spectroscopy via an optical dipole excitation


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi


    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  19. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J


    in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy, whereas baseline plasma DOPA concentrations were similar in the three groups investigated: 6.55 (5.03-7.26, median [interquartile range], n = 8) nmol l-1 in diabetics with neuropathy, 7.41 (5.79-7.97, n = 8) nmol l-1...... in diabetics without neuropathy, and 6.85 (5.58-7.36, n = 8) nmol l-1 in controls. No relationship was obtained between baseline values of plasma NE and plasma DOPA. Plasma DOPA did not change in the upright position, whereas plasma NE increased significantly. Our results indicate that plasma DOPA...... is not related to sympathetic activity and may be of non-neuronal origin....

  20. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard


    We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

  1. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis


    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  2. Cardiac Sympathetic Hyperactivity after Chemotherapy: Early Sign of Cardiotoxicity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimarães, Sarita Lígia Pessoa de Melo Machado [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (HAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Brandão, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Andrade, Luciana Raposo [Hospital Santa Joana, Recife, PE (Brazil); Maia, Rafael José Coelho [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (HAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Markman Filho, Brivaldo [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    Chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab can cause cardiotoxicity. Alteration of cardiac adrenergic function assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled with iodine-123 ({sup 123}I-mIBG) seems to precede the drop in left ventricular ejection fraction. To evaluate and to compare the presence of cardiovascular abnormalities among patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab, and only with anthracycline. Patients with breast cancer were analyzed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic and cardiac sympathetic activity. In scintigraphic images, the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum, and the washout rate were calculated. The variables were compared between patients who received anthracyclines and trastuzumab (Group 1) and only anthracyclines (Group 2). Twenty patients, with mean age 57 ± 14 years, were studied. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography was 67.8 ± 4.0%. Mean washout rate was 28.39 ± 9.23% and the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was 2.07 ± 0.28. Of the patients, 82% showed an increased in washout rate, and the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum decreased in 25%. Concerning the groups, the mean washout rate of Group 1 was 32.68 ± 9.30% and of Group 2 was 24.56 ± 7.72% (p = 0,06). The ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was normal in all patients in Group 2, however, the Group 1, showed 50% the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum ≤ 1.8 (p = 0.02). In women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy, assessment of cardiac sympathetic activity with {sup 123}I-mIBG appears to be an early marker of cardiotoxicity. The combination of chemotherapy showed higher risk of cardiac adrenergic hyperactivity.

  3. Predischarge maximal exercise test identifies risk for cardiac death in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Mickley, H; Damsgaard, E M


    A maximal exercise test was performed in 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before discharge and in 49 age-matched control subjects. The long-term prognosis was assessed after an average follow-up of 7.6 years in AMI patients and 5.8 years in control subjects. The maximal work...... capacity and systolic blood pressure increase in AMI patients was 59% that of control subjects (p less than 0.001). Seventeen AMI patients had significant ST-segment shifts, 13 with ST depression and 4 with ST elevation. In AMI patients experiencing a cardiac death during follow-up the maximal work...... were of no significant value. In this study maximal work capacity turned out to be the best single exercise variable for identifying groups of AMI patients with very low and relative high risk of cardiac death. When all 3 exercise variables were combined, the predischarge maximal exercise test...

  4. Vessel Sewage Discharges (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  5. Renal sympathetic nerve, blood flow, and epithelial transport responses to thermal stress. (United States)

    Wilson, Thad E


    Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state. Hyperthermia extends these directional changes, until heat illness results. Because kidney responses are very difficult to study in humans in vivo, this review describes and qualitatively evaluates an in vivo human skin model of sympathetically regulated epithelial tissue compared to that of the nephron. This model utilizes skin responses to thermal stress, involving 1) increased skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), decreased skin blood flow, and suppressed eccrine epithelial transport during cold stress; and 2) increased SSNA, skin blood flow, and eccrine epithelial transport during heat stress. This model appears to mimic aspects of the renal responses. Investigations of skin responses, which parallel certain renal responses, may aid understanding of epithelial-sympathetic nervous system interactions during cold and heat stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sympathetic nerves: How do they affect angiogenesis, particularly during wound healing of soft tissues? (United States)

    Pan, Liangli; Tang, Jianbing; Liu, Hongwei; Cheng, Biao


    Angiogenesis is essential for wound healing, and angiogenesis impairment can result in chronic ulcers. Studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system has an important role in angiogenesis. In recent years, researchers have focused on the roles of sympathetic nerves in tumor angiogenesis. In fact, sympathetic nerves can affect angiogenesis in the wound healing of soft tissues, and may have a similar mechanism of action as that seen in tumorigenesis. Sympathetic nerves act primarily through interactions between the neurotransmitters released from nerve endings and receptors present in target organs. Among this, activation or inhibition of adrenergic receptors (mainly β-adrenergic receptors) influence formation of new blood vessels considerably. As sympathetic nerves locate near pericytes in microvessel, go along the capillaries and there are adrenergic receptors present in endothelial cells and pericytes, sympathetic nerves may participate in angiogenesis by influencing the endothelial cells and pericytes of new capillaries. Studying the roles of sympathetic nerves on the angiogenesis of wound healing can contribute to understanding the mechanisms of tissue repair, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis, thereby providing new therapeutic perspectives.

  7. Sympathetic Blocks Provided Sustained Pain Relief in a Patient with Refractory Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Cheng


    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients.

  8. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.


    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  9. Maximizing the optical network capacity. (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I


    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.


    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  11. Heart attack - discharge (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  12. The role of sympathetic nervous system in the progression of chronic kidney disease in the era of catheter based sympathetic renal denervation. (United States)

    Petras, Dimitrios; Koutroutsos, Konstantinos; Kordalis, Athanasios; Tsioufis, Costas; Stefanadis, Christodoulos


    The kidney has been shown to be critically involved as both trigger and target of sympathetic nervous system overactivity in both experimental and clinical studies. Renal injury and ischemia, activation of renin angiotensin system and dysfunction of nitric oxide system have been implicated in adrenergic activation from kidney. Conversely, several lines of evidence suggest that sympathetic overactivity, through functional and morphological alterations in renal physiology and structure, may contribute to kidney injury and chronic kidney disease progression. Pharmacologic modulation of sympathetic nervous system activity has been found to have a blood pressure independent renoprotective effect. The inadequate normalization of sympathoexcitation by pharmacologic treatment asks for novel treatment options. Catheter based renal denervation targets selectively both efferent and afferent renal nerves and functionally denervates the kidney providing blood pressure reduction in clinical trials and renoprotection in experimental models by ameliorating the effects of excessive renal sympathetic drive. This review will focus on the role of sympathetic overactivity in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and CKD progression and will speculate on the effect of renal denervation to these conditions.

  13. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood Pressure and Heart Rate via Sympathetic Nervous System Dependent Mechanisms. (United States)

    Aliyu, B; Oyeniyi, Y J; Mojiminiyi, F B O; Isezuo, S A; Alada, A R A


    The antihypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has been validated in animals and man. This study tested the hypothesis that its hypotensive effect may be sympathetically mediated. The cold pressor test (CPT) and handgrip exercise (HGE) were performed in 20 healthy subjects before and after the oral administration of 15mg/Kg HS. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses were measured digitally. Mean arterial pressure (MAP; taken as representative BP) was calculated. Results are expressed as mean ±SEM. P<0.05 was considered significant. CPT without HS resulted in a significant rise in MAP and HR (111.1±2.1mmHg and 100.8±2.0/min) from the basal values (97.9±1.9mmHg and 87.8±2.1/min; P<0.0001 respectively). In the presence of HS, CPT-induced changes (ΔMAP=10.1±1.7mmHg; ΔHR= 8.4±1.0/min) were significantly reduced compared to its absence (ΔMAP= 13.2±1.2mmHg; ΔHR= 13.8±1.6/min; P<0.0001 respectively). The HGE done without HS also resulted in an increase in MAP and HR (116.3±2.1mmHg and 78.4±1.2/min) from the basal values (94.8±1.6mmHg and 76.1±1.0/min; p<0.0001 respectively). In the presence of HS the HGE-induced changes (ΔMAP= 11.5±1.0mmHg; ΔHR= 3.3±1.0/min) were significantly decreased compared to its absence (ΔMAP=21.4±1.2mmHg; ΔHR= 12.8±2.0/min; P<0.0001 respectively). The CPT and HGE -induced increases in BP and HR suggest Sympathetic nervous system activation. These increases were significantly dampened by HS suggesting, indirectly, that its hypotensive effect may be due to an attenuation of the discharge of the sympathetic nervous system.

  14. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand


    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  15. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning. (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya


    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  16. On maximal massive 3D supergravity


    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K


    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  17. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach


    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter


    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  18. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management. (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N


    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan


    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  20. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B


    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  1. Racemic ketamine decreases muscle sympathetic activity but maintains the neural response to hypotensive challenges in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienbaum, P.; Heuter, T.; Michel, M. C.; Peters, J.


    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular stimulation and increased catecholamine plasma concentrations during ketamine anesthesia have been attributed to increased central sympathetic activity as well as catecholamine reuptake inhibition in various experimental models. However, direct recordings of efferent

  2. Sympathetic neural adaptation to hypocaloric diet with or without exercise training in obese metabolic syndrome subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straznicky, Nora E; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Nestel, Paul J


    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity contributes to the pathogenesis and target organ complications of obesity. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lifestyle interventions (weight loss alone or together with exercise) on SNS function....

  3. Subtle involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, P.L.; Vos, P.E.; Wieneke, G.H.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Karemaker, J.M.


    The literature on the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conflicting. We therefore investigated several aspects of autonomic function, namely muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, cardiac function (electrocardiogram; ECG),

  4. Subtle involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, P. Liam; Vos, Pieter E.; Wieneke, George H.; Wokke, John H. J.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Karemaker, John M.


    The literature on the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conflicting. We therefore investigated several aspects of autonomic function, namely muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, cardiac function (electrocardiogram; ECG),

  5. Effect of experimental hyperinsulinemia on sympathetic nervous system activity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.B.


    Since insulin acutely stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, a role for sympathetic overactivity has been hypothesized to underlie the association between chronic hyperinsulinemia and hypertension. To assess the effect of sustained hyperinsulinemia on sympathetic function, [ 3 H]norepinephrine (NE) turnover was measured in rats injected with insulin for 14d. NE turnover in insulin-treated animals given free access to lab chow and a 10% sucrose solution was compared with that obtained in rats fed chow alone or chow plus sucrose. Sucrose ingestion increased NE turnover in heart, brown adipose tissue, and liver, but exogenous insulin did not augment turnover beyond that seen in animals given sucrose alone. This study, therefore, provides no evidence that chronic hyperinsulinemia, sufficient to induce peripheral insulin resistance, stimulates sympathetic activity more than that produced by chronic sucrose ingestion


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Background. In humans, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition attenuates the vasoconstriction induced by sympathetic stimulation in a number of peripheral districts. Whether this is also the case in the coronary circulation is unknown, however. Methods and Results. In nine normotensive

  7. Factitious lymphoedema as a psychiatric condition mimicking reflex sympathetic dystrophy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaejike Nnamdi


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Reflex sympathetic dystrophy can result in severe disability with only one in five patients able to fully resume prior activities. Therefore, it is important to diagnose this condition early and begin appropriate treatment. Factitious lymphoedema can mimic reflex sympathetic dystrophy and is caused by self-inflicted tourniquets, blows to the arm or repeated skin irritation. Patients with factitious lymphoedema have an underlying psychiatric disorder but usually present to emergency or orthopaedics departments. Factitious lymphoedema can then be misdiagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. The treatment for factitious lymphoedema is dealing with the underlying psychiatric condition. Case presentation We share our experience of treating a 33-year-old man, who presented with factitious lymphoedema, initially diagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Conclusion Awareness of this very similar differential diagnosis allows early appropriate treatment to be administered.

  8. Optogenetic release of norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic neurons alters mechanical and electrical function. (United States)

    Wengrowski, Anastasia M; Wang, Xin; Tapa, Srinivas; Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Mendelowitz, David; Kay, Matthew W


    Release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic neurons enhances heart rate (HR) and developed force through activation of β-adrenergic receptors, and this sympathoexcitation is a key risk for the generation of cardiac arrhythmias. Studies of β-adrenergic modulation of cardiac function typically involve the administration of exogenous β-adrenergic receptor agonists to directly elicit global β-adrenergic receptor activation by bypassing the involvement of sympathetic nerve terminals. In this work, we use a novel method to activate sympathetic fibres within the myocardium of Langendorff-perfused hearts while measuring changes in electrical and mechanical function. The light-activated optogenetic protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was expressed in murine catecholaminergic sympathetic neurons. Sympathetic fibres were then photoactivated to examine changes in contractile force, HR, and cardiac electrical activity. Incidence of arrhythmia was measured with and without exposure to photoactivation of sympathetic fibres, and hearts were optically mapped to detect changes in action potential durations and conduction velocities. Results demonstrate facilitation of both developed force and HR after photostimulated release of NE, with increases in contractile force and HR of 34.5 ± 5.5 and 25.0 ± 9.3%, respectively. Photostimulation of sympathetic fibres also made hearts more susceptible to arrhythmia, with greater incidence and severity. In addition, optically mapped action potentials displayed a small but significant shortening of the plateau phase (-5.5 ± 1.0 ms) after photostimulation. This study characterizes a powerful and clinically relevant new model for studies of cardiac arrhythmias generated by increasing the activity of sympathetic nerve terminals and the resulting activation of myocyte β-adrenergic receptors. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email:

  9. Sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of rectal motility in rats. (United States)

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Tong, Wei-Dong; Takahashi, Toku; Kosinski, Lauren; Ludwig, Kirk A


    The colon and rectum are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Abnormalities of the ANS are associated with diseases of the colon and rectum while its modulation is a putative mechanism for sacral nerve stimulation. The purpose of this study is to establish a rat model elucidating the role of the efferent ANS on rectal motility. Rectal motility following transection or stimulation of parasympathetic pelvic nerves (PN) or sympathetic hypogastric nerves (HGN) was measured with rectal strain gauge transducers and quantified as a motility index (MI). Colonic transit was measured 24 hours after transection by calculating the geometric center (GC) of distribution of (51)Cr Transection of PN and HGN decreased MI to 518 +/- 185 g*s (p < 0.05) and increased MI to 5,029 +/- 1,954 g*s (p < 0.05), respectively, compared to sham (975 +/- 243 g*s). Sectioning of PN and HGN decreased transit with GC = 4.9 +/- 0.2 (p < 0.05) and increased transit with GC = 8.1 +/- 0.7 (p < 0.02), respectively, compared to sham (GC = 5.8 +/- 0.3). Stimulation of PN and HGN increased MI to 831 +/- 157% (p < 0.01) and decreased MI to 251 +/- 24% (p < 0.05), respectively. Rectal motility is significantly altered by sectioning or stimulating either HGN or PN. This model may be useful in studying how sacral nerve stimulation exerts its effects and provide insight into the maladies of colonic motility.

  10. High-resolution Observations of Sympathetic Filament Eruptions by NVST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shangwei; Su, Yingna; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan [5001 Riverwood Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34231 (United States); Sun, Xudong, E-mail: [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    We investigate two sympathetic filament eruptions observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope on 2015 October 15. The full picture of the eruptions is obtained from the corresponding Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations. The two filaments start from active region NOAA 12434 in the north and end in one large quiescent filament channel in the south. The left filament erupts first, followed by the right filament eruption about 10 minutes later. Clear twist structure and rotating motion are observed in both filaments during the eruption. Both eruptions failed, since the filaments first rise up, then flow toward the south and merge into the southern large quiescent filament. We also observe repeated activations of mini filaments below the right filament after its eruption. Using magnetic field models constructed based on SDO /HMI magnetograms via the flux rope insertion method, we find that the left filament eruption is likely to be triggered by kink instability, while the weakening of overlying magnetic fields due to magnetic reconnection at an X-point between the two filament systems might play an important role in the onset of the right filament eruption.

  11. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Watanabe

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz to high (0.15-0.40 Hz frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  12. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration. (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio


    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  13. Inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission in canine saphenous veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edoute, Y.; Vanhoutte, P.M.; Shepherd, J.T.


    Inorganic phosphate has been proposed as the initiator of metabolic vasodilatation in active skeletal muscle. The present study was primarily designed to determine if this substance has an inhibitory effect on adrenergic neurotransmission. Rings of canine saphenous veins were suspended for isometric tension recording in organ chambers. A comparison was made of the ability of inorganic phosphate (3 to 14 mM) to relax rings contracted to the same degree by electrical stimulation, exogenous norepinephrine, and prostaglandin F/sub 2α/. The relaxation during electrical stimulation was significantly greater at all concentrations of phosphate. In strips of saphenous veins previously incubated with [ 3 H]norepinephrine, the depression of the contractile response caused by phosphate during electrical stimulated was accompanied by a significant reduction in the overflow of labeled neurotransmitter. Thus inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission and hence may have a key role in the sympatholysis in the active skeletal muscles during exercise. By contrast, in this preparation, it has a modest direct relaxing action on the vascular smooth muscle

  14. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Botha


    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS, type 1 is a pain disorder that develops unpredictably and can follow a minor injury. A 12-year-old boy presented with severe pain in the feet and could not walk or stand weight bearing. Normal X-rays showed osteopenic changes and radiolucent lines, which appeared to be stress fractures. Three-phase bone scintigraphy showed no uptake in the left lower leg on the blood pool phase or on the immediate or delayed images. This indicated typical CPRS type 1 in children. The uptake in the right foot was increased and the stress fracture and other illness could not be differentiated. Computed tomography was done to exclude stress fractures. Only osteopenic changes in both calcaneus bones were found and there was no evidence of cortical stress fractures. Magnetic resonance images revealed oedema in the calcaneus and talus bones of both feet. The patient received epidural narcotic infusion with sympathetic blockage for 1 week combined with extensive physiotherapy. The blood pool phase of the bone scan became normal within 2 weeks, and increased uptake in both feet was noticed. The patient was followed up with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months.

  15. Separate neurochemical classes of sympathetic postganglionic neurons project to the left ventricle of the rat heart. (United States)

    Richardson, R J; Grkovic, I; Allen, A M; Anderson, C R


    The sympathetic innervation of the rat heart was investigated by retrograde neuronal tracing and multiple label immunohistochemistry. Injections of Fast Blue made into the left ventricular wall labelled sympathetic neurons that were located along the medial border of both the left and right stellate ganglia. Cardiac projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons could be grouped into one of four neurochemical populations, characterised by their content of calbindin and/or neuropeptide Y (NPY). The subpopulations of neurons contained immunoreactivity to both calbindin and NPY, immunoreactivity to calbindin only, immunoreactivity to NPY only and no immunoreactivity to calbindin or NPY. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons were also labelled in vitro with rhodamine dextran applied to the cut end of a cardiac nerve. The same neurochemical subpopulations of sympathetic neurons were identified by using this technique but in different proportions to those labelled from the left ventricle. Preganglionic terminals that were immunoreactive for another calcium-binding protein, calretinin, preferentially surrounded retrogradely labelled neurons that were immunoreactive for both calbindin and NPY. The separate sympathetic pathways projecting to the rat heart may control different cardiac functions.

  16. Renal sympathetic denervation for treatment of patients with heart failure: summary of the available evidence. (United States)

    Nammas, Wail; Koistinen, Juhani; Paana, Tuomas; Karjalainen, Pasi P


    Heart failure syndrome results from compensatory mechanisms that operate to restore - back to normal - the systemic perfusion pressure. Sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in heart failure; norepinephrine contributes to maintenance of the systemic blood pressure and increasing preload. Cardiac norepinephrine spillover increases in patients with heart failure; norepinephrine exerts direct toxicity on cardiac myocytes resulting in a decrease of synthetic activity and/or viability. Importantly, cardiac norepinephrine spillover is a powerful predictor of mortality in patients with moderate to severe HF. This provided the rationale for trials that demonstrated survival benefit associated with the use of beta adrenergic blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the MOXCON trial demonstrated that rapid uptitration of moxonidine (inhibitor of central sympathetic outflow) in patients with heart failure was associated with excess mortality and morbidity, despite reduction of plasma norepinephrine. Interestingly, renal norepinephrine spillover was the only independent predictor of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure, in multivariable analysis. Recently, renal sympathetic denervation has emerged as a novel approach for control of blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. This article summarizes the available evidence for the effect of renal sympathetic denervation in the setting of heart failure. Key messages Experimental studies supported a beneficial effect of renal sympathetic denervation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Clinical studies demonstrated improvement of symptoms, and left ventricular function. In heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, renal sympathetic denervation is associated with improvement of surrogate endpoints.

  17. Adrenergic innervation of the developing chick heart: neural crest ablations to produce sympathetically aneural hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, M.; Stewart, D.


    Ablation of various regions of premigratory trunk neural crest which gives rise to the sympathetic trunks was used to remove sympathetic cardiac innervation. Neuronal uptake of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine was used as an index of neuronal development in the chick atrium. Following ablation of neural crest over somites 10-15 or 15-20, uptake was significantly decreased in the atrium at 16 and 17 days of development. Ablation of neural crest over somites 5-10 and 20-25 caused no decrease in [ 3 H]-norepinephrine uptake. Removal of neural crest over somites 5-25 or 10-20 caused approximately equal depletions of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine uptake in the atrium. Cardiac norepinephrine concentration was significantly depressed following ablation of neural crest over somites 5-25 but not over somites 10-20. Light-microscopic and histofluorescent preparations confirmed the absence of sympathetic trunks in the region of the normal origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves following neural crest ablation over somites 10-20. The neural tube and dorsal root ganglia were damaged in the area of the neural-crest ablation; however, all of these structures were normal cranial and caudal to the lesioned area. Development of most of the embryos as well as the morphology of all of the hearts was normal following the lesion. These results indicate that it is possible to produce sympathetically aneural hearts by neural-crest ablation; however, sympathetic cardiac nerves account for an insignificant amount of cardiac norepinephrine

  18. The sympathetic nervous system in polycystic ovary syndrome: a novel therapeutic target? (United States)

    Lansdown, Andrew; Rees, D Aled


    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition associated with long-term health risks, including type 2 diabetes and vascular dysfunction in addition to reproductive sequelae. Many of the common features of PCOS, such as central obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), are associated with chronic sympathetic overactivity, suggesting that sympathoexcitation may be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. Rodent models of polycystic ovaries have shown that ovarian sympathetic outflow may be increased, accompanied by elevated intra-ovarian synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF) which may be involved in initiation of ovarian pathology. Patients with PCOS have evidence of increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), altered heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery postexercise, compared with age- and BMI-matched controls, suggesting a generalized increase in sympathetic nerve activity. Active weight loss can reduce MSNA and whole body noradrenaline spillover, whereas low-frequency electroacupuncture decreased MSNA in overweight women with PCOS. Treatment of OSA with continuous positive airways pressure may reduce plasma noradrenaline levels and diastolic blood pressure and improve cardiac sympathovagal balance. Renal sympathetic denervation also reduced MSNA, noradrenaline spillover and blood pressure in two PCOS subjects with hypertension, accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. The sympathetic nervous system may thus offer a new therapeutic target in PCOS but larger and longer-term studies are needed before these treatments can be considered in clinical practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Highly localized interactions between sensory neurons and sprouting sympathetic fibers observed in a transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun-Ming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sprouting of sympathetic fibers into sensory ganglia occurs in many preclinical pain models, providing a possible anatomical substrate for sympathetically enhanced pain. However, the functional consequences of this sprouting have been controversial. We used a transgenic mouse in which sympathetic fibers expressed green fluorescent protein, observable in live tissue. Medium and large diameter lumbar sensory neurons with and without nearby sympathetic fibers were recorded in whole ganglion preparations using microelectrodes. Results After spinal nerve ligation, sympathetic sprouting was extensive by 3 days. Abnormal spontaneous activity increased to 15% and rheobase was reduced. Spontaneously active cells had Aαβ conduction velocities but were clustered near the medium/large cell boundary. Neurons with sympathetic basket formations had a dramatically higher incidence of spontaneous activity (71% and had lower rheobase than cells with no sympathetic fibers nearby. Cells with lower density nearby fibers had intermediate phenotypes. Immunohistochemistry of sectioned ganglia showed that cells surrounded by sympathetic fibers were enriched in nociceptive markers TrkA, substance P, or CGRP. Spontaneous activity began before sympathetic sprouting was observed, but blocking sympathetic sprouting on day 3 by cutting the dorsal ramus in addition to the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve greatly reduced abnormal spontaneous activity. Conclusions The data suggest that early sympathetic sprouting into the sensory ganglia may have highly localized, excitatory effects. Quantitatively, neurons with sympathetic basket formations may account for more than half of the observed spontaneous activity, despite being relatively rare. Spontaneous activity in sensory neurons and sympathetic sprouting may be mutually re-enforcing.

  20. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K


    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  1. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.


    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour


    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta


    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  3. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach. (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter


    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli


    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  5. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training? (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K


    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  6. Glow discharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.


    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  7. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.


