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Sample records for maximal ratio combining

  1. Performance Analysis of Selective Decode-and-Forward Multinode Incremental Relaying with Maximal Ratio Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2013-09-12

    In this paper, we propose an incremental multinode relaying protocol with arbitrary N-relay nodes that allows an efficient use of the channel spectrum. The destination combines the received signals from the source and the relays using maximal ratio Combining (MRC). The transmission ends successfully once the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exceeds a predefined threshold. The number of relays participating in the transmission is adapted to the channel conditions based on the feedback from the destination. The use of incremental relaying allows obtaining a higher spectral efficiency. Moreover, the symbol error probability (SEP) performance is enhanced by using MRC at the relays. The use of MRC at the relays implies that each relay overhears the signals from the source and all previous relays and combines them using MRC. The proposed protocol differs from most of existing relaying protocol by the fact that it combines both incremental relaying and MRC at the relays for a multinode topology. Our analyses for a decode-and-forward mode show that: (i) compared to existing multinode relaying schemes, the proposed scheme can essentially achieve the same SEP performance but with less average number of time slots, (ii) compared to schemes without MRC at the relays, the proposed scheme can approximately achieve a 3 dB gain.

  2. Maximal Ratio Combining Using Channel Estimation in Chaos Based Pilot-Added DS-CDMA System with Antenna Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meher Krishna Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive multiuser transceiver scheme for DS-CDMA systems in which pilot symbols are added to users’ data to estimate complex channel fading coefficients. The performance of receiver antenna diversity with maximal ratio combining (MRC technique is analyzed for imperfect channel estimation in flat fading environments. The complex fading coefficients are estimated using least mean square (LMS algorithm and these coefficients are utilized by the maximal ratio combiner for generating the decision variable. Probability of error in closed form is derived. Further, the effect of pilot signal power on bit error rate (BER and BER performance of multiplexed pilot and data signal transmission scenario are investigated. We have compared the performance of added and multiplexed pilot-data systems and concluded the advantages of both systems. The proposed CDMA technique uses the chaotic sequence as spreading sequence. Assuming proper synchronization, the computer simulation results demonstrate the better bit error rate performance in the presence of channel estimator in the chaotic based CDMA system and the receiver antenna diversity technique further improves the performance of the proposed system. Also, no channel estimator is required if there is no phase distortion to the transmitted signal.

  3. On the Sum of Gamma Random Variates With Application to the Performance of Maximal Ratio Combining over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2012-09-08

    The probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative density function of the sum of L independent but not necessarily identically distributed gamma variates, applicable to maximal ratio combining receiver outputs or in other words applicable to the performance analysis of diversity combining receivers operating over Nakagami-m fading channels, is presented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer valued fading parameters and non-integer valued fading parameters, respectively. Further analysis, particularly on bit error rate via PDF-based approach, too is represented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer-order fading parameters, and extended Fox H-bar-function (H-hat) for non-integer-order fading parameters. The proposed results complement previous results that are either evolved in closed-form, or expressed in terms of infinite sums or higher order derivatives of the fading parameter m.

  4. On the Sum of Gamma Random Variates With Application to the Performance of Maximal Ratio Combining over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    The probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative density function of the sum of L independent but not necessarily identically distributed gamma variates, applicable to maximal ratio combining receiver outputs or in other words applicable to the performance analysis of diversity combining receivers operating over Nakagami-m fading channels, is presented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer valued fading parameters and non-integer valued fading parameters, respectively. Further analysis, particularly on bit error rate via PDF-based approach, too is represented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer-order fading parameters, and extended Fox H-bar-function (H-hat) for non-integer-order fading parameters. The proposed results complement previous results that are either evolved in closed-form, or expressed in terms of infinite sums or higher order derivatives of the fading parameter m.

  5. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  6. Plasma pH does not influence the cerebral metabolic ratio during maximal whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Rasmussen, Peter; Seifert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    .05) following the Sal and Bicarb trials, respectively. Accordingly, the cerebral metabolic ratio decreased equally during the Sal and Bicarb trials: from 5.8 ± 0.6 at rest to 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The enlarged blood-buffering capacity after infusion of Bicarb eliminated metabolic acidosis......Exercise lowers the cerebral metabolic ratio of O2 to carbohydrate (glucose + 1/2 lactate) and metabolic acidosis appears to promote cerebral lactate uptake. However, the influence of pH on cerebral lactate uptake and, in turn, on the cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise is not known. Sodium...... during maximal exercise but that did not affect the cerebral lactate uptake and, therefore, the decrease in the cerebral metabolic ratio....

  7. Combining Ratio Estimation for Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Saad; Hi, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Code decoding algorithm make use of a scaled receive signal derived from maximizing the log-likelihood ratio of the received signal. The scaling factor (often called the combining ratio) in an AWGN channel is a ratio between signal amplitude and noise variance. Accurately estimating this ratio has shown as much as 0.6 dB decoding performance gain. This presentation briefly describes three methods for estimating the combining ratio: a Pilot-Guided estimation method, a Blind estimation method, and a Simulation-Based Look-Up table. The Pilot Guided Estimation method has shown that the maximum likelihood estimates of signal amplitude is the mean inner product of the received sequence and the known sequence, the attached synchronization marker (ASM) , and signal variance is the difference of the mean of the squared received sequence and the square of the signal amplitude. This method has the advantage of simplicity at the expense of latency since several frames worth of ASMs. The Blind estimation method s maximum likelihood estimator is the average of the product of the received signal with the hyperbolic tangent of the product combining ratio and the received signal. The root of this equation can be determined by an iterative binary search between 0 and 1 after normalizing the received sequence. This method has the benefit of requiring one frame of data to estimate the combining ratio which is good for faster changing channels compared to the previous method, however it is computationally expensive. The final method uses a look-up table based on prior simulated results to determine signal amplitude and noise variance. In this method the received mean signal strength is controlled to a constant soft decision value. The magnitude of the deviation is averaged over a predetermined number of samples. This value is referenced in a look up table to determine the combining ratio that prior simulation associated with the average magnitude of

  8. An optimally evolved connective ratio of neural networks that maximizes the occurrence of synchronized bursting behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Synchronized bursting activity (SBA) is a remarkable dynamical behavior in both ex vivo and in vivo neural networks. Investigations of the underlying structural characteristics associated with SBA are crucial to understanding the system-level regulatory mechanism of neural network behaviors. Results In this study, artificial pulsed neural networks were established using spike response models to capture fundamental dynamics of large scale ex vivo cortical networks. Network simulations with synaptic parameter perturbations showed the following two findings. (i) In a network with an excitatory ratio (ER) of 80-90%, its connective ratio (CR) was within a range of 10-30% when the occurrence of SBA reached the highest expectation. This result was consistent with the experimental observation in ex vivo neuronal networks, which were reported to possess a matured inhibitory synaptic ratio of 10-20% and a CR of 10-30%. (ii) No SBA occurred when a network does not contain any all-positive-interaction feedback loop (APFL) motif. In a neural network containing APFLs, the number of APFLs presented an optimal range corresponding to the maximal occurrence of SBA, which was very similar to the optimal CR. Conclusions In a neural network, the evolutionarily selected CR (10-30%) optimizes the occurrence of SBA, and APFL serves a pivotal network motif required to maximize the occurrence of SBA. PMID:22462685

  9. Optimal Operation of Network-Connected Combined Heat and Powers for Customer Profit Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Network-connected combined heat and powers (CHPs, owned by a community, can export surplus heat and electricity to corresponding heat and electric networks after community loads are satisfied. This paper proposes a new optimization model for network-connected CHP operation. Both CHPs’ overall efficiency and heat to electricity ratio (HTER are assumed to vary with loading levels. Based on different energy flow scenarios where heat and electricity are exported to the network from the community or imported, four profit models are established accordingly. They reflect the different relationships between CHP energy supply and community load demand across time. A discrete optimization model is then developed to maximize the profit for the community. The models are derived from the intervals determined by the daily operation modes of CHP and real-time buying and selling prices of heat, electricity and natural gas. By demonstrating the proposed models on a 1 MW network-connected CHP, results show that the community profits are maximized in energy markets. Thus, the proposed optimization approach can help customers to devise optimal CHP operating strategies for maximizing benefits.

  10. A trace ratio maximization approach to multiple kernel-based dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenhao; Chung, Fu-lai

    2014-01-01

    Most dimensionality reduction techniques are based on one metric or one kernel, hence it is necessary to select an appropriate kernel for kernel-based dimensionality reduction. Multiple kernel learning for dimensionality reduction (MKL-DR) has been recently proposed to learn a kernel from a set of base kernels which are seen as different descriptions of data. As MKL-DR does not involve regularization, it might be ill-posed under some conditions and consequently its applications are hindered. This paper proposes a multiple kernel learning framework for dimensionality reduction based on regularized trace ratio, termed as MKL-TR. Our method aims at learning a transformation into a space of lower dimension and a corresponding kernel from the given base kernels among which some may not be suitable for the given data. The solutions for the proposed framework can be found based on trace ratio maximization. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness in benchmark datasets, which include text, image and sound datasets, for supervised, unsupervised as well as semi-supervised settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of E-DCH channel power ratios to maximize link level efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarco, Carlos Ruben Delgado; Malone, Jaime Tito; Wigard, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    For the WCDMA/HSUPA concept, a key to ensuring high spectral efficiency is to correctly adjust the transmission power ratios among the data and control channels. This paper provides optimal values for the power ratio between the Enhanced-Dedicated Physical Data Channel (E-DPDCH) and the Dedicated...... rate (typical values ranging from 8.1 to 9.9 dB) and the RSN target (maintaining or decreasing their value as the target increases). These results show that it is more link efficient to increase the DPCCH transmission power with the bit rate (and the E-DPDCH's by applying the power ratio) than...... to maintain a constant DPCCH transmission power and just increase the EDPDCH to DPCCH power ratio....

  12. Combined slope ratio analysis and linear-subtraction: An extension of the Pearce ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waal, Sybrand A.

    1996-07-01

    A new technique, called combined slope ratio analysis, has been developed by extending the Pearce element ratio or conserved-denominator method (Pearce, 1968) to its logical conclusions. If two stoichiometric substances are mixed and certain chemical components are uniquely contained in either one of the two mixing substances, then by treating these unique components as conserved, the composition of the substance not containing the relevant component can be accurately calculated within the limits allowed by analytical and geological error. The calculated composition can then be subjected to rigorous statistical testing using the linear-subtraction method recently advanced by Woronow (1994). Application of combined slope ratio analysis to the rocks of the Uwekahuna Laccolith, Hawaii, USA, and the lavas of the 1959-summit eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, USA, yields results that are consistent with field observations.

  13. Tools to identify linear combination of prognostic factors which maximizes area under receiver operator curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Nicolae; Todor, Irina; Săplăcan, Gavril

    2014-01-01

    The linear combination of variables is an attractive method in many medical analyses targeting a score to classify patients. In the case of ROC curves the most popular problem is to identify the linear combination which maximizes area under curve (AUC). This problem is complete closed when normality assumptions are met. With no assumption of normality search algorithm are avoided because it is accepted that we have to evaluate AUC n(d) times where n is the number of distinct observation and d is the number of variables. For d = 2, using particularities of AUC formula, we described an algorithm which lowered the number of evaluations of AUC from n(2) to n(n-1) + 1. For d > 2 our proposed solution is an approximate method by considering equidistant points on the unit sphere in R(d) where we evaluate AUC. The algorithms were applied to data from our lab to predict response of treatment by a set of molecular markers in cervical cancers patients. In order to evaluate the strength of our algorithms a simulation was added. In the case of no normality presented algorithms are feasible. For many variables computation time could be increased but acceptable.

  14. Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Cores using Uranium-Free Metallic Fuels for Maximizing TRU Support Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, WuSeung; Hong, Ser Gi

    2014-01-01

    The depleted uranium plays important roles in the SFR burner cores because it substantially contributes to the inherent safety of the core through the negative Doppler coefficient and large delayed neutron. However, the use of depleted uranium as a diluent nuclide leads to a limited value of TRU support ratio due to the generation of TRUs through the breeding. In this paper, we designed sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) cores having uranium-free fuels 3,4 for maximization of TRU consumption rate. However, the uranium-free fuelled burner cores can be penalized by unacceptably small values of the Doppler coefficient and small delayed neutron fraction. In this work, metallic fuels of TRU-(W or Ni)-Zr are considered to improve the performances of the uranium-free cores. The objective of this work is to consistently compare the neutronic performances of uranium-free sodium cooled fast reactor cores having TRU-Zr metallic fuels added with Ni or W and also to clarify what are the problematic features to be resolved. In this paper, a consistent comparative study of 400MWe sodium cooled burner cores having uranium-based fuels and uranium-free fuels was done to analyze the relative core neutronic features. Also, we proposed a uranium-free metallic fuel based on Nickel. From the results, it is found that tungsten-based uranium-free metallic fuel gives large negative Doppler coefficient due to high resonance of tungsten isotopes but this core has large sodium void worth and small effective delayed neutron fraction while the nickel-based uranium-free metallic fuelled core has less negative Doppler coefficient but smaller sodium void worth and larger effective delayed neutron fraction than the tungsten-based one. On the other hand, the core having TRU-Zr has very high burnup reactivity swing which may be problematic in compensating it using control rods and the least negative Doppler coefficient

  15. Performance analysis for optimum transmission and comparison with maximal ratio transmission for MIMO systems with cochannel interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sheng-Chou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents the performance analysis of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO systems with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM transmission in the presence of cochannel interference (CCI in nonfading and flat Rayleigh fading environments. The use of optimum transmission (OT and maximum ratio transmission (MRT is considered and compared. In addition to determining precise results for the performance of QAM in the presence of CCI, it is our another aim in this article to examine the validity of the Gaussian interference model in the MRT-based systems. Nyquist pulse shaping and the effects of cross-channel intersymbol interference produced by CCI due to random symbol of the interfering signals are considered in the precise interference model. The error probability for each fading channel is estimated fast and accurately using Gauss quadrature rules which can approximate the probability density function (pdf of the output residual interference. The results of this article indicate that Gaussian interference model may overestimate the effects of interference, particularly, for high-order MRT-based MIMO systems over fading channels. In addition, OT cannot always outperform MRT due to the significant noise enhancement when OT intends to cancel CCI, depending on the combination of the antennas at the transmitter and the receiver, number of interference and the statistical characteristics of the channel.

  16. Intrarater Reliability of Muscle Strength and Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Imbalance Ratios During Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Maximal Voluntary Contractions Using the Isoforce Dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Gube, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Feldhege, Frank; Weippert, Matthias; Husmann, Florian; Tischer, Thomas; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Martin

    2017-08-17

    To determine intrasession and intersession reliability of strength measurements and hamstrings to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios (H/Q ratios) using the new isoforce dynamometer. Repeated measures. Exercise science laboratory. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females, 15 males, 27.8 years). Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for (1) strength parameters, that is peak torque, mean work, and mean power for concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contractions; isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT); rate of torque development (RTD), and (2) H/Q ratios, that is conventional concentric, eccentric, and isometric H/Q ratios (Hcon/Qcon at 60 deg/s, 120 deg/s, and 180 deg/s, Hecc/Qecc at -60 deg/s and Hiso/Qiso) and functional eccentric antagonist to concentric agonist H/Q ratios (Hecc/Qcon and Hcon/Qecc). High reliability: CV 0.90; moderate reliability: CV between 10% and 20%, ICC between 0.80 and 0.90; low reliability: CV >20%, ICC Strength parameters: (a) high intrasession reliability for concentric, eccentric, and isometric measurements, (b) moderate-to-high intersession reliability for concentric and eccentric measurements and IMVT, and (c) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability but low intersession reliability for RTD. (2) H/Q ratios: (a) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability for conventional ratios, (b) high intrasession reliability for functional ratios, (c) higher intersession reliability for Hcon/Qcon and Hiso/Qiso (moderate to high) than Hecc/Qecc (low to moderate), and (d) higher intersession reliability for conventional H/Q ratios (low to high) than functional H/Q ratios (low to moderate). The results have confirmed the reliability of strength parameters and the most frequently used H/Q ratios.

  17. The influence of the maximal value and peak enhancement value of arterial and venous enhancement curve on CT perfusion parameters and signal-to-noise ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Haiyue; Gao Sijia; Xu Ke; Wang Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of the maximal value and peak enhancement value of arterial and venous enhancement curve on CT perfusion parameters and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Methods: Seventeen patients underwent brain CT perfusion scanning. All row data were analyzed with perfusion software for 6 times, and get different arterial and venous enhancement curves for each patient. The maximal values and peak enhancement values of each arterial and venous enhancement curves, as well as mean perfusion parameters including cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), permeability surface area product (PS), and their standard deviations (SD) in homolateral white and gray matter were measured and recorded. SNR was calculated by dividing the mean perfusion parameter value by its SD. Pearson correlation analysis and two-tailed paired Student t test were used for statistics. Results: The maximal values and peak enhancement values of arterial and venous curves were correlated with mean SNR CBF , SNR CBV and SNR MTT in both white matter and gray matters (r value range: 0.332-0.922, P PS in white matter(r=0.256, P PS (in both white matter and gray matters) and arterial peak enhancement values, the maximal values and venous peak enhancement values, or between SNR PS (in gray matter) and the maximal values of venous curve(r value range: -0.058-0.210, P>0.05). (2) Mean CBF, CBV and PS values in the group with low venous peak enhancement values were significantly different from the group with high venous peak enhancement values in both white and gray matters (t value range: 3.830-5.337, P 0.05). Conclusions: The mean perfusion parameters and SNR are influenced by the maximal values and peak enhancement values of the arterial and venous curves. Peak enhancement of arterial and venous curves should be adjusted to higher level to make parameter values more reliable and increase the SNR. (authors)

  18. Combined shape and topology optimization for minimization of maximal von Mises stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Haojie; Christiansen, Asger N.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Sigmund, Ole; Aage, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Here, this work shows that a combined shape and topology optimization method can produce optimal 2D designs with minimal stress subject to a volume constraint. The method represents the surface explicitly and discretizes the domain into a simplicial complex which adapts both structural shape and topology. By performing repeated topology and shape optimizations and adaptive mesh updates, we can minimize the maximum von Mises stress using the p-norm stress measure with p-values as high as 30, provided that the stress is calculated with sufficient accuracy.

  19. Combined shape and topology optimization for minimization of maximal von Mises stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lian, Haojie; Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Tortorelli, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    This work shows that a combined shape and topology optimization method can produce optimal 2D designs with minimal stress subject to a volume constraint. The method represents the surface explicitly and discretizes the domain into a simplicial complex which adapts both structural shape and topology....... By performing repeated topology and shape optimizations and adaptive mesh updates, we can minimize the maximum von Mises stress using the p-norm stress measure with p-values as high as 30, provided that the stress is calculated with sufficient accuracy....

  20. Maximizing Undergraduate Success By Combining Research Experiences with Outreach, Peer Mentoring and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    The C-MORE Scholars Program provides hands-on, closely mentored research experiences to University of Hawaii (UH) undergraduates during the academic year. Students majoring in the geosciences, especially underrepresented students, from all campuses are encouraged to apply. The academic-year research is complemented by outreach, professional development and summer internships. Combined, these experiences help students develop the skills, confidence and passion that are essential to success in a geoscience career. Research. All students enter the program as trainees, where they learn lab and field research methods, computer skills and science principles. After one year, they are encouraged to reapply as interns, where they work on their own research project. Students who have successfully completed their intern year can reapply as fellows, where they conduct an independent research project such as an honors thesis. Students present their research at a Symposium through posters (trainees) or talks (interns and fellows). Interns and fellows help organize program activities and serve as peer mentors to trainees.Multi-tiered programs that build a pathway toward graduation have been shown to increase student retention and graduation success. Outreach. Undergraduate researchers rarely feel like experts when working with graduate students and faculty. For students to develop their identity as scientists, it is essential that they be given the opportunity to assume the role as expert. Engaging students in outreach is a win-win situation. Students gain valuable skills and confidence in sharing their research with their local community, and the public gets to learn about exciting research happening at UH. Professional Development. Each month, the Scholars meet to develop their professional skills on a particular topic, such as outreach, scientific presentations, interviewing, networking, and preparing application materials for jobs, scholarships and summer REUs. Students are

  1. MAXIMIZATION OF DNA DAMAGE TO MGMT(+ EGFR(+ GBM CELLS USING OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF TEMOZOLOMIDE-ANTI EGFR MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY NIMOTUZUMAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. M. Inggas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adultswith dismal prognosis due to the unavailability of an effective therapy. Up to now, there had been no definitive studies published on EGFR inhibition therapy as a chemosensitizer for GBM therapy using Temozolomide (TMZ. This study aims to reveal the most effective method and timing to administer TMZ-anti EGFR targeted therapy which causes maximal DNA damage on GBM cells.Methods: Various regimens of anti EGFR monoclonal antibody Nimotuzumab (NMZ was administered in different combinations with TMZ, performed on U87MG MGMT(+ EGFR(+ cells. The effectiveness of the combinations were evaluated by measuring yH2AX levels which reflects the degree of DNA damage. One-way Anova and LSD tests were performed to determine the effects of each treatment with p<0.05. Results and discussion: the mean SD of yH2AX of each treatment was: 11,90±1,25 for the control group; 29.33±1.91 for NMZ alone; 28.13±1.58 for TMZ alone; 41.53±3.51 for concurrent use; 35.67 ±2.65 for NMZ after 24 hours TMZ; 31.87±2.94 for NMZ after 48 hours TMZ; 39.57±4.2 for TMZ after 24 hours NMZ; and 35.93 ±3.56 for TMZ after 48 hours NMZ. The administration of TMZ concurrent with or after 24 hours NMZ gives the highest amount of DNA damage to GBM cells. Conclusion: The administration of Nimotuzumab targeted therapy up to 24 hours before Temozolomide chemotherapy has been proven to be effective in maximizing the amount of DNA damage done to GBM cells in vitro. 

  2. Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

    2014-01-01

    Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties.

  3. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taherbaneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar panel orientation in horizontal and vertical directions by two DC motors properly designed. A DC-DC converter is employed to track the solar panel maximum power point. In addition, the proposed system has the capability of the extraction of solar panel I-V curves. Experimental results present that the proposed fuzzy techniques result in increasing of power delivery from the solar panel, causing a reduction in size, weight, and cost of solar panels in photovoltaic systems.

  4. Probabilistic Controlled Teleportation of a Triplet W State with Combined Channel of Non-Maximally Entangled Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Dong; Jian-Fu, Teng

    2009-01-01

    A scheme for probabilistic controlled teleportation of a triplet W state using combined non-maximally entangled channel of two Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) states and one Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state is proposed. In this scheme, an (m + 2)-qubit GHZ state serves not only as the control parameter but also as the quantum channel. The m control qubits are shared by m supervisors. With the aid of local operations and individual measurements, including Bell-state measurement, Von Neumann measurement, and mutual classical communication etc., Bob can faithfully reconstruct the original state by performing relevant unitary transformations. The total probability of successful teleportation is only dependent on channel coefficients of EPR states and GHZ, independent of the number of supervisor m. This protocol can also be extended to probabilistic controlled teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit state using combined non-maximally entangled channel of N – 1 EPR states and one (m + 2)-qubit GHZ. (general)

  5. The use of serological tests in combination with the intradermal tuberculin test maximizes the detection of tuberculosis infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Javier; Roy, Álvaro; Infantes-Lorenzo, José Antonio; González, Isabel; Venteo, Ángel; Romero, Beatriz; Grau, Anna; Mínguez, Olga; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2018-05-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in goats is based mainly on the single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and CIT) tests and, exceptionally, on the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay, however they are not perfect in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, various serological assays that provide a potential cost-effective approach for the control of TB are also available or under development, and a variety of results have been reported regarding the ability of these tests to detect infected animals, particularly in the early stages of infection. In the present study, SIT/CIT and IFN-γ tests and three different serological assays were evaluated during two consecutive herd testing events in a recently infected caprine herd (n = 447) with a high prevalence of infection in order to evaluate their performance and provide field data with which to improve the TB control programs in this species. The proportion of infected animals that tested positive among all the infected goats (T+/I+ value) in the last herd testing event ranged from 26.2% (IC95%; 19.3-34.5) to 85.7% (IC95%; 78.5-90.7) using cell-based diagnostic tests. The SIT/SCIT tests detected more infected goats than the IFN-γ test, regardless of the interpretation criteria. The T+/I+ value of serology was 83.2 (IC95%; 75.2-89), although it increased significantly (P test (100%, IC95%; 97-100). In general, a parallel interpretation of intradermal tests with serology maximized the detection of infected goats. These results demonstrate that serological tests are valuable diagnostic tools to maximize the detection of TB infected goats, even in recent outbreaks, accelerating the eradication process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of mechanical components subjected to combined alternating and mean stresses with a nonconstant stress ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Lamarre, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    The reliability of reactor mechanical components and structural members, submitted to external loads which induce alternating bending stresses and mean shear stresses at the critical section where failure has a high probability of occurring, is predicted assuming that the ratio of the distributed alternating stress to the mean stress is also distributed and yields a bivariate failure-governing, combined alternating and mean, stress distribution. A computer programmed methodology is developed to calculate the reliability under these conditions given the associated distributional Goodman diagram for a reactor component or structural member. (orig.)

  7. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  8. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  9. Vasodilatory Effects of Combined Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Optimized Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yean Chun; Tan, Chu Shan; Ch'ng, Yung Sing; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Yam, Mun Fei

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a new syndromic disease combination theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for hypertensive treatment has been introduced. In the wake of this new concept, a new science-based TCM formula that counteracts various syndromes is needed. The objective of this study was to develop such a formula. Five of the most clinically prescribed TCM herbs that work on different syndromes, namely Gastrodia elata, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Pueraria thomsonii, Panax notoginseng, and Alisma orientale, were selected for this study. The fingerprints of these five herbs were analyzed by tri-step Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Three different solvents, 95% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and distilled water, were used for the maceration of the herbs and their vasodilatory effects were studied using in vitro precontracted aortic ring model. Among these, the 50% ethanolic extracts of G. elata (GE50) and A. orientale (AO50), and 95% ethanolic extracts of U. rhynchophylla (UR95), P. thomsonii (PT95), and P. notoginseng (PN95) were found to be the most effective for eliciting vasodilation. Thus, these five extracts were used for orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility group studies by using L 25 (5 5 ) formula. The best combination ratio for GE50, UR95, PT95, PN95, and AO50, which was assigned as Formula 1 (F1), was found at EC 0 , EC 25 , EC 20 , EC 20 , and EC 10 , respectively. The vasodilatory effect of the extracts prepared from different extraction methods using F1 ratio was also studied. From the results, the EC 50 and R max of total 50% ethanolic extract of five herbs using F1 ratio (F1-2) were 0.028 ± 0.005 mg/mL and 101.71% ± 3.64%, with better values than F1 (0.104 ± 0.014 mg/mL and 97.80% ± 3.12%, respectively). In conclusion, the optimum ratio and appropriate extraction method (F1-2) for the new TCM formula were revealed.

  10. Is combination of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet lymphocyte ratio a useful predictor of postoperative survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanoglu A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpaslan Tanoglu,1 Ergenekon Karagoz,2 Nurettin Yiyit,3 Ufuk Berber4 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, 4Department of Pathology, GATA Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Uskudar, TurkeyWe read with interest the recent article entitled "Combination of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet lymphocyte ratio is a useful predictor of postoperative survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma" by Feng et al.1 In their study, authors aimed to investigate the usefulness of a novel inflammation-based prognostic system, using the combination of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR, for predicting survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Finally, they concluded that combination of NLR and PLR is a useful predictor of postoperative survival in patients with ESCC and combination of these parameters is superior to NLR or PLR as a predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We would like to thank the authors for their contribution.View original paper by Feng and colleagues.

  11. Combined Arms Warfare in the 21st Century: Maximizing the Capability of U.S. Army Future Combat System Equipped Brigade Combat Teams to Conduct Combined Arms Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, James W

    2008-01-01

    ... employment of a combination of arms, thereby benefiting from their synergistic effects. He also reviews the main historical developments in CAW from World War I to the present Iraq War, including World War II, Korea...

  12. Identifying Combination of Friction Stir Welding Parameters to Maximize Strength of Lap Joints of AA2014-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrana C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA2014 aluminum alloy (Al-Cu alloy has been widely utilized in fabrication of lightweight structures like aircraft structures, demanding high strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. The fusion welding of these alloys will lead to solidification problems such as hot cracking. Friction stir welding is a new solid state welding process, in which the material being welded does not melt and recast. Lot of research works have been carried out by many researchers to optimize process parameters and establish empirical relationships to predict tensile strength of friction stir welded butt joints of aluminum alloys. However, very few investigations have been carried out on friction stir welded lap joints of aluminum alloys. Hence, in this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize friction stir lap welding (FSLW parameters to attain maximum tensile strength using statistical tools such as design of experiment (DoE, analysis of variance (ANOVA, response graph and contour plots. By this method, it is found that maximum tensile shear fracture load of 12.76 kN can be achieved if a joint is made using tool rotational speed of 900 rpm, welding speed of 110 mm/min, tool shoulder diameter of 12 mm and tool tilt angle of 1.5°.

  13. Combined Use of Mathematical Optimization and Design of Experiments for the Maximization of Profit in a Four-Echelon Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arturo Olivares Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a location-allocation model to optimize a four-echelon supply chain network, addressing manufacturing and distribution centers location, supplier selection and flow allocation for raw materials from suppliers to manufacturers, and finished products for end customers, while searching for system profit maximization. A fractional-factorial design of experiments is performed to analyze the effects of capacity, quality, delivery time, and interest rate on profit and system performance. The model is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming problem and solved by using well-known commercial software. The usage of factorial experiments combined with mathematical optimization is a novel approach to address supply chain network design problems. The application of the proposed model to a case study shows that this combination of techniques yields satisfying results in terms of both its behavior and the obtained managerial insights. An ANOVA analysis is executed to quantify the effects of each factor and their interactions. In the analyzed case study, the transportation cost is the most relevant cost component, and the most relevant opportunity for profit improvement is found in the factor of quality. The proposed combination of methods can be adapted to different problems and industries.

  14. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion SPECT images in combination with the maximal heart rate at exercise testing in Japanese patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. A sub-analysis of J-ACCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, Kenji; Usami, Satoru; Yasuno, Shinji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Yamashina, Akira; Nishiyama, Osamu; Yamazaki, Takuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether a combination of summed stress scores (SSS) using exercise myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (Ex-SPECT) and maximal heart rate accurately predicts cardiac events through a sub-analysis of J-ACCESS (Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT) which was conducted to evaluate the prognosis of Japanese patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. In J-ACCESS, 2,373 patients with suspected coronary artery disease not receiving beta-blocker treatment underwent Ex-SPECT. These patients were categorized into the following four groups: Group A [achieved target heart rate (THR) and SSS<4: n=631], B (did not achieve THR and SSS<4: n=612), C (achieved THR and SSS≥4: n=570), and D (did not achieve THR and SSS≥4: n=560). We evaluated the incidence rate of cardiac events including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and heart failure requiring hospital admission during a 3-year period. In Group A, B, C, and D, 9 of 631 (1.4%), 15 of 612 (2.4%), 23 of 570 (4.0%) and 30 of 560 (5.4%) patients experienced cardiac events, respectively. Although the hazard ratio of the SSS≥4 was 2.45 (p<0.001) and that of the attained THR was 0.69 (p=0.10) in the multiple Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the cardiac events rate was lower in the order of A, B, C, and D (p<0.001). The combination of SSS using Ex-SPECT and the maximal heart rate is a useful predictor of cardiac events in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. (author)

  15. Maximizing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in 3-D large bandgap semiconductor pixelated detectors in optimal and non-optimal filtering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Miesher L.; Serra, Andre da S.; He, Zhong; Zhu, Yuefeng

    2009-01-01

    3-D pixelated semiconductor detectors are used in radiation detection applications requiring spectroscopic and imaging information from radiation sources. Reconstruction algorithms used to determine direction and energy of incoming gamma rays can be improved by reducing electronic noise and using optimum filtering techniques. Position information can be improved by achieving sub-pixel resolution. Electronic noise is the limiting factor. Achieving sub-pixel resolution - position of the interaction better than one pixel pitch - in 3-D pixelated semiconductor detectors is a challenging task due to the fast transient characteristics of these signals. This work addresses two fundamental questions: the first is to determine the optimum filter, while the second is to estimate the achievable sub-pixel resolution using this filter. It is shown that the matched filter is the optimum filter when applying the signal-to-noise ratio criteria. Also, non-optimum filters are studied. The framework of 3-D waveform simulation using the Shockley-Ramo Theorem and the Hecht Equation for electron and hole trapping is presented in this work. This waveform simulator can be used to analyze current detectors as well as explore new ideas and concepts in future work. Numerical simulations show that assuming an electronic noise of 3.3 keV it is possible to subdivide the pixel region into 5x5 sub-pixels. After analyzing these results, it is suggested that sub-pixel information can also improve energy resolution. Current noise levels present the major drawback to both achieve sub-pixel resolution as well as improve energy resolution below the current limits. (author)

  16. Energy-exergy analysis of compressor pressure ratio effects on thermodynamic performance of ammonia water combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Soheil; Chen, Wen; Zargar, T.; Lin, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy exergy analysis is conducted to find the effects of RP. • EES software is utilized to perform the detailed energy-exergy analyses. • Effects investigated through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy, yields, etc. • Detailed results are reported showing the performance of gas and combined cycle. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of compressor pressure ratio (RP) on the thermodynamic performances of ammonia-water combined cycle through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy temperature, yields, and flow velocity. The energy-exergy analysis is conducted on the ammonia water combined cycle and the Rankine cycle, respectively. Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software is utilized to perform the detailed analyses. Values and ratios regarding heat drop and exergy loss are presented in separate tables for different equipments. The results obtained by the energy-exergy analysis indicate that by increasing the pressure ratio compressor, exergy destruction of high-pressure compressors, intercooler, gas turbine and the special produced work of gas turbine cycle constantly increase and the exergy destruction of recuperator, in contrast, decreases continuously. In addition, the least amount of input fuel into the combined cycle is observed when the pressure ratio is no less than 7.5. Subsequently, the efficiency of the cycle in gas turbine and combined cycle is reduced because the fuel input into the combined cycle is increased.

