王际兵; 赵明; 周世东; 姚彦
2001-01-01
The concept of virtualization of wireless communication systemsis based on the open and scalable hardware platform of software radios in the personal communication network. The base station is divided into four components according to their functions: antenna, IF, baseband, and control, which are connected by the ATM network. Virtualization provides great benefits such as fast handoff and easy realization of different macrodiversity algorithms. Macrodiversity can not be easily realized in conventional cellular systems. An exact analysis is presented for the performance of maximal ratio combining (MRC) macrodiversity in virtualized wireless communication systems. The results show that compared with soft handoff in CDMA systems, MRC can greatly increase the reverse link capacity.
Physical layer security of underlay cognitive radio using maximal ratio combining
Hui ZHAO; Dan-yang WANG; Chao-qing TANG; Ya-ping LIU; Gao-feng PAN; Ting-ting LI; Yun-fei CHEN
2016-01-01
We investigate the secrecy outage performance of maximal ratio combining (MRC) in cognitive radio networks over Rayleigh fading channels. In a single-input multiple-output wiretap system, we consider a secondary user (SU-TX) that transmits confidential messages to another secondary user (SU-RX) equipped with M (M ≥ 1) antennas where the MRC technique is adopted to improve its received signal-to-noise ratio. Meanwhile, an eaves-dropper equipped with N (N ≥ 1) antennas adopts the MRC scheme to overhear the information between SU-TX and SU-RX. SU-TX adopts the underlay strategy to guarantee the service quality of the primary user without spectrum sensing. We derive the closed-form expressions for an exact and asymptotic secrecy outage probability.
Hadjtaieb, Amir
2013-09-12
In this paper, we propose an incremental multinode relaying protocol with arbitrary N-relay nodes that allows an efficient use of the channel spectrum. The destination combines the received signals from the source and the relays using maximal ratio Combining (MRC). The transmission ends successfully once the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exceeds a predefined threshold. The number of relays participating in the transmission is adapted to the channel conditions based on the feedback from the destination. The use of incremental relaying allows obtaining a higher spectral efficiency. Moreover, the symbol error probability (SEP) performance is enhanced by using MRC at the relays. The use of MRC at the relays implies that each relay overhears the signals from the source and all previous relays and combines them using MRC. The proposed protocol differs from most of existing relaying protocol by the fact that it combines both incremental relaying and MRC at the relays for a multinode topology. Our analyses for a decode-and-forward mode show that: (i) compared to existing multinode relaying schemes, the proposed scheme can essentially achieve the same SEP performance but with less average number of time slots, (ii) compared to schemes without MRC at the relays, the proposed scheme can approximately achieve a 3 dB gain.
无
2008-01-01
Bit Error Probability (BEP) provides a fundamental performance measure for wireless diversity systems. This paper presents two new exact BEP expressions for Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) diversity systems. One BEP expression takes a closed form, while the other is derived by treating the squared-sum of Rayleigh random variables as an Erlang variable. Due to the fact that the extant bounds are loose and could not properly characterize the error performance of MRC diversity systems, this paper presents a very tight bound. The numerical analysis shows that the new derived BEP expressions coincide with the extant expressions, and that the new approximation tightly bounds the accurate BEP.
Nonlinear trading models through Sharpe Ratio maximization.
Choey, M; Weigend, A S
1997-08-01
While many trading strategies are based on price prediction, traders in financial markets are typically interested in optimizing risk-adjusted performance such as the Sharpe Ratio, rather than the price predictions themselves. This paper introduces an approach which generates a nonlinear strategy that explicitly maximizes the Sharpe Ratio. It is expressed as a neural network model whose output is the position size between a risky and a risk-free asset. The iterative parameter update rules are derived and compared to alternative approaches. The resulting trading strategy is evaluated and analyzed on both computer-generated data and real world data (DAX, the daily German equity index). Trading based on Sharpe Ratio maximization compares favorably to both profit optimization and probability matching (through cross-entropy optimization). The results show that the goal of optimizing out-of-sample risk-adjusted profit can indeed be achieved with this nonlinear approach.
Ansari, Imran Shafique
2012-09-08
The probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative density function of the sum of L independent but not necessarily identically distributed gamma variates, applicable to maximal ratio combining receiver outputs or in other words applicable to the performance analysis of diversity combining receivers operating over Nakagami-m fading channels, is presented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer valued fading parameters and non-integer valued fading parameters, respectively. Further analysis, particularly on bit error rate via PDF-based approach, too is represented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer-order fading parameters, and extended Fox H-bar-function (H-hat) for non-integer-order fading parameters. The proposed results complement previous results that are either evolved in closed-form, or expressed in terms of infinite sums or higher order derivatives of the fading parameter m.
Cyclostationary Spectrum Collaborative Detection Based on Maximal-Ratio Combining%基于最大比合并的循环平稳频谱协作检测
陈新永; 杨瑞娟; 李晓柏; 谢超
2013-01-01
Multi-antenna spatial diversity and multi-users collaborative detection are key technologies for achieving the performances of spectrum detection in cognitive radio system.A spectrum sensing technique based on cyclostationary signatures for multi-antenna and multiple users is proposed.Each antenna receiver signal is combined according to maximal-ratio combining in the frequency domain,and the elementary spectrum verdict is made for the combined signals.The spectrum collaborative detection is performed according to the rule K/N for multiple users.The simulation results and analysis show that utilizing the cyclostationary signatures and the collaborative detection technique can improve the performances of spectrum sensing in cognitive radio system.%多天线空间分集和多用户协作检测是提高认知无线电频谱检测性能的2种关键技术,由此提出了基于循环平稳特征的多天线多用户频谱协作检测方法.首先接收器在频域按照最大比合并的方法合并各天线接收信号,对合并信号进行初步频谱判决.然后在多用户中按照K/N融合准则进一步做频谱协作检测.仿真分析表明,综合利用信号循环平稳特征和协作检测技术可有效改善认知无线电系统检测性能.
Optimal go/no-go ratios to maximize false alarms.
Young, Michael E; Sutherland, Steven C; McCoy, Anthony W
2017-06-29
Despite the ubiquity of go/no-go tasks in the study of behavioral inhibition, there is a lack of evidence regarding the impact of key design characteristics, including the go/no-go ratio, intertrial interval, and number of types of go stimuli, on the production of different response classes of central interest. In the present study we sought to empirically determine the optimal conditions to maximize the production of a rare outcome of considerable interest to researchers: false alarms. As predicted, the shortest intertrial intervals (450 ms), intermediate go/no-go ratios (2:1 to 4:1), and the use of multiple types of go stimuli produced the greatest numbers of false alarms. These results are placed within the context of behavioral changes during learning.
Maximal rectification ratios for bi-segment thermal rectifiers
Shih, Tien-Mo; Guo, Ziquan; Liu, Guangcao; Merlitz, Holger; Pagni, Patrick J; Chen, Zhong
2014-01-01
We study bi-segment thermal rectifiers whose forward heat fluxes are greater than reverse counterparts. Presently, a shortcoming of thermal rectifiers is that the rectification ratio, namely the forward flux divided by the reverse flux, remains too small for practical applications. In this study, we have managed to discover and theoretically derive the ultimate limit of such ratios, which are validated by numerical simulations, experiments, and micro-scale Hamiltonian-oscillator analyses. For rectifiers whose thermal conductivities are linear with the temperature, this limit is simply a numerical value of 3. For those whose conductivities are nonlinear with temperatures, the maxima equal $\\kappa_{max}/\\kappa_{min}$, where the two extremes denote values of the solid segment materials that can be possibly found or fabricated within a reasonable temperature range on earth. Recommendations for manufacturing high-ratio rectifiers are also given with examples.
Maximal rectification ratios for idealized bi-segment thermal rectifiers.
Shih, Tien-Mo; Gao, Zhaojing; Guo, Ziquan; Merlitz, Holger; Pagni, Patrick J; Chen, Zhong
2015-08-04
Thermal rectifiers whose forward heat fluxes are greater than reverse counterparts have been extensively studied. Here we have discovered, idealized, and derived the ultimate limit of such rectification ratios, which are partially validated by numerical simulations, experiments, and micro-scale Hamiltonian-oscillator analyses. For rectifiers whose thermal conductivities (κ) are linear with the temperature, this limit is simply a numerical value of 3. For those whose conductivities are nonlinear with temperatures, the maxima equal κmax/κmin, where two extremes denote values of the solid segment materials that can be possibly found or fabricated within a reasonable temperature range. Recommendations for manufacturing high-ratio rectifiers are also given with examples. Under idealized assumptions, these proposed rectification limits cannot be defied by any bi-segment thermal rectifiers.
Design of passive vehicle suspensions for maximal least damping ratio
Smith, Malcolm C.; Swift, Stuart J.
2016-05-01
This paper studies the use of the least damping ratio among system poles as a performance metric in passive vehicle suspensions. Methods are developed which allow optimal solutions to be computed in terms of non-dimensional quantities in a quarter-car vehicle model. Solutions are provided in graphical form for convenient use across vehicle types. Three suspension arrangements are studied: the standard suspension involving a parallel spring and damper and two further suspension arrangements involving an inerter. The key parameters for the optimal solutions are the ratios of unsprung mass to sprung mass and suspension static stiffness to tyre vertical stiffness. A discussion is provided of performance trends in terms of the key parameters. A comparison is made with the optimisation of ride comfort and tyre grip metrics for various vehicle types.
Maximizing Volume Ratios for Shadow Covering by Tetrahedra
Chen, Christina
2012-01-01
Define a body A to be able to hide behind a body B if the orthogonal projection of B contains a translation of the corresponding orthogonal projection of A in every direction. In two dimensions, it is easy to observe that there exist two objects such that one can hide behind another and have a larger area than the other. It was recently shown that similar examples exist in higher dimensions as well. However, the highest possible volume ratio for such bodies is still undetermined. We investigated two three-dimensional examples, one involving a tetrahedron and a ball and the other involving a tetrahedron and an inverted tetrahedron. We calculate the highest volume ratio known up to this date, 1.16, which is generated by our second example.
Ibai eGarcia-Tabar
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The aim was to examine the drift in the measurements of fractional concentration of oxygen (FO2 and carbon dioxide (FCO2 of a Nafion-using metabolic cart during incremental maximal exercise in 18 young and 12 elderly males, and to propose a way in which the drift can be corrected. The drift was verified by comparing the pre-test calibration values with the immediate post-test verification values of the calibration gases. The system demonstrated an average downscale drift (P < 0.001 in FO2 and FCO2 of -0.18% and -0.05%, respectively. Compared with measured values, corrected average maximal oxygen uptake values were 5-6% lower (P < 0.001 whereas corrected maximal respiratory exchange ratio values were 8-9% higher (P < 0.001. The drift was not due to an electronic instability in the analyzers because it was reverted after 20 minutes of recovery from the end of the exercise. The drift may be related to an incomplete removal of water vapor from the expired gas during transit through the Nafion conducting tube. These data demonstrate the importance of checking FO2 and FCO2 values by regular pre-test calibrations and post-test verifications, and also the importance of correcting a possible shift immediately after exercise.
Volianitis, S.; Fabricius-Bjerre, A.; Overgaard, A.;
2008-01-01
.2% during exercise with an inspired O(2) fraction of 0.17 and 0.30, respectively. Whilst the increase in a-v lactate difference was attenuated by manipulation of cerebral O(2) availability, the cerebral metabolic ratio was not affected significantly. During maximal rowing, the cerebral metabolic ratio...
Peresada, Sergei; Kovbasa, Serhii; Dymko, Serhii; BOZHKO, Serhiy
2016-01-01
The paper presents a novel maximum torque per Ampere (MTA) controller for induction motor (IM) drives. The proposed controller exploits the concept of direct (observer based) field orientation and guarantees asymptotic torque tracking of smooth reference trajectories and maximizes the torque per Ampere ratio when the developed torque is constant or slowly varying. A dynamic output-feedback linearizing technique is employed for the torque subsystem design. In order to improve torque tracking a...
Ahmed A. Freewan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The interaction between different ceiling geometries with laser cut panels (LCPs is investigated using real experiments and computer simulations to maximize the daylight performance of the LCP. In addition, LCP with different aspect ratios (width to depth ratio is studied using simulation with clear sky conditions in hot climate region. Two main performance parameters are investigated: illuminance level and distribution uniformity in a large space located in a sub-tropical climate region like Jordan. It was found that curved and chamfered ceilings increased the daylight level in the rear part of the studied room by 20% compared to a horizontal flat ceiling and reduce it by 30% in front part that improve the quality of daylight by improving the uniformity. LCP with high aspect ratio of 5:6 performed well in climate with clear sky and high solar angles than LCP with ratio of 4:6.
2012-01-01
Background Synchronized bursting activity (SBA) is a remarkable dynamical behavior in both ex vivo and in vivo neural networks. Investigations of the underlying structural characteristics associated with SBA are crucial to understanding the system-level regulatory mechanism of neural network behaviors. Results In this study, artificial pulsed neural networks were established using spike response models to capture fundamental dynamics of large scale ex vivo cortical networks. Network simulations with synaptic parameter perturbations showed the following two findings. (i) In a network with an excitatory ratio (ER) of 80-90%, its connective ratio (CR) was within a range of 10-30% when the occurrence of SBA reached the highest expectation. This result was consistent with the experimental observation in ex vivo neuronal networks, which were reported to possess a matured inhibitory synaptic ratio of 10-20% and a CR of 10-30%. (ii) No SBA occurred when a network does not contain any all-positive-interaction feedback loop (APFL) motif. In a neural network containing APFLs, the number of APFLs presented an optimal range corresponding to the maximal occurrence of SBA, which was very similar to the optimal CR. Conclusions In a neural network, the evolutionarily selected CR (10-30%) optimizes the occurrence of SBA, and APFL serves a pivotal network motif required to maximize the occurrence of SBA. PMID:22462685
Dong Chao-Yi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Synchronized bursting activity (SBA is a remarkable dynamical behavior in both ex vivo and in vivo neural networks. Investigations of the underlying structural characteristics associated with SBA are crucial to understanding the system-level regulatory mechanism of neural network behaviors. Results In this study, artificial pulsed neural networks were established using spike response models to capture fundamental dynamics of large scale ex vivo cortical networks. Network simulations with synaptic parameter perturbations showed the following two findings. (i In a network with an excitatory ratio (ER of 80-90%, its connective ratio (CR was within a range of 10-30% when the occurrence of SBA reached the highest expectation. This result was consistent with the experimental observation in ex vivo neuronal networks, which were reported to possess a matured inhibitory synaptic ratio of 10-20% and a CR of 10-30%. (ii No SBA occurred when a network does not contain any all-positive-interaction feedback loop (APFL motif. In a neural network containing APFLs, the number of APFLs presented an optimal range corresponding to the maximal occurrence of SBA, which was very similar to the optimal CR. Conclusions In a neural network, the evolutionarily selected CR (10-30% optimizes the occurrence of SBA, and APFL serves a pivotal network motif required to maximize the occurrence of SBA.
Optimal Operation of Network-Connected Combined Heat and Powers for Customer Profit Maximization
Da Xie
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Network-connected combined heat and powers (CHPs, owned by a community, can export surplus heat and electricity to corresponding heat and electric networks after community loads are satisfied. This paper proposes a new optimization model for network-connected CHP operation. Both CHPs’ overall efficiency and heat to electricity ratio (HTER are assumed to vary with loading levels. Based on different energy flow scenarios where heat and electricity are exported to the network from the community or imported, four profit models are established accordingly. They reflect the different relationships between CHP energy supply and community load demand across time. A discrete optimization model is then developed to maximize the profit for the community. The models are derived from the intervals determined by the daily operation modes of CHP and real-time buying and selling prices of heat, electricity and natural gas. By demonstrating the proposed models on a 1 MW network-connected CHP, results show that the community profits are maximized in energy markets. Thus, the proposed optimization approach can help customers to devise optimal CHP operating strategies for maximizing benefits.
A trace ratio maximization approach to multiple kernel-based dimensionality reduction.
Jiang, Wenhao; Chung, Fu-lai
2014-01-01
Most dimensionality reduction techniques are based on one metric or one kernel, hence it is necessary to select an appropriate kernel for kernel-based dimensionality reduction. Multiple kernel learning for dimensionality reduction (MKL-DR) has been recently proposed to learn a kernel from a set of base kernels which are seen as different descriptions of data. As MKL-DR does not involve regularization, it might be ill-posed under some conditions and consequently its applications are hindered. This paper proposes a multiple kernel learning framework for dimensionality reduction based on regularized trace ratio, termed as MKL-TR. Our method aims at learning a transformation into a space of lower dimension and a corresponding kernel from the given base kernels among which some may not be suitable for the given data. The solutions for the proposed framework can be found based on trace ratio maximization. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness in benchmark datasets, which include text, image and sound datasets, for supervised, unsupervised as well as semi-supervised settings.
Association studies with imputed variants using expectation-maximization likelihood-ratio tests.
Kuan-Chieh Huang
Full Text Available Genotype imputation has become standard practice in modern genetic studies. As sequencing-based reference panels continue to grow, increasingly more markers are being well or better imputed but at the same time, even more markers with relatively low minor allele frequency are being imputed with low imputation quality. Here, we propose new methods that incorporate imputation uncertainty for downstream association analysis, with improved power and/or computational efficiency. We consider two scenarios: I when posterior probabilities of all potential genotypes are estimated; and II when only the one-dimensional summary statistic, imputed dosage, is available. For scenario I, we have developed an expectation-maximization likelihood-ratio test for association based on posterior probabilities. When only imputed dosages are available (scenario II, we first sample the genotype probabilities from its posterior distribution given the dosages, and then apply the EM-LRT on the sampled probabilities. Our simulations show that type I error of the proposed EM-LRT methods under both scenarios are protected. Compared with existing methods, EM-LRT-Prob (for scenario I offers optimal statistical power across a wide spectrum of MAF and imputation quality. EM-LRT-Dose (for scenario II achieves a similar level of statistical power as EM-LRT-Prob and, outperforms the standard Dosage method, especially for markers with relatively low MAF or imputation quality. Applications to two real data sets, the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey study and the Women's Health Initiative Study, provide further support to the validity and efficiency of our proposed methods.
Mainak Dey
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a new stock portfolio selection model in non-stochastic environment. Following the principle of maximum entropy, a new entropy-cost ratio function is introduced as the objective function. The uncertain returns, risks and dividends of the securities are considered as interval numbers. Along with the objective function, eight different types of constraints are used in the model to convert it into a pragmatic one. Three different models have been proposed by defining the future financial market optimistically, pessimistically and in the combined form to model the portfolio selection problem. To illustrate the effectiveness and tractability of the proposed models, these are tested on a set of data from Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE. The solution has been done by genetic algorithm.
Cardio-respiratory responses to hypoxia combined with CO2 inhalation during maximal exercise.
Doutreleau, Stéphane; Enache, Irina; Pistea, Cristina; Favret, Fabrice; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Dufour, Stéphane; Charloux, Anne
2017-01-01
We measured the effects of adding CO2 to an inhaled hypoxic gas mixture on cardio-respiratory parameters during maximal exercise. Eight young males performed four incremental maximal exercise tests on cycle under ambient air, hypoxia (FIO2 0.125), inhaled CO2 (FICO2 0.045), and combination of hypoxia and inhaled CO2. The highest ventilation (VE) and VE/CO2 output were recorded in CO2 inhalation and combined treatments. Arterial O2 partial pressure was higher in combined than in hypoxia treatment, but the difference between the treatments narrowed from rest to end-exercise, at least partly because the magnitude of the increase in VE (%) at exercise was smaller in combined treatment than in hypoxia. Arterial O2 content was higher in combined treatment than in hypoxia at rest, but no more at maximal exercise. Cardiac output was higher and O2 extraction lower when breathing O2-poor gas mixtures than under the two other treatments. For a given oxygen consumption, hypoxia and combined treatment showed similar cardiac output and O2 extraction. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Plasma pH does not influence the cerebral metabolic ratio during maximal whole body exercise
Volianitis, Stefanos; Rasmussen, Peter; Seifert, Thomas;
2011-01-01
Exercise lowers the cerebral metabolic ratio of O2 to carbohydrate (glucose + 1/2 lactate) and metabolic acidosis appears to promote cerebral lactate uptake. However, the influence of pH on cerebral lactate uptake and, in turn, on the cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise is not known. Sodium.......05) following the Sal and Bicarb trials, respectively. Accordingly, the cerebral metabolic ratio decreased equally during the Sal and Bicarb trials: from 5.8 ± 0.6 at rest to 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The enlarged blood-buffering capacity after infusion of Bicarb eliminated metabolic acidosis...
Ali Eliassi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this study the effects of some different factors on ceria (CeO2 catalytic activity for ethanol steam reforming (ESR to produce high H2/CO ratio were investigated. The considered factors were sonication time in three durations (0, 15 and 30 minutes, calcination temperature at three temperatures (500, 650 and 800°C, mole ratio of H2O/ethanol in three ratios (3, 5 and 8 and reactor temperature at three temperatures (300, 350 and 400°C. The Taguchi L9 experimental design method was used to investigate the effect of these parameters on maximization of H2/CO. To identify the catalyst characteristics XRD, SEM, EDS, BET and TGA analysis were done. It was established that a face centered cubic crystal forms of nano particles of CeO2 were formed. Also the obtained results showed that by increasing calcination temperature or reducing the sonication time, the nano particle size was increased. The reactor tests showed that the optimum conditions for maximization of H2/CO ratio were: sonication time zero, calcination temperature 800°C, H2O/ethanol ratio 3 and reactor temperature 300°C. The mole percent of H2 and CO in these conditions were 64.46 and 0.011%, respectively.
McNeil, Chris J; Allman, Brian L; Symons, T Brock; Vandervoort, Anthony A; Rice, Charles L
2004-05-01
The influence of different work-to-rest (W:R) ratios during fatigue induced by maximal eccentric contractions is unknown. The present study sought to expand the understanding of the task-dependent nature of eccentric contractions, and the associated fatigue, during exercise and acute as well as extended recovery periods. Using a Biodex multi-joint dynamometer, the ankle dorsiflexors of eight men [26 (4) years] were fatigued with 150 maximal eccentric contractions. Set structure was manipulated such that one leg performed 3 sets of 50 repetitions (short rest protocol, SRP), and the other leg performed 15 sets of 10 repetitions (long rest protocol, LRP). A 1-min rest interval separated each set, which resulted in 2 and 14 min of total rest for the SRP and the LRP, respectively. At fatigue, the SRP demonstrated a marginally greater loss of average peak eccentric torque than the LRP ( Ptorque loss and the degree of low-frequency fatigue (LFF) were not recovered ( Ptorque was persistent and equal for each protocol at 96 h of recovery ( Pratio has a modest influence on the fatigue (torque loss) induced by maximal eccentric contractions, but maximal isometric torque during recovery and LFF are insensitive to changes in total rest time.
Altering the ribosomal subunit ratio in yeast maximizes recombinant protein yield
Poyner David R
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of high yields of recombinant proteins is an enduring bottleneck in the post-genomic sciences that has yet to be addressed in a truly rational manner. Typically eukaryotic protein production experiments have relied on varying expression construct cassettes such as promoters and tags, or culture process parameters such as pH, temperature and aeration to enhance yields. These approaches require repeated rounds of trial-and-error optimization and cannot provide a mechanistic insight into the biology of recombinant protein production. We published an early transcriptome analysis that identified genes implicated in successful membrane protein production experiments in yeast. While there has been a subsequent explosion in such analyses in a range of production organisms, no one has yet exploited the genes identified. The aim of this study was to use the results of our previous comparative transcriptome analysis to engineer improved yeast strains and thereby gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved in high-yielding protein production hosts. Results We show that tuning BMS1 transcript levels in a doxycycline-dependent manner resulted in optimized yields of functional membrane and soluble protein targets. Online flow microcalorimetry demonstrated that there had been a substantial metabolic change to cells cultured under high-yielding conditions, and in particular that high yielding cells were more metabolically efficient. Polysome profiling showed that the key molecular event contributing to this metabolically efficient, high-yielding phenotype is a perturbation of the ratio of 60S to 40S ribosomal subunits from approximately 1:1 to 2:1, and correspondingly of 25S:18S ratios from 2:1 to 3:1. This result is consistent with the role of the gene product of BMS1 in ribosome biogenesis. Conclusion This work demonstrates the power of a rational approach to recombinant protein production by using the results of
Design of Maximally Flat FIR Filters Based on Explicit Formulas Combined with Optimization
无
2006-01-01
A maximally flat FIR filter design method based on explicit formulas combined with simulated annealing and random search was presented. Utilizing the explicit formulas to calculate the initial values, the finite-word-length FIR filter design problem was converted into optimization of the filter coefficients. An optimization method combined with local discrete random search and simulated annealing was proposed, with the result of optimum solution in the sense of Chebyshev approximation. The proposed method can simplify the design process of FIR filter and reduce the calculation burden. The simulation result indicates that the proposed method is superior to the traditional round off method and can reduce the value of the objective function to 41%-74%.
Maximization of seasonal forecasts performance combining Grand Multi-Model Ensembles
Alessandri, Andrea; De Felice, Matteo; Catalano, Franco; Lee, Doo Young; Yoo, Jin Ho; Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin
2014-05-01
Multi-Model Ensembles (MMEs) are powerful tools in dynamical climate prediction as they account for the overconfidence and the uncertainties related to single-model errors. Previous works suggested that the potential benefit that can be expected by using a MME amplify with the increase of the independence of the contributing Seasonal Prediction Systems. In this work we combine the two Multi Model Ensemble (MME) Seasonal Prediction Systems (SPSs) independently developed by the European (ENSEMBLES) and by the Asian-Pacific (CliPAS/APCC) communities. To this aim, all the possible multi-model combinations obtained by putting together the 5 models from ENSEMBLES and the 11 models from CliPAS/APCC have been evaluated. The grand ENSEMBLES-CliPAS/APCC Multi-Model enhances significantly the skill compared to previous estimates from the contributing MMEs. The combinations of SPSs maximizing the skill that is currently attainable for specific predictands/phenomena is evaluated. Our results show that, in general, the better combinations of SPSs are obtained by mixing ENSEMBLES and CliPAS/APCC models and that only a limited number of SPSs is required to obtain the maximum performance. The number and selection of models that perform better is usually different depending on the region/phenomenon under consideration. As an example for the tropical Pacific, the maximum performance is obtained with only the combination of 5-to-6 SPSs from the grand ENSEMBLES-CliPAS/APCC MME. With particular focus over Tropical Pacific, the relationship between performance and bias of the grand-MME combinations is evaluated. The skill of the grand-MME combinations over Euro-Mediterranean and East-Asia regions is further evaluated as a function of the capability of the selected contributing SPSs to forecast anomalies of the Polar/Siberian highs during winter and of the Asian summer monsoon precipitation during summer. Our results indicate that, combining SPSs from independent MME sources is a good
How to maximize science communication efficacy by combining old and new media
Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.
2014-12-01
Traditional science communication approaches (such as relying on university press releases about new scientific publications), and new communication approaches (such as utilizing infographics and social media), can each reach a wide audience when successful. However, probability of successful the science communication can be amplified by taking advantage of both traditional and new media, especially when 'sticky' messaging techniques are applied. The example of Cook et al., 2013 (C13), which found a 97% consensus in the peer-reviewed climate literature on human-caused global warming, is considered. C13 implemented this optimal combined communications approach strategy and became the most-downloaded study in all Institute of Physics journals, with over 200,000 downloads to date. Due to the effective 'sticky' messaging approaches implemented by the study authors, its results received broad coverage from international media and reached millions of people via social media. Strategies to avoid misrepresentations of one's work while maximizing the communications efficacy of its key points will also be discussed.
Combined SVM-CRFs for biological named entity recognition with maximal bidirectional squeezing.
Fei Zhu
Full Text Available Biological named entity recognition, the identification of biological terms in text, is essential for biomedical information extraction. Machine learning-based approaches have been widely applied in this area. However, the recognition performance of current approaches could still be improved. Our novel approach is to combine support vector machines (SVMs and conditional random fields (CRFs, which can complement and facilitate each other. During the hybrid process, we use SVM to separate biological terms from non-biological terms, before we use CRFs to determine the types of biological terms, which makes full use of the power of SVM as a binary-class classifier and the data-labeling capacity of CRFs. We then merge the results of SVM and CRFs. To remove any inconsistencies that might result from the merging, we develop a useful algorithm and apply two rules. To ensure biological terms with a maximum length are identified, we propose a maximal bidirectional squeezing approach that finds the longest term. We also add a positive gain to rare events to reinforce their probability and avoid bias. Our approach will also gradually extend the context so more contextual information can be included. We examined the performance of four approaches with GENIA corpus and JNLPBA04 data. The combination of SVM and CRFs improved performance. The macro-precision, macro-recall, and macro-F(1 of the SVM-CRFs hybrid approach surpassed conventional SVM and CRFs. After applying the new algorithms, the macro-F1 reached 91.67% with the GENIA corpus and 84.04% with the JNLPBA04 data.
Combined SVM-CRFs for biological named entity recognition with maximal bidirectional squeezing.
Zhu, Fei; Shen, Bairong
2012-01-01
Biological named entity recognition, the identification of biological terms in text, is essential for biomedical information extraction. Machine learning-based approaches have been widely applied in this area. However, the recognition performance of current approaches could still be improved. Our novel approach is to combine support vector machines (SVMs) and conditional random fields (CRFs), which can complement and facilitate each other. During the hybrid process, we use SVM to separate biological terms from non-biological terms, before we use CRFs to determine the types of biological terms, which makes full use of the power of SVM as a binary-class classifier and the data-labeling capacity of CRFs. We then merge the results of SVM and CRFs. To remove any inconsistencies that might result from the merging, we develop a useful algorithm and apply two rules. To ensure biological terms with a maximum length are identified, we propose a maximal bidirectional squeezing approach that finds the longest term. We also add a positive gain to rare events to reinforce their probability and avoid bias. Our approach will also gradually extend the context so more contextual information can be included. We examined the performance of four approaches with GENIA corpus and JNLPBA04 data. The combination of SVM and CRFs improved performance. The macro-precision, macro-recall, and macro-F(1) of the SVM-CRFs hybrid approach surpassed conventional SVM and CRFs. After applying the new algorithms, the macro-F1 reached 91.67% with the GENIA corpus and 84.04% with the JNLPBA04 data.
Piper, Thomas; Emery, Caroline; Thomas, Andreas; Saugy, Martial; Thevis, Mario
2013-06-01
Carbon isotope ratio (CIR) analysis has been routinely and successfully applied to doping control analysis for many years to uncover the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone. Over the years, several challenges and limitations of this approach became apparent, e.g., the influence of inadequate chromatographic separation on CIR values or the emergence of steroid preparations comprising identical CIRs as endogenous steroids. While the latter has been addressed recently by the implementation of hydrogen isotope ratios (HIR), an improved sample preparation for CIR avoiding co-eluting compounds is presented herein together with newly established reference values of those endogenous steroids being relevant for doping controls. From the fraction of glucuronidated steroids 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol, 5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol, 3α-Hydroxy-5β-androstane-11,17-dione, 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (ANDRO), 3α-hydroxy-5β-androstan-17-one (ETIO), 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one (DHEA), 5α- and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol (5aDIOL and 5bDIOL), 17β-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one and 17α-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one were included. In addition, sulfate conjugates of ANDRO, ETIO, DHEA, 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one plus 17α- and androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol were considered and analyzed after acidic solvolysis. The results obtained for the reference population encompassing n = 67 males and females confirmed earlier findings regarding factors influencing endogenous CIR. Variations in sample preparation influenced CIR measurements especially for 5aDIOL and 5bDIOL, the most valuable steroidal analytes for the detection of testosterone misuse. Earlier investigations on the HIR of the same reference population enabled the evaluation of combined measurements of CIR and HIR and its usefulness regarding both steroid metabolism studies and doping control analysis. The combination of both stable isotopes would allow for lower reference limits providing the same statistical
Lin Sheng-Chou
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This article presents the performance analysis of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO systems with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM transmission in the presence of cochannel interference (CCI in nonfading and flat Rayleigh fading environments. The use of optimum transmission (OT and maximum ratio transmission (MRT is considered and compared. In addition to determining precise results for the performance of QAM in the presence of CCI, it is our another aim in this article to examine the validity of the Gaussian interference model in the MRT-based systems. Nyquist pulse shaping and the effects of cross-channel intersymbol interference produced by CCI due to random symbol of the interfering signals are considered in the precise interference model. The error probability for each fading channel is estimated fast and accurately using Gauss quadrature rules which can approximate the probability density function (pdf of the output residual interference. The results of this article indicate that Gaussian interference model may overestimate the effects of interference, particularly, for high-order MRT-based MIMO systems over fading channels. In addition, OT cannot always outperform MRT due to the significant noise enhancement when OT intends to cancel CCI, depending on the combination of the antennas at the transmitter and the receiver, number of interference and the statistical characteristics of the channel.
A. Muñoz-Acevedo
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a quiet zone probing approach which deals with low dynamic range quiet zone acquisitions. Lack of dynamic range is a feature of millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength technologies. It is consequence of the gradually smaller power generated by the instrumentation, that follows a f^α law with frequency, being α≥1 variable depending on the signal source’s technology. The proposed approach is based on an optimal data reduction scenario which redounds in a maximum signal to noise ratio increase for the signal pattern, with minimum information losses. After theoretical formulation, practical applications of the technique are proposed.
Combined shape and topology optimization for minimization of maximal von Mises stress
Lian, Haojie; Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Tortorelli, Daniel A.
2017-01-01
This work shows that a combined shape and topology optimization method can produce optimal 2D designs with minimal stress subject to a volume constraint. The method represents the surface explicitly and discretizes the domain into a simplicial complex which adapts both structural shape and topology....... By performing repeated topology and shape optimizations and adaptive mesh updates, we can minimize the maximum von Mises stress using the p-norm stress measure with p-values as high as 30, provided that the stress is calculated with sufficient accuracy....
Briski, Elizabeta; Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej; Linley, R Dallas; Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Rajakaruna, Harshana; Bailey, Sarah A
2015-08-18
The most effective way to manage species transfers is to prevent their introduction via vector regulation. Soon, international ships will be required to meet numeric ballast discharge standards using ballast water treatment (BWT) systems, and ballast water exchange (BWE), currently required by several countries, will be phased out. However, there are concerns that BWT systems may not function reliably in fresh and/or turbid water. A land-based evaluation of simulated "BWE plus BWT" versus "BWT alone" demonstrated potential benefits of combining BWE with BWT for protection of freshwater ecosystems. We conducted ship-based testing to compare the efficacy of "BWE plus BWT" versus "BWT alone" on voyages starting with freshwater ballast. We tested the hypotheses that there is an additional effect of "BWE plus BWT" compared to "BWT alone" on the reduction of plankton, and that taxa remaining after "BWE plus BWT" will be marine (low risk for establishment at freshwater recipient ports). Our study found that BWE has significant additional effect on the reduction of plankton, and this effect increases with initial abundance. As per expectations, "BWT alone" tanks contained higher risk freshwater or euryhaline taxa at discharge, while "BWE plus BWT" tanks contained mostly lower risk marine taxa unlikely to survive in recipient freshwater ecosystems.
Bruno, B. C.
2014-12-01
The C-MORE Scholars Program provides hands-on, closely mentored research experiences to University of Hawaii (UH) undergraduates during the academic year. Students majoring in the geosciences, especially underrepresented students, from all campuses are encouraged to apply. The academic-year research is complemented by outreach, professional development and summer internships. Combined, these experiences help students develop the skills, confidence and passion that are essential to success in a geoscience career. Research. All students enter the program as trainees, where they learn lab and field research methods, computer skills and science principles. After one year, they are encouraged to reapply as interns, where they work on their own research project. Students who have successfully completed their intern year can reapply as fellows, where they conduct an independent research project such as an honors thesis. Students present their research at a Symposium through posters (trainees) or talks (interns and fellows). Interns and fellows help organize program activities and serve as peer mentors to trainees.Multi-tiered programs that build a pathway toward graduation have been shown to increase student retention and graduation success. Outreach. Undergraduate researchers rarely feel like experts when working with graduate students and faculty. For students to develop their identity as scientists, it is essential that they be given the opportunity to assume the role as expert. Engaging students in outreach is a win-win situation. Students gain valuable skills and confidence in sharing their research with their local community, and the public gets to learn about exciting research happening at UH. Professional Development. Each month, the Scholars meet to develop their professional skills on a particular topic, such as outreach, scientific presentations, interviewing, networking, and preparing application materials for jobs, scholarships and summer REUs. Students are
M. A. M. Inggas
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adultswith dismal prognosis due to the unavailability of an effective therapy. Up to now, there had been no definitive studies published on EGFR inhibition therapy as a chemosensitizer for GBM therapy using Temozolomide (TMZ. This study aims to reveal the most effective method and timing to administer TMZ-anti EGFR targeted therapy which causes maximal DNA damage on GBM cells.Methods: Various regimens of anti EGFR monoclonal antibody Nimotuzumab (NMZ was administered in different combinations with TMZ, performed on U87MG MGMT(+ EGFR(+ cells. The effectiveness of the combinations were evaluated by measuring yH2AX levels which reflects the degree of DNA damage. One-way Anova and LSD tests were performed to determine the effects of each treatment with p<0.05. Results and discussion: the mean SD of yH2AX of each treatment was: 11,90±1,25 for the control group; 29.33±1.91 for NMZ alone; 28.13±1.58 for TMZ alone; 41.53±3.51 for concurrent use; 35.67 ±2.65 for NMZ after 24 hours TMZ; 31.87±2.94 for NMZ after 48 hours TMZ; 39.57±4.2 for TMZ after 24 hours NMZ; and 35.93 ±3.56 for TMZ after 48 hours NMZ. The administration of TMZ concurrent with or after 24 hours NMZ gives the highest amount of DNA damage to GBM cells. Conclusion: The administration of Nimotuzumab targeted therapy up to 24 hours before Temozolomide chemotherapy has been proven to be effective in maximizing the amount of DNA damage done to GBM cells in vitro.
Retrieving the aerosol lidar ratio profile by combining ground- and space-based elastic lidars.
Feiyue, Mao; Wei, Gong; Yingying, Ma
2012-02-15
The aerosol lidar ratio is a key parameter for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties from elastic lidar, which changes largely for aerosols with different chemical and physical properties. We proposed a method for retrieving the aerosol lidar ratio profile by combining simultaneous ground- and space-based elastic lidars. The method was tested by a simulated case and a real case at 532 nm wavelength. The results demonstrated that our method is robust and can obtain accurate lidar ratio and extinction coefficient profiles. Our method can be useful for determining the local and global lidar ratio and validating space-based lidar datasets.
Mohsen Taherbaneh; A. H. Rezaie; H. Ghafoorifard; Rahimi, K; M. B. Menhaj
2010-01-01
In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar...