    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  8. A new organellar complex in rat sympathetic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Ramer

    Full Text Available Membranous compartments of neurons such as axons, dendrites and modified primary cilia are defining features of neuronal phenotype. This is unlike organelles deep to the plasma membrane, which are for the most part generic and not related directly to morphological, neurochemical or functional specializations. However, here we use multi-label immunohistochemistry combined with confocal and electron microscopy to identify a very large (approximately 6 microns in diameter, entirely intracellular neuronal organelle which occurs singly in a ubiquitous but neurochemically distinct and morphologically simple subset of sympathetic ganglion neurons. Although usually toroidal, it also occurs as twists or rods depending on its intracellular position: tori are most often perinuclear whereas rods are often found in axons. These 'loukoumasomes' (doughnut-like bodies bind a monoclonal antibody raised against beta-III-tubulin (SDL.3D10, although their inability to bind other beta-III-tubulin monoclonal antibodies indicate that the responsible antigen is not known. Position-morphology relationships within neurons and their expression of non-muscle heavy chain myosin suggest a dynamic structure. They associate with nematosomes, enigmatic nucleolus-like organelles present in many neural and non-neural tissues, which we now show to be composed of filamentous actin. Loukoumasomes also separately interact with mother centrioles forming the basal body of primary cilia. They express gamma tubulin, a microtubule nucleator which localizes to non-neuronal centrosomes, and cenexin, a mother centriole-associated protein required for ciliogenesis. These data reveal a hitherto undescribed organelle, and depict it as an intracellular transport machine, shuttling material between the primary cilium, the nematosome, and the axon.

  9. Renal sympathetic denervation for treatment of resistant hypertension: Egyptian experience. (United States)

    Hamza, Mohamed; Khamis, Hazem


    Among the Egyptian population with essential hypertension, a minority are under control (systolic pressure renal artery radiofrequency (RF) ablation. To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of catheter-based radiofrequency renal sympathetic denervation for treatment of resistant hypertension in Egyptian patients. Patients with essential hypertension unresponsive to at least 3 types of antihypertensive medical therapy (baseline office systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg) (n = 55) were enrolled between February 2012 and June 2013 and received percutaneous RF ablation. Patients were followed up for 6 months after treatment to detect any change in office-based measurement of blood pressure. Urine and blood samples were taken to evaluate the effects on renal function. A reduction of mean office blood pressure was seen from 174/103 ± 9/5 mmHg at baseline to 150/91 ± 8/5 mmHg at 6 months follow-up (P = 0.001). Also, we noted a significant decrease in plasma renin activity (3.66 ± 0.64 vs. 3.37 ± 0.47 ng/mL per hour; P = 0.003), and there were no periprocedural complications, no adverse events, and no change in renal function during the follow-up period. Also, no change was noted in the number of medications after 6 months (3.95 ± 1.64 vs. 3.67 ± 0.72; P = 0.27). In this observational study, catheter-based renal denervation causes sustained blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension, without serious adverse events. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Kasherininov


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate effects of long-term treatment with rilmenidine compared with atenolol on lipid and glucose metabolism and cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension. Material and methods. 37 patients with hypertension were randomized to rilmenidine 1-2 mg/day or atenolol 50-100 mg/day for 26 weeks. Standard oral glucose tolerance test with a parallel measurement of insulin and glucose levels was performed. The “areas under the curve” (AUC for insulin and glucose were calculated. Plasma lipids, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and intima-media thickness (IMT were measured. Brachial artery diameter during reactive hyperemia was used to test endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDVD. Results. Blood pressure reduction was equally achieved in both treatment arms. The fasting glucose level increased in the atenolol group from 4.8±0.6 to 5.2±0.7 mmol/l (p<0.01. The AUC of glucose in rilmenidine group decreased from 860±93 to 737±66 mmol/min/l (p<0.05, and it increased from 937±86 to 989±88 mmol/min/l (p<0.05 in the atenolol group. Rilmenidine showed a positive effect on lipid levels, while in the atenolol group a significant decrease of high density lipoprotein was observed. LVMI decreased with rilmenidine by 9.6% (p<0.05 and by 6,9% (not significantly with atenolol. IMT significantly decreased in the rilmenidine. EDVD slightly increased on rilmenidine, while on atenolol group it remained unchanged. Conclusion. Our data suggest that in hypertensive patients central inhibition of sympathetic drive can produce favorable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism compared with standard β-blockade with a similar antihypertensive efficacy. Rilmenidine also provides beneficial effects on cardiovascular remodeling and altered endothelial function in hypertension.

  11. Increased vascular sympathetic modulation in mice with Mas receptor deficiency (United States)

    Rabello Casali, Karina; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Moura, Marina; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Bader, Michael; Haibara, Andrea; Alenina, Natalia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A


    Introduction: The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7)/Mas axis could modulate the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure variabilities (BPV) which are important predictors of cardiovascular risk and provide information about the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system. Therefore we investigated the effect of Mas deficiency on autonomic modulation in wild type and Mas-knockout (KO) mice. Methods: Blood pressure was recorded at high sample rate (4000 Hz). Stationary sequences of 200–250 beats were randomly chosen. Frequency domain analysis of HR and BPV was performed with an autoregressive algorithm on the pulse interval sequences and on respective systolic sequences. Results: The KO group presented an increase of systolic arterial pressure (SAP; 127.26±11.20 vs 135.07±6.98 mmHg), BPV (3.54±1.54 vs 5.87±2.12 mmHg2), and low-frequency component of systolic BPV (0.12±0.11 vs 0.47±0.34 mmHg2). Conclusions: The deletion of Mas receptor is associated with an increase of SAP and with an increased BPV, indicating alterations in autonomic control. Increase of sympathetic vascular modulation in absence of Mas evidences the important role of Ang-(1–7)/Mas on cardiovascular regulation. Moreover, the absence of significant changes in HR and HRV can indicate an adaptation of autonomic cardiac balance. Our results suggest that the Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis seems more important in autonomic modulation of arterial pressure than HR. PMID:27080540

  12. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.


    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  13. Dynamic interaction between the heart and its sympathetic innervation following T5 spinal cord transection. (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E


    Midthoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with enhanced sympathetic support of heart rate as well as myocardial damage related to calcium overload. The myocardial damage may elicit an enhanced sympathetic support of contractility to maintain ventricular function. In contrast, the level of inotropic drive may be reduced to match the lower afterload that results from the injury-induced reduction in arterial pressure. Accordingly, the inotropic response to midthoracic SCI may be increased or decreased but has not been investigated and therefore remains unknown. Furthermore, the altered ventricular function may be associated with anatomical changes in cardiac sympathetic innervation. To determine the inotropic drive following midthoracic SCI, a telemetry device was used for repeated measurements of left ventricular (LV) function, with and without beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, in rats before and after midthoracic SCI or sham SCI. In addition, NGF content (ELISA) and dendritic arborization (cholera toxin B immunohistochemistry and Sholl analysis) of cardiac-projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the stellate ganglia were determined. Midthoracic SCI was associated with an enhanced sympathetic support of heart rate, dP/dt(+), and dP/dt(-). Importantly, cardiac function was lower following blockade of the sympathetic nervous system in rats with midthoracic SCI compared with sham-operated rats. Finally, these functional neuroplastic changes were associated with an increased NGF content and structural neuroplasticity within the stellate ganglia. Results document impaired LV function with codirectional changes in chronotropic and inotropic responses following midthoracic SCI. These functional changes were associated with a dynamic interaction between the heart and its sympathetic innervation.

  14. Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata (United States)

    Marina, Nephtali; Abdala, Ana P.L.; Korsak, Alla; Simms, Annabel E.; Allen, Andrew M.; Paton, Julian F.R.; Gourine, Alexander V.


    Aims Increased sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnoea results from recurrent episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia and might be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we re-evaluated the role of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone, arterial blood pressure, and hypercapnia-evoked sympathetic and cardiovascular responses. Methods and results In anaesthetized rats in vivo and perfused rat working heart brainstem preparations in situ, C1 neurones were acutely silenced by application of the insect peptide allatostatin following cell-specific targeting with a lentiviral vector to express the inhibitory Drosophila allatostatin receptor. In anaesthetized rats with denervated peripheral chemoreceptors, acute inhibition of 50% of the C1 neuronal population resulted in ∼50% reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and a profound fall in arterial blood pressure (by ∼25 mmHg). However, under these conditions systemic hypercapnia still evoked vigorous sympathetic activation and the slopes of the CO2-evoked sympathoexcitatory and cardiovascular responses were not affected by inhibition of C1 neurones. Inhibition of C1 neurones in situ resulted in a reversible fall in perfusion pressure and the amplitude of respiratory-related bursts of thoracic sympathetic nerve activity. Conclusion These data confirm a fundamental physiological role of medullary catecholaminergic C1 neurones in maintaining resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and arterial blood pressure. However, C1 neurones do not appear to mediate sympathoexcitation evoked by central actions of CO2. PMID:21543384

  15. Recurrent postoperative CRPS I in patients with abnormal preoperative sympathetic function. (United States)

    Ackerman, William E; Ahmad, Mahmood


    A complex regional pain syndrome of an extremity that has previously resolved can recur after repeat surgery at the same anatomic site. Complex regional pain syndrome is described as a disease of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative and postoperative sympathetic function and the recurrence of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) in patients after repeat carpal tunnel surgery. Thirty-four patients who developed CRPS I after initial carpal tunnel releases and required repeat open carpal tunnel surgeries were studied. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) was used to assess preoperative sympathetic function 5-7 days prior to surgery and to assess postoperative sympathetic function 19-22 days after surgery or 20-22 days after resolution of the CRPS I. Sympathetic nervous system function was prospectively examined by testing reflex-evoked vasoconstrictor responses to sympathetic stimuli recorded with LDI of both hands. Patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on LDI responses to sympathetic provocation. Group I (11 of 34) patients had abnormal preoperative LDI studies in the hands that had prior surgeries, whereas group II (23 of 34) patients had normal LDI studies. Each patient in this study had open repeat carpal tunnel surgery. In group I, 8 of 11 patients had recurrent CRPS I, whereas in group II, 3 of 23 patients had recurrent CRPS I. All of the recurrent CRPS I patients were successfully treated with sympathetic blockade, occupational therapy, and pharmacologic modalities. Repeat LDI after recurrent CRPS I resolution was abnormal in 8 of 8 group I patients and in 1 of 3 group II patients. CRPS I can recur after repeat hand surgery. Our study results may, however, identify those individuals who may readily benefit from perioperative therapies. Prognostic I.

  16. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrsa Bergmann Sverrisdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal studies indicates the importance of an interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and the endothelium for cardiovascular regulation. However the interaction between these two systems remains largely unexplored in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether directly recorded sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 10 healthy normotensive subjects (3 f/7 m, (age 37+/-11 yrs, (BMI 24+/-3 kg/m(2 direct recordings of sympathetic action potentials to the muscle vascular bed (MSNA were performed and endothelial function estimated with the Reactive Hyperaemia- Peripheral Arterial Tonometry (RH-PAT technique. Blood samples were taken and time spent on leisure-time physical activities was estimated. In all subjects the rate between resting flow and the maximum flow, the Reactive Hyperemic index (RH-PAT index, was within the normal range (1.9-3.3 and MSNA was as expected for age and gender (13-44 burst/minute. RH-PAT index was inversely related to MSNA (r = -0.8, p = 0.005. RH-PAT index and MSNA were reciprocally related to time (h/week spent on physical activity (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006 respectively and platelet concentration (PLT (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy normotensive individuals, indicating that sympathetic outflow may be modulated by changes in endothelial function. In this study time spent on physical activity is identified as a predictor of sympathetic nerve activity and endothelial function in a group of healthy individuals. The results are of importance in understanding mechanisms underlying sympathetic activation in conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction and emphasise the importance of a daily exercise routine for maintenance of cardiovascular


    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Jarvis, Sara S.; Best, Stuart A.; Edwards, Jeffrey G.; Hendrix, Joseph M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi


    The sympathetic response during the cold pressor test (CPT) has been reported to be greater in young blacks than whites, especially in those with a family history of hypertension. Since blood pressure (BP) increases with age, we evaluated whether elderly blacks have greater sympathetic activation during CPT than age-matched whites. BP, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Qc), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured during supine baseline, 2-min CPT, and 3-min recovery in 47 elderly [68±7 (SD) yrs] volunteers (12 blacks, 35 whites). Baseline BP, HR, Qc, or MSNA did not differ between races. Systolic and diastolic BP (DBP) and HR increased during CPT (all P0.05). Qc increased during CPT and up to 30 sec of recovery in both groups, but was lower in blacks than whites. MSNA increased during CPT in both groups (both P<0.001); the increase in burst frequency was similar between groups, while the increase in total activity was smaller in blacks (P=0.030 for interaction). Peak change (Δ) in DBP was correlated with Δ total activity at 1 min into CPT in both blacks (r=0.78, P=0.003) and whites (r=0.43, P=0.009), while the slope was significantly greater in blacks (P=0.007). Thus, elderly blacks have smaller sympathetic and central hemodynamic (e.g., Qc) responses, but a greater pressor response for a given sympathetic activation during CPT than elderly whites. This response may stem from augmented sympathetic vascular transduction, greater sympathetic activation to other vascular bed(s), and/or enhanced non-adrenergically mediated vasoconstriction in elderly blacks. PMID:27021009

  18. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing


    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)


    CERN Document Server

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    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  20. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen


    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  1. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  2. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan


    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  3. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.


    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  4. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.


    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  5. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans


    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  6. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann


    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  7. Endovascular ultrasound for renal sympathetic denervation in patients with therapy-resistant hypertension not responding to radiofrequency renal sympathetic denervation. (United States)

    Stiermaier, Thomas; Okon, Thomas; Fengler, Karl; Mueller, Ulrike; Hoellriegel, Robert; Schuler, Gerhard; Desch, Steffen; Lurz, Philipp


    Recent studies have reported a considerable number of non-responders after renal sympathetic de-nervation (RSD) with radiofrequency technology. Here we report our results of repeat RSD using ultrasound in these patients. A cohort study was performed in patients who underwent ultrasound RSD after non-response to RSD with radiofrequency. Non-response was defined as mean daytime systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or a reduction of ≤10 mmHg in ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) ≥6 months after radiofrequency denervation. ABPM was recorded at baseline, post radiofrequency RSD as well as at three and six months post ultrasound RSD. A total of 24 non-responders underwent retreatment with the ultrasound device at a mean 15.3±8.2 months after radiofrequency RSD. Ultrasound RSD was performed successfully in all patients without severe adverse events. Mean daytime systolic blood pressure changed from 161.7±14.6 mmHg at baseline to 158.5±9.5 mmHg post radiofrequency RSD and to 150.5±10.4 mmHg and 151.6±11.0 mmHg at three and six months, respectively, post ultrasound RSD (pmeasures analysis of variance). The main results of post hoc testing were as follows: baseline versus post radiofrequency RSD, p=0.83; baseline versus three months post ultrasound RSD, p=0.01; and baseline versus six months post ultrasound RSD, p=0.04. Ultrasound RSD appears to be safe and an effective therapeutic approach in patients not responding to previous RSD with radiofrequency technology.

  8. Change in sympathetic nerve firing pattern associated with dietary weight loss in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Annie Lambert


    Full Text Available Sympathetic activation in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development. Diet-induced weight loss decreases sympathetic outflow. However the mechanisms that account for sympathetic inhibition are not known. We sought to provide a detailed description of the sympathetic response to diet by analyzing the firing behavior of single-unit sympathetic nerve fibres. Fourteen subjects (57±2 years, 9 men, 5 females fulfilling ATP III criteria for the MS underwent a 3-month low calorie diet. Metabolic profile, hemodynamic parameters and multi-unit and single unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography were assessed prior to and at the end of the diet. Patients’ weight dropped from 96±4 to 88±3 kg (P<0.001. This was associated with a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-12 ±3 and -5±2 mmHg, P<0.05, and in heart rate (-7±2 bpm, P<0.01 and an improvement in all metabolic parameters (fasting glucose: -0.302.1±0.118 mmol/l, total cholesterol: -0.564±0.164 mmol/l, triglycerides: -0.414±0.137 mmol/l, P<0.05. Multi-unit MSNA decreased from 68±4 to 59±5 bursts per 100 heartbeats (P<0.05. Single-unit MSNA indicated that the firing rate of individual vasoconstrictor fibres decreased from 59±10 to 32±4 spikes per 100 heart beats (P<0.05. The probability of firing decreased from 34±5 to 23±3 % of heartbeats (P<0.05, and the incidence of multiple firing decreased from 14±4 to 6±1 % of heartbeats (P<0.05. Cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex function were significantly improved (cardiac slope: 6.57±0.69 to 9.57±1.20 msec.mmHg-1; sympathetic slope: -3.86±0.34 to -5.05±0.47 bursts per 100 heartbeats.mmHg-1 P<0.05 for both. Hypocaloric diet decreased sympathetic activity and improved hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The sympathoinhibition associated with weight loss involves marked changes, not only in the rate but also in the firing pattern of

  9. Renal Sympathetic Denervation System via Intraluminal Ultrasonic Ablation: Therapeutic Intravascular Ultrasound Design and Preclinical Evaluation. (United States)

    Chernin, Gil; Szwarcfiter, Iris; Bausback, Yvonne; Jonas, Michael


    To assess the safety and performance of a nonfocused and nonballooned ultrasonic (US) catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) system in normotensive swine. RDN with the therapeutic intravascular US catheter was evaluated in 3 experiments: (i) therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs a control group of untreated animals with follow-up of 30, 45, and 90 days (n = 6; n = 12 renal arteries for each group); (ii) therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs radiofrequency (RF) RDN in the contralateral artery in the same animal (n = 2; n = 4 renal arteries); and (iii) therapeutic intravascular US RDN in a recently stent-implanted renal artery (n = 2; n = 4 renal arteries). In the first experiment, therapeutic intravascular US RDN was safe, without angiographic evidence of dissection or renal artery stenosis. Neuronal tissue vacuolization, nuclei pyknosis, and perineuronal inflammation were evident after RDN, without renal artery wall damage. Norepinephrine levels were significantly lower after therapeutic intravascular US RDN after 30, 45, and 90 days compared with the control group (200.17 pg/mg ± 63.35, 184.75 pg/mg ± 44.51, and 203.43 pg/mg ± 58.54, respectively, vs 342.42 pg/mg ± 79.97). In the second experiment, deeper neuronal ablation penetrance was found with therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs RF RDN (maximal penetrance from endothelium of 7.0 mm vs 3.5 mm, respectively). There was less damage to the artery wall after therapeutic intravascular US RDN than with RF RDN, after which edema and injured endothelium were seen. In the third experiment, denervation inside the stent-implanted segments was feasible without damage to the renal artery wall or stent. The therapeutic intravascular US system performed safely and reduced norepinephrine levels. Deeper penetrance and better preservation of vessel wall were observed with therapeutic intravascular US RDN vs RF RDN. Neuronal ablations were observed in stent-implanted renal arteries. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published

  10. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio


    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  11. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano


    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  12. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki


    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  13. Why firms should not always maximize profits


    Kolstad, Ivar


    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the corporate social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This paper argues that the first position i...

  14. Maximally Informative Observables and Categorical Perception


    Tsiang, Elaine


    We formulate the problem of perception in the framework of information theory, and prove that categorical perception is equivalent to the existence of an observable that has the maximum possible information on the target of perception. We call such an observable maximally informative. Regardless whether categorical perception is real, maximally informative observables can form the basis of a theory of perception. We conclude with the implications of such a theory for the problem of speech per...

  15. Discharge lamp technologies (United States)

    Dakin, James


    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  16. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  17. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  18. Decreasing adrenergic or sympathetic hyperactivity after severe traumatic brain injury using propranolol and clonidine (DASH After TBI Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Mayur B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe TBI, defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8, increases intracranial pressure and activates the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic hyperactivity after TBI manifests as catecholamine excess, hypertension, abnormal heart rate variability, and agitation, and is associated with poor neuropsychological outcome. Propranolol and clonidine are centrally acting drugs that may decrease sympathetic outflow, brain edema, and agitation. However, there is no prospective randomized evidence available demonstrating the feasibility, outcome benefits, and safety for adrenergic blockade after TBI. Methods/Design The DASH after TBI study is an actively accruing, single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, two-arm trial, where one group receives centrally acting sympatholytic drugs, propranolol (1 mg intravenously every 6 h for 7 days and clonidine (0.1 mg per tube every 12 h for 7 days, and the other group, double placebo, within 48 h of severe TBI. The study uses a weighted adaptive minimization randomization with categories of age and Marshall head CT classification. Feasibility will be assessed by ability to provide a neuroradiology read for randomization, by treatment contamination, and by treatment compliance. The primary endpoint is reduction in plasma norepinephrine level as measured on day 8. Secondary endpoints include comprehensive plasma and urine catecholamine levels, heart rate variability, arrhythmia occurrence, infections, agitation measures using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and Agitated Behavior scale, medication use (anti-hypertensive, sedative, analgesic, and antipsychotic, coma-free days, ventilator-free days, length of stay, and mortality. Neuropsychological outcomes will be measured at hospital discharge and at 3 and 12 months. The domains tested will include global executive function, memory, processing speed, visual-spatial, and behavior. Other assessments include

  19. Recruitment pattern of sympathetic muscle neurons during premature ventricular contractions in heart failure patients and controls. (United States)

    Maslov, Petra Zubin; Breskovic, Toni; Brewer, Danielle N; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Dujic, Zeljko


    Premature ventricular contractions (PVC) elicit larger bursts of multiunit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), reflecting the ability to increase postganglionic axonal recruitment. We tested the hypothesis that chronic heart failure (CHF) limits the ability to recruit postganglionic sympathetic neurons as a response to PVC due to the excessive sympathetic activation in these patients. Sympathetic neurograms of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio were obtained from six CHF patients and from six similarly aged control individuals. Action potentials (APs) were extracted from the multiunit sympathetic neurograms during sinus rhythm bursts and during the post-PVC bursts. These APs were classified on the basis of the frequency per second, the content per burst, and the peak-to-peak amplitude, which formed the basis of binning the APs into active clusters. Compared with controls, CHF had higher APs per burst and higher number of active clusters per sinus rhythm burst (P < 0.05). Compared with sinus rhythm bursts, both groups increased AP frequency and the number of active clusters in the post-PVC burst (P < 0.05). However, compared with controls, the increase in burst integral, AP frequency, and APs per burst during the post-PVC burst was less in CHF patients. Nonetheless, the PVC-induced increase in active clusters per burst was similar between the groups. Thus, these CHF patients retained the ability to recruit larger APs but had a diminished ability to increase overall AP content.

  20. Changes in the Skin Conductance Monitor as an End Point for Sympathetic Nerve Blocks. (United States)

    Gungor, Semih; Rana, Bhumika; Fields, Kara; Bae, James J; Mount, Lauren; Buschiazzo, Valeria; Storm, Hanne


    There is a lack of objective methods for determining the achievement of sympathetic block. This study validates the skin conductance monitor (SCM) as an end point indicator of successful sympathetic blockade as compared with traditional monitors. This interventional study included 13 patients undergoing 25 lumbar sympathetic blocks to compare time to indication of successful blockade between the SCM indices and traditional measures, clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective skin temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography, within a 30-minute observation period. Differences in the SCM indices were studied pre- and postblock to validate the SCM. SCM showed substantially greater odds of indicating achievement of sympathetic block in the next moment (i.e., hazard rate) compared with all traditional measures (clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography; P ≤ 0.011). SCM indicated successful block for all (100%) procedures, while the traditional measures failed to indicate successful blocks in 16-84% of procedures. The SCM indices were significantly higher in preblock compared with postblock measurements (P SCM is a more reliable and rapid response indicator of a successful sympathetic blockade when compared with traditional monitors. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eBadoer


    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation has called obesity a global epidemic. There is a strong association between body weight gain and blood pressure. A major determinant of blood pressure is the level of activity in sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs. A characteristic of obesity, in both humans and in animal models, is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the skeletal muscle vasculature and to the kidneys. Obesity is now recognised as a chronic, low level inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated including those produced by adipose tissue. The most well known adipokine released from fat tissue is leptin. The adipokine, resistin,, is also released from adipose tissue. Resistin can act in the central nervous system to influence the sympathetic nerve activity. Here, we review the effects of resistin on sympathetic nerve activity and compare them with leptin. We build an argument that resistin and leptin may have complex interactions. Firstly, they may augment each other as both are excitatory on sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs; In contrast, they could antagonize each other’s actions on brown adipose tissue, a key metabolic organ. These interactions may be important in conditions in which leptin and resistin are elevated, such as in obesity.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiayan; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Bo


    On 2005 August 5, two solar filaments erupted successively from different confined arcades underlying a common overarching multiple-arcade bipolar helmet streamer. We present detailed observations of these two events and identify them as sympathetic filament eruptions. The first (F1) is a small active-region filament located near the outskirts of the streamer arcade. It underwent a nonradial eruption, initially moving in the interior of the streamer arcade and resulting in an over-and-out coronal mass ejection. The second filament (F2), a larger quiescent one far away from F1, was clearly disturbed during the F1 eruption. It then underwent a very slow eruption and finally disappeared completely and permanently. Because two belt-shaped diffuse dimmings formed along the footprints of the streamer arcade in the first eruption and persisted throughout the complete disappearance of F2, the eruption series are interpreted as sympathetic: the simple expansion of the common streamer arcade forced by the F1 eruption weakened magnetic flux overlying F2 and thus led to its slow eruption, with the dimming formation indicating their physical connection. Our observations suggest that multiple-arcade bipolar helmet-streamer configurations are appropriate to producing sympathetic eruptions. Combined with the recent observations of unipolar-streamer sympathetic events, it appears that a multiple-arcade unipolar or bipolar helmet streamer can serve as a common magnetic configuration for sympathetic eruptions.