  17. Fixed ratio combinations of glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists with basal insulin: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulou, Paraskevi; Liakos, Aris; Vasilakou, Despoina; Athanasiadou, Eleni; Bekiari, Eleni; Kazakos, Kyriakos; Tsapas, Apostolos

    2017-06-01

    Basal insulin controls primarily fasting plasma glucose but causes hypoglycaemia and weight gain, whilst glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists induce weight loss without increasing risk for hypoglycaemia. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to investigate the efficacy and safety of fixed ratio combinations of basal insulin with glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists. We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library as well as conference abstracts up to December 2016. We assessed change in haemoglobin A 1c , body weight, and incidence of hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal adverse events. We included eight studies with 5732 participants in the systematic review. Switch from basal insulin to fixed ratio combinations with a glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonist was associated with 0.72% reduction in haemoglobin A 1c [95% confidence interval -1.03 to -0.41; I 2  = 93%] and 2.35 kg reduction in body weight (95% confidence interval -3.52 to -1.19; I 2  = 93%), reducing also risk for hypoglycaemia [odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.86; I 2  = 85%] but increasing incidence of nausea (odds ratio 6.89; 95% confidence interval 3.73-12.74; I 2  = 79%). Similarly, switching patients from treatment with a glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonist to a fixed ratio combination with basal insulin was associated with 0.94% reduction in haemoglobin A 1c (95% confidence interval -1.11 to -0.77) and an increase in body weight by 2.89 kg (95% confidence interval 2.17-3.61). Fixed ratio combinations of basal insulin with glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists improve glycaemic control whilst balancing out risk for hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal side effects.

  18. Effect of embedment ratio on buried pipelines subject to combined loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, H. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Kenny, S. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science; Phillips, R. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). C-Core; Radu Popecsu [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States). URS Corp.

    2009-07-01

    Pipelines along certain route corridors may be subject to long term, large scale ground movement due to accumulated soil deformation such as subsidence, thaw settlement, frost heave, and slope movement. The pipeline may therefore deform, yield, and experience local buckling mechanisms. This study investigated the influence of geotechnical loads and restraint on the local buckling response of buried pipelines. Two soil types were studied, notably stiff clay and dense sand. Three-dimensional continuum modelling procedures were developed, using ABAQUS/Standard, and calibrated against limited physical data on the buckling response of an unpressurized buried pipeline. The influence of soil restraint and embedment ratio (H/D) on the pipeline peak moment capacity, critical strain and ovalization were investigated through a parametric analysis. The study showed that as the H/D ratio increases, the soil failure mechanism changes from passive wedge formation to soil local failure around a pipeline. The contact surface between the pipeline and surrounding soil is influenced by changes in soil failure mechanisms. Therefore, the magnitude and distribution of loads that can be transferred varies. Also the location of the critical section, the factor of ovalization, and the moment-strain relationship of a buried pipeline changes with increasing H/D ratio. 21 refs., 4 tabs.,10 figs.

  19. Combination of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio and platelet lymphocyte ratio is a useful predictor of postoperative survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng JF

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Feng Feng,1 Ying Huang,2 Jin-Shi Liu1 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, 2Department of Operating Theatre, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: Recent studies have shown that the presence of systemic inflammation correlates with poor survival in various types of cancers. This study investigated the usefulness of a novel inflammation-based prognostic system, using the combination of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR, collectively named the CNP, for predicting survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Materials and methods: The CNP was calculated on the basis of data obtained on the day of admission: patients with both elevated NLR (>3.45 and PLR (>166.5 were allocated a score of 2, and patients showing one or neither were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively. Results: The CNP was associated with tumor length (P<0.001, differentiation (P=0.021, depth of invasion (P<0.001, and nodal metastasis (P<0.001. No significant differences were found between the CNP and morbidity. However, significant differences were found between the CNP and mortality (P<0.001. The overall survival in the CNP 0, CNP 1, and CNP 2 groups were 63.4%, 50.0%, and 20.2%, respectively (CNP 0 versus CNP 1, P=0.014; CNP 1 versus CNP 2, P<0.001. Multivariate analyses showed that CNP was a significant predictor of overall survival. CNP 1–2 had a hazard ratio (HR of 1.964 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.371–2.814, P<0.001 for overall survival. CNP (HR =1.964, P<0.001 is superior to NLR (HR =1.310, P=0.053 or PLR (HR =1.751, P<0.001 as a predictive factor. Conclusion: The CNP is considered a useful predictor of postoperative survival in patients with ESCC. The CNP is superior to NLR or PLR as a predictive factor in patients with ESCC. Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR, overall survival

  20. Moral Coppélia - Combining ratio with affect in ethical reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontier, M.A.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Hoorn, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present an integration of rational moral reasoning with emotional intelligence. The moral reasoning system alone could not simulate the different human reactions to the Trolley dilemma and the Footbridge dilemma. However, the combined system can simulate these human moral decision making

  1. Isotope ratio analysis by a combination of element analyzer and mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1987-06-01

    The use of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur as analytical tool in many fields of research is of growing interest. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an Elemental Analyzer with an Isotope Mass Spectrometer, which enables the gas preparation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide from any solid or liquid sample in a fast and easy way. Results of carbon isotope measurements in food analysis are presented, whereat it is possible to check origin and treatment of sugar, oils, fats, mineral waters, spirituous liquors etc. and to detect adulterations as well. Also applications in the field of environmental research are given. (Author)

  2. Improving CT detection sensitivity for nodal metastases in oesophageal cancer with combination of smaller size and lymph node axial ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianfang [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University Electric Power Teaching Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Zhu; Qu, Dong; Yao, Libo [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Beijing (China); Shao, Huafei [Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Yantai (China); Liu, Jian [Meitan General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the value of CT with inclusion of smaller lymph node (LN) sizes and axial ratio to improve the sensitivity in diagnosis of regional lymph node metastases in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The contrast-enhanced multidetector row spiral CT (MDCT) multiplanar reconstruction images of 204 patients with OSCC were retrospectively analysed. The long-axis and short-axis diameters of the regional LNs were measured and axial ratios were calculated (short-axis/long-axis diameters). Nodes were considered round if the axial ratio exceeded the optimal LN axial ratio, which was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. A positive predictive value (PPV) exceeding 50% is needed. This was achieved only with LNs larger than 9 mm in short-axis diameter, but nodes of this size were rare (sensitivity 37.3%, specificity 96.4%, accuracy 85.8%). If those round nodes (axial ratio exceeding 0.66) between 7 mm and 9 mm in size were considered metastases as well, it might improve the sensitivity to 67.2% with a PPV of 63.9% (specificity 91.6%, accuracy 87.2%). Combination of a smaller size and axial ratio for LNs in MDCT as criteria improves the detection sensitivity for LN metastases in OSCC. (orig.)

  3. Combining of Direct Search and Signal-to-Noise Ratio for economic dispatch optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Gow, Hong-Jey; Tsai, Ming-Tang

    2011-01-01

    This paper integrated the ideas of Direct Search and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) to develop a Novel Direct Search (NDS) method for solving the non-convex economic dispatch problems. NDS consists of three stages: Direct Search (DS), Global SNR (GSNR) and Marginal Compensation (MC) stages. DS provides a basic solution. GSNR searches the point with optimization strategy. MC fulfills the power balance requirement. With NDS, the infinite solution space becomes finite. Furthermore, a same optimum solution can be repeatedly reached. Effectiveness of NDS is demonstrated with three examples and the solutions were compared with previously published results. Test results show that the proposed method is simple, robust, and more effective than many other previously developed algorithms.

  4. Biomedical and Forensic Applications of Combined Catalytic Hydrogenation-Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Sephton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of biological molecules such as fatty acids and the steroid hormones have the potential to benefit enormously from stable carbon isotope ratio measurements of individual molecules. In their natural form, however, the body’s molecules interact too readily with laboratory equipment designed to separate them for accurate measurements to be made.Some methods overcome this problem by adding carbon to the target molecule, but this can irreversibly overprint the carbon source ‘signal’. Hydropyrolysis is a newly-applied catalytic technique that delicately strips molecules of their functional groups but retains their carbon skeletons and stereochemistries intact, allowing precise determination of the carbon source. By solving analytical problems, the new technique is increasing the ability of scientists to pinpoint molecular indicators of disease, elucidate metabolic pathways and recognise administered substances in forensic investigations.

  5. Biomedical and Forensic Applications of Combined Catalytic Hydrogenation-Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Meredith, Will; Sun, Cheng-Gong; Snape, Colin E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of biological molecules such as fatty acids and the steroid hormones have the potential to benefit enormously from stable carbon isotope ratio measurements of individual molecules. In their natural form, however, the body’s molecules interact too readily with laboratory equipment designed to separate them for accurate measurements to be made. Some methods overcome this problem by adding carbon to the target molecule, but this can irreversibly overprint the carbon source ‘signal’. Hydropyrolysis is a newly-applied catalytic technique that delicately strips molecules of their functional groups but retains their carbon skeletons and stereochemistries intact, allowing precise determination of the carbon source. By solving analytical problems, the new technique is increasing the ability of scientists to pinpoint molecular indicators of disease, elucidate metabolic pathways and recognise administered substances in forensic investigations. PMID:19662175

  6. An experimental study on the alteration of thermal enhancement ratio by combination of split dose hyperthermia irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ok; Kim, Hee Seup [Ewha Womens University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the alteration of thermal enhancement ratio as a function of time intervals between two split dose hyperthermias followed by irradiation. For the experiments, 330 mice were divided into 3 groups; the first, 72 mice were used to evaluate the heat reaction by single dose hyperthermia and heat resistance by split dose hyperthermia, the second, 36 mice were used to evaluate the radiation reaction by irradiation only, and the third, 222 mice were used for TER observation by combination of single dose hyperthermia and irradiation, and TER alteration by combination of split dose hyperthermia and irradiation. For each group the skin reaction score of mouse tail was used for observation and evaluation of the result of heat and irradiation. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The heating time resulting 50% necrosis (ND{sub 5}0) Was 101 minutes in 43 .deg. C and 24 minutes in 45 .deg. C hyperthermia, which indicated that three is reciprocal proportion between temperature and heating time. 2. Development of heat resistance was observed by split dose hyperthermia. 3. The degree of skin reaction by irradiation only was increased proportionally as a function of radiation dose, and calculated radiation dose corresponding to skin score 1.5 (D{sub 1}.5) was 4,137 rads. 4. Obtained thermal enhancement ratio by combination of single dose hyperthermia and irradiation was increased proportionally as a function of heating time. 5. Thermal enhancement ratio was decreased by combination of split dose hyperthermia and irradiation, which was less intense and lasted longer than development of heat resistance. In summary, these studies indicate that the alteration of thermal enhancement ratio has influence on heat resistance by split dose hyperthermia and irradiation.

  7. Hepatic MR imaging for in vivo differentiation of steatosis, iron deposition and combined storage disorder: Single-ratio in/opposed phase analysis vs. dual-ratio Dixon discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Mustafa R.; Merkle, Elmar M.; Smith, Alastair D.; Boll, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether in vivo dual-ratio Dixon discrimination can improve detection of diffuse liver disease, specifically steatosis, iron deposition and combined disease over traditional single-ratio in/opposed phase analysis. Methods: Seventy-one patients with biopsy-proven (17.7 ± 17.0 days) hepatic steatosis (n = 16), iron deposition (n = 11), combined deposition (n = 3) and neither disease (n = 41) underwent MR examinations. Dual-echo in/opposed-phase MR with Dixon water/fat reconstructions were acquired. Analysis consisted of: (a) single-ratio hepatic region-of-interest (ROI)-based assessment of in/opposed ratios; (b) dual-ratio hepatic ROI assessment of in/opposed and fat/water ratios; (c) computer-aided dual-ratio assessment evaluating all hepatic voxels. Disease-specific thresholds were determined; statistical analyses assessed disease-dependent voxel ratios, based on single-ratio (a) and dual-ratio (b and c) techniques. Results: Single-ratio discrimination succeeded in identifying iron deposition (I/O Ironthreshold Fatthreshold>1.15 ) from normal parenchyma, sensitivity 70.0%; it failed to detect combined disease. Dual-ratio discrimination succeeded in identifying abnormal hepatic parenchyma (F/W Normalthreshold > 0.05), sensitivity 96.7%; logarithmic functions for iron deposition (I/O Iron d iscriminator (0.01−F/W Iron )/0.48 ) and for steatosis (I/O Fatdiscriminator > e (F/W Fat −0.01)/0.48 ) differentiated combined from isolated diseases, sensitivity 100.0%; computer-aided dual-ratio analysis was comparably sensitive but less specific, 90.2% vs. 97.6%. Conclusion: MR two-point-Dixon imaging using dual-ratio post-processing based on in/opposed and fat/water ratios improved in vivo detection of hepatic steatosis, iron deposition, and combined storage disease beyond traditional in/opposed analysis.

  8. Discrimination of geographical origin of lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) using isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, F; Casiello, G; Cortese, M; Perini, M; Camin, F; Catucci, L; Agostiano, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the geographic origin of lentils by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in combination with chemometrics. Lentil samples from two origins, i.e. Italy and Canada, were analysed obtaining the stable isotope ratios of δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and δ(34)S. A comparison between median values (U-test) highlighted statistically significant differences (porigin but with overlapping zones; consequently, two supervised discriminant techniques, i.e. partial least squares discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbours algorithm were used. Both models showed good performances with external prediction abilities of about 93% demonstrating the suitability of the methods developed. Subsequently, isotopic determinations were also performed on the protein and starch fractions and the relevant results are reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the low SNR capacity of maximum ratio combining over rician fading channels with full channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-04-01

    In this letter, we study the ergodic capacity of a maximum ratio combining (MRC) Rician fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime and we show that the capacity scales as L ΩK+L SNRx log(1SNR), where Ω is the expected channel gain per branch, K is the Rician fading factor, and L is the number of diversity branches. We show that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme. Our framework can be seen as a generalization of recently established results regarding the fading-channels capacity characterization in the low-SNR regime. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. On the low SNR capacity of maximum ratio combining over rician fading channels with full channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we study the ergodic capacity of a maximum ratio combining (MRC) Rician fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime and we show that the capacity scales as L ΩK+L SNRx log(1SNR), where Ω is the expected channel gain per branch, K is the Rician fading factor, and L is the number of diversity branches. We show that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme. Our framework can be seen as a generalization of recently established results regarding the fading-channels capacity characterization in the low-SNR regime. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Combining emission inventory and isotope ratio analyses for quantitative source apportionment of heavy metals in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian; Zhou, Shenglu; Wu, Shaohua; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Baojie; Li, Yan; Wang, Junxiao

    2018-08-01

    Two quantitative methods (emission inventory and isotope ratio analysis) were combined to apportion source contributions of heavy metals entering agricultural soils in the Lihe River watershed (Taihu region, east China). Source apportionment based on the emission inventory method indicated that for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, the mean percentage input from atmospheric deposition was highest (62-85%), followed by irrigation (12-27%) and fertilization (1-14%). Thus, the heavy metals were derived mainly from industrial activities and traffic emissions. For Ni the combined percentage input from irrigation and fertilization was approximately 20% higher than that from atmospheric deposition, indicating that Ni was mainly derived from agricultural activities. Based on isotope ratio analysis, atmospheric deposition accounted for 57-93% of Pb entering soil, with the mean value of 69.3%, which indicates that this was the major source of Pb entering soil in the study area. The mean contributions of irrigation and fertilization to Pb pollution of soil ranged from 0% to 10%, indicating that they played only a marginally important role. Overall, the results obtained using the two methods were similar. This study provides a reliable approach for source apportionment of heavy metals entering agricultural soils in the study area, and clearly have potential application for future studies in other regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical-to-virial velocity ratios of local disc galaxies from combined kinematics and galaxy-galaxy lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Nakajima, R.; Seljak, U.; Hirata, C. M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we measure the optical-to-virial velocity ratios Vopt/V200c of disc galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) at a mean redshift of = 0.07 and with stellar masses 109 < M* < 1011 M⊙. Vopt/V200c, the ratio of the circular velocity measured at the optical radius of the disc (˜10 kpc) to that at the virial radius of the dark matter halo (˜150 kpc), is a powerful observational constraint on disc galaxy formation. It links galaxies to their dark matter haloes dynamically and constrains the total mass profile of disc galaxies over an order of magnitude in length scale. For this measurement, we combine Vopt derived from the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) from Reyes et al. with V200c derived from halo masses measured with galaxy-galaxy lensing. In anticipation of this combination, we use similarly selected galaxy samples for both the TFR and lensing analysis. For three M* bins with lensing-weighted mean stellar masses of 0.6, 2.7 and 6.5 × 1010 M⊙, we find halo-to-stellar mass ratios M200c/M* = 41, 23 and 26, with 1σ statistical uncertainties of around 0.1 dex, and Vopt/V200c = 1.27 ± 0.08, 1.39 ± 0.06 and 1.27 ± 0.08 (1σ), respectively. Our results suggest that the dark matter and baryonic contributions to the mass within the optical radius are comparable, if the dark matter halo profile has not been significantly modified by baryons. The results obtained in this work will serve as inputs to and constraints on disc galaxy formation models, which will be explored in future work. Finally, we note that this paper presents a new and improved galaxy shape catalogue for weak lensing that covers the full SDSS Data Release 7 footprint.

  13. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  14. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  15. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry in combination with chemometrics for characterization of geographical origin and agronomic practices of table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Francesco; Casiello, Grazia; Centonze, Valentina; Catucci, Lucia; Agostiano, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Although table grape is one of the most cultivated and consumed fruits worldwide, no study has been reported on its geographical origin or agronomic practice based on stable isotope ratios. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of isotopic ratios (i.e. 2 H/ 1 H, 13 C/ 12 C, 15 N/ 14 N and 18 O/ 16 O) as possible markers to discriminate the agronomic practice (conventional versus organic farming) and provenance of table grape. In order to quantitatively evaluate which of the isotopic variables were more discriminating, a t test was carried out, in light of which only δ 13 C and δ 18 O provided statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for the discrimination of geographical origin and farming method. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed no good separation of samples differing in geographical area and agronomic practice; thus, for classification purposes, supervised approaches were carried out. In particular, general discriminant analysis (GDA) was used, resulting in prediction abilities of 75.0 and 92.2% for the discrimination of farming method and origin respectively. The present findings suggest that stable isotopes (i.e. δ 18 O, δ 2 H and δ 13 C) combined with chemometrics can be successfully applied to discriminate the provenance of table grape. However, the use of bulk nitrogen isotopes was not effective for farming method discrimination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Characterization of diesel fuel by chemical separation combined with capillary gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D; Jarman, Kristin H; Moran, James J; Sorensen, Christina M; Wright, Bob W

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform a preliminary investigation of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of diesel fuels to evaluate whether the technique could distinguish diesel samples from different sources/locations. The ability to differentiate or correlate diesel samples could be valuable for discovering fuel tax evasion schemes or for environmental forensic studies. Two urea adduction-based techniques were used to isolate the n-alkanes from the fuel. Both carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) and hydrogen isotope ratio (δD) values for the n-alkanes were then determined by CSIA in each sample. The samples investigated had δ(13)C values that ranged from -30.1‰ to -26.8‰, whereas δD values ranged from -83‰ to -156‰. Plots of δD versus δ(13)C with sample n-alkane points connected in order of increasing carbon number gave well-separated clusters with characteristic shapes for each sample. Principal components analysis (PCA) with δ(13)C, δD, or combined δ(13)C and δD data was applied to extract the maximum information content. PCA scores plots could clearly differentiate the samples, thereby demonstrating the potential of this approach for distinguishing (e.g., fingerprinting) fuel samples using δ(13)C and δD values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Combination of Platelet Count and Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Is a Predictive Factor in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Feng Feng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC were investigated and compared. METHODS: This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/l and hypoalbuminemia (300 × 109/l and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (>3 were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. RESULTS: The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P < .001. The 5-year CSS in patients with COP-NLR0, 1, and 2 was 51.8%, 27.0%, and 11.6%, respectively (P < .001. Multivariate analysis showed that both GPS (P = .003 and COP-NLR (P = .003 were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367. CONCLUSIONS: COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS.

  18. Landslide susceptibility mapping by combining the three methods Fuzzy Logic, Frequency Ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Dozain basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tazik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are among the most important natural hazards that lead to modification of the environment. Therefore, studying of this phenomenon is so important in many areas. Because of the climate conditions, geologic, and geomorphologic characteristics of the region, the purpose of this study was landslide hazard assessment using Fuzzy Logic, frequency ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process method in Dozein basin, Iran. At first, landslides occurred in Dozein basin were identified using aerial photos and field studies. The influenced landslide parameters that were used in this study including slope, aspect, elevation, lithology, precipitation, land cover, distance from fault, distance from road and distance from river were obtained from different sources and maps. Using these factors and the identified landslide, the fuzzy membership values were calculated by frequency ratio. Then to account for the importance of each of the factors in the landslide susceptibility, weights of each factor were determined based on questionnaire and AHP method. Finally, fuzzy map of each factor was multiplied to its weight that obtained using AHP method. At the end, for computing prediction accuracy, the produced map was verified by comparing to existing landslide locations. These results indicate that the combining the three methods Fuzzy Logic, Frequency Ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process method are relatively good estimators of landslide susceptibility in the study area. According to landslide susceptibility map about 51% of the occurred landslide fall into the high and very high susceptibility zones of the landslide susceptibility map, but approximately 26 % of them indeed located in the low and very low susceptibility zones.

  19. The combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio is a predictive factor in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ji-Feng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2014-10-01

    The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were investigated and compared. This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (> 10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. The COP-NLR was calculated as follows: patients with elevated platelet count (> 300 × 10(9)/l) and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (> 3) were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P GPS (P = .003) and COP-NLR (P = .003) were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR) between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367). COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS.

  20. Combined Effect of Contraction Ratio and Chamber Pressure on the Performance of a Gaseous Hydrogen-Liquid-Oxygen Combustor for a Given Propellant Weight Flow and Oxidant-Fuel Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Martin

    1961-01-01

    The effect of contraction ratio and chamber pressure on the combustion performance of a gaseous-hydrogen-liquid-oxygen combustor was investigated analytically and experimentally. The experiment was conducted with a "two-dimensional" gaseous-hydrogen-liquid-oxygen engine of about 150-pound thrust. The contraction ratio was varied from 1.5 to 6 by changing the nozzle throat area. This variation resulted in a chamber pressure variation of about 25 to 120 pounds per square inch. The experimental results were corrected for heat transfer to the engine walls and momentum pressure losses. The experimental performance, as evaluated in terms of characteristic exhaust velocity, was 98 percent of theoretical at contraction ratios greater than 3 but decreased very rapidly at smaller contraction ratios. The heat-transfer rate increased with increasing contraction ratio and chamber pressure; it was about 1 Btu per square inch per second at a contraction ratio of 1.5 and increased to about 3 at a contraction ratio of 6. The combined effects of contraction-ratio and chamber-pressure changes on performance were investigated analytically with a mixing model and a vaporization model. The mixing model predicted very poor mixing at contraction ratios below 3 and almost perfect mixing at higher contraction ratios. The performance predicted by the vaporization model was very close to 100 percent for all contraction ratios. From these results, it was concluded that the performance was limited by poor mixing at low contraction ratios and chamber pressures.

  1. Combined use of serum MCP-1/IL-10 ratio and uterine artery Doppler index significantly improves the prediction of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihong; Gao, Yanan; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Lindong; Liu, Pingping; Liu, Ling; Chen, Juan

    2017-10-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, or CCL2) is a member of the chemokine subfamily involved in recruitment of monocytes in inflammatory tissues. IL-10 is a key regulator for maintaining the balance of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory milieu at the feto-maternal interface. Doppler examination has been routinely performed for the monitoring and management of preeclampsia patients. This study evaluates the efficiency of these factors alone, or in combination, for the predication of preeclampsia. The serum levels of MCP-1 and IL-10 in 78 preeclampsia patients and 143 age-matched normal controls were measured. The Doppler ultrasonography was performed and Artery Pulsatility Index (PI) and Resistance Index (RI) were calculated for the same subjects. It was found that while the second-trimester serum MCP-1, IL-10, MCP-1/IL-10 ratio, PI, and RI showed some power in predicting preeclampsia, the combination of MCP-1/IL-10 and PI and RI accomplishes the highest efficiency, achieving an AUC of 0.973 (95% CI, 0.000-1.000, Ppreeclampsia. Future studies using a larger sample can be conducted to construct an algorithm capable of quantitative assessment on the risk of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Defluoridation of drinking water by combined electrocoagulation: effects of the molar ratio of alkalinity and fluoride to Al(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2009-03-01

    The defluoridation efficiency (epsilon(F)) of electrocoagulation (EC) is closely related to the pH level of the F(-)-containing solution. The pH level usually needs to be adjusted by adding acid in order to obtain the highest epsilon(F) for the F(-)-containing groundwater. The use of combined EC (CEC), which is the combination of chemical coagulation with EC, was proposed to remove fluoride from drinking water for the first time in this study. The optimal scheme for the design and operation of CEC were obtained through experiments on the treatment of F(-)-containing groundwater. It was found, with OH(-) being the only alkalinity of the raw water, that the highest efficiency would be obtained when the molar ratio of alkalinity and fluoride to Al(III) (gamma(Alkalinity+F)) was controlled at 3.0. However, when the raw water contained HCO(3)(-) alkalinity, a correction coefficient was needed to correct the concentration of HCO(3)(-) to obtain the optimal defluoridation condition of gamma(Alkalinity+F)=3.0 for CEC. The correction coefficient of HCO(3)(-) concentration was concluded as 0.60 from the experiment. For the practical F(-)-containing groundwater treatment, CEC can achieve similar epsilon(F) as an acid-adding EC process. The consumption of aluminum electrode was decreased in CEC. The energy consumption also declined greatly in CEC, which is less than one third of that in the acid-adding EC process.

  3. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  4. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  5. Defined Combinations of Cryomedia and Thawing Extenders Influence the Viable X-Y Boar Sperm Ratio in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchunjit, W; Kaeoket, K; Kitiyanant, Y; Taylor, J; Wongtawan, T

    It is believed that plasma membrane X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm are different; therefore the freezing and thawing process may affect X- and Y-sperm differently. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cryomedia and thawing extenders on the survival of X and Y-sperm. Three different cryomedia and thawing extenders were compared. Viable motile sperm were separated using a swim-up technique. Real-time PCR was used to identify the sperm type. Using CryoA for freezing and Beltsville-Thawing-Solution (BTS) as the thawing extender yielded significantly higher numbers of viable motile Y sperm (64 percent) than control (48 percent) (P semen freezing with CryoC and thawing with Androstar Plus gave a significantly lower number of viable motile Y sperm (32 percent) than control (51 percent). Our results revealed that defined combinations of cryomedia and thawing extenders significantly altered the survival ratio of frozen-thawed X-Y sperm in vitro, which has potential implications for artificial insemination.

  6. A Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Combining Wavelet Denoising, Principal Component Analysis, and Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Sensor Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Oh, Seungrohk

    2002-01-01

    A neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with the wavelet denoising, principal component analysis (PCA), and sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) methods has been developed to monitor the relevant sensor using the information of other sensors. The parameters of the neuro-fuzzy inference system that estimates the relevant sensor signal are optimized by a genetic algorithm and a least-squares algorithm. The wavelet denoising technique was applied to remove noise components in input signals into the neuro-fuzzy system. By reducing the dimension of an input space into the neuro-fuzzy system without losing a significant amount of information, the PCA was used to reduce the time necessary to train the neuro-fuzzy system, simplify the structure of the neuro-fuzzy inference system, and also, make easy the selection of the input signals into the neuro-fuzzy system. By using the residual signals between the estimated signals and the measured signals, the SPRT is applied to detect whether the sensors are degraded or not. The proposed sensor-monitoring algorithm was verified through applications to the pressurizer water level, the pressurizer pressure, and the hot-leg temperature sensors in pressurized water reactors

  7. Tri-reforming and combined reforming of methane for producing syngas with desired hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei

    This dissertation is an exploratory study of a new process concept for direct production of synthesis gas (CO + H2) with desired H 2/CO ratios (1.5--2.0) for methanol synthesis and F-T synthesis, using CO2 together with steam and unconverted O2 in flue gas from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants to react with methane or natural gas. This new process is called tri-reforming, referring to simultaneous CO2-steam-O2 reforming of methane or natural gas. This study included (1) The investigation of carbon formation in the tri-reforming process. For comparison, carbon formation in the combined reforming and CO2 reforming reaction was studied as well. (2) The effect of reaction conditions and feed compositions on equilibrium composition (e.g. H2/CO ratio) and equilibrium conversions in the tri-reforming process. (3) The role of catalysts in the tri-reforming process, especially the effect of catalysts on CO2 conversion in the presence of H 2O and O2. It was clearly evidenced from this study that CO in the product stream is probably the major source of carbon over Ni/Al2O3 in the equimolar CO2-CH4 reforming at 650°C and 1 atm. Addition of either O2 or H2O into the CO 2 reforming reaction system can suppress carbon formation. It was demonstrated that carbon-free operation can be achieved in the tri-reforming process. A thermodynamic comparison of tri-reforming with feed compositions of (H2O+CO2+0.5O2)/CH4 (mol ratio) = 1 showed that O2 improves equilibrium CH4 conversion, yet greatly decreases equilibrium CO2 conversion. H2O in tri-reforming has a significant effect on the H2/CO ratio in the products, while O2 has a minor effect. A kinetic study and catalytic performance tests indicated that the support in a supported catalyst has a significant role in enhancing CO2 conversion to CO in the presence of H2O and O2 in tri-reforming. The Ni/MgO catalyst showed superior performance with close to equilibrium CH4 and CO2 conversions at 850°C, 1 atm, and 32,000 ml

  8. Combined therapy with levothyroxine and liothyronine in two ratios, compared with levothyroxine monotherapy in primary hypothyroidism: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelhof, Bente C.; Fliers, Eric; Wekking, Ellie M.; Schene, Aart H.; Huyser, Jochanan; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Endert, Erik; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    Controversy remains about the value of combined treatment with levothyroxine (LT4) and liothyronine (LT3), compared with LT4 alone in primary hypothyroidism. We compared combined treatment with LT4 and LT3 in a ratio of 5: 1 or 10: 1 with LT4 monotherapy. We conducted a double-blind, randomized,

  9. Optimum ratio of AET, ATP and serotonin applied in combinations determined with a reference to their toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, D.K.; P''tev, I.Kh.