Huang Chong; Deng Peng; Zhao Shuang; Chen Hai-Qing
2011-01-01
This paper deals with a systematical analysis and an algorithm of attenuation characteristics of a light attenuator combined by n pieces of polarizers(n-LACP)whose extinction ratios are different from each other.The attenuation ratio expression of a two-LACP is deduced. We find that the monotonic attenuation interval depends on the first polarizer and that the attenuation range depends on the second one.For the three-LACP,a method for obtaining a monotonic attenuation interval is proposed.Moreover,the attenuation ratio expression is demonstrated.Analysis and experiment show that when the initial status of the three-LACP is at the maximum output,if the second or third polarizer rotates alone,the minimum attenuation ratios can reach K2-1and K3-1,respectively,and if the first polarizer rotates,a minimum attenuation ratio of K2-1K3-1can be obtained(K1,K2 and K3 represent the extinction ratios of the three polarizers in turn).Furthermore,the attenuation ratio expression of n-LACP and the relevant attenuation characteristics are proposed.The minimum attenuation ratio of an n-LACP is(K2K3...Kn)-1.
do Nascimento Salvador, Paulo C; Dal Pupo, Juliano; De Lucas, Ricardo D; de Aguiar, Rafael A; Arins, Francimara B; Guglielmo, Luiz G A
2016-10-01
do Nascimento Salvador, PC, Dal Pupo, J, De Lucas, RD, de Aguiar, RA, Arins, FB, and Guglielmo, LGA. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics of maximal and supramaximal running exercises in sprinters and middle-distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2857-2863, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics parameters during maximal and supramaximal running exercises in sprinters (SPR) and middle-distance runners (MDR). Twelve SPR (age 20.6 ± 3.4 years; and body mass 74.9 ± 6.2 kg) and 10 MDR (age 17.6 ± 1.4 years; and body mass 70.1 ± 11.8 kg) performed, on different days, a maximal incremental running test for determination of the velocity at maximum oxygen uptake (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) and 2 constant-speed tests for analysis of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics at 100 and 120% of vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The MDR presented significantly higher values for the critical speed (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 14.2 ± 1.0 km·h), vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max (19.4 ± 0.7 vs. 17.2 ± 0.8 km·h), and time to exhaustion at 100% (437 ± 53 vs. 366 ± 49 seconds) than the SPR (p ≤ 0.05). However, the SPR demonstrated greater values for the anaerobic distance capacity (281.3 ± 66.1 vs. 208.0 ± 43.4 m). Although the mean response time and the time to attain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics was higher in the maximal than supramaximal running speed (p ≤ 0.05), no difference was found in these parameters as well for V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component (p > 0.05) between the groups. This study showed that different aerobic and anaerobic characteristics in MDR and SPR did not affect the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics in maximal and supramaximal intensities within the severe-intensity domain. From a practical perspective, parameters of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 response may provide helpful information for training control as the duration of stimulus close to V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.
Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.
2012-01-01
Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel
Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.
2012-01-01
Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel
Penzer, Félix; Duchateau, Jacques; Baudry, Stéphane
2015-01-01
This study investigated the effects of two training programmes of 6 weeks combining strength and balance exercises in different proportions. One training programme [n=10; 71.4 (6.3) years] consisted mainly of strength exercises (ST) and the other programme [n=8; 71.4 (6.4) years] included a majority of balance exercises (BT). Maximal strength of lower leg muscles and centre of pressure (CoP) steadiness during upright stance in various sensory conditions were measured before and after training. The input-output relation of motor evoked potential (MEP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation and H reflex was also assessed in soleus during upright standing. The maximal strength of the ankle plantar flexor muscles increased after training programmes (ptraining programmes decreased maximal amplitude and mean fluctuations of CoP displacements recorded in the backward-forward direction when standing on a foam mat (ptraining but not for the tibialis anterior. Results obtained for H reflex and MEP input-output relations suggest an increased efficacy of Ia afferents to activate low-threshold motor neurones and a decrease in corticospinal excitability after training. This study indicates that short-term training combining strength and balance exercises increases maximal strength and induces change in the neural control of lower leg muscles during upright standing.
Mohsen Taherbaneh
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar panel orientation in horizontal and vertical directions by two DC motors properly designed. A DC-DC converter is employed to track the solar panel maximum power point. In addition, the proposed system has the capability of the extraction of solar panel I-V curves. Experimental results present that the proposed fuzzy techniques result in increasing of power delivery from the solar panel, causing a reduction in size, weight, and cost of solar panels in photovoltaic systems.
Brendle, Joerg
2016-01-01
We show that, consistently, there can be maximal subtrees of P (omega) and P (omega) / fin of arbitrary regular uncountable size below the size of the continuum. We also show that there are no maximal subtrees of P (omega) / fin with countable levels. Our results answer several questions of Campero, Cancino, Hrusak, and Miranda.
Raap, A K; Tanke, H J
2006-01-01
The ability to probe for the location of DNA sequences in morphologically preserved chromosomes and nuclei by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provided for cytogenetics a quantum leap forward in resolution and ease of detection of chromosomal aberrations. COBRA-FISH, an acronym for COmbined Binary RAtio-FISH is a multicolor FISH methodology, which enables recognition of all human chromosome arms on the basis of color, thus greatly facilitating cytogenetic analysis. It also permits gene and viral integration site mapping in the context of chromosome arm painting. Here we review the principle, practice and applications of COBRA-FISH.
Combined AFM nano-machining and reactive ion etching to fabricate high aspect ratio structures.
Peng, Ping; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Tang, Zirong
2010-11-01
In this paper, a new combined method of sub-micron high aspect ratio structure fabrication is developed which can be used for production of nano imprint template. The process includes atomic force microscope (AFM) scratch nano-machining and reactive ion etching (RIE) fabrication. First, 40 nm aluminum film was deposited on the silicon substrate by magnetron sputtering, and then sub-micron grooves were fabricated on the aluminum film by nano scratch using AFM diamond tip. As aluminum film is a good mask for etching silicon, high aspect ratio structures were finally fabricated by RIE process. The fabricated structures were studied by SEM, which shows that the grooves are about 400 nm in width and 5 microm in depth. To obtain sub-micron scale groove structures on the aluminum film, experiments of nanomachining on aluminum films under various machining conditions were conducted. The depths of the grooves fabricated using different scratch loads were also studied by the AFM. The result shows that the material properties of the film/substrate are elastic-plastic following nearly a bilinear law with isotropic strain hardening. Combined AFM nanomachining and RIE process provides a relative lower cost nano fabrication technique than traditional e-beam lithography, and it has a good prospect in nano imprint template fabrication.
Brewick, Patrick T.; Smyth, Andrew W.
2016-12-01
The authors have previously shown that many traditional approaches to operational modal analysis (OMA) struggle to properly identify the modal damping ratios for bridges under traffic loading due to the interference caused by the driving frequencies of the traffic loads. This paper presents a novel methodology for modal parameter estimation in OMA that overcomes the problems presented by driving frequencies and significantly improves the damping estimates. This methodology is based on finding the power spectral density (PSD) of a given modal coordinate, and then dividing the modal PSD into separate regions, left- and right-side spectra. The modal coordinates were found using a blind source separation (BSS) algorithm and a curve-fitting technique was developed that uses optimization to find the modal parameters that best fit each side spectra of the PSD. Specifically, a pattern-search optimization method was combined with a clustering analysis algorithm and together they were employed in a series of stages in order to improve the estimates of the modal damping ratios. This method was used to estimate the damping ratios from a simulated bridge model subjected to moving traffic loads. The results of this method were compared to other established OMA methods, such as Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and BSS methods, and they were found to be more accurate and more reliable, even for modes that had their PSDs distorted or altered by driving frequencies.
K B Athreya
2009-09-01
It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy $\\int fh_id_=_i$ for $i=1,2,\\ldots,\\ldots k$ the maximizer of entropy is an $f_0$ that is proportional to $\\exp(\\sum c_i h_i)$ for some choice of $c_i$. An extension of this to a continuum of constraints and many examples are presented.
Using the ratio of means as the effect size measure in combining results of microarray experiments
Greenwood Celia MT
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of efficient analytic methodologies for combining microarray results is a major challenge in gene expression analysis. The widely used effect size models are thought to provide an efficient modeling framework for this purpose, where the measures of association for each study and each gene are combined, weighted by the standard errors. A significant disadvantage of this strategy is that the quality of different data sets may be highly variable, but this information is usually neglected during the integration. Moreover, it is widely known that the estimated standard deviations are probably unstable in the commonly used effect size measures (such as standardized mean difference when sample sizes in each group are small. Results We propose a re-parameterization of the traditional mean difference based effect measure by using the log ratio of means as an effect size measure for each gene in each study. The estimated effect sizes for all studies were then combined under two modeling frameworks: the quality-unweighted random effects models and the quality-weighted random effects models. We defined the quality measure as a function of the detection p-value, which indicates whether a transcript is reliably detected or not on the Affymetrix gene chip. The new effect size measure is evaluated and compared under the quality-weighted and quality-unweighted data integration frameworks using simulated data sets, and also in several data sets of prostate cancer patients and controls. We focus on identifying differentially expressed biomarkers for prediction of cancer outcomes. Conclusion Our results show that the proposed effect size measure (log ratio of means has better power to identify differentially expressed genes, and that the detected genes have better performance in predicting cancer outcomes than the commonly used effect size measure, the standardized mean difference (SMD, under both quality-weighted and quality
Mayer, Lawrence D; Harasym, Troy O; Tardi, Paul G; Harasym, Natashia L; Shew, Clifford R; Johnstone, Sharon A; Ramsay, Euan C; Bally, Marcel B; Janoff, Andrew S
2006-07-01
Anticancer drug combinations can act synergistically or antagonistically against tumor cells in vitro depending on the ratios of the individual agents comprising the combination. The importance of drug ratios in vivo, however, has heretofore not been investigated, and combination chemotherapy treatment regimens continue to be developed based on the maximum tolerated dose of the individual agents. We systematically examined three different drug combinations representing a range of anticancer drug classes with distinct molecular mechanisms (irinotecan/floxuridine, cytarabine/daunorubicin, and cisplatin/daunorubicin) for drug ratio-dependent synergy. In each case, synergistic interactions were observed in vitro at certain drug/drug molar ratio ranges (1:1, 5:1, and 10:1, respectively), whereas other ratios were additive or antagonistic. We were able to maintain fixed drug ratios in plasma of mice for 24 hours after i.v. injection for all three combinations by controlling and overcoming the inherent dissimilar pharmacokinetics of individual drugs through encapsulation in liposomal carrier systems. The liposomes not only maintained drug ratios in the plasma after injection, but also delivered the formulated drug ratio directly to tumor tissue. In vivo maintenance of drug ratios shown to be synergistic in vitro provided increased efficacy in preclinical tumor models, whereas attenuated antitumor activity was observed when antagonistic drug ratios were maintained. Fixing synergistic drug ratios in pharmaceutical carriers provides an avenue by which anticancer drug combinations can be optimized prospectively for maximum therapeutic activity during preclinical development and differs from current practice in which dosing regimens are developed empirically in late-stage clinical trials based on tolerability.
Chen, Jing; Huang, Ju; Deng, Shanggui; Huang, Yuting
2016-10-01
Slurry ice possesses several advantages for seafood preservation, such as faster chilling rate, reduced physical damage, and complete coverage of the fish surface. In this paper, the efficiency of its employment, either applied alone or combined with ozone, was evaluated for bighead croaker and compared with traditional flake ice. Changes of a series of microbial, biochemical and sensory parameters including total viable count (TVC), sensory scores, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), hardness and springiness were investigated up to 21 days. TVC, sensory attributes, hardness and springiness of fish stored in ozonised slurry ice, were significantly different from fish stored flake ice and slurry ice, indicating that a combination of slurry ice and ozone allowed better quality maintenance. Increase in TVB-N, PV and TBA values of the fish treated with ozonised slurry ice and slurry ice were found to be noticeably reduced compared to those of the flake ice ones. Based on the acceptable limits of TVC and other quantifiable attributes, a prolonged shelf life of 18 days was estimated for the bighead croaker stored in ozonised-slurry ice, whereas the counterpart batches treated with flake and slurry ice would exceed these limits after 9 and 15 days, respectively. Additionally, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and scanning electron microscope observation also revealed that ozonised-slurry ice could effectively retard the degradation of myofibrillar proteins and reduce the deterioration of microstructure.
Rajendrana C.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available AA2014 aluminum alloy (Al-Cu alloy has been widely utilized in fabrication of lightweight structures like aircraft structures, demanding high strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. The fusion welding of these alloys will lead to solidification problems such as hot cracking. Friction stir welding is a new solid state welding process, in which the material being welded does not melt and recast. Lot of research works have been carried out by many researchers to optimize process parameters and establish empirical relationships to predict tensile strength of friction stir welded butt joints of aluminum alloys. However, very few investigations have been carried out on friction stir welded lap joints of aluminum alloys. Hence, in this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize friction stir lap welding (FSLW parameters to attain maximum tensile strength using statistical tools such as design of experiment (DoE, analysis of variance (ANOVA, response graph and contour plots. By this method, it is found that maximum tensile shear fracture load of 12.76 kN can be achieved if a joint is made using tool rotational speed of 900 rpm, welding speed of 110 mm/min, tool shoulder diameter of 12 mm and tool tilt angle of 1.5°.
Impact and Mitigation of Multiantenna Analog Front-End Mismatch in Transmit Maximum Ratio Combining
Liu, Jian; Khaled, Nadia; Petré, Frederik; Bourdoux, André; Barel, Alain
2006-12-01
Transmit maximum ratio combining (MRC) allows to extend the range of wireless local area networks (WLANs) by exploiting spatial diversity and array gains. These gains, however, depend on the availability of the channel state information (CSI). In this perspective, an open-loop approach in time-division-duplex (TDD) systems relies on channel reciprocity between up- and downlink to acquire the CSI. Although the propagation channel can be assumed to be reciprocal, the radio-frequency (RF) transceivers may exhibit amplitude and phase mismatches between the up- and downlink. In this contribution, we present a statistical analysis to assess the impact of these mismatches on the performance of transmit-MRC. Furthermore, we propose a novel mixed-signal calibration scheme to mitigate these mismatches, which allows to reduce the implementation loss to as little as a few tenths of a dB. Finally, we also demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed calibration scheme in a real-time wireless MIMO-OFDM prototyping platform.
Image segmentation algorithm combined PCNN with maximal correlative criterion%PCNN和最大相关准则相结合的图像分割方法
邓成锦; 聂仁灿; 周冬明; 赵东风
2011-01-01
脉冲耦合神经网络(PCNN)是有着生物学背景的新一代人工神经网络,在图像分割方面体现了优异的性能.PCNN模型在参数估计和阈值迭代方面的问题还有待解决.将一维最大相关准则和二维最大相关准则相结合来估计神经元参数,实现了图像分割的自动化并降低了运算的复杂性.仿真结果表明,该方法在分割图效果和运算复杂度方面都得到了提高,具有较好的实用性.%Pulse Coupled Neural Network(PCNN) is a new generation which has a biological background of artificial neural network, reflects excellent performance in the image segmentation. But the problems of PCNN model parameter estimation and threshold iteration are not been resolved. This paper combines one dimension maximal correlative criterion and two dimension maximal correlative criterion to estimate the neuron parameters,achieves the automation of image segmentation and reduces the complexity of computing. Simulation results show that the proposed method results in the segmentation map and computational complexity compared with the related literature have been improved,and has better usability.
van Lipzig, Marola M H; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Gusinu, Renato; Legler, Juliette; Frank, Heinz; Seidel, Albrecht; Meerman, John H N
2005-01-01
Metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied intensively, and potential metabolites with estrogenic activity have been identified previously. However, little attention has been paid to the metabolic pathways in mammalians and to the combined effect of individual metabolites. Several hydroxylated metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and chrysene (CHN) were formed by rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, some of which possess estrogenic activity. All mono- and several dihydroxylated metabolites of BaP and CHN were tested for ER affinity and estrogenic activity in a proliferation assay (E-screen) and in a reporter-gene assay (ER-CALUX). Twelve estrogenic metabolites were identified with EC50 values ranging from 40nM to 0.15mM. The combined effect of a mixture of seven PAH-metabolites was also studied in the ER binding assay. At concentrations that show little activity themselves, their joint action clearly exhibited significant estrogenic activity. BaP itself exhibited estrogenicity in the ER-CALUX assay due to bio-activation into estrogenic metabolites, probably via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induced CYP activity. Furthermore, 2-hydroxy-CHN (2-OHCHN) induced supra-maximal (400%) estrogenic effects in the ER-CALUX assay. This effect was entirely ER-mediated, since the response was completely blocked with the ER-antagonist ICI182,780. We showed that 2-OHCHN increased ER-concentration, using ELISA techniques, which may explain the observed supra-maximal effects. Co-treatment with the AhR-antagonist 3',4'-dimethoxyflavone (DMF) enhanced ER-signaling, possibly via blockage of AhR-ER inhibitory cross-talk.
Alpha-lactalbumin combined with a regular diet increases plasma Trp-LNAA ratio
Beulens, J.W.J.; Bindels, J.G.; Graaf, de C.
2004-01-01
Brain serotonin influences food intake and mood. It is synthesised from tryptophan (Tip) of which uptake in the brain is dependent on plasma ratio of tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids (Trp-LNAA). A carbohydrate-rich diet increases this ratio, whereas a protein-rich diet decrea
Longobardi, F; Casiello, G; Cortese, M; Perini, M; Camin, F; Catucci, L; Agostiano, A
2015-12-01
The aim of this study was to predict the geographic origin of lentils by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in combination with chemometrics. Lentil samples from two origins, i.e. Italy and Canada, were analysed obtaining the stable isotope ratios of δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and δ(34)S. A comparison between median values (U-test) highlighted statistically significant differences (pprotein and starch fractions and the relevant results are reported.
Luo, Y; Li, M C; Qi, H Z; Zhao, J H; Han, Y L; Lin, Y H; Hou, Z; Jiang, Y G
2017-07-11
Objective: To investigate the oncologic outcome and PSA kinetics of localized high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with combination strategy of radiation therapy (RT) and maximal androgen blockade (MAB). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 320 localized PCa patients undergoing RT+ MAB from 2001 to 2015. And radiation treatment protocol consisted of permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) at 110 Gy and EBRT at 45 Gy/23 fractions. Results: The median follow-up time was 90 (range: 12-186) months. And 117 (36.6%) cases underwent MAB + external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and other 203 (63.4%) cases received MAB+ EBRT+ PPB. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that PSA kinetics were positive indicators of oncologic outcomes. Furthermore, PSA kinetics were aberrantly improved by supplemental PPB to MAB+ EBRT as following, PSA nadir (1.3±0.7)μg/L vs(0.11±0.06)μg/L, time of PSA decrease to nadir (7.5±1.8)months vs (3.2±2.1)months, PSA doubling time (15.6±4.2)months vs (22.6±6.1)months, PSA decreasing amplitude (84.6±6.2)%vs(95.8±3.4)%. Additionally, the median time of several important oncologic events in MAB+ EBRT+ PPB group were also prolonged than that in MAB+ EBRT group as following, overall survival (12.3 years vs 9.1 years, PPPB is extremely effective combination strategy for localized high-risk PCa patients, and PPB plays the important synergistic role in improving PSA kinetics, which are independent predictor for oncologic outcomes.
Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.
2000-01-01
of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...
Moral Coppélia - Combining ratio with affect in ethical reasoning
Pontier, M.A.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Hoorn, J.F.
2012-01-01
We present an integration of rational moral reasoning with emotional intelligence. The moral reasoning system alone could not simulate the different human reactions to the Trolley dilemma and the Footbridge dilemma. However, the combined system can simulate these human moral decision making
Moral Coppélia - Combining ratio with affect in ethical reasoning
Pontier, M.A.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Hoorn, J.F.
2012-01-01
We present an integration of rational moral reasoning with emotional intelligence. The moral reasoning system alone could not simulate the different human reactions to the Trolley dilemma and the Footbridge dilemma. However, the combined system can simulate these human moral decision making processe
The evolution of combined oral contraception: improving the risk-to-benefit ratio.
Burkman, Ronald; Bell, Carrie; Serfaty, David
2011-07-01
Since its introduction in 1960, the combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill has become one of the most widely and frequently used methods of contraception worldwide. Although highly effective, early COC formulations were associated with significant adverse effects and unacceptable cardiovascular risk. Improvements in tolerability and safety have been achieved, without compromises in effectiveness, primarily via hormone dosage reductions and the development of several new progestins. Multiphasic COCs and extended-/continuous-cycle COCs have also been introduced, although the clinical advantages of these formulations vs. traditional COCs have yet to be established. Inclusion of natural estrogens such as estradiol valerate and 17β-estradiol with selective progestins in new combinations that maintain good cycle control is the most recent evolutionary step designed to improve COC tolerability and safety. Vigorous research needs to continue to help guarantee that the unmet need for safe and effective contraception is satisfied in future generations.
Mark A. Sephton
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Studies of biological molecules such as fatty acids and the steroid hormones have the potential to benefit enormously from stable carbon isotope ratio measurements of individual molecules. In their natural form, however, the body’s molecules interact too readily with laboratory equipment designed to separate them for accurate measurements to be made.Some methods overcome this problem by adding carbon to the target molecule, but this can irreversibly overprint the carbon source ‘signal’. Hydropyrolysis is a newly-applied catalytic technique that delicately strips molecules of their functional groups but retains their carbon skeletons and stereochemistries intact, allowing precise determination of the carbon source. By solving analytical problems, the new technique is increasing the ability of scientists to pinpoint molecular indicators of disease, elucidate metabolic pathways and recognise administered substances in forensic investigations.
Florent Besnier
Full Text Available Lifestyle combined interventions are a key strategy for preventing type-2 diabetes (T2DM in overweight or obese subjects. In this framework, LIPOXmax individualized training, based on maximal fat oxidation [MFO], may be a promising intervention to promote fat mass (FM reduction and prevent T2DM. Our primary objective was to compare three training programs of physical activity combined with a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet in reducing FM in overweight or obese women.A five months non-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT with three parallel groups in La Réunion Island, a region where metabolic diseases are highly prevalent.One hundred and thirty-six non-diabetic obese (body mass index [BMI]: 27-40 kg/m2 young women (aged 20-40 were randomized (G1: MFO intensity; G2: 60% of VO2-peak intensity; G3: free moderate-intensity at-home exercise following good physical practices.Anthropometry (BMI, bodyweight, FM, fat-free mass, glucose (fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides profiles, and MFO values were measured at month-0, month-3 and month-5.At month-5, among 109 women assessed on body composition, the three groups exhibited a significant FM reduction over time (G1: -4.1±0.54 kg; G2: -4.7±0.53 kg; G3: -3.5±0.78 kg, p<0.001, respectively without inter-group differences (p = 0.135. All groups exhibited significant reductions in insulin levels or HOMA-IR index, and higher MFO values over time (p<0.001, respectively but glucose control improvement was higher in G1 than in G3 while MFO values were higher in G1 than in G2 and G3. Changes in other outcome measures and inter-group differences were not significant.In our RCT the LIPOXmax intervention did not show a superiority in reducing FM in overweight or obese women but is associated with higher MFO and better glucose control improvements. Other studies are required before proposing LIPOXmax training for the prevention of T2DM in overweight or obese women
Atomic Theory and Multiple Combining Proportions: The Search for Whole Number Ratios.
Usselman, Melvyn C; Brown, Todd A
2015-04-01
John Dalton's atomic theory, with its postulate of compound formation through atom-to-atom combination, brought a new perspective to weight relationships in chemical reactions. A presumed one-to-one combination of atoms A and B to form a simple compound AB allowed Dalton to construct his first table of relative atomic weights from literature analyses of appropriate binary compounds. For such simple binary compounds, the atomic theory had little advantages over affinity theory as an explanation of fixed proportions by weight. For ternary compounds of the form AB2, however, atomic theory made quantitative predictions that were not deducible from affinity theory. Atomic theory required that the weight of B in the compound AB2 be exactly twice that in the compound AB. Dalton, Thomas Thomson and William Hyde Wollaston all published within a few years of each other experimental data that claimed to give the predicted results with the required accuracy. There are nonetheless several experimental barriers to obtaining the desired integral multiple proportions. In this paper I will discuss replication experiments which demonstrate that only Wollaston's results are experimentally reliable. It is likely that such replicability explains why Wollaston's experiments were so influential.
Md. Faizur
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Adenosine deaminase, considered one of the key enzyme of purine metabolism, has been used in work up of lymphocytic pleural effusion. Low level of ADA 50IU/L specially when combined with Lymphocytic/neutrophil ratio >0.75 in pleural fluid is useful test in the diagnosis of tubercular pleurisy. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To suggest a better diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of pleural effusion of tubercular origin by estimating the activity of ADA along with L/N ratio in pleural effusion. METHOD: Biochemical, cytological and microbiology studies were done by obtaining pleural fluid by thoracocentesis in 100 patients after excluding pleural effusion cases of malignancy, transudative effusion. RESULT: 84 cases were tubercular and had high level of ADA in comparison to rest of 16 non-tubercular cases. At level of 50 IU/L of ADA activity test had sensitivity of 97.6%, specificity 87.5%, positive predictive value 97.6%, negative predictive value 87.5%which increased to 100% and 92.8%, 98.6%, and 100% respectively in combination with test of Lymphocytic/Neutrophilic ratio >0.75. CONCLUSION: ADA level with L/N ratio can be important investigation in diagnosis of tubercular pleural effusion cases.
Lavish Kansal
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Wireless communications have been developed widelyand rapidly in the modern world especially duringthe last decade. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has grown to a popularcommunication technique for high speed communication. Besides of the advantages, one of maindisadvantage of OFDM is high peak to average powerratio (PAPR. In this paper, a PAPR reductionmethod is proposed that is based on combining clipping with Walsh Hadamard Transform (WHT.WHT isa precoding technique which is having less complexity compared to the other existing power reductiontechniques and also it can reduce PAPR considerablyand results in no distortion. The performance of theproposed scheme is examined through computer simulations and it is found that power reductions areobtained.
Zak, Michail
2008-01-01
A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).
Benkhelifa, Fatma
2013-04-01
In this letter, we study the ergodic capacity of a maximum ratio combining (MRC) Rician fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime and we show that the capacity scales as L ΩK+L SNRx log(1SNR), where Ω is the expected channel gain per branch, K is the Rician fading factor, and L is the number of diversity branches. We show that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme. Our framework can be seen as a generalization of recently established results regarding the fading-channels capacity characterization in the low-SNR regime. © 2012 IEEE.
Sakhare Ram Suresh; Jamkhande Prasad Govindrao
2012-01-01
A new, simple, accurate and sensitive UV-spectrophotometric absorption Ratio method has been developed for simultaneous determination of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Mefenamic Acid in their combined Tablet dosage form. The method is based upon determination of Drotaverine HCl and Mefenamic Acid at 239 nm, and 280nm in Methanol. Drotaverine HCl and Mefenamic Acid at isoabsorptive λmax 239 nm and at 280 nm λmax Mefenamic acid shows linearity in the concentration range of 3-30 μg/ml and 3 -30...
Sakhare Ram Suresh
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A new, simple, accurate and sensitive UV-spectrophotometric absorption Ratio method has been developed for simultaneous determination of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Mefenamic Acid in their combined Tablet dosage form. The method is based upon determination of Drotaverine HCl and Mefenamic Acid at 239 nm, and 280nm in Methanol. Drotaverine HCl and Mefenamic Acid at isoabsorptive λmax 239 nm and at 280 nm λmax Mefenamic acid shows linearity in the concentration range of 3-30 μg/ml and 3 -30 μg/ml respectively. The method was validated statistically.
M. H. England
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Future changes to the organic carbon and carbonate pumps are likely to affect ocean ecosystem dynamics and the biogeochemical climate. Here, biological dependencies on the Rain and Redfield ratios on pCO2 are implemented in a coupled Biogeochemistry-Ocean Model, the CSIRO-Mk3L, to establish extreme-case carbonate saturation vulnerability to model parameterisation at year 2500 using IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Surface carbonate saturation is relatively insensitive to the combined effects of variable Rain and Redfield ratios (an anomaly of less than 10 % of the corresponding change in the control configuration by year 2500, but the global zonally-averaged ocean interior anomaly due to these feedbacks is up to 130 % by 2500. A non-linear interaction between organic and carbonate pumps is found in export production, where higher rates of photosynthesis enhance calcification by raising surface alkalinity. This non-linear effect has a negligible influence on surface carbonate saturation but does significantly influence ocean interior carbonate saturation fields (an anomaly of up to 45 % in 2500. The strongest linear and non-linear sensitivity to combined feedbacks occurs in low-latitude remineralisation zones below regions of enhanced biological production, where dissolved inorganic carbon rapidly accumulates.
Reyes, Reinabelle; Gunn, James E; Nakajima, Reiko; Seljak, Uros; Hirata, Chris M
2011-01-01
In this paper, we measure the virial-to-optical velocity ratios V_vir/V_opt of disk galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) at a mean redshift of = 0.07 and with stellar masses 10^9 M_sun < M_* < 10^11 M_sun. V_vir/V_opt, the ratio of the circular velocity measured at the virial radius of the dark matter halo (~150 kpc) to that at the optical radius of the disk (~10 kpc), is a powerful observational constraint on disk galaxy formation. It links galaxies to their dark matter haloes dynamically and constrains the total mass profile of disk galaxies over an order of magnitude in length scale. For this measurement, we combine V_vir derived from halo masses measured with galaxy-galaxy lensing, with V_opt derived from the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) from Reyes et al. (2011). In anticipation of this combination, we use similarly-selected galaxy samples for both the lensing and TFR analysis. For three M_* bins with lensing-weighted mean stellar masses of 0.6, 2.7, and 6.5 x 10^10 M_sun, we find halo-to...
Profit maximization mitigates competition
Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit
1996-01-01
We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...
Chao Li; Mick Cooper; Chenggong Sun [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering
2007-07-01
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a series of highly toxic and/or carcinogenic pollutants in the environment. They are widely distributed in various environmental sedimentary systems, airborne particulates and other environmental elements. The sources of PAHs are manifold, including coal utilisation (combustion, carbonisation and gasification), biomass burning, public transportation, and natural gas utilisation. In order to control emissions and to understand the transformation, environmental pathways and therefore the impact of PAHs from individual emission sources, it is necessary to develop techniques to facilitate these needs. The traditional method of source apportionment is through molecular methods, such as via molecular biomarkers or by the utilisation of specific ratios of certain PAHs diagnostic of their origins. However, this often proves ambiguous, because of the large variety of emission sources and by molecular alteration caused by a combination of any numbers of environmental factors e.g. biodegradation, transformation, sorption/desorption, leaching and photo-oxidation. 17 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.
E. Tazik
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Landslides are among the most important natural hazards that lead to modification of the environment. Therefore, studying of this phenomenon is so important in many areas. Because of the climate conditions, geologic, and geomorphologic characteristics of the region, the purpose of this study was landslide hazard assessment using Fuzzy Logic, frequency ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process method in Dozein basin, Iran. At first, landslides occurred in Dozein basin were identified using aerial photos and field studies. The influenced landslide parameters that were used in this study including slope, aspect, elevation, lithology, precipitation, land cover, distance from fault, distance from road and distance from river were obtained from different sources and maps. Using these factors and the identified landslide, the fuzzy membership values were calculated by frequency ratio. Then to account for the importance of each of the factors in the landslide susceptibility, weights of each factor were determined based on questionnaire and AHP method. Finally, fuzzy map of each factor was multiplied to its weight that obtained using AHP method. At the end, for computing prediction accuracy, the produced map was verified by comparing to existing landslide locations. These results indicate that the combining the three methods Fuzzy Logic, Frequency Ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process method are relatively good estimators of landslide susceptibility in the study area. According to landslide susceptibility map about 51% of the occurred landslide fall into the high and very high susceptibility zones of the landslide susceptibility map, but approximately 26 % of them indeed located in the low and very low susceptibility zones.
Shao, N; Cai, Q
2015-10-01
Compared to pure small cell lung cancer (SCLC), combined small cell lung cancer (C-SCLC) has its own characteristics. High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been shown to be related to poor prognosis in several types of tumors. The aim of this study was to explore the prognosis value of NLR and PLR in patients with C-SCLC. A total of 112 patients diagnosed with C-SCLC between January 2000 and March 2009 were enrolled in the study. The clinicopathological parameters, laboratory analyses, and survival time were collected and analyzed. The correlation between NLR, PLR, and clinicopathological characters was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic significance of these parameters for C-SCLC. The pretreatment NLR was elevated in 37.5 % patients (NLR ≥ 4.15; n = 42; H-NLR). NLR was significantly related to disease stage (p = 0.033) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.014). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were significantly worse in the H-NLR group (OS: 22.0 months vs 11.7 months, p = 0.001; PFS: 11.1 vs 6.0 months, p recurrence and predicts a poor long-term prognosis for C-SCLC, which should be considered in defining the prognosis with other well-known prognosticators in C-SCLC patients.
Jakopic, Rozle; Richter, Stephan; Kühn, Heinz; Benedik, Ljudmila; Pihlar, Boris; Aregbe, Yetunde
2009-01-01
A sample preparation procedure for isotopic measurements using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was developed which employs the technique of carburization of rhenium filaments. Carburized filaments were prepared in a special vacuum chamber in which the filaments were exposed to benzene vapour as a carbon supply and carburized electrothermally. To find the optimal conditions for the carburization and isotopic measurements using TIMS, the influence of various parameters such as benzene pressure, carburization current and the exposure time were tested. As a result, carburization of the filaments improved the overall efficiency by one order of magnitude. Additionally, a new "multi-dynamic" measurement technique was developed for Pu isotope ratio measurements using a "multiple ion counting" (MIC) system. This technique was combined with filament carburization and applied to the NBL-137 isotopic standard and samples of the NUSIMEP 5 inter-laboratory comparison campaign, which included certified plutonium materials at the ppt-level. The multi-dynamic measurement technique for plutonium, in combination with filament carburization, has been shown to significantly improve the precision and accuracy for isotopic analysis of environmental samples with low-levels of plutonium.
Wei Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the role of pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR in predicting brain metastasis after radical surgery for lung adenocarcinoma patients. The records of 103 patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma between 2013 and 2014 were reviewed. Clinicopathologic characteristics of these patients were assessed in the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Brain metastasis occurred in 12 patients (11.6%. On univariate analysis, N2 stage (P = 0.013, stage III (P = 0.016, increased CEA level (P = 0.006, and higher PLR value (P = 0.020 before treatment were associated with an increased risk of developing brain metastasis. In multivariate model analysis, CEA above 5.2 ng/mL (P = 0.014 and PLR ≥ 120 (P = 0.036 remained as the risk factors for brain metastasis. The combination of CEA and PLR was superior to CEA or PLR alone in predicting brain metastasis according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis (area under ROC curve, AUC 0.872 versus 0.784 versus 0.704. Pretreatment CEA and PLR are independent and significant risk factors for occurrence of brain metastasis in resected lung adenocarcinoma patients. Combining these two factors may improve the predictability of brain metastasis.
Maximally incompatible quantum observables
Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)
2014-05-01
The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.
Hsu, Jen-Te; Chung, Chang-Min; Chu, Chi-Ming; Lin, Yu-Shen; Pan, Kuo-Li; Chang, Jung-Jung; Wang, Po-Chang; Chang, Shih-Tai; Yang, Teng-Yao; Jang, Shih-Jung; Yang, Tsung-Han; Hsiao, Ju-Feng
2017-01-01
Background: Previous studies reported that patients who had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have found that measuring B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) during the subacute phase of left ventricular (LV) remodeling can predict the possible course of LV remodeling. This study assessed the use of serial BNP serum levels combined with early creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) to predict the development of significant LV remodeling in AMI patients. Methods: Nighty-seven patients with new onset AMI were assessed using serial echocardiographic studies and serial measurements of BNP levels, both performed on day-2 (BNP1), day-7 (BNP2), day-90 (BNP3), and day-180 (BNP4) after admission. LV remodeling was defined as >20% increase in biplane LV end-diastolic volume on day-180 compared to baseline (day-2). Results: Patients were divided into LV remodeling [LVR(+)] and non LV remodeling [LVR(-)] groups. No first-week BNP level was found to predict remodeling. However, the two groups had significantly different day-90 BNP level (208.1 ± 263.7 pg/ml vs. 82.4 ± 153.7 pg/ml, P = 0.039) and significantly different 3-month BNP decrease ratios ( R BNP13) (14.4 ± 92.2% vs. 69.4 ± 25.9%, P MB (cut-off 48.2 ng/ml; AUC = 0.672; P = 0.014) was another independent predictor of remodeling. Additionally, combining peak CK-MB and R BNP13 offered an excellent discrimination for half-year remodeling when assessed by ROC curve (AUC = 0.818, P MB additionally offered an incremental power to the predictions derived from serial BNP examinations.
Kaakinen, M; Huttunen, S; Paavolainen, L; Marjomäki, V; Heikkilä, J; Eklund, L
2014-01-01
Phase-contrast illumination is simple and most commonly used microscopic method to observe nonstained living cells. Automatic cell segmentation and motion analysis provide tools to analyze single cell motility in large cell populations. However, the challenge is to find a sophisticated method that is sufficiently accurate to generate reliable results, robust to function under the wide range of illumination conditions encountered in phase-contrast microscopy, and also computationally light for efficient analysis of large number of cells and image frames. To develop better automatic tools for analysis of low magnification phase-contrast images in time-lapse cell migration movies, we investigated the performance of cell segmentation method that is based on the intrinsic properties of maximally stable extremal regions (MSER). MSER was found to be reliable and effective in a wide range of experimental conditions. When compared to the commonly used segmentation approaches, MSER required negligible preoptimization steps thus dramatically reducing the computation time. To analyze cell migration characteristics in time-lapse movies, the MSER-based automatic cell detection was accompanied by a Kalman filter multiobject tracker that efficiently tracked individual cells even in confluent cell populations. This allowed quantitative cell motion analysis resulting in accurate measurements of the migration magnitude and direction of individual cells, as well as characteristics of collective migration of cell groups. Our results demonstrate that MSER accompanied by temporal data association is a powerful tool for accurate and reliable analysis of the dynamic behaviour of cells in phase-contrast image sequences. These techniques tolerate varying and nonoptimal imaging conditions and due to their relatively light computational requirements they should help to resolve problems in computationally demanding and often time-consuming large-scale dynamical analysis of cultured cells.
Hsu, Jen-Te; Chung, Chang-Min; Chu, Chi-Ming; Lin, Yu-Shen; Pan, Kuo-Li; Chang, Jung-Jung; Wang, Po-Chang; Chang, Shih-Tai; Yang, Teng-Yao; Jang, Shih-Jung; Yang, Tsung-Han; Hsiao, Ju-Feng
2017-01-01
Background: Previous studies reported that patients who had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have found that measuring B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) during the subacute phase of left ventricular (LV) remodeling can predict the possible course of LV remodeling. This study assessed the use of serial BNP serum levels combined with early creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) to predict the development of significant LV remodeling in AMI patients. Methods: Nighty-seven patients with new onset AMI were assessed using serial echocardiographic studies and serial measurements of BNP levels, both performed on day-2 (BNP1), day-7 (BNP2), day-90 (BNP3), and day-180 (BNP4) after admission. LV remodeling was defined as >20% increase in biplane LV end-diastolic volume on day-180 compared to baseline (day-2). Results: Patients were divided into LV remodeling [LVR(+)] and non LV remodeling [LVR(-)] groups. No first-week BNP level was found to predict remodeling. However, the two groups had significantly different day-90 BNP level (208.1 ± 263.7 pg/ml vs. 82.4 ± 153.7 pg/ml, P = 0.039) and significantly different 3-month BNP decrease ratios (RBNP13) (14.4 ± 92.2% vs. 69.4 ± 25.9%, P < 0.001). The appropriate cut-off value for RBNP13 was 53.2% (AUC = 0.764, P < 0.001). Early peak CK-MB (cut-off 48.2 ng/ml; AUC = 0.672; P = 0.014) was another independent predictor of remodeling. Additionally, combining peak CK-MB and RBNP13 offered an excellent discrimination for half-year remodeling when assessed by ROC curve (AUC = 0.818, P < 0.001). Conclusion: RBNP13 is a significant independent predictor of 6-month LV remodeling. The early peak CK-MB additionally offered an incremental power to the predictions derived from serial BNP examinations. PMID:28138312
Parker, Andrew M.; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...
Harris, T.D.; Smith, V.H.; Graham, J.L.; Van de Waal, D.B.; Tedesco, L.P.; Clercin, N.
2016-01-01
Recent studies have shown that the total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio and nitrogen oxidation state may have substantial effects on secondary metabolite (e.g., microcystins) production in cyanobacteria. We investigated the relationship between the water column TN:TP ratio and the cyanob
Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO
2005-01-01
A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.
Andrew M. Parker
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.