  3. Alterations of sympathetic nerve fibers in avascular necrosis of femoral head. (United States)

    Li, Deqiang; Liu, Peilai; Zhang, Yuankai; Li, Ming


    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) was mainly due to alterations of bone vascularity. And noradrenaline (NA), as the neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leads to the vasoconstriction by activating its α-Receptor. This study was to explore the nerve fiber density of the femoral head in the rabbit model of ANFH. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The rabbit model of ANFH was established by the injection of methylprednisolone acetate. The nerve fiber density and distribution in the femoral head was determined using an Olympus BH2 microscope. Significant fewer sympathetic nerve fibers was found in the ANFH intertrochanteric bone samples (P = 0.036) with osteonecrosis. The number of sympathetic nerve fibers was compared between the two groups. And less sympathetic nerve fibers were found in later stage ANFH samples in comparison with those of early stages. ANFH might be preceded by an inflammatory reaction, and an inflammatory response might lead to arthritic changes in tissue samples, which in turn reduces the number of sympathetic nerve fibers.

  4. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate. (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro


    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RAGE mediates the inactivation of nAChRs in sympathetic neurons under high glucose conditions. (United States)

    Chandna, Andrew R; Nair, Manoj; Chang, Christine; Pennington, Paul R; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Mousseau, Darrell D; Campanucci, Verónica A


    Autonomic dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes and can lead to cardiovascular abnormalities and premature death. It was recently proposed that autonomic dysfunction is triggered by oxidation-mediated inactivation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), impairing synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia and resulting in autonomic failure. We investigated whether the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be contributing to the events that initiate sympathetic malfunction under high glucose conditions. Using biochemical, live imaging and electrophysiological tools we demonstrated that exposure of sympathetic neurons to high glucose increases RAGE expression and oxidative markers, and that incubation with RAGE ligands (e.g. AGEs, S100 and HMGB1) mimics both ROS elevation and nAChR inactivation. In contrast, co-treatment with either antioxidants or an anti-RAGE IgG prevented the inactivation of nAChRs. Lastly, a role for RAGE in this context was corroborated by the lack of sensitivity of sympathetic neurons from RAGE knock-out mice to high glucose. These data define a pivotal role for RAGE in initiating the events associated with exposure of sympathetic neurons to high glucose, and strongly support RAGE signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the autonomic complications associated with diabetes. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Electric discharge during electrosurgery. (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael


    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  7. Vaginal delivery - discharge (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  8. Prostate radiation - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  9. Brain injury - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  10. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  11. Brain radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  12. Atrial fibrillation - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  13. Pneumonia - adults - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  14. Knee arthroscopy - discharge (United States)

    ... page: // Knee arthroscopy - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... surgery to treat problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. ...

  15. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  16. Shoulder surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your ...

  17. Discharges for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, W W; Nimalasuriya, T; Flikweert, A J; Mulders, H C J


    The most common man-made discharge is a lamp. Even though lamps are often considered a mature technology, the discharge physics is often poorly understood. Two recent initiatives discussed here show that plasma research can help to make significant improvements. First we discuss color separation in metal halide lamps, which is a problem that prevents these highly efficient lamps from being used in more applications. Secondly a novel lamp concept is presented that may replace the current mercury based fluorescent lamps

  18. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization


    Mygind, Niels


    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner...

  19. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  20. Chaos in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.


    Many gas discharges exhibit natural oscillations which undergo a transition from regular to chaotic behavior by changing an experimental parameter or by applying external modulation. Besides several isolated investigations, two classes of discharge phenomena have been studied in more detail: ionization waves in medium pressure discharges and potential relaxation oscillations in filament cathode discharges at very low pressure. The latter phenomenon will be discussed by comparing experimental results from different discharge arrangements with particle-in-cell simulations and with a model based on the van-der-Pol equation. The filament cathode discharge has two stable modes of operation: the low current anode-glow-mode and the high current temperature-limited-mode, which form the hysteresis curve in the I(U) characteristics. Close to the hysteresis point of the AGM periodic relaxation oscillations occur. The authors demonstrate that the AGM can be understood by ion production in the anode layer, stopping of ions by charge exchange, and trapping in the virtual cathode around the filament. The relaxation oscillations consist of a slow filling phase and a rapid phase that invokes formation of an unstable double-layer, current-spiking, and ion depletion from the cathodic plasma. The relaxation oscillations can be mode-locked by external modulation. Inside a mode-locked state, a period doubling cascade is observed at high modulation degree

  1. Retrogradely Transported TrkA Endosomes Signal Locally within Dendrites to Maintain Sympathetic Neuron Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Lehigh


    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons require NGF from their target fields for survival, axonal target innervation, dendritic growth and formation, and maintenance of synaptic inputs from preganglionic neurons. Target-derived NGF signals are propagated retrogradely, from distal axons to somata of sympathetic neurons via TrkA signaling endosomes. We report that a subset of TrkA endosomes that are transported from distal axons to cell bodies translocate into dendrites, where they are signaling competent and move bidirectionally, in close proximity to synaptic protein clusters. Using a strategy for spatially confined inhibition of TrkA kinase activity, we found that distal-axon-derived TrkA signaling endosomes are necessary within sympathetic neuron dendrites for maintenance of synapses. Thus, TrkA signaling endosomes have unique functions in different cellular compartments. Moreover, target-derived NGF mediates circuit formation and synapse maintenance through TrkA endosome signaling within dendrites to promote aggregation of postsynaptic protein complexes.

  2. Pain increases during sympathetic arousal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. (United States)

    Drummond, P D; Finch, P M; Skipworth, S; Blockey, P


    To investigate the effect of sympathetic arousal on pain and vasomotor responses in healthy control subjects and patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and to determine whether pain increases in patients with particular symptoms. In experiments 1 and 2, capsaicin was applied to the forearm of 24 healthy subjects to induce thermal hyperalgesia. Vascular responses were monitored and subjects rated thermal hyperalgesia before and after being startled (experiment 1), and before, during, and after mental arithmetic, breath holding, forehead cooling, the Valsalva maneuver, and a cold pressor test in experiment 2. In a third experiment, sensitivity to heat, cold, and mechanical stimulation was investigated in 61 patients with CRPS. Pain ratings and vascular and electrodermal responses were recorded after patients were startled and during forehead cooling. In experiment 1, thermal hyperalgesia decreased in healthy control subjects after they were startled, and digital blood vessels constricted symmetrically. In experiment 2, thermal hyperalgesia decreased during and after other forms of sympathetic arousal. However, in experiment 3, ratings of clinical pain increased during forehead cooling or after being startled in over 70% of patients with CRPS. Pain increased most consistently during forehead cooling in patients with cold allodynia or punctate allodynia. Digital blood vessels constricted more intensely on the symptomatic than the nonsymptomatic side in patients with CRPS during sympathetic arousal. Normal inhibitory influences on pain during sympathetic arousal are compromised in the majority of patients with CRPS. The augmented vasoconstrictor response in the symptomatic limb during sympathetic arousal is consistent with adrenergic supersensitivity. An adrenergic sensitivity in nociceptive afferents might contribute to pain and hyperalgesia during sympathetic arousal in certain patients with CRPS.

  3. Insulin resistance is associated with impaired cardiac sympathetic innervation in patients with heart failure. (United States)

    Paolillo, S; Rengo, G; Pellegrino, T; Formisano, R; Pagano, G; Gargiulo, P; Savarese, G; Carotenuto, R; Petraglia, L; Rapacciuolo, A; Perrino, C; Piscitelli, S; Attena, E; Del Guercio, L; Leosco, D; Trimarco, B; Cuocolo, A; Perrone-Filardi, P


    Insulin resistance (IR) represents, at the same time, cause and consequence of heart failure (HF) and affects prognosis in HF patients, but pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Hyperinsulinemia, which characterizes IR, enhances sympathetic drive, and it can be hypothesized that IR is associated with impaired cardiac sympathetic innervation in HF. Yet, this hypothesis has never been investigated. Aim of the present observational study was to assess the relationship between IR and cardiac sympathetic innervation in non-diabetic HF patients. One hundred and fifteen patients (87% males; 65 ± 11.3 years) with severe-to-moderate HF (ejection fraction 32.5 ± 9.1%) underwent iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy to assess sympathetic innervation and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) evaluation to determine the presence of IR. From (123)I-MIBG imaging, early and late heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratios and washout rate were calculated. Seventy-two (63%) patients showed IR and 43 (37%) were non-IR. Early [1.68 (IQR 1.53-1.85) vs. 1.79 (IQR 1.66-1.95); P = 0.05] and late H/M ratio [1.50 (IQR 1.35-1.69) vs. 1.65 (IQR 1.40-1.85); P = 0.020] were significantly reduced in IR compared with non-IR patients. Early and late H/M ratio showed significant inverse correlation with fasting insulinemia and HOMA-IR. Cardiac sympathetic innervation is more impaired in patients with IR and HF compared with matched non-IR patients. These findings shed light on the relationship among IR, HF, and cardiac sympathetic nervous system. Additional studies are needed to clarify the pathogenetic relationship between IR and HF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:

  4. Sympathetic nerve-derived ATP regulates renal medullary blood flow via vasa recta pericytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott S Wildman


    Full Text Available Pericyte cells are now known to be a novel locus of blood flow control, being able to regulate capillary diameter via their unique morphology and expression of contractile proteins. We have previously shown that exogenous ATP causes constriction of vasa recta via renal pericytes, acting at a variety of membrane bound P2 receptors on descending vasa recta, and therefore may be able to regulate medullary blood flow (MBF. Regulation of MBF is essential for appropriate urine concentration and providing essential oxygen and nutrients to this region of high, and variable, metabolic demand. Various sources of endogenous ATP have been proposed, including from epithelial, endothelial and red blood cells in response to stimuli such as mechanical stimulation, local acidosis, hypoxia, and exposure to various hormones. Extensive sympathetic innervation of the nephron has previously been shown, however the innervation reported has focused around the proximal and distal tubules, and ascending loop of Henle. We hypothesise that sympathetic nerves are an additional source of ATP acting at renal pericytes and therefore regulate MBF. Using a rat live kidney slice model in combination with video imaging and confocal microscopy techniques we firstly show sympathetic nerves in close proximity to vasa recta pericytes in both the outer and inner medulla. Secondly, we demonstrate pharmacological stimulation of sympathetic nerves in situ (by tyramine evokes pericyte-mediated vasoconstriction of vasa recta capillaries; inhibited by the application of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin. Lastly, tyramine-evoked vasoconstriction of vasa recta by pericytes is significantly less than ATP-evoked vasoconstriction. Sympathetic innervation may provide an additional level of functional regulation in the renal medulla that is highly localized. It now needs to be determined under which physiological/pathophysiological circumstances that sympathetic innervation of renal pericytes is

  5. Vacua of maximal gauged D=3 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, T; Nicolai, H; Samtleben, H


    We analyse the scalar potentials of maximal gauged three-dimensional supergravities which reveal a surprisingly rich structure. In contrast to maximal supergravities in dimensions D≥4, all these theories possess a maximally supersymmetric (N=16) ground state with negative cosmological constant Λ 2 gauged theory, whose maximally supersymmetric groundstate has Λ = 0. We compute the mass spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around these vacua and identify the unitary irreducible representations of the relevant background (super)isometry groups to which they belong. In addition, we find several stationary points which are not maximally supersymmetric, and determine their complete mass spectra as well. In particular, we show that there are analogues of all stationary points found in higher dimensions, among them are de Sitter (dS) vacua in the theories with noncompact gauge groups SO(5, 3) 2 and SO(4, 4) 2 , as well as anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua in the compact gauged theory preserving 1/4 and 1/8 of the supersymmetries. All the dS vacua have tachyonic instabilities, whereas there do exist nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua which are stable, again in contrast to the D≥4 theories

  6. Treatment of Reflex sympathetic dystrophy with Bee venom -Using Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-jang Lim


    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this case is to report the patient with Reflex sympathetic dystrophy, who is improved by Bee venom. Method : We treated the patient with Bee venom who was suffering from Reflex sympathetic dystrophy, using Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging and Verbal Numerical Rating Scale(VNRS to evaluate the therapeutic effects. We compared the temperature of the patient body before and after treatment. Result and Conclusion : We found that Bee venom had excellent outcome to relieve pain, atrophy and ankle joint ROM, and that Bee venom also had clinical effect on hypothermia on the Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging.

  7. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats. (United States)

    Li, Peng; Huang, Pei-Pei; Yang, Yun; Liu, Chi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Sun, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Qing


    Li P, Huang P, Yang Y, Liu C, Lu Y, Wang F, Sun W, Kong X. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats. J Appl Physiol 122: 121-129, 2017. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01019.2015-Sympathetic activity is enhanced in patients with essential or secondary hypertension, as well as in various hypertensive animal models. Therapeutic targeting of sympathetic activation is considered an effective antihypertensive strategy. We hypothesized that renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) attenuates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and renal disease in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Rats underwent 2K1C modeling or sham surgery; then rats underwent RSD or sham surgery 4 wk later, thus resulting in four groups (normotensive-sham, normotensive-RSD, 2K1C-sham, and 2K1C-RSD). Norepinephrine was measured by ELISA. Echocardiography was used to assess heart function. Fibrosis and apoptosis were assessed by Masson and TUNEL staining. Changes in mean arterial blood pressure in response to hexamethonium and plasma norepinephrine levels were used to evaluate basal sympathetic nerve activity. The 2K1C modeling success rate was 86.8%. RSD reversed the elevated systolic blood pressure induced by 2K1C, but had no effect on body weight. Compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group, rats in the 2K1C-RSD group showed lower left ventricular mass/body weight ratio, interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole, whereas fractional shortening and ejection fraction were higher. Right kidney apoptosis and left kidney hypertrophy were not changed by RSD. Arterial fibrosis was lower in animals in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with those in the 2K1C-sham group. RSD reduced plasma norepinephrine and basal sympathetic activity in rats in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group. These

  8. Sympathetic ingrowth: A result of cholinergic nerve injury in the adult mammalian brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.N.


    This paper describes sympathetic ingrowth, its regulation and function. The study leads to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that probably underlie the regulation of other neuronal rearrangements. The authors examine tritium-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the hippocampal formation after septal leasions. Preliminary experiments suggest that the septo-hippocampal fibers do influence tritium-2-deoxyglucose uptake throughout the hippocampal formation in normal animals. If sympathetic ingrowth also can influence this uptake, this could provide further evidence for an adaptive role of this noradrenergic replacement of cholinergic neurons

  9. Chronic renin inhibition lowers blood pressure and reduces upright muscle sympathetic nerve activity in hypertensive seniors (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Jarvis, Sara S; Best, Stuart A; Bivens, Tiffany B; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi


    Cardiovascular risk remains high in patients with hypertension even with adequate blood pressure (BP) control. One possible mechanism may be sympathetic activation via the baroreflex. We tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of renin reduces BP without sympathetic activation, but diuresis augments sympathetic activity in elderly hypertensives. Fourteen patients with stage-I hypertension (66 ± 5 (SD) years) were treated with a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren (n= 7), or a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide (n= 7), for 6 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), BP, direct renin and aldosterone were measured during supine and a graded head-up tilt (HUT; 5 min 30° and 20 min 60°), before and after treatment. Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed. Both groups had similar BP reductions after treatment (all P < 0.01), while MSNA responses were different between hydrochlorothiazide and aliskiren (P= 0.006 pre/post × drug). Both supine and upright MSNA became greater after hydrochlorothiazide treatment (supine, 72 ± 18 post vs. 64 ± 15 bursts (100 beats)−1 pre; 60° HUT, 83 ± 10 vs. 78 ± 13 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.002). After aliskiren treatment, supine MSNA remained unchanged (69 ± 13 vs. 64 ± 8 bursts (100 beats)−1), but upright MSNA was lower (74 ± 15 vs. 85 ± 10 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.012 for pre/post × posture). Direct renin was greater after both treatments (both P < 0.05), while upright aldosterone was greater after hydrochlorothiazide only (P= 0.002). The change in upright MSNA by the treatment was correlated with the change of aldosterone (r= 0.74, P= 0.002). Upright sympathetic BRS remained unchanged after either treatment. Thus, chronic renin inhibition may reduce upright MSNA through suppressed renin activity, while diuresis may evoke sympathetic activation via the upregulated renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, without changing intrinsic sympathetic baroreflex function in elderly hypertensive

  10. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. (United States)

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D


    Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable. In vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate the majority of OVLT neurons are responsive to hypertonic NaCl or mannitol. However, hypertonic NaCl stimulates a greater increase in discharge frequency than equi-osmotic mannitol. Intracarotid or intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic NaCl evokes a greater increase in OVLT neuronal discharge frequency than equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these novel data suggest that subsets of OVLT neurons respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity and subsequently regulate body fluid homeostasis. These responses probably reflect distinct cellular mechanisms underlying NaCl- versus osmo-sensing. Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. First, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (5 μl/10 min) of 1.0 m NaCl produced a significantly greater

  11. Agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic tone by inhibiting N-type Ca(2+) channel activity via imidazoline I2 receptor activation. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Chung, Seungsoo


    Agmatine, a putative endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, suppresses cardiovascular function by inhibiting peripheral sympathetic tone. However, the molecular identity of imidazoline receptor subtypes and its cellular mechanism underlying the agmatine-induced sympathetic suppression remains unknown. Meanwhile, N-type Ca(2+) channels are important for the regulation of NA release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, it is possible that agmatine suppresses NA release in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx through N-type Ca(2+) channels. We tested this hypothesis by investigating agmatine effect on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contraction and NA release in endothelium-denuded rat superior mesenteric arterial strips. We also investigated the effect of agmatine on the N-type Ca(2+) current in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons in rats. Our study demonstrates that agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic outflow via the imidazoline I2 receptor in rat mesenteric arteries. In addition, the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral vascular sympathetic tone is mediated by modulating voltage-dependent N-type Ca(2+) channels in sympathetic nerve terminals. These results suggest a potential cellular mechanism for the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral sympathetic tone. Furthermore, they provide basic and theoretical information regarding the development of new agents to treat hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sympathetic regulation and anterior cingulate cortex volume are altered in a rat model of chronic back pain. (United States)

    Touj, Sara; Houle, Sébastien; Ramla, Djamel; Jeffrey-Gauthier, Renaud; Hotta, Harumi; Bronchti, Gilles; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia; Piché, Mathieu


    Chronic pain is associated with autonomic disturbance. However, specific effects of chronic back pain on sympathetic regulation remain unknown. Chronic pain is also associated with structural changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which may be linked to sympathetic dysregulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether sympathetic regulation and ACC surface and volume are affected in a rat model of chronic back pain, in which complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) is injected in back muscles. Sympathetic regulation was assessed with renal blood flow (RBF) changes induced by electrical stimulation of a hind paw, while ACC structure was examined by measuring cortical surface and volume. RBF changes and ACC volume were compared between control rats and rats injected with CFA in back muscles segmental (T10) to renal sympathetic innervation or not (T2). In rats with CFA, chronic inflammation was observed in the affected muscles in addition to increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) protein expression in corresponding spinal cord segments (p=0.01) as well as decreased ACC volume (pchronic pain at T2 (p'schronic back pain alters sympathetic functions through non-segmental mechanisms, possibly by altering descending regulatory pathways from ACC. Yet, segmental somato-sympathetic reflexes may compete with non-segmental processes depending on the back region affected by pain and according to the segmental organization of the sympathetic nervous system. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An information maximization model of eye movements (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra


    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  14. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes


    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  15. Enlarged superior cervical sympathetic ganglion mimicking a metastatic lymph node in the retropharyngeal space: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Jin Na; Kim, Se Hoon; Choi, Eun Chang [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion, the largest and most cranial of the three cervical sympathetic ganglia, transfers sympathetic signals to specific targets on the head and neck. This ganglion is located just lateral to the retropharyngeal space along the medial margin of the carotid sheath. Located thus, an enlarged superior cervical sympathetic ganglion can mimic a metastatic lymph node in the retropharyngeal space of the suprahyoid neck in head and neck cancer patients. However, this is often disregarded by radiologists due to lack of interest in its anatomic location. We present a case of an enlarged superior cervical sympathetic ganglion mimicking a retropharyngeal metastatic lymph node in a 42-year-old man with oral tongue cancer.

  16. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  17. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy


    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  18. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.


    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  19. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.


    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  20. Eppur Si Muove: The dynamic nature of physiological control of renal blood flow by the renal sympathetic nerves. (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter Ricci; Zucker, Irving H


    Tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response are widely appreciated as important regulators of renal blood flow, but the role of the sympathetic nervous system in physiological renal blood flow control remains controversial. Where classic studies using static measures of renal blood flow failed, dynamic approaches have succeeded in demonstrating sympathetic control of renal blood flow under normal physiological conditions. This review focuses on transfer function analysis of renal pressure-flow, which leverages the physical relationship between blood pressure and flow to assess the underlying vascular control mechanisms. Studies using this approach indicate that the renal nerves are important in the rapid regulation of the renal vasculature. Animals with intact renal innervation show a sympathetic signature in the frequency range associated with sympathetic vasomotion that is eliminated by renal denervation. In conscious rabbits, this sympathetic signature exerts vasoconstrictive, baroreflex control of renal vascular conductance, matching well with the rhythmic, baroreflex-influenced control of renal sympathetic nerve activity and complementing findings from other studies employing dynamic approaches to study renal sympathetic vascular control. In this light, classic studies reporting that nerve stimulation and renal denervation do not affect static measures of renal blood flow provide evidence for the strength of renal autoregulation rather than evidence against physiological renal sympathetic control of renal blood flow. Thus, alongside tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response, renal sympathetic outflow should be considered an important physiological regulator of renal blood flow. Clinically, renal sympathetic vasomotion may be important for solving the problems facing the field of therapeutic renal denervation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  2. Red herring vaginal discharge. (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok


    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  3. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia


    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  4. Maximizing the Range of a Projectile. (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.


    Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)

  5. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed


    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  6. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.


    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  7. Reserve design to maximize species persistence (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis


    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  8. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.


    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  9. Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...

  10. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah


    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van


    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  12. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram


    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...

  13. A Model of College Tuition Maximization (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.


    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  14. Logit Analysis for Profit Maximizing Loan Classification


    Watt, David L.; Mortensen, Timothy L.; Leistritz, F. Larry


    Lending criteria and loan classification methods are developed. Rating system breaking points are analyzed to present a method to maximize loan revenues. Financial characteristics of farmers are used as determinants of delinquency in a multivariate logistic model. Results indicate that debt-to-asset and operating ration are most indicative of default.

  15. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production. (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U


    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  16. Sympathetic neurons modulate the beat rate of pluripotent cell-derived cardiomyocytes in vitro. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akimasa; Shimba, Kenta; Mori, Masahide; Takayama, Yuzo; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Lee, Jong-Kook; Noshiro, Makoto; Jimbo, Yasuhiko


    Although stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have great potential for the therapy of heart failure, it is unclear whether their function after grafting can be controlled by the host sympathetic nervous system, a component of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Here we demonstrate the formation of functional connections between rat sympathetic superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons and pluripotent (P19.CL6) cell-derived cardiomyocytes (P19CMs) in compartmentalized co-culture, achieved using photolithographic microfabrication techniques. Formation of synapses between sympathetic neurons and P19CMs was confirmed by immunostaining with antibodies against β-3 tubulin, synapsin I and cardiac troponin-I. Changes in the beat rate of P19CMs were triggered after electrical stimulation of the co-cultured SCG neurons, and were affected by the pulse frequency of the electrical stimulation. Such changes in the beat rate were prevented when propranolol, a β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, was added to the culture medium. These results suggest that the beat rate of differentiated cardiomyocytes can be modulated by electrical stimulation of connected sympathetic neurons.

  17. Clinical evaluation of 123I-MIBG for assessment of sympathetic nervous system in the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Koushitiro; Tanaka, Takeshi; Hisada, Kin-ichi; Bunko, Hisashi.


    Multi-center clinical trial of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) was carried out to assess its utility as a scintigraphic imaging agent reflecting sympathetic neuronal function in cardiovascular field. Studies were performed on patients with heart diseases of three categories, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and cardiomyopathy. Scintigraphic images, reflecting sympathetic neuronal function, were obtained with 123 I-MIBG from all of those categories of patients and the efficacy of the imaging was revealed in 781 (95.0%) out of 822 patients. In some patients abnormality was suggested in sympathetic neuronal function with 123 I-MIBG imaging, in spite of normal findings with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy by 201 TlCl. In all 981 patients studied with 123 I-MIBG, there have been no severe adverse reactions, except complaints of burning on injection site of the agent or nausea, ect. from 4 patients. We conclude that 123 I-MIBG imaging is one of the effective tools for diagnostic use reflecting topical sympathetic neuronal function in the heart, judging from its safety and efficacy. (author)

  18. Vagal and sympathetic activity in burnouts during a mentally demanding workday

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanstra, Ydwine J.; Schellekens, Jan M. H.; Schaap, Cas; Kooistra, Libbe


    Objective: We study differences in task performance and related sympathetic-vagal reaction patterns between burnouts and controls during a mentally demanding workday. Method: Thirty-nine adults with burnout and 40 healthy controls performed mental tasks during a simulated workday. At pretest, just

  19. Early life stress sensitizes the renal and systemic sympathetic system in rats. (United States)

    Loria, Analia S; Brands, Michael W; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S


    We hypothesized that maternal separation (MS), an early life stress model, induces a sensitization of the sympathetic system. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the renal and systemic sympathetic system in 12- to 14-wk-old male control or MS rats with the following parameters: 1) effect of renal denervation on conscious renal filtration capacity, 2) norepinephrine (NE) content in key organs involved in blood pressure control, and 3) acute systemic pressor responses to adrenergic stimulation or ganglion blockade. MS was performed by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h/day from day 2 to 14; controls were nonhandled littermates. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was examined in renal denervated (DnX; within 2 wk) or sham rats using I¹²⁵-iothalamate plasma clearance. MS-DnX rats showed significantly increased GFR compared with MS-SHAM rats (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 ml/min, respectively, P renal nerves regulate GFR in MS rats. NE content was significantly increased in organ tissues from MS rats (P renal and systemic sympathetic system. Conscious MS rats displayed a significantly greater increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to NE (2 μg/kg ip) and a greater reduction in MAP in response to mecamylamine (2 mg/kg ip, P renal and systemic sympathetic system ultimately impairing blood pressure regulation.