    1985-01-01

    In experiments on mice, a study was made of the quantitative dependence of toxicity of AET, ATP and serotonin applied in combinations. The toxicity decreased when ATP was combined with AET and increased when ATP of AET were combined with serotonin. The toxicity of a combination of all three substances was reduced by introducing high doses of ATP

  10. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  11. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  12. Combined effects of nitrogen to phosphorus ratios and nitrogen speciation on cyanobacterial metabolite concentrations in eutrophic Midwestern USA reservoirs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, T.D.; Smith, V.H.; Graham, J.L.; Van de Waal, D.B.; Tedesco, L.P.; Clercin, N.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio and nitrogen oxidation state may have substantial effects on secondary metabolite (e.g., microcystins) production in cyanobacteria. We investigated the relationship between the water column TN:TP ratio and the

  13. On the Efficiency of Individualized Theta/Beta Ratio Neurofeedback Combined with Forehead EMG Training in ADHD Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Bazanova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurofeedback training (NFT to decrease the theta/beta ratio (TBR has been used for treating hyperactivity and impulsivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; however, often with low efficiency. Individual variance in EEG profile can confound NFT, because it may lead to influencing non-relevant activity, if ignored. More importantly, it may lead to influencing ADHD-related activities adversely, which may even result in worsening ADHD symptoms. Electromyogenic (EMG signal resulted from forehead muscles can also explain the low efficiency of the NFT in ADHD from both practical and psychological point-of-view. The first aim of this study was to determine EEG and EMG biomarkers most related to the main ADHD characteristics, such as impulsivity and hyperactivity. The second aim was to confirm our hypothesis that the efficiency of the TBR NFT can be increased by individual adjustment of the frequency bands and simultaneous training on forehead muscle tension.Methods: We recruited 94 children diagnosed with ADHD (ADHD and 23 healthy controls (HC. All participants were male and aged between six and nine. Impulsivity and attention were assessed with Go/no-Go task and delayed gratification task, respectively; and 19-channel EEG and forehead EMG were recorded. Then, the ADHD group was randomly subdivided into (1 standard, (2 individualized, (3 individualized+EMG, and (4 sham NFT (control groups. The groups were compared based on TBR and EEG alpha activity, as well as hyperactivity and impulsivity three times: pre-NFT, post-NFT and 6 months after the NFT (follow-up.Results: ADHD children were characterized with decreased individual alpha peak frequency, alpha bandwidth and alpha amplitude suppression magnitude, as well as with increased alpha1/alpha2 (a1/a2 ratio and scalp muscle tension when c (η2 ≥ 0.212. All contingent TBR NFT groups exhibited significant NFT-related decrease in TBR not evident in the control group. Moreover

  14. On the Efficiency of Individualized Theta/Beta Ratio Neurofeedback Combined with Forehead EMG Training in ADHD Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, Olga M; Auer, Tibor; Sapina, Elena A

    2018-01-01

    Background: Neurofeedback training (NFT) to decrease the theta/beta ratio (TBR) has been used for treating hyperactivity and impulsivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, often with low efficiency. Individual variance in EEG profile can confound NFT, because it may lead to influencing non-relevant activity, if ignored. More importantly, it may lead to influencing ADHD-related activities adversely, which may even result in worsening ADHD symptoms. Electromyogenic (EMG) signal resulted from forehead muscles can also explain the low efficiency of the NFT in ADHD from both practical and psychological point-of-view. The first aim of this study was to determine EEG and EMG biomarkers most related to the main ADHD characteristics, such as impulsivity and hyperactivity. The second aim was to confirm our hypothesis that the efficiency of the TBR NFT can be increased by individual adjustment of the frequency bands and simultaneous training on forehead muscle tension. Methods: We recruited 94 children diagnosed with ADHD (ADHD) and 23 healthy controls (HC). All participants were male and aged between six and nine. Impulsivity and attention were assessed with Go/no-Go task and delayed gratification task, respectively; and 19-channel EEG and forehead EMG were recorded. Then, the ADHD group was randomly subdivided into (1) standard, (2) individualized, (3) individualized+EMG, and (4) sham NFT (control) groups. The groups were compared based on TBR and EEG alpha activity, as well as hyperactivity and impulsivity three times: pre-NFT, post-NFT and 6 months after the NFT (follow-up). Results: ADHD children were characterized with decreased individual alpha peak frequency, alpha bandwidth and alpha amplitude suppression magnitude, as well as with increased alpha1/alpha2 (a1/a2) ratio and scalp muscle tension when c (η 2 ≥ 0.212). All contingent TBR NFT groups exhibited significant NFT-related decrease in TBR not evident in the control group. Moreover

  15. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  16. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  17. Combining tracer flux ratio methodology with low-flying aircraft measurements to estimate dairy farm CH4 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daube, C.; Conley, S.; Faloona, I. C.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Roscioli, J. R.; Morris, M.; Curry, J.; Arndt, C.; Herndon, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Livestock activity, enteric fermentation of feed and anaerobic digestion of waste, contributes significantly to the methane budget of the United States (EPA, 2016). Studies question the reported magnitude of these methane sources (Miller et. al., 2013), calling for more detailed research of agricultural animals (Hristov, 2014). Tracer flux ratio is an attractive experimental method to bring to this problem because it does not rely on estimates of atmospheric dispersion. Collection of data occurred during one week at two dairy farms in central California (June, 2016). Each farm varied in size, layout, head count, and general operation. The tracer flux ratio method involves releasing ethane on-site with a known flow rate to serve as a tracer gas. Downwind mixed enhancements in ethane (from the tracer) and methane (from the dairy) were measured, and their ratio used to infer the unknown methane emission rate from the farm. An instrumented van drove transects downwind of each farm on public roads while tracer gases were released on-site, employing the tracer flux ratio methodology to assess simultaneous methane and tracer gas plumes. Flying circles around each farm, a small instrumented aircraft made measurements to perform a mass balance evaluation of methane gas. In the course of these two different methane quantification techniques, we were able to validate yet a third method: tracer flux ratio measured via aircraft. Ground-based tracer release rates were applied to the aircraft-observed methane-to-ethane ratios, yielding whole-site methane emission rates. Never before has the tracer flux ratio method been executed with aircraft measurements. Estimates from this new application closely resemble results from the standard ground-based technique to within their respective uncertainties. Incorporating this new dimension to the tracer flux ratio methodology provides additional context for local plume dynamics and validation of both ground and flight-based data.

  18. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  19. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  20. Post-Synapse Model Cell for Synaptic Glutamate Receptor (GluR-Based Biosensing: Strategy and Engineering to Maximize Ligand-Gated Ion-Flux Achieving High Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Haruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based biosensing is a “smart” way to obtain efficacy-information on the effect of applied chemical on cellular biological cascade. We have proposed an engineered post-synapse model cell-based biosensors to investigate the effects of chemicals on ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR, which is a focus of attention as a molecular target for clinical neural drug discovery. The engineered model cell has several advantages over native cells, including improved ease of handling and better reproducibility in the application of cell-based biosensors. However, in general, cell-based biosensors often have low signal-to-noise (S/N ratios due to the low level of cellular responses. In order to obtain a higher S/N ratio in model cells, we have attempted to design a tactic model cell with elevated cellular response. We have revealed that the increase GluR expression level is not directly connected to the amplification of cellular responses because the saturation of surface expression of GluR, leading to a limit on the total ion influx. Furthermore, coexpression of GluR with a voltage-gated potassium channel increased Ca2+ ion influx beyond levels obtained with saturating amounts of GluR alone. The construction of model cells based on strategy of amplifying ion flux per individual receptors can be used to perform smart cell-based biosensing with an improved S/N ratio.

  1. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  2. Photovoltaic Performance Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells Based on Combined Ratios of Three Species of Europium-Doped Phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scheme for the enhancement of silicon solar cells in terms of luminescent emission band and photovoltaic performance. The proposed devices are coated with an luminescent down-shifting (LDS layer comprising three species of europium (Eu-doped phosphors mixed within a silicate film (SiO2 using a spin-on film deposition. The three species of phosphor were mixed at ratios of 0.5:1:1.5, 1:1:1, or 1.5:1:0.5 in weight percentage (wt %. The total quantity of Eu-doped phosphors in the silicate solution was fixed at 3 wt %. The emission wavelengths of the Eu-doped phosphors were as follows: 518 nm (specie-A, 551 nm (specie-B, and 609 nm (specie-C. We examined the extended luminescent emission bands via photoluminescence measurements at room temperature. Closely matching the luminescent emission band to the high responsivity band of the silicon semiconductor resulted in good photovoltaic performance. Impressive improvements in efficiency were observed in all three samples: 0.5:1:1.5 (20.43%, 1:1:1 (19.67%, 1.5:1:0.5 (16.81%, compared to the control with a layer of pure SiO2 (13.80%.

  3. Photovoltaic Performance Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells Based on Combined Ratios of Three Species of Europium-Doped Phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; You, Bang-Jin; Liu, Jheng-Jie; Bai, Wen-Bin; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2018-05-18

    This paper presents a scheme for the enhancement of silicon solar cells in terms of luminescent emission band and photovoltaic performance. The proposed devices are coated with an luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layer comprising three species of europium (Eu)-doped phosphors mixed within a silicate film (SiO₂) using a spin-on film deposition. The three species of phosphor were mixed at ratios of 0.5:1:1.5, 1:1:1, or 1.5:1:0.5 in weight percentage (wt %). The total quantity of Eu-doped phosphors in the silicate solution was fixed at 3 wt %. The emission wavelengths of the Eu-doped phosphors were as follows: 518 nm (specie-A), 551 nm (specie-B), and 609 nm (specie-C). We examined the extended luminescent emission bands via photoluminescence measurements at room temperature. Closely matching the luminescent emission band to the high responsivity band of the silicon semiconductor resulted in good photovoltaic performance. Impressive improvements in efficiency were observed in all three samples: 0.5:1:1.5 (20.43%), 1:1:1 (19.67%), 1.5:1:0.5 (16.81%), compared to the control with a layer of pure SiO₂ (13.80%).

  4. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  5. Enhanced Sampling in Free Energy Calculations: Combining SGLD with the Bennett's Acceptance Ratio and Enveloping Distribution Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Gerhard; Miller, Benjamin T; Boresch, Stefan; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R

    2012-10-09

    One of the key requirements for the accurate calculation of free energy differences is proper sampling of conformational space. Especially in biological applications, molecular dynamics simulations are often confronted with rugged energy surfaces and high energy barriers, leading to insufficient sampling and, in turn, poor convergence of the free energy results. In this work, we address this problem by employing enhanced sampling methods. We explore the possibility of using self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLD) to speed up the exploration process in free energy simulations. To obtain improved free energy differences from such simulations, it is necessary to account for the effects of the bias due to the guiding forces. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished for the Bennett's acceptance ratio (BAR) and the enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) methods. While BAR is considered among the most efficient methods available for free energy calculations, the EDS method developed by Christ and van Gunsteren is a promising development that reduces the computational costs of free energy calculations by simulating a single reference state. To evaluate the accuracy of both approaches in connection with enhanced sampling, EDS was implemented in CHARMM. For testing, we employ benchmark systems with analytical reference results and the mutation of alanine to serine. We find that SGLD with reweighting can provide accurate results for BAR and EDS where conventional molecular dynamics simulations fail. In addition, we compare the performance of EDS with other free energy methods. We briefly discuss the implications of our results and provide practical guidelines for conducting free energy simulations with SGLD.

  6. Effectiveness of the combined evaluation of KLK3 genetics and free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Prayer-Galetti, Tommaso; Basso, Daniela; Padoan, Andrea; Rossi, Elisa; Secco, Silvia; Pelloso, Michela; Fogar, Paola; Navaglia, Filippo; Moz, Stefania; Zattoni, Filiberto; Plebani, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Of serum prostate specific antigen variability 40% depends on inherited factors. We ascertained whether the knowledge of KLK3 genetics would enhance prostate specific antigen diagnostic performance in patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. We studied 1,058 men who consecutively underwent prostate biopsy for clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. At histology prostate cancer was present in 401 cases and absent in 657. Serum total prostate specific antigen and the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio were determined. Four polymorphisms of the KLK3 gene (rs2569733, rs2739448, rs925013 and rs2735839) and 1 polymorphism of the SRD5A2 gene (rs523349) were studied. The influence of genetics on prostate specific antigen variability was evaluated by multivariate linear regression analysis. The performance of total prostate specific antigen and the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio alone or combined with a genetically based patient classification were defined by ROC curve analyses. For prostate cancer diagnosis the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio index alone (cutoff 11%) was superior to total prostate specific antigen (cutoff 4 ng/ml) and to free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio reflex testing (positive predictive value 61%, 43% and 54%, respectively). Prostate specific antigen correlated with KLK3 genetics (rs2735839 polymorphism p = 0.001, and rs2569733, rs2739448 and rs925013 haplotype combination p = 0.003). In patients with different KLK3 genetics 2 optimal free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio cutoffs (11% and 14.5%) were found. For free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio values between 11% and 14.5% the prostate cancer probability ranged from 30.0% to 47.4% according to patient genetics. The free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio is superior to total prostate specific antigen for prostate cancer diagnosis, independent of total prostate specific antigen results. Free-to-total prostate

  7. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of C/O Mole Ratio on the Performance of Rotary Hearth Furnace Using a Combined Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wen, Zhi; Lou, Guofeng; Li, Zhi; Yong, Haiquan; Feng, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    In a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) the direct reduction of composite pellets and processes of heat and mass transfer as well as combustion in the chamber of RHF influence each other. These mutual interactions should be considered when an accurate model of RHF is established. This paper provides a combined model that incorporates two sub-models to investigate the effects of C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets on the reduction kinetics and heat and mass transfer as well as combustion processes in the chamber of a pilot-scale RHF. One of the sub-models is established to describe the direct reduction process of composite pellets on the hearth of RHF. Heat and mass transfer within the pellet, chemical reactions, and radiative heat transfer from furnace walls and combustion gas to the surface of the pellet are considered in the model. The other sub-model is used to simulate gas flow and combustion process in the chamber of RHF by using commercial CFD software, FLUENT. The two sub-models were linked through boundary conditions and heat, mass sources. Cases for pellets with different C/O mole ratio were calculated by the combined model. The calculation results showed that the degree of metallization, the total amounts of carbon monoxide escaping from the pellet, and heat absorbed by chemical reactions within the pellet as well as CO and CO2 concentrations in the furnace increase with the increase of C/O mole ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, when calculation conditions are the same except for C/O molar ratio. Carbon content in the pellet has little influence on temperature distribution in the furnace under the same calculation conditions except for C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets.

  8. Maximizing the spectral and energy efficiency of ARQ with a fixed outage probability

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2015-10-05

    This paper studies the spectral and energy efficiency of automatic repeat request (ARQ) in Nakagami-m block-fading channels. The source encodes each packet into L similar sequences and transmits them to the destination in the L subsequent time slots. The destination combines the L sequences using maximal ratio combining and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure, the destination feeds back a negative acknowledgment and then the source sends the same L sequences to the destination. This process continues until successful decoding occurs at the destination with no limit on the number of retransmissions. We consider two optimization problems. In the first problem, we maximize the spectral efficiency of the system with respect to the rate for a fixed power. In the second problem, we maximize the energy efficiency with respect to the transmitted power for a fixed rate. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Simultaneous determination of the brand new two-drug combination for the treatment of hepatitis C: Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir using smart spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Maya S.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, various sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods were first introduced for the simultaneous determination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in their binary mixture without preliminary separation. Ledipasvir was determined simply by zero-order spectrophotometric method at its λmax = 333.0 nm in a linear range of 2.5-30.0 μg/ml without any interference of sofosbuvir even in low or high concentrations and with mean percentage recovery of 100.05 ± 0.632. Sofosbuvir can be quantitatively estimated by one of the following smart spectrophotometric methods based on ratio spectra developed for the resolution of the overlapped spectra of their binary mixture; ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD) by computing the difference between the amplitudes of sofosbuvir ratio spectra at 228 nm and 270 nm, first derivative (DD1) of ratio spectra by measuring the sum of amplitude of trough and peak at 265 nm and 277 nm, respectively, ratio subtraction (RS) spectrophotometric method in which sofosbuvir can be successfully determined at its λmax = 261.0 nm and mean centering (MC) of ratio spectra by measuring the mean centering values at 270 nm. All of the above mentioned spectrophotometric methods can estimate sofosbuvir in a linear range of 7.5-90.0 μg/ml with mean percentage recoveries of 100.57 ± 0.810, 99.92 ± 0.759, 99.51 ± 0.475 and 100.75 ± 0.672, respectively. These methods were successfully applied to the analysis of their combined dosage form and bulk powder. The adopted methods were also validated as per ICH guidelines and statistically compared to an in-house HPLC method.

  10. The Combined therapy myo-inositol plus D-Chiro-inositol, in a physiological ratio, reduces the cardiovascular risk by improving the lipid profile in PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, M; Nordio, M; Pajalich, R

    2013-02-01

    Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) present several factors that increase the cardiovascular risk, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been shown to improve insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and to induce ovulation in PCOS women. However, their effects on dyslipidemia are less clear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the combined therapy myo-inositol plus D-chiro-inositol (in a in a physiological ratio of 40:1) improve the metabolic profile, therefore, reducing cardiovascular risk in PCOS patients. Twenty obese PCOS patients [BMI 33.7 ± 6 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] were recruited. The lipid profile was assessed by measuring total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides before and after 6 months treatment with the combined therapy. Secondary end points included changes in BMI, waist-hip ratio, percentage of body fat, HOMA-IR and blood pressure. The combined therapy myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol improved LDL levels (3.50 ± 0.8 mmol/L versus, 3 ± 1.2 mmol/L p PCOS women, therefore, reducing the cardiovascular risk.

  11. Evaluation of Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of nitride films by combining grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and laser curvature techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Chen, J.-H.; Lu, F.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of Poisson's ratio and the Young's modulus of thin films have been problematic. In this work, evaluation of both Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus is conducted using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction combined with measurement of the induced stress. Poisson's ratio was evaluated from analysis of the X-ray diffraction data to obtain a strain-cos 2 α.sin 2 ψ plot. Moreover, the Young's modulus of the films could be also calculated from that plot as well as from the residual stress, which could be determined by a measurement of stress induced substrate curvature. The ternary nitride TiAlN is used as a model system for the evaluation. The films, prepared by cathodic arc plasma deposition, exhibited a strong (111) preferred orientation and a composition corresponding to Ti 0.6 Al 0.4 N. The measured Poisson's ratio and the Young's modulus of the films were 0.143 ± 0.003 and 310 ± 20 GPa, respectively, which are comparable to those reported in the literature

  12. The Arginine/ADMA Ratio Is Related to the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits When Giving a Combined Therapy with Atorvastatine and Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia J. H. Brinkmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with arginine in combination with atorvastatin is more efficient in reducing the size of an atherosclerotic plaque than treatment with a statin or arginine alone in homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits. We evaluated the mechanism behind this feature by exploring the role of the arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ratio, which is the substrate and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and thereby nitric oxide (NO, respectively. Methods: Rabbits were fed either an arginine diet (group A, n = 9, standard rabbit chow plus atorvastatin (group S, n = 8, standard rabbit chow plus an arginine diet with atorvastatin (group SA, n = 8 or standard rabbit chow (group C, n = 9 as control. Blood was sampled and the aorta was harvested for topographic and histological analysis. Plasma levels of arginine, ADMA, cholesterol and nitric oxide were determined and the arginine/ADMA ratio was calculated. Results: The decrease in ADMA levels over time was significantly correlated to fewer aortic lesions in the distal aorta and total aorta. The arginine/ADMA ratio was correlated to cholesterol levels and decrease in cholesterol levels over time in the SA group. A lower arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly correlated to lower NO levels in the S and C group. Discussion: A balance between arginine and ADMA is an important indicator in the prevention of the development of atherosclerotic plaques.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model and its application in analysis of price, supply–demand ratio and selling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dingju

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model proposed in this paper fill the gap in nonlinear dynamics model in terms of qualitative and quantitative combined methods, allowing the qualitative model and quantitative model to perfectly combine and overcome their weaknesses by learning from each other. These two types of models use their strengths to make up for the other’s deficiencies. The qualitative and quantitative combined models can surmount the weakness that the qualitative model cannot be applied and verified in a quantitative manner, and the high costs and long time of multiple construction as well as verification of the quantitative model. The combined model is more practical and efficient, which is of great significance for nonlinear dynamics. The qualitative and quantitative combined modeling and model analytical method raised in this paper is not only applied to nonlinear dynamics, but can be adopted and drawn on in the modeling and model analysis of other fields. Additionally, the analytical method of qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model proposed in this paper can satisfactorily resolve the problems with the price system’s existing nonlinear dynamics model analytical method. The three-dimensional dynamics model of price, supply–demand ratio and selling rate established in this paper make estimates about the best commodity prices using the model results, thereby providing a theoretical basis for the government’s macro-control of price. Meanwhile, this model also offer theoretical guidance to how to enhance people’s purchasing power and consumption levels through price regulation and hence to improve people’s living standards.

  14. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  15. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  16. Combined Stable Carbon Isotope and C/N Ratios as Indicators of Source and Fate of Organic Matter in the Bang Pa kong River Estuary, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonphakdee, Thanomsak; Kasai, Akihide; Fujiwara, Tateki; Sawangwong, Pichan; Cheevaporn, Voravit

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios of particulate organic matter (POM) in suspended solids and surficial sediment were used to define the spatial and temporal variability in an anthropogenic tropical river estuary, the Bang Pa kong River Estuary. Samples were taken along salinity gradients during the four different river discharges in the beginning, high river discharge and at the end of the wet season, and low river discharge during the dry season. The values of [C/N]a ratio and d13C in the river estuary revealed significant differences from those of the offshore station. Conservative behaviors of [C/N]a and d13C in the estuary during the wet season indicated major contribution of terrigenous C3 plants derived OM. By contrast, during the dry season, marine input mainly dominated OM contribution with an evidence of anthropogenic input to the estuary. These compositions of the bulk sedimentary OM were dominated by paddy rice soils and marine derived OM during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These results show that the combined stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios can be used to identify the source and fate of OM even in a river estuary. This tool will be useful to achieve sustainable management in coastal zone

  17. The benefit of combining a deep neural network architecture with ideal ratio mask estimation in computational speech segregation to improve speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Thomas; May, Tobias; Kressner, Abigail A; Dau, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Computational speech segregation attempts to automatically separate speech from noise. This is challenging in conditions with interfering talkers and low signal-to-noise ratios. Recent approaches have adopted deep neural networks and successfully demonstrated speech intelligibility improvements. A selection of components may be responsible for the success with these state-of-the-art approaches: the system architecture, a time frame concatenation technique and the learning objective. The aim of this study was to explore the roles and the relative contributions of these components by measuring speech intelligibility in normal-hearing listeners. A substantial improvement of 25.4 percentage points in speech intelligibility scores was found going from a subband-based architecture, in which a Gaussian Mixture Model-based classifier predicts the distributions of speech and noise for each frequency channel, to a state-of-the-art deep neural network-based architecture. Another improvement of 13.9 percentage points was obtained by changing the learning objective from the ideal binary mask, in which individual time-frequency units are labeled as either speech- or noise-dominated, to the ideal ratio mask, where the units are assigned a continuous value between zero and one. Therefore, both components play significant roles and by combining them, speech intelligibility improvements were obtained in a six-talker condition at a low signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Image guided adaptive brachytherapy with combined intracavitary and interstitial technique improves the therapeutic ratio in locally advanced cervical cancer: Analysis from the retroEMBRACE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LU, Fokdal; Sturdza, Alina; Mazeron, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using intracavitary applicators (IC) has led to a significant improvement of local control in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Further improvement has been obtained with combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) applicat...... IC/IS brachytherapy improves the therapeutic ratio in LACC by enabling a tumour specific dose escalation resulting in significantly higher local control in large tumours without adding treatment related late morbidity.......Background and purpose Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using intracavitary applicators (IC) has led to a significant improvement of local control in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Further improvement has been obtained with combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC....../IS) applicators. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the impact on local control and late morbidity of application of combined IS/IC brachytherapy in a large multicentre population. Material/methods 610 patients with LACC from the retroEMBRACE study were included. Patients were divided into an IC group (N...

  19. Combined effects of cooled EGR and a higher geometric compression ratio on thermal efficiency improvement of a downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Jianye; Xu, Min; Li, Tie; Gao, Yi; Wang, Jiasheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments for the effects of cooled EGR and two compression ratios (CR) on fuel efficiency were conducted. • The mechanism for the observed fuel efficiency behaviors by cooled EGR and high CR was clarified. • Cooled EGR offers more fuel efficiency improvement than elevating CR from 9.3 to 10.9. • Combining 18–25% cooled EGR with 10.9 CR lead to 2.1–3.5% brake thermal efficiency improvements. - Abstract: The downsized boosted spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to improve vehicle fuel economy. However, the boosted engine is typically designed at a lower geometric compression ratio (CR) due to the increased knock tendency in comparison to naturally aspirated engines, limiting the potential of improving fuel economy. On the other hand, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has drawn attention due to the potential to suppress knock and improve fuel economy. Combing the effects of boosting, increased CR and cooled EGR to further improve fuel economy within acceptable knock tolerance has been investigated using a 2.0 L downsized boosted SIDI engine over a wide range of engine operating conditions from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm at low to high loads. To clarify the mechanism of this complicated effects, the first law of thermodynamics analysis was conducted with the inputs from GT-Power® engine simulation. Experiment results indicate that cooled EGR provides more brake thermal efficiency improvement than increasing geometric CR from 9.3 to 10.9. The benefit of brake thermal efficiency from the higher CR is limited to low load conditions. The attributes for improving brake thermal efficiency by cooled EGR include reduced heat transfer loss, reduced pumping work and increased ratio of specific heats for all the engine operating conditions, as well as higher degree of constant volume heat release only for the knock-limited high load conditions. The combined effects of 18–25% cooled EGR

  20. Use of combined alpha-spectrometry and fission track analysis for the determination of 240Pu/239Pu ratios in human tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, S.F.; Filby, R.H.; Glover, S.E.; Stuit, D.B.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Plutonium and other actinides were determined in human autopsy tissues of occupationally exposed workers who were registrants of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In this study, Pu was purified and isolated from Am, U and Th, after drying and wet-ashing of the tissues, and the addition of 238 Pu as a radiotracer. After electrodeposition onto vanadium planchets, the 239+240 Pu activity was determined by alpha-spectrometry. A fission track method was developed to determine 239 Pu in the presence of 238 Pu and 240 Pu, using Lexan TM polycarbonate detectors. Combining the two techniques allowed the determination of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu activity and atom ratios. Data from selected USTUR cases are presented. (author)

  1. Isotope ratio measurements of pg-size plutonium samples using TIMS in combination with the 'Multiple Ion Counting' and filament carburization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakopic, Rozle; Richter, Stephan; Kuehn, Heinz; Aregbe, Yetunde [European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, IRMM Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    A new sample preparation procedure for isotopic measurements using the Triton TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer) was developed which employed the technique of carburization of rhenium filaments. Carburized filaments were prepared in a special vacuum chamber in which the filaments were heated and exposed to benzene vapor. Ionization efficiency was improved by an order of magnitude. Additionally, a new 'multi-dynamic' measurement technique was developed for Pu isotope ratio measurements using the 'multiple ion counting' (MIC) system. This technique was further combined with the filament carburization technique and applied to the NBL-137 isotopic standard and samples of the NUSIMEP 5 inter-laboratory comparison campaign. The results clearly show an improved precision and accuracy for the 'multi-dynamic' measurement procedure, compared to measurements carried out either in peak-jumping or in static mode using the MIC system with non-carburized filaments. (authors)

  2. Efficacy and safety of fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide (IDegLira) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Louise; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2017-01-01

    to tackle the progressive nature of T2D. Areas covered: The efficacy and safety profile of IDegLira - a once-daily, fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), for the treatment of T2D - has been extensively evaluated. IDegLira's phase 3......INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease with increasing prevalence in most countries. The majority of patients with T2D have inadequate glycaemic control, which increases the risk of diabetic complications later in life. New therapies with improved safety profiles are required...... addition and titration of the individual agents in the management of T2D....

  3. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  4. Pretreatment combination of platelet counts and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio predicts survival of nasopharyngeal cancer patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin YH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Hsuan Lin,1 Kuo-Ping Chang,2 Yaoh-Shiang Lin,2,3 Ting-Shou Chang2–4 1Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 4Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Increased cancer-related inflammation has been associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. The combination of platelet count and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR has related outcomes in several cancers, except for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. This study evaluated the prognostic value of COP-NLR in predicting outcome in NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT.Materials and methods: We analyzed the data collected from 232 NPC patients. Pretreatment total platelet counts, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and COP-NLR score were evaluated as potential predictors. Optimal cutoff values for NLR and platelets were determined using receiver operating curve. Patients with both elevated NLR (>3 and platelet counts (>300×109/L were assigned a COP-NLR score of 2; those with one elevated or no elevated value were assigned a COP-NLR a score of 1 or 0. Cox proportional hazards model was used to test the association of these factors and relevant 3-year survivals.Results: Patients (COP-NLR scores 1 and 2=85; score 0=147 were followed up for 55.19 months. Univariate analysis showed no association between pretreatment NLR >2.23 and platelet counts >290.5×109/L and worse outcomes. Multivariate analysis revealed that those with COP-NLR scores of 0 had better 3-year disease-specific survival (P=0.02, overall survival (P=0.024, locoregional relapse-free survival (P=0.004, and distant

  5. Influences of combined therapies with traditional Chinese medicine on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ping SHEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the influences of traditional Chinese medicinal combined therapies on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram (AEMG ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods  One hundred and twenty outpatients with mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM group and a brace group. TCM group patients underwent i Navigation of the spinal balance (twice a day, 40min/ time, until to skeletal maturity; ii Balance manipulation (twice a week, 25min/time, lasted 12 months; iii Small needle-knife therapy (once a week, 10 times. The brace group patients were treated with a Milwaukee brace. The Cobb angle was measured after 12 and 24 months of treatment, pulmonary function was determined after 12 months of treatment, and AEMG ratio of the surface electromyogram was measured 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, and intergroup comparison was performed. Results  The Cobb angle significantly decreased in both groups 12 months after treatment (P0.05 in the TCM group and brace group, respectively, 12 months after treatment and 62.5% and 34.7% (P<0.05, respectively, 24 months aftertreatment. Pulmonary function was significantly improved 12 months after treatment in TCM group (P<0.05 but significantly decreased in brace group (P<0.05. The AEMG ratio was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and tended to remain at 1 after stopping treatment in TCM group, showed that the muscle imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, but was adverse in brace group (P<0.05, showed that the muscle imbalance aggravated. No side effect of the therapeutic method was found. Conclusions  The spinal balance therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine theory has excellent therapeutic efficacy and safety, and can significantly ameliorate the imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, improve lung function index, and have better compliance. The AEMG ratio is a

  6. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  7. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  8. Combination of sugar analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect the use of artificial sugars in royal jelly production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytrychowski, Marine; Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    The effects of feeding bees artificial sugars and/or proteins on the sugar compositions and (13)C isotopic measurements of royal jellies (RJs) were evaluated. The sugars fed to the bees were two C4 sugars (cane sugar and maize hydrolysate), two C3 sugars (sugar beet, cereal starch hydrolysate), and honey. The proteins fed to them were pollen, soybean, and yeast powder proteins. To evaluate the influence of the sugar and/or protein feeding over time, samples were collected during six consecutive harvests. (13)C isotopic ratio measurements of natural RJs gave values of around -25 ‰, which were also seen for RJs obtained when the bees were fed honey or C3 sugars. However, the RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane sugar or corn hydrolysate (regardless of whether they were also fed proteins) gave values of up to -17 ‰. Sugar content analysis revealed that the composition of maltose, maltotriose, sucrose, and erlose varied significantly over time in accordance with the composition of the syrup fed to the bees. When corn and cereal starch hydrolysates were fed to the bees, the maltose and maltotriose contents of the RJs increased up to 5.0 and 1.3 %, respectively, compared to the levels seen in authentic samples (i.e., samples obtained when the bees were fed natural food: honey and pollen) that were inferior to 0.2% and not detected, respectively. The sucrose and erlose contents of natural RJs were around 0.2 %, whereas those in RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane or beet sugar were as much as 4.0 and 1.3 %, respectively. The combination of sugar analysis and (13)C isotopic ratio measurements represents a very efficient analytical methodology for detecting (from early harvests onward) the use of C4 and C3 artificial sugars in the production of RJ.