Brüstle, Thomas; Pérotin, Matthieu
2012-01-01
Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of quiver mutations which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Cordova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. Our aim is to initiate a systematic study of these sequences from a combinatorial point of view. Interpreting maximal green sequences as paths in various natural posets arising in representation theory, we prove the finiteness of the number of maximal green sequences for cluster finite quivers, affine quivers and acyclic quivers with at most three vertices. We also give results concerning the possible numbers and lengths of these maximal green sequences. Finally we describe an algorithm for computing maximal green sequences for arbitrary valued quivers which we used to obtain numerous explicit examples that we present.
Rudiger Bubner
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Even though the maxims' theory is not at thecenter of Kant's ethics, it is the unavoidable basis of the categoric imperative's formulation. Kant leanson the transmitted representations of modem moral theory. During the last decades, the notion of maxims has deserved more attention, due to the philosophy of language's debates on rules, and due to action theory's interest in this notion. I here by brietly expound my views in these discussions.
Bogusiewicz, Anna; Horvath, Thomas D.; Stratton, Shawna L.; Mock, Donald M.; Boysen, Gunnar
2012-01-01
This work describes a novel liquid chromatography tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of ratios of acylcarnitines arising from acyl-CoA substrates and products that reflect metabolic disturbances caused by marginal biotin deficiency. The urinary ratios reflecting reduced activities of biotin-dependent enzymes include the following: 1) the ratio of 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine : 3-methylglutarylcarnitine (3HIAc : MGc) for methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase; 2) the ratio of propionylcarnitine:methylmalonylcarnitine (Pc : MMc) for propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC); and 3) the ratio of acetylcarnitine : malonylcarnitine (Ac : Mc) for acetyl-CoA carboxylase. To demonstrate the suitability of the LC-MS/MS method for biomonitoring, we measured the 3 ratios for 7 healthy adults at various time points (d 0, 14, and 28) during the induction of marginal biotin through the consumption of egg white. The mean change in the Pc : MMc ratio relative to d 0 was 5.3-fold by d 14 (P = 0.0049) and 8.5-fold by d 28 (P = 0.0042). The mean change in the 3HIAc : MGc ratio was 2.8-fold by d 14 (P = 0.0022) and 3.8-fold by d 28 (P = 0.0001). The mean change in the Ac : Mc ratio was 2.9-fold by d 14 (P = 0.03) and 4.7-fold by d 28 (P = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous assessment of ratios of multiple biotin-dependent pathways offers insight into the complex metabolic disturbances caused by marginal biotin deficiency. We hypothesize that one or a combination of the ratios might be more sensitive or robust with respect to other nutrient deficiencies or confounding metabolic processes. PMID:22833654
Tetsuya Haruyama
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Cell-based biosensing is a “smart” way to obtain efficacy-information on the effect of applied chemical on cellular biological cascade. We have proposed an engineered post-synapse model cell-based biosensors to investigate the effects of chemicals on ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR, which is a focus of attention as a molecular target for clinical neural drug discovery. The engineered model cell has several advantages over native cells, including improved ease of handling and better reproducibility in the application of cell-based biosensors. However, in general, cell-based biosensors often have low signal-to-noise (S/N ratios due to the low level of cellular responses. In order to obtain a higher S/N ratio in model cells, we have attempted to design a tactic model cell with elevated cellular response. We have revealed that the increase GluR expression level is not directly connected to the amplification of cellular responses because the saturation of surface expression of GluR, leading to a limit on the total ion influx. Furthermore, coexpression of GluR with a voltage-gated potassium channel increased Ca2+ ion influx beyond levels obtained with saturating amounts of GluR alone. The construction of model cells based on strategy of amplifying ion flux per individual receptors can be used to perform smart cell-based biosensing with an improved S/N ratio.
Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant
2015-01-01
Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300
Buse, John B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Thurman, Jerry
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) is a novel combination of insulin degludec (IDeg) and liraglutide. This trial investigated the contribution of the liraglutide component of IDegLira versus IDeg alone on efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND ME...
YANG Hua; LANG Jing-he; ZHU Lan; WANG Shu; SHA Gui-hua; ZHANG Ying
2013-01-01
Background Currently,all the diagnostic indicators for endometriosis lack perfect sensitivity and specificity.According to the characteristic of endometriosis,we analyzed the new biomarker neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the combination of NLR and serum CA-125 to investigate their diagnostic value for identifying stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ endometriosis.Methods The values of serum CA-125 and routine blood tests were collected from 197 patients with endometriosis,102 with benign tumors and 112 healthy individuals.We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of NLR and its combination with serum-CA-125 for diagnosing stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ endometriosis by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC).Results The mean values of NLR,the combination of serum CA-125 and NLR (combination) of the groups with stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ endometriosis were significantly higher than the other two groups.Serum CA-125,NLR,and the combined biomarkers could significantly discriminate the stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ endometriosis group from the other two groups (P＜0.05).NLR shows a lower sensitivity of 57.9％ and specificity of 65.2％ with a cutoff value at 1.82.And the combination of biomarkers has the highest AUC of 0.949 with a sensitivity of 86.8％ and specificity of 92.0％ at the cutoff value of 44.40.In addition,for patients with negative CA-125,55.36％ and 53.57％ of the patients were able to be diagnosed with endometriosis by using NLR alone and the combination of biomarkers.Conclusion For diagnosing stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ endometriosis,the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a better adjuvant to serum CA-125,and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is valuable in diagnosing stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ endometriosis for patients with negative serum CA-125.
Kriegerowski, Marius; Cesca, Simone; Krüger, Frank; Dahm, Torsten; Horálek, Josef
2016-04-01
Aside from the propagation velocity of seismic waves, their attenuation can provide a direct measure of rock properties in the sampled subspace. We present a new attenuation tomography approach exploiting relative amplitude spectral ratios of earthquake pairs. We focus our investigation on North West Bohemia - a region characterized by intense earthquake swarm activity in a confined source region. The inter-event distances are small compared to the epicentral distances to the receivers meeting a fundamental requirement of the method. Due to the similar event locations also the ray paths are very similar. Consequently, the relative spectral ratio is affected mostly by rock properties along the path of the vector distance and thus representative of the focal region. In order to exclude effects of the seismic source spectra, only the high frequency content beyond the corner frequency is taken into consideration. This requires high quality as well as high sampling records. Future improvements in that respect can be expected from the ICDP proposal "Eger rift", which includes plans to install borehole monitoring in the investigated region. 1D and 3D synthetic tests show the feasibility of the presented method. Furthermore, we demonstrate influences of perturbations in source locations and travel time estimates on the determination of Q. Errors in Q scale linearly with errors in the differential travel times. These sources of errors can be attributed to the complex velocity structure of the investigated region. A critical aspect is the signal-to-noise ratio, which imposes a strong limitation and emphasizes the demand for high quality recordings. Hence, the presented method is expected to benefit from bore hole installations. Since we focus our analysis on the NW Bohemia case study example, a synthetic earthquake catalog incorporating source characteristics deduced from preceding moment tensor inversions coupled with a realistic velocity model provides us with a realistic
Dong-Seon Kim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB, were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31, 2 : 1 (BS21, 1 : 1 (BS11, 1 : 2 (BS12, and 1 : 3 (BS13. Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21.
Kim, Seung-Hyung; Cha, Jimin
2016-01-01
The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS) prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL) and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB), were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31), 2 : 1 (BS21), 1 : 1 (BS11), 1 : 2 (BS12), and 1 : 3 (BS13). Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21. PMID:27123038
Caballero, David; Villanueva, Guillermo; Plaza, Jose Antonio; Mills, Christopher A; Samitier, Josep; Errachid, Abdelhamid
2010-01-01
The shape and dimensions of an atomic force microscope tip are crucial factors to obtain high resolution images at the nanoscale. When measuring samples with narrow trenches, inclined sidewalls near 90 degrees or nanoscaled structures, standard silicon atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips do not provide satisfactory results. We have combined deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and focused ion beam (FIB) lithography techniques in order to produce probes with sharp rocket-shaped silicon AFM tips for high resolution imaging. The cantilevers were shaped and the bulk micromachining was performed using the same DRIE equipment. To improve the tip aspect ratio we used FIB nanolithography technique. The tips were tested on narrow silicon trenches and over biological samples showing a better resolution when compared with standard AFM tips, which enables nanocharacterization and nanometrology of high-aspect-ratio structures and nanoscaled biological elements to be completed, and provides an alternative to commercial high aspect ratio AFM tips.
Sequeira, Gonzalo Ricardo; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Rojas, Paola Andrea; Lamb, Caroline Ana; Colombo, Lucas Luis; May, Maria; Molinolo, Alfredo; Lanari, Claudia Lee Malvina
2014-01-01
There is clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that antiprogestins might be used for the treatment of selected breast cancer patients. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of albumin-bound paclitaxel (Nab-paclitaxel) and pegylated doxorubicin liposomes (PEG-LD) in combination with mifepristone (MFP) in experimental breast cancer models expressing different ratios of progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms A and B. We used two antiprogestin-responsive (PRA>PRB) and two resistant (PRA
Ola Moustafa Abdallah
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Three methods were developed for simultaneous determination of amlodipine and atorvastatin without previous separation. The first method depends on first derivative of the ratios spectra by measurements of the amplitudes at 228 and 245 nm for amlodipine using 25 μg/mL of atorvastatin as a divisor and at 284 and 295 nm for atorvastatin using 80 μg/mL of amlodipine as a divisor. Calibration graphs were established in the range of 10-100 μg/mL and 2.5-30 μg/mL for amlodipine and atorvastatin, respectively. The second method describes the use of multivariate spectophotometric calibration for the simultaneous determination of the analyzed binary mixture, where the resolution is accomplished by using partial least squares (PLS regression analysis. In the third method (HPLC, separation was performed by using C18 reversed phase column and a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 0.05 M KH2PO4 (60:40v/v adjusted by phosphoric acid to pH 3.5 at flow rate of 1 mL/min. All proposed methods were extensively validated and the results obtained by adopting the three methods were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained from a reported method.
König, Gerhard; Miller, Benjamin T; Boresch, Stefan; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R
2012-10-09
One of the key requirements for the accurate calculation of free energy differences is proper sampling of conformational space. Especially in biological applications, molecular dynamics simulations are often confronted with rugged energy surfaces and high energy barriers, leading to insufficient sampling and, in turn, poor convergence of the free energy results. In this work, we address this problem by employing enhanced sampling methods. We explore the possibility of using self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLD) to speed up the exploration process in free energy simulations. To obtain improved free energy differences from such simulations, it is necessary to account for the effects of the bias due to the guiding forces. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished for the Bennett's acceptance ratio (BAR) and the enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) methods. While BAR is considered among the most efficient methods available for free energy calculations, the EDS method developed by Christ and van Gunsteren is a promising development that reduces the computational costs of free energy calculations by simulating a single reference state. To evaluate the accuracy of both approaches in connection with enhanced sampling, EDS was implemented in CHARMM. For testing, we employ benchmark systems with analytical reference results and the mutation of alanine to serine. We find that SGLD with reweighting can provide accurate results for BAR and EDS where conventional molecular dynamics simulations fail. In addition, we compare the performance of EDS with other free energy methods. We briefly discuss the implications of our results and provide practical guidelines for conducting free energy simulations with SGLD.
Maximizing the spectral and energy efficiency of ARQ with a fixed outage probability
Hadjtaieb, Amir
2015-10-05
This paper studies the spectral and energy efficiency of automatic repeat request (ARQ) in Nakagami-m block-fading channels. The source encodes each packet into L similar sequences and transmits them to the destination in the L subsequent time slots. The destination combines the L sequences using maximal ratio combining and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure, the destination feeds back a negative acknowledgment and then the source sends the same L sequences to the destination. This process continues until successful decoding occurs at the destination with no limit on the number of retransmissions. We consider two optimization problems. In the first problem, we maximize the spectral efficiency of the system with respect to the rate for a fixed power. In the second problem, we maximize the energy efficiency with respect to the transmitted power for a fixed rate. © 2015 IEEE.
Janusz Brzozowski
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Liu, Ying; Wen, Zhi; Lou, Guofeng; Li, Zhi; Yong, Haiquan; Feng, Xiaohong
2014-12-01
In a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) the direct reduction of composite pellets and processes of heat and mass transfer as well as combustion in the chamber of RHF influence each other. These mutual interactions should be considered when an accurate model of RHF is established. This paper provides a combined model that incorporates two sub-models to investigate the effects of C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets on the reduction kinetics and heat and mass transfer as well as combustion processes in the chamber of a pilot-scale RHF. One of the sub-models is established to describe the direct reduction process of composite pellets on the hearth of RHF. Heat and mass transfer within the pellet, chemical reactions, and radiative heat transfer from furnace walls and combustion gas to the surface of the pellet are considered in the model. The other sub-model is used to simulate gas flow and combustion process in the chamber of RHF by using commercial CFD software, FLUENT. The two sub-models were linked through boundary conditions and heat, mass sources. Cases for pellets with different C/O mole ratio were calculated by the combined model. The calculation results showed that the degree of metallization, the total amounts of carbon monoxide escaping from the pellet, and heat absorbed by chemical reactions within the pellet as well as CO and CO2 concentrations in the furnace increase with the increase of C/O mole ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, when calculation conditions are the same except for C/O molar ratio. Carbon content in the pellet has little influence on temperature distribution in the furnace under the same calculation conditions except for C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets.
Dalaryd, Mårten, E-mail: Marten.Dalaryd@med.lu.se; Knöös, Tommy [Department of Clinical Sciences, Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 117, Lund SE-221 00, Sweden and Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund SE-221 85 (Sweden); Ceberg, Crister [Department of Clinical Sciences, Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 117, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden)
2014-11-01
Purpose: There are currently several commercially available radiotherapy treatment units without a flattening filter in the beam line. Unflattened photon beams have an energy and lateral fluence distribution that is different from conventional beams and, thus, their attenuation properties differ. As a consequence, for flattening filter free (FFF) beams, the relationship between the beam-quality specifier TPR{sub 20,10} and the Spencer–Attix restricted water-to-air mass collision stopping-power ratios, (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water}, may have to be refined in order to be used with equivalent accuracy as for beams with a flattening filter. The purpose of this work was twofold. First, to study the relationship between TPR{sub 20,10} and (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} for FFF beams, where the flattening filter has been replaced by a metal plate as in most clinical FFF beams. Second, to investigate the potential of increasing the accuracy in determining (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} by adding another beam-quality metric, TPR{sub 10,5}. The relationship between (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} and %dd(10){sub x} for beams with and without a flattening filter was also included in this study. Methods: A total of 24 realistic photon beams (10 with and 14 without a flattening filter) from three different treatment units have been used to calculate (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water}, TPR{sub 20,10}, and TPR{sub 10,5} using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo package. The relationship between (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} and the dual beam-quality specifier TPR{sub 20,10} and TPR{sub 10,5} was described by a simple bilinear equation. The relationship between the photon beam-quality specifier %dd(10){sub x} used in the AAPM’s TG-51 dosimetry protocol and (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} was also investigated for the beams used in this study, by calculating the photon component of the percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth with SSD 100 cm. Results: The calculated (L{sup -}/
Eissa, Maya S.
2017-08-01
In this work, various sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods were first introduced for the simultaneous determination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in their binary mixture without preliminary separation. Ledipasvir was determined simply by zero-order spectrophotometric method at its λmax = 333.0 nm in a linear range of 2.5-30.0 μg/ml without any interference of sofosbuvir even in low or high concentrations and with mean percentage recovery of 100.05 ± 0.632. Sofosbuvir can be quantitatively estimated by one of the following smart spectrophotometric methods based on ratio spectra developed for the resolution of the overlapped spectra of their binary mixture; ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD) by computing the difference between the amplitudes of sofosbuvir ratio spectra at 228 nm and 270 nm, first derivative (DD1) of ratio spectra by measuring the sum of amplitude of trough and peak at 265 nm and 277 nm, respectively, ratio subtraction (RS) spectrophotometric method in which sofosbuvir can be successfully determined at its λmax = 261.0 nm and mean centering (MC) of ratio spectra by measuring the mean centering values at 270 nm. All of the above mentioned spectrophotometric methods can estimate sofosbuvir in a linear range of 7.5-90.0 μg/ml with mean percentage recoveries of 100.57 ± 0.810, 99.92 ± 0.759, 99.51 ± 0.475 and 100.75 ± 0.672, respectively. These methods were successfully applied to the analysis of their combined dosage form and bulk powder. The adopted methods were also validated as per ICH guidelines and statistically compared to an in-house HPLC method.
Kim, Sung Shin; Lee, Hyung Jin; You, Young Youl
2015-07-01
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of ankle strengthening exercises combined with motor imagery training and those of ankle strengthening exercises alone in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: experimental group (15 patients) and control group (15 patients). The experimental group underwent motor imagery training for 15 minutes and ankle joint strengthening exercises for 15 minutes, while the control group underwent only ankle joint strengthening exercises for 30 minutes. Each session and training program was implemented four times a week for 4 weeks. The timed up and go (TUG) test score, affected-side weight bearing ratio, and affected-side front/rear weight bearing ratio were assessed. [Results] Both groups demonstrated improvement on the TUG test, and in the affected-side weight bearing ratios, affected-side front/rear weight bearing ratios, and balance errors. The experimental group demonstrated greater improvement than the control group in all variables. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training is an effective treatment method for improving static balance ability in stroke patients.
Saskia J. H. Brinkmann
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Supplementation with arginine in combination with atorvastatin is more efficient in reducing the size of an atherosclerotic plaque than treatment with a statin or arginine alone in homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits. We evaluated the mechanism behind this feature by exploring the role of the arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ratio, which is the substrate and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and thereby nitric oxide (NO, respectively. Methods: Rabbits were fed either an arginine diet (group A, n = 9, standard rabbit chow plus atorvastatin (group S, n = 8, standard rabbit chow plus an arginine diet with atorvastatin (group SA, n = 8 or standard rabbit chow (group C, n = 9 as control. Blood was sampled and the aorta was harvested for topographic and histological analysis. Plasma levels of arginine, ADMA, cholesterol and nitric oxide were determined and the arginine/ADMA ratio was calculated. Results: The decrease in ADMA levels over time was significantly correlated to fewer aortic lesions in the distal aorta and total aorta. The arginine/ADMA ratio was correlated to cholesterol levels and decrease in cholesterol levels over time in the SA group. A lower arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly correlated to lower NO levels in the S and C group. Discussion: A balance between arginine and ADMA is an important indicator in the prevention of the development of atherosclerotic plaques.
Chang-Feng; Dong; Jia; Xiao; Ling-Bo; Shan; Han-Ying; Li; Yong-Jia; Xiong; Gui-Lin; Yang; Jing; Liu; Si-Min; Yao; Sha-Xi; Li; Xiao-Hua; Le; Jing; Yuan; Bo-Ping; Zhou; George; L; Tipoe; Ying-Xia; Liu
2016-01-01
AIM: To investigate the combined diagnostic accuracy of acoustic radiation force impulse(ARFI), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index(APRI) and Forns index for a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B(CHB). METHODS: In this prospective study, 206 patients had CHB with liver fibrosis stages F0-F4 classified by METAVIR and 40 were healthy volunteers were measured by ARFI, APRI and Forns index separately or combined as indicated. RESULTS: ARFI, APRI or Forns index demonstrated a significant correlation with the histological stage(all P < 0.001). According to the AUROC of ARFI and APRI for evaluating fibrotic stages more than F2, ARFI showed an enhanced diagnostic accuracy than APRI(P < 0.05). The combined measurement of ARFI and APRI exhibited better accuracy than ARFI alone when evaluating ≥ F2 fibrotic stage(Z = 2.77, P = 0.006). Combination of ARFI, APRI and Forns index did not obviously improve the diagnostic accuracy compared to the combination of ARFI and APRI(Z = 0.958, P = 0.338). CONCLUSION: ARFI + APRI showed enhanced diagnostic accuracy than ARFI or APRI alone for significant liver fibrosis and ARFI + APRI + Forns index shows the same effect with ARFI + APRI.
Social group utility maximization
Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan
2014-01-01
This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b
Brandes, U; Gaertler, M; Goerke, R; Hoefer, M; Nikoloski, Z; Wagner, D
2006-01-01
Several algorithms have been proposed to compute partitions of networks into communities that score high on a graph clustering index called modularity. While publications on these algorithms typically contain experimental evaluations to emphasize the plausibility of results, none of these algorithms has been shown to actually compute optimal partitions. We here settle the unknown complexity status of modularity maximization by showing that the corresponding decision version is NP-complete in the strong sense. As a consequence, any efficient, i.e. polynomial-time, algorithm is only heuristic and yields suboptimal partitions on many instances.
Maoinser Mohd Azuwan
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drilling hybrid fiber reinforced polymer (HFRP composite is a novel approach in fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite machining studies as this material combining two different fibers in a single matrix that resulted in considerable improvement in mechanical properties and cost saving as compared to conventional fiber composite material. This study presents the development and optimized way of drilling HFRP composite at various drilling parameters such as drill point angle, feed rate and cutting speed by using the full factorial design experiment with the combination of analysis of variance (ANOVA approach and signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis. The results identified optimum drilling parameters for drilling the HFRP composite using small drill point angle at low feed rate and medium cutting speed that resulted in lower thrust force.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Linda Lai
2010-01-01
This article presents several studies that replicate and extend previous research on maximizing. A modified scale for measuring individual maximizing tendency is introduced. The scale has adequate psychometric properties and reflects maximizers' aspirations for high standards and their preference for extensive alternative search, but not the decision difficulty aspect included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cogniti...
The maximal D=5 supergravities
de Wit, Bernard; Trigiante, M; Wit, Bernard de; Samtleben, Henning; Trigiante, Mario
2007-01-01
The general Lagrangian for maximal supergravity in five spacetime dimensions is presented with vector potentials in the \\bar{27} and tensor fields in the 27 representation of E_6. This novel tensor-vector system is subject to an intricate set of gauge transformations, describing 3(27-t) massless helicity degrees of freedom for the vector fields and 3t massive spin degrees of freedom for the tensor fields, where the (even) value of t depends on the gauging. The kinetic term of the tensor fields is accompanied by a unique Chern-Simons coupling which involves both vector and tensor fields. The Lagrangians are completely encoded in terms of the embedding tensor which defines the E_6 subgroup that is gauged by the vectors. The embedding tensor is subject to two constraints which ensure the consistency of the combined vector-tensor gauge transformations and the supersymmetry of the full Lagrangian. This new formulation encompasses all possible gaugings.
HEMI: Hyperedge Majority Influence Maximization
Gangal, Varun; Narayanam, Ramasuri
2016-01-01
In this work, we consider the problem of influence maximization on a hypergraph. We first extend the Independent Cascade (IC) model to hypergraphs, and prove that the traditional influence maximization problem remains submodular. We then present a variant of the influence maximization problem (HEMI) where one seeks to maximize the number of hyperedges, a majority of whose nodes are influenced. We prove that HEMI is non-submodular under the diffusion model proposed.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Garcia-Ruiz, Silvia [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Moldovan, Mariella [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fortunato, Giuseppino [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research EMPA, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Wunderli, Samuel [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research EMPA, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)]. E-mail: jiga@uniovi.es
2007-05-02
In order to evaluate alternative analytical methodologies to study the geographical origin of ciders, both multi-elemental analysis and Sr isotope abundance ratios in combination with multivariate statistical analysis were estimated in 67 samples from England, Switzerland, France and two Spanish regions (Asturias and the Basque Country). A methodology for the precise and accurate determination of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope abundance ratio in ciders by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) was developed. Major elements (Na, K, Ca and Mg) were measured by ICP-AES and minor and trace elements (Li, Be, B, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, W, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U) were measured by ICP-MS using a collision cell instrument operated in multitune mode. An analysis of variance (ANOVA test) indicated that group means for B, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Se, Cd, Cs, Ce, W, Pb, Bi and U did not show any significant differences at the 95% confidence level, so these elements were rejected for further statistical analysis. Another group of elements (Li, Be, Sc, Co, Ga, Y, Sn, Sb, La, Tl, Th) was removed from the data set because concentrations were close to the limits of detection for many samples. Therefore, the remaining elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba) together with {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope abundance ratio were considered for principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, LDA was able to classify correctly 100% of cider samples coming from different Spanish regions, France, England and Switzerland when considering Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope abundance ratio as original variables.
MAXIMS VIOLATIONS IN LITERARY WORK
Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims
da Silva, Jousianny Patrício; Lima, Raquel Patrícia Ataíde; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; da Conceição Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Rosália Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696
Swanepoel, Konrad J
2011-01-01
A subset of a normed space X is called equilateral if the distance between any two points is the same. Let m(X) be the smallest possible size of an equilateral subset of X maximal with respect to inclusion. We first observe that Petty's construction of a d-dimensional X of any finite dimension d >= 4 with m(X)=4 can be generalised to show that m(X\\oplus_1\\R)=4 for any X of dimension at least 2 which has a smooth point on its unit sphere. By a construction involving Hadamard matrices we then show that both m(\\ell_p) and m(\\ell_p^d) are finite and bounded above by a function of p, for all 1 1 such that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than c from \\ell_p^d. Using Brouwer's fixed-point theorem we show that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-\\dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than 3/2 from \\ell_\\infty^d. A graph-theoretical argument furthermore shows that m(\\ell_\\infty^d)=d+1. The above results lead us to conjecture that m(X) <= 1+\\dim X.
Unified Maximally Natural Supersymmetry
Huang, Junwu
2016-01-01
Maximally Natural Supersymmetry, an unusual weak-scale supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model based upon the inherently higher-dimensional mechanism of Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking (SSSB), possesses remarkably good fine tuning given present LHC limits. Here we construct a version with precision $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ unification: $\\sin^2 \\theta_W(M_Z) \\simeq 0.231$ is predicted to $\\pm 2\\%$ by unifying $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ into a 5D $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ theory at a Kaluza-Klein scale of $1/R_5 \\sim 4.4\\,{\\rm TeV}$, where SSSB is simultaneously realised. Full unification with $SU(3)_{\\rm C}$ is accommodated by extending the 5D theory to a $N=4$ supersymmetric $SU(6)$ gauge theory on a 6D rectangular orbifold at $1/R_6 \\sim 40 \\,{\\rm TeV}$. TeV-scale states beyond the SM include exotic charged fermions implied by $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ with masses lighter than $\\sim 1.2\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and squarks in the mass range $1.4\\,{\\rm TeV} - 2.3\\,{\\rm TeV}$, providing distinct signature...
Operational Modal Analysis using Expectation Maximization Algorithm
Cara Cañas, Francisco Javier; Carpio Huertas, Jaime; Juan Ruiz, Jesús; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique
2011-01-01
This paper presents a time-domain stochastic system identification method based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The effectiveness of this structural identification method is evaluated through numerical simulation in the context of the ASCE benchmark problem on structural health monitoring. Modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of the benchmark structure have been estimated applying the proposed identification method...
Sums of magnetic eigenvalues are maximal on rotationally symmetric domains
Laugesen, Richard S; Roy, Arindam
2011-01-01
The sum of the first n energy levels of the planar Laplacian with constant magnetic field of given total flux is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, under normalization of the ratio (moment of inertia)/(area)^3 on the domain. The result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, with an analogue for Robin (or de Gennes) boundary conditions too. The square similarly maximizes the eigenvalue sum among parallelograms, and the disk maximizes among ellipses. More generally, a domain with rotational symmetry will maximize the magnetic eigenvalue sum among all linear images of that domain. These results are new even for the ground state energy (n=1).
Sums of Laplace eigenvalues - rotationally symmetric maximizers in the plane
Laugesen, R S
2010-01-01
The sum of the first $n \\geq 1$ eigenvalues of the Laplacian is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, maximal among parallelograms for the square, and maximal among ellipses for the disk, provided the ratio $\\text{(area)}^3/\\text{(moment of inertia)}$ for the domain is fixed. This result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann eigenvalues, and similar conclusions are derived for Robin boundary conditions and Schr\\"odinger eigenvalues of potentials that grow at infinity. A key ingredient in the method is the tight frame property of the roots of unity. For general convex plane domains, the disk is conjectured to maximize sums of Neumann eigenvalues.
Jia-ping SHEN
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the influences of traditional Chinese medicinal combined therapies on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram (AEMG ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods One hundred and twenty outpatients with mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM group and a brace group. TCM group patients underwent i Navigation of the spinal balance (twice a day, 40min/ time, until to skeletal maturity; ii Balance manipulation (twice a week, 25min/time, lasted 12 months; iii Small needle-knife therapy (once a week, 10 times. The brace group patients were treated with a Milwaukee brace. The Cobb angle was measured after 12 and 24 months of treatment, pulmonary function was determined after 12 months of treatment, and AEMG ratio of the surface electromyogram was measured 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, and intergroup comparison was performed. Results The Cobb angle significantly decreased in both groups 12 months after treatment (P0.05 in the TCM group and brace group, respectively, 12 months after treatment and 62.5% and 34.7% (P<0.05, respectively, 24 months aftertreatment. Pulmonary function was significantly improved 12 months after treatment in TCM group (P<0.05 but significantly decreased in brace group (P<0.05. The AEMG ratio was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and tended to remain at 1 after stopping treatment in TCM group, showed that the muscle imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, but was adverse in brace group (P<0.05, showed that the muscle imbalance aggravated. No side effect of the therapeutic method was found. Conclusions The spinal balance therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine theory has excellent therapeutic efficacy and safety, and can significantly ameliorate the imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, improve lung function index, and have better compliance. The AEMG ratio is a
Maximal subgroups of finite groups
S. Srinivasan
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In finite groups maximal subgroups play a very important role. Results in the literature show that if the maximal subgroup has a very small index in the whole group then it influences the structure of the group itself. In this paper we study the case when the index of the maximal subgroups of the groups have a special type of relation with the Fitting subgroup of the group.
Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2013-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Maximizing entropy over Markov processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2014-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Receiver Diversity Combining Using Evolutionary Algorithms in Rayleigh Fading Channel
Akbari, Mohsen; Manesh, Mohsen Riahi
2014-01-01
In diversity combining at the receiver, the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is often maximized by using the maximal ratio combining (MRC) provided that the channel is perfectly estimated at the receiver. However, channel estimation is rarely perfect in practice, which results in deteriorating the system performance. In this paper, an imperialistic competitive algorithm (ICA) is proposed and compared with two other evolutionary based algorithms, namely, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA), for diversity combining of signals travelling across the imperfect channels. The proposed algorithm adjusts the combiner weights of the received signal components in such a way that maximizes the SNR and minimizes the bit error rate (BER). The results indicate that the proposed method eliminates the need of channel estimation and can outperform the conventional diversity combining methods. PMID:25045725
Receiver Diversity Combining Using Evolutionary Algorithms in Rayleigh Fading Channel
Mohsen Akbari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In diversity combining at the receiver, the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is often maximized by using the maximal ratio combining (MRC provided that the channel is perfectly estimated at the receiver. However, channel estimation is rarely perfect in practice, which results in deteriorating the system performance. In this paper, an imperialistic competitive algorithm (ICA is proposed and compared with two other evolutionary based algorithms, namely, particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithm (GA, for diversity combining of signals travelling across the imperfect channels. The proposed algorithm adjusts the combiner weights of the received signal components in such a way that maximizes the SNR and minimizes the bit error rate (BER. The results indicate that the proposed method eliminates the need of channel estimation and can outperform the conventional diversity combining methods.
Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jon
2010-01-01
Let $w = w(x_1,..., x_n)$ be a word, i.e. an element of the free group $F =$ on $n$ generators $x_1,..., x_n$. The verbal subgroup $w(G)$ of a group $G$ is the subgroup generated by the set $\\{w (g_1,...,g_n)^{\\pm 1} | g_i \\in G, 1\\leq i\\leq n \\}$ of all $w$-values in $G$. We say that a (finite) group $G$ is $w$-maximal if $|G:w(G)|> |H:w(H)|$ for all proper subgroups $H$ of $G$ and that $G$ is hereditarily $w$-maximal if every subgroup of $G$ is $w$-maximal. In this text we study $w$-maximal and hereditarily $w$-maximal (finite) groups.
Sakuma, Shinji; Tachiki, Hidehisa; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Fukui, Yasunobu; Takeuchi, Naohiro; Kumamoto, Kazuo; Satoh, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Emi; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Sugita, Masaru; Yamashita, Shinji
2011-08-01
The ratio of AUC to the dose (AUC/dose) was previously found as a parameter that predicts a risk of bioinequivalence of oral drug products. On the basis of the combination of this parameter and the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS), a perspective for biowaivers of human bioequivalence studies is discussed. Databases of bioequivalence studies using immediate-release solid oral dosage forms were disclosed by 6 Japanese generic pharmaceutical companies, and the number of subjects required for demonstrating bioequivalence between generic and reference products was plotted as a function of AUC/dose for each BCS category. A small variation in the number of subjects was constantly observed in bioequivalence studies using dosage forms containing an identical BCS class 1 or class 3 drug, even though formulations of the generic product differ between companies. The variation was extremely enlarged when the drugs were substituted with BCS class 2 drugs. Rate-determining steps in oral absorption of highly water-soluble BCS class 1 and class 3 drugs are independent of formulations when there is no significant difference in the in vitro dissolution profiles between formulations. The small variation observed for both BCS categories indicates that the number of subjects converges into one value for each drug. Our analysis indicates the appropriateness of biowaiver of bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing not only BCS class 1 drugs but also class 3 drugs.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Lai, Linda
2010-01-01
... included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cognition, desire for consistency, risk aversion, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy and perceived workload, whereas...
Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?
Linda Lai
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.
Are maximizers really unhappy? The measurement of maximizing tendency,
Dalia L. Diab
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Recent research suggesting that people who maximize are less happy than those who satisfice has received considerable fanfare. The current study investigates whether this conclusion reflects the construct itself or rather how it is measured. We developed an alternative measure of maximizing tendency that is theory-based, has good psychometric properties, and predicts behavioral outcomes. In contrast to the existing maximization measure, our new measure did not correlate with life (dissatisfaction, nor with most maladaptive personality and decision-making traits. We conclude that the interpretation of maximizers as unhappy may be due to poor measurement of the construct. We present a more reliable and valid measure for future researchers to use.
Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics
S M Roy
2002-08-01
Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive phase space density. Here I formulate a stationary principle which gives a nonperturbative deﬁnition of a maximally classical as well as maximally realistic phase space density. I show that the maximally classical trajectories are in fact exactly classical in the simple examples of coherent states and bound states of an oscillator and Gaussian free particle states. In contrast, it is known that the de Broglie–Bohm realistic theory gives highly nonclassical trajectories.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2009-01-14
The anticonvulsant activity of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (MeTHIQ--an endogenous parkinsonism-preventing substance) administered alone and in combination with four conventional antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and valproate) was determined in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. The types of interactions of MeTHIQ with the antiepileptic drugs were characterized using isobolographic analysis. The isobolographic analysis revealed that the combination of MeTHIQ with phenobarbital at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interaction in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test. In contrast, the combinations of MeTHIQ with carbamazepine, phenytoin and valproate exerted additive interaction for all three fixed-ratios (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) tested in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test. In conclusion, MeTHIQ produces a clear-cut anticonvulsant effect in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in mice. The supra-additive interaction of MeTHIQ with phenobarbital against maximal electroshock-induced seizures makes their combination of pivotal importance from a clinical viewpoint.
Chen, Ying-Xue; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Guang-Hao
2003-05-01
This study focused on the appropriate catalyst preparation and operating conditions for maximizing catalytic reduction efficiency of nitrate into nitrogen gas from groundwater. Batch experiments were conducted with prepared Pd and/or Cu catalysts with hydrogen gas supplied under specific operating conditions. It has been found that Pd-Cu combined catalysts prepared at a mass ratio of 4:1 can maximize the nitrate reduction into nitrogen gas. With an increase in the quantity of the catalysts, both nitrite intermediates and ammonia can be kept at a low level. It has also been found that the catalytic activity is mainly affected by the mass ratio of hydrogen gas to nitrate nitrogen, and hydrogen gas gauge pressure. Appropriate operating values of H(2)/NO(3)-N ratio, hydrogen gas gauge pressure, pH, and initial nitrate concentration have been determined to be 44.6g H(2)/g N, 0.15 atm, 5.2 (-), 100 mg x L(-1) for maximizing the catalytic reduction of nitrate from groundwater.
Maximizing ROI with yield management
Neil Snyder
2001-01-01
.... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...
Are CEOs Expected Utility Maximizers?
John List; Charles Mason
2009-01-01
Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century's models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO's preferen...
Gaussian maximally multipartite entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio
2009-01-01
We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. These are bosonic multipartite states that are maximally entangled over all possible bipartitions of the system. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect MMESs, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of MMESs and their frustration for n <= 7.
All maximally entangling unitary operators
Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)
2011-11-15
We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.
Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.
Maximal entanglement versus entropy for mixed quantum states
Wei, T C; Goldbart, P M; Kwiat, P G; Munro, W J; Verstraete, F; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Nemoto, Kae; Goldbart, Paul M.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Munro, William J.; Verstraete, Frank
2003-01-01
Maximally entangled mixed states are those states that, for a given mixedness, achieve the greatest possible entanglement. For two-qubit systems and for various combinations of entanglement and mixedness measures, the form of the corresponding maximally entangled mixed states is determined primarily analytically. As measures of entanglement, we consider entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, and negativity; as measures of mixedness, we consider linear and von Neumann entropies. We show that the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can vary with the combination of (entanglement and mixedness) measures chosen. Moreover, for certain combinations, the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can change discontinuously at a specific value of the entropy.
Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki
2017-04-01
Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as (238)U with (238)Pu and (241)Am with (241)Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of (238)Pu/(239)Pu, (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (241)Pu/(239)Pu, and (242)Pu/(239)Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (241)Pu/(239)Pu, and (242)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, (238)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the (238)Pu/((239)Pu+(240)Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including (238)Pu/(239)Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities
Kodama, Hideo [Theory Center, KEK,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particles and Nuclear Physics,The Graduate University for Advanced Studies,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nozawa, Masato [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-05-18
We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the 36 and 36’ representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)×SO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the Dall’Agata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value s{sub c}. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the Dall’Agata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index n{sub s} of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1σ range n{sub s}=0.9639±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the η parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10{sup −3} and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.
Maximal supersymmetry and B-mode targets
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Wrase, Timm; Yamada, Yusuke
2017-04-01
Extending the work of Ferrara and one of the authors [1], we present dynamical cosmological models of α-attractors with plateau potentials for 3 α = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. These models are motivated by geometric properties of maximally supersymmetric theories: M-theory, superstring theory, and maximal N = 8 supergravity. After a consistent truncation of maximal to minimal supersymmetry in a seven-disk geometry, we perform a two-step procedure: 1) we introduce a superpotential, which stabilizes the moduli of the seven-disk geometry in a supersymmetric minimum, 2) we add a cosmological sector with a nilpotent stabilizer, which breaks supersymmetry spontaneously and leads to a desirable class of cosmological attractor models. These models with n s consistent with observational data, and with tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, provide natural targets for future B-mode searches. We relate the issue of stability of inflationary trajectories in these models to tessellations of a hyperbolic geometry.
A. Garmroodi Asil
2017-09-01
To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.
Alabbasi, Abdulrahman
2014-06-01
In this paper we consider a cognitive radio multi-input multi-output environment in which we adapt our beamformer to maximize both energy efficiency and signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) metrics. Our design considers an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with the sensing information to achieve an optimal energy efficient system. The proposed schemes maximize the energy efficiency and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality of service constraints. Since the optimization of energy efficiency problem is not a convex problem, we transform it into a standard semi-definite programming (SDP) form to guarantee a global optimal solution. Analytical solution is provided for one scheme, while the other scheme is left in a standard SDP form. Selected numerical results are used to quantify the impact of the sensing information on the proposed schemes compared to the benchmark ones.
Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity
Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy
2006-01-01
The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.