  20. Renal sympathetic nervous system and the effects of denervation on renal arteries. (United States)

    Kannan, Arun; Medina, Raul Ivan; Nagajothi, Nagapradeep; Balamuthusamy, Saravanan


    Resistant hypertension is associated with chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in various comorbidities. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is often under estimated due to various reasons. Activation of sympathetic nervous system at the renal- as well as systemic- level contributes to the increased level of catecholamines and resulting increase in the blood pressure. This increased activity was demonstrated by increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and renal and total body noradrenaline spillover. Apart from the hypertension, it is hypothesized to be associated with insulin resistance, congestive heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. Renal denervation is a novel procedure where the sympathetic afferent and efferent activity is reduced by various techniques and has been used successfully to treat drug-resistant hypertension improvement of various metabolic derangements. Renal denervation has the unique advantage of offering the denervation at the renal level, thus mitigating the systemic side effects. Renal denervation can be done by various techniques including radiofrequency ablation, ultrasound guided ablation and chemical ablation. Various trials evaluated the role of renal denervation in the management of resistant hypertension and have found promising results. More studies are underway to evaluate the role of renal denervation in patients presenting with resistant hypertension in different scenarios. Appropriate patient selection might be the key in determining the effectiveness of the procedure.

  1. Increased cardiac sympathetic activity in patients with hypothyroidism as determined by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuru; Inaba, Shigeki; Emori, Toshiaki; Imamura, Kimiharu; Kawano, Katsunori; Ueda, Tetsuro; Kobayashi, Hideki; Hosoda, Saichi


    Clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism, such as bradycardia, suggest decreased sympathetic tone. However, previous studies in patients with hypothyroidism have suggested that increased plasma noradrenaline (NA) levels represent enhanced general sympathetic activity. As yet, cardiac sympathetic activity (CSA) in hypothyroidism has not been clarified. To evaluate CSA in patients with hypothyroidism, iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy was performed in eight patients with hypothyroidism before therapy and in ten normal control patients. Planar images were obtained at 15 min and 4 h after injection of MIBG. The ratio of early myocardial uptake to the total injected dose (MU) and myocardial clearance of MIBG within 4 h p.i. (MC) were calculated. Plasma NA was also measured, and echocardiography was performed in all patients. Those patients with hypothyroidism in the euthyroid state after medical therapy were also evaluated in a similar manner. Left ventricular ejection fraction, measured by echocardiography, did not differ significantly between the groups. NA, MU and MC were significantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in controls, and all parameters were decreased after therapy. MC was well correlated with NA in hypothyroidism (r=0.86) before therapy. We conclude that CSA is increased in patients with hypothyroidism, in parallel with the enhanced general sympathetic activity. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Sympathetic arousal, but not disturbed executive functioning, mediates the impairment of cognitive flexibility under stress. (United States)

    Marko, Martin; Riečanský, Igor


    Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference. Stress response was indicated by changes in skin conductance, hearth rate, and state anxiety. Our analyses showed that acute stress impaired cognitive flexibility via a concomitant increase in sympathetic arousal, while this mediator was positively associated with semantic fluency. Stress also decreased working memory capacity, which was partially mediated by elevated cognitive interference, but neither of these two measures were associated with cognitive flexibility or sympathetic arousal. Following these findings, we conclude that acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility via sympathetic arousal that modulates lexical-semantic and associative processes. In particular, the results indicate that stress-level of sympathetic activation may restrict the accessibility and integration of remote associates and bias the response competition towards prepotent and dominant ideas. Importantly, our results indicate that stress-induced impairments of cognitive flexibility and executive functions are mediated by distinct neurocognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced sympathetic arousal in response to FMRI scanning correlates with task induced activations and deactivations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Muehlhan

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI triggers distress and neuroendocrine response systems. Prior studies have revealed that sympathetic arousal increases, particularly at the beginning of the examination. Against this background it appears likely that those stress reactions during the scanning procedure may influence task performance and neural correlates. However, the question how sympathetic arousal elicited by the scanning procedure itself may act as a potential confounder of fMRI data remains unresolved today. Thirty-seven scanner naive healthy subjects performed a simple cued target detection task. Levels of salivary alpha amylase (sAA, as a biomarker for sympathetic activity, were assessed in samples obtained at several time points during the lab visit. SAA increased two times, immediately prior to scanning and at the end of the scanning procedure. Neural activation related to motor preparation and timing as well as task performance was positively correlated with the first increase. Furthermore, the first sAA increase was associated with task induced deactivation (TID in frontal and parietal regions. However, these effects were restricted to the first part of the experiment. Consequently, this bias of scanner related sympathetic activation should be considered in future fMRI investigations. It is of particular importance for pharmacological investigations studying adrenergic agents and the comparison of groups with different stress vulnerabilities like patients and controls or adolescents and adults.

  4. Central Gi(2) proteins, sympathetic nervous system and blood pressure regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zicha, Josef


    Roč. 216, č. 3 (2016), s. 258-259 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : inhibitory G proteins * sympathetic nervous system * central blood pressure control Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.867, year: 2016


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkan, B.; Dijk, G. van; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E.; Steffens, A.B.

    This study investigates whether reduced sympathetic responses during physical exercise in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)-lesioned obese rats are the direct result of damage to hypothalamic circuits or a secondary effect of the altered metabolism in obesity. Obese, VMH-lesioned rats and lean

  6. Macrophage populations and cardiac sympathetic denervation during L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, S R S; Machado, C R S; Pinto, A M T


    The rat model of hypertension induced by prolonged treatment with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) has been extensively used. However, the effects on cardiac autonomic innervation are unknown. Here, the cardiac sympathetic innervation is analyzed in parallel with myocardial lesions a...

  7. Vibration sense and sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in patients with occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Jepsen, K; Henriksen, O; Parm, Martin Lehnsbo


    function was studied by the capability of the local sympathetic venoarteriolar reflex (Henriksen 1977) elicited by lowering the leg to induce an arteriolar constriction in subcutaneous tissue at the ankle level. Blood flow was measured by the local isotope washout technique. In only five patients with loss...

  8. Low plasma volume coincides with sympathetic hyperactivity and reduced baroreflex sensitivity in formerly preeclamptic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courtar, D.A.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Aardenburg, R.; Janssen, B.J.; Peeters, L.L.


    BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is associated with enhanced sympathetic activity as well as subnormal plasma volume. Meanwhile, in over 50% of these complicated pregnancies, the subnormal plasma volume has been found to persist for a prolonged period after pregnancy. The objective of this study is to test

  9. Adolescent sympathetic activity and salivary C-reactive protein: The effects of parental behavior. (United States)

    Nelson, Benjamin W; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Schwartz, Orli S; Reynolds, Eric C; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B


    This study utilized a novel multisystem approach to investigate the effect of observed parental behavior on the relationship between biological mechanisms associated with disease processes (i.e., autonomic physiology and immune response) among their adolescent children. Thirty-three adolescents (23 males), aged 11-13, and their parents participated in a laboratory session in which adolescents provided baseline measures of autonomic (sympathetic) activity, and adolescents and 1 parent participated in a laboratory based dyadic conflict resolution interaction task. This included 3 male parent/male adolescent dyads, 20 female parent/male adolescent dyads, 3 male parent/female adolescent dyads, and 7 female parent/female adolescent dyads. Approximately 3 years later, adolescents provided a salivary measure of C-Reactive Protein (sCRP) to index inflammation. Analyses revealed a positive association between sympathetic activity and sCRP, as well as a moderating role of positive parental behavior in this relationship, such that the association between sympathetic activity and sCRP was greater among adolescents whose parents displayed shorter duration of positive affect. Overall findings indicate parental behavior may influence the association between adolescent sympathetic activity and inflammatory processes. These findings have important implications for understanding the impact of psychosocial factors on biological mechanisms of disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Suprachiasmatic nucleus balances sympathetic and parasympathetic output to peripheral organs through separate preautonomic neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ruud M.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Wortel, Joke; van Heyningen, Caroline; Zuiddam, Laura; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Nagai, Katsuya; Niijima, Akira


    Opposing parasympathetic and sympathetic signals determine the autonomic output of the brain to the body and the change in balance over the sleep-wake cycle. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) organizes the activity/inactivity cycle and the behaviors that go along with it, but it is unclear how the

  11. Lumbar Sympathetic Plexus Block as a Treatment for Postamputation Pain: Methodology for a Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    McCormick, Zachary L; Hendrix, Andrew; Dayanim, David; Clay, Bryan; Kirsling, Amy; Harden, Norman


    We present a technical protocol for rigorous assessment of patient-reported outcomes and psychophysical testing relevant to lumbar sympathetic blocks for the treatment of postamputation pain (PAP). This description is intended to inform future prospective investigation. Series of four participants from a blinded randomized sham-controlled trial. Tertiary, urban, academic pain medicine center. Four participants with a single lower limb amputation and associated chronic PAP. Participants were randomized to receive a lumbar sympathetic block with 0.25% bupivacaine or sham needle placement. Patient-rated outcome measures included the numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain, the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Pain and Anxiety Symptoms Scale-short version, and Pain Disability Index (PDI). Psychophysical and biometric testing was also performed, which included vibration sensation testing, pinprick sensation testing, brush sensation testing, Von Frey repeated weighted pinprick sensation, and thermal quantitative sensory testing. In the four described cases, treatment of PAP with a single lumbar sympathetic block but not sham intervention resulted in reduction of both residual limb pain and phantom limb pain as well as perceived disability on the PDI at three-month follow-up. An appropriately powered randomized controlled study using this methodology may not only aid in determining the possible clinical efficacy of lumbar sympathetic block in PAP, but could also improve our understanding of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of PAP.

  12. Mechanisms of sympathetic activation and blood pressure elevation by intermittent hypoxia. (United States)

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Kumar, Ganesh K


    Sleep disordered breathing with recurrent apneas is one of the most frequently encountered breathing disorder in adult humans and preterm infants. Recurrent apnea patients exhibit several co-morbidities including hypertension and persistent sympathetic activation. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from apneas appears to be the primary stimulus for evoking autonomic changes. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the effects of IH on chemo- and baro-reflexes and circulating vasoactive hormones and their contribution to sympathetic activation and blood pressures. Sleep apnea patients and IH-treated rodents exhibit exaggerated arterial chemo-reflex. Studies on rodent models demonstrated that IH leads to hyperactive carotid body response to hypoxia. On the other hand, baro-reflex function is attenuated in patients with sleep apnea and in IH-treated rodents. Circulating vasoactive hormone levels are elevated in sleep apnea patients and in rodent models of IH. Thus, persistent sympathetic activation and hypertension associated with sleep apneas seems to be due to a combination of altered chemo- and baro-reflexes resulting in sympathetic activation and action of elevated circulating levels of vasoactive hormones on vasculature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise training attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity. (United States)

    Li, G; Liu, J-Y; Zhang, H-X; Li, Q; Zhang, S-W


    It is known that excessive sympathetic activity and oxidative stress are enhanced in obesity. This study aimed to clarify whether exercise training (ET) attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in obesity. The obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: regular diet (RD) plus sedentary (RD-S), RD plus ET (RD-ET), HFD plus sedentary (HFD-S), and HFD plus ET (HFD-ET). The rats in RD-ET and HFD-ET groups were trained on a motorized treadmill for 60 min/day, five days/week for 8 weeks. The sympathetic activity was evaluated by the plasma norepinephrine (NE) level. The superoxide anion, malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes levels in serum and muscles were measured to evaluate oxidative stress. The ET prevented the increases in the body weight, arterial pressure and white adipose tissue mass in HFD rats. The NE level in plasma and oxidative stress related parameters got lower in HFD-ET group compared with HFD-S group. We have found decreased mRNA and protein levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 by ET in HFD rats. These findings suggest that ET may be effective for attenuating sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

  14. Fostering College-Going Expectations of Immigrant Students through the Sympathetic Touch of School Leadership (United States)

    Liou, Daniel D.


    This article intends to support the efforts of administrators, teachers, and community activists to center race, equity, and anti-deficit perspectives within the practice of school leadership. By drawing upon methods of critical race studies, and Du Bois's 1935 concept of the sympathetic touch, the author provides examples of anti-deficit…

  15. Marital Conflict and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Interactions between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Erath, Stephen; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy; Staton, Lori


    Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS) activity were examined as moderators. PNS activity was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to lab…

  16. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.


    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot

  17. Sympathetic responses during saline infusion into the veins of an occluded limb. (United States)

    Cui, Jian; McQuillan, Patrick; Moradkhan, Raman; Pagana, Charles; Sinoway, Lawrence I


    Animal studies have shown that the increased intravenous pressure stimulates the group III and IV muscle afferent fibres, and in turn induce cardiovascular responses. However, this pathway of autonomic regulation has not been examined in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that infusion of saline into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed evokes sympathetic activation in healthy individuals. Blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses were assessed in 19 young healthy subjects during local infusion of 40 ml saline into a forearm vein in the circulatory arrested condition. From baseline (11.8 +/- 1.2 bursts min(-1)), MSNA increased significantly during the saline infusion (22.5 +/- 2.6 bursts min(-1), P Blood pressure also increased significantly during the saline infusion. Three control trials were performed during separate visits. The results from the control trial show that the observed MSNA and blood pressure responses were not due to muscle ischaemia. The present data show that saline infusion into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed induces sympathetic activation and an increase in blood pressure. We speculate that the infusion under such conditions stimulates the afferent endings near the vessels, and evokes the sympathetic activation.

  18. Sensory and sympathetic correlates of heat pain sensitization and habituation in men and women. (United States)

    Breimhorst, M; Hondrich, M; Rebhorn, C; May, A; Birklein, F


    Habituation and sensitization are important behavioural responses to repeated exposure to painful stimuli, but little is known about the factors determining sensory, affective and sympathetic habituation to repeated pain stimulation in men and women. Thirty volunteers (15 women) underwent a standardized heat pain paradigm spread over 8 consecutive days. At the beginning of the experiment, personality dimensions, coping strategies and pain catastrophizing thoughts were determined. Receiving a series of 10 blocks of six painful heat stimuli a day, participants rated pain intensity and unpleasantness. Skin conductance was recorded throughout the sessions. The results show similar habituation of both the sensory and affective dimensions of pain in men and women, although skin conductance did not undergo a significant decrease across the eight days. When focusing on single daily sessions, women showed pain sensitization but sympathetic habituation, while men showed pain sensitization but stable sympathetic activation. Our findings therefore indicate that the process of long-term habituation to painful heat stimuli is a common feature in both genders, whereas men and women might differently recruit their sympathetic nervous system for short-term pain processing. This study could potentially help to better evaluate gender-specific mechanisms in pain perception. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  19. Functional role of diverse changes in sympathetic nerve activity in regulating arterial pressure during REM sleep. (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Misa; Yoshida, Ikue; Miki, Kenju


    This study aimed to investigate whether REM sleep evoked diverse changes in sympathetic outflows and, if so, to elucidate why REM sleep evokes diverse changes in sympathetic outflows. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with electrodes to measure renal (RSNA) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram, and catheters to measure systemic arterial and central venous pressure; these parameters were measured simultaneously and continuously during the sleep-awake cycle in the same rat. REM sleep resulted in a step reduction in RNSA by 36.1% ± 2.7% (P sleep. In contrast to REM sleep, RSNA, LSNA, systemic arterial pressure, and heart rate increased in a unidirectional manner associated with increases in physical activity levels in the order from NREM sleep, quiet awake, moving, and grooming state. Thus, the relationship between RSNA vs. LSNA and systemic arterial pressure vs. heart rate observed during REM sleep was dissociated compared with that obtained during the other behavioral states. It is suggested that the diverse changes in sympathetic outflows during REM sleep may be needed to increase systemic arterial pressure by balancing vascular resistance between muscles and vegetative organs without depending on the heart.

  20. Using a forehead reflectance pulse oximeter to detect changes in sympathetic tone. (United States)

    Wendelken, Suzanne M; McGrath, Susan P; Akay, Metin; Blike, George T


    The extreme conditions of combat and multi-casualty rescue often make field triage difficult and put the medic or first responder at risk. In an effort to improve field triage, we have developed an automated remote triage system called ARTEMIS (automated remote triage and emergency management information system) for use in the battlefield or disaster zone. Common to field injuries is a sudden change in arterial pressure resulting from massive blood loss or shock. In effort to stabilize the arterial pressure, the sympathetic system is strongly activated and sympathetic tone is increased. This preliminary research seeks to empirically demonstrate that a forehead reflectance pulse oximeter is a viable sensor for detecting sudden changes in sympathetic tone. We performed the classic supine-standing experiment and collected the raw waveform, the photoplethysmogram (PPG), continuously using a forehead reflectance pulse oximeter. The resulting waveform was processed in Matlab using various spectral analysis techniques (FFT and AR). Our preliminary results show that a relative ratio analysis (low frequency power/high frequency power) for both the raw PPG signal and its derived pulse statistics (height, beat-to-beat interval) is a useful technique for detecting change in sympathetic tone resulting from positional change.

  1. The Gata3 transcription factor is required for the survival of embryonic and adult sympathetic neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Tsarovina (Konstantina); T. Reiff (Tobias); J. Stubbusch (Jutta); D. Kurek (Dorota); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); R. Parlato (Rosanna); G. Schütz (Günther); H. Rohrer (Hermann)


    textabstractThe transcription factor Gata3 is essential for the development of sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells. As Gata3 expression is maintained up to the adult stage, we addressed its function in differentiated sympathoadrenal cells at embryonic and adult stages by conditional

  2. Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mako eOkanda


    Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.

  3. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  4. Adjusted drug treatment is superior to renal sympathetic denervation in patients with true treatment-resistant hypertension. (United States)

    Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M; Hoffmann, Pavel; Larstorp, Anne C; Fossum, Eigil; Brekke, Magne; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Gjønnæss, Eyvind; Hjørnholm, Ulla; Kjaer, Vibeke N; Rostrup, Morten; Os, Ingrid; Stenehjem, Aud; Høieggen, Aud


    We aimed to investigate for the first time the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) versus clinically adjusted drug treatment in true treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) after excluding patients with confounding poor drug adherence. Patients with apparent TRH (n=65) were referred for RDN, and those with secondary and spurious hypertension (n=26) were excluded. TRH was defined as office systolic BP (SBP) >140 mm Hg, despite maximally tolerated doses of ≥3 antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. In addition, ambulatory daytime SBP >135 mm Hg after witnessed intake of antihypertensive drugs was required, after which 20 patients had normalized BP and were excluded. Patients with true TRH were randomized and underwent RDN (n=9) performed with Symplicity Catheter System versus clinically adjusted drug treatment (n=10). The study was stopped early for ethical reasons because RDN had uncertain BP-lowering effect. Office SBP and diastolic BP in the drug-adjusted group changed from 160±14/88±13 mm Hg (±SD) at baseline to 132±10/77±8 mm Hg at 6 months (P<0.0005 and P=0.02, SBP and diastolic BP, respectively) and in the RDN group from 156±13/91±15 to 148±7/89±8 mm Hg (P=0.42 and P=0.48, SBP and diastolic BP, respectively). SBP and diastolic BP were significantly lower in the drug-adjusted group at 6 months (P=0.002 and P=0.004, respectively), and absolute changes in SBP were larger in the drug-adjusted group (P=0.008). Ambulatory BPs changed in parallel to office BPs. Our data suggest that adjusted drug treatment has superior BP lowering effects compared with RDN in patients with true TRH. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: Unique identifier: NCT01673516.

  5. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.


    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  6. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle. (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P


    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  7. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization


    Jan Kallsen


    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  8. Control of Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization in Nigeria


    A. O. Oladipupo; C. O. Okafor


    This research focuses on who controls shareholder’s wealth maximization and how does this affect firm’s performance in publicly quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. The shareholder fund was the dependent while explanatory variables were firm size (proxied by log of turnover), retained earning (representing management control) and dividend payment (representing measure of shareholders control). The data used for this study were obtained from the Nigerian Stock Exchange [NSE] fact book an...

  9. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David


    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  10. Dynamic Convex Duality in Constrained Utility Maximization


    Li, Yusong; Zheng, Harry


    In this paper, we study a constrained utility maximization problem following the convex duality approach. After formulating the primal and dual problems, we construct the necessary and sufficient conditions for both the primal and dual problems in terms of FBSDEs plus additional conditions. Such formulation then allows us to explicitly characterize the primal optimal control as a function of the adjoint process coming from the dual FBSDEs in a dynamic fashion and vice versa. Moreover, we also...

  11. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs) (United States)

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  12. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics. (United States)

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J


    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  13. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.


    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  14. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal


    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  15. Monitoring of lightning discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.A.


    The paper presents a brief description of a lightning discharge recording system developed at the NPO 'Monitoring Techniques' under the direction of V.M. Moskolenko (Moscow). The system provides information about dangerous environmental occurrences such as tornados and hurricanes, making the forecast of extreme situations possible, especially in the areas of dangerous industries and objects. The created automatic system can be useful in solving the tasks relating to nuclear test monitoring. (author)

  16. Underwater Ship Husbandry Discharges (United States)


    which entered into force in September of 2008, prohibits the use of harmful organotins such as tributyltin ( TBT ) in AFCs used on international...States. The use of TBT AFCs is explicitly prohibited under the VGP, and vessels must remove such coatings or paint over them to prevent toxic hull husbandry include (1) the discharge of toxic chemicals used as biocides in AFCs and (2) biofouling as a vector for aquatic nuisance species

  17. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  18. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  19. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo


    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  20. Anorexia nervosa depends on adrenal sympathetic hyperactivity: opposite neuroautonomic profile of hyperinsulinism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechin F


    Full Text Available Fuad Lechin1,2, Bertha van der Dijs1,2, Betty Pardey-Maldonado1, Jairo E Rivera1, Scarlet Baez1, Marcel E Lechin31Department of Pathophysiology, Sections of Neuroendocrinology, Neuropharmacology, and Neurochemistry, Instituto de Medicina Experimental, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; 2Instituto de Vias Digestivas Caracas, Centro Clínico Profesional, Caracas, Venezuela; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Texas, USAObjective: The aim of our study was to determine the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system profiles underlying anorexia nervosa (AN syndrome, given that affected patients present with the opposite clinical profile to that seen in the hyperinsulinism syndrome.Design: We measured blood pressure and heart rate, as well as circulating neurotransmitters (noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, plasma serotonin, and platelet serotonin, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, during supine resting, one minute of orthostasis, and after five minutes of exercise. In total, 22 AN patients (12 binge-eating/purging type and 10 restricting type and age-, gender-, and race-matched controls (70 ± 10.1% versus 98 ± 3.0% of ideal body weight were recruited.Results: We found that patients with AN had adrenal sympathetic overactivity and neural sympathetic underactivity, demonstrated by a predominance of circulating adrenaline over noradrenaline levels, not only during the supine resting state (52 ± 2 versus 29 ± 1 pg/mL but also during orthostasis (67 ± 3 versus 32 ± 2 pg/mL, P < 0.05 and after exercise challenge (84 ± 4 versus 30 ± 3 pg/mL, P < 0.01.Conclusion: Considering that this peripheral autonomic nervous system disorder depends on the absolute predominance of adrenomedullary C1 adrenergic nuclei over A5 noradrenergic pontine nucleus, let us ratify the abovementioned findings. The AN syndrome depends on the

  1. Loss of Sympathetic Nerves in Spleens from Patients with End Stage Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald B. Hoover


    Full Text Available The spleen is an important site for central regulation of immune function by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves, but little is known about this major region of neuroimmune communication in humans. Experimental studies using animal models have established that sympathetic innervation of the spleen is essential for cholinergic anti-inflammatory responses evoked by vagal nerve stimulation, and clinical studies are evaluating this approach for treating inflammatory diseases. Most data on sympathetic nerves in spleen derive from rodent studies, and this work has established that remodeling of sympathetic innervation can occur during inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of sepsis on spleen innervation. Our primary goals were to (i localize noradrenergic nerves in human spleen by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, a specific noradrenergic marker, (ii determine if nerves occur in close apposition to leukocytes, and (iii determine if splenic sympathetic innervation is altered in patients who died from end stage sepsis. Staining for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT was done to screen for cholinergic nerves. Archived paraffin tissue blocks were used. Control samples were obtained from trauma patients or patients who died after hemorrhagic stroke. TH + nerves were associated with arteries and arterioles in all control spleens, occurring in bundles or as nerve fibers. Individual TH + nerve fibers entered the perivascular region where some appeared in close apposition to leukocytes. In marked contrast, spleens from half of the septic patients lacked TH + nerves fibers and the average abundance of TH + nerves for the septic group was only 16% of that for the control group (control: 0.272 ± 0.060% area, n = 6; sepsis: 0.043 ± 0.026% area, n = 8; P < 0.005. All spleens lacked cholinergic innervation. Our results provide definitive evidence for the distribution of noradrenergic

  2. Revision on Renal Sympathetic Ablation in the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension. (United States)

    Saraiva, Ana Filipa


    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, with about 1 billion people affected and a possible increase to 1.5 billion by 2025. Despite advances in treatment, a proportion of patients remain resistant to conventional treatment and uncontrolled, and this can adversely affect future cardiovascular events and mortality. This alarming growth is already reflected in an important public health problem and one of the largest economic burdens of health, requiring new approaches and development of different strategies to fight this problem. This review will focus on the definition of resistant hypertension and its etiology, as well as in contemporary evidence supporting the usefulness of renal sympathetic denervation while addressing current and emerging devices, potential treatment indications in the future and unresolved issues that need to be addressed before renal sympathetic denervation can be adopted not only as a last resort exclusively for resistant hypertension. Finally an evaluation algorithm for patients with resistant hypertension which should be implemented before the execution of this technique will be proposed. Renal sympathetic denervation is a technique that possibly could have future implications in the population with hypertension, especially those with true resistant hypertension. This technique aims to reduce the renal sympathetic activation (a component in the pathophysiology of hypertension) through the destruction of the renal sympathetic nerves located in the adventitia of the renal arteries. There are several catheters that can be used; each with its specifications and therefore their selection should be made individually depending on the profile of the patient. However, a detailed pre-procedure evaluation is extremely important to exclude the large percentage of individuals with uncontrolled hypertension due to several factors that make it impossible to control blood pressure, but are likely to be corrected and as such should

  3. Sympathetic activity of S-(+-ketamine low doses in the epidural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Mihaljevic


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: S-(+-ketamine is an intravenous anaesthetic and sympathomimetic with properties of local anaesthetic. It has an effect of an analgetic and local anaesthetic when administered epidurally, but there are no data whether low doses of S-(+-ketamine have sympathomimetic effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether low doses of S-(+-ketamine, given epidurally together with local anaesthetic, have any effect on sympathetic nervous system, both systemic and below the level of anaesthetic block. METHODS: The study was conducted on two groups of patients to whom epidural anaesthesia was administered to. Local anaesthesia (0.5% bupivacaine was given to one group (control group while local anaesthesia and S-(+-ketamine were given to other group. Age, height, weight, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were measured. Non-competitive enzyme immunochemistry method (Cat Combi ELISA was used to determine the concentrations of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline. Immunoenzymometric determination with luminescent substrate on a machine called Vitros Eci was used to determine the concentration of cortisol. Pulse transit time was measured using photoplethysmography. Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon test and Friedman ANOVA were the statistical tests. Blood pressure, pulse, adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol concentrations were measured in order to estimate systemic sympathetic effects. RESULTS: 40 patients in the control group were given 0.5% bupivacaine and 40 patients in the test group were given 0.5% bupivacaine with S-(+-ketamine. Value p < 0.05 has been taken as a limit of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Low dose of S-(+-ketamine administered epidurally had no sympathomimetic effects; it did not change blood pressure, pulse, serum hormones or pulse transit time. Low dose of S-(+-ketamine administered epidurally did not deepen sympathetic block. Adding 25 mg of S-(+-ketamine to 0

  4. A model-based approach for the evaluation of vagal and sympathetic activities in a newborn lamb. (United States)

    Le Rolle, Virginie; Ojeda, David; Beuchée, Alain; Praud, Jean-Paul; Pladys, Patrick; Hernández, Alfredo I


    This paper proposes a baroreflex model and a recursive identification method to estimate the time-varying vagal and sympathetic contributions to heart rate variability during autonomic maneuvers. The baroreflex model includes baroreceptors, cardiovascular control center, parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. The gains of the global afferent sympathetic and vagal pathways are identified recursively. The method has been validated on data from newborn lambs, which have been acquired during the application of an autonomic maneuver, without medication and under beta-blockers. Results show a close match between experimental and simulated signals under both conditions. The vagal and sympathetic contributions have been simulated and, as expected, it is possible to observe different baroreflex responses under beta-blockers compared to baseline conditions.