  9. Spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with frequency ratio, generalized additive model, and support vector machine techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Panahi, Mahdi; Kornejady, Aiding; Wang, Jiale; Xie, Xiaoshen; Cao, Shubo

    2017-11-01

    The spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility is an important prerequisite for the analysis of landslide hazards and risks in any area. This research uses three data mining techniques, such as an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with frequency ratio (ANFIS-FR), a generalized additive model (GAM), and a support vector machine (SVM), for landslide susceptibility mapping in Hanyuan County, China. In the first step, in accordance with a review of the previous literature, twelve conditioning factors, including slope aspect, altitude, slope angle, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, profile curvature, distance to rivers, distance to faults, distance to roads, land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and lithology, were selected. In the second step, a collinearity test and correlation analysis between the conditioning factors and landslides were applied. In the third step, we used three advanced methods, namely, ANFIS-FR, GAM, and SVM, for landslide susceptibility modeling. Subsequently, the results of their accuracy were validated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. The results showed that all three models have good prediction capabilities, while the SVM model has the highest prediction rate of 0.875, followed by the ANFIS-FR and GAM models with prediction rates of 0.851 and 0.846, respectively. Thus, the landslide susceptibility maps produced in the study area can be applied for management of hazards and risks in landslide-prone Hanyuan County.

  10. Effect of molecular weight and ratio of poly ethylene glycols' derivatives in combination with trehalose on stability of freeze-dried IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Zadeh, Amir Hossein; Rouholamini Najafabadi, Abdolhosein; Vatanara, Alireza; Faghihi, Homa; Gilani, Kambiz

    2017-12-01

    The influence of poly ethylene glycol (PEG) at different molecular weights (MWs) and ratios was studied on the stability of freeze-dried immune globulin G (IgG). PEGs (600-4000 Dalton) at concentrations of 0.5 and 5% W/V were applied in the presence of 40 and 60% W/W of trehalose to prepare freeze-dried IgG formulations. Size-exclusion chromatography, infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimeter, and gel electrophoresis were performed to characterize lyophilized samples. Pure IgG demonstrated the highest aggregation of 5.77 ± 0.10% after process and 12.66 ± 0.50% as well as 44.69 ± 0.50% upon 1 and 2 months of storage at 45 °C, respectively. 5% W/V of PEGs 4000 in combination with 40% W/W trehalose, significantly suppressed aggregation, 0.05 ± 0.01%, with minimum aggregation rate constant of 0.32 (1/month). The integrity of IgG molecules and secondary conformation were properly preserved in all formulations comparing native IgG. It could be concluded that appropriate concentration and MW of PEGs, prominently augmented stabilizing effect of trehalose on freeze-dried antibody through inserting additional supportive mechanisms of actions.

  11. The combined toroidicity, ellipticity and triangularity effects on the energy deposition of Alfven modes in pre-heated, low aspect ratio tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperman, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel); Bruma, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel) and College of Judea and Samaria, 44837 Ariel (Israel)]. E-mail: edycb@post.tau.ac.il; Komoshvili, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel); College of Judea and Samaria, 44837 Ariel (Israel)

    2007-03-05

    The combined plasma non-uniformity effects on the energy deposition of Alfven waves launched by an external antenna in pre-heated spherical tokamaks are investigated. The following relevant physical processes are here possible: (a) the emergence of gaps in the shear Alfven continuum spectrum and the generation of discrete global Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the gaps; (b) multi-wave interactions, interactions of gaps of the same kind (e.g., toroidicity induced) and of different kinds (toroidicity, ellipticity and triangularity induced) as well as of secondary order gaps arising when a pair of modes is coupled to one or more modes through other coupling parameters; (c) basic wave-plasma interactions as propagation, reflection, mode-conversion, tunneling and deposition. Thus, we solved numerically the full 2D wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, using a quite general two-fluid resistive tensor-operator, without any geometrical limitations. The results obtained indicate the existence of antenna-launched wave characteristics for which the power is most efficiently coupled in outer regions of plasmas, which is of special interest for low aspect ratio tokamaks, e.g., for the generation of non-inductive current drive as well as for turbulence suppression and transport barriers formation.

  12. Combination of fat saturation and variable bandwidth imaging to increase signal-to-noise ratio and decrease motion artifacts for body MR imaging at high field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MR imaging examination is a critical component of the quality of the image. Standard methods to increase SNR include signal averaging with multiple excitations, at the expense of imaging time (which on T2-weighted images could be quite significant), or increasing pixel volume by manipulation of field of view, matrix size, and/or section thickness, all at the expense of resolution. Another available method to increase SNR is to reduce the bandwidth of the receiver, which increases SNR by the square root of the amount of the reduction. The penalty imposed on high-field-strength MR examinations of the body is an unacceptable increase in chemical shift artifact. However, presaturating the fat resonance eliminates the chemical shift artifact. Thus, a combination of imaging techniques, fat suppression, and decreased bandwidth imaging can produce images free of chemical shift artifact with increased SNR and no penalty in resolution or imaging time. Early studies also show a reduction in motion artifact when fat saturation is used. This paper reports MR imaging performed with a 1.5-T Signa imager. With this technique, T2-weighted images (2,500/20/80 [repetition time msec/echo time msec/inversion time msec]) illustrating the increase in SNR and T1-weighted images (600/20) demonstrating a decrease in motion artifact are shown

  13. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  14. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  15. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  16. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  17. Low Incidence of Gastrointestinal Adverse Events Over Time with a Fixed-Ratio Combination of Insulin Glargine and Lixisenatide vs Lixisenatide Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Jennifer M; Roberts, Michelle; Dex, Terry; Chao, Jason; John White, Pa-C; LaSalle, James

    2018-06-19

    This post hoc analysis of gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) from the phase 3 LixiLan-L (NCT02058160) and LixiLan-O (NCT02058147) trials aimed to determine the frequency and timing of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea for iGlarLixi, a titratable, fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (iGlar) and lixisenatide, vs iGlar alone or iGlar and lixisenatide alone, in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) or basal insulin ± OADs. In iGlarLixi-treated patients, the rate of GI AEs during initial weeks of treatment was lower vs patients treated with lixisenatide alone (9.6% and 11.7% of iGlarLixi-treated patients in LixiLan-L and LixiLan-O, respectively, vs 27.5% of lixisenatide-treated patients in LixiLan-O). Beyond Day 60, these rates were generally low and similar to those of lixisenatide. These lower rates are likely due to the gradual titration of lixisenatide in iGlarLixi. Median durations of intermittent GI AEs in the iGlarLixi arms were 6.0, 2.0 and 2.5 days (LixiLan-L), and 5.0, 1.0 and 3.5 days (LixiLan-O), respectively. iGlarLixi-associated GI AEs were transient, mostly mild or moderate in severity, and occurred mainly during initial titration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  19. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  20. A unified MGF-based capacity analysis of diversity combiners over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Unified exact ergodic capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity combiners including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of L-branch

  1. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  2. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including 238Pu/239Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as 238 U with 238 Pu and 241 Am with 241 Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the 238 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry approach for the rapid analysis and characterization of multiple constituents of the fruit of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Yingzhi; Meng, Xiangcai; Yan, Guangli; Liu, Liang; Wang, Xijun

    2017-05-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to improve the function of skeleton, heart, spleen and kidney. This fruit is rich in nutrients, but the chemical constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus fruit are still unclear. A rapid method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the compound analysis of Acanthopanax senticosus fruit in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the Acanthopanax senticosus fruit could significantly increase the weight of immune organs, promote the proliferation of lymphatic T cells, regulate the lymphatic B cell function, and decrease the ability of natural killer cells. A total of 104 compounds of Acanthopanax senticosus fruit including lignans, flavones, triterpenoidsaponins, phenolic acids, and other constituents were identified. Among them, seven chemical compounds were reported for the first time in the Acanthopanax senticosus fruit. Compared with the serum sample of blank and dosed samples, 24 prototype compositions were characterized. The results of our experiment could be helpful to understand the complex compounds of Acanthopanax senticosus fruit in vitro and in vivo for further pharmacological activity studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  5. A fractional optimal control problem for maximizing advertising efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Bykadorov; Andrea Ellero; Stefania Funari; Elena Moretti

    2007-01-01

    We propose an optimal control problem to model the dynamics of the communication activity of a firm with the aim of maximizing its efficiency. We assume that the advertising effort undertaken by the firm contributes to increase the firm's goodwill and that the goodwill affects the firm's sales. The aim is to find the advertising policies in order to maximize the firm's efficiency index which is computed as the ratio between "outputs" and "inputs" properly weighted; the outputs are represented...

  6. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  7. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  8. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  9. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  10. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  11. Energy efficiency and SINR maximization beamformers for cognitive radio utilizing sensing information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we consider a cognitive radio multi-input multi-output environment in which we adapt our beamformer to maximize both energy efficiency and signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) metrics. Our design considers an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with the sensing information to achieve an optimal energy efficient system. The proposed schemes maximize the energy efficiency and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality of service constraints. Since the optimization of energy efficiency problem is not a convex problem, we transform it into a standard semi-definite programming (SDP) form to guarantee a global optimal solution. Analytical solution is provided for one scheme, while the other scheme is left in a standard SDP form. Selected numerical results are used to quantify the impact of the sensing information on the proposed schemes compared to the benchmark ones.

  12. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  13. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  14. The benefit of combining a deep neural network architecture with ideal ratio mask estimation in computational speech segregation to improve speech intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Thomas; May, Tobias; Kressner, Abigail Anne

    2018-01-01

    Computational speech segregation attempts to automatically separate speech from noise. This is challenging in conditions with interfering talkers and low signal-to-noise ratios. Recent approaches have adopted deep neural networks and successfully demonstrated speech intelligibility improvements....... A selection of components may be responsible for the success with these state-of-the-art approaches: the system architecture, a time frame concatenation technique and the learning objective. The aim of this study was to explore the roles and the relative contributions of these components by measuring speech......, to a state-of-the-art deep neural network-based architecture. Another improvement of 13.9 percentage points was obtained by changing the learning objective from the ideal binary mask, in which individual time-frequency units are labeled as either speech- or noise-dominated, to the ideal ratio mask, where...

  15. Simultaneous determination of some antiprotozoal drugs in different combined dosage forms by mean centering of ratio spectra and multivariate calibration with model updating methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaleem Eglal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metronidazole (MET and Diloxanide Furoate (DF, act as antiprotozoal drugs, in their ternary mixtures with Mebeverine HCl (MEH, an effective antispasmodic drug. This work concerns with the development and validation of two simple, specific and cost effective methods mainly for simultaneous determination of the proposed ternary mixture. In addition, the developed multivariate calibration model has been updated to determine Metronidazole benzoate (METB in its binary mixture with DF in Dimetrol® suspension. Results Method (I is the mean centering of ratio spectra spectrophotometric method (MCR that depends on using the mean centered ratio spectra in two successive steps that eliminates the derivative steps and therefore the signal to noise ratio is enhanced. The developed MCR method has been successfully applied for determination of MET, DF and MEH in different laboratory prepared mixtures and in tablets. Method (II is the partial least square (PLS multivariate calibration method that has been optimized for determination of MET, DF and MEH in Dimetrol ® tablets and by updating the developed model, it has been successfully used for prediction of binary mixtures of DF and Metronidazole Benzoate ester (METB in Dimetrol ® suspension with good accuracy and precision without reconstruction of the calibration set. Conclusion The developed methods have been validated; accuracy, precision and specificity were found to be within the acceptable limits. Moreover results obtained by the suggested methods showed no significant difference when compared with those obtained by reported methods. Graphical Abstract

  16. Improvement in R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio and reset current via combining compliance current with multilayer structure in tantalum oxide-based RRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaorong; Feng, Jie [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Department of Micro/Nano Electronics, Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-15

    Improvements in the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio and reset current are required prior to the practical application of RRAM. To achieve this improvement, tantalum oxide-based RRAM devices with multilayer structure (bi-layer and tri-layer) were fabricated and various compliance currents were adopted. The reset current of 40 μA was observed; the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio increased to more than 20 in the tri-layer structure device. Resistance changes in two types of devices under voltage pulses with different pulse width were also conducted. The tri-layer device exhibited lower reset voltage and higher R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio than the bi-layer device under voltage pulses. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via plasma oxidation, and there was an oxygen gradient in the multilayer devices. The results demonstrated that the tri-layer structure with oxygen gradient was an effective method for achieving better device performance. Additionally, it is implied that reasonable control of the proportion of TaO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and compliance current can improve device performance. (orig.)

  17. Combination of the ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios from two test elements for the diagnostic of plasma temperature and electron number density in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.

  18. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  19. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  20. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  1. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  2. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  3. Combination of e+/e- ratio from AMS-02 and gamma ray line from Fermi-LAT with implication for Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan; Luo, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    The precise AMS-02 data provide definite information for the e+/e- ratio in 100 - 350 GeV region. Assuming that the recent gamma ray line observed by Fermi-LAT experiment is product of dark matter in space and taken as input. We make a global fit for the AMS-02 e+/e- spectrum with both dark matter and pulsar contribution. For this spectrum over 130 GeV, pulsar is the dominant contribution. We also investigate the constrains on hadron production from dark matter annihilation.

  4. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  5. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqin Gao

    Full Text Available The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w, forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml, digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min, digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of

  6. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengqin; Yang, Fuyu; Zhou, He; Sun, Qizhong; Zhang, Yunwei; Brown, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w), forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml), digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min), digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C) for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of appropriate

  7. Influences of seasons, N/P ratios and chemical compounds on phosphorus removal performance in algal pond combined with constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimiao, Zhao; Xinshan, Song; Yanping, Xiao; Yufeng, Zhao; Zhijie, Gong; Fanda, Lin; Yi, Ding; Wei, Wang; Tianling, Qin

    2016-12-15

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) are main contaminants and P removal was restrained by several factors: season, N/P, and chemical compounds (CCs) in water ecosystems. In this paper, two algal ponds combined with constructed wetlands were built to increase the removal performance. Different hydraulic retention time (HRT), different N/P and chemical compounds were chosen to investigate the influences of the above factors on the contaminant removal performance. The optimum phosphorus removal rate was 69.74% under the nitrogen removal of 92.85% in influent containing PO 4 3- after 3-day HRT in algal pond combined with constructed wetlands. The investigation results indicated that these factors improved the nutrient removal efficiencies. Seasonal influence on the removal performance can be avoided by choosing the optimal HRT length of 3days. The higher N/P at 60 can improve the phosphorus removal and the lower N/P at 15 showed the stronger synergistic effect between phosphorus and nitrogen removals. Compared with PO 3 - and P 2 O 7 4- in influent, PO 4 3- affected phosphorus removal more significantly. The better linear fitting between organic phosphorus removal and nitrogen removal in influent contained P 2 O 7 4- was found. Algae can absorb nutrients for growth, and oxygen release, microbial activity intensification and microbial carbon replenishment induced by algae will improve the performance. The study suggested that the control of HRTs, N/Ps, CCs, and algae might be an effective way to improve wastewater treatment performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Crystalline Valsartan/Sacubitril (LCZ696) Compared With Placebo and Combinations of Free Valsartan and Sacubitril in Patients With Systolic Hypertension: The RATIO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Joseph L; Zappe, Dion H; Jia, Yan; Hafeez, Kudsia; Zhang, Jack

    2017-06-01

    We compared the systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering efficacy and safety of crystalline valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor blocker-neprilysin inhibitor) 400 mg daily against valsartan (320 mg once daily) alone or coadministered with placebo or increasing doses of free sacubitril (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg once daily) to identify the optimal antihypertensive combination dose. This multicenter, double-blinded, 7-arm parallel-group study recruited patients with mild-to-moderate systolic hypertension (office SBP 150-179 mm Hg). Primary-dependent variable was change in office SBP from baseline to week 8. At entry (n = 907), mean age was 61.5 years, sitting office BP 160/90.2 mm Hg, and mean 24-hour ambulatory BP 142/82.1 mm Hg; 852 participants completed the study. At week 8, there were greater reductions in sitting office SBP and 24-hour ambulatory SBP with LCZ696 400 mg than with valsartan 320 mg (-5.7 and -3.4 mm Hg, respectively, P sacubitril 200 mg. Effects were similar in those older and younger than 65 years, and active therapies had adverse event rates similar to placebo. We conclude that crystalline valsartan/sacubitril 400 mg daily (1) is superior to valsartan 320 mg daily for lowering SBP, (2) has similar efficacy to the combination of free valsartan 320 mg plus free sacubitril 200 mg, (3) represents the optimal dosage for systolic hypertension in patients of any age, and (4) is safe and well tolerated.

  9. Combined peak-to-average power ratio reduction and physical layer security enhancement in optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing visible-light communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Shoufa

    2016-07-01

    A physical encryption scheme for discrete Hartley transform (DHT) precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) visible-light communication (VLC) systems using frequency domain chaos scrambling is proposed. In the scheme, the chaos scrambling, which is generated by a modified logistic mapping, is utilized to enhance the physical layer of security, and the DHT precoding is employed to reduce of OFDM signal for OFDM-based VLC. The influence of chaos scrambling on peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and bit error rate (BER) of systems is studied. The experimental simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method for DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC systems. Furthermore, the influence of the proposed encryption to the PAPR and BER of systems is evaluated. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme can protect the DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC from eavesdroppers, while keeping the good BER performance of DHT-precoded systems. The BER performance of the encrypted and DHT-precoded system is almost the same as that of the conventional DHT-precoded system without encryption.

  10. Combined effect of preferential orientation and Zr/Ti atomic ratio on electrical properties of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Wen; Li Jingfeng; Chu Xiangcheng; Gui Zhilun; Li Longtu

    2004-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 , PZT] thin films with various compositions, whose Zr/Ti ratio were varied as 40/60, 48/52, 47/53, and 60/40, were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates by sol-gel method. A seeding layer was introduced between the PZT layer and the bottom electrode to control the texture of overlaid PZT thin films. A single perovskite PZT thin film with absolute (100) texture was obtained, when lead oxide was used as the seeding crystal, whereas titanium dioxide resulted in highly [111]-oriented PZT films. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT films with different preferential orientations were evaluated systemically as a function of composition. The maximums of relative dielectric constant were obtained in the morphotropic phase boundary region for both (100)- and (111)-textured PZT films. The ferroelectric properties also greatly depend on films' texture and composition. The intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to dielectric and ferroelectric properties were discussed

  11. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  12. Combining functional weed ecology and crop stable isotope ratios to identify cultivation intensity: a comparison of cereal production regimes in Haute Provence, France and Asturias, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Amy; Hodgson, John; Nitsch, Erika; Jones, Glynis; Styring, Amy; Diffey, Charlotte; Pouncett, John; Herbig, Christoph; Charles, Michael; Ertuğ, Füsun; Tugay, Osman; Filipovic, Dragana; Fraser, Rebecca

    This investigation combines two independent methods of identifying crop growing conditions and husbandry practices-functional weed ecology and crop stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis-in order to assess their potential for inferring the intensity of past cereal production systems using archaeobotanical assemblages. Present-day organic cereal farming in Haute Provence, France features crop varieties adapted to low-nutrient soils managed through crop rotation, with little to no manuring. Weed quadrat survey of 60 crop field transects in this region revealed that floristic variation primarily reflects geographical differences. Functional ecological weed data clearly distinguish the Provence fields from those surveyed in a previous study of intensively managed spelt wheat in Asturias, north-western Spain: as expected, weed ecological data reflect higher soil fertility and disturbance in Asturias. Similarly, crop stable nitrogen isotope values distinguish between intensive manuring in Asturias and long-term cultivation with minimal manuring in Haute Provence. The new model of cereal cultivation intensity based on weed ecology and crop isotope values in Haute Provence and Asturias was tested through application to two other present-day regimes, successfully identifying a high-intensity regime in the Sighisoara region, Romania, and low-intensity production in Kastamonu, Turkey. Application of this new model to Neolithic archaeobotanical assemblages in central Europe suggests that early farming tended to be intensive, and likely incorporated manuring, but also exhibited considerable variation, providing a finer grained understanding of cultivation intensity than previously available.

  13. Dual element ((15)N/(14)N, (13)C/(12)C) isotope analysis of glyphosate and AMPA by derivatization-gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) combined with LC/IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogusu, Emmanuel O; Wolbert, J Benjamin; Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Jochmann, Maik A; Elsner, Martin

    2015-07-01

    To assess sources and degradation of the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] and its metabolite AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid), concentration measurements are often inconclusive and even (13)C/(12)C analysis alone may give limited information. To advance isotope ratio analysis of an additional element, we present compound-specific (15)N/(14)N analysis of glyphosate and AMPA by a two step derivatization in combination with gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). The N-H group was derivatized with isopropyl chloroformate (iso-PCF), and remaining acidic groups were subsequently methylated with trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSD). Iso-PCF treatment at pH 10 indicated decomposition of the derivative. At pH 10, and with an excess of iso-PCF by 10-24, greatest yields and accurate (15)N/(14)N ratios were obtained (deviation from elemental analyzer-IRMS: -0.2 ± 0.9% for glyphosate; -0.4 ± 0.7% for AMPA). Limits for accurate δ(15)N analysis of glyphosate and AMPA were 150 and 250 ng injected, respectively. A combination of δ(15)N and δ(13)C analysis by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) (1) enabled an improved distinction of commercial glyphosate products and (2) showed that glyphosate isotope values during degradation by MnO2 clearly fell outside the commercial product range. This highlights the potential of combined carbon and nitrogen isotopes analysis to trace sources and degradation of glyphosate.

  14. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  15. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  16. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  17. Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam

    2009-07-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.

  18. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  19. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Optimization, characterization, and biological activity of polysaccharides from Berberis dasystachya Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijuan; Suo, Yourui; Yang, Yongjing; Meng, Jing; Hu, Na

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides (BDPs) from Berberis dasystachya Maxim using dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) was discussed. A Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology has been employed to optimize extraction parameters of DMAE. The BDPs have been analyzed in order to identify a variety of chemical properties. Antioxidant and anti-tumor activities in vitro have been studied by DPPH, ABTS, reducing power assay, and MTT assay, respectively. The results obtained showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ratio of water to raw material (X1) 25.84 mg/L, extraction power (X2) 433.13W, extraction time (X3) 35.18 min, and the maximum yield of extraction was 6.472 ± 0.384%, which was in good agreement with the predicted value. The physicochemical tests demonstrated that the BDPs mainly consist of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and lactose in a molar ratio of 1:17.3:1.33:7:2.33:1.78; the average molecular weight of the BDPs was estimated to be from 2.95×10(5) and 1.52×10(3)Da, respectively. Furthermore, the BDPs exhibited effective antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties in vitro. Such pharmaceutical activities could prove useful for potential future applications involving the berries of B. dasystachya Maxim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  2. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning.We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61 to 80 years old were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic

  3. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  4. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  5. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  6. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  7. Clinical application of radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Kozo

    1978-01-01

    In clinical application of radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy, it is important to gain the maximal therapeutic benefit. At present we have no agents that improve the therapeutic ratio by enhancing the effect of radiation on the tumor cell selectively. Therefore, it is necessary to use combining some or all of following procedures: (1) the intraarterial infusion of the agents, (2) the selective localization by reason of the biological affinity of the agents, (3) the surgical removal of the non-sensitized tumor residue and (4) the selective sensitization of the tumor due to its shorter cell cycle. (author)

  8. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  10. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  11. Sm isotope composition and Sm/Eu ratio determination in an irradiated 153Eu sample by ion exchange chromatography-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with double spike isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.; Isnard, H.; Gourgiotis, A.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Mialle, S.; Nonell, A.; Chartier, F.

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of the research undertaken by the French Atomic Energy Commission on transmutation of long-lived radionuclides, targets of highly enriched actinides and fission products were irradiated in the fast neutron reactor Phenix. Precise and accurate measurements of the isotopic and elemental composition of the enriched elements are therefore required. In order to obtain the uncertainties of several per mil and to reduce handling time and exposure to analyst on radioactive material, the on-line coupling of ion exchange chromatography with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been associated with the technique of the double spike isotope dilution. We present in this paper the results obtained on an irradiated sample of Europium oxide powder (enriched at 99.13% in 153 Eu). After irradiation of around 5 mg of Eu 2 O 3 powder the theoretical calculations predict the formation of several micrograms of gadolinium and samarium isotopes. In relation to the very high activity of the sample after irradiation and the very low quantity of Sm formed, the on-line ion exchange chromatography separation of Gd, Sm and Eu before Sm isotope ratio measurements has been developed for the quantification of the 152 Sm/ 153 Eu ratio. These on-line measurements were associated with the double spike isotope dilution technique after calibration of a 147 Sm/ 151 Eu spike solution. The external reproducibility of Sm isotopic ratios was determined to be around 0.5% (2 σ) resulting in a final uncertainty on the 152 Sm/ 153 Eu ratio of around 1% (2 σ). These on-line measurements present therefore a robust and high-throughput alternative to the thermal-ionisation mass spectrometry technique used so far in combination with off-line chromatographic separation, particularly in nuclear applications where characterisation of high activity sample solutions is required. (authors)

  12. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  13. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  15. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  17. Combination of highly nonlinear fiber, an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot filter to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of a supercontinuum continuous-wave optical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yinbo; Huo, Li; Lou, Caiyun

    2005-05-20

    We present a theoretical study of a supercontinuum (SC) continuous-wave (cw) optical source generation in highly nonlinear fiber and its noise properties through numerical simulations based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Fluctuations of pump pulses generate substructures between the longitudinal modes that result in the generation of white noise and then in degradation of coherence and in a decrease of the modulation depths and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A scheme for improvement of the SNR of a multiwavelength cw optical source based on a SC by use of the combination of a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot (FP) filter is presented. Numerical simulations show that the improvement in modulation depth is relative to the HNLF's length, the 3-dB bandwidth of the optical bandpass filter, and the reflection ratio of the FP filter and that the average improvement in modulation depth is 13.7 dB under specified conditions.

  18. Combined effect of aerobic interval training and selenium nanoparticles on expression of IL-15 and IL-10/TNF-α ratio in skeletal muscle of 4T1 breast cancer mice with cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molanouri Shamsi, M; Chekachak, S; Soudi, S; Quinn, L S; Ranjbar, K; Chenari, J; Yazdi, M H; Mahdavi, M

    2017-02-01

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by inflammation, loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue mass, and functional impairment. Oxidative stress and inflammation are believed to regulate pathways controlling skeletal muscle wasting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic interval training and the purported antioxidant treatment, selenium nanoparticle supplementation, on expression of IL-15 and inflammatory cytokines in 4T1 breast cancer-bearing mice with cachexia. Selenium nanoparticle supplementation accelerated cachexia symptoms in tumor-bearing mice, while exercise training prevented muscle wasting in tumor-bearing mice. Also, aerobic interval training enhanced the anti-inflammatory indices IL-10/TNF-α ratio and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscle in tumor-bearing mice. However, combining exercise training and antioxidant supplementation prevented cachexia and muscle wasting and additionally decreased tumor volume in 4T1 breast cancer mice. These finding suggested that combining exercise training and antioxidant supplementation could be a strategy for managing tumor volume and preventing cachexia in breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use and effectiveness of a fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) in a real-world population with type 2 diabetes: Results from a European, multicentre, retrospective chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Hermione; Blüher, Matthias; Prager, Rudolf; Phan, Tra-Mi; Thorsted, Brian L; Schultes, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    To describe the real-world use and effectiveness of IDegLira, a fixed-ratio combination of the basal insulin degludec, and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) liraglutide. This European, multicentre, retrospective chart review comprised adults (n = 611) with type 2 diabetes, who started IDegLira ≥6 months before data collection. Clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline (defined as the most recent recording during the 6 months before the first IDegLira prescription) and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (± 45 days for each time point) after commencing IDegLira, where data were available. Baseline regimens included non-injectable medications (19%), basal insulin (19%), GLP-1RA (10%), free combination therapy (insulin/GLP-1RA, 24%) and multiple daily-dose insulin injections (MDI, 28%), all ± oral antidiabetic drugs. After 6 months, significant glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reductions were observed in patients overall and in all subgroups (-10 mmol/mol [-0.9%] overall; P world practice, after 6 months and at a moderate dose, IDegLira resulted in substantial reductions in HbA1c and body weight, with a reduced risk of hypoglycaemia. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Energy Efficiency and SINR Maximization Beamformers for Spectrum Sharing With Sensing Information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with sensing information to achieve optimal energy-efficient systems. The proposed schemes maximize EE and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality-of-service constraints

  1. Energy efficiency and SINR maximization beamformers for cognitive radio utilizing sensing information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with the sensing information to achieve an optimal energy efficient system. The proposed schemes maximize the energy efficiency and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality of service

  2. Energy Efficiency and SINR Maximization Beamformers for Spectrum Sharing With Sensing Information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a cognitive radio multi-input-multi-output environment, in which we adapt our beamformer to maximize both energy efficiency (EE) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) metrics. Our design considers an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with sensing information to achieve optimal energy-efficient systems. The proposed schemes maximize EE and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality-of-service constraints. The analysis of the proposed schemes is classified into two categories based on knowledge of the secondary-transmitter-to-primary-receiver channel. Since the optimizations of EE and SINR problems are not convex problems, we transform them into a standard semidefinite programming (SDP) form to guarantee that the optimal solutions are global. An analytical solution is provided for one scheme, while the second scheme is left in a standard SDP form. Selected numerical results are used to quantify the impact of the sensing information on the proposed schemes compared to the benchmark ones.

  3. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  4. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  5. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  6. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  7. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  8. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  9. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  10. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  11. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  12. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  13. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  14. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  15. Why firms should not always maximize profits

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the corporate social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This paper argues that the first position i...

  16. Maximally Informative Observables and Categorical Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiang, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We formulate the problem of perception in the framework of information theory, and prove that categorical perception is equivalent to the existence of an observable that has the maximum possible information on the target of perception. We call such an observable maximally informative. Regardless whether categorical perception is real, maximally informative observables can form the basis of a theory of perception. We conclude with the implications of such a theory for the problem of speech per...