BOUNDEDNESS OF MAXIMAL SINGULAR INTEGRALS
CHEN JIECHENG; ZHU XIANGRONG
2005-01-01
The authors study the singular integrals under the Hormander condition and the measure not satisfying the doubling condition. At first, if the corresponding singular integral is bounded from L2 to itseff, it is proved that the maximal singu lar integral is bounded from L∞ to RBMO except that it is infinite μ-a.e. on Rd. A sufficient condition and a necessary condition such that the maximal singular integral is bounded from L2 to itself are also obtained. There is a small gap between the two conditions.
Q. S. He
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio is an important parameter for inverting LIDAR signals in the LIDAR equation. It is a complicated function of the aerosol microphysical characteristics. In this paper, a method to retrieve the column-averaged aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio by constraining the aerosol optical depths (AOD from a Micro-pulse LIDAR (MPL by the AOD measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is presented. Both measurements were taken on cloud free days between 1 May 2003 and 30 June 2004 over Hong Kong, a coastal city in south China. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol scattering coefficients with a forward scattering visibility sensor are compared with the LIDAR retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficients. The data are then analyzed to determine seasonal trends of the aetrosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio. In addition, the relationships between the extinction-to-backscatter ratio and wind conditions as well as other aerosol microphysical parameters are presented. The mean aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio for the whole period was found to be 29.1±5.8 sr, with a minimum of 18 sr in July 2003 and a maximum of 44 sr in March 2004. The ratio is lower in summer because of the dominance of oceanic aerosols in association with the prevailing southwesterly monsoon. In contrast, relatively larger ratios are noted in spring and winter because of the increased impact of local and regional industrial pollutants associated with the northerly monsoon. The extended LIDAR measurements over Hong Kong provide not only a more accurate retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficient profiles, but also significant substantial information for air pollution and climate studies in the region.
Understanding maximal repetitions in strings
Crochemore, Maxime
2008-01-01
The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2005-03-01
Isobolographic profile of interactions between lamotrigine (LTG) and felbamate (FBM), two second-generation antiepileptic drugs, against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures, and neurotoxic adverse effects in the chimney test in mice were determined. LTG combined with FBM at the fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 exerted merely additive interactions against MES-induced seizures. In the chimney test, isobolography revealed that LTG coadministered with FBM at the fixed ratio of 1:1 displayed subadditivity (antagonism), whereas the remaining combinations tested (1:3 and 3:1) exerted additivity in terms of their neurotoxic side effects. LTG (at the dose of 2.3 mg/kg) coadministered with FBM (25.7 mg/kg) at the fixed ratio of 1:1 from the MES test did not impair long-term memory of mice challenged with the passive avoidance task. Furthermore, FBM (25.7 mg/kg) altered neither the free plasma nor brain concentration of LTG, hence pharmacokinetic events, which might affect the observed interactions in the MES test, are unlikely. Considering benefit indices for the respective fixed ratio combinations, it may be concluded that the combination of LTG with FBM at the fixed ratio of 1:1 is advantageous from a preclinical point of view, offering the highest benefit index reaching the value of 1.46. Likewise, the two-drug combination of 1:3 was also beneficial and is worth recommendation with benefit index amounting to 1.36. Only the combination of 3:1 was neutral with a benefit index of 1.08. Protection offered by LTG in combination with FBM against maximal electroconvulsions and its favorable neurotoxic side effect profile might provide the patients with intractable seizures with an efficacious treatment, as the rational polytherapy however, it requires to be clinically confirmed and verified.
LU, Fokdal; Sturdza, Alina; Mazeron, Renaud
2016-01-01
Background and purpose Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using intracavitary applicators (IC) has led to a significant improvement of local control in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Further improvement has been obtained with combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) applicat......Background and purpose Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using intracavitary applicators (IC) has led to a significant improvement of local control in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Further improvement has been obtained with combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC...
Finding the Maximizers of the Information Divergence from an Exponential Family
Rauh, Johannes
2009-01-01
This paper investigates maximizers of the information divergence from an exponential family $E$. It is shown that the $rI$-projection of a maximizer $P$ to $E$ is a convex combination of $P$ and a probability measure $P_-$ with disjoint support and the same value of the sufficient statistics $A$. This observation can be used to transform the original problem of maximizing $D(\\cdot||E)$ over the set of all probability measures into the maximization of a function $\\Dbar$ over a convex subset of $\\ker A$. The global maximizers of both problems correspond to each other. Furthermore, finding all local maximizers of $\\Dbar$ yields all local maximizers of $D(\\cdot||E)$. This paper also proposes two algorithms to find the maximizers of $\\Dbar$ and applies them to two examples, where the maximizers of $D(\\cdot||E)$ were not known before.
Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)
2007-05-15
In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.
Note on maximal distance separable codes
YANG Jian-sheng; WANG De-xiu; JIN Qing-fang
2009-01-01
In this paper, the maximal length of maximal distance separable(MDS)codes is studied, and a new upper bound formula of the maximal length of MDS codes is obtained. Especially, the exact values of the maximal length of MDS codes in some parameters are given.
Chen, Xiaorong; Feng, Jie [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Department of Micro/Nano Electronics, Shanghai (China)
2015-07-15
Improvements in the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio and reset current are required prior to the practical application of RRAM. To achieve this improvement, tantalum oxide-based RRAM devices with multilayer structure (bi-layer and tri-layer) were fabricated and various compliance currents were adopted. The reset current of 40 μA was observed; the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio increased to more than 20 in the tri-layer structure device. Resistance changes in two types of devices under voltage pulses with different pulse width were also conducted. The tri-layer device exhibited lower reset voltage and higher R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio than the bi-layer device under voltage pulses. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via plasma oxidation, and there was an oxygen gradient in the multilayer devices. The results demonstrated that the tri-layer structure with oxygen gradient was an effective method for achieving better device performance. Additionally, it is implied that reasonable control of the proportion of TaO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and compliance current can improve device performance. (orig.)
Fengqin Gao
Full Text Available The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w, forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml, digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min, digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of
Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.
Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E
2014-07-22
The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.
Determinants of maximally attained level of pulmonary function
Wang, XB; Mensinga, TT; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B; Weiss, ST
2004-01-01
This study investigated the determinants of sex-specific maximally attained levels of FEV1, VC, and the ratio of FEV1 to VC. Subjects were between the ages of 15 and 35 years (1,818 males and 1,732 females), participating in the Vlagtwedde/Vlaardingen study in The Netherlands. The subjects were foll
Asymptotics of robust utility maximization
Knispel, Thomas
2012-01-01
For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.
Multivariate residues and maximal unitarity
Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2013-12-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method to amplitude contributions whose cuts define multidimensional algebraic varieties. The technique is valid to all orders and is explicitly demonstrated at three loops in gauge theories with any number of fermions and scalars in the adjoint representation. Deca-cuts realized by replacement of real slice integration contours by higher-dimensional tori encircling the global poles are used to factorize the planar triple box onto a product of trees. We apply computational algebraic geometry and multivariate complex analysis to derive unique projectors for all master integral coefficients and obtain compact analytic formulae in terms of tree-level data.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Alon, Noga; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot...
Maximal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana Sanwong; R.P. Sullivan
2007-01-01
In 1976 Howie proved that a finite congruence-free semigroup is a simple group if it has at least three elements but no zero elementInfinite congruence-free semigroups are far more complicated to describe, but some have been constructed using semigroups of transformations (for example, by Howie in 1981 and by Marques in 1983)Here, forcertain semigroups S of numbers and of transformations, we determine all congruences p on S such that S/p is congruence-free, that is, we describe all maximal congruences on such semigroups S.
Evolution of Shanghai STOCK Market Based on Maximal Spanning Trees
Yang, Chunxia; Shen, Ying; Xia, Bingying
2013-01-01
In this paper, using a moving window to scan through every stock price time series over a period from 2 January 2001 to 11 March 2011 and mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between stock prices, we construct a corresponding weighted network for 501 Shanghai stocks in every given window. Next, we extract its maximal spanning tree and understand the structure variation of Shanghai stock market by analyzing the average path length, the influence of the center node and the p-value for every maximal spanning tree. A further analysis of the structure properties of maximal spanning trees over different periods of Shanghai stock market is carried out. All the obtained results indicate that the periods around 8 August 2005, 17 October 2007 and 25 December 2008 are turning points of Shanghai stock market, at turning points, the topology structure of the maximal spanning tree changes obviously: the degree of separation between nodes increases; the structure becomes looser; the influence of the center node gets smaller, and the degree distribution of the maximal spanning tree is no longer a power-law distribution. Lastly, we give an analysis of the variations of the single-step and multi-step survival ratios for all maximal spanning trees and find that two stocks are closely bonded and hard to be broken in a short term, on the contrary, no pair of stocks remains closely bonded for a long time.
Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
2014-04-01
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.
Inapproximability of maximal strip recovery
Jiang, Minghui
2009-01-01
In comparative genomic, the first step of sequence analysis is usually to decompose two or more genomes into syntenic blocks that are segments of homologous chromosomes. For the reliable recovery of syntenic blocks, noise and ambiguities in the genomic maps need to be removed first. Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given $d$ genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of \\msr{d} is to find $d$ subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. For any constant $d \\ge 2$, a polynomial-time 2d-approximation for \\msr{d} was previously known. In this paper, we show that for any $d \\ge 2$, \\msr{d} is APX-hard, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all gene markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. Moreover, we provi...
Maximal right smooth extension chains
Huang, Yun Bao
2010-01-01
If $w=u\\alpha$ for $\\alpha\\in \\Sigma=\\{1,2\\}$ and $u\\in \\Sigma^*$, then $w$ is said to be a \\textit{simple right extension}of $u$ and denoted by $u\\prec w$. Let $k$ be a positive integer and $P^k(\\epsilon)$ denote the set of all $C^\\infty$-words of height $k$. Set $u_{1},\\,u_{2},..., u_{m}\\in P^{k}(\\epsilon)$, if $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec ...\\prec u_{m}$ and there is no element $v$ of $P^{k}(\\epsilon)$ such that $v\\prec u_{1}\\text{or} u_{m}\\prec v$, then $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec...\\prec u_{m}$ is said to be a \\textit{maximal right smooth extension (MRSE) chains}of height $k$. In this paper, we show that \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ constitutes a partition of smooth words of height $k$ and give the formula of the number of \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, since there exist the minimal height $h_1$ and maximal height $h_2$ of smooth words of length $n$ for each positive integer $n$, we find that \\textit{MRSE} chains of heights $h_1-1$ and $h_2+1$ are good candidates t...
Greedy SINR Maximization in Collaborative Multibase Wireless Systems
Popescu Otilia
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We present a codeword adaptation algorithm for collaborative multibase wireless systems. The system is modeled with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO in which information is transmitted using multicode CDMA, and codewords are adapted based on greedy maximization of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. The procedure monotonically increases the sum capacity and, when repeated iteratively for all codewords in the system, converges to a fixed point. Fixed-point properties and a connection with sum capacity maximization, along with a discussion of simulations that corroborate the basic analytic results, are included in the paper.
Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Shoufa
2016-07-01
A physical encryption scheme for discrete Hartley transform (DHT) precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) visible-light communication (VLC) systems using frequency domain chaos scrambling is proposed. In the scheme, the chaos scrambling, which is generated by a modified logistic mapping, is utilized to enhance the physical layer of security, and the DHT precoding is employed to reduce of OFDM signal for OFDM-based VLC. The influence of chaos scrambling on peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and bit error rate (BER) of systems is studied. The experimental simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method for DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC systems. Furthermore, the influence of the proposed encryption to the PAPR and BER of systems is evaluated. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme can protect the DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC from eavesdroppers, while keeping the good BER performance of DHT-precoded systems. The BER performance of the encrypted and DHT-precoded system is almost the same as that of the conventional DHT-precoded system without encryption.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Filip, Damian; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena
2012-02-01
The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin in combination with four second-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., gabapentin, levetiracetam, tiagabine, and vigabatrin) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type II isobolographic analysis. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. The combination of pregabalin with gabapentin at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 was supra-additive (synergistic) in terms of seizure suppression while the combinations at the fixed-ratios of 2:1 and 4:1 were additive in the mouse MES model. Similarly, the combination of pregabalin with tiagabine at the fixed-ratio of 25:1 was supra-additive, whereas the combinations at the fixed-ratios of 100:1 and 50:1 were additive in the mouse MES model. Pregabalin with levetiracetam and vigabatrin at the fixed-ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 were additive in this seizure model. The combinations of pregabalin with gabapentin (1:1) and pregabalin with tiagabine (25:1) appear to be favorable combinations exerting supra-additive interaction in suppressing MES-induced seizures. Pregabalin in combination with levetiracetam and vigabatrin appears to be neutral producing only additivity in the mouse MES model.
Bogaard, Amy; Hodgson, John; Nitsch, Erika; Jones, Glynis; Styring, Amy; Diffey, Charlotte; Pouncett, John; Herbig, Christoph; Charles, Michael; Ertuğ, Füsun; Tugay, Osman; Filipovic, Dragana; Fraser, Rebecca
This investigation combines two independent methods of identifying crop growing conditions and husbandry practices-functional weed ecology and crop stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis-in order to assess their potential for inferring the intensity of past cereal production systems using archaeobotanical assemblages. Present-day organic cereal farming in Haute Provence, France features crop varieties adapted to low-nutrient soils managed through crop rotation, with little to no manuring. Weed quadrat survey of 60 crop field transects in this region revealed that floristic variation primarily reflects geographical differences. Functional ecological weed data clearly distinguish the Provence fields from those surveyed in a previous study of intensively managed spelt wheat in Asturias, north-western Spain: as expected, weed ecological data reflect higher soil fertility and disturbance in Asturias. Similarly, crop stable nitrogen isotope values distinguish between intensive manuring in Asturias and long-term cultivation with minimal manuring in Haute Provence. The new model of cereal cultivation intensity based on weed ecology and crop isotope values in Haute Provence and Asturias was tested through application to two other present-day regimes, successfully identifying a high-intensity regime in the Sighisoara region, Romania, and low-intensity production in Kastamonu, Turkey. Application of this new model to Neolithic archaeobotanical assemblages in central Europe suggests that early farming tended to be intensive, and likely incorporated manuring, but also exhibited considerable variation, providing a finer grained understanding of cultivation intensity than previously available.
The maximal D = 4 supergravities
Wit, Bernard de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Samtleben, Henning [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Trigiante, Mario [Dept. of Physics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)
2007-06-15
All maximal supergravities in four space-time dimensions are presented. The ungauged Lagrangians can be encoded in an E{sub 7(7)}-Sp(56; R)/GL(28) matrix associated with the freedom of performing electric/magnetic duality transformations. The gauging is defined in terms of an embedding tensor {theta} which encodes the subgroup of E{sub 7(7)} that is realized as a local invariance. This embedding tensor may imply the presence of magnetic charges which require corresponding dual gauge fields. The latter can be incorporated by using a recently proposed formulation that involves tensor gauge fields in the adjoint representation of E{sub 7(7)}. In this formulation the results take a universal form irrespective of the electric/magnetic duality basis. We present the general class of supersymmetric and gauge invariant Lagrangians and discuss a number of applications.
Maximizing profit using recommender systems
Das, Aparna; Ricketts, Daniel
2009-01-01
Traditional recommendation systems make recommendations based solely on the customer's past purchases, product ratings and demographic data without considering the profitability the items being recommended. In this work we study the question of how a vendor can directly incorporate the profitability of items into its recommender so as to maximize its expected profit while still providing accurate recommendations. Our approach uses the output of any traditional recommender system and adjust them according to item profitabilities. Our approach is parameterized so the vendor can control how much the recommendation incorporating profits can deviate from the traditional recommendation. We study our approach under two settings and show that it achieves approximately 22% more profit than traditional recommendations.
Constraint Propagation as Information Maximization
Abdallah, A Nait
2012-01-01
Dana Scott used the partial order among partial functions for his mathematical model of recursively defined functions. He interpreted the partial order as one of information content. In this paper we elaborate on Scott's suggestion of regarding computation as a process of information maximization by applying it to the solution of constraint satisfaction problems. Here the method of constraint propagation can be interpreted as decreasing uncertainty about the solution -- that is, as gain in information about the solution. As illustrative example we choose numerical constraint satisfaction problems to be solved by interval constraints. To facilitate this approach to constraint solving we formulate constraint satisfaction problems as formulas in predicate logic. This necessitates extending the usual semantics for predicate logic so that meaning is assigned not only to sentences but also to formulas with free variables.
Online Learning of Assignments that Maximize Submodular Functions
Golovin, Daniel; Streeter, Matthew
2009-01-01
Which ads should we display in sponsored search in order to maximize our revenue? How should we dynamically rank information sources to maximize value of information? These applications exhibit strong diminishing returns: Selection of redundant ads and information sources decreases their marginal utility. We show that these and other problems can be formalized as repeatedly selecting an assignment of items to positions to maximize a sequence of monotone submodular functions that arrive one by one. We present an efficient algorithm for this general problem and analyze it in the no-regret model. Our algorithm possesses strong theoretical guarantees, such as a performance ratio that converges to the optimal constant of 1-1/e. We empirically evaluate our algorithm on two real-world online optimization problems on the web: ad allocation with submodular utilities, and dynamically ranking blogs to detect information cascades.
Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.
Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam
2009-07-01
Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanisław J
2006-01-01
The anticonvulsant effects produced by topiramate (TPM) and gabapentin (GBP)--two second-generation antiepileptic drugs, in numerous fixed-ratio combinations of 8:1, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8 were examined by isobolographic analysis in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model. Results indicate that the combinations of TPM and GBP at the fixed-ratios of 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8 resulted in supra-additive (synergistic) interaction against MES-induced seizures. Moreover, the combinations of TPM and GBP (at their median effective doses) did not affect motor performance of animals challenged with the chimney test and had no impact on neuromuscular tone in the grip-strength test. Additionally, GBP had no impact on total brain TPM concentrations, and simultaneously, TPM did not alter brain GBP concentrations, indicating that the interaction between drugs was pharmacodynamic in nature. In conclusion, supra-additive interaction of TPM with GBP against MES-induced seizures, lack of motor coordination and neuromuscular tone impairments as well as lack of pharmacokinetic interactions between TPM and GBP in preclinical study, strongly support the combined application of both antiepileptic drugs in patients with refractory partial epilepsy.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot, beeping nodes receive no feedback, while silent nodes can only differentiate between none of its neighbors beeping, or at least one of its neighbors beeping. We start by proving a lower bound that shows that in this model, it is not possible to locally converge to an MIS in sub-polynomial time. We then study four different relaxations of the model which allow us to circumvent the lower bound and find an MIS in polylogarithmic time. First, we show that if a polynomial upper bound on the network size is known, it is possi...
Maximal switchability of centralized networks
Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu
2016-08-01
We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.
A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model
Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-02-17
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.
Husham T. Ibrahim
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this research the continuously up-flow pilot scale Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR which was consists of combined cylindrical anoxic/aerobic MBBR in nested form with anoxic/aerobic volume ratio equal to 0.16 under fully nitrification-denitrification process were used to treated 4 m34+-N, TN and TP, respectively, while the average Dissolved Oxygen concentration (DO in aerobic and anoxic MBBRs were 4.49 and 0.16 mg/L, respectively.
Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans
Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S
1996-01-01
1. Unaccustomed eccentric exercise decreases whole-body insulin action in humans. To study the effects of one-legged eccentric exercise on insulin action in muscle and systemically, the euglycaemic clamp technique combined with arterial and bilateral femoral venous catheterization was used. Seven...... subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake......) necessary to maintain euglycaemia during maximal insulin stimulation was lower during PEC compared with CC (15.7%, 81.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 96.4 +/- 8.8 mumol kg-1 min-1, P eccentric exercise, muscle and whole-body insulin action is impaired at maximal...
Cross-Order Integral Relations from Maximal Cuts
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.; Søgaard, Mads
2015-01-01
We study the ABDK relation using maximal cuts of one- and two-loop integrals with up to five external legs. We show how to find a special combination of integrals that allows the relation to exist, and how to reconstruct the terms with one-loop integrals squared. The reconstruction relies on the observation that integrals across different loop orders can have support on the same generalized unitarity cuts and can share global poles. We discuss the appearance of nonhomologous integration contours in multivariate residues. Their origin can be understood in simple terms, and their existence enables us to distinguish contributions from different integrals. Our analysis suggests that maximal and near-maximal cuts can be used to infer the existence of integral identities more generally.
Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort
Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.
1996-11-01
Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)
Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort
Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.
1996-11-01
Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)
张冬梅
2013-01-01
迭连组合轮系是将附加的行星式轮系或组合轮系以迭连方式装置在基础轮系上，构成迭连组合轮系。本文分析以2KH-WN型行星轮系为基础轮系，分别以单一周转轮系、并联轮系、反馈轮系作为迭连子轮系组成迭连组合轮系。其转化机构有串联式、并联式、反馈式，组合轮系的传动比以行星轮系为基础计算。%The Overlap-Connect combinational gear train is fixed on the base gear train, which connect attached Epicylic Gear Train or combined each other. In this paper,the base gear train is 2KH-WN Epicylic Gear Train. This Overlap-Connect combinational gear train take single turenover gear train or parallel gear train or feedback gear train as son gear train. The form of transformation mechanism is series, parallel or feedback. The calculation of combinational gear ratio is based on Epicylic Gear Train.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Trojnar, Michal K; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2010-08-01
The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of stiripentol (STP) in combination with clobazam [CLB], and valproate [VPA]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model using the type I isobolographic analysis for parallel and non-parallel dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs). Potential adverse-effect profiles of interactions of STP with CLB and VPA at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 in the MES test with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured along with total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations. In the mouse MES model, STP administered singly had its DRRC non-parallel to that for CLB and, simultaneously, parallel to that for VPA. With type I isobolography for parallel DRRCs, the combinations of STP with VPA at three fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 exerted sub-additive (antagonistic) interaction. Isobolography for non-parallel DRRCs revealed that the combination of STP with CLB at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 produced additive interaction. For all combinations, neither motor coordination, long-term memory nor muscular strength was affected. Total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations revealed bi-direction changes with the most profound being an 18.6-fold increase in CLB by STP and a 2.3-fold increase in STP by VPA. In conclusion, the additive interaction between STP and CLB was associated with a concurrent pharmacokinetic interaction and these data may explain the clinical efficacy seen with this combination. In contrast, the antagonism between STP and VPA was surprising since synergism is observed clinically.
崔莉; 孙娥; 王静静; 贾晓斌; 吴伏龙
2013-01-01
目的 采用中压制备系统联合自动纯化系统从淫羊藿原药材中分离制备朝藿定A、B、C3种成分.方法 淫羊藿提取物经大孔吸附树脂粗分离获得相应的组分后,利用中压制备系统联合自动纯化系统完成精制纯化.结果 从4.5kg淫羊藿原药材(总黄酮含量约5％)中获得朝藿定A2.4g、朝藿定B 14.8g和朝藿定C1.7g,纯度均达到98％以上.结论 此方法通过三步分离即可实现朝藿定A、B、C3种成分的完全分离,具有高效快速、产品纯度高的特点,适于淫羊藿中朝藿定A、B、C系列对照品的规模制备.%OBJECTIVE Middle pressure preparative system combined autopurification system was developed to purity Epimedins A,B,C as reference standards from the crude extract of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. METHODS After the crude extract containing 5% flavonols was enriched using macropore resin, the obtained target fractions were subjected to middle pressure preparative system and then to autopurification system. RESULTS By repetitive injection of the enriched target fraction on to the preparative column, 2.4 g epimedin A as well as 14.8 g epimedin B and 1. 7 g epimedin C were obtained from 4. 5 kg Epimedium brevicornum Maxim raw herbs. The purities of all products were greater than 98%. CONCLUSION The middle pressure preparative system combined autopurification system technique for three target compounds are quite useful for the production of the reference standard series with good putity like epimedins A, B, C standards due to its rapid separation, high performance and more amounts of products obtained.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2004-11-01
The anticonvulsant effects of lamotrigine (LTG) and clonazepam (CZP) and combinations thereof against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice were investigated using three-dimensional (3D) isobolographic analysis. With this method, the doses of fixed-ratio combinations of the drugs (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) that elicited 16, 50 and 84% of the maximum anticonvulsant effect were determined. Additionally, to evaluate the characteristics of interactions observed with 3D isobolography, the brain concentrations of both drugs were verified pharmacokinetically. The 3D isobolographic analysis showed that LTG and CZP combined at the fixed ratios of 3:1 and 1:1 interacted synergistically in the MES test for all anticonvulsant effects between 16% and 84% of maximum. In contrast, the combination of LTG and CZP at the fixed ratio of 1:3 showed only pure additivity for all estimated effects in 3D isobolography. Moreover, none of the examined antiepileptic drugs altered the brain concentrations of the coadministered drug, so the observed interactions in the MES test are of a pharmacodynamic nature. The 3D isobolographic findings suggest that in epilepsy therapy, increased efficacy of seizure control (synergistic interaction) might be achieved by using LTG and CZP in combination. In this study, some important problems and assumptions related to statistical analysis of data in 3D isobolography are discussed.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
WANG XueJun; HU ShuHe
2009-01-01
In this paper,we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides.The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob's type maximal inequality for demimartingales,strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables.At last,we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides. The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob’s type maximal inequality for demimartingales, strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables. At last, we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Grace Olusola Gbotosho
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The effects of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum were evaluated after a policy change instituting the use of ACTs in an endemic area. P. falciparum gametocyte carriage, sex ratios and inbreeding rates were examined in 2,585 children at presentation with acute falciparum malaria during a 10-year period from 2001-2010. Asexual parasite rates were also evaluated from 2003-2010 in 10,615 children before and after the policy change. Gametocyte carriage declined significantly from 12.4% in 2001 to 3.6% in 2010 (@@χ2 for trend = 44.3, p < 0.0001, but sex ratios and inbreeding rates remained unchanged. Additionally, overall parasite rates remained unchanged before and after the policy change (47.2% vs. 45.4%, but these rates declined significantly from 2003-2010 (@@χ2 for trend 35.4, p < 0.0001. Chloroquine (CQ and artemether-lumefantrine (AL were used as prototype drugs before and after the policy change, respectively. AL significantly shortened the duration of male gametocyte carriage in individual patients after treatment began compared with CQ (log rank statistic = 7.92, p = 0.005. ACTs reduced the rate of gametocyte carriage in children with acute falciparum infections at presentation and shortened the duration of male gametocyte carriage after treatment. However, parasite population sex ratios, inbreeding rates and overall parasite rate were unaffected.
Valentine, Virginia; Goldman, Jennifer; Shubrook, Jay H
2017-08-01
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease affecting glucose regulation and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many patients are not escalated up the treatment ladder appropriately despite failing to achieve glycemic control, with barriers such as fear of hypoglycemia, weight gain, and treatment burden recognized as factors. Exogenous basal insulin is titrated to address control of fasting plasma glucose and may preserve residual β-cell function, thus promoting a greater endogenous prandial insulin response. Native glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone secreted by the gut in response to nutrient ingestion; it increases insulin secretion, inhibits glucagon secretion, and prolongs gastric emptying, thereby lowering overall food intake. As its glucose-lowering action is glucose dependent, a GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) achieves these benefits with a lower risk of hypoglycemia compared with other diabetes therapies. Two products, an insulin degludec/liraglutide combination (IDegLira) and an insulin glargine/lixisenatide combination (IGlarLixi), were approved for use in adults with T2D by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2016. The efficacy and safety of these two basal insulin/GLP-1RA combination products were studied in the DUAL program (NCTs 01336023, 01392573, 01676116, 01618162, 01952145, and 02298192) and the LixiLan program (NCTs 02058160 and 02058147). Compared with basal insulin, insulin/GLP-1RA fixed-ratio combinations are superior at reducing HbA1c with weight neutrality or weight loss rather than weight gain, as well as reduced hypoglycemia rates, and reduced insulin-dose requirement with IDegLira. A combination of different medications may often be required to achieve glycemic control, and fixed-ratio combination products allow such therapies to be given in simple regimens. Clinical trial data for these products highlight the great potential of these agents, not merely their efficacy and safety but also their
Task-oriented maximally entangled states
Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B, E-mail: agrawal@iopb.res.i, E-mail: bpradhan@iopb.res.i [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751 005 (India)
2010-06-11
We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2006-05-01
This study examined the interaction characteristics between loreclezole (LCZ) and various conventional antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin--PHT, carbamazepine--CBZ, valproate--VPA and phenobarbital--PB) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model using isobolographic analysis. Drug-related adverse effects were ascertained by use of the chimney test (motor impairment) and the step-through passive avoidance task (learning and retrieval). It was observed that the combination of LCZ with VPA or PB, at the fixed ratio of 1:1, was supra-additive (synergistic) and the combination of LCZ with CBZ, at all fixed ratios tested (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1), was supra-additive against electroconvulsions. The remaining combinations evaluated, i.e., LCZ with PB or VPA at fixed ratios of 1:3 and 3:1, as well as all fixed-ratio combinations between LCZ and PHT, were additive in the MES test in mice. Pharmacokinetic characterization revealed that LCZ significantly increased both free plasma and brain concentrations of CBZ and PHT, but was without effect on PB. Moreover, a bi-directional pharmacokinetic interaction between LCZ and VPA was observed in that while LCZ increased free plasma, but not total brain VPA concentrations, VPA increased the total brain, but not free plasma LCZ concentrations. Adverse-effect testing revealed that for all antiepileptic drug combinations neither motor performance nor long-term memory was altered. Of the drug combinations investigated, only that of LCZ and PB at the fixed ratio of 1:1 was not associated with any pharmacokinetic interactions, and thus it may be concluded that the supra-additive (synergistic) isobolographic interaction was pharmacodynamic in nature. Furthermore, the fact that LCZ and PB have similar mechanisms of action would suggest that drugs with similar mechanisms of action may provide rational polytherapy regimens.
Time of day has no effect on maximal aerobic and peak power
Sesboüé B
2011-08-01
Full Text Available N Bessot1,3, S Moussay1,2, B Dufour1,2, D Davenne1,2, B Sesboüé1,3, A Gauthier1,21Inserm, ERI27, Caen, France; 2University Caen, Caen, France; 3CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, FranceBackground: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of time of day on peak power reached during an exercise test and maximal aerobic power achieved when the subject reached maximal oxygen uptake.Methods: Fifteen male competitive endurance cyclists performed a standardized maximal incremental exercise test at 06:00 hours and 18:00 hours. The test began with a 5-minute warmup period at a workload of 150 W. The work rate was then increased by incremental steps of 30 W per minute until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.00. Thereafter, workload was increased in steps of 15 W per minute until exhaustion was reached.Results: No significant diurnal variation was detected in physiological parameters (maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate or biomechanical parameters (maximal aerobic power, peak power.Conclusion: Circadian variations classically reported in competitive aerobic performances could be due to fluctuations in maximal aerobic endurance and/or improvement in gestural efficiency (pattern of muscle activity, effective force production, and kinematics.Keywords: chronobiology, maximal aerobic power, peak power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal incremental test
Computing Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Stankowicz, James Michael, Jr.
This dissertation reviews work in computing N = 4 super-Yang--Mills (sYM) and N = 8 maximally supersymmetric gravity (mSUGRA) scattering amplitudes in D = 4 spacetime dimensions in novel ways. After a brief introduction and overview in Ch. 1, the various techniques used to construct amplitudes in the remainder of the dissertation are discussed in Ch. 2. This includes several new concepts such as d log and pure integrand bases, as well as how to construct the amplitude using exactly one kinematic point where it vanishes. Also included in this chapter is an outline of the Mathematica package on shell diagrams and numerics.m (osdn) that was developed for the computations herein. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to explicit examples. In Ch. 3, the starting point is tree-level sYM amplitudes that have integral representations with residues that obey amplitude relations. These residues are shown to have corresponding residue numerators that allow a double copy prescription that results in mSUGRA residues. In Ch. 4, the two-loop four-point sYM amplitude is constructed in several ways, showcasing many of the techniques of Ch. 2; this includes an example of how to use osdn. The two-loop five-point amplitude is also presented in a pure integrand representation with comments on how it was constructed from one homogeneous cut of the amplitude. On-going work on the two-loop n-point amplitude is presented at the end of Ch. 4. In Ch. 5, the three-loop four-point amplitude is presented in the d log representation and in the pure integrand representation. In Ch. 6, there are several examples of four- through seven-loop planar diagrams that illustrate how considerations of the singularity structure of the amplitude underpin dual-conformal invariance. Taken with the previous examples, this is additional evidence that the structure known to exist in the planar sector extends to the full theory. At the end of this chapter is a proof that all mSUGRA amplitudes have a pole at
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D; Terra-Cunha, M O
2005-01-01
In this Letter we study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. Our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of monogamy of entanglement. Then we propose a polygamy of entanglement, which express that if a general multipartite state is maximally entangled it is necessarily factorized by any other system.
Sampling and Representation Complexity of Revenue Maximization
Dughmi, Shaddin; Han, Li; Nisan, Noam
2014-01-01
We consider (approximate) revenue maximization in auctions where the distribution on input valuations is given via "black box" access to samples from the distribution. We observe that the number of samples required -- the sample complexity -- is tightly related to the representation complexity of an approximately revenue-maximizing auction. Our main results are upper bounds and an exponential lower bound on these complexities.
Lisonek, Petr
1996-01-01
our classifications confirmthe maximality of previously known sets, the results in E^7 and E^8are new. Their counterpart in dimension larger than 10is a set of unit vectors with only two values of inner products in the Lorentz space R^{d,1}.The maximality of this set again follows from a bound due...
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing b...
Alternative trailer configurations for maximizing payloads
Jason D. Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John Klepac
2017-01-01
In order for harvesting contractors to stay ahead of increasing costs, it is imperative that they employ all options to maximize productivity and efficiency. Transportation can account for half the cost to deliver wood to a mill. Contractors seek to maximize truck payload to increase productivity. The Forest Operations Research Unit, Southern Research Station, USDA...
Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras
董浙; 鲁世杰
2000-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.
Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans
Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit;
2004-01-01
That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...... conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean +/-s.e.m.) 24 +/- 2 years, height 180 +/- 2 cm, weight 74 +/- 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake...
Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.
Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter
2014-06-07
Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maximal Hypersurfaces in Spacetimes with Translational Symmetry
Bulawa, Andrew
2016-01-01
We consider four-dimensional vacuum spacetimes which admit a free isometric spacelike R-action. Taking a quotient with respect to the R-action produces a three-dimensional quotient spacetime. We establish several results regarding maximal hypersurfaces (spacelike hypersurfaces of zero mean curvature) in quotient spacetimes. First, we show that complete noncompact maximal hypersurfaces must either be flat cylinders S^1 x R or conformal to the Euclidean plane. Second, we establish a positive mass theorem for certain maximal hypersurfaces. Finally, while it is meaningful to use a bounded lapse when adopting the maximal hypersurface gauge condition in the four-dimensional (asymptotically flat) setting, it is shown here that nontrivial quotient spacetimes admit the maximal hypersurface gauge only with an unbounded lapse.
Oncoplastic Breast Reduction: Maximizing Aesthetics and Surgical Margins
Michelle Milee Chang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Oncoplastic breast reduction combines oncologically sound concepts of cancer removal with aesthetically maximized approaches for breast reduction. Numerous incision patterns and types of pedicles can be used for purposes of oncoplastic reduction, each tailored for size and location of tumor. A team approach between reconstructive and breast surgeons produces positive long-term oncologic results as well as satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes, rendering oncoplastic breast reduction a favorable treatment option for certain patients with breast cancer.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Andres, Marta M; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2005-05-16
The anticonvulsant effects produced by mixtures of oxcarbazepine and gabapentin (two second-generation antiepileptic drugs) in numerous fixed-ratio combinations of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 were examined isobolographically in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model. Results displayed that mixtures of both drugs at the fixed-ratios of 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interactions against electroconvulsions. Only a fixed-ratio of 1:1 was indifferent with isobolography, although the combination displayed the trend towards supra-additivity. Furthermore, the combinations of oxcarbazepine with gabapentin, administered at their median effective doses (ED(50 mix)s), did not alter motor performance of animals challenged with the chimney test. Additionally, neither gabapentin nor oxcarbazepine affected total brain concentrations of co-administered drug, indicating a pharmacodynamic nature of interaction between these antiepileptics. Finally, based on preclinical data presented here the combination of oxcarbazepine and gabapentin is of particular importance for further therapy in patients with refractory partial seizures.
Energy Efficiency and SINR Maximization Beamformers for Spectrum Sharing With Sensing Information
Alabbasi, Abdulrahman
2014-09-01
In this paper, we consider a cognitive radio multi-input-multi-output environment, in which we adapt our beamformer to maximize both energy efficiency (EE) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) metrics. Our design considers an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with sensing information to achieve optimal energy-efficient systems. The proposed schemes maximize EE and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality-of-service constraints. The analysis of the proposed schemes is classified into two categories based on knowledge of the secondary-transmitter-to-primary-receiver channel. Since the optimizations of EE and SINR problems are not convex problems, we transform them into a standard semidefinite programming (SDP) form to guarantee that the optimal solutions are global. An analytical solution is provided for one scheme, while the second scheme is left in a standard SDP form. Selected numerical results are used to quantify the impact of the sensing information on the proposed schemes compared to the benchmark ones.
A Revenue Maximization Approach for Provisioning Services in Clouds
Li Pan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the increased reliability, security, and reduced cost of cloud services, more and more users are attracted to having their jobs and applications outsourced into IAAS data centers. For a cloud provider, deciding how to provision services to clients is far from trivial. The objective of this decision is maximizing the provider’s revenue, while fulfilling its IAAS resource constraints. The above problem is defined as IAAS cloud provider revenue maximization (ICPRM problem in this paper. We formulate a service provision approach to help a cloud provider to determine which combination of clients to admit and in what Quality-of-Service (QoS levels and to maximize provider’s revenue given its available resources. We show that the overall problem is a nondeterministic polynomial- (NP- hard one and develop metaheuristic solutions based on the genetic algorithm to achieve revenue maximization. The experimental simulations and numerical results show that the proposed approach is both effective and efficient in solving ICPRM problems.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.
2005-10-01
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...
Robust utility maximization in a discontinuous filtration
Jeanblanc, Monique; Ngoupeyou, Armand
2012-01-01
We study a problem of utility maximization under model uncertainty with information including jumps. We prove first that the value process of the robust stochastic control problem is described by the solution of a quadratic-exponential backward stochastic differential equation with jumps. Then, we establish a dynamic maximum principle for the optimal control of the maximization problem. The characterization of the optimal model and the optimal control (consumption-investment) is given via a forward-backward system which generalizes the result of Duffie and Skiadas (1994) and El Karoui, Peng and Quenez (2001) in the case of maximization of recursive utilities including model with jumps.
Coca, Antonio; Sobrino, Javier; Soler, Josep; Felip, Angela; Pelegrí, Antoni; Mínguez, Agustin; Vila, Joaquim; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Plana, Jaume
2002-06-01
The once-daily fixed combination of losartan 100 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg was evaluated for safety and efficacy in a multicenter open study by using 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in untreated patients with moderate-to-severe essential hypertension or patients with uncontrolled hypertension despite treatment with monotherapy or low-dose combination. After a 2-week washout period, 41 patients (22 men, 19 women) aged 34-74 years, showing a mean daytime blood pressure > 135/85 mm Hg, were treated with losartan 100 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 for 8 weeks. Ambulatory blood pressure was monitored at the end of the washout period and during the last week of treatment. A significant reduction in the average values of clinic blood pressure (from 169.9 +/- 13.5 mm Hg to 139.5 +/- 15.6 mm Hg, p SBP]; and from 102.2 +/- 7.1 mm Hg to 85.1 +/- 9.5 mm Hg, p SBP and 24-h DBP were significantly reduced (from 145.7 +/- 13.1 mm Hg to 128.3 +/- 14.6 mm Hg, p SBP; and from 90.3 +/- 7.3 mm Hg to 79.2 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p SBP and 12.1 +/- 7.4 mm Hg for 24-h DBP, whereas the lowering at trough was 17.8 +/- 12.0 mm Hg and 10.4 +/- 8.1 mm Hg, respectively. The trough-to-peak ratio (T/P) was 0.88 for SBP and 0.86 for DBP, and the smoothness index was 7.36 for SBP and 6.37 for DBP. The response rate was 87.8% (blood pressure lowering > 5 mm Hg of either 24-h SBP or 24-h DBP average values). Among responders, T/P ratio was 0.89 for SBP and 0.87 for DBP, and the smoothness index was 8.09 for SBP and 7.15 for DBP. No side effects or changes in metabolic parameters were observed. The fixed combination of losartan 100 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 was very effective and well tolerated.