  5. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu


    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  6. Sympathetically maintained pain presenting first as temporomandibular disorder, then as parotid dysfunction. (United States)

    Giri, Subha; Nixdorf, Donald


    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic condition characterized by intense pain, swelling, redness, hypersensitivity and additional sudomotor effects. In all 13 cases of CRPS in the head and neck region reported in the literature, nerve injury was identified as the etiology for pain initiation. In this article, we present the case of a 30-year-old female patient with sympathetically maintained pain without apparent nerve injury. Her main symptoms--left-side preauricular pain and inability to open her mouth wide--mimicked temporomandibular joint arthralgia and myofascial pain of the masticatory muscles. Later, symptoms of intermittent preauricular pain and swelling developed, along with hyposalivation, which mimicked parotitis. After an extensive diagnostic process, no definitive underlying pathology could be identified and a diagnosis of neuropathic pain with a prominent sympathetic component was made. Two years after the onset of symptoms and initiation of care, treatment with repeated stellate ganglion blocks and enteral clonidine pharmacotherapy provided adequate pain relief.

  7. The pattern of activation of the sympathetic nervous system during tilt-induced syncope. (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Sciborski, Ryszard; Smereka, Jacek; Checiński, Igor; Mazurek, Walentyna


    A 49-year-old patient with a history of situational syncope and minimal electrocardiographic signs of accessory pathway is described. The evidence for pre-excitation was present only during the sympathetic activation caused by exercise testing and isoprenaline infusion. This phenomenon served as an indicator of significant adrenergic drive to the heart after the tilt-induced syncope. The meaning of the observed electrocardiographic changes in the course of neurocardiogenic reaction and its contribution to the understanding of the sympatho-vagal balance during vasovagal syncope is discussed. The lack of preexcitation signs during syncope and its appearance several seconds after the syncope-related sinus pause indicates sympathetic withdrawal before and shortly after the asystole. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment. (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio


    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  9. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  10. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.


    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  11. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton


    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  12. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr


    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  13. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter


    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  14. Pouliot type duality via a-maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yagi, Futoshi


    We study four-dimensional N=1Spin(10) gauge theory with a single spinor and N Q vectors at the superconformal fixed point via the electric-magnetic duality and a-maximization. When gauge invariant chiral primary operators hit the unitarity bounds, we find that the theory with no superpotential is identical to the one with some superpotential at the infrared fixed point. The auxiliary field method in the electric theory offers a satisfying description of the infrared fixed point, which is consistent with the better picture in the magnetic theory. In particular, it gives a clear description of the emergence of new massless degrees of freedom in the electric theory

  15. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  16. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal damage precedes myocardial fibrosis in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbriaco, Massimo; Piscopo, Valentina; Ponsiglione, Andrea; Nappi, Carmela; Puglia, Marta; Dell'Aversana, Serena; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto; Pellegrino, Teresa; Petretta, Mario; Riccio, Eleonora; Pisani, Antonio


    Cardiac sympathetic denervation may be detectable in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD), suggesting its usefulness for early detection of the disease. However, the relationship between sympathetic neuronal damage measured by 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging with myocardial fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is still unclear. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by 123 I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 25 patients with genetically proved AFD. Within one month from MIBG imaging, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced CMR. MIBG defect size and fibrosis size on CMR were measured for the left ventricle (LV) and expressed as %LV. Patients were divided into three groups according to MIBG and CMR findings: (1) matched normal, without MIBG defects and without fibrosis on CMR (n = 10); (2) unmatched, with MIBG defect but without fibrosis (n = 5); and (3) matched abnormal, with MIBG defect and fibrosis (n = 10). The three groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, α-galactosidase, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, and troponin I, while New York Heart Association class (p = 0.008), LV hypertrophy (p = 0.05), and enzyme replacement therapy (p = 0.02) were different among groups. Although in patients with matched abnormal findings, there was a significant correlation between MIBG defect size and area of fibrosis at CMR (r 2 = 0.98, p < 0.001), MIBG defect size was larger than fibrosis size (26 ± 23 vs. 18 ± 13%LV, p = 0.02). Sympathetic neuronal damage is frequent in AFD patients, and it may precede myocardial damage, such as fibrosis. Thus, 123 I-MIBG imaging can be considered a challenging technique for early detection of cardiac involvement in AFD. (orig.)

  17. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Its Modulation in Renal Hypertension. (United States)

    Sata, Yusuke; Head, Geoffrey A; Denton, Kate; May, Clive N; Schlaich, Markus P


    The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation. Renal afferent nerves complete the feedback loop via central autonomic nuclei where the signals are integrated and modulate central sympathetic outflow; thus both types of nerves form integral parts of the self-regulated renorenal reflex loop. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is commonly increased in pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension and chronic- and end-stage renal disease. Increased RSNA raises blood pressure and can contribute to the deterioration of renal function. Attempts have been made to eliminate or interfere with this important link between the brain and the kidneys as a neuromodulatory treatment for these conditions. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been successfully applied in patients with resistant hypertension and was associated with significant falls in blood pressure and renal protection in most studies performed. The focus of this review is the neural contribution to the control of renal and cardiovascular hemodynamics and renal function in the setting of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, as well as the specific roles of renal efferent and afferent nerves in this scenario and their utility as a therapeutic target.

  18. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Its Modulation in Renal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sata


    Full Text Available The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation. Renal afferent nerves complete the feedback loop via central autonomic nuclei where the signals are integrated and modulate central sympathetic outflow; thus both types of nerves form integral parts of the self-regulated renorenal reflex loop. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA is commonly increased in pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension and chronic- and end-stage renal disease. Increased RSNA raises blood pressure and can contribute to the deterioration of renal function. Attempts have been made to eliminate or interfere with this important link between the brain and the kidneys as a neuromodulatory treatment for these conditions. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been successfully applied in patients with resistant hypertension and was associated with significant falls in blood pressure and renal protection in most studies performed. The focus of this review is the neural contribution to the control of renal and cardiovascular hemodynamics and renal function in the setting of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, as well as the specific roles of renal efferent and afferent nerves in this scenario and their utility as a therapeutic target.

  19. Micro-anatomy of the renal sympathetic nervous system: a human postmortem histologic study. (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel S; Deep, Nicholas L; Mendelsohn, Farrell O


    Hypertension remains an epidemic uncontrolled with pharmacologic therapies. A novel catheter inserted into the renal artery has been shown to lower blood pressure by ablating the renal sympathetic nerves with radiofrequency energy delivered through the arterial wall. We report a histologic study describing the anatomic substrate for this technique, specifically the renal sympathetic nervous system. Histological sections from proximal, middle, and distal renal artery segments from nine renal arteries (five human autopsies) were analyzed. Nerves were manually counted and their distance from the lumen-intima interface was measured using a micrometer. The nerves were then categorized by location into 0.5-mm-wide "rings" that were arranged circumferentially around the renal artery lumen. Of all nerves detected, 1.0% was in the 0-0.5 mm ring, 48.3% were in the 0.5-1.0 mm ring, 25.6% were in the 1.0-1.5 mm ring, 15.5% were in the 1.5-2.0 mm ring, and 9.5% were in the 2.0-2.5 mm ring. Beyond 0.5 mm, the proportion of nerves tended to decrease as the distance from the lumen increased. Totally, 90.5% of all nerves in this study existed within 2.0 mm of the renal artery lumen. Additionally, the number of nerves tended to increase along the length of the artery from proximal to distal segments (proximal = 216; middle = 323; distal = 417). In conclusion, our analysis indicates that a great proportion of renal sympathetic nerves have close proximity to the lumen-intima interface and should thus be accessible via renal artery interventional approaches such as catheter ablation. This data provides important anatomic information for the development of ablation and other type devices for renal sympathetic denervation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Renal hemodynamic effects of activation of specific renal sympathetic nerve fiber groups. (United States)

    DiBona, G F; Sawin, L L


    To examine the effect of activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers on renal blood flow (RBF) dynamics, anesthetized rats were instrumented with a renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) recording electrode and an electromagnetic flow probe on the ipsilateral renal artery. Peripheral thermal receptor stimulation (external heat) was used to activate a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers and to increase total RSNA. Total RSNA was reflexly increased to the same degree with somatic receptor stimulation (tail compression). Arterial pressure and heart rate were increased by both stimuli. Total RSNA was increased to the same degree by both stimuli but external heat produced a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression. Whereas both stimuli increased spectral density power of RSNA at both cardiac and respiratory frequencies, modulation of RBF variability by fluctuations of RSNA was small at these frequencies, with values for the normalized transfer gain being approximately 0.1 at >0.5 Hz. During tail compression coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gain of 0.33 +/- 0.02. During external heat coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gains of 0. 63 +/- 0.05 at 0.2 Hz and 0.53 +/- 0.04 to 0.36 +/- 0.02 at 0.3-0.4 Hz. Renal denervation eliminated the oscillations in RBF at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz. These findings indicate that despite similar increases in total RSNA, external heat results in a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression due to the activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers with different frequency-response characteristics of the renal vasculature.

  1. 1.5 T augmented reality navigated interventional MRI: paravertebral sympathetic plexus injections. (United States)

    Marker, David R; U Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I; Carrino, John A; Fritz, Jan


    The high contrast resolution and absent ionizing radiation of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be advantageous for paravertebral sympathetic nerve plexus injections. We assessed the feasibility and technical performance of MRI-guided paravertebral sympathetic injections utilizing augmented reality navigation and 1.5 T MRI scanner. A total of 23 bilateral injections of the thoracic (8/23, 35%), lumbar (8/23, 35%), and hypogastric (7/23, 30%) paravertebral sympathetic plexus were prospectively planned in twelve human cadavers using a 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI scanner and augmented reality navigation system. MRI-conditional needles were used. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced saline was injected. Outcome variables included the number of control magnetic resonance images, target error of the needle tip, punctures of critical nontarget structures, distribution of the injected fluid, and procedure length. Augmented-reality navigated MRI guidance at 1.5 T provided detailed anatomical visualization for successful targeting of the paravertebral space, needle placement, and perineural paravertebral injections in 46 of 46 targets (100%). A mean of 2 images (range, 1-5 images) were required to control needle placement. Changes of the needle trajectory occurred in 9 of 46 targets (20%) and changes of needle advancement occurred in 6 of 46 targets (13%), which were statistically not related to spinal regions (P = 0.728 and P = 0.86, respectively) and cadaver sizes (P = 0.893 and P = 0.859, respectively). The mean error of the needle tip was 3.9±1.7 mm. There were no punctures of critical nontarget structures. The mean procedure length was 33±12 min. 1.5 T augmented reality-navigated interventional MRI can provide accurate imaging guidance for perineural injections of the thoracic, lumbar, and hypogastric sympathetic plexus.

  2. Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Dysautonomia via Plasticity in Paravertebral Sympathetic Postganglionic (United States)


    resting membrane potential (-57 ± 9 mV ) [Fig. 4A], membrane resistance (985 ± 501 MΩ), and τm (99 ± 49 ms) [Fig. 4B]. Threshold voltage was...typically 10 mV higher than resting membrane potential, action potentials displayed after-hyperpolarization and some cells displayed post-inhibitory...firing in rat sympathetic neurons and thereby contribute to ganglionic amplification. Frontiers in neurology 1:130. Springer MG, Kullmann PH, Horn JP

  3. Dissociation between neural and vascular responses to sympathetic stimulation : contribution of local adrenergic receptor function (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J.; Robertson, D.; Biaggioni, I.


    Sympathetic activation produced by various stimuli, eg, mental stress or handgrip, evokes regional vascular responses that are often nonhomogeneous. This phenomenon is believed to be the consequence of the recruitment of differential central neural pathways or of a sympathetically mediated vasodilation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar heterogeneous response occurs with cold pressor stimulation and to test the hypothesis that local differences in adrenergic receptor function could be in part responsible for this diversity. In 8 healthy subjects, local norepinephrine spillover and blood flow were measured in arms and legs at baseline and during sympathetic stimulation induced by baroreflex mechanisms (nitroprusside infusion) or cold pressor stimulation. At baseline, legs had higher vascular resistance (27+/-5 versus 17+/-2 U, P=0.05) despite lower norepinephrine spillover (0.28+/-0.04 versus 0.4+/-0.05 mg. min(-1). dL(-1), P=0.03). Norepinephrine spillover increased similarly in both arms and legs during nitroprusside infusion and cold pressor stimulation. On the other hand, during cold stimulation, vascular resistance increased in arms but not in legs (20+/-9% versus -7+/-4%, P=0.03). Increasing doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine were infused intra-arterially in arms and legs to estimate beta-mediated vasodilation and alpha-induced vasoconstriction, respectively. beta-Mediated vasodilation was significantly lower in legs compared with arms. Thus, we report a dissociation between norepinephrine spillover and vascular responses to cold stress in lower limbs characterized by a paradoxical decrease in local resistance despite increases in sympathetic activity. The differences observed in adrenergic receptor responses cannot explain this phenomenon.

  4. Pneumatic antishock garment inflation activates the human sympathetic nervous system by abdominal compression. (United States)

    Garvin, Nathan M; Levine, Benjamin D; Raven, Peter B; Pawelczyk, James A


    Pneumatic antishock garments (PASG) have been proposed to exert their blood pressure-raising effect mechanically, i.e. by increasing venous return and vascular resistance of the lower body. We tested whether, alternatively, PASG inflation activates the sympathetic nervous system. Five men and four women wore PASG while mean arterial pressure (MAP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate and stroke volume were measured. One leg bladder (LEG) and the abdominal bladder (ABD) of the trousers were inflated individually and in combination (ABD+LEG), at 60 or 90 mmHg for 3 min. By the end of 3 min of inflation, conditions that included the ABD region caused significant increases in MAP in a dose-dependent fashion (7 ± 2, 8 ± 3, 14 ± 4 and 13 ± 5 mmHg for ABD60, ABD+LEG60, ABD90 and ABD+LEG90, respectively, P < 0.05). Likewise, inflation that included ABD caused significant increases in total MSNA compared with control values [306 ± 70, 426 ± 98 and 247 ± 79 units for ABD60, ABD90 and ABD+LEG90, respectively, P < 0.05 (units = burst frequency × burst amplitude]. There were no changes in MAP or MSNA in the LEG-alone conditions. The ABD inflation also caused a significant decrease in stroke volume (-11 ± 3 and -10 ± 3 ml per beat in ABD90 and ABD+LEG90, respectively, P < 0.05) with no change in cardiac output. Neither cardiopulmonary receptor deactivation nor mechanical effects can account for a slowly developing rise in both sympathetic activity and blood pressure during ABD inflation. Rather, these data provide direct evidence that PASG inflation activates the sympathetic nervous system secondarily to abdominal, but not leg, compression.

  5. Mechanisms of Sympathetic Activation and Blood Pressure Elevation by Intermittent Hypoxia


    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.; Kumar, Ganesh K.


    Sleep disordered breathing with recurrent apneas is one of the most frequently encountered breathing disorder in adult humans and preterm infants. Recurrent apnea patients exhibit several co-morbidities including hypertension and persistent sympathetic activation. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from apneas appears to be the primary stimulus for evoking autonomic changes. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the effects of IH on chemo-and baro-reflexes and circulating vasoacti...

  6. Dysregulation of Neuronal Ca2+ Channel Linked to Heightened Sympathetic Phenotype in Prohypertensive States


    Larsen, Hege E.; Bardsley, Emma N.; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Paterson, David J.


    Hypertension is associated with impaired nitric oxide (NO)–cyclic nucleotide (CN)-coupled intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis that enhances cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission. Because neuronal membrane Ca2+ currents are reduced by NO-activated S-nitrosylation, we tested whether CNs affect membrane channel conductance directly in neurons isolated from the stellate ganglia of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive controls. Using voltage-clamp and cAMP–protein kin...

  7. "Head versus heart": Effect of monetary frames on expression of sympathetic magical concerns


    Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker


    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  8. Chemical lumbar sympathetic plexus block in Buerger′s disease: Current scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampal Singh


    Full Text Available Introduction: High incidences of Buerger′s disease (43-62% in India draw our attention towards available treatment modalities in such patients. Patients with this disease are in severe pain and agony. Pain relief by any means remains first and foremost priority in such patients and if patient is able to sleep even one pain free night it is a boon for the patients. The purpose of study was to test the hypothesis that lumber sympathetic block relieves the pain of ischemic limb in Buerger′s disease. Aims and Objectives: To study the effect of chemical lumber sympathetic block on visual analog score (VAS score and walking distance of the patients. Materials and Methods: Lumber sympathetic block was given under C-arm guidance with 17.5 cm long 22 G spinal needle at L3 and L4 level. Diagnostic block was given initially with plain bupivacaine 0.25% with two needle technique. Total seven blocks series were given in all patients. Final block was given with phenol 8%, 8 ml at L3 and L4 level. In postoperative period, VAS score was observed. Effect of block on walking distance was assessed on 3 rd day before giving next block. Statistical analysis: Software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Both VAS and walking distance improved significantly after each successive block. Healing of ulcers of foot is also noted. Conclusion: Despite advances in treatment modalities in such patients, lumber sympathetic block is still very cost-effective, safe, and least-invasive technique in treating painful ischemic legs.

  9. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates glucose production via the hepatic sympathetic innervation in rats. (United States)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Sun, Ning; Ackermans, Mariette T; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Shi, Jing; Serlie, Mireille J; Buijs, Ruud M; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries


    The unraveling of the elaborate brain networks that control glucose metabolism presents one of the current challenges in diabetes research. Within the central nervous system, the hypothalamus is regarded as the key brain area to regulate energy homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothalamic mechanism involved in the hyperglycemic effects of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Endogenous glucose production (EGP) was determined during intracerebroventricular infusions of PACAP-38, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), or their receptor agonists. The specificity of their receptors was examined by coinfusions of receptor antagonists. The possible neuronal pathway involved was investigated by 1) local injections in hypothalamic nuclei, 2) retrograde neuronal tracing from the thoracic spinal cord to hypothalamic preautonomic neurons together with Fos immunoreactivity, and 3) specific hepatic sympathetic or parasympathetic denervation to block the autonomic neuronal input to liver. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PACAP-38 increased EGP to a similar extent as a VIP/PACAP-2 (VPAC2) receptor agonist, and intracerebroventricular administration of VIP had significantly less influence on EGP. The PACAP-38 induced increase of EGP was significantly suppressed by preinfusion of a VPAC2 but not a PAC1 receptor antagonist, as well as by hepatic sympathetic but not parasympathetic denervation. In the hypothalamus, Fos immunoreactivity induced by PACAP-38 was colocalized within autonomic neurons in paraventricular nuclei projecting to preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord. Local infusion of PACAP-38 directly into the PVN induced a significant increase of EGP. This study demonstrates that PACAP-38 signaling via sympathetic preautonomic neurons located in the paraventricular nucleus is an important component in the hypothalamic control of hepatic glucose production.

  10. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal damage precedes myocardial fibrosis in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbriaco, Massimo; Piscopo, Valentina; Ponsiglione, Andrea; Nappi, Carmela; Puglia, Marta; Dell' Aversana, Serena; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Pellegrino, Teresa [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Petretta, Mario [University Federico II, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Riccio, Eleonora; Pisani, Antonio [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Public Health, Naples (Italy)


    Cardiac sympathetic denervation may be detectable in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD), suggesting its usefulness for early detection of the disease. However, the relationship between sympathetic neuronal damage measured by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging with myocardial fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is still unclear. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by {sup 123}I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 25 patients with genetically proved AFD. Within one month from MIBG imaging, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced CMR. MIBG defect size and fibrosis size on CMR were measured for the left ventricle (LV) and expressed as %LV. Patients were divided into three groups according to MIBG and CMR findings: (1) matched normal, without MIBG defects and without fibrosis on CMR (n = 10); (2) unmatched, with MIBG defect but without fibrosis (n = 5); and (3) matched abnormal, with MIBG defect and fibrosis (n = 10). The three groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, α-galactosidase, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, and troponin I, while New York Heart Association class (p = 0.008), LV hypertrophy (p = 0.05), and enzyme replacement therapy (p = 0.02) were different among groups. Although in patients with matched abnormal findings, there was a significant correlation between MIBG defect size and area of fibrosis at CMR (r{sup 2} = 0.98, p < 0.001), MIBG defect size was larger than fibrosis size (26 ± 23 vs. 18 ± 13%LV, p = 0.02). Sympathetic neuronal damage is frequent in AFD patients, and it may precede myocardial damage, such as fibrosis. Thus, {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging can be considered a challenging technique for early detection of cardiac involvement in AFD. (orig.)

  11. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production. (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U


    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  12. Continuous pile discharging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.


    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug. 7 claims, 10 drawing figures

  13. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)


    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  14. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F


    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  15. Continuous pile discharging machine (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.


    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  16. Altered differential control of sympathetic outflow following sedentary conditions: Role of subregional neuroplasticity in the RVLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhan Subramanian


    Full Text Available Despite the classically held belief of an all-or-none activation of the sympathetic nervous system, differential responses in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA can occur acutely at varying magnitudes and in opposing directions. Sympathetic nerves also appear to contribute differentially to various disease states including hypertension and heart failure. Previously we have reported that sedentary conditions enhanced responses of splanchnic SNA (SSNA but not lumbar SNA (LSNA to activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM in rats. Bulbospinal RVLM neurons from sedentary rats also exhibit increased dendritic branching in rostral regions of the RVLM. We hypothesized that regionally specific structural neuroplasticity would manifest as enhanced SSNA but not LSNA following activation of the rostral RVLM. To test this hypothesis, groups of physically active (10-12 weeks on running wheels or sedentary, male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure, LSNA and SSNA under Inactin anesthesia and during microinjections of glutamate (30 nl, 10 mM into multiple sites within the RVLM. Sedentary conditions enhanced SSNA but not LSNA responses and SSNA responses were enhanced at more central and rostral sites. Results suggest that enhanced SSNA responses in rostral RVLM coincide with enhanced dendritic branching in rostral RVLM observed previously. Identifying structural and functional neuroplasticity in specific populations of RVLM neurons may help identify new treatments for cardiovascular diseases, known to be more prevalent in sedentary individuals.