  17. The exact LPT-bound for maximizing the minimum completion time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csirik, J.; Kellerer, H.; Woeginger, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning a set of jobs to a system of m identical processors in order to maximize the earliest processor completion time. It was known that the LPT-heuristic gives an approximation of worst case ratio at most 3/4. In this note we show that the exact worst case ratio of

  18. Tumor-specific detection of an optically targeted antibody combined with a quencher-conjugated neutravidin "quencher-chaser": a dual "quench and chase" strategy to improve target to nontarget ratios for molecular imaging of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2009-01-01

    In vivo molecular cancer imaging with monoclonal antibodies has great potential not only for cancer detection, but also for cancer characterization. However, the prolonged retention of intravenously injected antibody in the blood causes low target tumor-to-background ratio (TBR). Avidin has been used as a "chase" to clear the unbound, circulating biotinylated antibody and decrease the background signal. Here, we utilize a combined approach of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) quenched antibody with an "avidin chase" to increase TBR. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), was biotinylated and conjugated with the near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore Alexa680 to synthesize Tra-Alexa680-biotin. Next, the FRET quencher, QSY-21, was conjugated to avidin, neutravidin (nAv), or streptavidin (sAv), thus creating Av-QSY21, nAv-QSY21, or sAv-QSY21 as "chasers". The fluorescence was quenched in vitro by binding Tra-Alexa680-biotin to Av-QSY21, nAv-QSY21, or sAv-QSY21. To evaluate if the injection of quencher-conjugated avidin derivatives can improve target TBR by using a dual "quench and chase" strategy, both target (3T3/HER2+) and nontarget (Balb3T3/ZsGreen) tumor-bearing mice were employed. The "FRET quench" effect induced by all the QSY21 avidin-based conjugates reduced but did not totally eliminate background signal from the blood pool. The addition of nAv-QSY21 administration increased target TBR mainly because of the "chase" effect where unbound conjugated antibody was preferentially cleared to the liver. The relatively slow clearance of unbound nAv-QSY21 leads to further reductions in background signal by leaking out of the vascular space and binding to unbound antibodies in the extravascular space of tumors, resulting in decreased nontarget tumor-to-background ratios but increased target TBR due to the "FRET quench" effect, because target-bound antibodies were internalized and could not bind

  19. Tumor Specific Detection of an Optically Targeted Antibody Combined with a Quencher-conjugated Neutravidin “Quencher-Chaser”: A Dual “Quench and Chase” Strategy to Improve Target to Non-target Ratios for Molecular Imaging of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2009-01-01

    In vivo molecular cancer imaging with monoclonal antibodies has great potential not only for cancer detection but also for cancer characterization. However, the prolonged retention of intravenously injected antibody in the blood causes low target tumor-to-background ratio (TBR). Avidin has been used as a “chase” to clear the unbound, circulating biotinylated antibody and decrease the background signal. Here, we utilize a combined approach of a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) quenched antibody with an “avidin chase” to increase TBR. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), was biotinylated and conjugated with the near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore Alexa680 to synthesize Tra-Alexa680-biotin. Next, the FRET quencher, QSY-21, was conjugated to avidin, neutravidin (nAv) or streptavidin (sAv), thus creating Av-QSY21, nAv-QSY21 or sAv-QSY21 as “chasers”. The fluorescence was quenched in vitro by binding Tra-Alexa680-biotin to Av-QSY21, nAv-QSY21 or sAv-QSY21. To evaluate if the injection of quencher-conjugated avidin-derivatives can improve target TBR by using a dual “quench and chase” strategy, both target (3T3/HER2+) and non-target (Balb3T3/ZsGreen) tumor bearing mice were employed. The “FRET quench” effect induced by all the QSY21 avidin-based conjugates reduced but did not totally eliminate background signal from the blood pool. The addition of nAv-QSY21 administration increased target TBR mainly due to the “chase” effect where unbound conjugated antibody was preferentially cleared to the liver. The relatively slow clearance of unbound nAv-QSY21 leads to further reductions in background signal by leaking out of the vascular space and binding to unbound antibodies in the extravascular space of tumors resulting in decreased non-target tumor-to-background ratios but increased target TBR due to the “FRET quench” effect because target-bound antibodies were internalized

  20. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner...

  1. Magellan Project: Evolving enhanced operations efficiency to maximize science value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Allan R.; Neuman, James C.; Mckinney, J. Franklin

    1994-01-01

    Magellan has been one of NASA's most successful spacecraft, returning more science data than all planetary spacecraft combined. The Magellan Spacecraft Team (SCT) has maximized the science return with innovative operational techniques to overcome anomalies and to perform activities for which the spacecraft was not designed. Commanding the spacecraft was originally time consuming because the standard development process was envisioned as manual tasks. The Program understood that reducing mission operations costs were essential for an extended mission. Management created an environment which encouraged automation of routine tasks, allowing staff reduction while maximizing the science data returned. Data analysis and trending, command preparation, and command reviews are some of the tasks that were automated. The SCT has accommodated personnel reductions by improving operations efficiency while returning the maximum science data possible.

  2. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  3. Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    Full Text Available Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Vacua of maximal gauged D=3 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, T; Nicolai, H; Samtleben, H

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the scalar potentials of maximal gauged three-dimensional supergravities which reveal a surprisingly rich structure. In contrast to maximal supergravities in dimensions D≥4, all these theories possess a maximally supersymmetric (N=16) ground state with negative cosmological constant Λ 2 gauged theory, whose maximally supersymmetric groundstate has Λ = 0. We compute the mass spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around these vacua and identify the unitary irreducible representations of the relevant background (super)isometry groups to which they belong. In addition, we find several stationary points which are not maximally supersymmetric, and determine their complete mass spectra as well. In particular, we show that there are analogues of all stationary points found in higher dimensions, among them are de Sitter (dS) vacua in the theories with noncompact gauge groups SO(5, 3) 2 and SO(4, 4) 2 , as well as anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua in the compact gauged theory preserving 1/4 and 1/8 of the supersymmetries. All the dS vacua have tachyonic instabilities, whereas there do exist nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua which are stable, again in contrast to the D≥4 theories

  5. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  6. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  7. Predischarge maximal exercise test identifies risk for cardiac death in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Mickley, H; Damsgaard, E M

    1990-01-01

    A maximal exercise test was performed in 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before discharge and in 49 age-matched control subjects. The long-term prognosis was assessed after an average follow-up of 7.6 years in AMI patients and 5.8 years in control subjects. The maximal work...... capacity and systolic blood pressure increase in AMI patients was 59% that of control subjects (p less than 0.001). Seventeen AMI patients had significant ST-segment shifts, 13 with ST depression and 4 with ST elevation. In AMI patients experiencing a cardiac death during follow-up the maximal work...... were of no significant value. In this study maximal work capacity turned out to be the best single exercise variable for identifying groups of AMI patients with very low and relative high risk of cardiac death. When all 3 exercise variables were combined, the predischarge maximal exercise test...

  8. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  9. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  10. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  11. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  12. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhui; Li, Yingchuan; Sheng, Xiaohua; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Dongsheng; Jian, Guihua; Li, Yongguang; Feng, Liang; Wang, Niansong

    2018-03-29

    Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR) can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012). Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372), APACHE II score (OR = 1.187), age (OR = 1.028) and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Methods: Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012. Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372, APACHE II score (OR = 1.187, age (OR = 1.028 and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130 were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion: Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI.

  14. Prognostic Significance of Combination of Preoperative Platelet Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (COP-NLR in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Based on a Large Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the combination of the preoperative platelet count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR for predicting postoperative survival of patients undergoing complete resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.The preoperative COP-NLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained.Patients with both an increased platelet count (>30.0 × 104 mm(-3 and an elevated NLR (>2.3 were assigned a score of 2, and patients with one or neither were assigned as a score of 1 or 0, respectively.A total of 1238 NSCLC patients were enrolled in this analysis. Multivariate analysis using the 15 clinicolaboratory variables selected by univariate analyses demonstrated that the preoperative COP-NLR was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR: 1.834, 95%CI: 1.536 to 2.200, P<0.001 and OS (HR: 1.810, 95%CI: 1.587 to 2.056, P<0.001. In sub-analyses by tumor stage (I, II, IIIA, a significant association was found between DFS and OS and level of COP-NLR in each subgroup (P<0.001, P=0.002, P<0.001 for DFS, respectively; P<0.001, P=0.001, P<0.001 for OS. When the subgroup of patients with high-risk COP-NLR (score of 2 was analyzed, no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy could be found (P=0.237 for DFS and P=0.165 for OS.The preoperative COP-NLR is able to predict the prognosis of patients with NSCLC and divide these patients into three independent groups before surgery. Our results also demonstrate that high-risk patients based on the COP-NLR do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Independent validation of our findings is warranted.

  15. Economic strategies to maximize profits from satellite field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The main strategies that can be used to maximize profits from integrated satellite field developments are: (1) restructuring the cost, production and revenue profile of the satellite field; and (2) increasing the volume of oil/gas processed, and available for future use, by the central processing and distribution facility through: (a) using a combined strategy of low tariffs, volume discount, and netback agreements; (b) using reusable facilities, shared facilities, extended reach wells, contractor finance, partnering agreements, netback agreements, oil/gas price swaps; and (c) improving development, discovery and exploration efficiency

  16. Alternative approaches to maximally supersymmetric field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broedel, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The central objective of this work is the exploration and application of alternative possibilities to describe maximally supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions: N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and N=8 supergravity. While twistor string theory has been proven very useful in the context of N=4 SYM, no analogous formulation for N=8 supergravity is available. In addition to the part describing N=4 SYM theory, twistor string theory contains vertex operators corresponding to the states of N=4 conformal supergravity. Those vertex operators have to be altered in order to describe (non-conformal) Einstein supergravity. A modified version of the known open twistor string theory, including a term which breaks the conformal symmetry for the gravitational vertex operators, has been proposed recently. In a first part of the thesis structural aspects and consistency of the modified theory are discussed. Unfortunately, the majority of amplitudes can not be constructed, which can be traced back to the fact that the dimension of the moduli space of algebraic curves in twistor space is reduced in an inconsistent manner. The issue of a possible finiteness of N=8 supergravity is closely related to the question of the existence of valid counterterms in the perturbation expansion of the theory. In particular, the coefficient in front of the so-called R 4 counterterm candidate has been shown to vanish by explicit calculation. This behavior points into the direction of a symmetry not taken into account, for which the hidden on-shell E 7(7) symmetry is the prime candidate. The validity of the so-called double-soft scalar limit relation is a necessary condition for a theory exhibiting E 7(7) symmetry. By calculating the double-soft scalar limit for amplitudes derived from an N=8 supergravity action modified by an additional R 4 counterterm, one can test for possible constraints originating in the E 7(7) symmetry. In a second part of the thesis, the appropriate amplitudes are calculated

  17. Robust Weighted Sum Harvested Energy Maximization for SWIPT Cognitive Radio Networks Based on Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Viet; Koo, Insoo

    2017-10-06

    In this paper, we consider multiuser simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) for cognitive radio systems where a secondary transmitter (ST) with an antenna array provides information and energy to multiple single-antenna secondary receivers (SRs) equipped with a power splitting (PS) receiving scheme when multiple primary users (PUs) exist. The main objective of the paper is to maximize weighted sum harvested energy for SRs while satisfying their minimum required signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), the limited transmission power at the ST, and the interference threshold of each PU. For the perfect channel state information (CSI), the optimal beamforming vectors and PS ratios are achieved by the proposed PSO-SDR in which semidefinite relaxation (SDR) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods are jointly combined. We prove that SDR always has a rank-1 solution, and is indeed tight. For the imperfect CSI with bounded channel vector errors, the upper bound of weighted sum harvested energy (WSHE) is also obtained through the S-Procedure. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-SDR has fast convergence and better performance as compared to the other baseline schemes.

  18. Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)

  19. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  20. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  1. Reserve design to maximize species persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  2. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  3. Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2000-01-01

    to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...

  4. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  5. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  6. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...

  7. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  8. Logit Analysis for Profit Maximizing Loan Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Mortensen, Timothy L.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    1988-01-01

    Lending criteria and loan classification methods are developed. Rating system breaking points are analyzed to present a method to maximize loan revenues. Financial characteristics of farmers are used as determinants of delinquency in a multivariate logistic model. Results indicate that debt-to-asset and operating ration are most indicative of default.

  9. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  10. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  11. Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mako eOkanda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.

  12. Generation of maximally entangled mixed states of two atoms via on-resonance asymmetric atom-cavity couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shang-Bin

    2007-01-01

    A scheme for generating the maximally entangled mixed state of two atoms on-resonance asymmetrically coupled to a single mode optical cavity field is presented. The part frontier of both maximally entangled mixed states and maximal Bell violating mixed states can be approximately reached by the evolving reduced density matrix of two atoms if the ratio of coupling strengths of two atoms is appropriately controlled. It is also shown that exchange symmetry of global maximal concurrence is broken if and only if coupling strength ratio lies between (√(3)/3) and √(3) for the case of one-particle excitation and asymmetric coupling, while this partial symmetry breaking cannot be verified by detecting maximal Bell violation

  13. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  14. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  15. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kallsen

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  16. Control of Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Oladipupo; C. O. Okafor

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on who controls shareholder’s wealth maximization and how does this affect firm’s performance in publicly quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. The shareholder fund was the dependent while explanatory variables were firm size (proxied by log of turnover), retained earning (representing management control) and dividend payment (representing measure of shareholders control). The data used for this study were obtained from the Nigerian Stock Exchange [NSE] fact book an...

  17. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  18. Dynamic Convex Duality in Constrained Utility Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yusong; Zheng, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a constrained utility maximization problem following the convex duality approach. After formulating the primal and dual problems, we construct the necessary and sufficient conditions for both the primal and dual problems in terms of FBSDEs plus additional conditions. Such formulation then allows us to explicitly characterize the primal optimal control as a function of the adjoint process coming from the dual FBSDEs in a dynamic fashion and vice versa. Moreover, we also...

  19. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  20. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  1. Effects of stand and inter-specific stocking on maximizing standing tree carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley

    2011-01-01

    There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...

  2. Prediction of fetal lung maturity using the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio analysis with a simplified sample preparation, using a commercial microtip-column combined with mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ho-Seok; Chung, Hee-Jung; Choi, Young Sik; Min, Won-Ki; Jung, So Young

    2015-07-01

    Fetal lung maturity is estimated using the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S ratio) in amniotic fluid and it is commonly measured with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC method is time consuming and technically difficult; however, it is widely used because there is no alternative. We evaluated a novel method for measuring the L/S ratio, which involves a tip-column with a cation-exchange resin and mass spectrometry. Phospholipids in the amniotic fluid were extracted using methanol and chloroform. Choline-containing phospholipids such as lecithin and sphingomyelin were purified by passing them through the tip-column. LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF were used to directly analyze the purified samples. The L/S ratio by mass spectrometry was calculated from the sum peak intensity of the six lecithin, and that of sphingomyelin 34:1. In 20 samples, the L/S ratio determined with TLC was significantly correlated with that obtained by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF. There was a 100% concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by LC-MS/MS (kappa value=1.0). The concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by MALDI-TOF was also 100% (kappa value=1.0). Our method provides a faster, simpler, and more reliable assessment of fetal lung maturity. The L/S ratio measured by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF offers a compelling alternative method to traditional TLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  4. Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.

  5. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on hamstring and quadriceps muscle function outcome ratios in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadija Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximal strength ratios such as the limb symmetry index (LSI and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio (HQ may be considered the main outcome measures in the monitoring of recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. Although explosive strength is much more important than maximal strength, it is generally disregarded in the follow-up of muscle function recovery. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare ratios between maximal (Fmax and explosive strength (rate of force development - RFD in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Methods. Fifteen male athletes were enrolled and had maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps and hamstring contractions tested (4.0 ± 0.1 months post reconstruction. In addition to Fmax, RFD was estimated (RFDmax, as well as RFD at 50, 100, and 200 ms from onset of contraction and LSI and HQ ratios were calculated. Results. The involved leg demonstrated significant hamstring and quadriceps deficits compared to uninvolved leg (p < 0.01. Deficits were particularly significant in the involved quadriceps, causing higher HQ ratios (average 0.63, compared to the uninvolved leg (0.44. LSI was significantly lower for RFD variables (average 55% than for Fmax (66%. Conclusion. The assessment of RFD may be considered an objective recovery parameter for one’s readiness to return to sports and should be an integral part of standard follow-up protocol for athletes after ACL reconstruction. Moreover, the combination of indices derived from maximal and explosive strength may provide better insight in muscle strength balance, as well as a clear picture of functional implications. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175012 i br. 175037

  6. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Wing-Body Combination having a 52.5 deg Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 3 with Conical Camber and Designed for a Mach Number of the Square Root of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, William B.; Re, Richard J.; Cassetti, Marlowe

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and supersonic body indentation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-body configuration at transonic speeds. Wing aspect ratio was 3.0, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord line sweepback was 52.5 deg with airfoil sections of 0.03 thickness ratio. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at various Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 at angles of attack from -4 deg to 14 deg. The cambered-wing configuration achieved higher lift-drag ratios than a similar plane-wing configuration. The camber also reduced the effects of wing-tip flow separation on the aerodynamic characteristics. In general, no stability or trim changes below wing-tip flow separation resulted from the use of camber. The use of supersonic body indentation improved the lift-drag ratios at Mach numbers from 0.96 to 1.05.

  7. The golden ratio in Schwarzschild-Kottler black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we show that the golden ratio is present in the Schwarzschild-Kottler metric. For null geodesics with maximal radial acceleration, the turning points of the orbits are in the golden ratio Φ = (√(5)-1)/2. This is a general result which is independent of the value and sign of the cosmological constant Λ. (orig.)

  8. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  9. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  10. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  11. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  12. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  13. Pouliot type duality via a-maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yagi, Futoshi

    2006-01-01

    We study four-dimensional N=1Spin(10) gauge theory with a single spinor and N Q vectors at the superconformal fixed point via the electric-magnetic duality and a-maximization. When gauge invariant chiral primary operators hit the unitarity bounds, we find that the theory with no superpotential is identical to the one with some superpotential at the infrared fixed point. The auxiliary field method in the electric theory offers a satisfying description of the infrared fixed point, which is consistent with the better picture in the magnetic theory. In particular, it gives a clear description of the emergence of new massless degrees of freedom in the electric theory

  14. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  15. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  16. LikelihoodLib - Fitting, Function Maximization, and Numerical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, I B

    2001-01-01

    A new class library is designed for function maximization, minimization, solution of equations and for other problems related to mathematical analysis of multi-parameter functions by numerical iterative methods. When we search the maximum or another special point of a function, we may change and fit all parameters simultaneously, sequentially, recursively, or by any combination of these methods. The discussion is focused on the first the most complicated method, although the others are also supported by the library. For this method we apply: control of precision by interval computations; the calculation of derivatives either by differential arithmetic, or by the method of finite differences with the step lengths which provide suppression of the influence of numerical noise; possible synchronization of the subjective function calls with minimization of the number of iterations; competitive application of various methods for step calculation, and converging to the solution by many trajectories.

  17. Maximal network reliability for a stochastic power transmission network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Many studies regarded a power transmission network as a binary-state network and constructed it with several arcs and vertices to evaluate network reliability. In practice, the power transmission network should be stochastic because each arc (transmission line) combined with several physical lines is multistate. Network reliability is the probability that the network can transmit d units of electric power from a power plant (source) to a high voltage substation at a specific area (sink). This study focuses on searching for the optimal transmission line assignment to the power transmission network such that network reliability is maximized. A genetic algorithm based method integrating the minimal paths and the Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products is developed to solve this assignment problem. A real power transmission network is adopted to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed method while comparing with the random solution generation approach.

  18. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  19. A unified MGF-based capacity analysis of diversity combiners over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-03-01

    Unified exact ergodic capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity combiners including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of L-branch EGC/MRC over generalized fading channels. The framework is used to derive new results for the gamma-shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model which can be a suitable model for the fading environments encountered by high frequency (60 GHz and above) communications. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical and simulation results confirming the correctness of our newly proposed framework. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  1. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G

    2016-08-01

    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  3. Distributed-Memory Fast Maximal Independent Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanewala Appuhamilage, Thejaka Amila J.; Zalewski, Marcin J.; Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    The Maximal Independent Set (MIS) graph problem arises in many applications such as computer vision, information theory, molecular biology, and process scheduling. The growing scale of MIS problems suggests the use of distributed-memory hardware as a cost-effective approach to providing necessary compute and memory resources. Luby proposed four randomized algorithms to solve the MIS problem. All those algorithms are designed focusing on shared-memory machines and are analyzed using the PRAM model. These algorithms do not have direct efficient distributed-memory implementations. In this paper, we extend two of Luby’s seminal MIS algorithms, “Luby(A)” and “Luby(B),” to distributed-memory execution, and we evaluate their performance. We compare our results with the “Filtered MIS” implementation in the Combinatorial BLAS library for two types of synthetic graph inputs.

  4. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  5. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  6. Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2011-08-21

    We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.

  7. MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André da Conceição Menezes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.

  8. Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.

  9. Maximizing profitability in a hospital outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.

  10. Maximizing the benefits of a dewatering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.; Iverson, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The use of dewatering systems in the mining, industrial sludge and sewage waste treatment industries is discussed, also describing some of the problems that have been encountered while using drilling fluid dewatering technology. The technology is an acceptable drilling waste handling alternative but it has had problems associated with recycled fluid incompatibility, high chemical costs and system inefficiencies. This paper discussed the following five action areas that can maximize the benefits and help reduce costs of a dewatering project: (1) co-ordinate all services, (2) choose equipment that fits the drilling program, (3) match the chemical treatment with the drilling fluid types, (4) determine recycled fluid compatibility requirements, and (5) determine the disposal requirements before project start-up. 2 refs., 5 figs

  11. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  12. A Criterion to Identify Maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang; Feng Feng

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Facchi, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 060304(R)] presented a maximally multipartite entangled state (MMES). Here, we give a criterion for the identification of maximally entangled four-qubit states. Using this criterion, we not only identify some existing maximally entangled four-qubit states in the literature, but also find several new maximally entangled four-qubit states as well. (general)

  13. Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral m...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....

  14. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  15. Maximal venous outflow velocity: an index for iliac vein obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T Matthew; Cassada, David C; Heidel, R Eric; Grandas, Oscar G; Stevens, Scott L; Freeman, Michael B; Edmondson, James D; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2012-11-01

    Leg swelling is a common cause for vascular surgical evaluation, and iliocaval obstruction due to May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) can be difficult to diagnose. Physical examination and planar radiographic imaging give anatomic information but may miss the fundamental pathophysiology of MTS. Similarly, duplex ultrasonographic examination of the legs gives little information about central impedance of venous return above the inguinal ligament. We have modified the technique of duplex ultrasonography to evaluate the flow characteristics of the leg after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement, with the objective of revealing iliocaval obstruction characteristic of MTS. Twelve patients with signs and symptoms of MTS were compared with healthy control subjects for duplex-derived maximal venous outflow velocity (MVOV) after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement of the leg. The data for healthy control subjects were obtained from a previous study of asymptomatic volunteers using the same MVOV maneuvers. The tourniquet-induced venous engorgement mimics that caused during vigorous exercise. A right-to-left ratio of MVOV was generated for patient comparisons. Patients with clinical evidence of MTS had a mean right-to-left MVOV ratio of 2.0, asymptomatic control subjects had a mean ratio of 1.3, and MTS patients who had undergone endovascular treatment had a poststent mean ratio of 1.2 (P = 0.011). Interestingly, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging results, when available, were interpreted as positive in only 53% of the patients with MTS according to both our MVOV criteria and confirmatory venography. After intervention, the right-to-left MVOV ratio in the MTS patients was found to be reduced similar to asymptomatic control subjects, indicating a relief of central venous obstruction by stenting the compressive MTS anatomy. Duplex-derived MVOV measurements are helpful for detection of iliocaval venous obstruction, such as MTS. Right-to-left MVOV ratios and

  16. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR Enhancement Comparison of Impulse-, Coding- and Novel Linear-Frequency-Chirp-Based Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR for Passive Optical Network (PON Monitoring Based on Unique Combinations of Wavelength Selective Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Bentz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We compare optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR techniques based on conventional single impulse, coding and linear frequency chirps concerning their signal to noise ratio (SNR enhancements by measurements in a passive optical network (PON with a maximum one-way attenuation of 36.6 dB. A total of six subscribers, each represented by a unique mirror pair with narrow reflection bandwidths, are installed within a distance of 14 m. The spatial resolution of the OTDR set-up is 3.0 m.

  17. Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Acer Truncatum Leaves for Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingguang; Yin, Peipei; Fan, Hang; Xue, Qiang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiang; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2017-02-04

    This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration ( X ₁), material-to-liquid ratio ( X ₂), ultrasonic temperature ( X ₃) and power ( X ₄) for an optimal total phenol yield ( Y ₁) and DPPH• antioxidant activity ( Y ₂). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol:water ( v : v ) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic bath temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74,241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic components in ATL. What's more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta- O -galloylglucoside was proposed. All these results provide practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research.

  18. Antiproliferative Activity of Phenylpropanoids Isolated from Lagotis brevituba Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuan; Jing, Zhao; Haixia, Wang; Ruitao, Yu; Huaixiu, Wen; Zenggen, Liu; Lijuan, Mei; Yiping, Wang; Yanduo, Tao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of phenylpropanoids isolated from the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of Lagotis brevituba Maxim. The phenylpropanoids were identified as echinacoside, lagotioside, glucopyranosyl(1-6)martynoside, plantamoside, and verbascoside. Three of the compounds, lagotioside, glucopyranosyl(1-6)martynoside, and plantamoside, were isolated from L. brevituba for the first time. The antiproliferative activity of the isolates was evaluated in human gastric carcinoma (MGC-803), human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), human hepatocellar carcinoma (HepG2), and human lung cancer (HCT116) cells using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Plantamoside showed promising activity against MGC-803 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 37.09 μM. The mechanism of the pro-apoptosis effect of plantamoside was then evaluated in MGC-803 cells. Changes in cell morphology, including disorganization of the architecture of actin microfilaments and formation of apoptotic bodies, together with cell cycle arrest in G2/M phases, were observed after treatment of plantamoside. The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were associated with a decrease in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, which was accompanied by the release of reactive oxygen species and Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm. Taken together, the results indicated that plantamoside promotes apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Task complexity and maximal isometric strength gains through motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jessica; Green, Lara A.; Gabriel, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of a simple versus complex contraction pattern on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of maximal isometric strength gains and reductions in force variability. A control group (N = 12) performed simple isometric contractions of the wrist flexors. An experimental group (N = 12) performed complex proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) contractions consisting of maximal isometric wrist extension immediately reversing force direction to wrist flexion within a single trial. Ten contractions were completed on three consecutive days with a retention and transfer test 2‐weeks later. For the retention test, the groups performed their assigned contraction pattern followed by a transfer test that consisted of the other contraction pattern for a cross‐over design. Both groups exhibited comparable increases in strength (20.2%, P < 0.01) and reductions in mean torque variability (26.2%, P < 0.01), which were retained and transferred. There was a decrease in the coactivation ratio (antagonist/agonist muscle activity) for both groups, which was retained and transferred (35.2%, P < 0.01). The experimental group exhibited a linear decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves, indicating transfer to the simple contraction pattern (P < 0.01). The control group underwent a decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves from the first day of training to retention, but participants returned to baseline levels during the transfer condition (P < 0.01). However, the difference between torque RMS error versus the variability in torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves suggests the demands of the complex task were transferred, but could not be achieved in a reproducible way. PMID:25428951

  20. Transonic Aerodynamic Loading Characteristics of a Wing-Body-Tail Combination Having a 52.5 deg. Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 3 With Conical Wing Camber and Body Indentation for a Design Mach Number of Square Root of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetti, Marlowe D.; Re, Richard J.; Igoe, William B.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and body indentation according to the supersonic area rule on the aerodynamic wing loading characteristics of a wing-body-tail configuration at transonic speeds. The wing aspect ratio was 3, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord-line sweepback was 52.5 deg. with 3-percent-thick airfoil sections. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 and at angles of attack from 0 deg. to 14 deg., with Reynolds numbers based on mean aerodynamic chord varying from 7 x 10(exp 6) to 8 x 10(exp 6). Conical camber delayed wing-tip stall and reduced the severity of the accompanying longitudinal instability but did not appreciably affect the spanwise load distribution at angles of attack below tip stall. Body indentation reduced the transonic chordwise center-of-pressure travel from about 8 percent to 5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.

  1. On maximal surfaces in asymptotically flat space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, R.; Chrusciel, P.T.; O Murchadha, N.

    1990-01-01

    Existence of maximal and 'almost maximal' hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat space-times is established under boundary conditions weaker than those considered previously. We show in particular that every vacuum evolution of asymptotically flat data for Einstein equations can be foliated by slices maximal outside a spatially compact set and that every (strictly) stationary asymptotically flat space-time can be foliated by maximal hypersurfaces. Amongst other uniqueness results, we show that maximal hypersurface can be used to 'partially fix' an asymptotic Poincare group. (orig.)

  2. Bit Error Rate Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Generalized Selection Combining Scheme in Nakagami Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousa Maan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of fading on mobile communication channels calls for the combining of multiple diversity sources to achieve acceptable error rate performance. Traditional approaches perform the combining of the different diversity sources using either the conventional selective diversity combining (CSC, equal-gain combining (EGC, or maximal-ratio combining (MRC schemes. CSC and MRC are the two extremes of compromise between performance quality and complexity. Some researches have proposed a generalized selection combining scheme (GSC that combines the best branches out of the available diversity resources ( . In this paper, we analyze a generalized selection combining scheme based on a threshold criterion rather than a fixed-size subset of the best channels. In this scheme, only those diversity branches whose energy levels are above a specified threshold are combined. Closed-form analytical solutions for the BER performances of this scheme over Nakagami fading channels are derived. We also discuss the merits of this scheme over GSC.

  3. Hazardous waste incinerators under waste uncertainty: balancing and throughput maximization via heat recuperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides

    2013-09-01

    Hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) differ substantially from thermal power facilities, since instead of maximizing energy production with the minimum amount of fuel, they aim at maximizing throughput. Variations in quantity or composition of received waste loads may significantly diminish HWI throughput (the decisive profit factor), from its nominal design value. A novel formulation of combustion balance is presented, based on linear operators, which isolates the wastefeed vector from the invariant combustion stoichiometry kernel. Explicit expressions for the throughput are obtained, in terms of incinerator temperature, fluegas heat recuperation ratio and design parameters, for an arbitrary number of wastes, based on fundamental principles (mass and enthalpy balances). The impact of waste variations, of recuperation ratio and of furnace temperature is explicitly determined. It is shown that in the presence of waste uncertainty, the throughput may be a decreasing or increasing function of incinerator temperature and recuperation ratio, depending on the sign of a dimensionless parameter related only to the uncertain wastes. The dimensionless parameter is proposed as a sharp a' priori waste 'fingerprint', determining the necessary increase or decrease of manipulated variables (recuperation ratio, excess air, auxiliary fuel feed rate, auxiliary air flow) in order to balance the HWI and maximize throughput under uncertainty in received wastes. A 10-step procedure is proposed for direct application subject to process capacity constraints. The results may be useful for efficient HWI operation and for preparing hazardous waste blends. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  5. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  6. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  7. A Note of Caution on Maximizing Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Neapolitan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Principle of Maximum Entropy is often used to update probabilities due to evidence instead of performing Bayesian updating using Bayes’ Theorem, and its use often has efficacious results. However, in some circumstances the results seem unacceptable and unintuitive. This paper discusses some of these cases, and discusses how to identify some of the situations in which this principle should not be used. The paper starts by reviewing three approaches to probability, namely the classical approach, the limiting frequency approach, and the Bayesian approach. It then introduces maximum entropy and shows its relationship to the three approaches. Next, through examples, it shows that maximizing entropy sometimes can stand in direct opposition to Bayesian updating based on reasonable prior beliefs. The paper concludes that if we take the Bayesian approach that probability is about reasonable belief based on all available information, then we can resolve the conflict between the maximum entropy approach and the Bayesian approach that is demonstrated in the examples.

  8. Optimal topologies for maximizing network transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhao; Wu, Jiajing; Rong, Zhihai; Tse, Chi K.

    2018-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that the structure of a network is a major factor that affects its traffic dynamics. In this work, we try to identify the optimal topologies for maximizing the network transmission capacity, as well as to build a clear relationship between structural features of a network and the transmission performance in terms of traffic delivery. We propose an approach for designing optimal network topologies against traffic congestion by link rewiring and apply them on the Barabási-Albert scale-free, static scale-free and Internet Autonomous System-level networks. Furthermore, we analyze the optimized networks using complex network parameters that characterize the structure of networks, and our simulation results suggest that an optimal network for traffic transmission is more likely to have a core-periphery structure. However, assortative mixing and the rich-club phenomenon may have negative impacts on network performance. Based on the observations of the optimized networks, we propose an efficient method to improve the transmission capacity of large-scale networks.

  9. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Syritsyn, S.N.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.