刘娜; 李成
2015-01-01
In order to evaluate the quality of internal control of listed companies objectively, systematically and effectively, this paper selects the inspection data of the listed banking companies of Shanghai and Shenzhen market as the research sample, selects 20 indicators from the five interconnected contents of the internal control, and uses analytic hierarchy process (ahp) to determine the subjective weight of every indicator. Combined the entropy value method the objective weight of indicators is determined. And based on the two aspects of weight together, the internal control evaluation model based on maximizing deviations, so as to realize the quality of internal control evaluation index from the qualitative evaluation to quantitative evaluation of fuzzy mapping, to provide a feasible scientific method to evaluate the quality of internal control.%为了客观、系统、有效地评价上市公司内部控制质量，本文选用沪深银行类上市公司数据为研究样本，从内部控制五个相互联系的内容选取20个指标，采用层次分析法确定各指标的主观权重，再结合熵值法确定指标的客观权重，并将两方面权重结合在一起，建立基于离差最大化组合赋权的内部控制评价模型，从而实现对内部拉制质量评价指标从定性评价到量化评价的模糊映射，为评价内部控制质量提供一种可行的科学方法。
HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL
HR Division
2000-01-01
Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...
Maximizing throughput by evaluating critical utilization paths
Weeda, P.J.
1991-01-01
Recently the relationship between batch structure, bottleneck machine and maximum throughput has been explored for serial, convergent and divergent process configurations consisting of two machines and three processes. In three of the seven possible configurations a multiple batch structure maximize
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual ...
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual time trial ... It is widely accepted that the ventilatory threshold (VT) is an important ... This study investigated whether the physiological responses during a 20km time trial (TT) ...
Tsai, Tein-Shun; Lee, How-Jing; Tu, Ming-Chung
2009-11-01
With bioenergetic modeling, we tested the hypothesis that reptiles maximize net energy gain by postprandial thermal selection. Previous studies have shown that Chinese green tree vipers (Trimeresurus s. stejnegeri) have postprandial thermophily (mean preferred temperature T(p) for males =27.8 degrees C) in a linear thigmothermal gradient when seclusion sites and water existed. With some published empirical models of digestion associated factors for this snake, we calculated the average rate (E(net)) and efficiency (K(net)) of net energy gain from possible combinations of meal size, activity level, and feeding frequency at each temperature. The simulations consistently revealed that E(net) maximizes at the T(p) of these snakes. Although the K(net) peaks at a lower temperature than E(net), the value of K(net) remains high (>=0.85 in ratio to maximum) at the peak temperature of E(net). This suggested that the demands of both E(net) and K(net) can be attained by postprandial thermal selection in this snake. In conclusion, the data support our prediction that postprandial thermal selection may maximize net energy gain.
Simple technique for maximal thoracic muscle harvest.
Marshall, M Blair; Kaiser, Larry R; Kucharczuk, John C
2004-04-01
We present a modification of technique for standard muscle flap harvest, the placement of cutaneous traction sutures. This technique allows for maximal dissection of the thoracic muscles even through minimal incisions. Through improved exposure and traction, complete dissection of the muscle bed can be performed and the tissue obtained maximized. Because more muscle bulk is obtained with this technique, the need for a second muscle may be prevented.
MAXIMAL POINTS OF A REGULAR TRUTH FUNCTION
Every canonical linearly separable truth function is a regular function, but not every regular truth function is linearly separable. The most...promising method of determining which of the regular truth functions are linearly separable r quires finding their maximal and minimal points. In this...report is developed a quick, systematic method of finding the maximal points of any regular truth function in terms of its arithmetic invariants. (Author)
Maximal Subgroups of Skew Linear Groups
M. Mahdavi-Hezavehi
2002-01-01
Let D be an infinite division algebra of finite dimension over its centre Z(D) = F, and n a positive integer. The structure of maximal subgroups of skew linear groups are investigated. In particular, assume N is a normal subgroup of GLn(D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N containing Z(N). It is shown that if M/Z(N) is finite, then N is central.
Additive Approximation Algorithms for Modularity Maximization
Kawase, Yasushi; Matsui, Tomomi; Miyauchi, Atsushi
2016-01-01
The modularity is a quality function in community detection, which was introduced by Newman and Girvan (2004). Community detection in graphs is now often conducted through modularity maximization: given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, we are asked to find a partition $\\mathcal{C}$ of $V$ that maximizes the modularity. Although numerous algorithms have been developed to date, most of them have no theoretical approximation guarantee. Recently, to overcome this issue, the design of modularity max...
Maximal Frequent Itemset Generation Using Segmentation Apporach
M.Rajalakshmi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining.Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequentitemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all thefrequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved bymining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS. Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets whichhave no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces thenumber of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemsetof length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequentitemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. Inthis paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from huge data sourcesusing the concept of segmentation of data source and prioritization of segments. Empirical evaluationshows that this method outperforms various other known methods.
Natural selection and the maximization of fitness.
Birch, Jonathan
2016-08-01
The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the 'new' interpretation of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection, on which the theorem is exactly true for any evolving population that satisfies some minimal assumptions. The second is the Formal Darwinism project, which forges links between gene frequency change and optimal strategy choice. In both cases, I argue that the results fail to establish a biologically significant maximization principle. I conclude that it may be a mistake to look for universal maximization principles justified by theory alone. A more promising approach may be to find maximization principles that apply conditionally and to show that the conditions were satisfied in the evolution of particular traits.
Online Scheduling of Bounded Length Jobs to Maximize Throughput
Durr, Christoph; Thang, Nguyen Kim
2009-01-01
We consider an online scheduling problem, that is motivated by online auction for regularily produced goods that cannot be stored, and have to be sold immediatly to some customers. More formally we consider the online problem of scheduling with preemptions, where each job j is revealed at release time r_j, has processing time p_j, deadline d_j and weight w_j. The goal is to maximize the total weight of all jobs completed on time. We show that if all jobs have processing time not more than k, then the determinstic competitive ratio of this problem is Theta(k/log k).
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2006-10-01
The anticonvulsant effects produced by stiripentol (STP), carbamazepine (CBZ), and their combination in the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice were investigated using three-dimensional (3D) isobolographic analysis. With 3D isobolography, the combinations of both drugs at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 for 16%, 50% and 84% antiseizure effects, respectively, were examined in order to evaluate the preclinical characteristics of the interactions between STP and CBZ. Additionally, to characterize precisely the types of interactions observed in the MES test, free plasma and total brain CBZ concentrations were estimated for all fixed-ratios tested. The 3D isobolographic analysis showed that STP and CBZ combined at the fixed-ratio of 1:3 produced supra-additive (synergistic) interactions in the MES test for the anticonvulsant effects ranging between 16% and 84%. In contrast, the combination of STP with CBZ at the fixed-ratio of 3:1 exerted sub-additive (antagonistic) interactions in 3D isobolography for all antiseizure effects examined in the MES test. Only the combination of STP and CBZ at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 was additive for the investigated effects (16%, 50% and 84%) in 3D isobolography. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of CBZ concentrations revealed that STP increased both free plasma and total brain CBZ concentrations for all fixed-ratio combinations tested (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1). In conclusion, the 3D isobolographic findings suggest that the combination of STP with CBZ exerted biphasic characteristics of interactions in the MES test, despite the pharmacokinetic increase in CBZ content in plasma and brains of experimental animals.
Maximizing antimalarial efficacy and the importance of dosing strategies.
Beeson, James G; Boeuf, Philippe; Fowkes, Freya J I
2015-05-09
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the cornerstone for the treatment of malaria. However, confirmed resistance to artemisinins in South-East Asia, and reports of reduced efficacy of ACTs raise major concerns for malaria treatment and control. Without new drugs to replace artemisinins, it is essential to define dosing strategies that maximize therapeutic efficacy, limit the spread of resistance, and preserve the clinical value of ACTs. It is important to determine the extent to which reduced efficacy of ACTs reflects true resistance versus sub-optimal dosing, and quantify other factors that determine treatment failure. Pooled analyses of individual patient data from multiple clinical trials, by investigators in the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, have shown high overall efficacy for three widely used ACTs, artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Analyses also highlight that suboptimal dosing leads to increased risk of treatment failure, especially among children. In the most recent study, an analysis of clinical trials of artesunate-amodiaquine, widely used among children in Africa, revealed a superior efficacy for fixed-dose combination tablets compared to loose non-fixed dose combinations. This highlights the benefits of fixed-dose combinations as a practical strategy for ensuring optimal antimalarial dosing and maximizing efficacy. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/13/66.
Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.
Dong Li
Full Text Available Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.
Li, Dong; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Gupta, Anika; Sycara, Katia; Li, Sheng
2014-01-01
Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust) between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust) between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM) problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC) model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P) diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Welfare-maximizing and revenue-maximizing tariffs with a few domestic firms
Bruno Larue; Jean-Philippe Gervais
2002-01-01
In this paper we compare the orthodox optimal tariff formula with the appropriate welfare-maximizing tariff when there are a few producing or importing firms. The welfare-maximizing tariff can be very low, voire negative in some cases, while in others it can even exceed the maximum-revenue tariff. The relationship between the welfare-maximizing tariff and the number of firms need not be monotonically increasing, because the tariff is not strictly used to internalize terms of trade externality...
Liu, Yingchun; Sun, Guoxiang; Wang, Yan; Yang, Lanping; Yang, Fangliang
2015-06-01
Micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprinting combined with quantification was successfully developed and applied to monitor the quality consistency of Weibizhi tablets, which is a classical compound preparation used to treat gastric ulcers. A background electrolyte composed of 57 mmol/L sodium borate, 21 mmol/L sodium dodecylsulfate and 100 mmol/L sodium hydroxide was used to separate compounds. To optimize capillary electrophoresis conditions, multivariate statistical analyses were applied. First, the most important factors influencing sample electrophoretic behavior were identified as background electrolyte concentrations. Then, a Box-Benhnken design response surface strategy using resolution index RF as an integrated response was set up to correlate factors with response. RF reflects the effective signal amount, resolution, and signal homogenization in an electropherogram, thus, it was regarded as an excellent indicator. In fingerprint assessments, simple quantified ratio fingerprint method was established for comprehensive quality discrimination of traditional Chinese medicines/herbal medicines from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the quality of 27 samples from the same manufacturer were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between fingerprints and antioxidant activities was established using partial least squares regression, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered an efficient means for monitoring Weibizhi tablet quality consistency.
Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements
M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu
2017-04-01
In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.
李春根; 韩存芝; 孙立新; 荆洁线; 郭晋纲; 赵先文; 李建梅
2001-01-01
Objective In order to explore the sensitive reliable dignostic method to identify gynecologic benign and malignant illness in as ites.Methods The ascitic levels of sialic acid (SA) and Copper( Cu),Zinc (Zn),Calcium(Ca),Manganese(Mn) and Cu/Zn ratio in 80 paitents with cervical or ovarian cancer,benign gynecology diseases were determined by atomic ab orption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results The results showed that SA and Cu/Zn ratio in ascites were significantly higher in patients with ovarian cancer than that with cervical cancer and benign illness,(P<0.01,respectivel y).Ascitic levels of Zn were lower in patients with ovarian and cervical can cer than that benign illness.The result also showed a cutoff SA value of 31mg/dl having a postive predictive rate of 71% and a cutoff Cu/Zn ratio value of 1.10 hav ng a postive predictive rate of 55% between ovarian cancer and benign illness.Conclusions These findings suggest that combined detection of a scites SA level and Cu/Zn ratio may be used as differentiative test in gynecolog ic ben gn and malignant illness.%目的为了寻找一种灵敏、可靠的诊断方法，鉴别妇科疾病患者的腹水良恶性。方法对80例妇科疾病患者腹水的唾液酸水平(SA)、铜/锌比值(CZR)及部分微量元素采用751分光光度计和3030型原子吸收分光光度计进行测定。结果结果表明卵巢癌患者腹水中SA水平和CZR明显高于宫颈癌和妇科良性疾病，差异显著，分别P<0.01，并呈高度的线性关系。同时卵巢癌和宫颈癌患者腹水中锌和钙明显低于良性疾病组，差异显著，分别P<0.01。结果还表明如以SA 31mg/dl和CZR1.10为界值对卵巢癌的诊断阳性率为71%和55%。结论腹水中SA和CZR的测定对鉴别妇科良恶性肿瘤有重要的临床价值，同时对探讨卵巢癌的发病因素提供重要线索。
Nielsen, J R; Mickley, H; Damsgaard, E M
1990-01-01
A maximal exercise test was performed in 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before discharge and in 49 age-matched control subjects. The long-term prognosis was assessed after an average follow-up of 7.6 years in AMI patients and 5.8 years in control subjects. The maximal work...... capacity and systolic blood pressure increase in AMI patients was 59% that of control subjects (p less than 0.001). Seventeen AMI patients had significant ST-segment shifts, 13 with ST depression and 4 with ST elevation. In AMI patients experiencing a cardiac death during follow-up the maximal work...... were of no significant value. In this study maximal work capacity turned out to be the best single exercise variable for identifying groups of AMI patients with very low and relative high risk of cardiac death. When all 3 exercise variables were combined, the predischarge maximal exercise test...
Polyploidy Induction of Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim
Lin ZHANG; Feng WANG; Zhongkui SUN; Cuicui ZHU; Rongwei CHEN
2015-01-01
3%Objective] This study was conducted to obtain tetraploid Pteroceltis tatari-nowi Maxim. with excel ent ornamental traits. [Method] The stem apex growing points of Pteroceltis tatarinowi Maxim. were treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution for different hours to figure out a proper method and obtain poly-ploids. [Result] The most effective induction was obtained by treatment with 0.6%-0.8% colchicine for 72 h with 34.2% mutation rate. Flow cytometry and chromosome observation of the stem apex growing point of P. tatarinowi Maxim. proved that the tetraploid plants were successful y obtained with chromosome number 2n=4x=36. [Conclusion] The result not only fil s the blank of polyploid breeding of P. tatarinowi , but also provides an effective way to broaden the methods of cultivation of fast-growing, high-quality, disease-resilience, new varieties of Pteroceltis.
Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality
Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán
2015-12-01
Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.
The maximal process of nonlinear shot noise
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2009-05-01
In the nonlinear shot noise system-model shots’ statistics are governed by general Poisson processes, and shots’ decay-dynamics are governed by general nonlinear differential equations. In this research we consider a nonlinear shot noise system and explore the process tracking, along time, the system’s maximal shot magnitude. This ‘maximal process’ is a stationary Markov process following a decay-surge evolution; it is highly robust, and it is capable of displaying both a wide spectrum of statistical behaviors and a rich variety of random decay-surge sample-path trajectories. A comprehensive analysis of the maximal process is conducted, including its Markovian structure, its decay-surge structure, and its correlation structure. All results are obtained analytically and in closed-form.
Energy Band Calculations for Maximally Even Superlattices
Krantz, Richard; Byrd, Jason
2007-03-01
Superlattices are multiple-well, semiconductor heterostructures that can be described by one-dimensional potential wells separated by potential barriers. We refer to a distribution of wells and barriers based on the theory of maximally even sets as a maximally even superlattice. The prototypical example of a maximally even set is the distribution of white and black keys on a piano keyboard. Black keys may represent wells and the white keys represent barriers. As the number of wells and barriers increase, efficient and stable methods of calculation are necessary to study these structures. We have implemented a finite-element method using the discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) to calculate E versus k for these superlattices. Use of the FE-DVR method greatly reduces the amount of calculation necessary for the eigenvalue problem.
Absence of parasympathetic reactivation after maximal exercise.
de Oliveira, Tiago Peçanha; de Alvarenga Mattos, Raphael; da Silva, Rhenan Bartels Ferreira; Rezende, Rafael Andrade; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout
2013-03-01
The ability of the human organism to recover its autonomic balance soon after physical exercise cessation has an important impact on the individual's health status. Although the dynamics of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise has been studied, little is known about heart rate variability after this type of exercise. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of heart rate and heart rate variability recovery after maximal exercise in healthy young men. Fifteen healthy male subjects (21·7 ± 3·4 years; 24·0 ± 2·1 kg m(-2) ) participated in the study. The experimental protocol consisted of an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer, until maximal voluntary exhaustion. After the test, recovery R-R intervals were recorded for 5 min. From the absolute differences between peak heart rate values and the heart rate values at 1 and 5 min of the recovery, the heart rate recovery was calculated. Postexercise heart rate variability was analysed from calculations of the SDNN and RMSSD indexes, in 30-s windows (SDNN(30s) and RMSSD(30s) ) throughout recovery. One and 5 min after maximal exercise cessation, the heart rate recovered 34·7 (±6·6) and 75·5 (±6·1) bpm, respectively. With regard to HRV recovery, while the SDNN(30s) index had a slight increase, RMSSD(30s) index remained totally suppressed throughout the recovery, suggesting an absence of vagal modulation reactivation and, possibly, a discrete sympathetic withdrawal. Therefore, it is possible that the main mechanism associated with the fall of HR after maximal exercise is sympathetic withdrawal or a vagal tone restoration without vagal modulation recovery. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Maximizing band gaps in plate structures
Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2006-01-01
Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated...
Maximal and Minimal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana SANWONG; Boorapa SINGHA; R.P.SULLIVAN
2009-01-01
In 2006,Sanwong and Sullivan described the maximal congruences on the semigroup N consisting of all non-negative integers under standard multiplication,and on the semigroup T(X) consisting of all total transformations of an infinite set X under composition. Here,we determine all maximal congruences on the semigroup Zn under multiplication modulo n. And,when Y X,we do the same for the semigroup T(X,Y) consisting of all elements of T(X) whose range is contained in Y. We also characterise the minimal congruences on T(X,Y).
Maximizing oil yields may not optimize economics
1987-03-01
The Los Alamos National Laboratory has used the ASPEN computer code to calculate the economics of different hydroretorting conditions. When the oil yield was maximized and a oil shale plant designed around this process, the costs turned out much higher than expected. However, calculations based on runs of less than maximum yields showed lower cost estimates. It is recommended that future efforts should be concentrated on minimizing production costs rather than maximizing yields. An oil shale plant has been designed around minimum production cost, but has not been able to be tested experimentally.
Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables
Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen
2016-01-01
Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X...
Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy
2014-01-01
We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....
王峰峰; 宋兆辉; 张兰兰; 周水平; 冯锋
2012-01-01
目的 研究制川乌配伍甘草对制川乌中多种单酯型生物碱煎出量的影响,探索其变化规律,以指导制川乌与甘草的合理配伍.方法 HPLC法测定制川乌与甘草不同比例配伍时煎出液中单酯型生物碱的总量,并通过对比,分析不同配比对煎出量的影响.结果 随着甘草配伍量的增加,煎煮液中单酯型生物碱总量逐渐降低,每种单酯型生物碱煎出量趋于单煎液煎出量的40％.结论 甘草配伍制川乌时,甘草的使用量应是制川乌的一半以上,既可以保证煎出液中单酯型生物碱总量稳定可控,又可以防止制川乌毒性过大造成使用危险.%Objective To study the effect of Aconiti Radix Preparata (RAP) combined with Glycyrrhizae Radix (RG) in different ratios on the decocted yield of monoester-type alkaloid from RAP and to investigate the disciplines of various compatibilities. Methods HPLC was adopted to determine the monoester-type alkaloid in decoction with different ratios of RAP and RG The influence of the various compatibilities or alkaloid was analyzed. Results The total decocted yields of monoester-type alkaloid in the decoction decreased with the increasing of RG in the decoction. The monoester-type alkaloid in compatibility tended to be 20% of RAP single decoction. Conclusion The usage of RG should be more than half of that of RAP when using together, which could make the yields of monoester-type alkaloid stable and controllable and avoid the danger for use from the excessive toxicity of RAP.
Borowicz, Kinga K; Jaszczyk, Bozena; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2007-07-12
The aim of this study was the isobolographic evaluation of interactions between two enantiomers of losigamone, AO-242 [(+)-5(R)-alpha(S)-5-(2-chlorophenylhydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2(5H)-furanone] and AO-294 [(-)-5(S)-alpha(R)-5-(2-chlorophenylhydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2(5H)-furanone], and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, or phenobarbital in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Both enantiomers interacted additively with conventional antiepileptic drugs at all studied fixed dose ratios (1:3, 1:1, 3:1). Furthermore, AO-242, AO-294 and antiepileptics applied alone, as well as combinations of enantiomers and antiepileptics did not affect motor performance in the chimney test. Significant impairment of long-term memory (passive-avoidance task) was noted only in the case of valproate alone, given at the dose equal to its median effective dose (ED(50)) against maximal electroshock. All other antiepileptics and their combinations with AO-242 or AO-294 did not impair memory of mice. Enantiomers did not affect the brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs, indicating a pharmacodynamic nature of the observed interactions. In conclusion, the present results suggest both AO-242 and AO-294 as promising candidate drugs in the add-on therapy of refractory epilepsy.
Day, Jonathan W; Gelfanov, Vasily; Smiley, David; Carrington, Paul E; Eiermann, George; Chicchi, Gary; Erion, Mark D; Gidda, Jas; Thornberry, Nancy A; Tschöp, Matthias H; Marsh, Donald J; SinhaRoy, Ranabir; DiMarchi, Richard; Pocai, Alessandro
2012-01-01
The ratio of GLP-1/glucagon receptor (GLP1R/GCGR) co-agonism that achieves maximal weight loss without evidence of hyperglycemia was determined in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice chronically treated with GLP1R/GCGR co-agonist peptides differing in their relative receptor agonism. Using glucagon-based peptides, a spectrum of receptor selectivity was achieved by a combination of selective incorporation of GLP-1 sequences, C-terminal modification, backbone lactam stapling to stabilize helical structure, and unnatural amino acid substitutions at the N-terminal dipeptide. In addition to α-amino-isobutyric acid (Aib) substitution at position two, we show that α,α'-dimethyl imidazole acetic acid (Dmia) can serve as a potent replacement for the highly conserved histidine at position one. Selective site-specific pegylation was used to further minimize enzymatic degradation and provide uniform, extended in vivo duration of action. Maximal weight loss devoid of any sign of hyperglycemia was achieved with a co-agonist comparably balanced for in vitro potency at murine GLP1R and GCGR. This peptide exhibited superior weight loss and glucose lowering compared to a structurally matched pure GLP1R agonist, and to co-agonists of relatively reduced GCGR tone. Any further enhancement of the relative GCGR agonist potency yielded increased weight loss but at the expense of elevated blood glucose. We conclude that GCGR agonism concomitant with GLP1R agonism constitutes a promising approach to treatment of the metabolic syndrome. However, the relative ratio of GLP1R/GCGR co-agonism needs to be carefully chosen for each species to maximize weight loss efficacy and minimize hyperglycemia.
Maximizing the Spread of Cascades Using Network Design
Sheldon, Daniel; Elmachtoub, Adam N; Finseth, Ryan; Sabharwal, Ashish; Conrad, Jon; Gomes, Carla P; Shmoys, David; Allen, William; Amundsen, Ole; Vaughan, William
2012-01-01
We introduce a new optimization framework to maximize the expected spread of cascades in networks. Our model allows a rich set of actions that directly manipulate cascade dy- namics by adding nodes or edges to the net- work. Our motivating application is one in spatial conservation planning, where a cas- cade models the dispersal of wild animals through a fragmented landscape. We propose a mixed integer programming (MIP) formu- lation that combines elements from network design and stochastic optimization. Our ap- proach results in solutions with stochastic op- timality guarantees and points to conserva- tion strategies that are fundamentally dier- ent from naive approaches.
AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF LOW ASPECT RATIO TRANSONIC TURBINE STAGE
SONG Liming; LI Jun; FENG Zhenping
2006-01-01
The advanced optimization method named as adaptive range differential evolution (ARDE)is developed. The optimization performance of ARDE is demonstrated using a typical mathematical test and compared with the standard genetic algorithm and differential evolution. Combined with parallel ARDE, surface modeling method and Navier-Stokes solution, a new automatic aerodynamic optimization method is presented. A low aspect ratio transonic turbine stage is optimized for the maximization of the isentropic efficiency with forty-one design variables in total. The coarse-grained parallel strategy is applied to accelerate the design process using 15 CPUs. The isentropic efficiency of the optimum design is 1.6% higher than that of the reference design. The aerodynamic performance of the optimal design is much better than that of the reference design.
Hua Zhang
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the combination of the preoperative platelet count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR for predicting postoperative survival of patients undergoing complete resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.The preoperative COP-NLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained.Patients with both an increased platelet count (>30.0 × 104 mm(-3 and an elevated NLR (>2.3 were assigned a score of 2, and patients with one or neither were assigned as a score of 1 or 0, respectively.A total of 1238 NSCLC patients were enrolled in this analysis. Multivariate analysis using the 15 clinicolaboratory variables selected by univariate analyses demonstrated that the preoperative COP-NLR was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR: 1.834, 95%CI: 1.536 to 2.200, P<0.001 and OS (HR: 1.810, 95%CI: 1.587 to 2.056, P<0.001. In sub-analyses by tumor stage (I, II, IIIA, a significant association was found between DFS and OS and level of COP-NLR in each subgroup (P<0.001, P=0.002, P<0.001 for DFS, respectively; P<0.001, P=0.001, P<0.001 for OS. When the subgroup of patients with high-risk COP-NLR (score of 2 was analyzed, no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy could be found (P=0.237 for DFS and P=0.165 for OS.The preoperative COP-NLR is able to predict the prognosis of patients with NSCLC and divide these patients into three independent groups before surgery. Our results also demonstrate that high-risk patients based on the COP-NLR do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Independent validation of our findings is warranted.
Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti
2013-11-01
Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with BMI or the waist:hip ratio (WHR). However, evidence on gene-lifestyle interactions is still scarce, and investigation of the effects of well-documented dietary and other lifestyle data is warranted to assess whether genetic risk can be modified by lifestyle. We assessed whether previously established BMI and WHR genetic variants associate with obesity and weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, and whether the associations are modified by dietary factors or physical activity. Individuals (n 459) completed a 3 d food record and were genotyped for twenty-six BMI- and fourteen WHR-related variants. The effects of the variants individually and in combination were investigated in relation to obesity and to 1- and 3-year weight change by calculating genetic risk scores (GRS). The GRS were separately calculated for BMI and the WHR by summing the increasing alleles weighted by their published effect sizes. At baseline, the GRS were not associated with total intakes of energy, macronutrients or fibre. The mean 1- and 3-year weight changes were not affected by the BMI or WHR GRS. During the 3-year follow-up, a trend for higher BMI by the GRS was detected especially in those who reported a diet low in fibre (P for interaction=0·065). Based on the present findings, it appears unlikely that obesity-predisposing variants substantially modify the effect of lifestyle modification on the success of weight reduction in the long term. In addition, these findings suggest that the association between the BMI-related genetic variants and obesity could be modulated by the diet.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching;
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...
Gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization
Janečka, Adam
2016-01-01
Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of a dissipation potential, which leads to several advantageous features like Maxwell--Onsager relations, distinguishing between thermodynamic forces and fluxes or geometrical interpretation of the dynamics. Entropy production maximization is a powerful tool for predicting constitutive relations in engineering. In this paper, both approaches are compared and their shortcomings and advantages are discussed.
Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints
Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)
2015-04-15
We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.
Maximizing the Motivated Mind for Emergent Giftedness.
Rea, Dan
2001-01-01
This article explains how the theory of the motivated mind conceptualizes the productive interaction of intelligence, creativity, and achievement motivation and how this theory can help educators to maximize students' emergent potential for giftedness. It discusses the integration of cold-order thinking and hot-chaotic thinking into fluid-adaptive…
The Winning Edge: Maximizing Success in College.
Schmitt, David E.
This book offers college students ideas on how to maximize their success in college by examining the personal management techniques a student needs to succeed. Chapters are as follows: "Getting and Staying Motivated"; "Setting Goals and Tapping Your Resources"; "Conquering Time"; "Think Yourself to College Success"; "Understanding and Remembering…
MAXIMAL ELEMENTS AND EQUILIBRIUM OF ABSTRACT ECONOMY
刘心歌; 蔡海涛
2001-01-01
An existence theorem of maximal elements for a new type of preference correspondences which are Qθ-majorized is given. Then some existence theorems of equilibrium for abstract economy and qualitative game in which the constraint or preference correspondences are Qθ-majorized are obtained in locally convex topological vector spaces.
DNA solution of the maximal clique problem.
Ouyang, Q; Kaplan, P D; Liu, S; Libchaber, A
1997-10-17
The maximal clique problem has been solved by means of molecular biology techniques. A pool of DNA molecules corresponding to the total ensemble of six-vertex cliques was built, followed by a series of selection processes. The algorithm is highly parallel and has satisfactory fidelity. This work represents further evidence for the ability of DNA computing to solve NP-complete search problems.
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main qu
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing throughput in an automated test system
朱君
2007-01-01
@@ Overview This guide is collection of whitepapers designed to help you develop test systems that lower your cost, increase your test throughput, and can scale with future requirements. This whitepaper provides strategies for maximizing system throughput. To download the complete developers guide (120 pages), visit ni. com/automatedtest.
The gaugings of maximal D=6 supergravity
Bergshoeff, E.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.
2008-01-01
We construct the most general gaugings of the maximal D = 6 supergravity. The theory is ( 2, 2) supersymmetric, and possesses an on-shell SO( 5, 5) duality symmetry which plays a key role in determining its couplings. The field content includes 16 vector fields that carry a chiral spinor representat
WEIGHTED BOUNDEDNESS OF A ROUGH MAXIMAL OPERATOR
无
2000-01-01
In this note the authors give the weighted Lp-boundedness fora class of maximal singular integral operators with rough kernel.The result in this note is an improvement and extension ofthe result obtained by Chen and Lin in 1990.
Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.
Brown, Ronald A.
1992-01-01
Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Testing maximality in muon neutrino flavor mixing
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2003-01-01
The small difference between the survival probabilities of muon neutrino and antineutrino beams, traveling through earth matter in a long baseline experiment such as MINOS, is shown to be an important measure of any possible deviation from maximality in the flavor mixing of those states.
Average utility maximization: A preference foundation
A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
2014-01-01
textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen
On the Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem
Shinji Yamashita
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem is extended to functions of class PL in the sense of E. F. Beckenbach and T. Radó, with a more precise expression of the absolute constant in the inequality. As applications we deduce some results on hyperbolic Hardy classes in terms of the non-Euclidean hyperbolic distance in the unit disk.
Maximal Cartel Pricing and Leniency Programs
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2008-01-01
For a general class of oligopoly models with price competition, we analyze the impact of ex-ante leniency programs in antitrust regulation on the endogenous maximal-sustainable cartel price. This impact depends upon industry characteristics including its cartel culture. Our analysis disentangles the
How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems
Davis, Lewis
2014-01-01
In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Maximally entangled mixed states made easy
Aiello, A; Voigt, D; Woerdman, J P
2006-01-01
We show that, contrarily to a recent claim [M. Ziman and V. Bu\\v{z}ek, Phys. Rev. A. \\textbf{72}, 052325 (2005)], it is possible to achieve maximally entangled mixed states of two qubits from the singlet state via the action of local nonunital quantum channels. Moreover, we present a simple, feasible linear optical implementation of one of such channels.
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...
Maximal Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems
ZHOU Li-Ling; LI Shu-Shen; ZENG Zhao-Yang
2009-01-01
We investigate the heat generation in a nanoscale system coupled to normal leads and find that it is maximal when the average occupation of the electrons in the nanoscale system is 0.5,no matter what mechanism induces the heat generation.
Understanding violations of Gricean maxims in preschoolers and adults.
Okanda, Mako; Asada, Kosuke; Moriguchi, Yusuke; Itakura, Shoji
2015-01-01
This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants' understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity), avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity), be truthful (maxim of quality), be relevant (maxim of relation), avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner), and be polite (maxim of politeness). Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds' understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner), and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults
Mako eOkanda
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Nielsen, J R; Mickley, H; Damsgaard, E M
1990-01-01
were of no significant value. In this study maximal work capacity turned out to be the best single exercise variable for identifying groups of AMI patients with very low and relative high risk of cardiac death. When all 3 exercise variables were combined, the predischarge maximal exercise test...... was of great value in identifying AMI patients at low risk for cardiac death (predictive value of a negative test: 95%)....
Borowicz, Kinga K; Malek, Robert; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2007-08-01
Using the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model, indicative of tonic-clonic seizures in humans, the present study was aimed at characterizing the interaction between remacemide and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. Isobolographic analysis indicated additive interactions between remacemide and valproate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin (for all fixed ratios of tested drugs: 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1). Additivity was also observed between remacemide and phenobarbital applied in proportions of 1:1 and 3:1. In contrast, the combination of remacemide and phenobarbital at the fixed-ratio of 1:3 resulted in antagonism. Neither motor performance nor long-term memory was impaired by remacemide or by carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproate whether or not these drugs were administered singly or in combination. In combination with remacemide, brain concentrations of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin were increased by 71, 21, and 16%, respectively. Although brain valproate concentrations were unaffected by remacemide co-administration, brain concentrations of remacemide and its active metabolite, desglycinyl-remacemide, were increased by 68 and 162%, respectively. In contrast, phenobarbital co-administration was associated with decreases in brain remacemide (27%) and desglycinyl-remacemide (9%) concentrations, whereas only remacemide concentrations (increased by 131%) were affected by carbamazepine co-administration. In conclusion, significant and desirable pharmacodynamic interactions were observed between remacemide and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. However, the concurrent pharmacokinetic interactions associated with remacemide complicate these observations and do not make remacemide a good candidate for adjunctive treatment of epilepsy.
Security in Multicasting System with Diversity Combining Techniques
Rosni Sayed
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a Rayleigh fading multicasting SIMO network, where a single source transmits to a group of users in the presence of an eavesdropper. We consider selection combining (SC and maximal ratio combining (MRC diversity techniques at the receivers and eavesdropper. We derive the closed-form analytical expressions for the probability of nonzero secrecy multicast capacity, and ergodic secrecy multicast capacity. This analysis shows, how the channel diversity enhances security in multicast channels. We also present a comparison between SC and MRC diversity techniques to show which technique is better for secure wireless multicasting.
周毅; 李汉忠; 严维刚; 周智恩; 陈建; 麦智鹏; 纪志刚
2015-01-01
Objective To evaluate the outcomes of permanent brachytherapy combined with maximal androgen blockade(MAB) in local intermediated-risk prostate cancer.Methods From December 2003 to December 2009,307 patients of local prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy,98 cases of intermediated-risk were followed-up for 5 years and data were recorded,aged from 58 to 84 years,average 74 years.Serum PSA was 0.4-19.0 μg/L,average 11.2 μg/L,clinical TNM stage was TlcN0M0-T2bN0M0.Gleason score 4-7,6.7 in average.Prostate volume ranged from 14 to 65 ml,average 32.1 ml.All the 98 patients underwent permanent brachytherapy combined with MAB.Biochemical recurrence rate,biochemical-free survival,tumor-specific survival,overall survival,salvage therapy and complications were analyzed.Results Followed up for 5 years,19 cases had biochemical recurrence,median recurrence period:36 months.One patient died of prostate cancer 45 months after brachytherapy of all 7 patients died in 5 years.Five-years biochemical-free recurrence rate:80.6％,overall survival:92.9％,tumor-specific survival:98.9％,biochemical-free survival:79.3％.Low-urinary tract and rectal irritation symptoms occurred in 75 cases (76.5％).Urinary retention occurred in 7 cases (7.1％) with catheterization duration less than 1 week,no surgical operation were performed.Seeds immigration to lung in 2 cases.No serious complications occurred.Conclusion In local intermediated-risk prostate cancer patients,permanent brachytherapy combined with short-term MAB can be an effective treatment with few complications.%目的 分析局部中危前列腺癌患者接受近距离照射联合最大限度雄激素阻断治疗的疗效及并发症.方法 2003年12月至2009年12月北京协和医院泌尿外科共对307例局限性前列腺癌患者进行近距离照射治疗,其中资料完整并随访满5年的中危患者98例.患者年龄58 ～ 84岁,平均74岁.术前前列腺特异抗原(PSA)为0.4～ 19.0 μg/L,平均11.2
Image Segmentation by Discounted Cumulative Ranking on Maximal Cliques
Carreira, Joao; Sminchisescu, Cristian
2010-01-01
We propose a mid-level image segmentation framework that combines multiple figure-ground hypothesis (FG) constrained at different locations and scales, into interpretations that tile the entire image. The problem is cast as optimization over sets of maximal cliques sampled from the graph connecting non-overlapping, putative figure-ground segment hypotheses. Potential functions over cliques combine unary Gestalt-based figure quality scores and pairwise compatibilities among spatially neighboring segments, constrained by T-junctions and the boundary interface statistics resulting from projections of real 3d scenes. Learning the model parameters is formulated as rank optimization, alternating between sampling image tilings and optimizing their potential function parameters. State of the art results are reported on both the Berkeley and the VOC2009 segmentation dataset, where a 28% improvement was achieved.
Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval
Dahab, Eiman Abou El
2014-01-01
The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).
Maximal temperature in a simple thermodynamical system
Dai, De-Chang
2016-01-01
Temperature in a simple thermodynamical system is not limited from above. It is also widely believed that it does not make sense talking about temperatures higher than the Planck temperature in the absence of the full theory of quantum gravity. Here, we demonstrate that there exist a maximal achievable temperature in a system where particles obey the laws of quantum mechanics and classical gravity before we reach the realm of quantum gravity. Namely, if two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. It is possible to calculate that a simple thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes at a critical temperature which is about three times lower than the Planck temperature. That represents the maximal achievable temperature in a simple thermodynamical system.
Hamiltonian formalism and path entropy maximization
Davis, Sergio; González, Diego
2015-10-01
Maximization of the path information entropy is a clear prescription for constructing models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Here it is shown that, following this prescription under the assumption of arbitrary instantaneous constraints on position and velocity, a Lagrangian emerges which determines the most probable trajectory. Deviations from the probability maximum can be consistently described as slices in time by a Hamiltonian, according to a nonlinear Langevin equation and its associated Fokker-Planck equation. The connections unveiled between the maximization of path entropy and the Langevin/Fokker-Planck equations imply that missing information about the phase space coordinate never decreases in time, a purely information-theoretical version of the second law of thermodynamics. All of these results are independent of any physical assumptions, and thus valid for any generalized coordinate as a function of time, or any other parameter. This reinforces the view that the second law is a fundamental property of plausible inference.
Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization
Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew
2012-01-01
Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...
Maximally Symmetric Spacetimes emerging from thermodynamic fluctuations
Bravetti, A; Quevedo, H
2015-01-01
In this work we prove that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of General Relativity emerge from the geometric structure of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic fluctuation theory. To present our argument, we begin by showing that the pseudo-Riemannian structure of the Thermodynamic Phase Space is a solution to the vacuum Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity with a cosmological constant. Then, we use the geometry of equilibrium thermodynamics to demonstrate that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's Field Equations -- Minkowski, de-Sitter and Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes -- correspond to thermodynamic fluctuations. Moreover, we argue that these might be the only possible solutions that can be derived in this manner. Thus, the results presented here are the first concrete examples of spacetimes effectively emerging from the thermodynamic limit over an unspecified microscopic theory without any further assumptions.
Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity
Godazgar, Hadi; Krueger, Olaf; Nicolai, Hermann
2015-01-01
We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.
Modularity maximization using completely positive programming
Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.
2017-04-01
Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.
Rosenstock, Julio; Diamant, Michaela; Aroda, Vanita R; Silvestre, Louise; Souhami, Elisabeth; Zhou, Tianyue; Perfetti, Riccardo; Fonseca, Vivian
2016-09-01
This study assessed the efficacy and safety of LixiLan, a fixed-ratio, titratable, combination of 2 units insulin glargine (Gla-100) and 1 μg lixisenatide administered once daily via a single pen, versus Gla-100 in insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes on metformin. Participants were randomized to once-daily LixiLan (n = 161) or Gla-100 (n = 162) for 24 weeks, while continuing metformin. LixiLan and Gla-100 were started at 10 units/5 μg and 10 units, respectively, and titrated based on the Gla-100 requirement according to fasting plasma glucose levels. The primary objective was to test noninferiority (upper bound of the 95% CI ≤0.4%) of LixiLan in reducing HbA1c; if met, statistical superiority was tested. Secondary objectives included body weight changes, hypoglycemia, and safety. Baseline characteristics (mean age 57 years, diabetes duration 6-7 years, BMI 32 kg/m(2)) were similar between groups. At week 24, mean HbA1c was reduced from 8.0% (64 mmol/mol) at baseline to 6.3% (45 mmol/mol) and 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) with LixiLan and Gla-100, respectively, establishing statistical noninferiority and superiority of LixiLan (least-squared mean [95% CI] difference: -0.17% [-0.31, -0.04] {-1.9 mmol/mol [-3.4, -0.4]}; P = 0.01). HbA1c <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) was achieved in 84% and 78% of participants (nonsignificant), respectively. LixiLan improved 2-h postmeal plasma glucose versus Gla-100 (least-squared mean difference: -3.17 mmol/L [-57 mg/dL]; P < 0.0001). Body weight was reduced with LixiLan (-1 kg) and increased with Gla-100 (+0.5 kg; P < 0.0001), with no increase in hypoglycemic events (∼25% in each group). The incidence of nausea (7.5%) and vomiting (2.5%) was low with LixiLan. LixiLan achieved statistically significant reductions to near-normal HbA1c levels with weight loss and no increased hypoglycemic risk, compared with insulin glargine alone, and a low incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin. © 2016 by
Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley
2011-01-01
There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...
Maximizing DNA profiling success from sub-optimal quantities of DNA: a staged approach.
Roeder, Amy D; Elsmore, Paul; Greenhalgh, Matt; McDonald, Andrew
2009-03-01
Obtaining genetic profiles from samples containing minimal amounts of DNA can be difficult. In forensic science, the vast majority of genetic profiles are generated using commercial kits that have been optimized for the amplification of a specific range of DNA concentrations. DNA extracted from many forensic samples falls below the kit manufacturers' specified concentrations either because there is not enough total DNA in the extract or the extract is so dilute that not enough volume of the extract can be added to the PCR. In order to develop a method to maximize SGM Plus and Identifiler profiling success from samples with sub-optimal quantities of DNA, thermocycle numbers and/or the amount of PCR product injected during capillary electrophoresis (termed Enhancement) of PCR products were increased. Increasing the number of thermocycles from 28 to 30 and/or two phases of Enhancement of both 28 and 30 thermocycle PCR products resulted in an increased number of scorable peaks. As expected with low template amounts of DNA, many of the samples showed allelic drop-out, heterozygote imbalances and sporadic, large stutter peaks. Enhancement decreased the amount of allelic drop-out observed and did not affect stutter peak or heterozygous peak height ratios. Although the PCR reactions from these samples should always be replicated before a reportable consensus profile is reached, Phase 1 and 2 Enhancement can maximize the profiling success from each reaction. Finally, a flexible, staged approach using 28 or 30 thermocycle PCR in combination with the Enhancement techniques described here is proposed for processing samples with sub-optimal quantities of DNA.
Utility maximization in incomplete markets with default
Lim, Thomas
2008-01-01
We adress the maximization problem of expected utility from terminal wealth. The special feature of this paper is that we consider a financial market where the price process of risky assets can have a default time. Using dynamic programming, we characterize the value function with a backward stochastic differential equation and the optimal portfolio policies. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.
Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests
Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric
2014-01-01
We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...
Approximate Revenue Maximization in Interdependent Value Settings
Chawla, Shuchi; Fu, Hu; Karlin, Anna
2014-01-01
We study revenue maximization in settings where agents' values are interdependent: each agent receives a signal drawn from a correlated distribution and agents' values are functions of all of the signals. We introduce a variant of the generalized VCG auction with reserve prices and random admission, and show that this auction gives a constant approximation to the optimal expected revenue in matroid environments. Our results do not require any assumptions on the signal distributions, however, ...
Kadija Marko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Maximal strength ratios such as the limb symmetry index (LSI and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio (HQ may be considered the main outcome measures in the monitoring of recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. Although explosive strength is much more important than maximal strength, it is generally disregarded in the follow-up of muscle function recovery. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare ratios between maximal (Fmax and explosive strength (rate of force development - RFD in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Methods. Fifteen male athletes were enrolled and had maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps and hamstring contractions tested (4.0 ± 0.1 months post reconstruction. In addition to Fmax, RFD was estimated (RFDmax, as well as RFD at 50, 100, and 200 ms from onset of contraction and LSI and HQ ratios were calculated. Results. The involved leg demonstrated significant hamstring and quadriceps deficits compared to uninvolved leg (p < 0.01. Deficits were particularly significant in the involved quadriceps, causing higher HQ ratios (average 0.63, compared to the uninvolved leg (0.44. LSI was significantly lower for RFD variables (average 55% than for Fmax (66%. Conclusion. The assessment of RFD may be considered an objective recovery parameter for one’s readiness to return to sports and should be an integral part of standard follow-up protocol for athletes after ACL reconstruction. Moreover, the combination of indices derived from maximal and explosive strength may provide better insight in muscle strength balance, as well as a clear picture of functional implications. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175012 i br. 175037
Maximal respiratory pressures among adolescent swimmers.
Rocha Crispino Santos, M A; Pinto, M L; Couto Sant'Anna, C; Bernhoeft, M
2011-01-01
Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP) are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes. The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there is a differential inspiratory and expiratory pressure response to the physical training. A cross-sectional study evaluated 28 international-level swimmers with ages ranging from 15 to 17 years, 19 (61 %) being males. At baseline, MIP was found to be lower in females (P = .001). The mean values reached by males and females were: MIP(cmH2O) = M: 100.4 (± 26.5)/F: 67.8 (± 23.2); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 87.4 (± 20.7)/F: 73.9 (± 17.3). After the physical training they reached: MIP (cmH2O) = M: 95.3 (± 30.3)/F: 71.8 (± 35.6); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 82.8 (± 26.2)/F: 70.4 (± 8.3). No differential pressure responses were observed in either males or females. These results suggest that swimmers can sustain the magnitude of the initial maximal pressures. Other studies should be developed to clarify if MIP and MEP could be used as a marker of an athlete's performance.
Low-frequency fatigue at maximal and submaximal muscle contractions
R.R. Baptista
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Skeletal muscle force production following repetitive contractions is preferentially reduced when muscle is evaluated with low-frequency stimulation. This selective impairment in force generation is called low-frequency fatigue (LFF and could be dependent on the contraction type. The purpose of this study was to compare LFF after concentric and eccentric maximal and submaximal contractions of knee extensor muscles. Ten healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 4.2 years; weight: 73.8 ± 7.7 kg; height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m executed maximal voluntary contractions that were measured before a fatigue test (pre-exercise, immediately after (after-exercise and after 1 h of recovery (after-recovery. The fatigue test consisted of 60 maximal (100% or submaximal (40% dynamic concentric or eccentric knee extensions at an angular velocity of 60°/s. The isometric torque produced by low- (20 Hz and high- (100 Hz frequency stimulation was also measured at these times and the 20:100 Hz ratio was calculated to assess LFF. One-way ANOVA for repeated measures followed by the Newman-Keuls post hoc test was used to determine significant (P < 0.05 differences. LFF was evident after-recovery in all trials except following submaximal eccentric contractions. LFF was not evident after-exercise, regardless of exercise intensity or contraction type. Our results suggest that low-frequency fatigue was evident after submaximal concentric but not submaximal eccentric contractions and was more pronounced after 1-h of recovery.
Methodology to Customize Maximal Isometric Forces for Hill-Type Muscle Models.
Dal Maso, Fabien; Begon, Mickaël; Raison, Maxime
2017-02-01
One approach to increasing the confidence of muscle force estimation via musculoskeletal models is to minimize the root mean square error (RMSE) between joint torques estimated from electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal models and those computed using inverse dynamics. We propose a method that reduces RMSE by selecting subsets of combinations of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials that minimize RMSE. Twelve participants performed 3 elbow MVIC in flexion and in extension. An upper-limb electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal model was created to optimize maximum muscle stress and estimate the maximal isometric force of the biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii. Maximal isometric forces were computed from all possible combinations of flexion-extension trials. The combinations producing the smallest RMSE significantly reduced the normalized RMSE to 7.4% compared with the combination containing all trials (9.0%). Maximal isometric forces ranged between 114-806 N, 64-409 N, 236-1511 N, and 556-3434 N for the brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii, respectively. These large variations suggest that customization is required to reduce the difference between models and actual participants' maximal isometric force. While the smallest previously reported RMSE was 10.3%, the proposed method reduced the RMSE to 7.4%, which may increase the confidence of muscle force estimation.
The golden ratio in Schwarzschild-Kottler black holes
Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)
2017-02-15
In this paper we show that the golden ratio is present in the Schwarzschild-Kottler metric. For null geodesics with maximal radial acceleration, the turning points of the orbits are in the golden ratio Φ = (√(5)-1)/2. This is a general result which is independent of the value and sign of the cosmological constant Λ. (orig.)
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise
Sergi Garcia-Retortillo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.
Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia
2017-01-01
Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in
Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes
Yourong Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.
A Geometric-Structure Theory for Maximally Random Jammed Packings
Tian, Jianxiang; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore
2015-11-01
Maximally random jammed (MRJ) particle packings can be viewed as prototypical glasses in that they are maximally disordered while simultaneously being mechanically rigid. The prediction of the MRJ packing density ϕMRJ, among other packing properties of frictionless particles, still poses many theoretical challenges, even for congruent spheres or disks. Using the geometric-structure approach, we derive for the first time a highly accurate formula for MRJ densities for a very wide class of two-dimensional frictionless packings, namely, binary convex superdisks, with shapes that continuously interpolate between circles and squares. By incorporating specific attributes of MRJ states and a novel organizing principle, our formula yields predictions of ϕMRJ that are in excellent agreement with corresponding computer-simulation estimates in almost the entire α-x plane with semi-axis ratio α and small-particle relative number concentration x. Importantly, in the monodisperse circle limit, the predicted ϕMRJ = 0.834 agrees very well with the very recently numerically discovered MRJ density of 0.827, which distinguishes it from high-density “random-close packing” polycrystalline states and hence provides a stringent test on the theory. Similarly, for non-circular monodisperse superdisks, we predict MRJ states with densities that are appreciably smaller than is conventionally thought to be achievable by standard packing protocols.
Kwak, Ho-Seok; Chung, Hee-Jung; Choi, Young Sik; Min, Won-Ki; Jung, So Young
2015-07-01
Fetal lung maturity is estimated using the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S ratio) in amniotic fluid and it is commonly measured with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC method is time consuming and technically difficult; however, it is widely used because there is no alternative. We evaluated a novel method for measuring the L/S ratio, which involves a tip-column with a cation-exchange resin and mass spectrometry. Phospholipids in the amniotic fluid were extracted using methanol and chloroform. Choline-containing phospholipids such as lecithin and sphingomyelin were purified by passing them through the tip-column. LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF were used to directly analyze the purified samples. The L/S ratio by mass spectrometry was calculated from the sum peak intensity of the six lecithin, and that of sphingomyelin 34:1. In 20 samples, the L/S ratio determined with TLC was significantly correlated with that obtained by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF. There was a 100% concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by LC-MS/MS (kappa value=1.0). The concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by MALDI-TOF was also 100% (kappa value=1.0). Our method provides a faster, simpler, and more reliable assessment of fetal lung maturity. The L/S ratio measured by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF offers a compelling alternative method to traditional TLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malone, Shane; Roe, Mark; Doran, Dominic A; Gabbett, Tim J; Collins, Kieran
2017-03-01
To examine the relationship between chronic training loads, number of exposures to maximal velocity, the distance covered at maximal velocity, percentage of maximal velocity in training and match-play and subsequent injury risk in elite Gaelic footballers. Prospective cohort design. Thirty-seven elite Gaelic footballers from one elite squad were involved in a one-season study. Training and game loads (session-RPE multiplied by duration in min) were recorded in conjunction with external match and training loads (using global positioning system technology) to measure the distance covered at maximal velocity, relative maximal velocity and the number of player exposures to maximal velocity across weekly periods during the season. Lower limb injuries were also recorded. Training load and GPS data were modelled against injury data using logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated based on chronic training load status, relative maximal velocity and number of exposures to maximal velocity with these reported against the lowest reference group for these variables. Players who produced over 95% maximal velocity on at least one occasion within training environments had lower risk of injury compared to the reference group of 85% maximal velocity on at least one occasion (OR: 0.12, p=0.001). Higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) allowed players to tolerate increased distances (between 90 to 120m) and exposures to maximal velocity (between 10 to 15 exposures), with these exposures having a protective effect compared to lower exposures (OR: 0.22 p=0.026) and distance (OR=0.23, p=0.055). Players who had higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) tolerated increased distances and exposures to maximal velocity when compared to players exposed to low chronic training loads (≤4750AU). Under- and over-exposure of players to maximal velocity events (represented by a U-shaped curve) increased the risk of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by
Do additional inputs change maximal voluntary motor unit firing rates after spinal cord injury?
Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K
2012-01-01
Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary drive and other concurrent inputs compared with an MVC alone. Motor unit firing rates, force, and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) were compared across 2 contractions: (a) MVC alone and (b) MVC combined with another input (combination contraction). Other inputs (conditions) included vibration, heat, or cold applied to the anterior surface of the forearm, electrical stimulation delivered to the anterior surface of the middle finger, a muscle spasm, or a voluntary contraction of the contralateral thenar muscles against resistance. The maximal firing frequency (n = 68 units), force, and electromyographic activity (n = 92 contraction pairs) were all significantly higher during the combined contractions compared with MVCs alone. There was a 3-way interaction between contraction, condition, and subject for maximal motor unit firing rates, force, and EMG. Thus, combined contraction responses were different for conditions across subjects. Some conditions (eg, a muscle spasm) resulted in more effective and more frequent responses (increases in unit firing frequency, force, EMG in >50% contractions) than others. Recruitment of new units also occurred in combined contractions. Motoneurons are still responsive to additional afferent inputs from various sources when rate modulation from voluntary drive is limited by SCI. Individuals with SCI may be able to combine inputs to control functional tasks they cannot perform with voluntary drive alone.
Slow-roll inflationary scenario in the maximally extended background
Asgari, Ali A.; Abbassi, Amir H. [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-11-15
During the inflationary epoch, the geometry of the universe may be described by a quasi-de Sitter space. On the other hand, the maximally extended de Sitter metric in the comoving coordinates accords with a special FLRW model with positive spatial curvature; therefore, the focus of the present paper is on the positively curved inflationary paradigm, for which we first of all derive the power spectra of comoving curvature perturbation and primordial gravitational waves in a positively curved FLRW universe according to the slowly rolling inflationary scenario. It can be shown that the curvature spectral index in this model automatically has a small negative running parameter, compatible with observational measurements. Afterwards, by taking into account the curvature factor, it investigates the relative amplitude of the scalar and tensor perturbations, clarifying that the tensor-scalar ratio for this model, against the spatially flat one, directly depends on the wavelength of the perturbative modes. (orig.)
Slow-roll inflationary scenario in the maximally extended background
Asgari, Ali A.; Abbassi, Amir H., E-mail: ahabbasi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14155-4838, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-11-21
During the inflationary epoch, the geometry of the universe may be described by a quasi-de Sitter space. On the other hand, the maximally extended de Sitter metric in the comoving coordinates accords with a special FLRW model with positive spatial curvature; therefore, the focus of the present paper is on the positively curved inflationary paradigm, for which we first of all derive the power spectra of comoving curvature perturbation and primordial gravitational waves in a positively curved FLRW universe according to the slowly rolling inflationary scenario. It can be shown that the curvature spectral index in this model automatically has a small negative running parameter, compatible with observational measurements. Afterwards, by taking into account the curvature factor, it investigates the relative amplitude of the scalar and tensor perturbations, clarifying that the tensor–scalar ratio for this model, against the spatially flat one, directly depends on the wavelength of the perturbative modes.
Entangled states close to the maximally mixed state
Hildebrand, Roland
2009-01-01
We give improved upper bounds on the radius of the largest ball of separable states of an m-qubit system around the maximally mixed state. The ratio between the upper bound and the best known lower bound (Hildebrand, quant.ph/0601201) thus shrinks to a constant c = \\sqrt{34/27} ~ 1.122, as opposed to a term of order \\sqrt{m\\log m} for the best upper bound known previously (Aubrun and Szarek, quant.ph/0503221). We give concrete examples of separable states on the boundary to entanglement which realize these upper bounds. As a by-product, we compute the radii of the largest balls that fit into the projective tensor product of four unit balls in R^3 and in the projective tensor product of an arbitrary number of unit balls in R^n for n = 2,4,8.
Slow-roll inflationary senario in the maximally extended background
Asgari, A A
2015-01-01
During the inflationary epoch,geometry of the universe may be described by quasi-de Sitter space. On the other hand,maximally extended de Sitter metric in the comoving coordinates accords with a special FLRW model with positive spatial curvature,so in this article we focus on the positively curved inflationary paradigm.For this purpose,first we derive the power spectra of comoving curvature perturbation and primordial gravitational waves in a positively curved FLRW universe according to the slowly rolling inflationary senario. It can be shown that the curvature spectral index in this model automatically has a small negative running parameter which is compatible with observational measurements.Then,by taking into account the curvature factor,we investigate the relative amplitude of the scalar and tensor perturbations.It would be clarified that the tensor-scalar ratio for this model against the spatially flat one,depends on the waelength of the perturbative models directly.
Maximal suppression of renin-angiotensin system in nonproliferative glomerulonephritis.
Iodice, Carmela; Balletta, Mario M; Minutolo, Roberto; Giannattasio, Paolo; Tuccillo, Stefano; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; D'Amora, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Giorgio; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Conte, Giuseppe; De Nicola, Luca
2003-06-01
Elimination of residual proteinuria is the novel target in renoprotection; nevertheless, whether a greater suppression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) effectively improves the antiproteinuric response in patients with moderate proteinuria remains ill-defined. We evaluated the effects of maximizing RAS suppression on quantitative and qualitative proteinuria in ten patients with stable nonnephrotic proteinuria (2.55 +/- 0.94 g/24 hours) due to primary nonproliferative glomerulonephritis (NPGN), and normal values of creatinine clearance (103 +/- 17 mL/min). The study was divided in three consecutive phases: (1) four subsequent 1-month periods of ramipril at the dose of 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 mg/day; (2) 2 months of ramipril 20 mg/day + irbesartan 300 mg/day; and (3) 2 months of irbesartan 300 mg/day alone. Maximizing RAS suppression was not coupled with any major effect on renal function and blood pressure; conversely, a significant decrement in hemoglobin levels, of 0.8 g/dL on average, was observed during up-titration of ramipril dose. The 2.5 mg dose of ramipril significantly decreased proteinuria by 29%. Similar changes were detected after irbesartan alone (-28%). The antiproteinuric effect was not improved either by the higher ramipril doses (-30% after the 20 mg dose) or after combined treatment (-33%). The reduction of proteinuria led to amelioration of the markers of tubular damage, as testified by the significant decrement of alpha 1 microglobulin (alpha 1m) excretion and of the tubular component of proteinuria at sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In nonnephrotic NPGN patients, standard doses of either ramipril or irbesartan lead to significant reduction of residual proteinuria and amelioration of the qualitative features suggestive of tubular damage. The enhancement of RAS suppression up to the maximal degree does not improve the antiproteinuric response and is coupled with a decrement of hemoglobin levels.
Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment
Leonardo Coelho Rabello Lima
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Postactivation potentiation (PAP is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs. The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n=23 performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT, time to achieve it (tPTI, contractile impulse (CI, root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS, and rate of torque development (RTD, in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m, RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s−1versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s−1, and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms. We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.
Maximizing versus satisficing: happiness is a matter of choice.
Schwartz, Barry; Ward, Andrew; Monterosso, John; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; White, Katherine; Lehman, Darrin R
2002-11-01
Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers less satisfied than nonmaximizers (satisficers) with consumer decisions, and more likely to engage in social comparison. Study 3 found maximizers more adversely affected by upward social comparison. Study 4 found maximizers more sensitive to regret and less satisfied in an ultimatum bargaining game. The interaction between maximizing and choice is discussed in terms of regret, adaptation, and self-blame.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...... on the numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing...
ON THE SPACES OF THE MAXIMAL POINTS
梁基华; 刘应明
2003-01-01
For a continuous domain D, some characterization that the convex powerdomain CD is adomain hull of Max(CD) is given in terms of compact subsets of D. And in this case, it isproved that the set of the maximal points Max(CD) of CD with the relative Scott topology ishomeomorphic to the set of all Scott compact subsets of Max(D) with the topology induced bythe Hausdorff metric derived from a metric on Max(D) when Max(D) is metrizable.
Understanding of English Contracts though Relation Maxims
XU Chi-ying; JIANG Li-hui
2013-01-01
Contract is the legal evidence of the concerning parties of business. And this lead to its unique characteristics:technical terms, archaism, borrowed words, juxtaposition, and abbreviation. The understanding of contracts is of vital importance for each party, because it concerns the share of interests. In order to avoid ambiguity that some words or sentence in English contracts may lead to, and achieve“best relevance and least effort”of communication, this paper, by applying relation maxim, deeply analyze how to understand English contracts though selection of words, modification, the complexity and simplicity of sentence.
Maximizing results in reconstruction of cheek defects.
Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P
2009-07-01
The face is exceedingly important, as it is the medium through which individuals interact with the rest of society. Reconstruction of cheek defects after trauma or surgery is a continuing challenge for surgeons who wish to reliably restore facial function and appearance. Important in aesthetic facial reconstruction are the aesthetic unit principles, by which the face can be divided in central facial units (nose, lips, eyelids) and peripheral facial units (cheeks, forehead, chin). This article summarizes established options for reconstruction of cheek defects and provides an overview of several modifications as well as tips and tricks to avoid complications and maximize aesthetic results.
Maximizing policy learning in international committees
Nedergaard, Peter
2007-01-01
, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...
Hybrid PSO-MOBA for Profit Maximization in Cloud Computing
Dr. Salu George
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Cloud service provider, infrastructure vendor and clients/Cloud user’s are main actors in any cloud enterprise like Amazon web service’s cloud or Google’s cloud. Now these enterprises take care in infrastructure deployment and cloud services management (IaaS/PaaS/SaaS. Cloud user ‘s need to provide correct amount of services needed and characteristic of workload in order to avoid over – provisioning of resources and it’s the important pricing factor. Cloud service provider need to manage the resources and as well as optimize the resources to maximize the profit. To manage the profit we consider the M/M/m queuing model which manages the queue of job and provide average execution time. Resource Scheduling is one of the main concerns in profit maximization for which we take HYBRID PSO-MOBA as it resolves the global convergence problem, faster convergence, less parameter to tune, easier searching in very large problem spaces and locating the right resource. In HYBRID PSO-MOBA we are combining the features of PSO and MOBA to achieve the benefits of both PSO and MOBA and have greater compatibility.
On the Furthest Hyperplane Problem and Maximal Margin Clustering
Liberty, Edo; Weinstein, Omri
2011-01-01
This paper introduces the Furthest Hyperplane Problem (FHP). Given a set of $n$ points in $\\R^d$, the objective is to produce the hyperplane (through the origin) which maximizes the separation margin, that is, the minimal distance between the hyperplane and an input point. We prove that FHP is NP-hard to approximate to within some small (multiplicative) constant, by presenting a gap preserving reduction from a particular version of the PCP theorem. We also present an algorithm which runs in time $O(n^{\\tilde{O}(1/\\theta^2)})$ where $\\theta$ is the optimal margin. It is based on a dimension reduction technique combined with an $\\eps$-net argument in the reduced dimension. As a consequence, we obtain the first polynomial time algorithm for Maximal Margin Clustering (MMC), which is the unsupervised counterpart of Support Vector Machines (SVM), for the case where the margin is a constant factor of the point cloud diameter. Indeed, this is our main motivation. Our algorithm's running time dependance on the margin ...
Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting
Gillam, W D
2011-01-01
Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.
Maximal coherence in a generic basis
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.
2016-12-01
Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.
Symmetry and approximability of submodular maximization problems
Vondrak, Jan
2011-01-01
A number of recent results on optimization problems involving submodular functions have made use of the multilinear relaxation of the problem. These results hold typically in the value oracle model, where the objective function is accessible via a black box returning f(S) for a given S. We present a general approach to deriving inapproximability results in the value oracle model, based on the notion of symmetry gap. Our main result is that for any fixed instance that exhibits a certain symmetry gap in its multilinear relaxation, there is a naturally related class of instances for which a better approximation factor than the symmetry gap would require exponentially many oracle queries. This unifies several known hardness results for submodular maximization, and implies several new ones. In particular, we prove that there is no constant-factor approximation for the problem of maximizing a non-negative submodular function over the bases of a matroid. We also provide a closely matching approximation algorithm for...
An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Maximal Frequent Item Sets
A. M.J.M.Z. Rahman
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Problem Statement: In today's life, the mining of frequent patterns is a basic problem in data mining applications. The algorithms which are used to generate these frequent patterns must perform efficiently. The objective was to propose an effective algorithm which generates frequent patterns in less time. Approach: We proposed an algorithm which was based on hashing technique and combines a vertical tidset representation of the database with effective pruning mechanisms. It removes all the non-maximal frequent item-sets to get exact set of MFI directly. It worked efficiently when the number of item-sets and tid-sets is more. Results: The performance of our algorithm had been compared with recently developed MAFIA algorithm and the results show how our algorithm gives better performance. Conclusions: Hence, the proposed algorithm performs effectively and generates frequent patterns faster.
Maximizing Information on the Environment by Dynamically Controlled Qubit Probes
Zwick, Analia; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Kurizki, Gershon
2016-01-01
We explore the ability of a qubit probe to characterize unknown parameters of its environment. By resorting to the quantum estimation theory, we analytically find the ultimate bound on the precision of estimating key parameters of a broad class of ubiquitous environmental noises ("baths") which the qubit may probe. These include the probe-bath coupling strength, the correlation time of generic types of bath spectra, and the power laws governing these spectra, as well as their dephasing times T2. Our central result is that by optimizing the dynamical control on the probe under realistic constraints one may attain the maximal accuracy bound on the estimation of these parameters by the least number of measurements possible. Applications of this protocol that combines dynamical control and estimation theory tools to quantum sensing are illustrated for a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond used as a probe.
Improved Algorithm for Throughput Maximization in MC-CDMA
Hema Kale
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA is becoming a very significant down link multiple access technique for high-rate data transmission in the fourth generation wireless communication systems. By means of efficient resource allocation higher data rate i.e. throughput can be achieved. This paper evaluates the performance of group (sub channel allocation criteria employed in down link transmission, which results in throughput maximization. Proposed algorithm gives the modified technique of sub channel allocation in the down link transmission of MC-CDMA systems. Simulation are carried out for all the three combining schemes, results shows that for the given power and BER proposed algorithm comparatively gives far better results .
Maximizing the information content of experiments in systems biology.
Juliane Liepe
Full Text Available Our understanding of most biological systems is in its infancy. Learning their structure and intricacies is fraught with challenges, and often side-stepped in favour of studying the function of different gene products in isolation from their physiological context. Constructing and inferring global mathematical models from experimental data is, however, central to systems biology. Different experimental setups provide different insights into such systems. Here we show how we can combine concepts from Bayesian inference and information theory in order to identify experiments that maximize the information content of the resulting data. This approach allows us to incorporate preliminary information; it is global and not constrained to some local neighbourhood in parameter space and it readily yields information on parameter robustness and confidence. Here we develop the theoretical framework and apply it to a range of exemplary problems that highlight how we can improve experimental investigations into the structure and dynamics of biological systems and their behavior.
Maximizing the information content of experiments in systems biology.
Liepe, Juliane; Filippi, Sarah; Komorowski, Michał; Stumpf, Michael P H
2013-01-01
Our understanding of most biological systems is in its infancy. Learning their structure and intricacies is fraught with challenges, and often side-stepped in favour of studying the function of different gene products in isolation from their physiological context. Constructing and inferring global mathematical models from experimental data is, however, central to systems biology. Different experimental setups provide different insights into such systems. Here we show how we can combine concepts from Bayesian inference and information theory in order to identify experiments that maximize the information content of the resulting data. This approach allows us to incorporate preliminary information; it is global and not constrained to some local neighbourhood in parameter space and it readily yields information on parameter robustness and confidence. Here we develop the theoretical framework and apply it to a range of exemplary problems that highlight how we can improve experimental investigations into the structure and dynamics of biological systems and their behavior.
Maximizing information on the environment by dynamically controlled qubit probes
Zwick, Analia; Kurizki, Gershon
2015-01-01
We explore the ability of a qubit probe to characterize unknown parameters of its environment. By resorting to quantum estimation theory, we analytically find the ultimate bound on the precision of estimating key parameters of a broad class of ubiquitous environmental noises ("baths") which the qubit may probe. These include the probe-bath coupling strength, the correlation time of generic bath spectra, the power laws governing these spectra, as well as their dephasing times T2. Our central result is that by optimizing the dynamical control on the probe under realistic constraints one may attain the maximal accuracy bound on the estimation of these parameters by the least number of measurements possible. Applications of this protocol that combines dynamical control and estimation theory tools to quantum sensing are illustrated for a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond used as a probe.
A unified MGF-based capacity analysis of diversity combiners over generalized fading channels
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2012-03-01
Unified exact ergodic capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity combiners including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of L-branch EGC/MRC over generalized fading channels. The framework is used to derive new results for the gamma-shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model which can be a suitable model for the fading environments encountered by high frequency (60 GHz and above) communications. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical and simulation results confirming the correctness of our newly proposed framework. © 2012 IEEE.
郭静霞; 窦京涛; 李乐乐; 崔佳; 谷伟军; 杨国庆; 杜锦; 陈康; 臧丽
2016-01-01
目的 探讨二氧化碳结合力/血钾值(CO2 CP/K)对库欣综合征病因诊断的价值.方法 回顾性分析1993至2015年解放军总医院内分泌科收治的确诊为库欣综合征、资料齐全的489例患者的临床资料.489例中,促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)依赖性库欣综合征243例;非ACTH依赖性库欣综合征246例,其中垂体性库欣综合征(库欣病)214例,异位ACTH综合征29例.应用受试者工作特征曲线对CO2CP/K的诊断价值进行探讨,得出敏感度与特异度均较高的最佳诊断切点.结果 ①与非ACTH依赖性库欣综合征组相比,ACTH依赖性库欣综合征组的血钾水平更低[(3.46±0.77)与(3.69±0.57) mmol/L],CO2 CWK(10.0±5.5与7.6±2.1)更高(t=3.433,P=0.001;t=-3.612,P=0.000).与库欣病组相比,异位ACTH综合征组血钾[(2.47±0.63)与(3.62 f0.67) mmol/L]及血氯水平更低;二氧化碳结合力、碳酸氢根、碱剩余水平及CO2 CP/K(15.6±8.0与7.8±2.4)更高(t=-10.145,P=0.000).2组血钠及pH值差异均无统计学意义(t值分别为1.170和-1.459,均P＞0.05).②以ACTH依赖性库欣综合征组为病例组,CO2CWK切点为8.95时灵敏度为0.34、特异度为0.85;以异位ACTH综合征组为病例组CO2CP/K切点为9.09时灵敏度0.89、特异度0.78.结论 CO2 CP/K对ACTH依赖性及ACTH非依赖性库欣综合征诊断价值有限,在一定程度上可以区分库欣病和异位ACTH综合征,便于库欣综合征的病因诊断的初筛.%Objective To evaluate carbon dioxide combining power/potassium ratio (CO2CP/K) in etiological diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.Methods The clinical data 489 patients with pathohistologically confirmed Cushing's syndrome treated in PLA General Hospital between 1993 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed.Among 489 patients,there were 246 cases of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) nondependent Cushing's syndrome and 243 cases of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome,including 214 cases of Cushing's disease (CD) and 29 cases of ectopic
Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization
Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.
2016-06-01
Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.
Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem
Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt
Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram;
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...... variable. Generation of trial databases and/or biobanks originating in large randomized clinical trials has successfully increased the knowledge obtained from those trials. At the 10th Cardiovascular Trialist Workshop, possibilities and pitfalls in designing and accessing clinical trial databases were......, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...
Characterizing maximally singular phase-space distributions
Sperling, J.
2016-07-01
Phase-space distributions are widely applied in quantum optics to access the nonclassical features of radiations fields. In particular, the inability to interpret the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution in terms of a classical probability density is the fundamental benchmark for quantum light. However, this phase-space distribution cannot be directly reconstructed for arbitrary states, because of its singular behavior. In this work, we perform a characterization of the Glauber-Sudarshan representation in terms of distribution theory. We address important features of such distributions: (i) the maximal degree of their singularities is studied, (ii) the ambiguity of representation is shown, and (iii) their dual space for nonclassicality tests is specified. In this view, we reconsider the methods for regularizing the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution for verifying its nonclassicality. This treatment is supported with comprehensive examples and counterexamples.
Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2000-01-01
Topology optimization is used to optimize the eigenvalues of plates. The results are intended especially for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) but call be seen as more general. The problem is not formulated as a case of reinforcement of an existing structure, so there is a problem related...... to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...... is a practical MEMS application; a probe used in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the AFM probe the optimization is complicated by a constraint on the stiffness and constraints on higher order eigenvalues....
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André da Conceição Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André Da Conceiçao Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
Reflection Quasilattices and the Maximal Quasilattice
Boyle, Latham
2016-01-01
We introduce the concept of a {\\it reflection quasilattice}, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e. Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we prove that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. We further show that, unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. W...
Distributed Maximality based CTL Model Checking
Djamel Eddine Saidouni
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate an approach to perform a distributed CTL Model checker algorithm on a network of workstations using Kleen three value logic, the state spaces is partitioned among the network nodes, We represent the incomplete state spaces as a Maximality labeled Transition System MLTS which are able to express true concurrency. we execute in parallel the same algorithm in each node, for a certain property on an incomplete MLTS , this last compute the set of states which satisfy or which if they fail are assigned the value .The third value mean unknown whether true or false because the partial state space lacks sufficient information needed for a precise answer concerning the complete state space .To solve this problem each node exchange the information needed to conclude the result about the complete state space. The experimental version of the algorithm is currently being implemented using the functional programming language Erlang.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K
2016-01-01
Investigating relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising of anti-symmetric couplings in one layer, depicting predator-prey relation, and symmetric couplings in the other, depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relation, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue. We find that the correlated multiplexity emerges as evolution progresses. The evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the inter-link coupling strength. Furthermore, the inter-layer coupling strength governs the evolution of disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering star like networks in both the layers. The model and tools used here are useful for understanding the principles governing the stability as well as importance of such patterns in ...
Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces
Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B
2011-01-01
The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner--Nordstr\\"om and Brill--Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface...
Greedy Maximal Scheduling in Wireless Networks
Li, Qiao
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider greedy scheduling algorithms in wireless networks, i.e., the schedules are computed by adding links greedily based on some priority vector. Two special cases are considered: 1) Longest Queue First (LQF) scheduling, where the priorities are computed using queue lengths, and 2) Static Priority (SP) scheduling, where the priorities are pre-assigned. We first propose a closed-form lower bound stability region for LQF scheduling, and discuss the tightness result in some scenarios. We then propose an lower bound stability region for SP scheduling with multiple priority vectors, as well as a heuristic priority assignment algorithm, which is related to the well-known Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The performance gain of the proposed heuristic algorithm is finally confirmed by simulations.
Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection
Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA
2016-01-01
MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.
A New Biflavone from Selaginella pulvinata Maxim
XU Kang-Ping; XU Zhi; DENG Yin-Hua; LI Fu-Shuang; ZHOU Ying-Jun; HU Gao-Yun; TAN Gui-Shan
2003-01-01
@@ Selaginella pulvinata Maxim. distributes all over the country of China and is used for the treatment for haemor rhage. [1] We studied on the chemical constituents of S. pulvinata in order to find the active compounds. Dried stems and leaves of S. pulvinata (6.5 kg) were extracted with 70% ethanol twice. The extract was evaporated under vacuum and than suspended in water, extracted with petroleum and EtOAc sequentially. The EtOAc extract was chromatographed on silica gel, eluted with CHCl3-MeOH. As a result, a novel biflavone, named pulvinatabiflavone, was obtained from fractions 75 ～ 78. Its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as 5,5″, 4′″ trihydroxy-7,7″-dimethoxy-[4′-O-6″]-biflavone (compound 1).
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2015-10-15
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, Michael J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2015-01-01
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
张鹏龙
2012-01-01
利用表面活性剂提高洗油效率与利用堵水调剖提高波及效率相结合，相互促进提高采收率，并通过实验加以验证。%The surfactant displacement oil could increase reovery ratio using in conjunction with water shut off, and it was checked it by experiment.
Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben
2016-01-01
A common suggestion made in the psychometric literature for fixed-length classification tests is that one should design tests so that they have maximum information at the cut score. Designing tests in this way is believed to maximize the classification accuracy and consistency of the assessment. This article uses simulated examples to illustrate…
From entropy-maximization to equality-maximization: Gauss, Laplace, Pareto, and Subbotin
Eliazar, Iddo
2014-12-01
The entropy-maximization paradigm of statistical physics is well known to generate the omnipresent Gauss law. In this paper we establish an analogous socioeconomic model which maximizes social equality, rather than physical disorder, in the context of the distributions of income and wealth in human societies. We show that-on a logarithmic scale-the Laplace law is the socioeconomic equality-maximizing counterpart of the physical entropy-maximizing Gauss law, and that this law manifests an optimized balance between two opposing forces: (i) the rich and powerful, striving to amass ever more wealth, and thus to increase social inequality; and (ii) the masses, struggling to form more egalitarian societies, and thus to increase social equality. Our results lead from log-Gauss statistics to log-Laplace statistics, yield Paretian power-law tails of income and wealth distributions, and show how the emergence of a middle-class depends on the underlying levels of socioeconomic inequality and variability. Also, in the context of asset-prices with Laplace-distributed returns, our results imply that financial markets generate an optimized balance between risk and predictability.
THE EFFECTS MAXIMAL AND SUB MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BRONCHOSPASM INDICES IN NON ATHLETIC
Amir GANJİ
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a transient airway obstruction that occurs during and after the exercise. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is observed in healthy individuals as well as the asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients. Research question: The study compared the effects of one session of submaximal aerobic exercise and a maximal one on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in non-athletic students. Type of study: An experimental study, using human subjects, was designed. Methods: 20 non-athletic male students participated in two sessions of aerobic exercise. The prevalence of EIB was investigated among them. The criteria for assessing exercise-induced bronchospasm were ≥10% fall in FEV1, ≥15% fall in FEF25-75%, or ≥25% fall in PEFR. Results: The results revealed that the maximal exercise did not affect FEF25-75% and PEF, but it led to a meaningful reduction in FEV1. Contrarily, the submaximal exercise affected none of these indices. That is, in both protocols the same result was obtained for PEF and FEF25-75. Moreover, the prevalence of EIB was 15% in the submaximal exercise and 20% in the maximal one. Actually, this difference was significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in contrast to the subjects who performed submaximal exercise, those who participated in the maximal protocol showed more changes in the pulmonary function indices and the prevalence of EIB was greater among them.