  17. The Place of Operations upon the Sympathetic System in the Treatment of Poliomyelitis. (United States)

    Ogilvie, W H


    Revived interest in sympathetic surgery originated in orthopaedics. Royle's theories and operations. Their trial, failure and final abandonment. Value of sympathetic operations widely investigated; while finality has not been reached they have proved effective for three main purposes: (1) Relief of pain especially in bladder diseases. (2) Removal of inhibition and sphincteric spasm in alimentary, anal and bladder diseases. (3) Production of vaso-dilatation in (a) vaso-spastic diseases; (b) vaso-degenerative diseases; (c) conditions not due to arterial disease in which increased blood supply is beneficial.Poliomyelitis falls into the last group.-Cause of poor blood supply uncertain; ? lack of function; ? upset of some reflex; ? paralysis of vaso-dilators.TWO PROBLEMS ARISE, BOTH OF WHICH MAY BE TREATED BY OPERATIONS ON THE SYMPATHETIC: (1) The cold, blue limb, which develops chilblains, sores, or even deep ulcers every winter, often stopping treatment and requiring patient to be confined to bed. (2) The limb with considerable and rapidly increasing shortening. Sometimes these limbs show a fair return of power, and were it not for the heavy boot made necessary by the shortening, the patient could be made to walk well.Method of attack.-(1) Periarterial sympathectomy; (2) ramisectomy; (3) ganglionectomy. Physiological basis of each. Criticism of (1) and (2).Details of the operation for ganglionectomy.-Alternative approaches and their advantages. The immediate and late results of the procedure.Five cases discussed briefly.

  18. Comparison of thermogenic sympathetic response to food intake between obese and non-obese young women. (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Miyawaki, C; Ue, H; Kanda, T; Yoshitake, Y; Moritani, T


    Sympathetic nervous system abnormality in humans is still a matter of debate. The present study was designed to examine diet-induced autonomic nervous system activity and metabolic change in obese and non-obese young women. Sixteen age- and height-matched obese and non-obese young women participated in this study. Sympathovagal activities were assessed by means of our newly developed spectral analysis procedure of heart-rate variability during the resting condition and after mixed-food ingestion (480 kcal). Energy expenditure was also measured under these two conditions. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters of the heart-rate variability between the obese group and control group during the resting condition. In the control group, both absolute values (221.5 +/- 54.5 vs. 363.8 +/- 43.7 ms2, p frequency component and global sympathetic nervous system index (1.46 +/- 0.19 vs. 3.26 +/- 0.61, p food ingestion compared with the values obtained after resting condition. However, no such sympathetic response was found in the obese group. Energy expenditure increased in the two groups after the meal, but the magnitude of the increase above the preprandial resting condition was significantly greater in the control group than in the obese group (11.2 +/- 2.3 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.8%, p food intake, which might be related to lowered capacity of thermogenesis and the state of obesity.

  19. Effect of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with severe heart failure. (United States)

    Dai, Qiming; Lu, Jing; Wang, Benwen; Ma, Genshan


    This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility and effects of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with heart failure. A total of 20 patients with heart failure were enrolled, aged from 47 to 75 years (63±10 years). They were divided into the standard therapy (n = 10), and renal nerve radiofrequency ablation groups (n = 10). There were 15 males and 5 female patients, including 8 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 8 dilated cardiomyopathy, and 8 hypertensive cardiopathy. All of the patients met the criteria of New York Heart Association classes III-IV cardiac function. Patients with diabetes and renal failure were excluded. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation was performed on the renal artery wall under X-ray guidance. Serum electrolytes, neurohormones, and 24 h urine volume were recorded 24 h before and after the operation. Echocardiograms were performed to obtain left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and 6 months. Heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea and edema were also monitored. After renal nerve ablation, 24 h urine volume was increased, while neurohormone levels were decreased compared with those of pre-operation and standard therapy. No obvious change in heart rate or blood pressure was recorded. Symptoms of heart failure were improved in patients after the operation. No complications were recorded in the study. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation may be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for the patients with severe congestive heart failure.

  20. MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streitparth, F.; Walter, A.; Stolzenburg, N.; Heckmann, L.; Breinl, J.; Rinnenthal, J. L.; Beck, A.; De Bucourt, M.; Schnorr, J.; Bernhardt, U.; Gebauer, B.; Hamm, B.; Günther, R. W.


    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of image-guided periarterial ethanol injection as an alternative to transluminal radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Unilateral renal periarterial ethanol injection was performed under general anesthesia in 6 pigs with the contralateral kidney serving as control. All interventions were performed in an open 1.0 T MRI system under real-time multiplanar guidance. The injected volume was 5 ml (95 % ethanol labelled marked MR contrast medium) in 2 pigs and 10 ml in 4 pigs. Four weeks after treatment, the pigs underwent MRI including MRA and were killed. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma served as a surrogate parameter to analyze the efficacy of sympathetic denervation. In addition, the renal artery and sympathetic nerves were examined histologically to identify evidence of vascular and neural injury. Results. In pigs treated with 10 ml ethanol, treatment resulted in neural degeneration. We found a significant reduction of NE concentration in the kidney parenchyma of 53 % (p < 0.02) compared with the untreated contralateral kidney. In pigs treated with 5 ml ethanol, no significant changes in histology or NE were observed. There was no evidence of renal arterial stenosis in MRI, macroscopy or histology in any pig. Conclusion. MR-guided periarterial ethanol injection was feasible and efficient for renal sympathetic denervation in a swine model. This technique may be a promising alternative to the catheter-based approach in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

  1. Liver afferents contribute to water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects: a clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (p<0.05 between groups after 30-40 minutes of water drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human NCT01237431.

  2. J.H. Pons on 'Sympathetic insanity': With an introduction by GE Berrios. (United States)

    Berrios, G E; Pons, J H


    The ancient concept of 'sympathy' originally referred to a putative affinity or force that linked all natural objects together. This notion was later used to explain the manner in which human beings related and felt for each other. A large literature exists on both the physical and psychological definitions of sympathy. Until the nineteenth century the conceptual apparatus of medicine preserved the view that the organs of the human body had a sympathetic affinity for each other. In addition to these 'physiological' (normal) sympathies there were morbid ones which explained the existence of various diseases. A morbid sympathy link also explained the fact that insanity followed the development of pathological changes in the liver, spleen, stomach and other bodily organs. These cases were classified as 'sympathetic insanities'. After the 1880s, the sympathy narrative was gradually replaced by physiological, endocrinological and psychodynamic explanations. The clinical states involved, however, are often observed in hospital practice and constitute the metier of 'consultation-liaison psychiatry'. Hence, it is surprising that historical work on the development of this discipline has persistently ignored the concept of 'sympathetic insanity'. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Increase in Operator's Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Complicated Hepatobiliary Surgery: Evidence for Surgeons' Mental Stress. (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Hayashida, Naomi; Kuba, Sayaka; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Noritada; Takamura, Noboru; Eguchi, Susumu


    Surgeons often experience stress during operations. The heart rate variability (HRV) is the variability in the beat-to-beat interval, which has been used as parameters of stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mental stress of surgeons before, during and after operations, especially during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Additionally, the parameters were compared in various procedures during the operations. By frequency domain method using electrocardiograph, we measured the high frequency (HF) component, representing the parasympathetic activity, and the low frequency (LF)/HF ratio, representing the sympathetic activity. In all 5 cases of PD, the surgeon showed significantly lower HF component and higher LF/HF during operation, indicating predominance of sympathetic nervous system and increased stress, than those before the operation (p operation. Out of the 4 LDLT cases, the value of HF was decreased in two and the LF/HF increased in three cases (p operation compared to those before the operation. In all cases, the value of HF was decreased and/or the LF/HF increased significantly during the reconstruction of the vessels or bile ducts than during the removal of the liver. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity increased during hepatobiliary surgery compared with the level before the operation, and various procedures during the operations induced diverse changes in the autonomic nervous activities. The HRV analysis could assess the chronological changes of mental stress by measuring the autonomic nervous balances.

  4. Central Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Browns White Fat via Sympathetic Action in Male Mice. (United States)

    Douris, Nicholas; Stevanovic, Darko M; Fisher, Ffolliott M; Cisu, Theodore I; Chee, Melissa J; Nguyen, Ngoc L; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Flier, Jeffrey S; Bartness, Timothy J; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria


    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has multiple metabolic actions, including the induction of browning in white adipose tissue. Although FGF21 stimulated browning results from a direct interaction between FGF21 and the adipocyte, browning is typically associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system through cold exposure. We tested the hypothesis that FGF21 can act via the brain, to increase sympathetic activity and induce browning, independent of cell-autonomous actions. We administered FGF21 into the central nervous system via lateral ventricle infusion into male mice and found that the central treatment increased norepinephrine turnover in target tissues that include the inguinal white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. Central FGF21 stimulated browning as assessed by histology, expression of uncoupling protein 1, and the induction of gene expression associated with browning. These effects were markedly attenuated when mice were treated with a β-blocker. Additionally, neither centrally nor peripherally administered FGF21 initiated browning in mice lacking β-adrenoceptors, demonstrating that an intact adrenergic system is necessary for FGF21 action. These data indicate that FGF21 can signal in the brain to activate the sympathetic nervous system and induce adipose tissue thermogenesis.

  5. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans. (United States)

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Hayano, Junichiro; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Mano, Tadaaki


    Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied muscles remain unknown. We hypothesized that bed rest would augment sympathetic responses to isometric exercise using antigravity leg muscles in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers were subjected to 14-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Before and after bed rest, they performed isometric exercises using leg (plantar flexion) and forearm (handgrip) muscles, followed by 2-min postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) that continues to stimulate the muscle metaboreflex. These exercises were sustained to fatigue. We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the contralateral resting leg by microneurography. In both pre- and post-bed-rest exercise tests, exercise intensities were set at 30 and 70% of the maximum voluntary force measured before bed rest. Bed rest attenuated the increase in MSNA in response to fatiguing plantar flexion by approximately 70% at both exercise intensities (both P antigravity leg muscles.

  6. MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F., E-mail:; Walter, A.; Stolzenburg, N.; Heckmann, L.; Breinl, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Rinnenthal, J. L. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Neuropathology (Germany); Beck, A.; De Bucourt, M.; Schnorr, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bernhardt, U. [InnoRa GmbH (Germany); Gebauer, B.; Hamm, B.; Guenther, R. W. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany)


    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of image-guided periarterial ethanol injection as an alternative to transluminal radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Unilateral renal periarterial ethanol injection was performed under general anesthesia in 6 pigs with the contralateral kidney serving as control. All interventions were performed in an open 1.0 T MRI system under real-time multiplanar guidance. The injected volume was 5 ml (95 % ethanol labelled marked MR contrast medium) in 2 pigs and 10 ml in 4 pigs. Four weeks after treatment, the pigs underwent MRI including MRA and were killed. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma served as a surrogate parameter to analyze the efficacy of sympathetic denervation. In addition, the renal artery and sympathetic nerves were examined histologically to identify evidence of vascular and neural injury. Results. In pigs treated with 10 ml ethanol, treatment resulted in neural degeneration. We found a significant reduction of NE concentration in the kidney parenchyma of 53 % (p < 0.02) compared with the untreated contralateral kidney. In pigs treated with 5 ml ethanol, no significant changes in histology or NE were observed. There was no evidence of renal arterial stenosis in MRI, macroscopy or histology in any pig. Conclusion. MR-guided periarterial ethanol injection was feasible and efficient for renal sympathetic denervation in a swine model. This technique may be a promising alternative to the catheter-based approach in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

  7. Sympathetic neurons are a powerful driver of myocyte function in cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Larsen, Hege E; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Paterson, David J


    Many therapeutic interventions in disease states of heightened cardiac sympathetic activity are targeted to the myocytes. However, emerging clinical data highlights a dominant role in disease progression by the neurons themselves. Here we describe a novel experimental model of the peripheral neuro-cardiac axis to study the neuron's ability to drive a myocyte cAMP phenotype. We employed a co-culture of neonatal ventricular myocytes and sympathetic stellate neurons from normal (WKY) and pro-hypertensive (SHR) rats that are sympathetically hyper-responsive and measured nicotine evoked cAMP responses in the myocytes using a fourth generation FRET cAMP sensor. We demonstrated the dominant role of neurons in driving the myocyte ß-adrenergic phenotype, where SHR cultures elicited heightened myocyte cAMP responses during neural activation. Moreover, cross-culturing healthy neurons onto diseased myocytes rescued the diseased cAMP response of the myocyte. Conversely, healthy myocytes developed a diseased cAMP response if diseased neurons were introduced. Our results provide evidence for a dominant role played by the neuron in driving the adrenergic phenotype seen in cardiovascular disease. We also highlight the potential of using healthy neurons to turn down the gain of neurotransmission, akin to a smart pre-synaptic ß-blocker.

  8. Influence of ventilation and hypocapnia on sympathetic nerve responses to hypoxia in normal humans. (United States)

    Somers, V K; Mark, A L; Zavala, D C; Abboud, F M


    The sympathetic response to hypoxia depends on the interaction between chemoreceptor stimulation (CRS) and the associated hyperventilation. We studied this interaction by measuring sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to muscle in 13 normal subjects, while breathing room air, 14% O2, 10% O2, and 10% O2 with added CO2 to maintain isocapnia. Minute ventilation (VE) and blood pressure (BP) increased significantly more during isocapnic hypoxia (IHO) than hypocapnic hypoxia (HHO). In contrast, SNA increased more during HHO [40 +/- 10% (SE)] than during IHO (25 +/- 19%, P less than 0.05). To determine the reason for the lesser increase in SNA with IHO, 11 subjects underwent voluntary apnea during HHO and IHO. Apnea potentiated the SNA responses to IHO more than to HHO. SNA responses to IHO were 17 +/- 7% during breathing and 173 +/- 47% during apnea whereas SNA responses to HHO were 35 +/- 8% during breathing and 126 +/- 28% during apnea. During ventilation, the sympathoexcitation of IHO (compared with HHO) is suppressed, possibly for two reasons: 1) because of the inhibitory influence of activation of pulmonary afferents as a result of a greater increase in VE, and 2) because of the inhibitory influence of baroreceptor activation due to a greater rise in BP. Thus in humans, the ventilatory response to chemoreceptor stimulation predominates and restrains the sympathetic response. The SNA response to chemoreceptor stimulation represents the net effect of the excitatory influence of the chemoreflex and the inhibitory influence of pulmonary afferents and baroreceptor afferents.

  9. Liver Afferents Contribute to Water Drinking-Induced Sympathetic Activation in Human Subjects: A Clinical Trial (United States)

    May, Marcus; Gueler, Faikah; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Heiringhoff, Karl-Heinz; Engeli, Stefan; Heusser, Karsten; Diedrich, André; Brandt, André; Strassburg, Christian P.; Tank, Jens; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Jordan, Jens


    Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant) as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant) as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (pwater drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. Trial Registration NCT01237431 PMID:22016786

  10. Singlet oxygen production and quenching mechanisms in travelling microwave discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, Yu V; Goryachev, L V; Adamenkov, Yu A; Rakhimova, T V; Mankelevich, Yu A; Popov, N A; Adamenkov, A A; Egorov, V V; Ilyin, S P; Kolobyanin, Yu V; Kudryashov, E A; Rogozhnikov, G S; Vyskubenko, B A


    Experimental and theoretical studies of singlet oxygen excitation in travelling microwave (TMW) discharges are presented. Singlet oxygen O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) concentrations and atomic oxygen mole fraction have been measured for different pressures, input powers and distances from the MW resonator. It was shown that a steady-state TMW discharge with a coaxial cavity resonator could provide a maximal O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) yield of 22% for 2 Torr of pure oxygen and 27-30% for He : O 2 = 1 : 1 mixture. The two-dimensional (r, z) model developed for calculations of plasma-chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer was used for simulation of processes in the TMW discharge under study. Effects of gas pressure, gas flow rate and input power are studied and compared with experimental measurements of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) concentrations and atomic oxygen mole fractions

  11. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.


    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  12. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.


    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  13. Orderly Discharging Strategy for Electric Vehicles at Workplace Based on Time-of-Use Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen


    Full Text Available According to the parking features of electric vehicles (EVs and load of production unit, a power supply system including EVs charging station was established, and an orderly discharging strategy for EVs was proposed as well to reduce the basic tariff of producer and improve the total benefits of EV discharging. Based on the target of maximizing the annual income of producer, considering the total benefits of EV discharging, the electric vehicle aggregator (EVA and time-of-use (TOU price were introduced to establish the optimization scheduling model of EVs discharging. Furthermore, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (IAFSA combined with the penalty function methods was applied to solve the model. It can be shown from the simulation results that the optimal solution obtained by IAFSA is regarded as the orderly discharging strategy for EVs, which could reduce the basic tariff of producer and improve the total benefits of EV discharging.

  14. Peptidergic modulation of efferent sympathetic neurons in intrathoracic ganglia regulating the canine heart. (United States)

    Armour, J A


    When either substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide was injected into an acutely decentralized intrathoracic sympathetic ganglion, short-lasting augmentation of cardiac chronotropism and inotropism was induced. These augmentations were induced before the fall in systemic arterial pressure occurred which was a consequence of these peptides leaking into the systemic circulation in enough quantity to alter peripheral vascular resistance directly. When similar volumes of normal saline were injected into an intrathoracic ganglion, no significant cardiac changes were induced. When substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide was administered into an intrathoracic ganglion, similar cardiac augmentations were induced either before or after the intravenous administration of hexamethonium. In contrast, when these peptides were injected into an intrathoracic ganglion in which the beta-adrenergic blocking agent timolol (0.1 mg/0.1 ml of normal saline) had been administered no cardiac augmentation occurred. These data imply that in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade intraganglionic administration of substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide does not modify enough intrathoracic neurons to alter cardiac chronotropism and inotropism detectably. When neuropeptide Y was injected into an intrathoracic ganglion, no cardiac changes occurred. However, when cardiac augmentations were induced by sympathetic preganglionic axon stimulation these were enhanced following the intraganglionic administration of neuropeptide Y. As this effect occurred after timolol was administered into the ipsilateral ganglia, but not after intravenous administration of hexamethonium, it is proposed that the effects of neuropeptide Y are dependent upon functioning intrathoracic ganglionic nicotinic cholinergic synaptic mechanisms. Intravenous administration of either morphine or [D-ala2,D-leu5]enkephalin acetate did not alter the capacity of the preganglionic sympathetic axons to augment the heart

  15. Chewing-induced hypertension in afferent baroreflex failure: a sympathetic response? (United States)

    Fuente Mora, Cristina; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio


    What is the central question of this study? Our goal was to understand the autonomic responses to eating in patients with congenital afferent baroreflex failure, by documenting changes in blood pressure and heart rate with chewing, swallowing and stomach distension. What is the main finding and its importance? Patients born with lesions in the afferent baroreceptor pathways have an exaggerated pressor response to food intake. This appears to be a sympathetically mediated response, triggered by chewing, that occurs independently of swallowing or distension of the stomach. The chewing-induced pressor response may be useful as a counter-manoeuvre to prevent orthostatic hypotension in these patients. Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease with extremely labile blood pressure resulting from baroreflex deafferentation. Patients have marked surges in sympathetic activity, frequently surrounding meals. We conducted an observational study to document the autonomic responses to eating in patients with FD and to determine whether sympathetic activation was caused by chewing, swallowing or stomach distension. Blood pressure and R-R intervals were measured continuously while chewing gum (n = 15), eating (n = 20) and distending the stomach by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding (n = 9). Responses were compared with those of normal control subjects (n = 10) and of patients with efferent autonomic failure (n = 10) who have chronically impaired sympathetic outflow. In patients with FD, eating was associated with a marked but transient pressor response (P Chewing gum evoked a similar increase in blood pressure that was higher in patients with FD than in control subjects (P = 0.0001), but was absent in patients with autonomic failure. In patients with FD, distending the stomach by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding failed to elicit a pressor response. The results provide indirect evidence that chewing triggers sympathetic

  16. Automatic optimization of core loading patterns to maximize cycle energy production within operational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.H.; Turinsky, P.J.


    Computational capability has been developed to automatically determine the core loading pattern which minimizes fuel cycle costs for a pressurized water reactor. Equating fuel cycle cost minimization with core reactivity maximization, the objective is to determine the loading pattern which maximizes core reactivity at end-of-cycle while satisfying the power peaking constraint throughout the cycle and region average discharge burnup limit. The method utilizes a two-dimensional, coarse mesh, finite difference scheme to evaluate core reactivity and fluxes for an initial reference loading pattern as a function of cycle burnup. First order perturbation theory is applied to determine the effects of assembly shuffling on reactivity, power distribution, and end-of-cycle burnup

  17. Emission characteristics of laser ablation-hollow cathode glow discharge spectral source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatodorov Stefan


    Full Text Available The emission characteristics of a scheme combining laser ablation as sample introduction source and hollow cathode discharge as excitation source are presented. The spatial separation of the sample material introduction by laser ablation and hollow cathode excitation is achieved by optimizing the gas pressure and the sample-cathode gap length. At these conditions the discharge current is maximized to enhance the analytical lines intensity.

  18. Diffusion of condenser water discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Toshio


    Thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are mostly located in coastal area, and the cooling water is discharged into sea as warm water. Recently, large interest is taken in this matter, and it is desirable to predict the diffusion of warm discharge accurately and to take effective measures for lowering the temperature. As for the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, simplified estimation, mathematical analysis and hydrographical model experiment are used corresponding to objects and conditions. As for the measures to lower temperature, the method of discharging warm water into deep sea bottom was confirmed to be very effective. In this paper, the phenomena of diffusion of warm discharge in sea, the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, and the deep sea discharge as the measure for lowering temperature are outlined. The factors concerning the diffusion of warm discharge in sea are the conditions of discharge, topography and sea state, and the diffusion is roughly divided into mixing diffusion in the vicinity of warm water outlet and eddy diffusion in distant region. It is difficult to change artificially the conditions of diffusion in distant region, and the measures of raising the rate of dilution in near region are effective, therefore the deep sea discharge is adopted. (Kako, I.)

  19. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels


    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  20. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  2. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy. (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G


    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.


    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  4. Distributed-Memory Fast Maximal Independent Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanewala Appuhamilage, Thejaka Amila J.; Zalewski, Marcin J.; Lumsdaine, Andrew


    The Maximal Independent Set (MIS) graph problem arises in many applications such as computer vision, information theory, molecular biology, and process scheduling. The growing scale of MIS problems suggests the use of distributed-memory hardware as a cost-effective approach to providing necessary compute and memory resources. Luby proposed four randomized algorithms to solve the MIS problem. All those algorithms are designed focusing on shared-memory machines and are analyzed using the PRAM model. These algorithms do not have direct efficient distributed-memory implementations. In this paper, we extend two of Luby’s seminal MIS algorithms, “Luby(A)” and “Luby(B),” to distributed-memory execution, and we evaluate their performance. We compare our results with the “Filtered MIS” implementation in the Combinatorial BLAS library for two types of synthetic graph inputs.

  5. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states. (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu


    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  6. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter


    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  7. Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)


    We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André da Conceição Menezes


    Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.

  9. Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. J., E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)


    Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.

  10. Maximizing the benefits of a dewatering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.; Iverson, T.S.


    The use of dewatering systems in the mining, industrial sludge and sewage waste treatment industries is discussed, also describing some of the problems that have been encountered while using drilling fluid dewatering technology. The technology is an acceptable drilling waste handling alternative but it has had problems associated with recycled fluid incompatibility, high chemical costs and system inefficiencies. This paper discussed the following five action areas that can maximize the benefits and help reduce costs of a dewatering project: (1) co-ordinate all services, (2) choose equipment that fits the drilling program, (3) match the chemical treatment with the drilling fluid types, (4) determine recycled fluid compatibility requirements, and (5) determine the disposal requirements before project start-up. 2 refs., 5 figs

  11. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail:; Galapon, E.A., E-mail:


    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  12. Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints. (United States)

    Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam


    Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.

  13. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y. Y.


    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology

  14. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  15. A Criterion to Identify Maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang; Feng Feng


    Paolo Facchi, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 060304(R)] presented a maximally multipartite entangled state (MMES). Here, we give a criterion for the identification of maximally entangled four-qubit states. Using this criterion, we not only identify some existing maximally entangled four-qubit states in the literature, but also find several new maximally entangled four-qubit states as well. (general)

  16. Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral m...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....

  17. Effects of catheter-based renal denervation on cardiac sympathetic activity and innervation in patients with resistant hypertension. (United States)

    Donazzan, Luca; Mahfoud, Felix; Ewen, Sebastian; Ukena, Christian; Cremers, Bodo; Kirsch, Carl-Martin; Hellwig, Dirk; Eweiwi, Tareq; Ezziddin, Samer; Esler, Murray; Böhm, Michael


    To investigate, whether renal denervation (RDN) has a direct effect on cardiac sympathetic activity and innervation density. RDN demonstrated its efficacy not only in reducing blood pressure (BP) in certain patients, but also in decreasing cardiac hypertrophy and arrhythmias. These pleiotropic effects occur partly independent from the observed BP reduction. Eleven patients with resistant hypertension (mean office systolic BP 180 ± 18 mmHg, mean antihypertensive medications 6.0 ± 1.5) underwent I-123-mIBG scintigraphy to exclude pheochromocytoma. We measured cardiac sympathetic innervation and activity before and 9 months after RDN. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by heart to mediastinum ratio (H/M) and sympathetic activity by wash out ratio (WOR). Effects on office BP, 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring, were documented. Office systolic BP and mean ambulatory systolic BP were significantly reduced from 180 to 141 mmHg (p = 0.006) and from 149 to 129 mmHg (p = 0.014), respectively. Cardiac innervation remained unchanged before and after RDN (H/M 2.5 ± 0.5 versus 2.6 ± 0.4, p = 0.285). Cardiac sympathetic activity was significantly reduced by 67 % (WOR decreased from 24.1 ± 12.7 to 7.9 ± 25.3 %, p = 0.047). Both, responders and non-responders experienced a reduction of cardiac sympathetic activity. RDN significantly reduced cardiac sympathetic activity thereby demonstrating a direct effect on the heart. These changes occurred independently from BP effects and provide a pathophysiological basis for studies, investigating the potential effect of RDN on arrhythmias and heart failure.