    2005-12-01

    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of three protocols for measuring the maximal respiratory pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria B. Sclauser Pessoa

    Full Text Available Introduction To avoid the selection of submaximal efforts during the assessment of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP, some reproducibility criteria have been suggested. Criteria that stand out are those proposed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS and European Respiratory Society (ERS and by the Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA. However, no studies were found that compared these criteria or assessed the combination of both protocols. Objectives To assess the pressure values selected and the number of maneuvers required to achieve maximum performance using the reproducibility criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, the BTA and the present study. Materials and method 113 healthy subjects (43.04 ± 16.94 years from both genders were assessed according to the criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, BTA and the present study. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis, followed by ANOVA for repeated measures and post hoc LSD or by Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon, according to the data distribution. Results The criterion proposed by the present study resulted in a significantly higher number of maneuvers (MIP and MEP – median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 5[5-6], 4[3-5] and 3[3-4] for the present study criterion, BTA and ATS/ERS, respectively; p < 0.01 and higher pressure values (MIP – mean and 95% confidence interval: 103[91.43-103.72], 100[97.19-108.83] and 97.6[94.06-105.95]; MEP: median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 124.2[101.4-165.9], 123.3[95.4-153.8] and 118.4[95.5-152.7]; p < 0.05. Conclusion The proposed criterion resulted in the selection of pressure values closer to the individual’s maximal capacity. This new criterion should be considered in future studies concerning MIP and MEP measurements.

  11. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  13. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  14. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  15. Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dianfu; Song Heshan

    2006-01-01

    A maximally generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also an axial-vector part A μ , a scalar part S, a pseudoscalar part P, and a tensor part T μν , is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  16. A multifaceted approach to maximize erectile function and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, David R; Gambone, Joseph C; Morris, Marge A; Ignarro, Louis J

    2010-12-01

    To review the role of various factors influencing vascular nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP, and consequently, erectile function and vascular health. Pertinent publications are reviewed. Daily moderate exercise stimulates vascular NO production. Maintenance of normal body weight and waist/hip ratio allows NO stimulation by insulin. Decreased intake of fat, sugar, and simple carbohydrates rapidly converted to sugar reduces the adverse effects of fatty acids and sugar on endothelial NO production. Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate endothelial NO release. Antioxidants boost NO production and prevent NO breakdown. Folic acid, calcium, vitamin C, and vitamin E support the biochemical pathways leading to NO release. Cessation of smoking and avoidance of excessive alcohol preserve normal endothelial function. Moderate use of alcohol and certain proprietary supplements may favorably influence erectile and vascular function. Treatment of any remaining testosterone deficit will both increase erectile function and reduce any associated metabolic syndrome. After production of NO and cyclic GMP are improved, use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors should result in greater success in treating remaining erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have also suggested positive effects of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors on vascular function. A multifaceted approach will maximize both erectile function and vascular health. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  18. POLITENESS MAXIM OF MAIN CHARACTER IN SECRET FORGIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maxim of Politeness is an interesting subject to be discussed, since politeness has been criticized from our childhood. We are obliques to be polite to anyone either in speaking or in acting. Somehow we are manage to show politeness in our spoken expression though our intention might be not so polite. For example we must appriciate others opinion although we feel objection toward the opinion. In this article the analysis of politeness is based on maxim proposes by Leech. He proposed six types of politeness maxim. The discussion shows that the main character (Kristen and Kami use all types of maxim in their conversation. The most commonly used are approbation maxim and agreement maxim

  19. Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...

  20. Using Molecular Biology to Maximize Concurrent Training

    OpenAIRE

    Baar, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and power-lifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, the development of a high level of endurance seems to prohibit the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. This revie...

  1. Maximizing Green Infrastructure in a Philadelphia Neighborhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Zidar; Timothy A. Bartrand; Charles H. Loomis; Chariss A. McAfee; Juliet M. Geldi; Gavin J. Rigall; Franco Montalto

    2017-01-01

    While the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) is counting on Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GI) as a key component of its long-term plan for reducing combined sewer overflows, many community stakeholders are also hoping that investment in greening can help meet other ancillary goals, collectively referred to as sustainable redevelopment. This study investigates the challenges associated with implementation of GI in Point Breeze, a residential neighborhood of South Philadelphia. The project ...

  2. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  3. Natural maximal νμ-ντ mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    1999-01-01

    The naturalness of maximal mixing between myon- and tau-neutrinos is investigated. A spontaneously broken nonabelian generation symmetry can explain a small parameter which governs the deviation from maximal mixing. In many cases all three neutrino masses are almost degenerate. Maximal ν μ -ν τ -mixing suggests that the leading contribution to the light neutrino masses arises from the expectation value of a heavy weak triplet rather than from the seesaw mechanism. In this scenario the deviation from maximal mixing is predicted to be less than about 1%. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. On the way towards a generalized entropy maximization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagci, G. Baris; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generalized entropy maximization procedure, which takes into account the generalized averaging procedures and information gain definitions underlying the generalized entropies. This novel generalized procedure is then applied to Renyi and Tsallis entropies. The generalized entropy maximization procedure for Renyi entropies results in the exponential stationary distribution asymptotically for q element of (0,1] in contrast to the stationary distribution of the inverse power law obtained through the ordinary entropy maximization procedure. Another result of the generalized entropy maximization procedure is that one can naturally obtain all the possible stationary distributions associated with the Tsallis entropies by employing either ordinary or q-generalized Fourier transforms in the averaging procedure.

  5. Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin

    2006-01-01

    We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information

  6. Effectiveness of elastic band-type ankle–foot orthoses on postural control in poststroke elderly patients as determined using combined measurement of the stability index and body weight-bearing ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jong Hyun Kim, Woo Sang Sim, Byeong Hee Won Usability Evaluation Technology Center, Advanced Biomedical and Welfare R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea Purpose: Poor recovery of postural stability poststroke is the primary cause of impairment in activities and social participation in elderly stroke survivors. The purpose of our study was to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of our new elastic ankle–foot orthosis (AFO, compared to a traditional AFO fabricated with hard plastic, in improving postural stability in elderly chronic stroke survivors. Patients and methods: Postural stability was evaluated in ten chronic stroke patients, 55.7±8.43 years old. Postural stability was evaluated using the standardized methods of the Biodex Balance System combined with a foot pressure system, under three experimental conditions, no AFO, rigid plastic AFO, and elastic AFO (E-AFO. The following dependent variables of postural stability were analyzed: plantar pressure under the paretic and nonparetic foot, area of the center of balance (COB and % time spent in each location, distance traveled by the COB away from the body center, distance traveled by the center of pressure, and calculated index of overall stability, as well as indices anterior–posterior and medial–lateral stability. Results: Both AFO designs improved all indices of postural stability. Compared to the rigid plastic AFO, the E-AFO produced additional positive effects in controlling anterior–posterior body sway, equalizing weight bearing through the paretic and nonparetic limbs, and restraining the displacement of the center of pressure and of the COB. Conclusion: Based on our outcomes, we recommend the prescription of E-AFOs as part of a physiotherapy rehabilitation program to promote recovery of postural stability poststroke. When possible, therapeutic outcomes should be documented using the Biodex Balance System and

  7. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic effect of Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuansheng; Cheng, Delin; Wang, Linbo; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yuepeng; Li, Kejuan; Yang, Yingnan; Zhang, Zhenya

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract from Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root (AKE).An in vitro evaluation was performed by using rat intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase), the key enzymes linked with type 2 diabetes. And an in vivo evaluation was also performed by loading maltose, sucrose, glucose to normal rats. As a result, AKE showed concentration-dependent inhibition effects on rat intestinal maltase and rat intestinal sucrase with IC(50) values of 1.83 and 1.03mg/mL, respectively. In normal rats, after loaded with maltose, sucrose and glucose, administration of AKE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia, which is similar to acarbose used as an anti-diabetic drug. High contents of total phenolics (80.49 ± 0.05mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoids (430.69 ± 0.91mg RE/g extract) were detected in AKE. In conclusion, AKE possessed anti-hyperglycemic effects and the possible mechanisms were associated with its inhibition on α-glucosidase and the improvement on insulin release and/or insulin sensitivity as well. The anti-hyperglycemic activity possessed by AKE maybe attributable to its high contents of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  8. Maximizing Impact: Pairing interactive web visualizations with traditional print media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, E. K.; Appling, A.; Carr, L.; De Cicco, L.; Read, J. S.; Walker, J. I.; Winslow, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Our Nation's rapidly growing store of environmental data makes new demands on researchers: to take on increasingly broad-scale, societally relevant analyses and to rapidly communicate findings to the public. Interactive web-based data visualizations now commonly supplement or comprise journalism, and science journalism has followed suit. To maximize the impact of US Geological Survey (USGS) science, the USGS Office of Water Information Data Science team builds tools and products that combine traditional static research products (e.g., print journal articles) with web-based, interactive data visualizations that target non-scientific audiences. We developed a lightweight, open-source framework for web visualizations to reduce time to production. The framework provides templates for a data visualization workflow and the packaging of text, interactive figures, and images into an appealing web interface with standardized look and feel, usage tracking, and responsiveness. By partnering with subject matter experts to focus on timely, societally relevant issues, we use these tools to produce appealing visual stories targeting specific audiences, including managers, the general public, and scientists, on diverse topics including drought, microplastic pollution, and fisheries response to climate change. We will describe the collaborative and technical methodologies used; describe some examples of how it's worked; and challenges and opportunities for the future.

  9. Kinetic theory in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanishing directional derivative of a scalar field along particle trajectories in maximal acceleration invariant phase space is identical in form to the ordinary covariant Vlasov equation in curved spacetime in the presence of both gravitational and nongravitational forces. A natural foundation is thereby provided for a covariant kinetic theory of particles in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space. (orig.)

  10. IIB solutions with N>28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2007-01-01

    We show that all IIB supergravity backgrounds which admit more than 28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric. In particular, we find that for all N>28 backgrounds the supercovariant curvature vanishes, and that the quotients of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds either preserve all 32 or N<29 supersymmetries

  11. Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L

    2011-01-01

    Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial respira...

  12. Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

  13. A Lyapunov based approach to energy maximization in renewable energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyasere, Erhun

    This dissertation describes the design and implementation of Lyapunov-based control strategies for the maximization of the power captured by renewable energy harnessing technologies such as (i) a variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine, (ii) a variable speed wind turbine coupled to a doubly fed induction generator, and (iii) a solar power generating system charging a constant voltage battery. First, a torque control strategy is presented to maximize wind energy captured in variable speed, variable pitch wind turbines at low to medium wind speeds. The proposed strategy applies control torque to the wind turbine pitch and rotor subsystems to simultaneously control the blade pitch and tip speed ratio, via the rotor angular speed, to an optimum point at which the capture efficiency is maximum. The control method allows for aerodynamic rotor power maximization without exact knowledge of the wind turbine model. A series of numerical results show that the wind turbine can be controlled to achieve maximum energy capture. Next, a control strategy is proposed to maximize the wind energy captured in a variable speed wind turbine, with an internal induction generator, at low to medium wind speeds. The proposed strategy controls the tip speed ratio, via the rotor angular speed, to an optimum point at which the efficiency constant (or power coefficient) is maximal for a particular blade pitch angle and wind speed by using the generator rotor voltage as a control input. This control method allows for aerodynamic rotor power maximization without exact wind turbine model knowledge. Representative numerical results demonstrate that the wind turbine can be controlled to achieve near maximum energy capture. Finally, a power system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) array panel, dc-to-dc switching converter, charging a battery is considered wherein the environmental conditions are time-varying. A backstepping PWM controller is developed to maximize the power of the solar generating

  14. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  15. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Stein, J.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-07-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of inter-row shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage-ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from inter-row shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of inter-row shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  16. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  17. Application of Expectation Maximization Method for Purchase Decision-Making Support in Welding Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujawińska Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of applying the proposed method of cluster analysis to support purchasing decisions in the welding industry. The authors analyze the usefulness of the non-hierarchical method, Expectation Maximization (EM, in the selection of material (212 combinations of flux and wire melt for the SAW (Submerged Arc Welding method process. The proposed approach to cluster analysis is proved as useful in supporting purchase decisions.

  18. Usefulness of meniscal width to transverse diameter ratio on coronal MRI in the diagnosis of incomplete discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.J.; Lee, S.Y.; Park, N.-H.; Chung, E.C.; Park, J.Y.; Kim, M.S.; Lee, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical utility of the meniscal width to transverse diameter ratio (L/M ratio) of the lateral meniscus in the diagnosis of incomplete discoid lateral meniscus (IDLM) as compared with the arthroscopic diagnosis, meniscal width to tibial diameter ratio (L/T ratio) and conventional lateral meniscus width criteria. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 41 patients with IDLM who underwent knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy, as well as 50 controls with normal lateral menisci. MRI examinations were interpreted independently by two radiologists, both of whom were blinded to clinical information and radiological reports. Assessment of meniscal width (L), maximal transverse diameter of the lateral meniscus (M), and transverse diameter of the tibia (T) was carried out on central coronal sections that were observed to pass through the medial collateral ligament. L/M and L/T ratios were calculated. These results were correlated with arthroscopic findings and analysed statistically using categorical regression analysis and non-parametric correlation analysis. Using arthroscopic findings as the standard of reference, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for: (1) 12, 13, 14, and 15 mm meniscal width thresholds; (2) 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% L/M ratio thresholds; and (3) 15%, 18%, 20%, and 25% L/T ratio thresholds. Results: The mean L/M ratio of the IDLM was approximately 67% and was statistically significantly higher than the control (44%). The best diagnostic discrimination was achieved using a threshold of 50%. The mean L/T ratio of the IDLM was approximately 23% and was statistically significant. The best diagnostic discrimination was achieved using a threshold of 18%. The threshold of 13 mm of meniscal width also showed high sensitivity and high specificity. Conclusion: The use of the L/M ratio or L/T ratio in combination with meniscal width criteria may be a useful method for evaluating IDLM

  19. Maximizing Green Infrastructure in a Philadelphia Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Zidar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD is counting on Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GI as a key component of its long-term plan for reducing combined sewer overflows, many community stakeholders are also hoping that investment in greening can help meet other ancillary goals, collectively referred to as sustainable redevelopment. This study investigates the challenges associated with implementation of GI in Point Breeze, a residential neighborhood of South Philadelphia. The project team performed a detailed study of physical, social, legal, and economic conditions in the pilot neighborhood over the course of several years, culminating in the development of an agent-based model simulation of GI implementation. The model evaluates a whether PWD’s GI goals can be met in a timely manner, b what kinds of assumptions regarding participation would be needed under different theoretical GI policies, and c the extent to which GI could promote sustainable redevelopment. The model outcomes underscore the importance of private land in helping PWD achieve its GI goals in Point Breeze. Achieving a meaningful density of GI in the neighborhoods most in need of sustainable redevelopment may require new and creative strategies for GI implementation tailored for the types of land present in those particular communities.

  20. [Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P

    2010-08-01

    The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.

  1. Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajjad rahmatian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.

  2. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  3. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  4. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  5. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; van Hall, G; Holmberg, H -C; Rosdahl, H; Saltin, B

    2004-01-01

    That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg−1 min−1 in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean ± s.e.m.) 24 ± 2 years, height 180 ± 2 cm, weight 74 ± 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2,max) 5.1 ± 0.1 l min−1 participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at ∼76% of V̇O2,max and at V̇O2,max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26–27 l min−1), mean blood pressure (MAP) (∼87 mmHg), systemic VC, systemic oxygen delivery and pulmonary V̇O2 (∼4 l min−1) attained similar values regardless of exercise mode. The distribution of cardiac output was modified depending on the musculature engaged in the exercise. There was a close relationship between VC and V̇O2 in arms (r = 0.99, P arm VC (63.7 ± 5.6 ml min−1 mmHg−1) was attained during double poling, while peak leg VC was reached at maximal exercise with the diagonal technique (109.8 ± 11.5 ml min−1 mmHg−1) when arm VC was 38.8 ± 5.7 ml min−1 mmHg−1. If during maximal exercise arms and legs had been vasodilated to the observed maximal levels then mean arterial pressure would have dropped at least to 75–77 mmHg in our experimental conditions. It is concluded that skeletal muscle vascular conductance is

  6. Gravitational collapse of charged dust shell and maximal slicing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    1980-01-01

    The maximal slicing condition is a good time coordinate condition qualitatively when pursuing the gravitational collapse by the numerical calculation. The analytic solution of the gravitational collapse under the maximal slicing condition is given in the case of a spherical charged dust shell and the behavior of time slices with this coordinate condition is investigated. It is concluded that under the maximal slicing condition we can pursue the gravitational collapse until the radius of the shell decreases to about 0.7 x (the radius of the event horizon). (author)

  7. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  8. Breakdown of maximality conjecture in continuous phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukamel, D.; Jaric, M.V.

    1983-04-01

    A Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model associated with a single irreducible representation which exhibits an ordered phase whose symmetry group is not a maximal isotropy subgroup of the symmetry group of the disordered phase is constructed. This example disproves the maximality conjecture suggested in numerous previous studies. Below the (continuous) transition, the order parameter points along a direction which varies with the temperature and with the other parameters which define the model. An extension of the maximality conjecture to reducible representations was postulated in the context of Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. Our model can also be extended to provide a counter example in these cases. (author)

  9. Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Maximizing Expected Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Kate E; Blum, Nathan J; Waryasz, Stephanie A; Augustyn, Marilyn

    expressive skills in the fifth percentile.During her evaluation in Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, an ASL interpreter was present, and the examiner is a fluent Spanish speaker. Testing was completed through a combination of English, Spanish, and ASL. Sonia seemed to prefer ASL to communicate, although she used some English words with errors of pronunciation. On the Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test, she obtained a standard score of 95. Parent and teacher rating scales were not significant for symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.What factors are contributing to her slow language acquisition and how would you modify her treatment plan?

  10. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  11. Maximizing noise energy for noise-masking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Étienne, Cédric; Arleo, Angelo; Allard, Rémy

    2017-08-01

    Noise-masking experiments are widely used to investigate visual functions. To be useful, noise generally needs to be strong enough to noticeably impair performance, but under some conditions, noise does not impair performance even when its contrast approaches the maximal displayable limit of 100 %. To extend the usefulness of noise-masking paradigms over a wider range of conditions, the present study developed a noise with great masking strength. There are two typical ways of increasing masking strength without exceeding the limited contrast range: use binary noise instead of Gaussian noise or filter out frequencies that are not relevant to the task (i.e., which can be removed without affecting performance). The present study combined these two approaches to further increase masking strength. We show that binarizing the noise after the filtering process substantially increases the energy at frequencies within the pass-band of the filter given equated total contrast ranges. A validation experiment showed that similar performances were obtained using binarized-filtered noise and filtered noise (given equated noise energy at the frequencies within the pass-band) suggesting that the binarization operation, which substantially reduced the contrast range, had no significant impact on performance. We conclude that binarized-filtered noise (and more generally, truncated-filtered noise) can substantially increase the energy of the noise at frequencies within the pass-band. Thus, given a limited contrast range, binarized-filtered noise can display higher energy levels than Gaussian noise and thereby widen the range of conditions over which noise-masking paradigms can be useful.

  12. Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Andaji-Garmaroudi, Zahra; Cacovich, Stefania; Stavrakas, Camille; Philippe, Bertrand; Richter, Johannes M.; Alsari, Mejd; Booker, Edward P.; Hutter, Eline M.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Lilliu, Samuele; Savenije, Tom J.; Rensmo, Håkan; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Friend, Richard H.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2018-03-01

    Metal halide perovskites are of great interest for various high-performance optoelectronic applications. The ability to tune the perovskite bandgap continuously by modifying the chemical composition opens up applications for perovskites as coloured emitters, in building-integrated photovoltaics, and as components of tandem photovoltaics to increase the power conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, performance is limited by non-radiative losses, with luminescence yields in state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells still far from 100 per cent under standard solar illumination conditions. Furthermore, in mixed halide perovskite systems designed for continuous bandgap tunability (bandgaps of approximately 1.7 to 1.9 electronvolts), photoinduced ion segregation leads to bandgap instabilities. Here we demonstrate substantial mitigation of both non-radiative losses and photoinduced ion migration in perovskite films and interfaces by decorating the surfaces and grain boundaries with passivating potassium halide layers. We demonstrate external photoluminescence quantum yields of 66 per cent, which translate to internal yields that exceed 95 per cent. The high luminescence yields are achieved while maintaining high mobilities of more than 40 square centimetres per volt per second, providing the elusive combination of both high luminescence and excellent charge transport. When interfaced with electrodes in a solar cell device stack, the external luminescence yield—a quantity that must be maximized to obtain high efficiency—remains as high as 15 per cent, indicating very clean interfaces. We also demonstrate the inhibition of transient photoinduced ion-migration processes across a wide range of mixed halide perovskite bandgaps in materials that exhibit bandgap instabilities when unpassivated. We validate these results in fully operating solar cells. Our work represents an important advance in the construction of tunable metal halide perovskite films and interfaces that can

  13. Reference Values for Maximal Inspiratory Pressure: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MB Sclauser Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP is the most commonly used measure to evaluate inspiratory muscle strength. Normative values for MIP vary significantly among studies, which may reflect differences in participant demographics and technique of MIP measurement.

  14. Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.

  15. Maximizing Your Investment in Building Automation System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how organizational issues and system standardization can be important factors that determine an institution's ability to fully exploit contemporary building automation systems (BAS). Further presented is management strategy for maximizing BAS investments. (GR)

  16. Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S

    1996-01-01

    subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...... for all three clamp steps used (P maximal activity of glycogen synthase was identical in the two thighs for all clamp steps. 3. The glucose infusion rate (GIR......) necessary to maintain euglycaemia during maximal insulin stimulation was lower during PEC compared with CC (15.7%, 81.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 96.4 +/- 8.8 mumol kg-1 min-1, P maximal...

  17. Maximal slicing of D-dimensional spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Hirotaka; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We study the foliation of a D-dimensional spherically symmetric black-hole spacetime with D≥5 by two kinds of one-parameter families of maximal hypersurfaces: a reflection-symmetric foliation with respect to the wormhole slot and a stationary foliation that has an infinitely long trumpetlike shape. As in the four-dimensional case, the foliations by the maximal hypersurfaces avoid the singularity irrespective of the dimensionality. This indicates that the maximal slicing condition will be useful for simulating higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes in numerical relativity. For the case of D=5, we present analytic solutions of the intrinsic metric, the extrinsic curvature, the lapse function, and the shift vector for the foliation by the stationary maximal hypersurfaces. These data will be useful for checking five-dimensional numerical-relativity codes based on the moving puncture approach.

  18. ICTs and Urban Micro Enterprises : Maximizing Opportunities for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs and Urban Micro Enterprises : Maximizing Opportunities for Economic Development ... the use of ICTs in micro enterprises and their role in reducing poverty. ... in its approach to technological connectivity but bottom-up in relation to.

  19. Real-time topic-aware influence maximization using preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lin, Tian; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Influence maximization is the task of finding a set of seed nodes in a social network such that the influence spread of these seed nodes based on certain influence diffusion model is maximized. Topic-aware influence diffusion models have been recently proposed to address the issue that influence between a pair of users are often topic-dependent and information, ideas, innovations etc. being propagated in networks are typically mixtures of topics. In this paper, we focus on the topic-aware influence maximization task. In particular, we study preprocessing methods to avoid redoing influence maximization for each mixture from scratch. We explore two preprocessing algorithms with theoretical justifications. Our empirical results on data obtained in a couple of existing studies demonstrate that one of our algorithms stands out as a strong candidate providing microsecond online response time and competitive influence spread, with reasonable preprocessing effort.

  20. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  1. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  2. Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressé, Steve

    2014-11-01

    The maximum entropy method—used to infer probabilistic models from data—is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations.

  3. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  4. Maximally flat radiation patterns of a circular aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1989-08-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problems of maximizing the area utilization coefficient and of obtaining the best approximation (on the average) of a sectorial Pi-shaped radiation pattern of an antenna with a circular aperture when Butterworth conditions are imposed on the approximating pattern with the aim of flattening it. Constraints on the choice of admissible minimum and maximum antenna dimensions are determined which make possible the synthesis of maximally flat patterns with small sidelobes.

  5. Design of optimal linear antennas with maximally flat radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1990-02-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problem of maximizing the aperture area utilization coefficient and obtaining the best approximation in the mean of the sectorial U-shaped radiation pattern of a linear antenna, when Butterworth flattening constraints are imposed on the approximating pattern. Constraints are established on the choice of the smallest and large antenna dimensions that make it possible to obtain maximally flat patterns, having a low sidelobe level and free from pulsations within the main lobe.

  6. No Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect in Maximal Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, P. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Scott, W. G.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the possible influence of the MSW effect on the expectations for the solar neutrino experiments in the maximal mixing scenario suggested by the atmospheric neutrino data. A direct numerical calculation of matter induced effects in the Sun shows that the naive vacuum predictions are left completely undisturbed in the particular case of maximal mixing, so that the MSW effect turns out to be unobservable. We give a qualitative explanation of this result.

  7. A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2015-02-01

    A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.

  8. On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...

  9. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    OpenAIRE

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the r...

  10. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  11. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  12. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees.

  13. Softly Broken Lepton Numbers: an Approach to Maximal Neutrino Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss models where the U(1) symmetries of lepton numbers are responsible for maximal neutrino mixing. We pay particular attention to an extension of the Standard Model (SM) with three right-handed neutrino singlets in which we require that the three lepton numbers L e , L μ , and L τ be separately conserved in the Yukawa couplings, but assume that they are softly broken by the Majorana mass matrix M R of the neutrino singlets. In this framework, where lepton-number breaking occurs at a scale much higher than the electroweak scale, deviations from family lepton number conservation are calculable, i.e., finite, and lepton mixing stems exclusively from M R . We show that in this framework either maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing or maximal solar neutrino mixing or both can be imposed by invoking symmetries. In this way those maximal mixings are stable against radiative corrections. The model which achieves maximal (or nearly maximal) solar neutrino mixing assumes that there are two different scales in M R and that the lepton number (dash)L=L e -L μ -L τ 1 is conserved in between them. We work out the difference between this model and the conventional scenario where (approximate) (dash)L invariance is imposed directly on the mass matrix of the light neutrinos. (author)

  14. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  15. A new approach for optimum DG placement and sizing based on voltage stability maximization and minimization of power losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, M.M.; Jasmon, G.B.; Bakar, A.H.A.; Mokhlis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new algorithm is proposed for optimum DG placement and sizing.• I 2 R losses minimization and voltage stability maximization is considered in fitness function.• Bus voltage stability and line stability is considered in voltage stability maximization.• Multi-objective PSO is used to solve the problem.• Proposed method is compared with analytical and grid search algorithm. - Abstract: Distributed Generation (DG) placement on the basis of minimization of losses and maximization of system voltage stability are two different approaches, discussed in research. In the new proposed algorithm, a multi-objective approach is used to combine the both approaches together. Minimization of power losses and maximization of voltage stability due to finding weakest voltage bus as well as due to weakest link in the system are considered in the fitness function. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in this paper to solve the multi-objective problem. This paper will also compare the propose method with existing DG placement methods. From results, the proposed method is found more advantageous than the previous work in terms of voltage profile improvement, maximization of system loadability, reduction in power system losses and maximization of bus and line voltage stability. The results are validated on 12-bus, 30-bus, 33-bus and 69-bus radial distribution networks and also discussed in detailed

  16. A method of bias correction for maximal reliability with dichotomous measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Spiridon; Raykov, Tenko

    2010-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the reliability of weighted combinations of a given set of dichotomous measures. Maximal reliability for such measures has been discussed in the past, but the pertinent estimator exhibits a considerable bias and mean squared error for moderate sample sizes. We examine this bias, propose a procedure for bias correction, and develop a more accurate asymptotic confidence interval for the resulting estimator. In most empirically relevant cases, the bias correction and mean squared error correction can be performed simultaneously. We propose an approximate (asymptotic) confidence interval for the maximal reliability coefficient, discuss the implementation of this estimator, and investigate the mean squared error of the associated asymptotic approximation. We illustrate the proposed methods using a numerical example.

  17. PEM-PCA: A Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA Face Recognition Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokmon Rujirakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages’ complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA.

  18. Approaching maximal performance of longitudinal beam compression in induction accelerator drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Ho, D.D.M.; Brandon, S.T.; Chang, C.L.; Drobot, A.T.; Faltens, A.; Lee, E.P.; Krafft, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal beam compression occurs before final focus and fusion chamber beam transport and is a key process determining initial conditions for final focus hardware. Determining the limits for maximal performance of key accelerator components is an essential element of the effort to reduce driver costs. Studies directed towards defining the limits of final beam compression including considerations such as maximal available compression, effects of longitudinal dispersion and beam emittance, combining pulse-shaping with beam compression to reduce the total number of beam manipulators, etc., are given. Several possible techniques are illustrated for utilizing the beam compression process to provide the pulse shapes required by a number of targets. Without such capabilities to shape the pulse, an additional factor of two or so of beam energy would be required by the targets

  19. PEM-PCA: a parallel expectation-maximization PCA face recognition architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Kanokmon; So-In, Chakchai; Arnonkijpanich, Banchar

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages' complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA.

  20. A Simulated Annealing method to solve a generalized maximal covering location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saeed Jabalameli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The maximal covering location problem (MCLP seeks to locate a predefined number of facilities in order to maximize the number of covered demand points. In a classical sense, MCLP has three main implicit assumptions: all or nothing coverage, individual coverage, and fixed coverage radius. By relaxing these assumptions, three classes of modelling formulations are extended: the gradual cover models, the cooperative cover models, and the variable radius models. In this paper, we develop a special form of MCLP which combines the characteristics of gradual cover models, cooperative cover models, and variable radius models. The proposed problem has many applications such as locating cell phone towers. The model is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP. In addition, a simulated annealing algorithm is used to solve the resulted problem and the performance of the proposed method is evaluated with a set of randomly generated problems.

  1. MAXIMIZING HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION FROM RESERVOIRS:THE CASE STUDY OF MARKABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, H.

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower is a form of renewable energy that is clean and cheap. Under uncertain climatic conditions, maximization of hydropower production becomes a challenging task.Stochastic Dynamic programming (SDP) is a promising optimization algorithm that is usedfor complex non-linear reservoir operational policies and strategies.In this research, a combined simulation-SDPoptimization model isdeveloped andverified for maximizing large-scale hydropower production in a monthly time step. The model isdeveloped to generate optimal operational policies for the Qarawn reservoir in Lebanon and test these policies in real time conditions. The model isused to derive operational regimes for the Qarawn reservoirunder varying flows using transitional probability matrices. Simulating the derived rules and the generated operational policies proved effective in maximizingthe hydropower production from the Markaba power plant. The model could be successfully applied to other hydropower dams in the region. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  3. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  4. Formal Darwinism, the individual-as-maximizing-agent analogy and bet-hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, A.

    1999-01-01

    The central argument of The origin of species was that mechanical processes (inheritance of features and the differential reproduction they cause) can give rise to the appearance of design. The 'mechanical processes' are now mathematically represented by the dynamic systems of population genetics, and the appearance of design by optimization and game theory in which the individual plays the part of the maximizing agent. Establishing a precise individual-as-maximizing-agent (IMA) analogy for a population-genetics system justifies optimization approaches, and so provides a modern formal representation of the core of Darwinism. It is a hitherto unnoticed implication of recent population-genetics models that, contrary to a decades-long consensus, an IMA analogy can be found in models with stochastic environments (subject to a convexity assumption), in which individuals maximize expected reproductive value. The key is that the total reproductive value of a species must be considered as constant, so therefore reproductive value should always be calculated in relative terms. This result removes a major obstacle from the theoretical challenge to find a unifying framework which establishes the IMA analogy for all of Darwinian biology, including as special cases inclusive fitness, evolutionarily stable strategies, evolutionary life-history theory, age-structured models and sex ratio theory. This would provide a formal, mathematical justification of fruitful and widespread but 'intentional' terms in evolutionary biology, such as 'selfish', 'altruism' and 'conflict'.

  5. Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeida, Mohamed S; Rushdi, Ahmad A; Awad, Muhammad A; Mahmoud, Ahmed H; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A; Owens, John D; Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Mitchell, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations.