Maximal elements of non necessarily acyclic binary relations
Josep Enric Peris Ferrando; Begoña Subiza Martínez
1992-01-01
The existence of maximal elements for binary preference relations is analyzed without imposing transitivity or convexity conditions. From each preference relation a new acyclic relation is defined in such a way that some maximal elements of this new relation characterize maximal elements of the original one. The result covers the case whereby the relation is acyclic.
Ocean's 16: Optimal protein:RNA ratio has near Redfield nitrogen:phosphorus ratio
Elser, J. J.; Loladze, I.
2010-12-01
One of the biosphere’s most intriguing patterns is the near equality of the atomic nitrogen:phosphorus ratio (N:P) found in waters throughout the deep ocean (~16) and its average in plankton in the upper ocean. When Redfield discovered this pattern 75 years ago, he suggested that it is driven by the cellular composition of plankton. However, no theoretical explanation for an N:P ~16 in microorganisms has ever been found. Moreover, recently it has been suggested that N:P ~16 may have no significance for either plankton nor for N/P cycling on geological time scales. Here we show that an N:P ratio of 16 emerges from fundamental biochemical and biomolecular properties: N in amino acids, N and P in nucleotides, and the square root of the ratio of the maximal translation and transcription rates. Our theoretical results are supported by a comprehensive compilation of literature data on microbial protein:rRNA ratios. Thus, the N:P ratio of ~16 appears to correspond to the biochemically optimal protein:RNA ratio for maximal growth rates for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Borowicz, Kinga K; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2007-01-15
The aim of this study was the isobolographic evaluation of interactions between losigamone (LSG), valproate (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), and phenobarbital (PB) in the maximal electroshock (MES) test in mice. Electroconvulsions were produced by means of an alternating current (ear-clip electrodes, 0.2-s stimulus duration, and tonic hindlimb extension taken as the endpoint). Adverse effects were evaluated in the chimney test (motor coordination) and the passive avoidance task (long-term memory). Brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were measured by immunofluorescence or high-performance liquid chromatography. Isobolographic analysis indicated synergistic interactions between LSG and VPA. For example, in the proportion of 1:1 the theoretically calculated 50% effective dose for additivity (ED(50add)) was 138 mg/kg, while the experimentally derived ED(50) for the mixture (ED(50mix)) was 85.2 mg/kg. The difference was significant at p<0.001. LSG combined with CBZ or PHT showed additivity, whereas the combinations of LSG with PB were either additive, for the fixed ratios of 1:3 and 1:1, or antagonistic for the ratio of 3:1 (ED(50add)=18.4 mg/kg versus ED(50mix)=26.7 mg/kg, p<0.05). Impairment of long-term memory was noted only in the case of VPA given at its ED(50), however this AED did not affect motor performance. LSG, CBZ, PHT and PB (applied at their ED(50) values) and co-administration of LSG with conventional AEDs (including VPA) impaired neither motor performance nor long-term memory. LSG did not affect the brain concentration of VPA or PB, but significantly elevated the brain concentrations of CBZ and PHT. In contrast, VPA, CBZ and PHT significantly increased the brain concentration of LSG, indicating a pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed pharmacodynamic interactions. Although LSG exhibited some favorable pharmacodynamic interactions with various AEDs, these were complicated by pharmacokinetic interactions and emphasize the
Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides
2013-09-01
Hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) differ substantially from thermal power facilities, since instead of maximizing energy production with the minimum amount of fuel, they aim at maximizing throughput. Variations in quantity or composition of received waste loads may significantly diminish HWI throughput (the decisive profit factor), from its nominal design value. A novel formulation of combustion balance is presented, based on linear operators, which isolates the wastefeed vector from the invariant combustion stoichiometry kernel. Explicit expressions for the throughput are obtained, in terms of incinerator temperature, fluegas heat recuperation ratio and design parameters, for an arbitrary number of wastes, based on fundamental principles (mass and enthalpy balances). The impact of waste variations, of recuperation ratio and of furnace temperature is explicitly determined. It is shown that in the presence of waste uncertainty, the throughput may be a decreasing or increasing function of incinerator temperature and recuperation ratio, depending on the sign of a dimensionless parameter related only to the uncertain wastes. The dimensionless parameter is proposed as a sharp a' priori waste 'fingerprint', determining the necessary increase or decrease of manipulated variables (recuperation ratio, excess air, auxiliary fuel feed rate, auxiliary air flow) in order to balance the HWI and maximize throughput under uncertainty in received wastes. A 10-step procedure is proposed for direct application subject to process capacity constraints. The results may be useful for efficient HWI operation and for preparing hazardous waste blends.
Christopher M. Bentz
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We compare optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR techniques based on conventional single impulse, coding and linear frequency chirps concerning their signal to noise ratio (SNR enhancements by measurements in a passive optical network (PON with a maximum one-way attenuation of 36.6 dB. A total of six subscribers, each represented by a unique mirror pair with narrow reflection bandwidths, are installed within a distance of 14 m. The spatial resolution of the OTDR set-up is 3.0 m.
A quantum framework for likelihood ratios
Bond, Rachael L; Ormerod, Thomas C
2015-01-01
The ability to calculate precise likelihood ratios is fundamental to many STEM areas, such as decision-making theory, biomedical science, and engineering. However, there is no assumption-free statistical methodology to achieve this. For instance, in the absence of data relating to covariate overlap, the widely used Bayes' theorem either defaults to the marginal probability driven "naive Bayes' classifier", or requires the use of compensatory expectation-maximization techniques. Equally, the use of alternative statistical approaches, such as multivariate logistic regression, may be confounded by other axiomatic conditions, e.g., low levels of co-linearity. This article takes an information-theoretic approach in developing a new statistical formula for the calculation of likelihood ratios based on the principles of quantum entanglement. In doing so, it is argued that this quantum approach demonstrates: that the likelihood ratio is a real quality of statistical systems; that the naive Bayes' classifier is a spec...
R. Hajian
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of a ternary mixture containing paracetamol (PAR, ibuprofen (IBU and caffeine (CAF without prior separation. H-point standard addition method (HPSAM was used for the first time in the analysis of a component (IBU in a ternary mixture (paracetamol, ibuprofen and caffeine. In contrast, PAR and CAF determined using double divisor ratio spectra derivative method. This method is based on the use of derivative of the ratio spectrum obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the ternary mixture by a standard spectrum of a mixture of two of the three compounds in the title mixture. The concentrations of PAR and CAF compounds in their mixture are determined by using their respective standard addition graphs which are obtained by measuring the amplitude at either the maximum or minimum wavelengths selected. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. It was shown that at wavelengths 226 and 260 nm, the coordinate of H-point is only dependent on the concentration of IBU without any interference by PAR and CAF. This method was successfully applied for the analysis of Novafen capsule, with no interference from excipients as indicated by the recovery study results. The proposed method is simple and rapid and can be easily used in the quality control of drugs as an alternative analysis tools.
Maximization Paradox: Result of Believing in an Objective Best.
Luan, Mo; Li, Hong
2017-05-01
The results from four studies provide reliable evidence of how beliefs in an objective best influence the decision process and subjective feelings. A belief in an objective best serves as the fundamental mechanism connecting the concept of maximizing and the maximization paradox (i.e., expending great effort but feeling bad when making decisions, Study 1), and randomly chosen decision makers operate similar to maximizers once they are manipulated to believe that the best is objective (Studies 2A, 2B, and 3). In addition, the effect of a belief in an objective best on the maximization paradox is moderated by the presence of a dominant option (Study 3). The findings of this research contribute to the maximization literature by demonstrating that believing in an objective best leads to the maximization paradox. The maximization paradox is indeed the result of believing in an objective best.
Tănase Alin-Eliodor
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.
Collins, Mimi
1997-01-01
Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…
Akkerman, J. W.
1982-01-01
New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.
Maximally random jamming of one-component and binary hard-disk fluids in two dimensions.
Xu, Xinliang; Rice, Stuart A
2011-02-01
We report calculations of the density of maximally random jamming of one-component and binary hard-disk fluids. The theoretical structure used provides a common framework for description of the hard-disk liquid-to-hexatic, the liquid-to-hexagonal crystal, and the liquid to maximally random jammed state transitions. Our analysis is based on locating a particular bifurcation of the solutions of the integral equation for the inhomogeneous single-particle density at the transition between different spatial structures. The bifurcation of solutions we study is initiated from the dense metastable fluid, and we associate it with the limit of stability of the fluid, which we identify with the transition from the metastable fluid to a maximally random jammed state. For the one-component hard-disk fluid the predicted packing fraction at which the metastable fluid to maximally random jammed state transition occurs is 0.84, in excellent agreement with the experimental value 0.84 ± 0.02. The corresponding analysis of the limit of stability of a binary hard-disk fluid with specified disk-diameter ratio and disk composition requires extra approximations in the representations of the direct correlation function, the equation of state, and the number of order parameters accounted for. Keeping only the order parameter identified with the largest peak in the structure factor of the highest-density regular lattice with the same disk- diameter ratio and disk composition as the binary fluid, the predicted density of maximally random jamming is found to be 0.84-0.87, depending on the equation of state used, and very weakly dependent on the ratio of disk diameters and the fluid composition, in agreement with both experimental data and computer simulation data.
Maximal dissipation and well-posedness for the compressible Euler system
Feireisl, Eduard
2014-01-01
We discuss the problem of well-posedness of the compressible (barotropic) Euler system in the framework of weak solutions. The principle of maximal dissipation introduced by C.M. Dafermos is adapted and combined with the concept of admissible weak solutions. We use the method of convex integration in the spirit of the recent work of C.DeLellis and L.Sz´ekelyhidi to show various counterexamples to well-posedness. On the other hand, we conjecture that the principle of maximal dissipation should...
Maximal Dissipation and Well-posedness for the Compressible Euler System
Feireisl, Eduard
2014-09-01
We discuss the problem of well-posedness of the compressible (barotropic) Euler system in the framework of weak solutions. The principle of maximal dissipation introduced by C.M. Dafermos is adapted and combined with the concept of admissible weak solutions. We use the method of convex integration in the spirit of the recent work of C.DeLellis and L.Székelyhidi to show various counterexamples to well-posedness. On the other hand, we conjecture that the principle of maximal dissipation should be retained as a possible criterion of uniqueness as it is violated by the oscillatory solutions obtained in the process of convex integration.
A Criterion for Maximally Six-Qubit Entangled States via Coefficient Matrix
Yu, Yan; Zha, Xin Wei; Li, Wei
2017-03-01
In a recent paper (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor 45, 075308 (2012)), Li et al. established the coefficient matrix of six-qubit entangled states. With an emphasis on six qubits, we present a new criterion for maximally six-qubit entangled states via those coefficient matrices. By calculating the determinants of coefficient matrix, one use the criterion that characterize these states. Moreover, the criterion via the coefficient matrices gives rise to the combination of maximally multi-qubit entangled state(MMES) and matrix, and we believe that the new criterion can play an important role in quantum information.
Wyer, J C; Salzinger, F H
1983-01-01
Many common management techniques have little use in managing a medical group practice. Ratio analysis, however, can easily be adapted to the group practice setting. Acting as broad-gauge indicators, financial ratios provide an early warning of potential problems and can be very useful in planning for future operations. The author has gathered a collection of financial ratios which were developed by participants at an education seminar presented for the Virginia Medical Group Management Association. Classified according to the human element, system component, and financial factor, the ratios provide a good sampling of measurements relevant to medical group practices and can serve as an example for custom-tailoring a ratio analysis system for your medical group.
Viberg, Bjarke; Harbo, Frederik; Lauritsen, Jens;
Background Osteoporosis is associated with hip fractures. The gold standard to assess osteoporosis is to measure bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometri, which is quick and reliable but not available in most orthopaedic departments. A fast and feasible way to assess bone...... extracted all consecutive patients with femoral neck fractures referred for BMD measurements, n=133 patients (mean 78.1 years, 100 female). On preoperative digital AP hip x-rays two observers measured the outer cortex diameter just below the minor trochanter (TM) on a 20 inch screen or larger with maximal...
EXPLANATORY VARIANCE IN MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE
Jacalyn J. Robert McComb
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction equation that could be used to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max from a submaximal water running protocol. Thirty-two volunteers (n =19 males, n = 13 females, ages 18 - 24 years, underwent the following testing procedures: (a a 7-site skin fold assessment; (b a land VO2max running treadmill test; and (c a 6 min water running test. For the water running submaximal protocol, the participants were fitted with an Aqua Jogger Classic Uni-Sex Belt and a Polar Heart Rate Monitor; the participants' head, shoulders, hips and feet were vertically aligned, using a modified running/bicycle motion. A regression model was used to predict VO2max. The criterion variable, VO2max, was measured using open-circuit calorimetry utilizing the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Predictor variables included in the model were percent body fat (% BF, height, weight, gender, and heart rate following a 6 min water running protocol. Percent body fat accounted for 76% (r = -0.87, SEE = 3.27 of the variance in VO2max. No other variables significantly contributed to the explained variance in VO2max. The equation for the estimation of VO2max is as follows: VO2max ml.kg-1·min-1 = 56.14 - 0.92 (% BF.
Reflection quasilattices and the maximal quasilattice
Boyle, Latham; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2016-08-01
We introduce the concept of a reflection quasilattice, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e., Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we explain that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three, and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. Unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. We tabulate the complete set of scale factors for all reflection quasilattices in dimension d >2 , and for all those with quadratic irrational scale factors in d =2 .
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko
2014-03-01
Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Network channel allocation and revenue maximization
Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki
2002-09-01
This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K.; Jalan, Sarika
2017-02-01
Investigating the relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and the stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand the importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising antisymmetric couplings in one layer depicting predator-prey relationship and symmetric couplings in the other depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relationship, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue of the corresponding adjacency matrices. We find that there is an emergence of the correlated multiplexity between the mirror nodes as the evolution progresses. Importantly, evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the interlayer coupling strength. Additionally, the interlayer coupling strength governs the evolution of the disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering starlike networks representing both the layers. The framework discussed here is useful for understanding principles governing the stability as well as the importance of various patterns in the underlying networks of real-world systems ranging from the brain to ecology which consist of multiple types of interaction behavior.
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Armin Töpfer
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children
Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide
2017-01-01
[Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644
Maximizing exosome colloidal stability following electroporation.
Hood, Joshua L; Scott, Michael J; Wickline, Samuel A
2014-03-01
Development of exosome-based semisynthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum-derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label-free means of enriching exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI-driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo.
Excap: maximization of haplotypic diversity of linked markers.
André Kahles
Full Text Available Genetic markers, defined as variable regions of DNA, can be utilized for distinguishing individuals or populations. As long as markers are independent, it is easy to combine the information they provide. For nonrecombinant sequences like mtDNA, choosing the right set of markers for forensic applications can be difficult and requires careful consideration. In particular, one wants to maximize the utility of the markers. Until now, this has mainly been done by hand. We propose an algorithm that finds the most informative subset of a set of markers. The algorithm uses a depth first search combined with a branch-and-bound approach. Since the worst case complexity is exponential, we also propose some data-reduction techniques and a heuristic. We implemented the algorithm and applied it to two forensic caseworks using mitochondrial DNA, which resulted in marker sets with significantly improved haplotypic diversity compared to previous suggestions. Additionally, we evaluated the quality of the estimation with an artificial dataset of mtDNA. The heuristic is shown to provide extensive speedup at little cost in accuracy.
Begin, After, and Later: a Maximal Decidable Interval Temporal Logic
Davide Bresolin
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Interval temporal logics (ITLs are logics for reasoning about temporal statements expressed over intervals, i.e., periods of time. The most famous ITL studied so far is Halpern and Shoham's HS, which is the logic of the thirteen Allen's interval relations. Unfortunately, HS and most of its fragments have an undecidable satisfiability problem. This discouraged the research in this area until recently, when a number non-trivial decidable ITLs have been discovered. This paper is a contribution towards the complete classification of all different fragments of HS. We consider different combinations of the interval relations Begins, After, Later and their inverses Abar, Bbar, and Lbar. We know from previous works that the combination ABBbarAbar is decidable only when finite domains are considered (and undecidable elsewhere, and that ABBbar is decidable over the natural numbers. We extend these results by showing that decidability of ABBar can be further extended to capture the language ABBbarLbar, which lays in between ABBar and ABBbarAbar, and that turns out to be maximal w.r.t decidability over strongly discrete linear orders (e.g. finite orders, the naturals, the integers. We also prove that the proposed decision procedure is optimal with respect to the complexity class.
Approximations for Monotone and Non-monotone Submodular Maximization with Knapsack Constraints
Kulik, Ariel; Tamir, Tami
2011-01-01
Submodular maximization generalizes many fundamental problems in discrete optimization, including Max-Cut in directed/undirected graphs, maximum coverage, maximum facility location and marketing over social networks. In this paper we consider the problem of maximizing any submodular function subject to $d$ knapsack constraints, where $d$ is a fixed constant. We establish a strong relation between the discrete problem and its continuous relaxation, obtained through {\\em extension by expectation} of the submodular function. Formally, we show that, for any non-negative submodular function, an $\\alpha$-approximation algorithm for the continuous relaxation implies a randomized $(\\alpha - \\eps)$-approximation algorithm for the discrete problem. We use this relation to improve the best known approximation ratio for the problem to $1/4- \\eps$, for any $\\eps > 0$, and to obtain a nearly optimal $(1-e^{-1}-\\eps)-$approximation ratio for the monotone case, for any $\\eps>0$. We further show that the probabilistic domain ...
An Online Algorithm for Maximizing Submodular Functions
2007-12-20
0, acheiving an approximation ratio of 1 − 1 e + for MAX k-COVERAGE is NP-hard [10]. Recently, Feige, Lovász, and Tetali [11] introduced MIN...Journal of the ACM, 45(4):634– 652, 1998. [11] Uriel Feige, László Lovász, and Prasad Tetali . Approximating min sum set cover. Algorith- mica, 40(4
S.S.L. Rao, A. Shaija, S. Jayaraj
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to investigate water accumulation at the cathode membrane interface by varying different operating parameters like fuel cell operating temperature and pressure, cathode and anode humidification temperatures and cathode stoichiometry. Taguchi optimization methodology is then combined with this model to determine the optimal combination of the operating parameters to maximize current density without flooding. Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA show that fuel cell operating temperature and cathode humidification temperature are the two most significant parameters in the ratio of 56.07% and 27.89% respectively and also that higher fuel cell temperature and lower cathode humidification temperature are favourable to get the maximum current draw without flooding at the cathode membrane interface. The global optimum value of the operating parameters to maximize the current density without flooding was obtained by formulating as an optimization problem using genetic algorithm (GA. These results were compared with the results obtained using Taguchi method and it was found to be similar and slightly better.
Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry
无
2006-01-01
A maximally generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part Vμ, also an axial-vector part Aμ, a scalar part S, a pseudoscalar part P, and a tensor part Tμv, is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter
1995-01-01
hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....
Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings
Ravi S. Srinivasan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.
Accuracy of Nonlinear Formulation of Broiler Diets: Maximizing Profits
CA Gonçalves
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 birds each, from 1 to 56 days old. Treatments consisted of diets containing 2800, 2900, 3000, 3100, 3200, or 3300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg and constant nutrient to ME ratio. A nonlinear version of the PPFR feed formulation software (http://www.fmva.unesp.br/ppfr was developed with the objective of optimizing energy density and bird performance. According to the results, when the models are applied in the PPFR nonlinear spreadsheet, the most favorable nutrient density content is defined by mathematical models, as optimized by the Excel Solver tool by means of cost/benefit comparisons and as a function of rearing phase (starter, grower, and finisher and sex. This contradicts the recommendations of genetic company manuals and published requirement tables, whose goal is to maximize weight gain and do not necessarily guarantee maximum economic efficiency.
Trace Ratio Criterion for Feature Extraction in Classification
Guoqi Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A generalized linear discriminant analysis based on trace ratio criterion algorithm (GLDA-TRA is derived to extract features for classification. With the proposed GLDA-TRA, a set of orthogonal features can be extracted in succession. Each newly extracted feature is the optimal feature that maximizes the trace ratio criterion function in the subspace orthogonal to the space spanned by the previous extracted features.
Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Ger Jan; de Zeeuw, Dick
2005-01-01
Agents that interfere with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) reduce proteinuria and afford renal protection. The combination of different measures that serve maximization of RAS blockade is thought to improve the antiproteinuric efficacy. The feasibility and the efficacy of such a combination strat
Catalan Number and Enumeration of Maximal Outerplanar Graphs
无
2000-01-01
Catalan number is an important class of combinatorial numbers. The maximal outerplanar graphs are important in graph theory. In this paper some formulas to enumerate the numbers of maximal outerplanar graphs by means of the compressing graph and group theory method are given first. Then the relationships between Catalan numbers and the numbers of labeled and unlabeled maximal outerplanar graphs are presented. The computed results verified these formulas.
Maximality-Based Structural Operational Semantics for Petri Nets
Saīdouni, Djamel Eddine; Belala, Nabil; Bouneb, Messaouda
2009-03-01
The goal of this work is to exploit an implementable model, namely the maximality-based labeled transition system, which permits to express true-concurrency in a natural way without splitting actions on their start and end events. One can do this by giving a maximality-based structural operational semantics for the model of Place/Transition Petri nets in terms of maximality-based labeled transition systems structures.
Relative advantage, queue jumping, and welfare maximizing wealth distribution
2006-01-01
Suppose individuals get utilities from the total amount of wealth they hold and from their wealth relative to those immediately below them. This paper studies the distribution of wealth that maximizes an additive welfare function made up of these utilities. It interprets wealth distribution in a control theory framework to show that the welfare maximizing distribution may have unexpected properties. In some circumstances it requires that inequality be maximized at the poorest and richest ends...
Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes
Parker, Andrew M.; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...
Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games
Mančinska, Laura
2015-01-01
A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection...
A Maximal Tractable Class of Soft Constraints
Cohen, D; Jeavons, P; Krokhin, A; 10.1613/jair.1400
2011-01-01
Many researchers in artificial intelligence are beginning to explore the use of soft constraints to express a set of (possibly conflicting) problem requirements. A soft constraint is a function defined on a collection of variables which associates some measure of desirability with each possible combination of values for those variables. However, the crucial question of the computational complexity of finding the optimal solution to a collection of soft constraints has so far received very little attention. In this paper we identify a class of soft binary constraints for which the problem of finding the optimal solution is tractable. In other words, we show that for any given set of such constraints, there exists a polynomial time algorithm to determine the assignment having the best overall combined measure of desirability. This tractable class includes many commonly-occurring soft constraints, such as 'as near as possible' or 'as soon as possible after', as well as crisp constraints such as 'greater than'. F...
George Marsaglia
2006-05-01
Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b − .2713 and variance 2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b − 3.795 − μ2.
George Marsaglia
2006-05-01
Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b - .2713 and variance σ2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b - 3.795 μ2.
Dang, Xuerui; Lai, Chun-Ta; Hollinger, David Y.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Xiao, Jingfeng; Munger, J. William; Owensby, Clenton; Ehleringer, James R.
2011-09-01
We evaluated an idealized boundary layer (BL) model with simple parameterizations using vertical transport information from community model outputs (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis and ECMWF Interim Analysis) to estimate regional-scale net CO2 fluxes from 2002 to 2007 at three forest and one grassland flux sites in the United States. The BL modeling approach builds on a mixed-layer model to infer monthly average net CO2 fluxes using high-precision mixing ratio measurements taken on flux towers. We compared BL model net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with estimates from two independent approaches. First, we compared modeled NEE with tower eddy covariance measurements. The second approach (EC-MOD) was a data-driven method that upscaled EC fluxes from towers to regions using MODIS data streams. Comparisons between modeled CO2 and tower NEE fluxes showed that modeled regional CO2 fluxes displayed interannual and intra-annual variations similar to the tower NEE fluxes at the Rannells Prairie and Wind River Forest sites, but model predictions were frequently different from NEE observations at the Harvard Forest and Howland Forest sites. At the Howland Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes showed a lag in the onset of growing season uptake by 2 months behind that of tower measurements. At the Harvard Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes agreed with the timing of growing season uptake but underestimated the magnitude of observed NEE seasonal fluctuation. This modeling inconsistency among sites can be partially attributed to the likely misrepresentation of atmospheric transport and/or CO2 gradients between ABL and the free troposphere in the idealized BL model. EC-MOD fluxes showed that spatial heterogeneity in land use and cover very likely explained the majority of the data-model inconsistency. We show a site-dependent atmospheric rectifier effect that appears to have had the largest impact on ABL CO2 inversion in the North American Great Plains. We conclude that a systematic BL modeling approach
A Unified MGF-Based Capacity Analysis of Diversity Combiners over Generalized Fading Channels
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2010-01-01
Unified exact average capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity receivers including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of $L$-branch EGC/MRC over generalized fading channels. The framework is used to derive new results for the Gamma shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model which can be a suitable model for the fading environments encountered by high frequency (60 GHz and above) communications. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical and simulation results confirming the correctness of our newly proposed framework.
Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir
2017-01-01
, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...
Mad-Maximized Higgs Pair Analyses
Kling, Felix; Schichtel, Peter
2016-01-01
We study Higgs pair production with a subsequent decay to a pair of photons and a pair of bottoms at the LHC. We use the log-likelihood ratio to identify the kinematic regions which either allow us to separate the di-Higgs signal from backgrounds or to determine the Higgs self-coupling. We find that both regions are separate enough to ensure that details of the background modelling will not affect the determination of the self-coupling. Assuming dominant statistical uncertainties we determine the best precision with which the Higgs self- coupling can be probed in this channel. We finally comment on the same questions at a future 100 TeV collider.
Quantification of hand and forearm muscle forces during a maximal power grip task.
Goislard de Monsabert, Benjamin; Rossi, Jérémy; Berton, Eric; Vigouroux, Laurent
2012-10-01
The aim of this study was to estimate muscle and joint forces during a power grip task. Considering the actual lack of quantification of such internal variables, this information would be essential for sports sciences, medicine, and ergonomics. This study also contributed to the advancement of scientific knowledge concerning hand control during power grip. A specially designed apparatus combining both an instrumented handle and a pressure map was used to record the forces at the hand/handle interface during maximal exertions. Data were processed such that the forces exerted on 25 hand anatomical areas were determined. Joint angles of the five fingers and the wrist were also computed from synchronized kinematic measurements. These processed data were used as input of a hand/wrist biomechanical model, which includes 23 degrees of freedom and 42 muscles to estimate muscle and joint forces. Greater forces were applied on the distal phalanges of the long fingers compared with the middle and the proximal ones. Concomitantly, high solicitations were observed for FDP muscles. A large cocontraction level of extensor muscles was also estimated by the model and confirmed previously reported activities and injuries of extensor muscles related to the power grip. Quantifying hand internal loadings also resulted in new insights into the thumb and the wrist biomechanics. Output muscle tension ratios were all in smaller ranges than the ones reported in the literature. Including wrist and finger interactions in this hand model provided new quantification of muscle load sharing, cocontraction level, and biomechanics of the hand. Such information could complete future investigations concerning handle ergonomics or pathomechanisms of hand musculoskeletal disorders.
Trend of maximal inspiratory pressure in mechanically ventilated patients: predictors
Pedro Caruso
2008-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is known that mechanical ventilation and many of its features may affect the evolution of inspiratory muscle strength during ventilation. However, this evolution has not been described, nor have its predictors been studied. In addition, a probable parallel between inspiratory and limb muscle strength evolution has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation over time of maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and its predictors. We also studied the possible relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and limb muscle strength. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in consecutive patients submitted to mechanical ventilation for > 72 hours. The maximal inspiratory pressure trend was evaluated by the linear regression of the daily maximal inspiratory pressure and a logistic regression analysis was used to look for independent maximal inspiratory pressure trend predictors. Limb muscle strength was evaluated using the Medical Research Council score. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients were studied, forty-four of whom (37.9% presented a decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure over time. The members of the group in which maximal inspiratory pressure decreased underwent deeper sedation, spent less time in pressure support ventilation and were extubated less frequently. The only independent predictor of the maximal inspiratory pressure trend was the level of sedation (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.003 - 2.408; p = 0.049. There was no relationship between the maximal inspiratory pressure trend and limb muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: Around forty percent of the mechanically ventilated patients had a decreased maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation, which was independently associated with deeper levels of sedation. There was no relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and the muscular strength of the limb.
D2-brane Chern-Simons theories: F-maximization = a-maximization
Fluder, Martin
2015-01-01
We study a system of N D2-branes probing a generic Calabi-Yau three-fold singularity in the presence of a non-zero quantized Romans mass n. We argue that the low-energy effective N = 2 Chern-Simons quiver gauge theory flows to a superconformal fixed point in the IR, and construct the dual AdS_4 solution in massive IIA supergravity. We compute the free energy F of the gauge theory on S^3 using localization. In the large N limit we find F = c(nN)^{1/3}a^{2/3}, where c is a universal constant and a is the a-function of the "parent" four-dimensional N = 1 theory on N D3-branes probing the same Calabi-Yau singularity. It follows that maximizing F over the space of admissible R-symmetries is equivalent to maximizing a for this class of theories. Moreover, we show that the gauge theory result precisely matches the holographic free energy of the supergravity solution, and provide a similar matching of the VEV of a BPS Wilson loop operator.
2017-01-01
The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427
Koopmans, Gineke; Simpson, Karen; De Andrés, Javier; Lux, Eberhard Albert; Wagemans, Michel; Van Megen, Yvonne
2014-11-01
The effects of combined oxycodone/naloxone prolonged release tablets (OXN PR) were investigated in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic cancer-related or non-cancer pain. All patients had opioid-induced constipation (OIC) which persisted despite substantial laxative therapy. This pooled analysis included 75 patients with OIC at study entry that was refractory to at least two laxatives with different modes of action. Patients completed randomized, double-blind treatment with OXN PR 20-120 mg/day for either 12 weeks (OXN 9001: non-cancer pain study) or 4 weeks (OXN 2001: cancer-related pain study). Analgesia and bowel function were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form and Bowel Function Index (BFI), respectively. Use of laxative medication and safety were assessed throughout the studies. NCT00513656, EudraCT 2005-002398-57, EudraCT 2005-003510-15. Statistically and clinically significant improvements in bowel function were observed following double-blind treatment with OXN PR. Mean (SD) reduction in BFI score was 21.2 (28.8) and comparable in patients with cancer-related (19.0 [28.9]) and non-cancer pain (23.3.[29.0]; P ≤ 0.0002). Furthermore, the proportion of patients with a BFI score within normal range (≤28.8) increased from 9.5% at screening to 43.1% at Day 15 of OXN PR. While all patients used ≥2 laxatives of different classes at screening, during study treatment 36% stopped using laxatives (P PR provided effective analgesia, evidenced by stable pain scores during study treatment, and there were no unanticipated adverse events. OXN PR significantly improved bowel function and reduced the use of laxatives in patients with OIC, previously unresponsive to at least two different classes of laxatives. OXN also provided effective analgesia for patients with moderate-to-severe cancer-related pain and non-cancer-related pain.
Kim JH
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Jong Hyun Kim, Woo Sang Sim, Byeong Hee Won Usability Evaluation Technology Center, Advanced Biomedical and Welfare R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea Purpose: Poor recovery of postural stability poststroke is the primary cause of impairment in activities and social participation in elderly stroke survivors. The purpose of our study was to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of our new elastic ankle–foot orthosis (AFO, compared to a traditional AFO fabricated with hard plastic, in improving postural stability in elderly chronic stroke survivors. Patients and methods: Postural stability was evaluated in ten chronic stroke patients, 55.7±8.43 years old. Postural stability was evaluated using the standardized methods of the Biodex Balance System combined with a foot pressure system, under three experimental conditions, no AFO, rigid plastic AFO, and elastic AFO (E-AFO. The following dependent variables of postural stability were analyzed: plantar pressure under the paretic and nonparetic foot, area of the center of balance (COB and % time spent in each location, distance traveled by the COB away from the body center, distance traveled by the center of pressure, and calculated index of overall stability, as well as indices anterior–posterior and medial–lateral stability. Results: Both AFO designs improved all indices of postural stability. Compared to the rigid plastic AFO, the E-AFO produced additional positive effects in controlling anterior–posterior body sway, equalizing weight bearing through the paretic and nonparetic limbs, and restraining the displacement of the center of pressure and of the COB. Conclusion: Based on our outcomes, we recommend the prescription of E-AFOs as part of a physiotherapy rehabilitation program to promote recovery of postural stability poststroke. When possible, therapeutic outcomes should be documented using the Biodex Balance System and
Automated quantum conductance calculations using maximally-localised Wannier functions
Shelley, Matthew; Mostofi, Arash A; Marzari, Nicola
2011-01-01
A robust, user-friendly, and automated method to determine quantum conductance in disordered quasi-one-dimensional systems is presented. The scheme relies upon an initial density- functional theory calculation in a specific geometry after which the ground-state eigenfunctions are transformed to a maximally-localised Wannier function (MLWF) basis. In this basis, our novel algorithms manipulate and partition the Hamiltonian for the calculation of coherent electronic transport properties within the Landauer-Buttiker formalism. Furthermore, we describe how short- ranged Hamiltonians in the MLWF basis can be combined to build model Hamiltonians of large (>10,000 atom) disordered systems without loss of accuracy. These automated algorithms have been implemented in the Wannier90 code[Mostofi et al, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 685 (2008)], which is interfaced to a number of electronic structure codes such as Quantum-ESPRESSO, AbInit, Wien2k, SIESTA and FLEUR. We apply our methods to an Al atomic chain with a Na defect...
Maximizing Impact: Pairing interactive web visualizations with traditional print media
Read, E. K.; Appling, A.; Carr, L.; De Cicco, L.; Read, J. S.; Walker, J. I.; Winslow, L. A.
2016-12-01
Our Nation's rapidly growing store of environmental data makes new demands on researchers: to take on increasingly broad-scale, societally relevant analyses and to rapidly communicate findings to the public. Interactive web-based data visualizations now commonly supplement or comprise journalism, and science journalism has followed suit. To maximize the impact of US Geological Survey (USGS) science, the USGS Office of Water Information Data Science team builds tools and products that combine traditional static research products (e.g., print journal articles) with web-based, interactive data visualizations that target non-scientific audiences. We developed a lightweight, open-source framework for web visualizations to reduce time to production. The framework provides templates for a data visualization workflow and the packaging of text, interactive figures, and images into an appealing web interface with standardized look and feel, usage tracking, and responsiveness. By partnering with subject matter experts to focus on timely, societally relevant issues, we use these tools to produce appealing visual stories targeting specific audiences, including managers, the general public, and scientists, on diverse topics including drought, microplastic pollution, and fisheries response to climate change. We will describe the collaborative and technical methodologies used; describe some examples of how it's worked; and challenges and opportunities for the future.
Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.
1998-01-01
A study involving 11,804 British children (age 10) found that when specified criteria for dyslexia were used, 269 children qualified as dyslexic. These included 223 boys and 46 girls, for a ratio of 4.51 to 1. Difficulties in interpreting these data are discussed and a defense of the criteria is provided. (Author/CR)
PO de Wet
2005-06-01
Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.
DSC and universal bit-level combining for HARQ systems
Lv Tiejun
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a Dempster -Shafer theory based combining scheme for single-input single-output (SISO systems with hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ, referred to as DSC, in which two methods for soft information calculations are developed for equiprobable (EP and non-equiprobable (NEP sources, respectively. One is based on the distance from the received signal to the decision candidate set consisting of adjacent constellation points when the source bits are equiprobable, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-D. The other is based on the posterior probability of the transmitted signals when the priori probability for the NEP source bits is available, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-APP. For the diverse EP and NEP source cases, both DSCD and DSC-APP are superior to maximal ratio combining, the so-called optimal combining scheme for SISO systems. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed DSC is illustrated by the simulations performed in Rayleigh channel and AWGN channel, respectively. The results show that the proposed DSC is insensitive to and especially applicable to the fading channels. In addition, a DS detection-aided bit-level DS combining scheme is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output--HARQ systems. The bit-level DS combining is deduced to be a universal scheme, and the traditional log-likelihood-ratio combining is a special case when the likelihood probability is used as bit-level soft information.
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.
2012-01-01
We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.
The Negative Consequences of Maximizing in Friendship Selection.
Newman, David B; Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Yamada, Junko; Nezlek, John B
2017-02-27
Previous studies have shown that the maximizing orientation, reflecting a motivation to select the best option among a given set of choices, is associated with various negative psychological outcomes. In the present studies, we examined whether these relationships extend to friendship selection and how the number of options for friends moderated these effects. Across 5 studies, maximizing in selecting friends was negatively related to life satisfaction, positive affect, and self-esteem, and was positively related to negative affect and regret. In Study 1, a maximizing in selecting friends scale was created, and regret mediated the relationships between maximizing and well-being. In a naturalistic setting in Studies 2a and 2b, the tendency to maximize among those who participated in the fraternity and sorority recruitment process was negatively related to satisfaction with their selection, and positively related to regret and negative affect. In Study 3, daily levels of maximizing were negatively related to daily well-being, and these relationships were mediated by daily regret. In Study 4, we extended the findings to samples from the U.S. and Japan. When participants who tended to maximize were faced with many choices, operationalized as the daily number of friends met (Study 3) and relational mobility (Study 4), the opportunities to regret a decision increased and further diminished well-being. These findings imply that, paradoxically, attempts to maximize when selecting potential friends is detrimental to one's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass s
Utility maximization under solvency constraints and unhedgeable risks
T. Kleinow; A. Pelsser
2008-01-01
We consider the utility maximization problem for an investor who faces a solvency or risk constraint in addition to a budget constraint. The investor wishes to maximize her expected utility from terminal wealth subject to a bound on her expected solvency at maturity. We measure solvency using a solv
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
On a discrete version of Tanaka's theorem for maximal functions
Bober, Jonathan; Hughes, Kevin; Pierce, Lillian B
2010-01-01
In this paper we prove a discrete version of Tanaka's Theorem \\cite{Ta} for the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in dimension $n=1$, both in the non-centered and centered cases. For the discrete non-centered maximal operator $\\wM $ we prove that, given a function $f: \\Z \\to \\R$ of bounded variation,
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass
A Class of Maximal Functions with Oscillating Kernels
Ahmad AL-SALMAN
2007-01-01
The author studies the Lp mapping properties of a class of maximal functions that are related to oscillatory singular integral operators. Lp estimates, as well as the corresponding weighted estimates of such maximal functions, are obtained. Moreover, several applications of our results are highlighted.
ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS
Yulan Jiao
2010-01-01
In this paper,some mapping properties are considered for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator whose kernel satisfies certain minimum regularity condition.It is proved that certain uniform local estimate for doubly truncated operators implies the LP(Rn)(1
maximal operator.
Maximally Flat Waveforms Operation of Class-F Power Amplifiers
V. Krizhanovski
2001-04-01
Full Text Available The requirements to output network's impedance on higher harmoniccomponents and appropriate input driving for formation maximally flatwaveforms of drain current and voltage were presented. Using suchwaveforms allows obtaining maximal efficiency and output powercapability of class-F power amplifiers.
Entanglement of Superpositions of Orthogonal Maximally Entangled States
ZHANG Dao-Hua; ZHOU Duan-Lu; FAN Heng
2010-01-01
@@ We study the entanglement properties of the superposed state of orthogonal maximally entangled states.It is shown that the superposed state is maximally entangled and the superposed state is separable.The relation between the superposed state and the mutually unbiased state is discussed.