  18. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.


    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  19. [Relationship between sympathetic activity and response to treatment with atenolol in hypertensive patients. Investigation group of the study of efficiency and tolerance of atenolol in hypertensive patients with increase in the sympathetic activity]. (United States)

    de la Sierra, A


    Therapeutical response to antihypertensive treatment is poorly predicted by individual clinical or biochemical characteristics. Some preliminary data indicate that therapeutical response to atenolol might depend on physical and/or sympathetic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the blood pressure response to atenolol depending on physical and sympathetic activity. One thousand one hundred forty hypertensive patients were treated with the beta adrenorecepetor blocker atenolol in an open fashion during 3 months. Before the beginning of the treatment, we evaluated current weekly physical activity (direct interview), as well as sympathetic activity (direct interview and baseline heart rate). Age or physical activity did not correlate with blood pressure response to atenolol. Conversely, hypertensive patients with symptoms suggesting sympathetic overactivity (three or more of the following symptoms: palpitations, anxiety, diaphoresis, headache, tremor or weakness; n = 456), showed a more pronounced decrease in systolic (27.7 [13.4] vs 25.8 [14.3] mmHg; p = 0.0226) and diastolic (17.6 [8.3] vs 15.5 [8.6] mmHg; p = 0.0001) blood pressures (SBP and DBP), with respect to the remaining hypertensive patients (n = 719). Moreover, we found a statistically significant correlation between blood pressure fall with atenolol and baseline heart rate (r = 0.107, P anxiety, emotional tension or sympathetic overactivity are associated with a more pronounced blood pressure fall to antihypertensive treatment with atenolol. These circumstances may play a role when choosing a new antihypertensive therapy.

  20. The Potential of the Bi-Directional Gaze: A Call for Neuroscientific Research on the Simultaneous Activation of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems through Tantric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Lidke


    Full Text Available This paper is a call for the development of a neuroscientific research protocol for the study of the impact of Tantric practice on the autonomic nervous system. Tantric texts like Abhinavagupta’s Tantrāloka map out a complex meditative ritual system in which inward-gazing, apophatic, sense-denying contemplative practices are combined with outward-gazing, kataphatic sense-activating ritual practices. Abhinavagupta announces a culminating “bi-directional” state (pratimīlana-samādhi as the highest natural state (sahaja-samādhi in which the practitioner becomes a perfected yogi (siddhayogi. This state of maximized cognitive capacities, in which one’s inward gaze and outward world-engagement are held in balance, appears to be one in which the anabolic metabolic processes of the parasympathetic nervous system and the catabolic metabolic processes of the sympathetic nervous systems are simultaneously activated and integrated. Akin to secularized mindfulness and compassion training protocols like Emory’s CBCT, I propose the development of secularized “Tantric protocols” for the development of secular and tradition-specific methods for further exploring the potential of the human neurological system.

  1. On maximal surfaces in asymptotically flat space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, R.; Chrusciel, P.T.; O Murchadha, N.


    Existence of maximal and 'almost maximal' hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat space-times is established under boundary conditions weaker than those considered previously. We show in particular that every vacuum evolution of asymptotically flat data for Einstein equations can be foliated by slices maximal outside a spatially compact set and that every (strictly) stationary asymptotically flat space-time can be foliated by maximal hypersurfaces. Amongst other uniqueness results, we show that maximal hypersurface can be used to 'partially fix' an asymptotic Poincare group. (orig.)

  2. The localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus – a retrograde tracing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kulik


    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system is a sophisticated and independent structure composed of two antagonistic (opposing divisions (sympathetic and parasympathetic that control many vital functions including: homeostasis maintenance, heart rate, blood circulation, secretion, etc. Thymus is one of the most important primary lymphoid organs playing a role in the developing of a juvenile’s immune system mainly by maturation, development, and migration of T-cells (T lymphocytes. In the last decades, several studies identifying sources of the thymic autonomic supply have been undertaken in humans and several laboratory rodents but not in higher mammals such as the pig. Therefore, in the present work, retrograde tracing technique of Fast Blue and DiI was used to investigate the sources of sympathetic efferent supply to the porcine thymus. After Fast Blue injection into the right lobe of the thymus, the presence of Fast Blue-positive neurons was found in the unilateral cranial cervical ganglion (82.8 ± 3.0% of total Fast Blue-positive neurons as well as in the middle cervical ganglion (17.2 ± 3.0%. Injection of DiI resulted in the presence of retrograde tracer in neurons of the cranial cervical ganglion (80.4 ± 2.3% of total amount of DiI-labelled neurons, the middle cervical ganglion (18.4 ± 1.9%, and the cervicothoracic ganglion (1.2 ± 0.8%. The present report provides the first data describing in details the localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus.

  3. Sympathetic, sensory, and nonneuronal contributions to the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling. (United States)

    Johnson, John M; Yen, Tony C; Zhao, Kun; Kosiba, Wojciech A


    Previous work indicates that sympathetic nerves participate in the vascular responses to direct cooling of the skin in humans. We evaluated this hypothesis further in a four-part series by measuring changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) from forearm skin locally cooled from 34 to 29 degrees C for 30 min. In part 1, bretylium tosylate reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14 +/- 6.6% control CVC, first 5 min) to one of vasodilation (+19.7 +/- 7.7%) but did not affect the response at 30 min (-30.6 +/- 9% control, -38.9 +/- 6.9% bretylium; both P 0.05 between treatments). In part 2, yohimbine and propranolol (YP) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14.3 +/- 4.2% control) to vasodilation (+26.3 +/- 12.1% YP), without a significant effect on the 30-min response (-26.7 +/- 6.1% YP, -43.2 +/- 6.5% control; both P 0.05 between sites). In part 3, the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 had no significant effect on either phase of vasoconstriction (P > 0.05 between sites both times). In part 4, sensory nerve blockade by anesthetic cream (Emla) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-20.1 +/- 6.4% control) to one of vasodilation (+213.4 +/- 87.0% Emla), whereas the final levels did not differ significantly (-37.7 +/- 10.1% control, -37.2 +/- 8.7% Emla; both P 0.05 between treatments). These results indicate that local cooling causes cold-sensitive afferents to activate sympathetic nerves to release norepinephrine, leading to a local cutaneous vasoconstriction that masks a nonneurogenic vasodilation. Later, a vasoconstriction develops with or without functional sensory or sympathetic nerves.

  4. Clinical evaluation of carbon-11-phenylephrine: MAO-sensitive marker of cardiac sympathetic neurons. (United States)

    Raffel, D M; Corbett, J R; del Rosario, R B; Gildersleeve, D L; Chiao, P C; Schwaiger, M; Wieland, D M


    The sympathomimetic drug phenylephrine recently has been labeled with 11C for use in PET studies of cardiac sympathetic innervation. Previous reports using isolated perfused rat heart models indicate that phenylephrine is metabolized by intraneuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO). This report compares the imaging characteristics, neuronal selectivity and kinetics of (-)-[11C]phenylephrine (PHEN) to the structurally similar but MAO-resistant analog (-)-[11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED), an established heart neuronal marker. Fourteen healthy volunteers were studied with PET and PHEN. Ten had paired studies with HED; four of the 10 were scanned a second time with each tracer after oral administration of desipramine, a selective neuronal transport blocker. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses were monitored. Blood levels of intact radiotracer and radiolabeled metabolites were determined from venous blood samples taken during the PET study. Myocardial retention indices for both tracers were calculated. No hemodynamic or electrocardiographic effects were observed with either tracer. PHEN showed reduced myocardial retention at 50 min compared to HED; however, image quality and uniformity of distribution were comparable. PHEN cleared from myocardium with a mean half-time of 59 +/- 5 min, while myocardial levels of HED remained constant. PHEN metabolites appeared in the blood approximately three times faster than HED metabolites. Desipramine pretreatment markedly reduced (> 60%) myocardial retention of both PHEN and HED. PHEN provides PET images of human heart comparable in quality and uniformity to HED. Like HED, PHEN localizes in the sympathetic nerves of the heart. However, the more rapid efflux of PHEN, that is likely mediated by MAO, may provide information on the functional status of cardiac sympathetic neurons unobtainable with HED.

  5. Anatomic assessment of sympathetic peri-arterial renal nerves in man. (United States)

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Ladich, Elena; Cheng, Qi; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Fowler, David R; Kolodgie, Frank D; Virmani, Renu; Joner, Michael


    Although renal sympathetic denervation therapy has shown promising results in patients with resistant hypertension, the human anatomy of peri-arterial renal nerves is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the anatomic distribution of peri-arterial sympathetic nerves around human renal arteries. Bilateral renal arteries were collected from human autopsy subjects, and peri-arterial renal nerve anatomy was examined by using morphometric software. The ratio of afferent to efferent nerve fibers was investigated by dual immunofluorescence staining using antibodies targeted for anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide. A total of 10,329 nerves were identified from 20 (12 hypertensive and 8 nonhypertensive) patients. The mean individual number of nerves in the proximal and middle segments was similar (39.6 ± 16.7 per section and 39.9 ± 1 3.9 per section), whereas the distal segment showed fewer nerves (33.6 ± 13.1 per section) (p = 0.01). Mean subject-specific nerve distance to arterial lumen was greatest in proximal segments (3.40 ± 0.78 mm), followed by middle segments (3.10 ± 0.69 mm), and least in distal segments (2.60 ± 0.77 mm) (p renal sympathetic nerve fibers is lower in distal segments and dorsal locations. There is a clear predominance of efferent nerve fibers, with decreasing prevalence of afferent nerves from proximal to distal peri-arterial and renal parenchyma. Understanding these anatomic patterns is important for refinement of renal denervation procedures. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman


    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  7. A new function for ATP: activating cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischemia. (United States)

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C


    Myocardial ischemia activates cardiac sympathetic afferents leading to chest pain and reflex cardiovascular responses. Brief myocardial ischemia leads to ATP release in the interstitial space. Furthermore, exogenous ATP and α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP), a P2X receptor agonist, stimulate cutaneous group III and IV sensory nerve fibers. The present study tested the hypothesis that endogenous ATP excites cardiac afferents during ischemia through activation of P2 receptors. Nerve activity of single unit cardiac sympathetic afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain or rami communicates (T(2)-T(5)) in anesthetized cats. Single fields of 45 afferents (conduction velocities = 0.25-4.92 m/s) were identified in the left ventricle with a stimulating electrode. Five minutes of myocardial ischemia stimulated 39 of 45 cardiac afferents (8 Aδ, 37 C fibers). Epicardial application of ATP (1-4 μmol) stimulated six ischemically sensitive cardiac afferents in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, epicardial ATP (2 μmol), ADP (2 μmol), a P2Y agonist, and α,β-meATP (0.5 μmol) significantly activated eight other ischemically sensitive afferents. Third, pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, a P2 receptor antagonist, abolished the responses of six afferents to epicardial ATP (2 μmol) and attenuated the ischemia-related increase in activity of seven other afferents by 37%. In the absence of P2 receptor blockade, cardiac afferents responded consistently to repeated application of ATP (n = 6) and to recurrent myocardial ischemia (n = 6). Finally, six ischemia-insensitive cardiac spinal afferents did not respond to epicardial ATP (2-4 μmol), although these afferents did respond to epicardial bradykinin. Taken together, these data indicate that, during ischemia, endogenously released ATP activates ischemia-sensitive, but not ischemia-insensitive, cardiac spinal afferents through stimulation of P2 receptors likely located on the cardiac sensory

  8. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara


    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  9. Randomized sham-controlled trial of renal sympathetic denervation in mild resistant hypertension. (United States)

    Desch, Steffen; Okon, Thomas; Heinemann, Diana; Kulle, Konrad; Röhnert, Karoline; Sonnabend, Melanie; Petzold, Martin; Müller, Ulrike; Schuler, Gerhard; Eitel, Ingo; Thiele, Holger; Lurz, Philipp


    Few data are available with regard to the effectiveness of renal sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension yet only mildly elevated blood pressure (BP). Patients with resistant hypertension and slightly elevated BP (day-time systolic pressure, 135-149 and diastolic pressure, 90-94 mm Hg on 24-hour ambulatory measurement) were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to renal sympathetic denervation with the Symplicity Flex Catheter (Medtronic) or an invasive sham procedure. The primary efficacy end point was the change in 24-hour systolic BP at 6 months between groups in the intention to treat population. A total of 71 patients underwent randomization. Baseline day-time systolic BP was 144.4±4.8 mm Hg in patients assigned to denervation and 143.0±4.7 mm Hg in patients randomized to the sham procedure. The mean change in 24-hour systolic BP in the intention to treat cohort at 6 months was -7.0 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -10.8 to -3.2) for patients undergoing denervation and -3.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -6.7 to -0.2) in the sham group (P=0.15). In the per protocol population, the change in 24-hour systolic BP at 6 months was -8.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -11.7 to -5.0) for patients undergoing denervation and -3.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -6.8 to -0.2) in the sham group (P=0.042). In patients with mild resistant hypertension, renal sympathetic denervation failed to show a significant reduction in the primary end point of 24-hour systolic BP at 6 months between groups in the intention to treat analysis. URL: Unique identifier: NCT01656096. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Ongoing myocardial damage relates to cardiac sympathetic nervous disintegrity in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Takanori; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Niizeki, Takeshi


    Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) has been used to assess the integrity and function of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system in patients with heart failure. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is released into the circulation when the myocardium is injured, and H-FABP has been recently used as a novel marker for the diagnosis of ongoing myocardial damage. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac sympathetic nervous activity assessed by 123 I-MIBG imaging with serum levels of H-FABP in patients with heart failure. Fifty patients with chronic heart failure were studied. 123 I-MIBG imaging was carried out at 30 min (early) and 240 min (delayed) after the tracer injection. We measured serum levels of H-FABP using a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratios of 123 I-MIBG decreased and washout rate increased with higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. H-FABP, norepinephrine and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels increased as the severity of NYHA class advanced. Delayed H/M ratio was significantly correlated with H-FABP (r=-0.296, p=0.029) and BNP (r=-0.335, p=0.0213). Myocardial washout rate of 123 I-MIBG was also correlated with H-FABP (r=0.469, p 123 I-MIBG imaging is an appropriate approach to evaluate non-invasively not only cardiac sympathetic nervous activity, but also latent ongoing myocardial damage in the failing heart. (author)

  11. Myocardial pre-synaptic sympathetic function correlates with glucose uptake in the failing human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongillo, Marco; Leccisotti, Lucia; John, Anna S.; Pennell, Dudley J.; Camici, Paolo G.


    We have previously shown that the myocardium of patients with heart failure (HF) is insulin resistant. Chronic β-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in insulin resistance in cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro, where sustained noradrenaline stimulation inhibited insulin-modulated glucose uptake. As the failing heart is characterized by increased sympathetic drive, we hypothesized that there is a correlation between pre-synaptic sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity in the myocardium of patients with HF. Eight patients (aged 67 ± 7 years) with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 44 ± 10%) underwent function and viability assessment with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Myocardial glucose utilization (MGU) was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Pre-synaptic noradrenaline re-uptake was measured by calculating [ 11 C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine (HED) volume of distribution (V d ) with PET. Two groups of healthy volunteers served as controls for the FDG (n = 8, aged 52 ± 4 years, p -1 .g -1 ) and dysfunctional (0.49 ± 0.14 μmol.min -1 .g -1 ) segments compared with controls (0.61 ± 0.7 μmol.min -1 .g -1 ; p d was reduced in dysfunctional segments of patients (38.9 ± 21.2 ml.g -1 ) compared with normal segments (52.2 ± 19.6 ml.g -1 ) and compared with controls (62.7 ± 11.3 ml.g -1 ). In patients, regional MGU was correlated with HED V d . The results of this study provide novel evidence of a correlation between cardiac sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity, which may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to insulin resistance in failing human hearts. (orig.)

  12. Muscle afferent receptors engaged in augmented sympathetic responsiveness in peripheral artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua eLi


    Full Text Available The exercise pressor reflex (EPR is a neural control mechanism responsible for the cardiovascular responses to exercise. As exercise is initiated, thin fiber muscle afferent nerves are activated by mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising in the contracting muscles. This leads to reflex increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate primarily through activation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Studies of humans and animals have indicated that the EPR is exaggerated in a number of cardiovascular diseases. For the last several years, studies have specifically employed a rodent model to examine the mechanisms at receptor and cellular levels by which responses of SNA and blood pressure to static exercise are heightened in peripheral artery disease (PAD, one of the most common cardiovascular disorders. A rat model of this disease has well been established. Specifically, femoral artery occlusion is used to study intermittent claudication that is observed in human PAD. The receptors on thin fiber muscle afferents that are engaged in this disease include transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1, purinergic P2X and acid sensing ion channel (ASIC. The role played by nerve growth factor (NGF in regulating those sensory receptors in the processing of amplified EPR was also investigated. The purpose of this review is to focus on a theme namely that PAD accentuates autonomic reflex responses to exercise and further address regulatory mechanisms leading to abnormal sympathetic responsiveness. This review will present some of recent results in regard with several receptors in muscle sensory neurons in contribution to augmented autonomic reflex responses in PAD. Review of the findings from recent studies would lead to a better understanding in integrated processing of sympathetic nervous system in PAD.

  13. Developmental androgen excess programs sympathetic tone and adipose tissue dysfunction and predisposes to a cardiometabolic syndrome in female mice. (United States)

    Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurélie; Meyers, Matthew S; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck


    Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension.

  14. A Note of Caution on Maximizing Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Neapolitan


    Full Text Available The Principle of Maximum Entropy is often used to update probabilities due to evidence instead of performing Bayesian updating using Bayes’ Theorem, and its use often has efficacious results. However, in some circumstances the results seem unacceptable and unintuitive. This paper discusses some of these cases, and discusses how to identify some of the situations in which this principle should not be used. The paper starts by reviewing three approaches to probability, namely the classical approach, the limiting frequency approach, and the Bayesian approach. It then introduces maximum entropy and shows its relationship to the three approaches. Next, through examples, it shows that maximizing entropy sometimes can stand in direct opposition to Bayesian updating based on reasonable prior beliefs. The paper concludes that if we take the Bayesian approach that probability is about reasonable belief based on all available information, then we can resolve the conflict between the maximum entropy approach and the Bayesian approach that is demonstrated in the examples.

  15. Optimal topologies for maximizing network transmission capacity (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhao; Wu, Jiajing; Rong, Zhihai; Tse, Chi K.


    It has been widely demonstrated that the structure of a network is a major factor that affects its traffic dynamics. In this work, we try to identify the optimal topologies for maximizing the network transmission capacity, as well as to build a clear relationship between structural features of a network and the transmission performance in terms of traffic delivery. We propose an approach for designing optimal network topologies against traffic congestion by link rewiring and apply them on the Barabási-Albert scale-free, static scale-free and Internet Autonomous System-level networks. Furthermore, we analyze the optimized networks using complex network parameters that characterize the structure of networks, and our simulation results suggest that an optimal network for traffic transmission is more likely to have a core-periphery structure. However, assortative mixing and the rich-club phenomenon may have negative impacts on network performance. Based on the observations of the optimized networks, we propose an efficient method to improve the transmission capacity of large-scale networks.

  16. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Syritsyn, S.N.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.


    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density. (orig.)

  17. Study of nerve fibers nature reinforcing duodenal contractions by electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveshnikov D.S.


    Full Text Available The subject of the article is to investigate the mechanism of increased reactions by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve. Materials and methods: Experiments on dogs have shown that stimulant reactions during blockade of a-adrenergic by phentolamine and (3-adrenergic receptors with propranolol were completely eliminated by lizer-gol —the blocker of 5-HT12-receptors. Results: Infusion of lizergol did not influence on duodenal motor activity and the function of the vagus nerve. Conclusion: Effector neuron is found out to be serotonergic and its action is provided by 5-HT1 2 receptors

  18. Trapping cold ground state argon atoms for sympathetic cooling of molecules


    Edmunds, P. D.; Barker, P. F.


    We trap cold, ground-state, argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a build-up cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of co-trapped metastable argon atoms using a new type of parametric loss spectroscopy. Using this technique we als...

  19. Self-handicapping and obesity: is there a sympathetic audience out there? (United States)

    Schill, T; Beyler, J; Wehr, J; Swigert, L; Tatter, T


    After reading a case description of a 20-year-old woman, subjects attributed her personal shortcomings to her weight rather than to herself per se. In particular, people who scored higher on a measure of self-handicapping were even more likely to attribute shortcomings to a person's weight and excuse or overlook them. A person who attributes shortcomings to being overweight will very likely find a sympathetic audience. These results support the suggestion by Baumeister, Kahn, and Tice (1990) that obesity can be a self-handicapping strategy.

  20. Revisiting renovascular imaging for renal sympathetic denervation: current techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei; Tan, Cher Heng [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Ho, Hee Hwa; Tan, Julian Ko Beng; Ong, Paul Jau Leong [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Singapore (Singapore)


    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)

  1. Revisiting renovascular imaging for renal sympathetic denervation: current techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Uei; Tan, Cher Heng; Ho, Hee Hwa; Tan, Julian Ko Beng; Ong, Paul Jau Leong


    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)

  2. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H


    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... perfusion and reduces the near-infrared determined cerebral oxygenation at rest, but not during exercise associated with an increased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), suggesting competition between CMRO(2) and sympathetic control of CBF. CMRO(2) does not change during even intense handgrip...

  3. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki


    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  4. The practice of terminal discharge. (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek


    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  5. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.


    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  6. Sympathetic bias. (United States)

    Levy, David M; Peart, Sandra J


    We wish to deal with investigator bias in a statistical context. We sketch how a textbook solution to the problem of "outliers" which avoids one sort of investigator bias, creates the temptation for another sort. We write down a model of the approbation seeking statistician who is tempted by sympathy for client to violate the disciplinary standards. We give a simple account of one context in which we might expect investigator bias to flourish. Finally, we offer tentative suggestions to deal with the problem of investigator bias which follow from our account. As we have given a very sparse and stylized account of investigator bias, we ask what might be done to overcome this limitation.

  7. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.


    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  8. Mirror Neurons and Literature: Empathy and the Sympathetic Imagination in the Fiction of J.M. Coetzee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Heister


    Full Text Available In the two essays “The Philosophers and the Animals” and “The Poets and the Animals” (in The Lives of Animals, 1999 J.M. Coetzee lets Elizabeth Costello urge us to use our sympathetic imagination in order to access the experience of others—in particular, animals—and engage with them empathetically. Coetzee’s fiction illustrates how the use of the sympathetic imagination might evoke empathy in the reader. Narrative structure and the character’s mode of introspection engage the reader’s empathy through an ambivalent process of distancing and approximation, as Fritz Breithaupt puts forward in his narrative theory of empathy (Kulturen der Empathie, 2009. The sympathetic imagination and the complementary notion of embodiment feature prominently in Coetzee’s fictional discourse and resonate with neuroscience’s research on mirror neurons and their relation to empathy.

  9. Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma masquerading as a carotid body tumour with a postoperative complication of first-bite syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casserly, Paula


    Carotid body tumours (CBT) are the most common tumours at the carotid bifurcation. Widening of the bifurcation is usually demonstrated on conventional angiography. This sign may also be produced by a schwannoma of the cervical sympathetic plexus. A 45-year-old patient presented with a neck mass. Investigations included contrast-enhanced CT, MRI and magnetic resonance arteriography with contrast enhancement. Radiologically, the mass was considered to be a CBT due to vascular enhancement and splaying of the internal and external carotid arteries. Intraoperatively, it was determined to be a cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma (CSCS). The patient had a postoperative complication of first-bite syndrome (FBS).Although rare, CSCS should be considered in the differential diagnosis for tumours at the carotid bifurcation. Damage to the sympathetic innervation to the parotid gland can result in severe postoperative pain characterised by FBS and should be considered in all patients undergoing surgery involving the parapharyngeal space.