  6. An unstable social environment affects sex ratio in guinea pigs : an adaptive maternal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, Kristina; Kaiser, Sylvia; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Wewers, Dirk; Groothuis, Ton; Sachser, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary theory suggests that offspring sex should be adjusted to environmental conditions in order to maximize future reproductive success. In several animal taxa environmental factors indeed affect the secondary sex ratio. In humans, changes in the sex ratio at birth have been associated with

  7. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  8. Quantization with maximally degenerate Poisson brackets: the harmonic oscillator!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutku, Yavuz

    2003-01-01

    Nambu's construction of multi-linear brackets for super-integrable systems can be thought of as degenerate Poisson brackets with a maximal set of Casimirs in their kernel. By introducing privileged coordinates in phase space these degenerate Poisson brackets are brought to the form of Heisenberg's equations. We propose a definition for constructing quantum operators for classical functions, which enables us to turn the maximally degenerate Poisson brackets into operators. They pose a set of eigenvalue problems for a new state vector. The requirement of the single-valuedness of this eigenfunction leads to quantization. The example of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate this general procedure for quantizing a class of maximally super-integrable systems

  9. Quantum speedup in solving the maximal-clique problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weng-Long; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Jiahui; Peng, Xinhua; Feng, Mang

    2018-03-01

    The maximal-clique problem, to find the maximally sized clique in a given graph, is classically an NP-complete computational problem, which has potential applications ranging from electrical engineering, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics to social networks. Here we develop a quantum algorithm to solve the maximal-clique problem for any graph G with n vertices with quadratic speedup over its classical counterparts, where the time and spatial complexities are reduced to, respectively, O (√{2n}) and O (n2) . With respect to oracle-related quantum algorithms for the NP-complete problems, we identify our algorithm as optimal. To justify the feasibility of the proposed quantum algorithm, we successfully solve a typical clique problem for a graph G with two vertices and one edge by carrying out a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment involving four qubits.

  10. Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem

  11. Maximization of regional probabilities using Optimal Surface Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Lorza, Andres M.; Van Engelen, Arna; Petersen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We present a segmentation method that maximizes regional probabilities enclosed by coupled surfaces using an Optimal Surface Graph (OSG) cut approach. This OSG cut determines the globally optimal solution given a graph constructed around an initial surface. While most methods for vessel...... wall segmentation only use edge information, we show that maximizing regional probabilities using an OSG improves the segmentation results. We applied this to automatically segment the vessel wall of the carotid artery in magnetic resonance images. Methods: First, voxel-wise regional probability maps...... were obtained using a Support Vector Machine classifier trained on local image features. Then, the OSG segments the regions which maximizes the regional probabilities considering smoothness and topological constraints. Results: The method was evaluated on 49 carotid arteries from 30 subjects...

  12. El culto de Maximón en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Pédron‑Colombani, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo se enfoca en la figura de Maximón, deidad sincrética de Guatemala, en un contexto de desplazamiento de la religión católica popular por parte de las iglesias protestantes. Esta divinidad híbrida a la cual se agregan santos católicos como Judas Iscariote o el dios maya Mam, permite la apropiación de Maximón por segmentos diferenciados de la población (tanto indígena como mestiza). Permite igualmente ser símbolo de protestas sociales enmascaradas cuando se asocia Maximón con figur...

  13. Maximal Electric Dipole Moments of Nuclei with Enhanced Schiff Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of heavy nuclei, such as 199Hg, 225Ra and 211Rn, can be enhanced by the Schiff moments induced by the presence of nearby parity-doublet states. Working within the framework of the maximally CP-violating and minimally flavour-violating (MCPMFV) version of the MSSM, we discuss the maximal values that such EDMs might attain, given the existing experimental constraints on the Thallium, neutron and Mercury EDMs. The maximal EDM values of the heavy nuclei are obtained with the help of a differential-geometrical approach proposed recently that enables the maxima of new CP-violating observables to be calculated exactly in the linear approximation. In the case of 225Ra, we find that its EDM may be as large as 6 to 50 x 10^{-27} e.cm.

  14. Prediction of maximal lactate steady state in runners with an incremental test on the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leti, Thomas; Mendelson, Monique; Laplaud, David; Flore, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    During a maximal incremental ergocycle test, the power output associated with Respiratory Exchange Ratio equal to 1.00 (RER = 1.00) predicts maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). We hypothesised that these results are transferable for runners on the field. Fourteen runners performed a maximal progressive test, to assess the speed associated with RER = 1.00, and several 30 minutes constant velocity tests to determine the speed at MLSS. We observed that the speeds at RER = 1.00, at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) and at MLSS did not differ (15.7 ± 1.1 km · h⁻¹, 16.2 ± 1.4 km · h⁻¹, 15.5 ± 1.1 km · h⁻¹ respectively). The speed associated with RER = 1.00 was better correlated with that at MLSS (r = 0.79; p = 0.0008) than that at VT2 (r = 0.73; p = 0.002). Neither the concentration of blood lactate nor the heart rate differed between the speed at RER = 1.00 and that at MLSS from the 10th and the 30th minute of the constant velocity test. Bland and Altman analysis showed a fair agreement between the speed at MLSS and that at RER (0.2 ± 1.4 km · h⁻¹). This study demonstrated that the speed associated with RER = 1.00 determined during maximal progressive track running allows a fair estimation of the speed associated with MLSS, markedly decreasing the burden of numerous invasive tests required to assess it.

  15. The intent to exercise influences the cerebral O(2)/carbohydrate uptake ratio in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ide, Kojiro; Cai, Yan

    2002-01-01

    During and after maximal exercise there is a 15-30 % decrease in the metabolic uptake ratio (O(2)/[glucose + 1/2 lactate]) and a net lactate uptake by the human brain. This study evaluated if this cerebral metabolic uptake ratio is influenced by the intent to exercise, and whether a change could......, the a-v difference for the amino acids and glycerol did not change significantly, and there was only a minimal increase in the a-v difference for free fatty acids after maximal exercise. After maximal exercise the metabolic uptake ratio of the brain decreased from 6.1 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- S.E.M.) at rest.......2) in the early recovery (n = 10; P brain are increased out of proportion to O(2) when the brain is activated by exhaustive exercise, and that such metabolic changes are influenced by the will to exercise. We speculate that the uptake ratio...

  16. Maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses during deepwater running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p41   Aquatic exercises provide numerous benefits to the health of their practitioners. To secure these benefits, it is essential to have proper prescriptions to the needs of each individual and, therefore, it is important to study the cardiorespiratory responses of different activities in this environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses at the anaerobic threshold (AT between maximal deep-water running (DWR and maximal treadmill running (TMR. In addition, two methods of determining the AT (the heart rate deflection point [HRDP] and ventilatory method [VM] are compared in the two evaluated protocols. Twelve young women performed the two maximal protocols. Two-factor ANOVA for repeated measures with a post-hoc Bonferroni test was used (α < 0.05. Significantly higher values of maximal heart rate (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 and maximal oxygen uptake (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 in TMR compared to the DWR were found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the methods for determining the AT (TMR: VM: 28.1 ± 5.3, HRDP: 26.6 ± 5.5 ml.kg−1.min−1; DWR: VM: 18.7 ± 4.8, HRDP: 17.8 ± 4.8 ml.kg−1.min−1. The results indicate that a specific maximal test for the trained modality should be conducted and the HRDP can be used as a simple and practical method of determining the AT, based on which the training intensity can be determined

  17. A novel ergodic capacity analysis of diversity combining and multihop transmission systems over generalized composite fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-06-01

    Ergodic capacity is an important performance measure associated with reliable communication at the highest rate at which information can be sent over the channel with a negligible probability of error. In the shadow of this definition, diversity receivers (such as selection combining, equal-gain combining and maximal-ratio combining) and transmission techniques (such as cascaded fading channels, amplify-and-forward multihop transmission) are deployed in mitigating various performance impairing effects such as fading and shadowing in digital radio communication links. However, the exact analysis of ergodic capacity is in general not always possible for all of these forms of diversity receivers and transmission techniques over generalized composite fading environments due to it\\'s mathematical intractability. In the literature, published papers concerning the exact analysis of ergodic capacity have been therefore scarce (i.e., only [1] and [2]) when compared to those concerning the exact analysis of average symbol error probability. In addition, they are essentially targeting to the ergodic capacity of the maximal ratio combining diversity receivers and are not readily applicable to the capacity analysis of the other diversity combiners / transmission techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel moment generating function-based approach for the exact ergodic capacity analysis of both diversity receivers and transmission techniques over generalized composite fading environments. As such, we demonstrate how to simultaneously treat the ergodic capacity analysis of all forms of both diversity receivers and multihop transmission techniques. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Jia, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  19. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-10-17

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  20. On Maximal Non-Disjoint Families of Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zuev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies maximal non-disjoint families of subsets of a finite set. Non-disjointness means that any two subsets of a family have a nonempty intersection. The maximality is expressed by the fact that adding a new subset to the family cannot increase its power without violating a non-disjointness condition. Studying the properties of such families is an important section of the extreme theory of sets. Along with purely combinatorial interest, the problems considered here play an important role in informatics, anti-noise coding, and cryptography.In 1961 this problem saw the light of day in the Erdos, Ko and Rado paper, which established a maximum power of the non-disjoint family of subsets of equal power. In 1974 the Erdos and Claytman publication estimated the number of maximal non-disjoint families of subsets without involving the equality of their power. These authors failed to establish an asymptotics of the logarithm of the number of such families when the power of a basic finite set tends to infinity. However, they suggested such an asymptotics as a hypothesis. A.D. Korshunov in two publications in 2003 and 2005 established the asymptotics for the number of non-disjoint families of the subsets of arbitrary powers without maximality condition of these families.The basis for the approach used in the paper to study the families of subsets is their description in the language of Boolean functions. A one-to-one correspondence between a family of subsets and a Boolean function is established by the fact that the characteristic vectors of subsets of a family are considered to be the unit sets of a Boolean function. The main theoretical result of the paper is that the maximal non-disjoint families are in one-to-one correspondence with the monotonic self-dual Boolean functions. When estimating the number of maximal non-disjoint families, this allowed us to use the result of A.A. Sapozhenko, who established the asymptotics of the number of the

  1. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  2. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  3. Identities on maximal subgroups of GLn(D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, D.; Mahdavi-Hezavehi, M.

    2002-04-01

    Let D be a division ring with centre F. Assume that M is a maximal subgroup of GL n (D), n≥1 such that Z(M) is algebraic over F. Group identities on M and polynomial identities on the F-linear hull F[M] are investigated. It is shown that if F[M] is a PI-algebra, then [D:F] n (D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N. If M satisfies a group identity, it is shown that M is abelian-by-finite. (author)

  4. Instantons and Gribov copies in the maximally Abelian gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmann, F.; Heinzl, T.; Wipf, A.; Tok, T.

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the Faddeev-Popov operator corresponding to the maximally Abelian gauge for gauge group SU(N). Specializing to SU(2) we look for explicit zero modes of this operator. Within an illuminating toy model (Yang-Mills mechanics) the problem can be completely solved and understood. In the field theory case we are able to find an analytic expression for a normalizable zero mode in the background of a single 't Hooft instanton. Accordingly, such an instanton corresponds to a horizon configuration in the maximally Abelian gauge. Possible physical implications are discussed

  5. Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake in severe acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Rådegran, G

    2003-01-01

    To unravel the mechanisms by which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is reduced with severe acute hypoxia in humans, nine Danish lowlanders performed incremental cycle ergometer exercise to exhaustion, while breathing room air (normoxia) or 10.5% O2 in N2 (hypoxia, approximately 5,300 m above sea......: 1) reduction of PiO2, 2) impairment of pulmonary gas exchange, and 3) reduction of maximal cardiac output and peak leg blood flow, each explaining about one-third of the loss in VO2 max....

  6. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Felix; Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita

    2012-05-01

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  7. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.

  8. Maximization of Tsallis entropy in the combinatorial formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyari, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the mathematical reformulation for maximization of Tsallis entropy S q in the combinatorial sense. More concretely, we generalize the original derivation of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law to Tsallis statistics by means of the corresponding generalized multinomial coefficient. Our results reveal that maximization of S 2-q under the usual expectation or S q under q-average using the escort expectation are naturally derived from the combinatorial formulations for Tsallis statistics with respective combinatorial dualities, that is, one for additive duality and the other for multiplicative duality.

  9. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2012-05-15

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  10. The Large Margin Mechanism for Differentially Private Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Hsu, Daniel; Song, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    A basic problem in the design of privacy-preserving algorithms is the private maximization problem: the goal is to pick an item from a universe that (approximately) maximizes a data-dependent function, all under the constraint of differential privacy. This problem has been used as a sub-routine in many privacy-preserving algorithms for statistics and machine-learning. Previous algorithms for this problem are either range-dependent---i.e., their utility diminishes with the size of the universe...

  11. Tax rate to maximize the revenue: Laffer curve for the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Karas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to model the relationship between the rate of personal income tax and the revenue it generates, and to derive a tax rate that would maximize this revenue within the Czech Republic, using methodologies described in earlier works (Hsing, 1996. This tax rate represents an upper limit. Overstepping it has negative consequences for corporate finances and government budgetary funding alike, because it undermines the workers’ motivation to work, reduces buying power, and shifts work activities in favor of gray economy. The period of interest is a time series from 1993 to 2010. Two models were devised. The basic research instrument was a second-degree polynomial regression with a logarithmic transformation of the input data. The explaining variable was the tax revenue, the explanatory variable in Model 1 was the ratio of tax revenue to personal gross annual income. Model 2 featured the ratio of tax revenue to gross domestic product. To limit model instability, all data was stated per capita, in 2010 prices. Both models are statistically significant. By comparison, it was determined that, in the period of 1994–2010, the historical tax rate was lower than the rate designed to maximize the revenue. It approached the theoretical optimum most closely in 2007, and deviated from it most severely in 1995.

  12. Optimizing fluorescently tethered Hsp90 inhibitor dose for maximal specific uptake by breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Brian T.; Duer, Joy; Wang, Roujia; Gallagher, Jennifer; Hall, Allison; Soo, Mary Scott; Hughes, Philip; Haystead, Timothy A. J.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2018-03-01

    Despite improvements in surgical resection, 20-40% of patients undergoing breast conserving surgery require at least one additional re-excision. Leveraging the unique surface expression of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a chaperone protein involved in several key hallmarks of cancer, in breast cancer provides an exciting opportunity to identify residual disease during surgery. We developed a completely non-destructive strategy using HS-27, a fluorescently-tethered Hsp90 inhibitor, to assay surface Hsp90 expression on intact tissue specimens using a fluorescence microendoscope with a field of view of 750 μm and subcellular resolution of 4 μm. HS-27 consists of an FDA approved Hsp90 inhibitor tethered to fluorescein isothiocyanate (EX 488nm, EM 525nm). Here, we optimized ex vivo HS-27 administration in pre-clinical breast cancer models and validated our approach on 21 patients undergoing standard of care ultrasound guided core needle biopsy. HS-27 administration time was fixed at 1- minute to minimize imaging impact on clinical workflow. HS-27 and HS-217 (non-specific control) doses were modulated from 1 μM up to 100 μM to identify the dose maximizing the ratio of specific uptake (HS-27 fluorescence) to non-specific uptake (HS-217 fluorescence). The specificity ratio was maximized at 100 μM and was significantly greater than all other doses (pcancer makes this technology attractive for assessing tumor margins, as one agent can be used for all subtypes.

  13. A comparison of maximal exercise and dipyridamole thallium-201 planar gated scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.; Tweddel, A.C.; Main, G.; Hutton, I.

    1992-01-01

    Both symptom-limited maximal exercise and intravenously given dipyridamole stress (0.56 mg/kg over 4 min with a 2 min walk) gated thallium scans were performed in 22 patients undergoing coronary arteriography for the assessment of chest pain. All scans were acquired gated to the electrocardiogram in 3 projections and were reported for the presence and extent of defects in 5 myocardial segments in each view. In addition, left and right ventricular myocardial uptake and estimates of right and left lung and liver to left ventricular uptake were assessed relative to the injected dose of thallium-201. Overall, 190/310 segments were abnormal with exercise compared with 169/310 with dipyridamole. Segments were scored greater in extent in 90/310 cases with exercise, compared with 46/310 in which the defect was more extensive with dipyridamole. Non-attenuation corrected percentage myocardial thallium uptakes were similar for both stresses. Left and right lung and liver to left ventricle ratios were all significantly higher with dipyridamole than with exercise. High right and left lung uptakes with dipyridamole were strongly correlated with high exercise values. The liver uptake was weakly correlated between the 2 different stress tests. These results demonstrate that dipyridamole induces fewer and less extensive thallium perfusion defects than maximal exercise, and that liver and lung to myocardial ratios are higher with dipyridamole than with exercise. (orig./MG)

  14. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Ejector Internal Flow Structure and Geometry Modification for Maximized Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsafioon, Mehdi; Aidoun, Zine; Poirier, Michel

    2017-12-01

    A wide range of industrial refrigeration systems are good candidates to benefit from the cooling and refrigeration potential of supersonic ejectors. These are thermally activated and can use waste heat recovery from industrial processes where it is abundantly generated and rejected to the environment. In other circumstances low cost heat from biomass or solar energy may also be used in order to produce a cooling effect. Ejector performance is however typically modest and needs to be maximized in order to take full advantage of the simplicity and low cost of the technology. In the present work, the behavior of ejectors with different nozzle exit positions has been investigated using a prototype as well as a CFD model. The prototype was used in order to measure the performance advantages of refrigerant (R-134a) flowing inside the ejector. For the CFD model, it is assumed that the ejectors are axi-symmetric along x-axis, thus the generated model is in 2D. The preliminary CFD results are validated with experimental data over a wide range of conditions and are in good accordance in terms of entrainment and compression ratios. Next, the flow patterns of four different topologies are studied in order to discuss the optimum geometry in term of ejector entrainment improvement. Finally, The numerical simulations were used to find an optimum value corresponding to maximized entrainment ratio for fixed operating conditions.

  15. Two Light Sterile Neutrinos that Mix Maximally with Each Other and Moderately with Three Active Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 3+1 neutrino models with one light sterile neutrino turn out to be not very effective, at least two light sterile neutrinos may be needed to reconcile the solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments with the LSND result, if this is confirmed by the ongoing MiniBooNE experiment (and when the CPT invariance is assumed to hold for neutrino oscillations). We present an attractive 3+2 neutrino model, where two light sterile neutrinos mix maximally with each other, in analogy to the observed maximal mixing of muon and tauon active neutrinos. But, while the mixing of ν e and (ν μ - ν τ )/√2 is observed as large (though not maximal), the mixing of ν e with the corresponding combination of two light sterile neutrinos is expected to be only moderate because of the reported smallness of LSND oscillation amplitude. The presented model turns out, however, not to be more effective in explaining the hypothetic LSND result than the simplest 3+1 neutrino model. On the other hand, in the considered 3+2 model, the deviations from conventional oscillations of three active neutrinos appear to be minimal within a larger class of 3+2 models. (author)

  16. Design and manufacturing rules for maximizing the performance of polycrystalline piezoelectric bending actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafferis, Noah T; Smith, Michael J; Wood, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the energy and power density of piezoelectric actuators is very important for any weight-sensitive application, and is especially crucial for enabling autonomy in micro/milli-scale robots and devices utilizing this technology. This is achieved by maximizing the mechanical flexural strength and electrical dielectric strength through the use of laser-induced melting or polishing, insulating edge coating, and crack-arresting features, combined with features for rigid ground attachments to maximize force output. Manufacturing techniques have also been developed to enable mass customization, in which sheets of material are pre-stacked to form a laminate from which nearly arbitrary planar actuator designs can be fabricated using only laser cutting. These techniques have led to a 70% increase in energy density and an increase in mean lifetime of at least 15× compared to prior manufacturing methods. In addition, measurements have revealed a doubling of the piezoelectric coefficient when operating at the high fields necessary to achieve maximal energy densities, along with an increase in the Young’s modulus at the high compressive strains encountered—these two effects help to explain the higher performance of our actuators as compared to that predicted by linear models. (paper)

  17. Maximizing the lightshelf performance by interaction between lightshelf geometries and a curved ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freewan, Ahmed A. [Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    The interaction between different lightshelf geometries combined with a curved ceiling was investigated using radiance to maximize the daylight performance of a lightshelf. Two main performance parameters were investigated; illuminance level and distribution uniformity in a large space located in a sub-tropical climate region like Jordan. It was found that a curved lightshelf could improve the daylight level by 10% compared to a horizontal lightshelf. A curved lightshelf help to bounce more daylight deep into a space thus improve the illuminance level and uniformity level. The best lightshelf shapes found are curved and chamfered lightshelves compared to horizontal lightshelves. (author)

  18. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination.......05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate...

  19. Maximizing therapeutic gain with gemcitabine and fractionated radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Kathy A.; Milas, Luka; Hunter, Nancy R.; Elshaikh, Mohamed; Buchmiller, Lara; Kishi, Kazushi; Hittelman, K. Walter; Ang, K. Kian

    1999-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The nucleoside analogue gemcitabine inhibits cellular repair and repopulation, induces apoptosis, causes tumor growth delay, and enhances radiation-induced growth delay. After single doses of drug and radiation, maximum enhancement of tumor response was obtained when gemcitabine preceded radiation by at least 24 h. Conversely, the cellular radioresponse of the normal gastrointestinal epithelium was slightly protected when gemcitabine and radiation were separated by 24 h. This differential response created a time frame within which therapeutic gain could be maximized. In our present investigation, we sought to define the most therapeutically beneficial scheme of gemcitabine administration when combined with fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: C3Hf/Kam mice were given identical drug and radiation schedules of administration, and both normal tissue (jejunal mucosa) and tumor (Sa-NH) responses were measured. Irradiation was given once per day for 5 days in normal tissue and tumor growth delay studies and twice per day for the tumor cure endpoint. A total dose of 25 mg/kg gemcitabine was given i.p. in 1 of 3 schedules: a single dose of 25 mg/kg 24 h before the start of fractionated irradiation, 12.5 mg/kg 24 h before the first and third radiation doses, or 24 h before each of 5 radiation doses. Groups of mice bearing 7- or 8-mm diameter tumors were treated with gemcitabine alone or in combination with fractionated irradiation under ambient or hypoxic conditions. The survival response of the jejunal mucosa was quantified by the microcolony assay and histologically by quantifying apoptosis, mitosis, S-phase fraction, and crypt cellularity. Results: For tumor growth delay, dose-modifying factors (DMFs) were similar (1.34-1.46) for all 3 schedules of drug administration. In contrast, the response of the jejunum was strongly dependent on the schedule of gemcitabine administration. A single dose of gemcitabine before the start of fractionated

  20. Maximal saddle solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Mathematics and Econometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China. E-mail: huahuiyan@163.com; duzr@hnu.edu.cn. MS received 3 September 2012; revised 20 December 2012. Abstract. A saddle solution is called maximal saddle solution if its absolute value is not smaller than those absolute values ...

  1. Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct

  2. An optimal thermal condition for maximal chlorophyll extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jia-Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an environmentally friendly process for chlorophyll extraction from bamboo leaves. Shaking water bath and ultrasound cleaner are adopted in this technology, and the influence of temperature of the water bath and ultrasonic cleaner is evaluated. Results indicated that there is an optimal condition for maximal yield of chlorophyll.

  3. Maximal multiplier operators in Lp(·)(Rn) spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Kopaliani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 4 (2016), s. 86-97 ISSN 0007-4497 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : spherical maximal function * variable Lebesque spaces * boundedness result Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007449715000329

  4. Half-maximal supersymmetry from exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, Emanuel [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    We study D ≥ 4-dimensional half-maximal flux backgrounds using exceptional field theory. We define the relevant generalised structures and also find the integrability conditions which give warped half-maximal Minkowski{sub D} and AdS{sub D} vacua. We then show how to obtain consistent truncations of type II / 11-dimensional SUGRA which break half the supersymmetry. Such truncations can be defined on backgrounds admitting exceptional generalised SO(d - 1 - N) structures, where d = 11 - D, and N is the number of vector multiplets obtained in the lower-dimensional theory. Our procedure yields the most general embedding tensors satisfying the linear constraint of half-maximal gauged SUGRA. We use this to prove that all D ≥ 4 half-maximal warped AdS{sub D} and Minkowski{sub D} vacua of type II / 11-dimensional SUGRA admit a consistent truncation keeping only the gravitational supermultiplet. We also show to obtain heterotic double field theory from exceptional field theory and comment on the M-theory / heterotic duality. In five dimensions, we find a new SO(5, N) double field theory with a (6 + N)-dimensional extended space. Its section condition has one solution corresponding to 10-dimensional N = 1 supergravity and another yielding six-dimensional N = (2, 0) SUGRA. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-10-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  6. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  7. Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Sargeant, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate

  8. Maximal Regularity of the Discrete Harmonic Oscillator Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a representation of the solution for the best approximation of the harmonic oscillator equation formulated in a general Banach space setting, and a characterization of lp-maximal regularity—or well posedness—solely in terms of R-boundedness properties of the resolvent operator involved in the equation.

  9. Maximizing car insurance online sales by developing superior webshop

    OpenAIRE

    Pylväs, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis work was to investigate what kind of webshop and what kind of improvements would increase customer satisfaction and maximize car insurance online sales by volume and by value. Main measure for this is the conversion rate, percentage of the potential buyers entering the site who actually make a purchase.

  10. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  11. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. A tri-atom W state can be generated by adjusting the interaction times between ...

  12. Maximal exercise performance in patients with postcancer fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, H.; Hopman, M. T. E.; Zwarts, M. J.; Leer, J. W. H.; Heerschap, A.; Bleijenberg, G.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether physical fitness of severely fatigued and non-fatigued cancer survivors, as measured by maximal exercise performance, is different between both groups and, if so, whether this difference can be explained by differences in physical activity, self-efficacy

  13. The Boundary Crossing Theorem and the Maximal Stability Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Antonio López-Renteria

    2011-01-01

    useful tools in the study of the stability of family of polynomials. Although both of these theorem seem intuitively obvious, they can be used for proving important results. In this paper, we give generalizations of these two theorems and we apply such generalizations for finding the maximal stability interval.

  14. An application of the maximal independent set algorithm to course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we demonstrated one of the many applications of the Maximal Independent Set Algorithm in the area of course allocation. A program was developed in Pascal and used in implementing a modified version of the algorithm to assign teaching courses to available lecturers in any academic environment and it ...

  15. Modifying Softball for Maximizing Learning Outcomes in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Ward, Phillip; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Sutherland, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Softball is taught in many physical education programs throughout the United States. This article describes modifications that maximize learning outcomes and that address the National Standards and safety recommendations. The modifications focus on tasks and equipment, developmentally appropriate motor-skill acquisition, increasing number of…

  16. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  17. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim seed oil reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. seed oil (EZSO) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Methods: Following feeding with HFD for 30 days, hyperlipidemic hamsters were intragastrically treated with EZSO for 60 days. Serum levels of ...

  18. Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2011-01-01

    The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.

  19. MAXIMIZING OPTO-ELASTIC INTERACTION USING TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    . Secondly, there is the photo-elastic effect which changes the refractive index through Pockel's coefficients as the material is strained. For the case of transverse electric modes, we study how the two effects change the material distribution which maximizes the change in the optical transmission...

  20. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  1. Should I Stay or Should I Go? Maximizers versus Satisficers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy; King, Stephanie L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, university students were presented a scenario in which a married couple was struggling in their marriage. These students were asked how likely it is that they would stay in a difficult marriage like the one described in the scenario. Each student also completed Schwartz's (2004) Maximization Scale. High scorers on this scale…

  2. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

  3. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which

  4. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength : How many attempts are needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C.; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B.

    Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to

  5. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...

  6. Throughput maximization of parcel sorter systems by scheduling inbound containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Fikse, K.; Clausen, Uwe; ten Hompel, Michael; Meier, J. Fabian

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the inbound container scheduling problem for automated sorter systems in express parcel sorting. The purpose is to analyze which container scheduling approaches maximize the throughput of sorter systems. We build on existing literature, particularly on the dynamic load balancing

  7. Prediction of maximal heart rate: comparison using a novel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prediction of maximal heart rate: comparison using a novel and conventional equation. LR Keytel, E Mukwevho, MA Will, M Lambert. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance Vol. 11(3) 2005: 269-277. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  8. Aspects of multiuser MIMO for cell throughput maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauch, Gerhard; Tejera, Pedro; Guthy, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We consider a multiuser MIMO downlink scenario where the resources in time, frequency and space are allocated such that the total cell throughput is maximized. This is achieved by exploiting multiuser diversity, i.e. the physical resources are allocated to the user with the highest SNR. We assume...

  9. PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES, INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN STIMULATING JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT THINKING, UNDERSTANDING, AND DECISION MAKING AS ASSOCIATED WITH PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES OF FARM OPERATION FOR USE IN FARM MANAGEMENT. IT WAS DEVELOPED UNDER A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION GRANT BY TEACHER-EDUCATORS, A FARM…

  10. How Managerial Ownership Affects Profit Maximization in Newspaper Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busterna, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Explores whether different levels of a manager's ownership of a newspaper affects the manager's profit maximizing attitudes and behavior. Finds that owner-managers tend to place less emphasis on profits than non-owner-controlled newspapers, contrary to economic theory and empirical evidence from other industries. (RS)

  11. A note on a profit maximizing location model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss a locational model with a profit-maximizing objective. The model can be illustrated by the following situation. There is a set of potential customers in a given region. A firm enters the market and wants to sell a certain product to this set of customers. The

  12. The Profit-Maximizing Firm: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Explains and illustrates a simplified use of graphical analysis for analyzing the profit-maximizing firm. Believes that graphical analysis helps college students gain a deeper understanding of marginalism and an increased ability to formulate economic problems in marginalist terms. (DB)

  13. Discussion on: "Profit Maximization of a Power Plant"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma (fhv. Kristoffersen), Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Kragelund et al. provides an interesting contribution to operations scheduling in liberalized electricity markets. They address the problem of profit maximization for a power plant participating in the electricity market. In particular, given that the plant has already been dispatched in a day...

  14. A decision theoretic framework for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muus, L.; van der Scheer, H.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Montgomery, A.; Franses, P.H.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing a firm involved in direct marketing is the selection of addresses from a mailing list. When the parameters of the model describing consumers' reaction to a mailing are known, addresses for a future mailing can be selected in a profit-maximizing way. Usually,

  15. Maximizing profits associated with abandonment decisions and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Economic strategies which are designed to maximize profits associated with abandonment decisions and options focus on: extending field life; offsetting of economic risks onto a third party; reuse of facilities and infrastructure; expansion of associated secondary processing and distribution capabilities and usage; and the sale of abandonment units to a third party

  16. Mentoring as Professional Development for Novice Entrepreneurs: Maximizing the Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring can be seen as relevant if not essential in the continuing professional development of entrepreneurs. In the present study, we seek to understand how to maximize the learning that occurs through the mentoring process. To achieve this, we consider various elements that the literature suggested are associated with successful mentoring and…

  17. Maximizing plant density affects broccoli yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market bunch broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the United States east coast. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding southeastern commercial markets. This broccoli plant density study was carr...

  18. Off-shell representations of maximally-extended supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    A general theorem on the necessity of off-shell central charges in representations of maximally-extended supersymmetry (number of spinor charges - 4 x largest spin) is presented. A procedure for building larger and higher-N representations is also explored; a (noninteracting) N=8, maximum spin 2, off-shell representation is achieved. Difficulties in adding interactions for this representation are discussed

  19. Maximizing the model for Discounted Stream of Utility from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osagiede et al. (2009) considered an analytic model for maximizing discounted stream of utility from consumption when the rate of production is linear. A solution was provided to a level where methods of solving order differential equations will be applied, but they left off there, as a result of the mathematical complexity ...

  20. Stewart's maxims: eight "do's" for successfully communicating silviculture to policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Technical specialists may experience difficulties in presenting information to non-technical policymakers and having that information used. Eight maxims are discussed that should help the silviculturist successfully provide technical information to non-technical audiences so that it will be considered in the formulation of policy.