CHROMATIC NUMBER OF SQUARE OF MAXIMAL OUTERPLANAR GRAPHS
Luo Xiaofang
2007-01-01
Let χ(G2) denote the chromatic number of the square of a maximal outerplanar graph G and Q denote a maximal outerplanar graph obtained by adding three chords and χ(G2) = Δ + 2 if and only if G is Q, where Δ represents the maximum degree of G.
SAR image target segmentation based on entropy maximization and morphology
柏正尧; 刘洲峰; 何佩琨
2004-01-01
Entropy maximization thresholding is a simple, effective image segmentation method. The relation between the histogram entropy and the gray level of an image is analyzed. An approach, which speeds the computation of optimal threshold based on entropy maximization, is proposed. The suggested method has been applied to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image targets segmentation. Mathematical morphology works well in reducing the residual noise.
Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.
Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.
1982-01-01
To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)
Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Tarperi, Cantor; Festa, Luca; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto
2017-08-01
We examined whether the presence of fatigue induced by prolonged running influenced the time courses of force generating capacities throughout a series of intermittent rapid contractions. Thirteen male amateur runners performed a set of 15 intermittent isometric rapid contractions of the knee extensor muscles, (3s/5s on/off) the day before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) a half marathon. The maximal voluntary contraction force, rate of force development (RFDpeak), and their ratio (relative RFDpeak) were calculated. At POST, considering the first (out of 15) repetition, the maximal force and RFDpeak decreased (p<0.0001) at the same extent (by 22±6% and 24±22%, respectively), resulting in unchanged relative RFDpeak (p=0.6). Conversely, the decline of RFDpeak throughout the repetitions was more pronounced at POST (p=0.02), thus the decline of relative RFDpeak was more pronounced (p=0.007) at POST (-25±13%) than at PRE (-3±13%). The main finding of this study was that the fatigue induced by a half-marathon caused a more pronounced impairment of rapid compared to maximal force in the subsequent intermittent protocol. Thus, the fatigue-induced impairment in rapid muscle contractions may have a greater effect on repeated, rather than on single, attempts of maximal force production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers (Presentation)
Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.
2014-06-01
Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of interrow shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from interrow shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of interrow shading mismatch is at a maximum.
Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers: Preprint
Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Stein, J.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.
2014-07-01
Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of inter-row shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage-ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from inter-row shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of inter-row shading mismatch is at a maximum.
On the maximal efficiency of the collisional Penrose process
Leiderschneider, Elly
2015-01-01
The center of mass (CM) energy in a collisional Penrose process - a collision taking place within the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole - can diverge under suitable extreme conditions (maximal Kerr, near horizon collision and suitable impact parameters). We present an analytic expression for the CM energy, refining expressions given in the literature. Even though the CM energy diverges, we show that the maximal energy attained by a particle that escapes the black hole's gravitational pull and reaches infinity is modest. We obtain an analytic expression for the energy of an escaping particle resulting from a collisional Penrose process, and apply it to derive the maximal energy and the maximal efficiency for several physical scenarios: pair annihilation, Compton scattering, and the elastic scattering of two massive particles. In all physically reasonable cases (in which the incident particles initially fall from infinity towards the black hole) the maximal energy (and the corresponding efficiency) are only one o...
Is energy expenditure taken into account in human sub-maximal jumping?--A simulation study.
Vanrenterghem, Jos; Bobbert, Maarten F; Casius, L J Richard; De Clercq, Dirk
2008-02-01
This paper presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate whether the stereotyped motion pattern observed in human sub-maximal jumping can be interpreted from the perspective of energy expenditure. Human sub-maximal vertical countermovement jumps were compared to jumps simulated with a forward dynamic musculo-skeletal model. This model consisted of four interconnected rigid segments, actuated by six Hill-type muscle actuators. The only independent input of the model was the stimulation of muscles as a function of time. This input was optimized using an objective function, in which targeting a specific sub-maximal height value was combined with minimizing the amount of muscle work produced. The characteristic changes in motion pattern observed in humans jumping to different target heights were reproduced by the model. As the target height was lowered, two major changes occurred in the motion pattern. First, the countermovement amplitude was reduced; this helped to save energy because of reduced dissipation and regeneration of energy in the contractile elements. Second, the contribution of rotation of the heavy proximal segments of the lower limbs to the vertical velocity of the centre of gravity at take-off was less; this helped to save energy because of reduced ineffective rotational energies at take-off. The simulations also revealed that, with the observed movement adaptations, muscle work was reduced through improved relative use of the muscle's elastic properties in sub-maximal jumping. According to the results of the simulations, the stereotyped motion pattern observed in sub-maximal jumping is consistent with the idea that in sub-maximal jumping, subjects are trying to achieve the targeted jump height with minimal energy expenditure.
Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection
Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter
2015-01-01
Background In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly...... to select purebred animals for CP, based on purebred phenotypic and genotypic information. A second objective was to compare the use of two separate pure line reference populations to that of a single reference population that combines both pure lines. These objectives were investigated under two conditions......, i.e. either a low or a high correlation of linkage disequilibrium (LD) phase between the pure lines. Results The results demonstrate that the gain in CP was higher when parental lines were selected for CP, rather than purebred performance, both with a low and a high correlation of LD phase...
Cell Culture Microfluidic Biochips: Experimental Throughput Maximization
Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan
2011-01-01
Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory, integrating all necessary functionalities on-chip in order to perform biochemical applications. Researchers have started to propose computer-aided design tools for the synthesis of such biochips. Our foc...... metaheuristic for experimental design generation for the cell culture microfluidic biochips, and we have evaluated our approach using multiple experimental setups....... in this paper is on the optimization of how a biochemical application is performed on a biochip. In this paper, we consider cell culture biochips, where several cell colonies are exposed to soluble compounds and monitored in real-time to determine the right combination of factors that leads to the desired...
Slice stretching effects for maximal slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole
Reimann, B.
2005-01-01
Slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise when foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices. For arbitrary spatial coordinates these effects are quantified here in the context of boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse. Favourable boundary conditions are then derived which make the overall slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this require...
Kujawińska Agnieszka
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents a study of applying the proposed method of cluster analysis to support purchasing decisions in the welding industry. The authors analyze the usefulness of the non-hierarchical method, Expectation Maximization (EM, in the selection of material (212 combinations of flux and wire melt for the SAW (Submerged Arc Welding method process. The proposed approach to cluster analysis is proved as useful in supporting purchase decisions.
Hoppe, Fred M; Hoppe, Daniel J; Walter, Stephen D
2017-02-01
The aim of this analysis was to provide an alternative derivation of the odds ratio (OR) to provide an intuitive meaning, freeing it from any mention of odds, which may make it a more useful concept for clinicians to use when describing treatment effect. By examining the four possible combinations of treatment/control and corresponding outcomes, we considered the conditional risk ratio (RR, also known as relative risk) of an event with the treatment compared with an event with the control for pairs of patients for whom treatment and control would yield different results. Both matched and unmatched studies are considered. We found that the OR could be derived as the RR of an outcome with treatment compared with an outcome with control conditional on the treatment and control resulting in different outcomes, thus providing a measure of the net benefit of treatment. It has been claimed that the OR comparing the effect of treatment vs. control does not have the same clinical interpretability as RR because it involves ratios of odds and so is difficult to explain in terms of patient numbers. This new derivation provides an interpretation of the OR as an RR but conditional on treatment and control resulting in different outcomes. This may help explain the reason ORs cause interpretation difficulties in practice. Moreover, the OR may be a more clinically useful parameter to patients because it deals with only those situations where the outcome differs between the two groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berthon, P; Fellmann, N
2002-09-01
The maximal aerobic velocity concept developed since eighties is considered as either the minimal velocity which elicits the maximal aerobic consumption or as the "velocity associated to maximal oxygen consumption". Different methods for measuring maximal aerobic velocity on treadmill in laboratory conditions have been elaborated, but all these specific protocols measure V(amax) either during a maximal oxygen consumption test or with an association of such a test. An inaccurate method presents a certain number of problems in the subsequent use of the results, for example in the elaboration of training programs, in the study of repeatability or in the determination of individual limit time. This study analyzes 14 different methods to understand their interests and limits in view to propose a general methodology for measuring V(amax). In brief, the test should be progressive and maximal without any rest period and of 17 to 20 min total duration. It should begin with a five min warm-up at 60-70% of the maximal aerobic power of the subjects. The beginning of the trial should be fixed so that four or five steps have to be run. The duration of the steps should be three min with a 1% slope and an increasing speed of 1.5 km x h(-1) until complete exhaustion. The last steps could be reduced at two min for a 1 km x h(-1) increment. The maximal aerobic velocity is adjusted in relation to duration of the last step.
Maximizing efficiency on trauma surgeon rounds.
Ramaniuk, Aliaksandr; Dickson, Barbara J; Mahoney, Sean; O'Mara, Michael S
2017-01-01
Rounding by trauma surgeons is a complex multidisciplinary team-based process in the inpatient setting. Implementation of lean methodology aims to increase understanding of the value stream and eliminate nonvalue-added (NVA) components. We hypothesized that analysis of trauma rounds with education and intervention would improve surgeon efficacy. Level 1 trauma center with 4300 admissions per year. Average non-intensive care unit census was 55. Five full-time attending trauma surgeons were evaluated. Value-added (VA) and NVA components of rounding were identified. The components of each patient interaction during daily rounds were documented. Summary data were presented to the surgeons. An action plan of improvement was provided at group and individual interventions. Change plans were presented to the multidisciplinary team. Data were recollected 6 mo after intervention. The percent of interactions with NVA components decreased (16.0% to 10.7%, P = 0.0001). There was no change between the two periods in time of evaluation of individual patients (4.0 and 3.5 min, P = 0.43). Overall time to complete rounds did not change. There was a reduction in the number of interactions containing NVA components (odds ratio = 2.5). The trauma surgeons were able to reduce the NVA components of rounds. We did not see a decrease in rounding time or individual patient time. This implies that surgeons were able to reinvest freed time into patient care, or that the NVA components were somehow not increasing process time. Direct intervention for isolated improvements can be effective in the rounding process, and efforts should be focused upon improving the value of time spent rather than reducing time invested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhigang Shen
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The impacts of ventilation ratio and vent balance on cooling load and air flow of naturally ventilated attics are studied in this paper using an unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Buoyancy-driven turbulent ventilations in attics of gable-roof residential buildings are simulated for typical summer conditions. Ventilation ratios from 1/400 to 1/25 combined with both balanced and unbalanced vent configurations are investigated. The modeling results show that the air flows in the attics are steady and exhibit a general streamline pattern that is qualitatively insensitive to the variations in ventilation ratio and vent configuration. The predicted temperature fields are characterized by thermal stratification, except for the soffit regions. It is demonstrated that an increase in ventilation ratio will reduce attic cooling load. Compared with unbalanced vent configurations, balanced attic ventilation is shown to be the optimal solution in both maximizing ventilating flow rate and minimizing cooling load for attics with ventilation ratio lower than 1/100. For attics with ventilation ratios greater than 1/67, a configuration of large ridge vent with small soffit vent favors ventilating air flow enhancement, while a configuration of small ridge vent with large soffit vent results in the lowest cooling energy consumption.
Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.
Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni
2013-10-01
Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.
Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine
Charles Mendler
2011-03-15
Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low
Defining Conditions for Maximizing Bioreduction of Uranium
David C. White; Aaron D. Peacock; Yun-Juan Chang; Roland Geyer; Philip E. Long; Jonathan D. Istok; Amanda N.; R. Todd Anderson; Dora Ogles
2004-03-17
Correlations between modifying electron donor and acceptor accessibility, the in-situ microbial community, and bioreduction of Uranium at the FRC and UMTRA research sites indicated that significant modifications in the rate, amount and by inference the potential stability of immobilized Uranium are feasible in these environments. The in-situ microbial community at these sites was assessed with a combination of lipid and real-time molecular techniques providing quantitative insights of effects of electron donor and manipulations. Increased (9mM in 2003 vs 3mM 2002) donor amendment at the Old Rifle site resulted in the stimulation of anaerobic conditions downgradient of the injection gallery. Biomass within the test plot increased relative to the control well at 17 feet. Q-PCR specific for IRB/SRB showed increased copy numbers within the test plot and was the highest at the injection gallery. Q-PCR specific for Geobacter sp. showed increased copy numbers within the test plot but further downgradient from the injection gallery than the SRB/IRB. DNA and Lipid analysis confirm changes in the microbial community structure due to donor addition. See also the PNNL (Long) and UMASS (Anderson) posters for more information about this site.
[Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].
Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P
2010-08-01
The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.
Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim
sajjad rahmatian
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.
Fotakis, Dimitris
2011-01-01
We study the problem of revenue maximization in the marketing model for social networks introduced by (Hartline, Mirrokni, Sundararajan, WWW '08). We restrict our attention to the Uniform Additive Model and mostly focus on Influence-and-Exploit (IE) marketing strategies. We obtain a comprehensive collection of results on the efficiency and the approximability of IE strategies, which also imply a significant improvement on the best known approximation ratios for revenue maximization. Specifically, we show that in the Uniform Additive Model, both computing the optimal marketing strategy and computing the best IE strategy are $\\NP$-hard for undirected social networks. We observe that allowing IE strategies to offer prices smaller than the myopic price in the exploit step leads to a measurable improvement on their performance. Thus, we show that the best IE strategy approximates the maximum revenue within a factor of 0.911 for undirected and of roughly 0.553 for directed networks. Moreover, we present a natural g...
Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.
Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan
2010-08-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs.
The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra
Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA
2006-01-01
We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.
Maximal regularity of second order delay equations in Banach spaces
无
2010-01-01
We give necessary and sufficient conditions of Lp-maximal regularity(resp.B sp ,q-maximal regularity or F sp ,q-maximal regularity) for the second order delay equations:u″(t)=Au(t) + Gu’t + F u t + f(t), t ∈ [0, 2π] with periodic boundary conditions u(0)=u(2π), u′(0)=u′(2π), where A is a closed operator in a Banach space X,F and G are delay operators on Lp([-2π, 0];X)(resp.Bsp ,q([2π, 0];X) or Fsp,q([-2π, 0;X])).
Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.
Hurst, J B
1996-09-01
Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.
People believe each other to be selfish hedonic maximizers.
De Vito, Stefania; Bonnefon, Jean-François
2014-10-01
Current computational models of theory of mind typically assume that humans believe each other to selfishly maximize utility, for a conception of utility that makes it indistinguishable from personal gains. We argue that this conception is at odds with established facts about human altruism, as well as the altruism that humans expect from each other. We report two experiments showing that people expect other agents to selfishly maximize their pleasure, even when these other agents behave altruistically. Accordingly, defining utility as pleasure permits us to reconcile the assumption that humans expect each other to selfishly maximize utility with the fact that humans expect each other to behave altruistically.
Lp Estimates of Rough Maximal Functions Along Surfaces with Applications
Ahmad AL-SALMAN; Abdulla M. JARRAH
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the Lp mapping properties of certain class of maximal oscillatory singular integral operators. We prove a general theorem for a class of maximal functions along surfaces. As a consequence of such theorem, we establish the Lp boundedness of various maximal oscillatory singular integrals provided that their kernels belong to the natural space L log L(Sn−1). Moreover, we highlight some additional results concerning operators with kernels in certain block spaces. The results in this paper substantially improve previously known results.
Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...
Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.
Maximally entangled state can be a mixed state
Li, Zong-Guo; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Liu, W M
2009-01-01
We present mixed maximally entangled states in d\\otimes d' (d'\\geq 2d) spaces. This result is beyond the generally accepted fact that all maximally entangled states are pure. These states possess important properties of the pure maximally entangled states in $d\\otimes d$ systems, for example, they can be used as a resource for faithful teleportation, their local distinguishability property is also the same as the pure states case. On the other hand, one advantage of these mixed maximally entangled states is that the decoherence induced by certain noisy quantum channel does not destroy their entanglement. Thus one party of these mixed states can be sent through this channel to arbitrary distance while still keeping them as a valuable resource for quantum information processing. We also propose a scheme to prepare these states and confirm their advantage in NMR physical system.
Groups Satisfying the Maximal Condition on Non-modular Subgroups
Maria De Falco; Carmela Musella
2005-01-01
In this paper, (generalized) soluble groups for which the set of non-modular subgroups verifies the maximal condition and groups for which the set of non-permutable subgroups satisfies the same property are classified.
Maximizing antimalarial efficacy and the importance of dosing strategies
Beeson, James G; Boeuf, Philippe; Fowkes, Freya J I
2015-01-01
.... Without new drugs to replace artemisinins, it is essential to define dosing strategies that maximize therapeutic efficacy, limit the spread of resistance, and preserve the clinical value of ACTs...
Carnot cycle at finite power: attainability of maximal efficiency.
Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Melkikh, Alexey V; Gevorkian, Sasun G
2013-08-01
We want to understand whether and to what extent the maximal (Carnot) efficiency for heat engines can be reached at a finite power. To this end we generalize the Carnot cycle so that it is not restricted to slow processes. We show that for realistic (i.e., not purposefully designed) engine-bath interactions, the work-optimal engine performing the generalized cycle close to the maximal efficiency has a long cycle time and hence vanishing power. This aspect is shown to relate to the theory of computational complexity. A physical manifestation of the same effect is Levinthal's paradox in the protein folding problem. The resolution of this paradox for realistic proteins allows to construct engines that can extract at a finite power 40% of the maximally possible work reaching 90% of the maximal efficiency. For purposefully designed engine-bath interactions, the Carnot efficiency is achievable at a large power.
Maximal induced paths and minimal percolating sets in hypercubes
Anil M. Shende
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For a graph $G$, the \\emph{$r$-bootstrap percolation} process can be described as follows: Start with an initial set $A$ of "infected'' vertices. Infect any vertex with at least $r$ infected neighbours, and continue this process until no new vertices can be infected. $A$ is said to \\emph{percolate in $G$} if eventually all the vertices of $G$ are infected. $A$ is a \\emph{minimal percolating set} in $G$ if $A$ percolates in $G$ and no proper subset of $A$ percolates in $G$. An induced path, $P$, in a hypercube $Q_n$ is maximal if no induced path in $Q_n$ properly contains $P$. Induced paths in hypercubes are also called snakes. We study the relationship between maximal snakes and minimal percolating sets (under 2-bootstrap percolation in hypercubes. In particular, we show that every maximal snake contains a minimal percolating set, and that every minimal percolating set is contained in a maximal snake.
Sensitivity to conversational maxims in deaf and hearing children.
Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegal, Michael
2010-09-01
We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist instruction. The performance of these children was compared to a group of hearing children aged 6 to 7 years on a test designed to assess sensitivity to violations of conversational maxims. Native signers with bimodal/bilingual instruction were as able as the hearing children to detect violations that concern truthfulness (Maxim of Quality) and relevance (Maxim of Relation). On items involving these maxims, they outperformed both the late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. These results dovetail with previous findings on mindreading in deaf children and underscore the role of early conversational experience and instructional setting in the development of pragmatics.
Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic
Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)
2017-03-15
In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.
A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.
Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh
2015-02-01
A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.
IMRank: Influence Maximization via Finding Self-Consistent Ranking
Cheng, Suqi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Huang, Junming; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi
2014-01-01
Influence maximization, fundamental for word-of-mouth marketing and viral marketing, aims to find a set of seed nodes maximizing influence spread on social network. Early methods mainly fall into two paradigms with certain benefits and drawbacks: (1)Greedy algorithms, selecting seed nodes one by one, give a guaranteed accuracy relying on the accurate approximation of influence spread with high computational cost; (2)Heuristic algorithms, estimating influence spread using efficient heuristics,...
Probing the deviation from maximal mixing of atmospheric neutrinos
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2006-01-01
Pioneering atmospheric muon neutrino experiments have demonstrated the near-maximal magnitude of the flavor mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. But the precise value of the deviation $D \\equiv 1/2 - \\sin^2 \\theta_{23}$ from maximality (if nonzero) needs to be known, being of great interest -- especially to builders of neutrino mass and mixing models. We quantitatively investigate in a three generation framework the feasibility of determining $D$ in a statistically significant manner from studies of the atmospheric $\
Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization
Mygind, Niels
2004-01-01
including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... by other stakeholders' interests. These constraints vary for dif-ferent stakeholder owners and new standards for Corporate Social Responsibility and more active political consumers will strengthen these constraints....
Maximal speed of particles in super-Lévy process
LIN Zheng-yan; CHENG Zong-mao
2008-01-01
We introduce a super-Lévy process and study maximal speed of all particles process is a measure on the set of paths.We study the maximal speed of all particles during a given time period,which turns out to be a function of the packing dimension of the time period.We calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the set of a-fast patlls in the support and the range of the historical super-lévy process.
McLean, N.; Bowring, J. F.; Bowring, S. A.
2009-12-01
Uncertainty in U-Pb geochronology results from a wide variety of factors, including isotope ratio determinations, common Pb corrections, initial daughter product disequilibria, instrumental mass fractionation, isotopic tracer calibration, and U decay constants and isotopic composition. The relative contribution of each depends on the proportion of radiogenic to common Pb, the measurement technique, and the quality of systematic error determinations. Random and systematic uncertainty contributions may be propagated into individual analyses or for an entire population, and must be propagated correctly to accurately interpret data. Tripoli and U-Pb_Redux comprise a new data reduction and error propagation software package that combines robust cycle measurement statistics with rigorous multivariate data analysis and presents the results graphically and interactively. Maximizing the precision and accuracy of a measurement begins with correct appraisal and codification of the systematic and random errors for each analysis. For instance, a large dataset of total procedural Pb blank analyses defines a multivariate normal distribution, describing the mean of and variation in isotopic composition (IC) that must be subtracted from each analysis. Uncertainty in the size and IC of each Pb blank is related to the (random) uncertainty in ratio measurements and the (systematic) uncertainty involved in tracer subtraction. Other sample and measurement parameters can be quantified in the same way, represented as statistical distributions that describe their uncertainty or variation, and are input into U-Pb_Redux as such before the raw sample isotope ratios are measured. During sample measurement, U-Pb_Redux and Tripoli can relay cycle data in real time, calculating a date and uncertainty for each new cycle or block. The results are presented in U-Pb_Redux as an interactive user interface with multiple visualization tools. One- and two-dimensional plots of each calculated date and
Hydren, Jay R; Borges, Alexander S; Sharp, Marilyn A
2017-04-01
Hydren, JR, Borges, AS, and Sharp, MA. Systematic review and meta-analysis of predictors of military task performance: maximal lift capacity. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1142-1164, 2017-Physical performance tests (e.g., physical employment tests, return-to-duty tests) are commonly used to predict occupational task performance to assess the ability of individuals to do a job. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify predictive tests that correlate well with maximal lifting capacity in military personnel. Three databases were searched and experts in the field were contacted, resulting in the identification of 9 reports confined to military personnel that presented correlations between predictor tests and job tasks that measured maximal lift capacity. These 9 studies used 9 variations of a maximal lift capacity test, which were pooled to evaluate comparisons. The predictive tests were categorized into 10 fitness domains, which in ranked order were as follows: body mass and composition, absolute aerobic capacity, dynamic strength, power, isometric strength, strength-endurance, speed, isokinetic strength, flexibility, and age. Limitations of these data include a restricted age range (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 20-35; no correlations to maximal lift capacity) and the limited number of comparisons available within the cited studies. Weighted mean correlations ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) and 95% CI were calculated for each test. Lean body mass (kg) was the strongest overall predictor ((Equation is included in full-text article.); 95% CI, 0.697-0.966). Tests of dynamic strength had stronger correlations than strength endurance ((Equation is included in full-text article.), 95% CI, 0.69-0.89 vs. (Equation is included in full-text article.), 95% CI, 0.21-0.61). The following 6 domains of physical performance predictive tests had pooled correlations of 0.40 or greater for combined-sex samples: dynamic strength, power, isometric strength
Maurice Schiff
1995-03-01
Full Text Available The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models. The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models.
PEM-PCA: A Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA Face Recognition Architecture
Kanokmon Rujirakul
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages’ complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA.
An Integer Programming-based Local Search for Large-scale Maximal Covering Problems
Junha Hwang
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Maximal covering problem (MCP is classified as a linear integer optimization problem which can be effectively solved by integer programming technique. However, as the problem size grows, integerprogramming requires excessive time to get an optimal solution. This paper suggests a method for applying integer programming-based local search (IPbLS to solve large-scale maximal covering problems. IPbLS, which is a hybrid technique combining integer programming and local search, is a kind of local search using integer programming for neighbor generation. IPbLS itself is very effective for MCP. In addition, we improve the performance of IPbLS for MCP through problem reduction based on the current solution. Experimental results show that the proposed method considerably outperforms any other local search techniques and integer programming.
Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look.
Davydov, M; Krikorian, A D
2000-10-01
The adaptogen concept is examined from an historical, biological, chemical, pharmacological and medical perspective using a wide variety of primary and secondary literature. The definition of an adaptogen first proposed by Soviet scientists in the late 1950s, namely that an adaptogen is any substance that exerts effects on both sick and healthy individuals by 'correcting' any dysfunction(s) without producing unwanted side effects, was used as a point of departure. We attempted to identify critically what an adaptogen supposedly does and to determine whether the word embodies in and of itself any concept(s) acceptable to western conventional (allopathic) medicine. Special attention was paid to the reported pharmacological effects of the 'adaptogen-containing plant' Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae), referred to by some as 'Siberian ginseng', and to its secondary chemical composition. We conclude that so far as specific pharmacological activities are concerned there are a number of valid arguments for equating the action of so-called adaptogens with those of medicinal agents that have activities as anti-oxidants, and/or anti-cancerogenic, immunomodulatory and hypocholesteroletic as well as hypoglycemic and choleretic action. However, 'adaptogens' and 'anti-oxidants' etc. also show significant dissimilarities and these are discussed. Significantly, the classical definition of an adaptogen has much in common with views currently being invoked to describe and explain the 'placebo effect'. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the secondary compounds of Eleutherococcus isolated thus far and their pharmacological effects support our hypothesis that the reported beneficial effects of adaptogens derive from their capacity to exert protective and/or inhibitory action against free radicals. An inventory of the secondary substances contained in Eleutherococcus discloses a potential for a wide range of activities reported from work on cultured cell lines
Saeed Soltani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.
Costa, P B; Ryan, E D; Herda, T J; Walter, A A; Defreitas, J M; Stout, J R; Cramer, J T
2013-02-01
Recent evidence has shown acute static stretching may decrease hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratios. However, the effects of static stretching on the functional H:Q ratio, which uses eccentric hamstrings muscle actions, have not been investigated. This study examined the acute effects of hamstrings and quadriceps static stretching on leg extensor and flexor concentric peak torque (PT), leg flexor eccentric PT, and the conventional and functional H:Q ratios. Twenty-two women (mean ± SD age=20.6 ± 1.9 years; body mass=64.6 ± 9.1 kg; height=164.5 ± 6.4 cm) performed three maximal voluntary unilateral isokinetic leg extension, flexion, and eccentric hamstring muscle actions at the angular velocities of 60 and 180°/s before and after a bout of hamstrings, quadriceps, and combined hamstrings and quadriceps static stretching, and a control condition. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time × condition) were used to analyze the leg extension, flexion, and eccentric PT as well as the conventional and functional H:Q ratios. Results indicated that when collapsed across velocity, hamstrings-only stretching decreased the conventional ratios (Pratios (Pratios.
Wilmore, Jack H.; And Others
1986-01-01
Sixty-two subjects completed a four-stage submaximal cycle ergometer test to determine if estimates of maximal oxygen uptake could be improved by using ratings of perceived exertion singly or in combination with easily obtainable physiological measures. These procedures could be used to estimate the aerobic power of patients and athletes. (MT)
Lefever, A. E.
1982-01-01
Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.
Francica, Juliana V; Heeren, Marcelo V; Tubaldini, Márcio; Sartori, Michelle; Mostarda, Cristiano; Araujo, Rubens C; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia
2013-06-01
The objective of the present study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic responses to a mental stress test and to a maximal isometric exercise test between offspring of normotensive (ON, n = 10) and hypertensive parents (OH, n = 10). Subjects underwent a 3-min Stroop Color Word Test and a maximal isometric exercise test performed in an isokinetic dynamometer with continuous RR interval monitoring. At rest, arterial pressure and heart rate were similar between groups, but there was a significant reduction in total RR interval variance (ON: 5933 ± 493 vs. OH: 2967 ± 390 ms(2)) and an increase in low-high frequency components ratio of heart rate variability (ON: 2.3 ± 0.4 vs. OH: 4.6 ± 0.8) in OH group. In the first minute of the mental stress test and after both tests, the OH group presented increased heart rate as compared with the ON group. After both tests, only the ON group presented an increase in sympathetic component, thus reaching resting values similar to those of the OH group. Our data demonstrated increased resting cardiac sympathetic modulation in offspring of hypertensive parents at similar levels to that observed in offspring of normotensive parents after a mental stress test or a maximal isometric exercise test. Additionally, the exacerbated heart rate responses to these physiological tests in OH subjects may be associated with resting autonomic dysfunction, thus reinforcing these evaluations as important tools for detecting early dysfunctions in this genetically predisposed population.
The intent to exercise influences the cerebral O(2)/carbohydrate uptake ratio in humans
Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ide, Kojiro; Cai, Yan
2002-01-01
During and after maximal exercise there is a 15-30 % decrease in the metabolic uptake ratio (O(2)/[glucose + 1/2 lactate]) and a net lactate uptake by the human brain. This study evaluated if this cerebral metabolic uptake ratio is influenced by the intent to exercise, and whether a change could......, the a-v difference for the amino acids and glycerol did not change significantly, and there was only a minimal increase in the a-v difference for free fatty acids after maximal exercise. After maximal exercise the metabolic uptake ratio of the brain decreased from 6.1 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- S.E.M.) at rest.......2) in the early recovery (n = 10; P brain are increased out of proportion to O(2) when the brain is activated by exhaustive exercise, and that such metabolic changes are influenced by the will to exercise. We speculate that the uptake ratio...
Radar antenna pointing for optimized signal to noise ratio.
Doerry, Armin Walter; Marquette, Brandeis
2013-01-01
The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of a radar echo signal will vary across a range swath, due to spherical wavefront spreading, atmospheric attenuation, and antenna beam illumination. The antenna beam illumination will depend on antenna pointing. Calculations of geometry are complicated by the curved earth, and atmospheric refraction. This report investigates optimizing antenna pointing to maximize the minimum SNR across the range swath.
Austin, R E; Aldea, G S; Coggins, D L; Flynn, A E; Hoffman, J I
1990-08-01
We examined the ability of individual regions of the canine left ventricle to increase blood flow relative to baseline rates of perfusion. Regional coronary flow was measured by injecting radioactive microspheres over 90 seconds in seven anesthetized mongrel dogs. Preliminary experiments demonstrated a correlation between the regional distributions of blood flow during asphyxia and pharmacological vasodilatation with adenosine (mean r = 0.75; 192 regions in each of two dogs), both of which resulted in increased coronary flow. Subsequent experiments, during which coronary perfusion pressure was held constant at 80 mm Hg, examined the pattern of blood flow in 384 regions (mean weight, 106 mg) of the left ventricular free wall during resting flow and during maximal coronary flow effected by intracoronary adenosine infusion. We found that resting and maximal flow patterns were completely uncorrelated to each other in a given dog (mean r = 0.06, p = NS; n = 3 dogs). Furthermore, regional coronary reserve, defined as the ratio of maximal to resting flow, ranged from 1.75 (i.e., resting flow was 57% of maximum) to 21.9 (resting flow was 4.5% of maximum). Thus, coronary reserve is spatially heterogeneous and determined by two distinct perfusion patterns: the resting (control) pattern and the maximal perfusion pattern. Normal hearts, therefore, contain small regions that may be relatively more vulnerable to ischemia. This may explain the patchy nature of infarction with hypoxia and at reduced perfusion pressures as well as the difficulty of using global parameters to predict regional ischemia. Despite the wide dispersion of coronary reserve, we found, by autocorrelation analysis, that reserve in neighboring regions (even when separated by a distance of several tissue samples) was significantly correlated. This also applied to patterns of resting myocardial flow. Thus, both resting coronary blood flow and reserve appear to be locally continuous and may define functional
The Automorphism Groups of a Family of Maximal Curves
Guralnick, Robert; Pries, Rachel
2011-01-01
The Hasse Weil bound restricts the number of points of a curve which are defined over a finite field; if the number of points meets this bound, the curve is called maximal. Giulietti and Korchmaros introduced a curve C_3 which is maximal over F_{q^6} and determined its automorphism group. Garcia, Guneri, and Stichtenoth generalized this construction to a family of curves C_n, indexed by an odd integer n greater than or equal to 3, such that C_n is maximal over F_{q^{2n}}. In this paper, we determine the automorphism group Aut(C_n) when n > 3; in contrast with the case n=3, it fixes the point at infinity on C_n. The proof requires a new structural result about automorphism groups of curves in characteristic p such that each Sylow p-subgroup has exactly one fixed point. MSC:11G20, 14H37.
Optimal bounded control for maximizing reliability of Duhem hysteretic systems
Ming XU; Xiaoling JIN; Yong WANG; Zhilong HUANG
2015-01-01
The optimal bounded control of stochastic-excited systems with Duhem hysteretic components for maximizing system reliability is investigated. The Duhem hysteretic force is transformed to energy-depending damping and stiffness by the energy dissipation balance technique. The controlled system is transformed to the equivalent non-hysteretic system. Stochastic averaging is then implemented to obtain the Itˆo stochastic equation associated with the total energy of the vibrating system, appropriate for eval-uating system responses. Dynamical programming equations for maximizing system re-liability are formulated by the dynamical programming principle. The optimal bounded control is derived from the maximization condition in the dynamical programming equa-tion. Finally, the conditional reliability function and mean time of first-passage failure of the optimal Duhem systems are numerically solved from the Kolmogorov equations. The proposed procedure is illustrated with a representative example.
Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models
Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.
1987-01-01
The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem.
The F-Theorem and F-Maximization
Pufu, Silviu S
2016-01-01
This contribution contains a review of the role of the three-sphere free energy F in recent developments related to the F-theorem and F-maximization. The F-theorem states that for any Lorentz-invariant RG trajectory connecting a conformal field theory CFT_UV in the ultraviolet to a conformal field theory CFT_IR, the F-coefficient decreases: F_UV > F_IR. I provide many examples of CFTs where one can compute F, approximately or exactly, and discuss various checks of the F-theorem. F-maximization is the principle that in an N=2 SCFT, viewed as the deep IR limit of an RG trajectory preserving N=2 supersymmetry, the superconformal R-symmetry maximizes F within the set of all R-symmetries preserved by the RG trajectory. I review the derivation of this result and provide examples.
Viscosity and density dependence during maximal flow in man.
Staats, B A; Wilson, T A; Lai-Fook, S J; Rodarte, J R; Hyatt, R E
1980-02-01
Maximal expiratory flow curves were obtained from ten healthy subjects white breathing air and three other gas mixtures with different densities and viscosities. From these data, the magnitudes of the dependence of maximal flow on gas density and viscosity were obtained. The scaling laws of fluid mechanics, together with a model for the flow-limiting mechanism, were used to obtain a prediction of the relationship between the density dependence and the viscosity dependence of maximal flow. Although the data for individual subjects were too variable to allow a precise comparison with this prediction, the relationship between the mean density dependence and the mean viscosity dependence of all usbjects agreed with the theoretic prediction. This agreement supports the assumption, which is frequently made, that flow resistance rather than tissue visoelasticity is the dominant contributor to peripheral resistance. Information on the relationships between the pressure drop to the flow-limiting segment and flow, gas density and viscosity, and lung volume were also obtained.
Maximal supports and Schur-positivity among connected skew shapes
McNamara, Peter R W
2011-01-01
The Schur-positivity order on skew shapes is defined by B \\leq A if the difference s_A - s_B is Schur-positive. It is an open problem to determine those connected skew shapes that are maximal with respect to this ordering. A strong sufficient condition for the Schur-positivity of s_A - s_B is that the support of B is contained in that of A, where the support of B is defined to be the set of partitions lambda for which s_lambda appears in the Schur expansion of s_B. We show that to determine the maximal connected skew shapes in the Schur-positivity order and this support containment order, it suffices to consider a special class of ribbon shapes. We explicitly determine the support for these ribbon shapes, thereby determining the maximal connected skew shapes in the support containment order.
Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means (CIM4RM)
2010-08-01
is the combined effort of bootstrapping and creativity in constructing CLs around ratio means. CIM4RM was tested in many ratio mean applications and...for vehicle or repair period man - hours Man-hours per vehicle or repair MR: Estimated maintenance ratio for i th BSS adj MRt Weighted estimated...assumptions on the distributions) and creativity to compute approximate confidence intervals for a ratio mean metric. The bootstrap-t approach is very
Semi on-line scheduling for maximizing the minimum machine completion time on three uniform machines
LUO Run-zi; SUN Shi-jie
2005-01-01
The paper investigates a semi on-line scheduling problem wherein the largest processing time of jobs done by three uniform machines M1, M2, M3 is known in advance. A speed si (s1=1, s2=r, s3=s, 1≤r≤s) is associated with machine Mi. Our goal is to maximize Cmin-the minimum workload of the three machines. We present a min3 algorithm and prove its competitive ratio is max {r+ 1,(3s+r+ 1)/(1 +r+s)}, with the lower bound being at least max {2,r}. We also claim the competitive ratio of min3 algorithn cannot be improved and is the best possible for 1≤s≤2, r=1.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna; Raszewski, Grzegorz; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2010-05-01
The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (MeTHIQ--an endogenous parkinsonism-preventing substance) in combination with four second-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: lamotrigine [LTG], oxcarbazepine [OXC], pregabalin [PGB], and topiramate [TPM]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type I isobolographic analysis for parallel and non-parallel dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs). Potential adverse-effect profiles of interactions of MeTHIQ with LTG, OXC, PGB and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 from the MES test with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured along with total brain concentrations of MeTHIQ and TPM. In the mouse MES model, MeTHIQ administered singly had its DRRC parallel to those for OXC and TPM, and simultaneously, non-parallel to those for LTG and PGB. With type I isobolography for parallel DRRCs, the combination of MeTHIQ with TPM at three fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interaction, whereas the combination of MeTHIQ with OXC at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 produced additive interaction. Similarly, the type I isobolography for non-parallel DRRCs revealed that the combination of MeTHIQ with LTG and PGB at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 produced additive interaction. For all combinations, neither motor coordination, long-term memory nor muscular strength were affected. Total brain concentrations of MeTHIQ and TPM revealed no significant changes in their concentrations when the drugs were combined at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1. In conclusion, the synergistic interaction of MeTHIQ with TPM at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 against MES-induced seizures was pharmacodynamic in nature and thus, it is worthy of consideration in further clinical settings. The combinations of MeTHIQ with LTG, OXC and PGB were neutral in the mouse MES model.
Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake
Convertino, V. A.
1997-01-01
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2012-06-01
Ergodic capacity is an important performance measure associated with reliable communication at the highest rate at which information can be sent over the channel with a negligible probability of error. In the shadow of this definition, diversity receivers (such as selection combining, equal-gain combining and maximal-ratio combining) and transmission techniques (such as cascaded fading channels, amplify-and-forward multihop transmission) are deployed in mitigating various performance impairing effects such as fading and shadowing in digital radio communication links. However, the exact analysis of ergodic capacity is in general not always possible for all of these forms of diversity receivers and transmission techniques over generalized composite fading environments due to it\\'s mathematical intractability. In the literature, published papers concerning the exact analysis of ergodic capacity have been therefore scarce (i.e., only [1] and [2]) when compared to those concerning the exact analysis of average symbol error probability. In addition, they are essentially targeting to the ergodic capacity of the maximal ratio combining diversity receivers and are not readily applicable to the capacity analysis of the other diversity combiners / transmission techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel moment generating function-based approach for the exact ergodic capacity analysis of both diversity receivers and transmission techniques over generalized composite fading environments. As such, we demonstrate how to simultaneously treat the ergodic capacity analysis of all forms of both diversity receivers and multihop transmission techniques. © 2012 IEEE.