  10. Heterogeneous response of cardiac sympathetic function to cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure documented by 11[C]-hydroxy-ephedrine and PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitanio, Selene; Nanni, Cristina; Marini, Cecilia; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Martignani, Cristian; Dib, Bassam; Fuccio, Chiara; Boriani, Giuseppe; Picori, Lorena; Boschi, Stefano; Morbelli, Silvia


    Introduction: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an accepted treatment in patients with end-stage heart failure. PET permits the absolute quantification of global and regional homogeneity in cardiac sympathetic innervation. We evaluated the variation of cardiac adrenergic activity in patients with idiopathic heart failure (IHF) disease (NYHA III–IV) after CRT using 11 C-hydroxyephedrine (HED) PET/CT. Methods: Ten IHF patients (mean age = 68; range = 55–81; average left ventricular ejection fraction 26 ± 4%) implanted with a resynchronization device underwent three HED PET/CT studies: PET 1 one week after inactive device implantation; PET 2, one week after PET 1 under stimulated rhythm; PET 3, at 3 months under active CRT. A dedicated software (PMOD 3.4 version) was used to estimate global and regional cardiac uptake of HED through 17 segment polar maps. Results: At baseline, HED uptake was heterogeneously distributed throughout the left ventricle with a variation coefficient of 18 ± 5%. This variable markedly decreased after three months CRT (12 ± 5%, p < 0.01). Interestingly, subdividing the 170 myocardial segments (17 segments of each patient multiplied by the number of patients) into two groups, according to the median value of tracer uptake expressed as % of maximal myocardial uptake (76%), we observed a different behaviour depending on baseline innervation: HED uptake significantly increased only in segments with “impaired innervation” (SUV 2.61 ± 0.92 at PET1 and 3.05 ± 1.67 at three months, p < 0.01). Conclusion: As shown by HED PET/CT uptake and distribution, improvement in homogeneity of myocardial neuronal function reflected a selective improvement of tracer uptake in regions with more severe neuronal damage. Advances in Knowledge: These finding supported the presence of a myocardial regional variability in response of cardiac sympathetic system to CRT and a systemic response involving remote tissues with rich adrenergic innervation

  11. Serotonin and Serotonin Transporters in the Adrenal Medulla: A Potential Hub for Modulation of the Sympathetic Stress Response. (United States)

    Brindley, Rebecca L; Bauer, Mary Beth; Blakely, Randy D; Currie, Kevin P M


    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling. Experimentally, loss of SERT function (SERT knockout mice or chronic pharmacological block) has been reported to augment the sympathetic stress response. Alterations to serotonergic signaling in the CNS and thus central drive to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system are presumed to underlie this augmentation. Although less widely recognized, SERT is robustly expressed in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal chromaffin cells do not synthesize 5-HT but accumulate small amounts by SERT-mediated uptake. Recent evidence demonstrated that 5-HT 1A receptors inhibit catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells via an atypical mechanism that does not involve modulation of cellular excitability or voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. This raises the possibility that the adrenal medulla is a previously unrecognized peripheral hub for serotonergic control of the sympathetic stress response. As a framework for future investigation, a model is proposed in which stress-evoked adrenal catecholamine secretion is fine-tuned by SERT-modulated autocrine 5-HT signaling.

  12. Quantitation of cardiac sympathetic innervation in rabbits using 11C-hydroxyephedrine PET: relation to 123I-MIBG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Kajinami, Kouji; Matsunari, Ichiro; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yoshihiro; Matsuya, Takahiro; Chen, Wei-Ping; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nekolla, Stephan G.


    Although 11 C-hydroxyephedrine ( 11 C-HED) PET is used to map cardiac sympathetic innervation, no studies have shown the feasibility of quantitation of 11 C-HED PET in small- to medium-sized animals. Furthermore, its relation to 123 I-MIBG uptake, the most widely used sympathetic nervous tracer, is unknown. The aims of this study were to establish in vivo sympathetic nerve imaging in rabbits using 11 C-HED PET, and to compare the retention of 11 C-HED with that of 123 I-MIBG. Twelve rabbits were assigned to three groups; control (n=4), chemical denervation by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (n=4) and reserpine treated to inhibit vesicular uptake (n=4). After simultaneous injection of 11 C-HED and 123 I-MIBG, all animals underwent dynamic 11 C-HED PET for 40 min with arterial blood sampling. The 11 C-HED retention fraction and normalised 11 C-HED activity measured by tissue sampling were compared with those measured by PET. Both the 11 C-HED retention fraction and the normalised 11 C-HED activity measured by PET correlated closely with those measured by tissue sampling (R=0.96027, p 11 C-HED and 123 I-MIBG. Reserpine pretreatment reduced 11 C-HED retention by 50%, but did not reduce 123 I-MIBG retention at 40 min after injection. Non-invasive quantitation of cardiac sympathetic innervation using 11 C-HED PET is feasible and gives reliable estimates of cardiac sympathetic innervation in rabbits. Additionally, although both 11 C-HED and 123 I-MIBG are specific for sympathetic neurons, 11 C-HED may be more specific for intravesicular uptake than 123 I-MIBG in some situations, such as that seen in reserpine pretreatment. (orig.)

  13. Sympathetic nervous dysregulation in the absence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suuronen Erik J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with cardiovascular dysfunction, derived in part from impairment of sympathetic nervous system signaling. Glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids are potent stimulants of sympathetic activity and norepinephrine (NE release. We hypothesized that sustained hyperglycemia in the high fat diet-fed streptozotocin (STZ rat model of sustained hyperglycemia with insulin resistance would exhibit progressive sympathetic nervous dysfunction in parallel with deteriorating myocardial systolic and/or diastolic function. Methods Cardiac sympathetic nervous integrity was investigated in vivo via biodistribution of the positron emission tomography radiotracer and NE analogue [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine ([11C]HED. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was evaluated by echocardiography. Plasma and cardiac NE levels and NE reuptake transporter (NET expression were evaluated as correlative measurements. Results The animal model displays insulin resistance, sustained hyperglycemia, and progressive hypoinsulinemia. After 8 weeks of persistent hyperglycemia, there was a significant 13-25% reduction in [11C]HED retention in myocardium of STZ-treated hyperglycemic but not euglycemic rats as compared to controls. There was a parallel 17% reduction in immunoblot density for NE reuptake transporter, a 1.2 fold and 2.5 fold elevation of cardiac and plasma NE respectively, and no change in sympathetic nerve density. No change in ejection fraction or fractional area change was detected by echocardiography. Reduced heart rate, prolonged mitral valve deceleration time, and elevated transmitral early to atrial flow velocity ratio measured by pulse-wave Doppler in hyperglycemic rats suggest diastolic impairment of the left ventricle. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that sustained hyperglycemia is associated with elevated myocardial NE content and dysregulation of sympathetic nervous system

  14. Regulators of human white adipose browning: evidence for sympathetic control and sexual dimorphic responses to sprint interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Scalzo

    Full Text Available The conversion of white adipose to the highly thermogenic beige adipose tissue has been proposed as a potential strategy to counter the unfavorable consequences of obesity. Three regulators of this conversion have recently emerged but information regarding their control is limited, and contradictory. We present two studies examining the control of these regulators. Study 1: In 10 young men, the plasma concentrations of irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 were determined prior to and during activation of the sympathetic nervous system via hypoxic gas breathing (FIO2 = 0.11. The measurements were performed twice, once with and once without prior/concurrent sympathetic inhibition via transdermal clonidine administration. FGF21 was unaffected by basal sympathetic inhibition (338±113 vs. 295±80 pg/mL; P = 0.43; mean±SE, but was increased during hypoxia mediated sympathetic activation (368±135; this response was abrogated (P = 0.035 with clonidine (269±93. Irisin was unaffected by sympathetic inhibition and/or hypoxia (P>0.21. Study 2: The plasma concentration of irisin and FGF21, and the skeletal muscle protein content of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5 was determined in 19 young adults prior to and following three weeks of sprint interval training (SIT. SIT decreased FGF21 (338±78 vs. 251±36; P = 0.046 but did not affect FNDC5 (P = 0.79. Irisin was decreased in males (127±18 vs. 90±23 ng/mL; P = 0.045 and increased in females (139±14 vs. 170±18. Collectively, these data suggest a potential regulatory role of acute sympathetic activation pertaining to the browning of white adipose; further, there appears to be a sexual dimorphic response of irisin to SIT.

  15. Effects of Electrical Stimulation in Sympathetic Neuron-Cardiomyocyte Co-cultures (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akimasa; Tani, Hiromasa; Mori, Masahide; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Lee, Jong-Kook; Noshiro, Makoto; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    The sympathetic nervous system is one of the principal sources for regulating cardiovascular functions. Little is known, however, about the network-level interactions between sympathetic neurons and cardiomyocytes. In this study, a semi-separated co-culture system of superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons and ventricular myocytes (VMs) was developed by using a polydimethylsyloxane (PDMS) chamber placed on a microelectrode-array (MEA) substrate. Neurites of SCG neurons passed through a conduit of the chamber and reached VMs. Evoked activities of SCG neurons were observed from several electrodes immediately after applying constant-voltage stimulation (1 V, 1 ms, biphasic square pulses) to SCG neurons by using 32 electrodes. Furthermore, this stimulation was applied to SCG neurons at the frequency of 1, 5 and 10 Hz. After applying these three kinds of stimulations, mean minute contraction rate of VMs increased with an increase in the frequency of stimulation. These results suggest that changes in contraction rate of VMs after applying electrical stimulations to SCG neurons depend on frequencies of these stimulations and that the heart-regulating mechanisms as well as that in the body were formed in this co-culture system.

  16. Influence of sympathetic nervous system on sensorimotor function: whiplash associated disorders (WAD) as a model. (United States)

    Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro


    There is increasing interest about the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in initiation and maintenance of chronic muscle pain syndromes of different aetiology. Epidemiological data show that stresses of different nature, e.g. work-related, psychosocial, etc., typically characterised by SNS activation, may be a co-factor in the development of the pain syndrome and/or negatively affect its time course. In spite of their clear traumatic origin, whiplash associated disorders (WAD) appear to share many common features with other chronic pain syndromes affecting the musculo-skeletal system. These features do not only include symptoms, like type of pain or sensory and motor dysfunctions, but possibly also some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that may concur to establish the chronic pain syndrome. This review focuses on WAD, particular emphasis being devoted to sensorimotor symptoms, and on the actions exerted by the sympathetic system at muscle level. Besides its well-known action on muscle blood flow, the SNS is able to affect the contractility of muscle fibres, to modulate the proprioceptive information arising from the muscle spindle receptors and, under certain conditions, to modulate nociceptive information. Furthermore, the activity of the SNS itself is in turn affected by muscle conditions, such as its current state of activity, fatigue and pain signals originating in the muscle. The possible involvement of the SNS in the development of WAD is discussed in light of the several positive feedback loops in which it is implicated.

  17. Release of NPY in pig pancreas: Dual parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.P.; Holst, J.J.; Skak-Nielsen, T.; Knigge, U.; Warberg, J.; Theodorsson-Norheim, E.; Hoekfelt, T.; Lundberg, J.M.; Schwartz, T.W.


    Several lines of evidence have connected neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-residue polypeptide, to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The authors studied the localization, the molecular characteristics, and the release of NPY and norepinephrine (NE) in the porcine pancreas. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that NPY nerves around blood vessels were likely to be of adrenergic nature, whereas NPY-immunoreactive fibers close to exocrine and endocrine cells may originate from local ganglia also containing VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) and PHI (peptide histidine isoleucine). Electrical stimulation of the splanchnic nerve supply to the isolated perfused pig pancreas resulted in a corelease of NPY and NE into the venous effluent. Stimulation of the vagal nerves caused a sevenfold larger release of NPY without affecting the NE secretion. Characterization of the NPY immunoreactivity in the pancreatic tissue and in the venous effluent by gel filtration, high-performance liquid chromatography, and isoelectric focusing shoed that the immunoreactive NPY was indistinguishable from synthetic porcine NPY. It is concluded that, although NPY is associated with sympathetic perivascular neurons, the majority of the pancreatic NPY-containing nerve fibers are likely to belong to the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

  18. Sympathetic Neurotransmitters Modulate Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoclast Activity in the Context of Collagen-Induced Arthritis (United States)

    Muschter, Dominique; Schäfer, Nicole; Stangl, Hubert; Straub, Rainer H.; Grässel, Susanne


    Excessive synovial osteoclastogenesis is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Concomitantly, local synovial changes comprise neuronal components of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Here, we wanted to analyze if collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) alters bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, and how sympathetic neurotransmitters participate in this process. Therefore, BMMs from Dark Agouti rats at different CIA stages were differentiated into osteoclasts in vitro and osteoclast number, cathepsin K activity, matrix resorption and apoptosis were analyzed in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh), noradrenaline (NA) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and assay-dependent, adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477. We observed modulation of neurotransmitter receptor mRNA expression in CIA osteoclasts without affecting protein level. CIA stage-dependently altered marker gene expression associated with osteoclast differentiation and activity without affecting osteoclast number or activity. Neurotransmitter stimulation modulated osteoclast differentiation, apoptosis and activity. VIP, NA and adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477 inhibited cathepsin K activity and osteoclastogenesis (NKH477, 10-6M NA) whereas ACh mostly acted pro-osteoclastogenic. We conclude that CIA alone does not affect metabolism of in vitro generated osteoclasts whereas stimulation with NA, VIP plus specific activation of adenylyl cyclase induced anti-resorptive effects probably mediated via cAMP signaling. Contrary, we suggest pro-osteoclastogenic and pro-resorptive properties of ACh mediated via muscarinic receptors. PMID:26431344

  19. Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity

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    Ploj Karolina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3 to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4 to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.

  20. Sympathetic cooling of a membrane oscillator in a hybrid mechanical-atomic system (United States)

    Jöckel, Andreas; Faber, Aline; Kampschulte, Tobias; Korppi, Maria; Rakher, Matthew T.; Treutlein, Philipp


    Sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms and atomic ions enables ultralow temperatures in systems where direct laser or evaporative cooling is not possible. It has so far been limited to the cooling of other microscopic particles, with masses up to 90 times larger than that of the coolant atom. Here, we use ultracold atoms to sympathetically cool the vibrations of a Si3N4 nanomembrane, the mass of which exceeds that of the atomic ensemble by a factor of 1010. The coupling of atomic and membrane vibrations is mediated by laser light over a macroscopic distance and is enhanced by placing the membrane in an optical cavity. We observe cooling of the membrane vibrations from room temperature to 650 ± 230 mK, exploiting the large atom-membrane cooperativity of our hybrid optomechanical system. With technical improvements, our scheme could provide ground-state cooling and quantum control of low-frequency oscillators such as nanomembranes or levitated nanoparticles, in a regime where purely optomechanical techniques cannot reach the ground state.

  1. Coping with dehydration: sympathetic activation and regulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hypothalamic PVN (United States)

    Bardgett, Megan E.; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S.; Andrade, Mary Ann


    Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240

  2. Skin conductance at baseline and postheel lance reflects sympathetic activation in neonatal opiate withdrawal. (United States)

    Oji-Mmuo, Christiana N; Michael, Eric J; McLatchy, Jacqueline; Lewis, Mary M; Becker, Julie E; Doheny, Kim Kopenhaver


    Skin conductance (SC) provides an objective measure of autonomic system regulation through sympathetic-mediated filling of sweat glands. This study aimed to test the utility of SC to detect sympathetic activation in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Fourteen term (mean, SE: 38.8 ± 0.35 weeks gestational age) neonates with chronic prenatal opiate exposure were enrolled. SC (peaks/seconds and mean of peaks) was measured at baseline, during heel lance/squeeze (HLS) and recovery from HLS at 24-48 (mean 38) hours of life prior to treatment for NAS. Blinded coders with established reliability assessed neonates using the Modified Finnegan Neonatal Scoring System (MFNSS). Nonparametric tests were used to determine group differences, phase differences from baseline to HLS and HLS to recovery, and associations between MFNSS and SC measures. Neonates that would later require morphine treatment for NAS (n = 6) had higher baseline SC mean of peaks than those that did not require treatment (n = 8) (p < 0.05). Moreover, there were unique phase differences between groups and SC positively correlated with MFNSS (p < 0.05). SC provides early identification of NAS severity. However, a larger sample is needed to determine sensitivity and specificity of SC for early identification of NAS and treatment effectiveness. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Impact of Sympathetic Components of Emotional Intelligence on Citizenship Behavior of Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Sahafi


    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most important characteristics of an effective employee performance is person'sSympathetic components of emotional intelligence that has been increasingly considered in anenterprise environment. In this article, we will survey this component in promoting citizenship behaviorof physicians.Materials and methods: In a descriptive, co relational and statistical community approach Theoutstanding performance of an organization using simple random sampling method, 212 cases wereincluded as doctors having subspecialty of the infertility in the Islamic Republic of Iran. A questionnairewas used for data collection. After summarization, structural equation modeling techniques were usedfor analysis and interpretation of research data.Results: The Sympathetic component has a significant positive impact on organizational citizenshipbehavior (T=2.90 and this factor with the effect of 0.46% has the impact on organizational citizenshipbehavior.Conclusion: Considering the importance of sympathy aspect due to results of this research hospitalmanagers are recommended to consider the importance of emotional intelligence in order to enhancethe social capabilities of citizenship behaviors of physicians.

  4. Sympathetic dysfunction in vasovagal syncope and the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

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    Elisabeth eLambert


    Full Text Available Orthostatic intolerance is the inability to tolerate the upright posture and is relieved by recumbence. It most commonly affects young women and has a major impact on quality of life and psychosocial well being. Several forms of orthostatic intolerance have been described. The most common one is the recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS phenotype which presents as a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness and postural tone that is followed by rapid recovery. Another common type of orthostatic intolerance is the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS which is characterized by an excessive rise in heart rate upon standing and is associated with symptoms of presyncope such as light-headedness, fatigue, palpitations and nausea. Maintenance of arterial pressure under condition of reduced central blood volume during the orthostasis is accomplished in large part through sympathetic efferent nerve traffic to the peripheral vasculature. Therefore sympathetic nervous system (SNS dysfunction is high on the list of possible contributors to the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance. Investigations into the role of the SNS in orthostatic intolerance have yielded mixed results. This review outlines the current knowledge of the function of the SNS in both VVS and POTS.

  5. Sympathetic Denervation Accelerates Wound Contraction but Inhibits Reepithelialization and Pericyte Proliferation in Diabetic Mice

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    Zhifang Zheng


    Full Text Available Previous studies focused on the effects of sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA on nondiabetic wounds, but the effects of 6-OHDA on diabetic wounds have not been previously reported. In this study, treated mice received intraperitoneal 6-OHDA, and control mice received intraperitoneal injections of normal saline. Full-thickness wounds were established on the backs of mice. The wounds were sectioned (four mice per group for analysis at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days after injury. The wound areas in the control group were larger than those in the treatment group. Histological scores for epidermal and dermal regeneration were reduced in the 6-OHDA-treated group on day 21. The mast cells (MCs in each field decreased after sympathectomy on days 17 and 21. The expression levels of norepinephrine, epidermal growth factor (EGF, interleukin-1 beta, NG2 proteoglycan, and desmin in the treatment group were less than those in the control group. In conclusion, 6-OHDA delays reepithelialization during wound healing in diabetic mice by decreasing EGF, but increases wound contraction by reducing IL-1β levels and the number of MCs. Besides, 6-OHDA led to reduced pericyte proliferation in diabetic wounds, which might explain the vascular dysfunction after sympathetic nerve loss in diabetic wounds.

  6. Insulin growth factors regulate the mitotic cycle in cultured rat sympathetic neuroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCicco-Bloom, E.; Black, I.B.


    While neuronal mitosis is uniquely restricted to early development, the underlying regulation remains to be defined. The authors have now developed a dissociated, embryonic sympathetic neuron culture system that uses fully defined medium in which cells enter the mitotic cycle. The cultured cells expressed two neuronal traits, tyrosine hydroxylase and the neuron-specific 160-kDa neurofilament subunit protein, but were devoid of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for non-myelin-forming Schwann cells in ganglia. Approximately one-third of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells synthesized DNA in culture, specifically incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine into their nuclei. They used this system to define factors regulating the mitotic cycle in sympathetic neuroblasts. Members of the insulin family of growth factors, including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, regulated DNA synthesis in the presumptive neuroblasts. Insulin more than doubled the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells entering the mitotic cycle, as indicated by autoradiography of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into nuclei. Scintillation spectrometry was an even more sensitive index of DNA synthesis. In contrast, the trophic protein nerve growth factor exhibited no mitogenic effect, suggesting that the mitogenic action of insulin growth factors is highly specific. The observations are discussed in the context of the detection of insulin growth factors and receptors in the developing brain

  7. Reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus alter sympathetic activity during metabolic syndrome.

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    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN contains heterogeneous populations of neurons involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. The PVN plays an important role in the sympathoexcitatory response to increasing circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang-II, which activates AT1 receptors in the circumventricular organs (OCVs, mainly in the subfornical organ (SFO. Circulating Ang-II induces a de novo synthesis of Ang-II in SFO neurons projecting to pre-autonomic PVN neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors induces intracellular increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Chronic sympathetic nerve activation promotes a series of metabolic disorders that characterizes the metabolic syndrome (MetS: dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hyperleptinemia and elevated plasma hormone levels, such as noradrenaline, glucocorticoids, leptin, insulin and Ang-II. This review will discuss the contribution of our laboratory and others regarding the sympathoexcitation caused by peripheral Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species along the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize that this mechanism could be involved in metabolic disorders underlying MetS.

  8. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. (United States)

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  9. Assessing the strength of cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex controls via transfer entropy during orthostatic challenge (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Marchi, Andrea; Bari, Vlasta; De Maria, Beatrice; Esler, Murray; Lambert, Elisabeth; Baumert, Mathias


    The study assesses the strength of the causal relation along baroreflex (BR) in humans during an incremental postural challenge soliciting the BR. Both cardiac BR (cBR) and sympathetic BR (sBR) were characterized via BR sequence approaches from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). A model-based transfer entropy method was applied to quantify the strength of the coupling from SAP to HP and from DAP to MSNA. The confounding influences of respiration were accounted for. Twelve young healthy subjects (20-36 years, nine females) were sequentially tilted at 0°, 20°, 30° and 40°. We found that (i) the strength of the causal relation along the cBR increases with tilt table inclination, while that along the sBR is unrelated to it; (ii) the strength of the causal coupling is unrelated to the gain of the relation; (iii) transfer entropy indexes are significantly and positively associated with simplified causality indexes derived from BR sequence analysis. The study proves that causality indexes are complementary to traditional characterization of the BR and suggests that simple markers derived from BR sequence analysis might be fruitfully exploited to estimate causality along the BR. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.

  10. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions (United States)

    McMartin, K


    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  11. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children. (United States)

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul


    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani


    Full Text Available Maxim of Politeness is an interesting subject to be discussed, since politeness has been criticized from our childhood. We are obliques to be polite to anyone either in speaking or in acting. Somehow we are manage to show politeness in our spoken expression though our intention might be not so polite. For example we must appriciate others opinion although we feel objection toward the opinion. In this article the analysis of politeness is based on maxim proposes by Leech. He proposed six types of politeness maxim. The discussion shows that the main character (Kristen and Kami use all types of maxim in their conversation. The most commonly used are approbation maxim and agreement maxim

  13. Origins of the sympathetic innervation to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT): an anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection. (United States)

    Marafetti, Lucas E; Romeo, Horacio E


    The participation of sympathetic nerve fibers in the innervation of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) was investigated in hamsters. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), an established sympathetic marker, is expressed in all neurons of superior cervical ganglia (SCG). In addition, VMAT2 -immunoreactive nerve fibers were localized in the NALT as well as in adjacent anatomical structures of the upper respiratory tract. Unilateral surgical ablation of the SCG abolished VMAT2 innervation patterns ipsilaterally while the contra lateral side is unaffected. These results provide the anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection in the NALT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Data in support on the shape of Schwann cells and sympathetic neurons onto microconically structured silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Simitzi


    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Laser fabricated discontinuous anisotropic microconical substrates as a new model scaffold to control the directionality of neuronal network outgrowth” in the Biomaterials journal [1]. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis is performed to investigate whether Schwann cells and sympathetic neurons alter their morphology according to the underlying topography, comprising arrays of silicon microcones with anisotropic geometrical characteristics [1]. It is observed that although soma of sympathetic neurons always preserves its round shape, this is not the case for Schwann cells that become highly polarized in high roughness microconical substrates.

  15. Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes


    Andrew M. Parker; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff


    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...

  16. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.


    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  17. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M


    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  18. CQI project improves discharge process. (United States)


    At Gibson Rehab Center in Williamsport, PA, a continuous quality improvement project to bolster the institution's discharge planning process has resulted in increased satisfaction and an award for quality. The 15-month project was spearheaded by a multidisciplinary team charged with identifying areas that had a significant impact on customer service and suggesting better ways of delivering that service. Among the changes the group suggested were establishing a weekly discharge planning group for new neuro patients, assigning a discharge coordinator for each treatment team, and creating an interdisciplinary communication sheet for the home health therapy staff.

  19. Photo-triggering and secondary electron produced ionization in electric discharge ArF* excimer lasers (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.


    Electric discharge excimer lasers are sustained in multi-atmosphere attaching gas mixtures that are typically preionized to enable a reproducible, uniform glow, which maximizes optical quality and gain. This preionization is often accomplished using UV light produced by a corona discharge within the plasma cavity. To quantify the relationship between corona discharge properties and those of the laser discharge, the triggering of electron avalanche by preionizing UV light in an electric discharge-pumped ArF* excimer laser was numerically investigated using a two-dimensional model. The preionizing UV fluxes were generated by a corona-bar discharge driven by the same voltage pulse as the main discharge sustained in a multi-atmospheric Ne/Ar/Xe/F2 gas mixture. The resulting peak photo-electron density in the inter-electrode spacing is around 108 cm-3, and its distribution is biased toward the UV source. The preionization density increases with increasing dielectric constant and capacitance of the corona bar. The symmetry and uniformity of the discharge are, however, improved significantly once the main avalanche develops. In addition to bulk electron impact ionization, the ionization generated by sheath accelerated secondary electrons was found to be important in sustaining the discharge current at experimentally observed values. At peak current, the magnitude of the ionization by sheath accelerated electrons is comparable to that from bulk electron impact in the vicinity of the cathode.

  20. Inhibition of facilitation of sympathetic neurotransmission and angiotensin II-induced pressor effects in the pithed rat: comparison between valsartan, candesartan, eprosartan and embusartan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balt, J. C.; Mathy, M. J.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.


    In the pithed rat model, endogenously generated angiotensin (Ang) II can enhance sympathetic neurotransmission by acting on Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors that are located on sympathetic nerve terminals. To compare the inhibitory potency of candesartan, valsartan, eprosartan and embusartan in