  1. The Bianchi classification of maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Gran, Ulf; Linares, Román; Nielsen, Mikkel; Ortín, Tomás; Roest, Diederik

    2003-01-01

    We perform the generalized dimensional reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds as classified by Bianchi. Thus, we construct 11 different maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities, two of which have an additional parameter. One class of group manifolds (class B) leads to

  2. The Bianchi classification of maximal D=8 gauged supergravities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Gran, U; Linares, R; Nielsen, M; Ortin, T; Roest, D

    2003-01-01

    We perform the generalized dimensional reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds as classified by Bianchi. Thus, we construct 11 different maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities, two of which have an additional parameter. One class of group manifolds (class B) leads to

  3. Hard-type nonlocality proof for two maximally entangled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamidas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present, for the first time, a Hardy-type proof of nonlocality for two maximally entangled particles in a four-dimensional total Hilbert space. Furthermore, the violation of local realistic predictions occurs for 25 % of trials, exceeding the 9 % maximum obtained by Hardy for nonmaximally entangled states. (author)

  4. Maximal Sharing in the Lambda Calculus with Letrec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabmayer, C.A.; Rochel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing sharing in programs is desirable to compactify the code, and to avoid duplication of reduction work at run-time, thereby speeding up execution. We show how a maximal degree of sharing can be obtained for programs expressed as terms in the lambda calculus with letrec. We introduce a notion

  5. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  6. Impact of training status on maximal oxygen uptake criteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak treadmill running speed was significantly faster and total test time significantly longer in the trained group. In contrast, peak lactate, although maximal for both groups, was significantly higher in the untrained group (13.5 mmol.l-1 compared with 10.3 mmol.l-1). The other responses were not different between the groups ...

  7. Bicarbonate attenuates arterial desaturation during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B; Bredmose, Per P; Strømstad, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood...

  8. Forecast Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Allan G

    2005-01-01

    Forecast combinations have frequently been found in empirical studies to produce better forecasts on average than methods based on the ex-ante best individual forecasting model. Moreover, simple combinations that ignore correlations between forecast errors often dominate more refined combination schemes aimed at estimating the theoretically optimal combination weights. In this paper we analyse theoretically the factors that determine the advantages from combining forecasts (for example, the d...

  9. Maximal isometric strength of the cervical musculature in 100 healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, A; Mehlsen, J; Bülow, P M

    1999-01-01

    A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature.......A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature....

  10. Current switching ratio optimization using dual pocket doping engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sidhartha; Sahoo, Girija Shankar; Mishra, Guru Prasad

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a smart idea to maximize current switching ratio of cylindrical gate tunnel FET (CGT) by growing pocket layers in both source and channel region. The pocket layers positioned in the source and channel of the device provides significant improvement in ON-state and OFF-state current respectively. The dual pocket doped cylindrical gate TFET (DP-CGT) exhibits much superior performance in term of drain current, transconductance and current ratio as compared to conventional CGT, channel pocket doped CGT (CP-CGT) and source pocket doped CGT (SP-CGT). Further, the current ratio has been optimized w.r.t. width and instantaneous position both the pocket layers. The much improved current ratio and low power consumption makes the proposed device suitable for low-power and high speed application. The simulation work of DP-CGT is done using 3D Sentaurus TCAD device simulator from Synopsys.

  11. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2013-01-10

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  12. The Optimal Price Ratio of Typical Energy Sources in Beijing Based on the Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Beijing, China, the rational consumption of energy is affected by the insufficient linkage mechanism of the energy pricing system, the unreasonable price ratio and other issues. This paper combines the characteristics of Beijing’s energy market, putting forward the society-economy equilibrium indicator R maximization taking into consideration the mitigation cost to determine a reasonable price ratio range. Based on the computable general equilibrium (CGE model, and dividing four kinds of energy sources into three groups, the impact of price fluctuations of electricity and natural gas on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Consumer Price Index (CPI, energy consumption and CO2 and SO2 emissions can be simulated for various scenarios. On this basis, the integrated effects of electricity and natural gas price shocks on the Beijing economy and environment can be calculated. The results show that relative to the coal prices, the electricity and natural gas prices in Beijing are currently below reasonable levels; the solution to these unreasonable energy price ratios should begin by improving the energy pricing mechanism, through means such as the establishment of a sound dynamic adjustment mechanism between regulated prices and market prices. This provides a new idea for exploring the rationality of energy price ratios in imperfect competitive energy markets.

  13. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to

  14. Gamma loop contributing to maximal voluntary contractions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbarth, K E; Kunesch, E J; Nordin, M; Schmidt, R; Wallin, E U

    1986-01-01

    A local anaesthetic drug was injected around the peroneal nerve in healthy subjects in order to investigate whether the resulting loss in foot dorsiflexion power in part depended on a gamma-fibre block preventing 'internal' activation of spindle end-organs and thereby depriving the alpha-motoneurones of an excitatory spindle inflow during contraction. The motor outcome of maximal dorsiflexion efforts was assessed by measuring firing rates of individual motor units in the anterior tibial (t.a.) muscle, mean voltage e.m.g. from the pretibial muscles, dorsiflexion force and range of voluntary foot dorsiflexion movements. The tests were performed with and without peripheral conditioning stimuli, such as agonist or antagonist muscle vibration or imposed stretch of the contracting muscles. As compared to control values of t.a. motor unit firing rates in maximal isometric voluntary contractions, the firing rates were lower and more irregular during maximal dorsiflexion efforts performed during subtotal peroneal nerve blocks. During the development of paresis a gradual reduction of motor unit firing rates was observed before the units ceased responding to the voluntary commands. This change in motor unit behaviour was accompanied by a reduction of the mean voltage e.m.g. activity in the pretibial muscles. At a given stage of anaesthesia the e.m.g. responses to maximal voluntary efforts were more affected than the responses evoked by electric nerve stimuli delivered proximal to the block, indicating that impaired impulse transmission in alpha motor fibres was not the sole cause of the paresis. The inability to generate high and regular motor unit firing rates during peroneal nerve blocks was accentuated by vibration applied over the antagonistic calf muscles. By contrast, in eight out of ten experiments agonist stretch or vibration caused an enhancement of motor unit firing during the maximal force tasks. The reverse effects of agonist and antagonist vibration on the

  15. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  16. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhisong; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-11-20

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  17. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  18. Approaching maximal performance of longitudinal beam compression in induction accelerator drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Ho, D.D.M.; Brandon, S.T.; Chang, C.L.; Drobot, A.T.; Faltens, A.; Lee, E.P.; Krafft, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal beam compression is an integral part of the US induction accelerator development effort for heavy ion fusion. Producing maximal performance for key accelerator components is an essential element of the effort to reduce driver costs. We outline here initial studies directed towards defining the limits of final beam compression including considerations such as: maximal available compression, effects of longitudinal dispersion and beam emittance, combining pulse-shaping with beam compression to reduce the total number of beam manipulations, etc. The use of higher ion charge state Z greater than or equal to 3 is likely to test the limits of the previously envisaged beam compression and final focus hardware. A more conservative approach is to use additional beamlets in final compression and focus. On the other end of the spectrum of choices, alternate approaches might consider new final focus with greater tolerances for systematic momentum and current variations. Development of such final focus concepts would also allow more compact (and hopefully cheaper) hardware packages where the previously separate processes of beam compression, pulse-shaping and final focus occur as partially combined and nearly concurrent beam manipulations

  19. Data Assimilation in Air Contaminant Dispersion Using a Particle Filter and Expectation-Maximization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxiao Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of air contaminant dispersion is essential to air quality monitoring and the emergency management of contaminant gas leakage incidents in chemical industry parks. Conventional atmospheric dispersion models can seldom give accurate predictions due to inaccurate input parameters. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of dispersion models, two data assimilation methods (i.e., the typical particle filter & the combination of a particle filter and expectation-maximization algorithm are proposed to assimilate the virtual Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV observations with measurement error into the atmospheric dispersion model. Two emission cases with different dimensions of state parameters are considered. To test the performances of the proposed methods, two numerical experiments corresponding to the two emission cases are designed and implemented. The results show that the particle filter can effectively estimate the model parameters and improve the accuracy of model predictions when the dimension of state parameters is relatively low. In contrast, when the dimension of state parameters becomes higher, the method of particle filter combining the expectation-maximization algorithm performs better in terms of the parameter estimation accuracy. Therefore, the proposed data assimilation methods are able to effectively support air quality monitoring and emergency management in chemical industry parks.

  20. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  1. On the maximal noise for stochastic and QCD travelling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, Robi

    2008-01-01

    Using the relation of a set of nonlinear Langevin equations to reaction-diffusion processes, we note the existence of a maximal strength of the noise for the stochastic travelling wave solutions of these equations. Its determination is obtained using the field-theoretical analysis of branching-annihilation random walks near the directed percolation transition. We study its consequence for the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. For the related Langevin equation modeling the quantum chromodynamic nonlinear evolution of gluon density with rapidity, the physical maximal-noise limit may appear before the directed percolation transition, due to a shift in the travelling-wave speed. In this regime, an exact solution is known from a coalescence process. Universality and other open problems and applications are discussed in the outlook

  2. Efficient Conservation in a Utility-Maximization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W. Davis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic planning for biodiversity conservation is being conducted at scales ranging from global to national to regional. The prevailing planning paradigm is to identify the minimum land allocations needed to reach specified conservation targets or maximize the amount of conservation accomplished under an area or budget constraint. We propose a more general formulation for setting conservation priorities that involves goal setting, assessing the current conservation system, developing a scenario of future biodiversity given the current conservation system, and allocating available conservation funds to alter that scenario so as to maximize future biodiversity. Under this new formulation for setting conservation priorities, the value of a site depends on resource quality, threats to resource quality, and costs. This planning approach is designed to support collaborative processes and negotiation among competing interest groups. We demonstrate these ideas with a case study of the Sierra Nevada bioregion of California.

  3. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Maximization of energy in the output of a linear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A time-limited signal which, when passed through a linear system, maximizes the total output energy is considered. Previous work has shown that the solution is given by the eigenfunction associated with the maximum eigenvalue in a Hilbert-Schmidt integral equation. Analytical results are available for the case where the transfer function is a low-pass filter. This work is extended by obtaining a numerical solution to the integral equation which allows results for reasonably general transfer functions

  5. Speeding Up Maximal Causality Reduction with Static Dependency Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shiyou; Huang, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Stateless Model Checking (SMC) offers a powerful approach to verifying multithreaded programs but suffers from the state-space explosion problem caused by the huge thread interleaving space. The pioneering reduction technique Partial Order Reduction (POR) mitigates this problem by pruning equivalent interleavings from the state space. However, limited by the happens-before relation, POR still explores redundant executions. The recent advance, Maximal Causality Reduction (MCR), shows a promisi...

  6. Planning for partnerships: Maximizing surge capacity resources through service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lavonne M; Reams, Paula K; Canclini, Sharon B

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks and natural or human-caused disasters can strain the community's surge capacity through sudden demand on healthcare activities. Collaborative partnerships between communities and schools of nursing have the potential to maximize resource availability to meet community needs following a disaster. This article explores how communities can work with schools of nursing to enhance surge capacity through systems thinking, integrated planning, and cooperative efforts.

  7. Applications of expectation maximization algorithm for coherent optical communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, L.; Oliveira, J.; Zibar, Darko

    2014-01-01

    In this invited paper, we present powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by machine learning community, and link them to current problems in optical communication. In particular, we will look into iterative maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on expectation maximization...... algorithm and its application in coherent optical communication systems for linear and nonlinear impairment mitigation. Furthermore, the estimated parameters are used to build the probabilistic model of the system for the synthetic impairment generation....

  8. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  9. Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations

    OpenAIRE

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.

  10. Crystallographic cut that maximizes of the birefringence in photorefractive crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda-Parada, Jorge Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The electro-optical birefringence effect depends on the crystal type, cut crystal, applied electric field and the incidence direction of light on the principal crystal faces. It is presented a study of maximizing the birefringence in photorefractive crystals of cubic crystallographic symmetry, in terms of these three parameters. General analytical expressions for the birefringence were obtained, from which birefringence can be established for any type of cut. A new crystallographic cut was en...

  11. Maximal reductions in the Baker-Hausdorff formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolsrud, M.

    1992-05-01

    A preliminary expression for the Baker-Hausdorff formula is found up to ninth order, i.e. a series expansion of z in terms of multiple commutators, where e x =e x e y with x and y non-commuting, up to ninth degree in x,y. By means of complete sets of linear relations between multiple commutators, maximal reduction of the number of different multiple commutators in the series is obtained. 4 refs

  12. Competitive prices as profit-maximizing cartel prices

    OpenAIRE

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.I.; Wen, Q.

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper has resulted in a publication in Economics Letters, 114, 39-42. Even under antitrust enforcement, firms may still form a cartel in an infinitely-repeated oligopoly model when the discount factor is sufficiently close to one. We present a linear oligopoly model where the profit-maximizing cartel price converges to the competitive equilibrium price as the discount factor goes to one. We then identify a set of necessary conditions for this seemingly counter-intuitive result.

  13. On Throughput Maximization in Constant Travel-Time Robotic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Milind Dawande; Chelliah Sriskandarajah; Suresh Sethi

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling operations in bufferless robotic cells that produce identical parts. The objective is to find a cyclic sequence of robot moves that minimizes the long-run average time to produce a part or, equivalently, maximizes the throughput rate. The robot can be moved in simple cycles that produce one unit or, in more complicated cycles, that produce multiple units. Because one-unit cycles are the easiest to understand, implement, and control, they are widely used i...

  14. Minimal and Maximal Operator Space Structures on Banach Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    P., Vinod Kumar; Balasubramani, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a Banach space $X$, there are many operator space structures possible on $X$, which all have $X$ as their first matrix level. Blecher and Paulsen identified two extreme operator space structures on $X$, namely $Min(X)$ and $Max(X)$ which represents respectively, the smallest and the largest operator space structures admissible on $X$. In this note, we consider the subspace and the quotient space structure of minimal and maximal operator spaces.

  15. On the maximal dimension of a completely entangled subspace for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    dim S = d1d2 ...dk − (d1 +···+ dk) + k − 1, where E is the collection of all completely entangled subspaces. When H1 = H2 and k = 2 an explicit orthonormal basis of a maximal completely entangled subspace of H1 ⊗ H2 is given. We also introduce a more delicate notion of a perfectly entangled subspace for a multipartite ...

  16. Queen-worker caste ratio depends on colony size in the pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Mosegaard; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    The success of an ant colony depends on the simultaneous presence of reproducing queens and nonreproducing workers in a ratio that will maximize colony growth and reproduction. Despite its presumably crucial role, queen–worker caste ratios (the ratio of adult queens to workers) and the factors...... affecting this variable remain scarcely studied. Maintaining polygynous pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) colonies in the laboratory has provided us with the opportunity to experimentally manipulate colony size, one of the key factors that can be expected to affect colony level queen–worker caste ratios...... species with budding colonies may adaptively adjust caste ratios to ensure rapid growth....

  17. Planning Routes Across Economic Terrains: Maximizing Utility, Following Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Maddula, Soumya V.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value). We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics) for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes. PMID:21833269

  18. PLANNING ROUTES ACROSS ECONOMIC TERRAINS: MAXIMIZING UTILITY, FOLLOWING HEURISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eZhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value. We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes.

  19. Maximally efficient protocols for direct secure quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Anindita [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); Department of Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block EN, Sector V, Kolkata 700091 (India); Pathak, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.pathak@jiit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-01

    Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) using GHZ-like states have been proposed. It is shown that one of these protocols is maximally efficient and that can be modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). Security and efficiency of the proposed protocols are analyzed and compared. It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. Maximally efficient QSDC protocols are shown to be more efficient than their DSQC counterparts. This additional efficiency arises at the cost of message transmission rate. -- Highlights: ► Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) are proposed. ► One of the above protocols is maximally efficient. ► It is modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). ► It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. ► Efficient QSDC protocols are always more efficient than their DSQC counterparts.

  20. Improved Algorithms OF CELF and CELF++ for Influence Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Lv

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the wide application in some fields, such as viral marketing, sales promotion etc, influence maximization has been the most important and extensively studied problem in social network. However, the most classical KK-Greedy algorithm for influence maximization is inefficient. Two major sources of the algorithm’s inefficiency were analyzed in this paper. With the analysis of algorithms CELF and CELF++, all nodes in the influenced set of u would never bring any marginal gain when a new seed u was produced. Through this optimization strategy, a lot of redundant nodes will be removed from the candidate nodes. Basing on the strategy, two improved algorithms of Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++ were proposed in this study. To evaluate the two algorithms, the two algorithms with their benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++ were conducted on some real world datasets. To estimate the algorithms, influence degree and running time were employed to measure the performance and efficiency respectively. Experimental results showed that, compared with benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++, matching effects and higher efficiency were achieved by the new algorithms Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++. Solutions with the proposed optimization strategy can be useful for the decisionmaking problems under the scenarios related to the influence maximization problem.

  1. An efficient community detection algorithm using greedy surprise maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is an important and crucial problem in complex network analysis. Although classical modularity function optimization approaches are widely used for identifying communities, the modularity function (Q) suffers from its resolution limit. Recently, the surprise function (S) was experimentally proved to be better than the Q function. However, up until now, there has been no algorithm available to perform searches to directly determine the maximal surprise values. In this paper, considering the superiority of the S function over the Q function, we propose an efficient community detection algorithm called AGSO (algorithm based on greedy surprise optimization) and its improved version FAGSO (fast-AGSO), which are based on greedy surprise optimization and do not suffer from the resolution limit. In addition, (F)AGSO does not need the number of communities K to be specified in advance. Tests on experimental networks show that (F)AGSO is able to detect optimal partitions in both simple and even more complex networks. Moreover, algorithms based on surprise maximization perform better than those algorithms based on modularity maximization, including Blondel–Guillaume–Lambiotte–Lefebvre (BGLL), Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) and the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Infomap, order statistics local optimization method (OSLOM) and label propagation algorithm (LPA). (paper)

  2. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  3. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  4. Effect of sonic driving on maximal aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilla, L.R.; Hatcher, Stefanie

    2000-07-01

    The study purpose was to evaluate antecedent binaural stimulation (ABS) on maximal aerobic physical performance. Twenty-two healthy, physically active subjects, 21-34 years, randomly received one of two preparations for each session: 15 min of quiet (BLANK) or percussive sonic driving at 200+ beats per minute (bpm) using a recorded compact disc (FSS, Mill Valley, CA) with headphones (ABS). Baseline HR, blood pressure (BP), and breathing frequency (f(br)) were obtained. During each condition, HR and f(br) were recorded at 3-min intervals. The graded maximal treadmill testing was administered immediately postpreparation session on separate days, with at least 48 h rest between sessions. There were significant differences in the antecedent period means between the two conditions, ABS (HR: 70.2 +/- 10.7 bpm; f(br): 18.5 +/- 3.3 br min(-1); BP: 134.5/87.9 +/- 13.6/9.2 mm Hg) and BLANK (HR: 64.6 +/- 7.9; f(br): 14.3 +/- 2.9; BP: 126.7/80.3 +/- 12.1/8.6). Differences were noted for each 3-min interval and pre- postantecedent period. The maximal graded exercise test (GXT) results showed that there was a small but significant (P 0.05). There may be a latency to ABS related to entrainment or imagery-enhanced warm-up. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:558-565, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Signal-to-background-ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jillian G.

    2005-04-01

    The primary purpose of speech is to convey a message. Many factors affect the listener's overall reception, several of which have little to do with the linguistic content itself, but rather with the delivery (e.g., prosody, intonation patterns, pragmatics, paralinguistic cues). Music, however, may convey a message either with or without linguistic content. In instances in which music has lyrics, one cannot assume verbal content will take precedence over sonic properties. Lyric emphasis over other aspects of music cannot be assumed. Singing introduces distortion of the vowel-consonant temporal ratio of speech, emphasizing vowels and de-emphasizing consonants. The phonemic production alterations of singing make it difficult for even those with normal hearing to understand the singer. This investigation was designed to identify singer-to-background-ratio (SBR) prefer- ences for normal hearing adult listeners (as opposed to SBR levels maxi-mizing speech discrimination ability). Stimuli were derived from three different original songs, each produced in two different genres and sung by six different singers. Singer and genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in SBR preferences, though results clearly indicate genre, style and singer interact in different combinations for each song, each singer, and for each subject in an unpredictable manner.

  6. Does the ratio and thickness of prevertebral soft tissue provide benefit in blunt cervical spine injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, J-P; Chin, C-C; Yeh, C-N; Chen, J-F; Lee, S-T; Fang, J-F; Liao, C-C

    2013-06-01

    Although many reports advocate computed tomography (CT) as the initial surveillance tool for occult cervical spine injury (CSI) at the emergency department (ED), the role of a lateral cervical spine radiograph (LCSX) has still not been replaced. We hypothesized that the increased width of the prevertebral soft tissue on an LCSX provides helpful information for selecting the high-risk patients who need to be evaluated with more accurate diagnostic tools. This was a retrospective and consecutive series of injured patients requiring cervical spine evaluation who were first imaged with three-view plain films at the ED. The prevertebral soft tissue thickness (PVST) and ratio of prevertebral soft tissue thickness to the cervical vertebrae diameter (PVST ratio) were calculated on the LCSX. Suspicion of CSI was confirmed by either CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. A total of 826 adult trauma patients requiring cervical spine evaluation were enrolled. The C3 PVST and PVST ratio were significantly different between patients with or without upper cervical area injury (UCAI, 8.64 vs. 5.49 mm, and 0.394 vs. 0.276, respectively), and, likewise, the C6 PVST and PVST ratio for patients with or without lower cervical area injury (LCAI, 16.89 vs. 14.66 mm, and 0.784 vs. 0.749, respectively). The specificity was greater than 90 % in predicting UCAI and LCAI when combining these two parameters. This method maximizes the usefulness of LCSX during the initial assessment of a conscious patient with blunt head and neck injury, especially for the identification of high-risk patients requiring prompt CT or MRI; on the other hand, it prevents the overuse of these high-cost imaging studies as initial diagnostic tools.

  7. Isometric and isokinetic hip strength and agonist/antagonist ratios in symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Laura E; Wrigley, Tim V; Hinman, Rana S; Hodges, Paul W; O'Donnell, John; Takla, Amir; Bennell, Kim L

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated isometric and isokinetic hip strength in individuals with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The specific aims were to: (i) determine whether differences exist in isometric and isokinetic hip strength measures between groups; (ii) compare hip strength agonist/antagonist ratios between groups; and (iii) examine relationships between hip strength and self-reported measures of either hip pain or function in those with FAI. Cross-sectional. Fifteen individuals (11 males; 25±5 years) with symptomatic FAI (clinical examination and imaging (alpha angle >55° (cam FAI), and lateral centre edge angle >39° and/or positive crossover sign (combined FAI))) and 14 age- and sex-matched disease-free controls (no morphological FAI on magnetic resonance imaging) underwent strength testing. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength of hip muscle groups and isokinetic hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength (20°/s) were measured. Groups were compared with independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Participants with FAI had 20% lower isometric abduction strength than controls (p=0.04). There were no significant differences in isometric strength for other muscle groups or peak isokinetic ER or IR strength. The ratio of isometric, but not isokinetic, ER/IR strength was significantly higher in the FAI group (p=0.01). There were no differences in ratios for other muscle groups. Angle of peak IR torque was the only feature correlated with symptoms. Individuals with symptomatic FAI demonstrate isometric hip abductor muscle weakness and strength imbalance in the hip rotators. Strength measurement, including agonist/antagonist ratios, may be relevant for clinical management of FAI. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  9. Profit maximization with customer satisfaction control for electric vehicle charging in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Collado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As the market of electric vehicles is gaining popularity, large-scale commercialized or privately-operated charging stations are expected to play a key role as a technology enabler. In this paper, we study the problem of charging electric vehicles at stations with limited charging machines and power resources. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel profit maximization framework for station operation in both offline and online charging scenarios, under certain customer satisfaction constraints. The main goal is to maximize the profit obtained by the station owner and provide a satisfactory charging service to the customers. The framework includes not only the vehicle scheduling and charging power control, but also the managing of user satisfaction factors, which are defined as the percentages of finished charging targets. The profit maximization problem is proved to be NPcomplete in both scenarios (NP refers to “nondeterministic polynomial time”, for which two-stage charging strategies are proposed to obtain efficient suboptimal solutions. Competitive analysis is also provided to analyze the performance of the proposed online two-stage charging algorithm against the offline counterpart under non-congested and congested charging scenarios. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed two-stage charging strategies achieve performance close to that with exhaustive search. Also, the proposed algorithms provide remarkable performance gains compared to the other conventional charging strategies with respect to not only the unified profit, but also other practical interests, such as the computational time, the user satisfaction factor, the power consumption, and the competitive ratio.

  10. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  11. The effect of caffeine on maximal oxygen uptake and vertical jump performance in male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Hargreaves, Jill M; Clarke, Jenny C; Dale, Darren L; Blackwell, Gavin J

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated whether performance enhancement from caffeine described by other researchers transfers to male basketball players. The effects of caffeine ingestion were studied in a maximal-effort test on a treadmill that was followed by a vertical-jump test. Five elite-level male basketball players completed a graded treadmill test that measured maximal oxygen uptake, blood lactate profiles, respiratory exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion at each 3-minute stage. After a 15-minute warm-down, the subjects performed 10 vertical rebound jumps. Each subject completed the test twice--once with a 3 mg·kg(-1) of body weight dose of caffeine and once with a placebo, with the dosage administered 60 minutes before commencement of exercise. The test was thus administered according to a double-blind protocol. No substantial trends were found between caffeine and control trials, regardless of trial order. The study showed that the specified dosage had negligible effects on the players' power and endurance performance and had no efficacy as an ergogenic aid for male basketball players.

  12. How should leaf area, sapwood area and stomatal conductance vary with tree height to maximize growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Roberts, David W

    2006-02-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (L/S) should decline during height (H) growth to maintain hydraulic homeostasis and prevent stomatal conductance (g(s)) from declining. We contend that L/S should increase with H based on a numerical simulation, a mathematical analysis and a conceptual argument: (1) numerical simulation--a tree growth model, DESPOT (Deducing Emergent Structure and Physiology Of Trees), in which carbon (C) allocation is regulated to maximize C gain, predicts L/S should increase during most of H growth; (2) mathematical analysis--the formal criterion for optimal C allocation, applied to a simplified analytical model of whole tree carbon-water balance, predicts L/S should increase with H if leaf-level gas exchange parameters including g(s) are conserved; and (3) conceptual argument--photosynthesis is limited by several substitutable resources (chiefly nitrogen (N), water and light) and H growth increases the C cost of water transport but not necessarily of N and light capture, so if the goal is to maximize C gain or growth, allocation should shift in favor of increasing photosynthetic capacity and irradiance, rather than sustaining g(s). Although many data are consistent with the prediction that L/S should decline with H, many others are not, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies.

  13. Revenue-Maximizing Radio Access Technology Selection with Net Neutrality Compliance in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissar Khloussy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The net neutrality principle states that users should have equal access to all Internet content and that Internet Service Providers (ISPs should not practice differentiated treatment on any of the Internet traffic. While net neutrality aims to restrain any kind of discrimination, it also grants exemption to a certain category of traffic known as specialized services (SS, by allowing the ISP to dedicate part of the resources for the latter. In this work, we consider a heterogeneous LTE/WiFi wireless network and we investigate revenue-maximizing Radio Access Technology (RAT selection strategies that are net neutrality-compliant, with exemption granted to SS traffic. Our objective is to find out how the bandwidth reservation for SS traffic would be made in a way that allows maximizing the revenue while being in compliance with net neutrality and how the choice of the ratio of reserved bandwidth would affect the revenue. The results show that reserving bandwidth for SS traffic in one RAT (LTE can achieve higher revenue. On the other hand, when the capacity is reserved across both LTE and WiFi, higher social benefit in terms of number of admitted users can be realized, as well as lower blocking probability for the Internet access traffic.

  14. Descriptive Analysis on Flouting and Hedging of Conversational Maxims in the “Post Grad” Movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastiti Rokhmania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on analyzing flouting and hedging of conversational maxim of utterances used by the main characters in “Post Grad” movie. Conversational maxims are the rules of cooperative principle categorized into four categories; Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Quantity, Maxim of Relevance, and Maxim of Manner. If these maxims are used in conversations, the conversations can go smoothly. However, people often break the maxims overtly (flouting maxim and sometimes break the maxims secretly (hedging maxims when they make a conversation. This research is conducted using descriptive qualitative method based on the theory known as Grice’s Maxims. The data are in form of utterances used by the characters in “Post Grad” movie. The data analysis reveals some finding covering the formulated research question. The maxims are flouted when the speaker breaks some conversational maxims when using the utterances in the form of rhetorical strategies, such as tautology, metaphor, hyperbole, irony, and rhetorical question. On the other hand, conversational maxims are also hedged when the information is not totally accurate or unclearly stated but seems informative, well-founded, and relevant.

  15. Maximal feeding with active prey-switching: A kill-the-winner functional response and its effect on global diversity and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina, S. M.; Ward, B. A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Follows, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Predators' switching towards the most abundant prey is a mechanism that stabilizes population dynamics and helps overcome competitive exclusion of species in food webs. Current formulations of active prey-switching, however, display non-maximal feeding in which the predators' total ingestion decays exponentially with the number prey species (i.e. the diet breadth) even though the total prey biomass stays constant. We analyse three previously published multi-species functional responses which have either active switching or maximal feeding, but not both. We identify the cause of this apparent incompatibility and describe a kill-the-winner formulation that combines active switching with maximal feeding. Active switching is shown to be a community response in which some predators become prey-selective and the formulations with maximal or non-maximal feeding are implicitly assuming different food web configurations. Global simulations using a marine ecosystem model with 64 phytoplankton species belonging to 4 major functional groups show that the species richness and biogeography of phytoplankton are very sensitive to the choice of the functional response for grazing. The phytoplankton biogeography reflects the balance between the competitive abilities for nutrient uptake and the degree of apparent competition which occurs indirectly between species that share a common predator species. The phytoplankton diversity significantly increases when active switching is combined with maximal feeding through predator-mediated coexistence.

  16. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; [Formula: see text], 44 ± 11 mL kg -1 ·min -1 ) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower-body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

  17. Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen: An overview of pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G

    2016-11-15

    activity, inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis markers (GRP78, CHOP, Caspase-12, and JNK), and increase phosphorylation of STAT3 and Bcl2/Bax ratio; they also show cytotoxic activities against some tumor cell lines; affect NF-κB and PPARs activities; and regulate biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related protein expression, tissue respiration, and oxygen consumption. In healthy subjects, Aralia increases mental performance, working capacity, and endurance of movement. Numerous clinical trials have shown the efficiency of Aralia preparations in patients with traumatic brain injury (accompanied with asthenic syndrome and neurotic reactions, depression, neurasthenia, and psychasthenia), neurological diseases (accompanied with astheno-depressive and astheno-hypochondriasis syndromes), myasthenia syndrome (accompanied with chronic post-influenza arachnoiditis), and arterial hypotension. Aralia tincture and "Saparal" are useful as antiviral remedies. Radioprotective properties of Aralia have been reported in pregnant women. Synergistic antiobesity effect was reported for the combination of A. mandshurica and Engelhardtia chrysolepis extracts and antidiabetic effect for the combination of Aralia and glipizide. Promising stress-relieving effects of Aralia are reported for professionals whose work requires a high level of attention. Its proposed ability to moderate stress-induced damage and dysfunction in the cardiovascular tissue might make Aralia the adaptogen of choice among patients with higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. Because Aralia extract administration appears to affect plasma glucose level and hepatic lipid accumulation and ameliorate hyperinsulinemia, it might also provide benefits and be the adaptogen of choice for patients with obesity and diabetes. This review describes the considerable diversity of pharmacological effects of A. elata reported in numerous studies carried out in the former USSR and other countries

  18. Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.; Escher, William J. D.; Robinson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems.

  19. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  20. Renormalisation group corrections to the littlest seesaw model and maximal atmospheric mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.; Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-01-01

    The Littlest Seesaw (LS) model involves two right-handed neutrinos and a very constrained Dirac neutrino mass matrix, involving one texture zero and two independent Dirac masses, leading to a highly predictive scheme in which all neutrino masses and the entire PMNS matrix is successfully predicted in terms of just two real parameters. We calculate the renormalisation group (RG) corrections to the LS predictions, with and without supersymmetry, including also the threshold effects induced by the decoupling of heavy Majorana neutrinos both analytically and numerically. We find that the predictions for neutrino mixing angles and mass ratios are rather stable under RG corrections. For example we find that the LS model with RG corrections predicts close to maximal atmospheric mixing, θ_2_3=45"∘±1"∘, in most considered cases, in tension with the latest NOvA results. The techniques used here apply to other seesaw models with a strong normal mass hierarchy.